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Sample records for basins in-depth motion

  1. Seismic Site Effects for Shallow and Deep Alluvial Basins: In-Depth Motion and Focusing Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Semblat, Jean-François; Kham, Marc; Duval, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is the analysis of seismic site effects in various alluvial basins. The analysis is performed considering a numerical approach (Boundary Element Method). Two main cases are considered : a shallow deposit in the centre of Nice (France) [1] and a deep irregular basin in Caracas (Venezuela) [2]. The amplification of seismic motion is analysed in terms of level, occuring frequency and location. For both sites, the amplification factor is found to reach maximum values of 20 (weak motion). Site effects nevertheless have very different features concerning the frequency dependence and the location of maximum amplification. For the shallow deposit in Nice, the amplification factor is very small for low frequencies and fastly increases above 1.0 Hz. The irregular Caracas basin gives a much different frequency dependence with many different peaks at various frequencies. The model for Caracas deep alluvial basin also includes a part of the local topography such as the nearest mountain. One c...

  2. Sensory uncertainty leads to systematic misperception of the direction of motion in depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulvio, Jacqueline M; Rosen, Monica L; Rokers, Bas

    2015-07-01

    Although we have made major advances in understanding motion perception based on the processing of lateral (2D) motion signals on computer displays, the majority of motion in the real (3D) world occurs outside of the plane of fixation, and motion directly toward or away from observers has particular behavioral relevance. Previous work has reported a systematic lateral bias in the perception of 3D motion, such that an object on a collision course with an observer's head is frequently judged to miss it, with obvious negative consequences. To better understand this bias, we systematically investigated the accuracy of 3D motion perception while manipulating sensory noise by varying the contrast of a moving target and its position in depth relative to fixation. Inconsistent with previous work, we found little bias under low sensory noise conditions. With increased sensory noise, however, we revealed a novel perceptual phenomenon: observers demonstrated a surprising tendency to confuse the direction of motion-in-depth, such that approaching objects were reported to be receding and vice versa. Subsequent analysis revealed that the lateral and motion-in-depth components of observers' reports are similarly affected, but that the effects on the motion-in-depth component (i.e., the motion-in-depth confusions) are much more apparent than those on the lateral component. In addition to revealing this novel visual phenomenon, these results shed new light on errors that can occur in motion perception and provide a basis for continued development of motion perception models. Finally, our findings suggest methods to evaluate the effectiveness of 3D visualization environments, such as 3D movies and virtual reality devices. PMID:25828462

  3. Two independent mechanisms for motion-in-depth perception: evidence from individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold T Nefs

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Our forward-facing eyes allow us the advantage of binocular visual information: using the tiny differences between right and left eye views to learn about depth and location in three dimensions. Our visual systems also contain specialized mechanisms to detect motion-in-depth from binocular vision, but the nature of these mechanisms remains controversial. Binocular motion-in-depth perception could theoretically be based on first detecting binocular disparity and then monitoring how it changes over time. The alternative is to monitor the motion in the right and left eye separately and then compare these motion signals. Here we used an individual differences approach to test whether the two sources of information are processed via dissociated mechanisms, and to measure the relative importance of those mechanisms. Our results suggest the existence of two distinct mechanisms, each contributing to the perception of motion in depth in most observers. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrate the relative prevalence of the two mechanisms within a normal population. In general, visual systems appear to rely mostly on the mechanism sensitive to changing binocular disparity, but perception of motion in depth is augmented by the presence of a less sensitive mechanism that uses interocular velocity differences. Occasionally, we find observers with the opposite pattern of sensitivity. More generally this work showcases the power of the individual differences approach in studying the functional organisation of cognitive systems.

  4. Phase-Based Binocular Perception of Motion in Depth: Cortical-Like Operators and Analog VLSI Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio P. Sabatini

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a cortical-like strategy to obtain reliable estimates of the motions of objects in a scene toward/away from the observer (motion in depth, from local measurements of binocular parameters derived from direct comparison of the results of monocular spatiotemporal filtering operations performed on stereo image pairs. This approach is suitable for a hardware implementation, in which such parameters can be gained via a feedforward computation (i.e., collection, comparison, and punctual operations on the outputs of the nodes of recurrent VLSI lattice networks, performing local computations. These networks act as efficient computational structures for embedded analog filtering operations in smart vision sensors. Extensive simulations on both synthetic and real-world image sequences prove the validity of the approach that allows to gain high-level information about the 3D structure of the scene, directly from sensorial data, without resorting to explicit scene reconstruction.

  5. Vertical plate motions in the West Siberian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibe, Yulia

    2014-05-01

    The West Siberian Basin is a sedimentary basin situated between the Ural Mountains and the Siberian Craton. The Basin has experienced several periods of subsidence and uplift since the arrival of the Siberian Traps c. 250 Ma. Although the Basin is extensively explored and hosts large reserves of Oil and Gas, the forces driving the vertical motions are poorly understood. In this work we attempt to analyse the amount, timing and location of subsidence and uplift in the Basin to shed light on the possible causes of these motions. A detailed description of sedimentary layers is published in a number of Soviet-era books and articles and serves as a basis for our research. This data is first converted into sediment grids through time. Subsequently, the sediments, the sediment load and the compaction are taken into account ('backstripping') to produce the depth of the Basin at respective time steps. With this technique we calculate the tectonic component of subsidence. Uncertainties related to uplift events are estimated by the unconformities in the stratigraphic charts. One of the possible driving forces of vertical motions is a change of force balance arising at plate boundaries. Since active plate tectonics have been absent from West Siberia since the formation of the Urengoy and Khodosey Rifts, c. 250Ma, we study the far-field tectonic effects as a potential driving mechanism. Indeed, some of the significant vertical events in the West Siberian Basin coincide with the major tectonic events around Siberia. An example is the spreading in the Arctic (Eurasian Basin) in the Eocene (56 Ma) which was synchronous with initiation of uplift events in the northern part of West Siberia. In the middle Oligocene (33 Ma), the northern and eastern parts of the basin were subjected to uplift as subsidence migrated southwards and the Basin rose above the sea level. This was coincident with the changes of plate motions in the northern North Atlantic and Indo-European collision.

  6. Realistic modelling of observed seismic motion in complex sedimentary basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three applications of a numerical technique are illustrated to model realistically the seismic ground motion for complex two-dimensional structures. First we consider a sedimentary basin in the Friuli region, and we model strong motion records from an aftershock of the 1976 earthquake. Then we simulate the ground motion caused in Rome by the 1915, Fucino (Italy) earthquake, and we compare our modelling with the damage distribution observed in the town. Finally we deal with the interpretation of ground motion recorded in Mexico City, as a consequence of earthquakes in the Mexican subduction zone. The synthetic signals explain the major characteristics (relative amplitudes, spectral amplification, frequency content) of the considered seismograms, and the space distribution of the available macroseismic data. For the sedimentary basin in the Friuli area, parametric studies demonstrate the relevant sensitivity of the computed ground motion to small changes in the subsurface topography of the sedimentary basin, and in the velocity and quality factor of the sediments. The total energy of ground motion, determined from our numerical simulation in Rome, is in very good agreement with the distribution of damage observed during the Fucino earthquake. For epicentral distances in the range 50km-100km, the source location and not only the local soil conditions control the local effects. For Mexico City, the observed ground motion can be explained as resonance effects and as excitation of local surface waves, and the theoretical and the observed maximum spectral amplifications are very similar. In general, our numerical simulations permit the estimate of the maximum and average spectral amplification for specific sites, i.e. are a very powerful tool for accurate micro-zonation. (author). 38 refs, 19 figs, 1 tab

  7. 2.5D Simulation of basin-edge effects on the ground motion characteristics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J P Narayan

    2003-09-01

    The effects of basin-edge and soil velocity on the ground motion characteristics have been simulated using 2.5D modeling. One of the most significant advantages of the 2.5D simulation is that 3D radiation pattern can be generated in a 2D numerical grid using double-couple shear dislocation source. Further, 2.5D numerical modeling avoids the extensive computational cost of 3D modeling. The responses of basin-edge model using different soil velocities revealed that surface waves were generated near the edge of the basin and propagated normal to the edge, towards the basin. Further, the results depict increase of amplification, duration and surface wave generation with the decrease in soil velocity.

  8. Ground-Motion Scaling in the Kachchh Basin, India, Deduced from

    OpenAIRE

    Malagnini, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Bodin, P.; Center for Earthquake Research and Information University of Memphis; Akinci, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia

    2004-01-01

    We studied the excitation, propagation, and site effects in the Kachchh basin of India by using ground-motion recordings from a temporary seismograph network deployed to study aftershocks of the Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake of 26 January 2001. The Kachchh basin has been proposed as a useful analog region for studying hazard in other earthquake-prone but slowly deforming regions, such as the central United States. The earthquakes we studied ranged in size from about M 2 to M 5.2, a...

  9. Realistic modelling of observed seismic motion in compIex sedimentary basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Panza

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Three applications of a numerical technique are illustrated to model realistically the seismic ground motion for complex two-dimensional structures. First we consider a sedimentary basin in the Friuli region, and we model strong motion records from an aftershock of the 1976 earthquake. Then we simulate the ground motion caused in Rome by the 1915, Fucino (Italy earthquake, and we compare our modelling with the damage distribution observed in the town. Finally we deal with the interpretation of ground motion recorded in Mexico City, as a consequence of earthquakes in the Mexican subduction zone. The synthetic signals explain the major characteristics (relative amplitudes, spectral amplification, frequency content of the considered seismograms, and the space distribution of the available macroseismic data. For the sedimentary basin in the Friuli area, parametric studies demonstrate the relevant sensitivity of the computed ground motion to small changes in the subsurface topography of the sedimentary basin, and in the velocity and quality factor of the sediments. The relative Arias Intensity, determined from our numerical simulation in Rome, is in very good agreoment with the distribution of damage observed during the Fucino earthquake. For epicentral distances in the range 50 km-100 km, the source location and not only the local soil conditions control the local effects. For Mexico City, the observed ground motion can be explained as resonance effects and as excitation of local surface waves, and the theoretical and the observed maximum spectral amplifications are very similar. In general, our numerical simulations estimate the maximum and average spectral amplification for specific sites, i.e. they are a very powerful tool for accurate micro-zonation

  10. Site response zones and short-period earthquake ground motion projections for the Las Vegas Basin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barbara Luke; Ying Liu

    2008-11-01

    A deterministic seismic hazard analysis was conducted to address the effect of local soil conditions on earthquake-induced strong ground motion in the Las Vegas Basin, Nevada (US). Using a large geological and geotechnical database, two response units were defined: a fine-grained unit, predominantly clay; and a coarse-grained unit, predominantly gravel. A moderate number of high-quality shallow shear wave velocity measurements were collected from which characteristic shear wave velocity profiles were developed for each response unit. An equivalent-linear one-dimensional site response model was used. The model was calibrated using a basin-wide, small-strain ground motion database. Calibration tests showed that ground motion projections become increasingly conservative with increasing ground-motion amplitude. Projections were overconservative for the coarsegrained response unit, likely due to the sparseness of the velocity database. For the earthquake response analyses, historical ground motions were used to model characteristic ‘bedrock’ motion for earthquakes on 10 faults judged to be critical. Response spectral envelopes were generated for each unit through Monte-Carlo simulations. For the fine-grained response unit, 95th percentile peak ground acceleration, peak spectral acceleration and predominant period were 310 cm/s2, 1100cm/s2, and 0.29 s, respectively. With respect to codified design spectra, projections are lower at short periods and higher at long periods. Projections of peak spectral accelerations for the coarsegrained response unit, were more than double that of codified spectra; however, they are believed to be overconservative. Near-fault effects and basin-edge effects, though potentially important, were not considered in these analyses.

  11. Amplification of seismic ground motion in the Tunis basin: Numerical BEM simulations vs experimental evidences

    CERN Document Server

    Kham, Marc; Bouden-Romdhane, Nejla

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at the analysis of seismic wave amplification in a deep alluvial basin in the city of Tunis in Tunisia. This sedimentary basin is 3000m wide and 350m deep. Since the seismic hazard is significant in this area, the depth of the basin and the strong impedance ratio raise the need for an accurate estimation of seismic motion amplification. Various experimental investigations were performed in previous studies to characterize site effects. The Boundary Element Method is considered herein to assess the parameter sensitivity of the amplification process and analyse the prevailing phenomena. The various frequencies of maximum amplification are correctly estimated by the BEM simulations. The maximum amplification level observed in the field is also well retrieved by the numerical simulations but, due to the sensitivity of the location of maximum amplification in space, the overall maximum amplification has to be considered. The influence of the wave-field incidence and material damping is also discuss...

  12. Seasonal variations in sea ice motion and effects on sea ice concentration in the Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serreze, Mark C.; Barry, Roger G.; McLaren, Alfred S.

    1989-08-01

    Drifting buoy data, surface pressure, and geostrophic wind analyses from the Arctic Ocean Buoy Program are used to examine seasonal features of the sea ice motion in the Canada Basin for 1979-1985. Although the 7-year annual mean motion in this region is clockwise, the month-to-month motion is highly variable. In late summer to early autumn, the circulation can become net anticlockwise for periods lasting at least 30 days. Results from a linear model demonstrate that these "reversals" of ice motion in the Beaufort Gyre are a wind-driven response to persistent cyclonic activity that contrasts sharply with the predominantly anticyclonic regimes of spring, late autumn, and winter. Model-predicted ice divergences of 0.5% or more per day which can occur during periods of anticlockwise ice motion are in good agreement with values calculated from optimally interpolated velocity gradient fields. Visible band imagery and passive microwave data confirm associated large areal reductions in ice concentration of approximately 20%. Data from under-ice submarine sonar transects and surface pressure records prior to the study period point to frequent recurrences of these late summer to early autumn ice conditions.

  13. Seismic ground motion amplification in a 3D sedimentary basin: the effect of the vertical velocity gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground motion amplification in sedimentary basins has been observed in some moderate or large earthquakes, such as the 1994 Northridge and 1999 Chi-Chi event. Many numerical studies with simplified 2D models have shown significant effects of the vertical velocity gradient of sediment on basin amplification. However, we need to consider a more realistic 3D model and solve wave equations with 3D numerical methods in order to improve our understanding of basin amplification. In this study, we extend a 2D pseudospectral and finite difference hybrid method to a 3D case and investigate the effects of the vertical velocity gradient for a 3D basin model. Numerical simulations were performed for four basin models with increasing vertical velocity gradients on a PC cluster using 64 processors for 67 108 864 discretized grids. The results show that the vertical velocity gradient enhances basin amplification through strong secondary surface waves and basin trapped waves. The 3D geometry of the basin causes a wave-front focusing effect that contributes significantly to a localized strong amplification with the maximum peak ground velocity in the basin. The results of this study suggest that it is important to consider the detailed properties of sedimentary basins in seismic ground motion studies. (paper)

  14. Constraining the vertical surface motions of the Hampshire Basin, south England During the Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip; England, Richard; Zalasiewicz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The potential effect of rising sea level on the UK has received considerable attention in recent years. However, the ongoing long-term changes in surface topography of the UK driven by regional tectonics and the mechanisms responsible are not fully understood. It is thought that glacial loading/unloading is the primary influence. However, this is inconsistent with present-day vertical surface motions recorded from Continuous Global Positioning Stations (CGPS) across the UK. The lateral variations in the present day motions are too complex to be explained by glacial isostatic rebound. We are investigating the hypothesis that the vertical motions of SE England also reflect the long term tectonic history by backstripping the Cenozoic geological record. So far the Paleogene stratigraphic record of the Hampshire basin in southern England has been investigated and using a series of deep boreholes that reach the chalk basement, a 2-D backstripping method has been applied. Subsidence analysis of cliff sections and boreholes reveal the Hampshire Basin was tectonically subsiding at a steady rate from 56.5Ma and any major periods of uplift and denudation to the present day state must have occurred from the mid Oligocene onwards. At this time the northern and western regions of the UK were believed to be uplifting as evidenced by heavy mineral transport directionns and sediment drainage patterns. A rapid increase in tectonic subsidence from 42Ma recorded by the three Isle of Wight sections in close proximity to an existing Variscan fault, thought to reactivate as a thrust during the Cenozoic, suggests a compressional stress regime in this region. The stress pattern observed from the tectonic subsidence data and evidence from drainage patterns supports a model in which the UK was uplifting in the north and west while the south east was subsiding. As this pattern is similar to the present day vertical surface motions and pre-dates glaciation, we propose glacial unloading as a

  15. Characterizing long period (1--10 sec) ground motions for base isolated structures located in sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.W.; Somerville, P.G. [Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Many urban regions, including Los Angeles, Portland and Seattle in the United States and Tokyo in Japan, are located above deep sedimentary basins. The conventional approach of estimating ground motions in these environments is to assume that the geology can be characterized by a horizontally stratified medium, and that only the shallowest few tens of meters influence the ground motion characteristics. However, the trapping and amplification of long period (1-10 sec) waves by sedimentary basins can generate amplitudes that are significantly larger than those calculated from simple 1D models of site resonance. This may be of particular concern for base isolated structures which are most sensitive to ground motions in this period range. The recent development of efficient computational methods for modeling seismic wave, propagation in laterally varying geological structure enable the authors to model the effects of sedimentary basins on earthquake generated ground motions. They are now applying this calculation procedure to characterize the ground motions that may be generated in the Puget Trough and the Portland Basin due to large earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, and in the Los Angeles region due to large earthquakes on blind thrust faults beneath the Los Angeles basin.

  16. How sensitive is earthquake ground motion to source parameters? Insights from a numerical study in the Mygdonian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaljub, Emmanuel; Maufroy, Emeline; deMartin, Florent; Hollender, Fabrice; Guyonnet-Benaize, Cédric; Manakou, Maria; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Kiratzi, Anastasia; Roumelioti, Zaferia; Theodoulidis, Nikos

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the origin of the variability of earthquake ground motion is critical for seismic hazard assessment. Here we present the results of a numerical analysis of the sensitivity of earthquake ground motion to seismic source parameters, focusing on the Mygdonian basin near Thessaloniki (Greece). We use an extended model of the basin (65 km [EW] x 50 km [NS]) which has been elaborated during the Euroseistest Verification and Validation Project. The numerical simulations are performed with two independent codes, both implementing the Spectral Element Method. They rely on a robust, semi-automated, mesh design strategy together with a simple homogenization procedure to define a smooth velocity model of the basin. Our simulations are accurate up to 4 Hz, and include the effects of surface topography and of intrinsic attenuation. Two kinds of simulations are performed: (1) direct simulations of the surface ground motion for real regional events having various back azimuth with respect to the center of the basin; (2) reciprocity-based calculations where the ground motion due to 980 different seismic sources is computed at a few stations in the basin. In the reciprocity-based calculations, we consider epicentral distances varying from 2.5 km to 40 km, source depths from 1 km to 15 km and we span the range of possible back-azimuths with a 10 degree bin. We will present some results showing (1) the sensitivity of ground motion parameters to the location and focal mechanism of the seismic sources; and (2) the variability of the amplification caused by site effects, as measured by standard spectral ratios, to the source characteristics

  17. Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Take the mystery out of motion. Our resource gives you everything you need to teach young scientists about motion. Students will learn about linear, accelerating, rotating and oscillating motion, and how these relate to everyday life - and even the solar system. Measuring and graphing motion is easy, and the concepts of speed, velocity and acceleration are clearly explained. Reading passages, comprehension questions, color mini posters and lots of hands-on activities all help teach and reinforce key concepts. Vocabulary and language are simplified in our resource to make them accessible to str

  18. Earthquake ground motion prediction for real sedimentary basins: which numerical schemes are applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczo, P.; Kristek, J.; Galis, M.; Pazak, P.

    2009-12-01

    Numerical prediction of earthquake ground motion in sedimentary basins and valleys often has to account for P-wave to S-wave speed ratios (Vp/Vs) as large as 5 and even larger, mainly in sediments below groundwater level. The ratio can attain values larger than 10 in unconsolidated sediments (e.g. in Ciudad de México). In a process of developing 3D optimally-accurate finite-difference schemes we encountered a serious problem with accuracy in media with large Vp/Vs ratio. This led us to investigate the very fundamental reasons for the inaccuracy. In order to identify the very basic inherent aspects of the numerical schemes responsible for their behavior with varying Vp/Vs ratio, we restricted to the most basic 2nd-order 2D numerical schemes on a uniform grid in a homogeneous medium. Although basic in the specified sense, the schemes comprise the decisive features for accuracy of wide class of numerical schemes. We investigated 6 numerical schemes: finite-difference_displacement_conventional grid (FD_D_CG) finite-element_Lobatto integration (FE_L) finite-element_Gauss integration (FE_G) finite-difference_displacement-stress_partly-staggered grid (FD_DS_PSG) finite-difference_displacement-stress_staggered grid (FD_DS_SG) finite-difference_velocity-stress_staggered grid (FD_VS_SG) We defined and calculated local errors of the schemes in amplitude and polarization. Because different schemes use different time steps, they need different numbers of time levels to calculate solution for a desired time window. Therefore, we normalized errors for a unit time. The normalization allowed for a direct comparison of errors of different schemes. Extensive numerical calculations for wide ranges of values of the Vp/Vs ratio, spatial sampling ratio, stability ratio, and entire range of directions of propagation with respect to the spatial grid led to interesting and surprising findings. Accuracy of FD_D_CG, FE_L and FE_G strongly depends on Vp/Vs ratio. The schemes are not

  19. A hybrid method for the estimation of ground motion in sedimentary basins: Quantitative modelling for Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the ground motion in two-dimensional, laterally heterogeneous, anelastic media, a hybrid technique has been developed which combines modal summation and the finite difference method. In the calculation of the local wavefield due to a seismic event, both for small and large epicentral distances, it is possible to take into account the sources, path and local soil effects. As practical application we have simulated the ground motion in Mexico City caused by the Michoacan earthquake of September 19, 1985. By studying the one-dimensional response of the two sedimentary layers present in Mexico City, it is possible to explain the difference in amplitudes observed between records for receivers inside and outside the lake-bed zone. These simple models show that the sedimentary cover produces the concentration of high-frequency waves (0.2-0.5 Hz) on the horizontal components of motion. The large amplitude coda of ground motion observed inside the lake-bed zone, and the spectral ratios between signals observed inside and outside the lake-bed zone, can only be explained by two-dimensional models of the sedimentary basin. In such models, the ground motion is mainly controlled by the response of the uppermost clay layer. The synthetic signals explain the major characteristics (relative amplitudes, spectral ratios, and frequency content) of the observed ground motion. The large amplitude coda of the ground motion observed in the lake-bed zone can be explained as resonance effects and the excitation of local surface waves in the laterally heterogeneous clay layer. Also, for the 1985 Michoacan event, the energy contributions of the three subevents are important to explain the observed durations. (author). 39 refs, 15 figs, 1 tab

  20. Characterisation of hydraulic head changes and aquifer properties in the London Basin using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry ground motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonì, R.; Cigna, F.; Bricker, S.; Meisina, C.; McCormack, H.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, Persistent Scatterer Interferometry was applied to ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT satellite data covering 1992-2000 and 2002-2010 respectively, to analyse the relationship between ground motion and hydraulic head changes in the London Basin, United Kingdom. The integration of observed groundwater levels provided by the Environment Agency and satellite-derived displacement time series allowed the estimation of the spatio-temporal variations of the Chalk aquifer storage coefficient and compressibility over an area of ∼1360 km2. The average storage coefficient of the aquifer reaches values of 1 × 10-3 and the estimated average aquifer compressibility is 7.7 × 10-10 Pa-1 and 1.2 × 10-9 Pa-1 for the periods 1992-2000 and 2002-2010, respectively. Derived storage coefficient values appear to be correlated with the hydrogeological setting, where confined by the London Clay the storage coefficient is typically an order of magnitude lower than where the chalk is overlain by the Lambeth Group. PSI-derived storage coefficient estimates agree with the values obtained from pumping tests in the same area. A simplified one-dimensional model is applied to simulate the ground motion response to hydraulic heads changes at nine piezometers. The comparison between simulated and satellite-observed ground motion changes reveals good agreement, with errors ranging between 1.4 and 6.9 mm, and being 3.2 mm on average.

  1. Basin filling related to the Philippine Sea Plate motion in Beppu Bay, southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keitaro; Takemura, Keiji; Kuwae, Michinobu; Ikehara, Ken; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2016-03-01

    Strike-slip basins are one of the most important accumulation spaces for sediment of terrigenous, biogenic, and volcanic origins, and generally include large amount of event deposits. Although these event deposits are important basin filling process, research on this topic, particularly the effects of event deposits, is insufficient. In this study, we discuss sedimentation features based on grain composition and other properties for ca. 3000 year periods in Beppu Bay, which is strike-slip basin located at the western end of an arc-bisecting dextral fault known as Median Tectonic Line (MTL) associated with the northwestward subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate. This sediment is composed of hemipelagic clay and coarser event layers of turbidites referred to as types A, B, and C; ash layers referred to as type D; and other referred to as type E. The turbidite event layers, which accounted for 92% of the total major event layer, with >1 cm thickness, consist of particles related to volcanism, including hydrothermal activity. The events control the regional filling rate and transportation of coarse and heavy volcaniclastic materials. In particular, type A, which accounted for 73% of the total major event layer thickness, is likely induced by earthquakes related to the MTL, according to its age. As a result, the basin filling processes are controlled mainly by tectonics related to the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate.

  2. New determination of the shape of the Seattle basin, Washington from gravity and magnetic data: Implications for seismic ground motion and crustal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. L.; Waters, K.; Dragovich, J. D.; Blakely, R. J.; Wells, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    . The new data also define local minima in basin depth that could complicate wavefields passing through it. The eventual goal of this work is generation of new simulations of ground motion amplification within the basin from both subduction zone events and crustal earthquakes on previously known and the newly-characterized faults.

  3. Gradient Clogging in Depth Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, S.; Redner, S.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate clogging in depth filtration, in which a dirty fluid is ``cleaned'' by the trapping of dirt particles within the pore space during flow through a porous medium. This leads to a gradient percolation process which exhibits a power law distribution for the density of trapped particles at downstream distance x from the input. To achieve a non-pathological clogging (percolation) threshold, the system length L should scale no faster than a power of ln w, where w is the width. Non-tri...

  4. Local amplification of deep mining induced vibrations - Part.2: Simulation of the ground motion in a coal basin

    CERN Document Server

    Semblat, Jean-François; Driad-Lebeau, L; Bonnet, Guy; 10.1016/j.soildyn.2010.04.006

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates the impact of deep coal mining induced vibrations on surface constructions using numerical tools. An experimental study of the geological site amplification and of its influence on mining induced vibrations has already been published in a previous paper (Part 1: Experimental evidence for site effects in a coal basin). Measurements have shown the existence of an amplification area in the southern part of the basin where drilling data have shown the presence of particularly fractured and soft stratigraphic units. The present study, using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) in the frequency domain, first investigates canonical geological structures in order to get general results for various sites. The amplification level at the surface is given as a function of the shape of the basin and of the velocity contrast with the bedrock. Next, the particular coal basin previously studied experimentally (Driad-Lebeau et al., 2009) is modeled numerically by BEM. The amplification phenomena characteri...

  5. Joint-inversion of Seismic and Gravity Survey Data in Sedimentary Basins for 3-D Underground Structures in Strong Motion Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, K.; Afnimar, A.

    2001-12-01

    Modeling of underground structures is one of important tasks for strong motion predition. Seismic surveys such as refraction and reflection explorations can give precise estimates of seismic velocities, but they are too expensive to cover the whole area of a sedimentary basin with a fine spacing of survey points. On the other hand, gravity surveys can be carried out densely and homogeneously with reasonable cost, but they cannot measure seismic velocities directly. In order to compromise this inconsistency, we combine data from the seismic and gravity surveys, and jointly invert them assuming a relation between densities and seismic velocities. An interface separating sediments and basement rocks is parameterized by the Lagrange interpolation with knot points distributed for representing a steep part related to a fault zone. The linear and absolute constraints are imposed to avoid oscillatory artifacts in the solution and to minimize the non-uniqueness of the solution. The joint inversion also overcome the ray coverage problem of a refraction survey in a complex underground structure. The validity of the formulation is verified using synthetic data for a valley-like basin with pseudo-random noises. The proposed method is successfully applied to the actual data obtained in and around the Osaka basin, Japan. The result shows a good agreement with the geological setting in this region. The instability due to the lack of data beneath the Osaka bay is improved by the introduction of the absolute constraints. We then apply the method to the Kanto basin around Tokyo assuming two layers in the sediments. This layering increases the number of variables introducing some instabilities into the inversion, and so measurements at boreholes and reflection survey lines are used as fixed points in the model.

  6. Geodynamic Drivers of Vertical Crustal Motion: Integrating Paleoaltimetry with Basin Development in the Central Andean Plateau of Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, K. E., II; Saylor, J. E.; Lapen, T. J.; Villarreal, D. P.; Styron, R. H.; Horton, B. K.; Cardenas, J.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the spatial and temporal relationships between surface uplift, tectonic subsidence, and exhumation during periods of oblique crustal shortening is essential to discriminating geodynamic processes controlling formation of high topography in the central Andes. Although subsidence analysis is now a standard tool, paleoelevation estimation remains a challenging task, as estimates based on proxy data can be complicated by uncertainties in the relative controls of tectonics and climate. We therefore adopt an approach of combining established tools of subsidence analysis and detrital geochronology with emerging methods of volcanic glass paleoaltimetry, which enables us to explore a broad range of viable interpretations to understand the development of intermontane basins and their relationship to the development of the central Andean plateau. We investigated a suite of temporally overlapping and spatially separate Cenozoic basins spanning the east-west extent of the central Andean plateau in southern Peru. These basins contain an exceptional record of the vertical movements of this region. We calculate sediment accumulation and subsidence rates through decompaction of measured stratigraphic sections, and reconstruct past environmental conditions based on the stable isotopic composition of ancient waters preserved in hydrated volcanic glass. These data and published records of crustal shortening and exhumation show that although paleoaltimetry data in the study areas may be interpreted in various ways, they are best explained by multiple geodynamic processes driving (i) Eocene-early Miocene development of high topography in the Western Cordillera, then (ii) a pulsed middle Miocene-present building of the central Andean plateau from west to east, consistent with global climate changes as well as regional climate shifts driven by topographic development of the Andean orogen.

  7. Identifying the origin of differences between 3D numerical simulations of ground motion in sedimentary basins: lessons from stringent canonical test models in the E2VP framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaljub, Emmanuel; Maufroy, Emeline; Moczo, Peter; Kristek, Jozef; Priolo, Enrico; Klin, Peter; De Martin, Florent; Zhang, Zenghuo; Hollender, Fabrice; Bard, Pierre-Yves

    2013-04-01

    Numerical simulation is playing a role of increasing importance in the field of seismic hazard by providing quantitative estimates of earthquake ground motion, its variability, and its sensitivity to geometrical and mechanical properties of the medium. Continuous efforts to develop accurate and computationally efficient numerical methods, combined with increasing computational power have made it technically feasible to calculate seismograms in 3D realistic configurations and for frequencies of interest in seismic design applications. Now, in order to foster the use of numerical simulations in practical prediction of earthquake ground motion, it is important to evaluate the accuracy of current numerical methods when applied to realistic 3D sites. This process of verification is a necessary prerequisite to confrontation of numerical predictions and observations. Through the ongoing Euroseistest Verification and Validation Project (E2VP), which focuses on the Mygdonian basin (northern Greece), we investigated the capability of numerical methods to predict earthquake ground motion for frequencies up to 4 Hz. Numerical predictions obtained by several teams using a wide variety of methods were compared using quantitative goodness-of-fit criteria. In order to better understand the cause of misfits between different simulations, initially performed for the realistic geometry of the Mygdonian basin, we defined five stringent canonical configurations. The canonical models allow for identifying sources of misfits and quantify their importance. Detailed quantitative comparison of simulations in relation to dominant features of the models shows that even relatively simple heterogeneous models must be treated with maximum care in order to achieve sufficient level of accuracy. One important conclusion is that the numerical representation of models with strong variations (e.g. discontinuities) may considerably vary from one method to the other, and may become a dominant source of

  8. GNF Defense in Depth Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global Nuclear Fuel (GNF) has designed, fabricated, and placed into operation more than 9 million fuel rods in approximately 135 thousand assemblies. Customer satisfaction has always compelled GNF to reduce fuel rod failures (defined here as fuel rods that breach or leak in service), However, increasing success with and subsequent expectations for economic performance of nuclear reactor plants have raised broader Industry emphasis on fuel reliability. In 2005, GNF established its Defense-in-Depth (DID) Program for the purpose of focusing attention on the many aspects of fuel design, fabrication, performance, and utilization that affect fuel reliability as well as on the key methods that govern the utilization of GNF fuel. The Program is structured to address each of the identified in-service, fuel failure mechanisms. This paper provides a summary of GNF fuel performance, following previous updates. This paper will discuss recent GNF fuel reliability and channel performance, GNF2 introduction status, and methods. GNF's more recent fuel experience includes approximately 3.8 million GE11/13 (9x9) and GE12/14 (10x10) fuel rods, well over half of which are the GE12/14 design. (Those figures also include roughly 25,000 recently-introduced GNF2 fuel rods.) Reliability, expressed as annual, observed fuel failure rates (i.e., number of rods failed each year divided by the number of opportunities, or fuel rods in service), has improved for each year since 2005. The GNF fuel failure rate for years leading up to 2007 and 2008 has been on the order of 5 to 7 ppm (excluding the corrosion events of 2001-2003), and as of this writing (January 2009) the current in-service failure has decreased to around 1.5 ppm. Failures in GE14 fuel rod failures have been primarily due to debris-fretting (> 60%), with other failures being duty-related or yet undetermined. The only failure observed in GNF2 to date was a single, early-life debris failure in a bundle not equipped with GNF's current

  9. Identifying Objective EEG Based Markers of Linear Vection in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Stephen; Barry, Robert J.; De Blasio, Frances M.; Fogarty, Jack S.

    2016-01-01

    This proof-of-concept study investigated whether a time-frequency EEG approach could be used to examine vection (i.e., illusions of self-motion). In the main experiment, we compared the event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) data of 10 observers during and directly after repeated exposures to two different types of optic flow display (each was 35° wide by 29° high and provided 20 s of motion stimulation). Displays consisted of either a vection display (which simulated constant velocity forward self-motion in depth) or a control display (a spatially scrambled version of the vection display). ERSP data were decomposed using time-frequency Principal Components Analysis (t–f PCA). We found an increase in 10 Hz alpha activity, peaking some 14 s after display motion commenced, which was positively associated with stronger vection ratings. This followed decreases in beta activity, and was also followed by a decrease in delta activity; these decreases in EEG amplitudes were negatively related to the intensity of the vection experience. After display motion ceased, a series of increases in the alpha band also correlated with vection intensity, and appear to reflect vection- and/or motion-aftereffects, as well as later cognitive preparation for reporting the strength of the vection experience. Overall, these findings provide support for the notion that EEG can be used to provide objective markers of changes in both vection status (i.e., “vection/no vection”) and vection strength. PMID:27559328

  10. Intermediate crust (IC); its construction at continent edges, distinctive epeirogenic behaviour and identification as sedimentary basins within continents: new light on pre-oceanic plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    2014-05-01

    Introduction. The plate tectonics paradigm currently posits that the Earth has only two kinds of crust - continental and oceanic - and that the former may be stretched to form sedimentary basins or the latter may be modified by arc or collision until it looks continental. But global analysis of the dynamics of actual plate motions for the past 150 Ma indicates [1 - 3] that continental tectospheres must be immensely thicker and rheologically stiffer than previously thought; almost certainly too thick to be stretched with the forces available. In the extreme case of cratons, these tectospheric keels evidently extend to 600 km or more [2, 3]. This thick-plate behaviour is attributable, not to cooling but to a petrological 'stiffening' effect, associated with a loss of water-weakening of the mineral crystals, which also applies to the hitherto supposedly mobile LVZ below MORs [4, 5]. The corresponding thick-plate version of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) process [6 - 8], replacing the divergent mantle flow model, has a deep, narrow wall-accreting axial crack which not only provides the seismic anisotropy beneath the flanks but also brings two outstanding additional benefits:- (i) why, at medium to fast spreading rates, MOR axes become straight and orthogonally segmented [6], (ii) not being driven by body forces, it can achieve the sudden jumps of axis, spreading-rate and direction widely present in the ocean-floor record. Furthermore, as we will illustrate, the crack walls push themselves apart at depth by a thermodynamic mechanism, so the plates are not being pulled apart. So the presence of this process at a continental edge would not imply the application of extensional force to the margin. Intermediate Crust (IC). In seeking to resolve the paradox that superficially extensional structures are often seen at margins we will first consider how this MOR process would be affected by the heavy concurrent sedimentation to be expected when splitting a mature continent. I reason

  11. Coding In-depth Semistructured Interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Quincy, Charles; Osserman, Jordan;

    2013-01-01

    Many social science studies are based on coded in-depth semistructured interview transcripts. But researchers rarely report or discuss coding reliability in this work. Nor is there much literature on the subject for this type of data. This article presents a procedure for developing coding schemes...

  12. Eye movements in depth to visual illusions

    OpenAIRE

    Wismeijer, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    We perceive the three-dimensional (3D) environment that surrounds us with deceptive effortlessness. In fact, we are far from comprehending how the visual system provides us with this stable perception of the (3D) world around us. This thesis will focus on the interplay between visual perception of depth and its closely related action system, eye movements in depth. The human visual system is comprised of a sensory (input) and an output (motor) system. Processed information from the sensory sy...

  13. Dynamics and cortical distribution of neural responses to 2D and 3D motion in human

    OpenAIRE

    Cottereau, Benoit R.; McKee, Suzanne P.; Norcia, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The perception of motion-in-depth is important for avoiding collisions and for the control of vergence eye-movements and other motor actions. Previous psychophysical studies have suggested that sensitivity to motion-in-depth has a lower temporal processing limit than the perception of lateral motion. The present study used functional MRI-informed EEG source-imaging to study the spatiotemporal properties of the responses to lateral motion and motion-in-depth in human visual cortex. Lateral mot...

  14. 3D hand tracking using Kalman filter in depth space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangheon; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Kim, Sungjin; Lee, Sangyoun

    2012-12-01

    Hand gestures are an important type of natural language used in many research areas such as human-computer interaction and computer vision. Hand gestures recognition requires the prior determination of the hand position through detection and tracking. One of the most efficient strategies for hand tracking is to use 2D visual information such as color and shape. However, visual-sensor-based hand tracking methods are very sensitive when tracking is performed under variable light conditions. Also, as hand movements are made in 3D space, the recognition performance of hand gestures using 2D information is inherently limited. In this article, we propose a novel real-time 3D hand tracking method in depth space using a 3D depth sensor and employing Kalman filter. We detect hand candidates using motion clusters and predefined wave motion, and track hand locations using Kalman filter. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we compare the performance of the proposed method with the visual-based method. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method out performs visual-based method.

  15. Advanced interpretation of ground motion using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry technique: the Alto Guadalentín Basin (Spain) case of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonì, Roberta; Herrera, Gerardo; Meisina, Claudia; Notti, Davide; Zucca, Francesco; Bejar, Marta; González, Pablo; Palano, Mimmo; Tomás, Roberto; Fernandez, José; Fernández-Merodo, José; Mulas, Joaquín; Aragón, Ramón; Mora, Oscar

    2014-05-01

    Subsidence related to fluid withdrawal has occurred in numerous regions of the world. The phenomena is an important hazard closely related to the development of urban areas. The analysis of the deformations requires an extensive and continuous spatial and temporal monitoring to prevent the negative effects of such risks on structures and infrastructures. Deformation measurements are fundamental in order to identify the affected area extension, to evaluate the temporal evolution of deformation velocities and to identify the main control mechanisms. Differential SAR interferometry represents an advanced remote sensing tool, which can map displacements at very high spatial resolution. The Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique is a class of SAR interferometry that uses point-wise radar targets (PS) on the ground whose phase is not interested by temporal and geometrical decorrelation. This technique generates starting from a set of images two main products: the displacement rate along line of sight (LOS) of single PS; and the LOS displacement time series of individual PS. In this work SAR data with different spatio-temporal resolution were used to study the displacements that occur from 1992 to 2012 in the Alto Guadalentin Basin (southern Spain), where is located the city of Lorca The area is affected by the highest rate of subsidence measured in Europe (>10 cm/yr-1) related to long-term exploitation of the aquifer (González et al. 2011). The objectives of the work were 1) to analyse land subsidence evolution over a 20-year period with PSI technique; 2) to compare the spatial and temporal resolution of SAR data acquired by different sensors, 3) to investigate the causes that could explain this land motion. The SAR data have been obtained with ERS-1/2 & ENVISAT (1992-2007), ALOS PALSAR (2007-2010) and COSMO-SkyMed (2011-2012) images, processed with the Stable Point Network (SPN) technique. The PSI data obtained from different satellite from 1992 to 2012

  16. Defence in Depth and Ageing Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accident prevention is the first safety priority of both designers and operators. It is achieved through the use of reliable structures, components, systems and procedures in a plant operated by personnel who are committed to a strong safety culture. For future nuclear power plants, consideration of multiple failures and severe accidents will be achieved in a more systematic and complete way from the design stage. Defence in depth (DID) consists of a hierarchical deployment of different levels of equipment and procedures in order to maintain the effectiveness of physical barriers placed between radioactive materials and workers, the public or the environment, in normal operation, anticipated operational occurrences and, for some barriers, in accidents at the plant. The primary way of preventing accidents is to achieve a high quality in design, construction and operation of the plant, and thereby to ensure that deviations from normal operation are infrequent. The best way to meet these premises of effectiveness of the barriers and the Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) is to develop an ageing management programme to prevent potential failures and accidents. In this work we will refer to the ageing management programme for Atucha I and Atucha II power plants and to the Atucha I spent fuel storage. (author)

  17. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Defense-in-Depth Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward G. Wallace; Karl N. Fleming; Edward M. Burns

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.

  18. Combining card sorts and in-depth interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, MNK

    2012-01-01

    Trust research invariably asks questions about sensitive issues, highlighting the need to build rapport and trust between the researcher and participant. It may also be necessary to ensure participants are not sensitized to the focus on trust. This chapter outlines the use of a card sort, concurrent with an in-depth interview to help overcome these issues.

  19. Successive Evolutions of the Defence in Depth Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following Fukushima Daiichi accident, the Defence-in-depth concept, which is usually defined as a combination of a number of consecutive and independent levels of protection that would have to fail before harmful effects could be caused, has been confirmed as an essential element to be applied in the design of a nuclear facility to protect people and the environment. However, and although the implementation of the defence in depth concept had been required for long, the Fukushima Daiichi accident and the “stress tests” conducted in different countries have revealed deficiencies in its implementation. Consequently within the review of the IAEA safety requirements requested by Member states, it was important to check whether this concept was appropriately defined in order to be properly understood and fully implemented by vendors and operating organizations. By screening the successive definitions of the defence in depth principle and concept, this paper emphasizes the few issues which have been gradually clarified and enhanced to ensure effectiveness of the defence in depth as expressed from its original statement. (author)

  20. Motion constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Raunhardt, Daniel; Boulic, Ronan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid postural control approach taking advantage of data-driven and goal-oriented methods while overcoming their limitations. In particular, we take advantage of the latent space characterizing a given motion database. We introduce a motion constraint operating in the latent space to benefit from its much smaller dimension compared to the joint space. This allows its transparent integration into a Prioritized Inverse Kinematics framework. If its priority is high t...

  1. Gels correct in-depth reservoir permeability variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.E.; Mack, J.C. [Tiorco Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-01-06

    Continuous, long-term injection of an environmentally sound colloidal dispersion gel (CDG) provides a solution to in-depth, away from the well bore, channeling and crossflow problems inherent with waterflooding. This unique in-depth permeability modification process has been applied in 37 field projects over the last 11 years. In the 29 successful projects, the gels increased oil production at lower water/oil ratios. The colloidal dispersion gel was successfully placed at reservoir temperatures up to 202 F. Oil viscosities were often high, from 10 cps to more than 20 cps at the reservoir bottom hole temperature. The paper discusses CDG technology, laboratory work, the gels, field development, initial field results, unsuccessful projects, marginal projects, and successful projects.

  2. Questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus groups

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Anne; Cox, Anna L.

    2008-01-01

    With fast changing technologies and related human interaction issues, there is an increased need for timely evaluation of systems with distributed users in varying contexts (Pace, 2004). This has led to the increased use of questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus groups in commercial usability and academic research contexts. Questionnaires are usually paper based or delivered online and consist of a set of questions which all participants are asked to complete. Once the questionnaire ha...

  3. QUIP: Understanding Clients Through In-Depth Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous,

    2004-01-01

    QUIP (Qualitative in-depth individual impact assessment protocol) is a practical method to help managers of microfinance institutions (MFIs) better understand their clients through market research or impact assessment. Most managers would like to know who is benefiting and who is losing out from their services, and why this might be. This is vital information if they wish to design services that are effective and useful for clients.

  4. Intrusion Prevention in Depth System Research Based on Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Jie; Zheng Xiao; Liu Yabin; Shi Chenghui

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a data mining based intrusion prevention in depth system model to manage the huge amounts of unreliable and uncontrollable security events, which are generated by the extensive utilization of heterogeneous security devices in computer networks. A method of combining online detection and offline data mining is made use of as the core of the model. On the other hand, the work process of the system can be compartmentalized into two phases: online examination through pattern...

  5. Inter-basin dynamics on multidimensional potential surfaces. I. Escape rates on complex basin surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despa, Florin; Berry, R. Stephen

    2001-11-01

    In this report, we present a general prescription for computing the escape rate of the system from a basin with full consideration of the topographical fingerprint of that basin. The method is based on a solution of the reduced Fokker-Planck equation and built up to allow the separation of the inter-basin dynamics from that of the intra-basin motion. The main result is that when local well populations thermalize within a basin, local minima, especially those of higher energy, enhance the escape rate from the basin. Also, numerical analyses lead to the inference that kinetic traps of "wrong" structures are distinctive topographical patterns which may produce kinetic properties similar to those of the primary basin, i.e., that containing the global minimum, but lie in other basins.

  6. Transient chaotic transport in dissipative drift motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzabal, R. S.; Szezech, J. D.; Batista, A. M.; de Souza, S. L. T.; Caldas, I. L.; Viana, R. L.; Sanjuán, M. A. F.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate chaotic particle transport in magnetised plasmas with two electrostatic drift waves. Considering dissipation in the drift motion, we verify that the removed KAM surfaces originate periodic attractors with their corresponding basins of attraction. We show that the properties of the basins depend on the dissipation and the space-averaged escape time decays exponentially when the dissipation increases. We find positive finite time Lyapunov exponents in dissipative drift motion, consequently the trajectories exhibit transient chaotic transport. These features indicate how the transient plasma transport depends on the dissipation.

  7. "Defence-in-Depth" Strategy in Transport Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanek, Andrzej

    Safety management is a kind of system management, that is management by purposes. Taking "defence-in-depth" strategy, DDS - there can be defined four main aims and four method groups of risk management in transport: 1. minimizing transport accidents risk; 2. minimizing number of undesirable transport events (incidents, conflicts, collisions, accidents). Above purposes relate stages of safety management in transport. At each level of management should be elaborated methods, procedures and technologies of minimizing transport accidents risk. According to DDS any management system of transport safety should have a structure of multilevel chain protections which supervise main transport processes. About those problems in the paper.

  8. Defense in depth and resource optimization for safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardecki, A.; Markin, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The resource allocation problem for safeguards is solved by using dynamic programming. The existing program RAOPS (Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safeguards) is extended to include both divergent and convergent configurations of activities. The new algorithm is applicable to any configuration that can be described in terms of a tree data structure. To treat the problem of defense in depth, a stochastic optimization -- in which the optimization applies to expected values -- is utilized. Numerical examples illustrating the general theory are given. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Defence in depth by 'Leittechnique' systems with graded intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, only two types of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems were in use in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG): safety systems and operational systems. Present nuclear power plant 'Leittechnique' systems in the FRG have been expanded from this 'black-and-white' status to multiple-grade systems with respect to safety, qualification requirements and intelligence. The extensive experience of the past has encouraged the rule-making committees - representing all parties working in the nuclear field - to differentiate between the protection limitations and condition limitations of the reactor protection system on one hand and the information systems (including the accident monitoring and alarm system) of different safety importance on the other, assuming additional extensive application of non-safety-grade operational Leittechnique systems. These definitions of categories are in accordance with international practice and enable designers to apply 'echelons of defence', composed of equipment of all categories, in accordance with 'defence-in-depth' concepts. They also simplify the introduction of computerized equipment, especially in the lower safety categories. Status, background and reasons of the introduction, as well as typical defence-in-depth modes, of the first running Leittechnique system of this kind (in the Grafenrheinfeld nuclear power plant) and especially their different tasks in disturbance handling are described. The international situation and future developments are briefly characterized. (author)

  10. Collective Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Czirok, A

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of understanding the emergence of collective motion from local interactions of organisms in a "noisy" environment, we study biologically inspired, inherently non-equilibrium models consisting of self-propelled particles. In these models particles interact with their neighbors by turning towards the local average direction of motion. In the limit of vanishing velocities this behavior results in a dynamics analogous to some Monte Carlo realization of equilibrium ferromagnets. However, numerical simulations indicate the existence of new types of phase transitions which are not present in the corresponding ferromagnets. In particular, here we demonstrate both numerically and analytically that even in certain one dimensional self-propelled particle systems an ordered phase exists for finite noise levels.

  11. In-depth Cultural Studies in Multicultural Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siliņa-Jasjukeviča Gunta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is much research and educational practices at all levels of education on how to deal with promoting acceptance and understanding between different cultures. A cultural study forms an important part of shaping intercultural understanding. The aim of the research is to analyze an innovative way of incorporating cultural studies in teacher education program from the perspective of encouraging multinational students to reveal common values within diverse manifestations of different cultures. The present article describes a qualitative study of multinational students’ experiences in international project related to the learning about Nordic and Baltic cultural traditions. In the conclusion of the article, the efficiency of the structure of content and the process of in-depth cultural studies are analyzed. The discussion contains problems for further research of this topic.

  12. Defence-in-depth concept for the EU-ABWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Fuchs, Steffen; Takada, Toshiaki; Kataoka, Kazuyoshi [Toshiba International Limited (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The current defence-in-depth (DiD) concept has been established by the Reactor Harmonization Working Group (RHWG) of Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA). Principally the DiD concept was already part of the very early power reactor designs. However, additional considerations have been done in order to take plant conditions into account which are beyond the original design basis. The most recent advancements have been done based on major lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident. Especially for new nuclear reactors it has to be demonstrated that DiD aspects have been considered in their design. Currently Toshiba is adapting its Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) for the European market, at first in Finland. This presentation aims to describe how the new DiD concept has been applied to achieve the safety goals for a modern reactor type and to ensure a design that can be licensed in Western Europe. (orig.)

  13. [Significance of basic concepts in depth psychology for psychosomatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, H

    1984-12-01

    The concept of "the unconscious" is considered the central concept of depth psychology. While the unconscious in Freud's conception consists essentially of repressed material and through conversion can result in psychosomatic illnesses, C. G. Jung saw in the "collective unconscious", which he discovered, the source of all psychic and spiritual development. Mediation between the collective unconscious and the conscious is effected by means of the "archetypes", whose function can be compared with the instincts. Archetypes are manifested through symbols, whose assimilation by consciousness is a prerequisite for psychic and physical health. Consideration of the archetype of the physician suggests that the grounding of medical science in depth psychology would modify not only our understanding of illnesses, but also the physician's understanding of himself. PMID:6515375

  14. In-depth survey report of American Airlines plating facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, V. D., Jr.

    1982-12-01

    An in depth survey was conducted at the American Airlines Maintenance and Engineering Center as part of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study evaluating measures to control occupational health hazards associated with the metal plating industry. This American Airlines plating facility, employing approximately 25 workers, is primarily engaged in plating hard chromium, nickel and cadmium on aircraft engine and landing gear parts. Six tanks were studied, including an electroless nickel tank. Area and personal samples for chromium, nickel, cadmium, and cyanide were collected. Ventilation airflow and tank dimensions were measured and data recorded on plating operations. The relationships between air contaminants emitted, local exhaust ventilation flow rate, tank size, and plating activity were evaluated.

  15. In-depth characterization of silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present an extension of the photo-current decay (PCD) method to enable determination of the minority-carrier diffusion length in Si solar cells in a depth-resolved fashion. From a single decay curve three observables (quantum efficiency, fundamental decay time, and intercept of the extrapolated decay curve with the time-zero axis) are determined. It is demonstrated how three transport parameters (back-surface recombination velocity, the average minority-carrier diffusion length, and a third parameter which describes the depth-dependence of the diffusion length) are extracted from these observables. Computer simulations of the time-dependent minority-carrier transport problem are performed to unravel the relations between the recombination parameters of the solar cell base and the three observables. With the authors' experimental set-up, comprising a Ti:Sapphire laser, light pulses of wavelength 1010 nm are used to perform PCD measurements. Measurements on a set of polycrystalline Si cells were performed showing that gettering treatments during cell production result in depth-dependent lifetimes

  16. Shared Communications: Volume 2. In-Depth Systems Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, LF

    2004-09-22

    This report is the second of two documents that examine the literature for actual examples of organizations and agencies that share communications resources. While the primary emphasis is on rural, intelligent transportation system (ITS) communications involving transit, examples will not be limited to rural activities, nor to ITS implementation, nor even to transit. In addition, the term ''communication'' will be broadly applied to include all information resources. The first document of this series, ''Shared Communications: Volume I. A Summary and Literature Review'', defines the meaning of the term ''shared communication resources'' and provides many examples of agencies that share resources. This document, ''Shared Communications: Volume II. In-Depth Systems Research'', reviews attributes that contributed to successful applications of the sharing communication resources concept. A few examples of each type of communication sharing are provided. Based on the issues and best practice realworld examples, recommendations for potential usage and recommended approaches for field operational tests are provided.

  17. Positron sensing of distribution of defects in depth materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchishin, A. I.; Kupchishin, A. A.; Voronova, N. A.; Kirdyashkin, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    It was developed a non-destructive method of positron sensing, which allows to determine the distribution of defects in the depth of the material. From the analysis we can conclude that the angular distribution curves of annihilation photons (well as and on the characteristics in experiments on the lifetime, 3γ - angular correlation, Doppler effect) is influenced by three main factors: a) The distribution of defects in the depth of the material, their dimensions as well as parameters of the interaction of positrons with defects. With increasing the concentration of defects the intensity Jγ(a, ξ) varies more; b) Modification of the energy spectrum of slow positrons due to the influence of defects, wherein the spectrum of positrons becomes softer, and the average energy of the positron annihilation is reduced; c) Deformation of the momentum distribution of the electrons in the region of defect. The energy spectrum of electrons is also becomes softer, and the average energy of the electrons (on which positrons annihilate) is less. The experimentally were measured spectra of photons in the zone of annihilation and were calculated the distribution of defects in depth for a number of metals.

  18. Virtual Dance and Motion-Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Boucher

    2011-01-01

    A general view of various ways in which virtual dance can be understood is presented in the first part of this article. It then appraises the uses of the term “virtual” in previous studies of digital dance. A more in-depth view of virtual dance as it relates to motion-capture is offered, and key issues are discussed regarding computer animation, digital imaging, motion signature, virtual reality and interactivity. The paper proposes that some forms of virtual dance be defined in relation to...

  19. Simulation of Near-Fault Strong Ground Motion in the Beijing Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of previous study of the 1679 Sanhe-Pinggu ( M8. 0) earthquake, the biggest event in history ever recorded in Beijing and its adjacent area, we made a 3-D strong ground motion simulation utilizing the staggered-grid finite differences method to study the distributions of peak ground velocity with different earthquake source models in the Beijing region. In the paper, earthquake source models and a transmission medium velocity model are established and the corresponding parameters are given in accordance to the results from a related previous study. Then, using a three-dimensional finite difference computing program of near-fault strong ground motion developed by Graves, the peak ground velocity caused by a destructive earthquake in the Beijing area is simulated. In our computation model, the earthquake source is 3km in depth, and a total number of 21,679 observation points on the ground surface are figured out. The transmission medium velocity model is composed of four stratums which are the Quaternary deposit, the upper crust, the upper part of the middle crust and the lower part of the middle crust. With the minimum grid spacing of 0.15km, a total of 2.28 × 106 grids are generated. Using a time step of 0.02 seconds we calculated the peak ground velocity for a duration of 8 seconds. After the analysis of the simulation results, we observed some basic characteristics of near-fault strong ground motion such as the concentration effect of near-fault peak ground velocity, rupture directivity effect, hanging wall effect, and basin effect. The results from our simulation and analysis suggest that the source and transmitting medium parameters in our model are suitable and the finite difference method is applicable to estimate the distribution of strong ground motion in the study region.

  20. In depth uncertainty estimation of the neutron computational tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verification and validation processes are required to demonstrate the ability of simulation tools to accomplish the task they have been designed for. The values of the characteristics of both 3rd+ generation PWR cores and 4th generation fast neutron reactor cores should be associated with a validation dossier. The new APOLLO3® code, under development at CEA, has to undergo such validation process in particular when treating reactor cores with advanced features. In order to prepare this task, the way that validation has been done in the past for a code like ECCO is being revisited. The aim of this work is to illustrate the change in paradigm between what was done 25 years ago and what is currently done. Two ways to quantify the bias introduced in deterministic calculations exist: 1. Performing deterministic calculations in which some approximations are eliminated or reduced. 2. Comparing deterministic calculations with stochastic ones (TRIPOLI4). The first approach was the one being used for ECCO when programming it since it was accessible with computers available at the time but is not sufficiently independent from the tool being tested. The method could identify the origin of discrepancies with the use of the perturbation method so as to upgrade the method and/or track some possible compensating errors. The second approach is often done by comparing integral results such as reactivity or so-dium void worth obtained with deterministic codes with the one of Monte Carlo codes using continuous energy libraries. This approach is somehow lacking in depth under-standing of the origin of discrepancies, hence is not very instructive for finding a way to improve the computational scheme. The use of the perturbation theory is applied in this paper between ECCO/ERANOS deterministic results and TRIPOLI4 Monte Carlo results for reactivity or sodium void worth of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) so as to illustrate this innovative approach. (author)

  1. Revisiting the Concept and Implementation of Defense-in-Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subsequent tsunami, with its maximum wave height greater than the design basis, invalidated all layers of the Fukushima NPP. This raises the question on which of the philosophy or the implementation of DID fell short at Fukushima. This paper suggests several complements necessary to the concept of DID and new application practice in a wide variety of safety related objectives/areas/events. Since its conception, DID appears to have been successfully applied to the design and operation but less to the site, external events, resource requirements, the unexpected impacts of organization, etc. Thus, the horizontal as well as vertical application of DID is suggested. Here, the latter application means repeated questions of 'What if this fails?' and the former one means the application of DID to all the applicable objectives, which can be a real defense-in-width. It is widely accepted that defense-in-depth (DID) has been the core of safety philosophy in nuclear safety regulation. Its concept has been developed and refined over many years to go beyond physical barriers and design practices. The historical development of the concept led to a general structure of four physical barriers and five successive levels of defense. The accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) showed that multiple levels of defense could fail at the same time, demonstrated how these could work and how some were challenged, and gave the chance of the concept and implementation being improved. This paper examines the traditional concept and implementation strategies of DID, identifies some weaknesses in that, and suggest some complements and new approach to improving the application of DID

  2. Establishing a Global Halal Hub: In-Depth Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Borzooei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the requirements needed for a country to establish itself as a global Halal hub. In this regard, this exploratory research paper uses a semi-structured in-depth interview to obtain the perceptions of Halal experts about the requirements for establishing a Halal hub. The results of the study indicate that human capital, media, research and development, events, country’s capability, public and governmental support, marketing strategy, and infrastructure comprise the vital requirements. Furthermore, from the perceptions of the experts, public and governmental support, marketing strategy, and human capital are the three most important requirements. Since this paper is an exploratory study, it provides some insights of the three experts on the establishing of a Halal hub. In addition, a quantitative study is an appropriate approach to implement the findings of this study empirically and to determine the effective components to establish a Halal hub in those countries that desire it. A practical implication of this study is the opening of a new window for any country that aspires to be a Halal hub. In this matter, this paper presents the key considerations in establishing a Halal hub for Halal certification bodies, companies and marketers involved in the Halal business. Moreover, this research attempts to influence the perceptions and attitudes of people of the country on the desirability of becoming a Halal hub, followed by a discussion on the development of a national brand. When the contribution of its people is high, a country stands the best chance of achieving its goal. Finally, this study is one of the first to seek the perceptions of experts about vital requirements that a country should pay more attention to if it wishes to establish a global Halal hub.

  3. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ArjenAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  4. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  5. Vinna Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honěk, J.; Franců, J.; Mikuláš, Radek; Pešek, J.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Tomanová-Petrová, P.

    Prague: Czech Geological Survey, 2014, s. 223-241 ISBN 978-80-7075-862-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0653 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Tertiary basins * Czech Republic * Cenomanian and Tertiary lignite * geology * stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  6. The 1997 Los Angeles Basin Passive Seismic Experiment – a dense, urban seismic array to investigate basin lithospheric structures

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, Monica D.; Kerr, Bryan C.; Davis, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, 18 seismic stations were installed in the Los Angeles basin to record teleseismic, regional, and local earthquakes. The goals of the experiment were to quantify amplification of ground motion due to variations in sedimentary environments and subsurface structures, and to examine the tectonic extensional and compressional history of the Los Angeles basin and San Gabriel Mountains by tomograhic imaging. The linear array spanned the entire basin between Seal Beach to the south and Az...

  7. Canonical active Brownian motion

    OpenAIRE

    Gluck, Alexander; Huffel, Helmuth; Ilijic, Sasa

    2008-01-01

    Active Brownian motion is the complex motion of active Brownian particles. They are active in the sense that they can transform their internal energy into energy of motion and thus create complex motion patterns. Theories of active Brownian motion so far imposed couplings between the internal energy and the kinetic energy of the system. We investigate how this idea can be naturally taken further to include also couplings to the potential energy, which finally leads to a general theory of cano...

  8. Model for small-scale crustal heterogeneity in Los Angeles basin based on inversion of sonic log data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, W. H.; Olsen, K. B.

    2016-05-01

    High-frequency seismic ground motion (10+ Hz), as needed for earthquake engineering design purposes, is largely controlled by the metre-scale structure of the earth's crust. However, the state-of-the-art velocity models poorly resolve small-scale features of the subsurface velocity and density variation. We invert 35 sonic logs (up to 3000 m in depth) in and near Los Angeles basin, CA, to obtain a statistical description of the small-scale heterogeneities of the basin. Assuming a von Karman autocorrelation function, our analysis finds that Hurst numbers, ν, between 0.0 and 0.2, vertical correlation lengths, az, of 15-150 m and standard deviations of about 5 per cent characterize the variability in the borehole data. We report average parameters for Los Angeles basin of ν = 0.064 (0.058, 0.069) ± 0.01 (0.006, 0.012) and az = 54 (51.1, 57.6) ± 5.9 (1.79, 9.53) m with 95 per cent confidence intervals listed in the parentheses. Despite the large depth range of the logs, there is no significant variation of the statistical parameters with depth. Our analysis of 371 depth-averaged shear wave velocities in the upper 30 m, Vs30, provides only an upper bound of basin scale-length estimates due to the coarse sampling distance, with a Hurst number of about 0.3 and lateral correlation lengths, ax, of 5-10 km.

  9. Compressible motion fields

    OpenAIRE

    Ottaviano, Giuseppe; Kohli, Pushmeet

    2013-01-01

    Traditional video compression methods obtain a compact representation for image frames by computing coarse motion fields defined on patches of pixels called blocks, in order to compensate for the motion in the scene across frames. This piecewise constant approximation makes the motion field efficiently encodable, but it introduces block artifacts in the warped image frame. In this paper, we address the problem of estimating dense motion fields that, while accurately predicting one frame from ...

  10. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algo- rithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  11. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  12. Defense in depth used in the physical protection of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This PowerPoint presentation has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. The fundamental principle 'I': Defense in depth. - Defense in depth and the Design Basis Threat. - Defense in depth and a physical protection concept; 3. Defense in depth - safety functions; 4. Defense in depth - physical protection functions; 5. Defense in depth and consequence analyses; 6. Conclusions. By document referenced GOV/2001/41 of the 15th of August 2001, the Board of Governors of IAEA has acknowledged twelve fundamental principles of physical protection for nuclear materials and nuclear facilities. These principles will be integrated into the forthcoming revision of the International Convention on Physical Protection. One of these fundamental principles, the principle 'I', deals with defense in depth. The State's requirements for physical protection should reflect a concept of several layers and methods of protection (structural or other technical, personnel and organizational) that have to be overcome or circumvented by an adversary in order to achieve his objectives. The questions of how to accomplish this fundamental principle and how is the adversary defined and what are his objectives are discussed. As well defined, the Design Basis Threat (DBT) is the starting point for a defense in depth physical protection of a NPP. The following cases are exposed: - Demonstrators; - Malvolent demonstrators; - Insider; - Terrorist attack (outsider); - Co-operation outsider - insider; while the following terrorism objectives could be in view, namely, theft of nuclear material and/or sabotage (major release of radioactive material from the NPP). The defense in depth and the physical protection concept concern a general scope i.e. outer protected area, inner protected area, vital areas inside inner protected areas, and technical and personnel protection measures to accomplish the requirements, while, in particular, one protects a facility against single objectives of an

  13. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  14. Stochastic basins of attraction for metastable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdukova, Larissa; Zheng, Yayun; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Basin of attraction of a stable equilibrium point is an effective concept for stability analysis in deterministic systems; however, it does not contain information on the external perturbations that may affect it. Here we introduce the concept of stochastic basin of attraction (SBA) by incorporating a suitable probabilistic notion of basin. We define criteria for the size of the SBA based on the escape probability, which is one of the deterministic quantities that carry dynamical information and can be used to quantify dynamical behavior of the corresponding stochastic basin of attraction. SBA is an efficient tool to describe the metastable phenomena complementing the known exit time, escape probability, or relaxation time. Moreover, the geometric structure of SBA gives additional insight into the system's dynamical behavior, which is important for theoretical and practical reasons. This concept can be used not only in models with small noise intensity but also with noise whose amplitude is proportional or in general is a function of an order parameter. As an application of our main results, we analyze a three potential well system perturbed by two types of noise: Brownian motion and non-Gaussian α-stable Lévy motion. Our main conclusions are that the thermal fluctuations stabilize the metastable system with an asymmetric three-well potential but have the opposite effect for a symmetric one. For Lévy noise with larger jumps and lower jump frequencies ( α = 0.5 ) metastability is enhanced for both symmetric and asymmetric potentials.

  15. Thermoreflectance-based in-depth stress distribution measurement technique for single-crystal silicon structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Shugo; Kato, Takaaki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Namazu, Takahiro

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we suggest a new stress measurement technique based on the thermoreflectance method for the estimation of the in-depth stress distribution of fabricated silicon devices. Changing the modulated intensity of a heating laser beam of the frequency-domain thermoreflectance method (FD-TRM) can vary the estimation depth optionally. We developed a measurement system on the basis of the FD-TRM and demonstrated in-depth stress measurement for a single-crystal silicon (SCS) sample. The result measured at a modulation frequency of 3 MHz showed the phase distribution of the TR signal corresponding to the stress distribution determined by 632-nm-excited Raman spectroscopy. In addition, it was found that the phase distribution changed depending on the modulation frequency. The FD-TRM can be a powerful technique for estimating the in-depth stress distribution of silicon materials.

  16. Risk-informed assessment of defence in depth, LOCA example. Phase 1: Mapping of conditions and definition of quantitative measures for the defence in depth levels. Rev 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of defence-in-depth (DID) is fundamental to the safety of nuclear power plants. It calls for multiple successive methods or barriers against radioactive release to the environment. DID principle is partly reflected in a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), but not all of the DID levels are included in the model. In addition, events included in PSA are not typically labelled with DID information. PSA could however be a powerful tool to assess the status of various DID levels in an NPP. This work is a start of a development of the PSA-methodology towards an assessment of DID levels. It includes: 1) mapping of conditions that should be considered for the defence in depth levels, and 2) definition of quantitative measures that should be considered for the defence in depth levels. The work has been limited to loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) and DID levels 1 and 2, i.e., prevention of abnormal operation and failures and control of abnormal operation and detection of failures. Examples are chosen both from power operation LOCAs and LOCAs during cold shutdown. The methods that are used today in PSA are applicable for evaluating defence-in-depth levels 1 and 2. In the framework of these methodologies there are many different conditions and measures used. Failure data can be determined through: human reliability analysis (HRA), risk-informed in-service-inspection (RI-ISI) methodology, system reliability analysis and directly from plant specific failure data for the components. Many DID activities against LOCA are not explicitly modelled in typical PSA-studies. The risk importance of in-service-inspection is analysed and quantified in RI-ISI applications but so far results from RI-ISI have not been incorporated into PSA. Very few leakage detection systems are modelled in PSA-studies. Normally leakage detection systems that is part of the automatic actuation system are modelled while leakage detection systems in DID levels 1 and 2 typically are omitted. DID

  17. Inversion method for defects in depth evaluation and thermal wave imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕跃凯; 张淑仪; 周庆标

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid Newton-like iterative method and a regularization method are employed to perform the numerical simulations of the defects in depth evaluation and the thermal wave imaging for defects-included solid sample by analysis of the surface photo-thermal signals. A simple and effective data processing method is suggested to improve the reconstructed data. The results of the numerical calculation demonstrate that the algorithm presented in this paper is very effective, and can be used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of homogeneous materials with defects in depth included. It is also proved that the algorithm is stable even with noise disturbance.

  18. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the innovative concepts of small and medium sized reactors with fast neutron spectrum. (author)

  19. Western European Nuclear Regulators’ Association (WENRA) Views on Defence-in-Depth for New Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WENRA published in 2010 a statement on safety objectives for new NPPs. Based on these objectives, WENRA decided to develop common positions, compiled in a booklet (available on www.wenra.org), on selected key safety issues for the design of new NPPs. One position presents WENRA’s Defence-in-Depth approach, describing WENRA’s expectation that multiple failure events and core melt accidents are considered in the original design of new nuclear power plants; another position presents expectations on the independence between different levels of Defence-in-Depth. (author)

  20. Motion compensator for holographic motion picture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    When reference beam strikes target it undergoes Doppler shift dependent upon target velocity. To compensate, object beam is first reflected from rotating cylinder that revolves in direction opposite to target but at same speed. When beam strikes target it is returned to original frequency and is in phase with reference beam. Alternatively this motion compensator may act on reference beam.

  1. Cyclotron motion in graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Schliemann, John

    2008-01-01

    We investigate cyclotron motion in graphene monolayers considering both the full quantum dynamics and its semiclassical limit reached at high carrier energies. Effects of zitterbewegung due to the two dispersion branches of the spectrum dominate the irregular quantum motion at low energies and are obtained as a systematic correction to the semiclassical case. Recent experiments are shown to operate in the semiclassical regime.

  2. Neogene coupling between Kuqa Basin and Southern Tien Shan Orogen, Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guang-Yu; Chen, Han-Lin

    2004-08-01

    Based on the sedimentary and subsiding features of Kuqa foreland basin, this paper presents the following characteristics of Neogene coupling relationship between Kuqa Basin and Southern Tien Shan Orogen, Northwestern China: (1) The Southern Tien Shan Orogen underwent Neogene uplifting of 4 km in height and the Kuqa Basin underwent Neogene subsidence of 4-6 km in depth accordingly beginning in 25 Ma; (2) The Southern Tien Shan Orogen moved continuously toward the Kuqa Basin, with largest structural shortening rate of greater than 53.7%, and the north boundary of the Kuqa Basin retreated continuously southward accordingly since the Miocene; (3) There are two subsidence centers with high subsiding rates and large subsiding extent, located in the eastern and western Kuqa Basin respectively, with the subsiding maximizing in the deposition period of Kuqa Formation. PMID:15236483

  3. Neogene coupling between Kuqa Basin and Southern Tien Shan Orogen, Northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光玉; 陈汉林

    2004-01-01

    Based on the sedimentary and subsiding features of Kuqa foreland basin, this paper presents the following characteristics of Neogene coupling relationship between Kuqa Basin and Southern Tien Shan Orogen, Northwestern China:(l) The Southern Tien Shan Orogen underwent Neogene uplifting of 4 km in height and the Kuqa Basin underwent Neogene subsidence of 4-6 km in depth accordingly beginning in 25 Ma; (2) The Southern Tien Shan Orogen moved continuously toward the Kuqa Basin, with largest structural shortening rate of greater than 53.7%, and the north boundary of the Kuqa Basin retreated continuously southward accordingly since the Miocene; (3) There are two subsidence centers with high subsiding rates and large subsiding extent, located in the eastern and western Kuqa Basin respectively, with the subsiding maximizing in the deposition period of Kuqa Formation.

  4. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  5. Motion control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sabanovic, Asif

    2011-01-01

    "Presents a unified approach to the fundamental issues in motion control, starting from the basics and moving through single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom systems In Motion Control Systems, Šabanovic and Ohnishi present a unified approach to very diverse issues covered in motion control systems, offering know-how accumulated through work on very diverse problems into a comprehensive, integrated approach suitable for application in high demanding high-tech products. It covers material from single degree of freedom systems to complex multi-body non-redundant and redundant systems. The discussion of the main subject is based on original research results and will give treatment of the issues in motion control in the framework of the acceleration control method with disturbance rejection technique. This allows consistent unification of different issues in motion control ranging from simple trajectory tracking to topics related to haptics and bilateral control without and with delay in the measure...

  6. In-depth analysis of accidents : a pilot study and possibilities for further research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Egberink, H. Stoop, J. & Poppe, F.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently The Netherlands did not have a tradition in the field of in-depth research of road traffic accidents. Due to the high number and severity of road traffic accidents and in response to a particularly large motorway accident, it was considered to explore the possibility of using the resu

  7. Preliminary considerations for an in-depth investigation of thyroid disease in the CRHL beagle colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes preliminary results of evaluation of selected clinical laboratory data from hypothroid and euthyroid beagles as an initial step in an in-depth study of hypothyroidism in the CRHL colony. Both hyperchloesterolemia and a decreased hematocrit were present in dogs with clinically diagnosed or pathologically confirmed thyroid disease

  8. Embracing the Visual: Using Timelines with In-Depth Interviews on Substance Use and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    People typically seek treatment for addiction only when faced with a major crisis. Understanding the trajectory of substance use and treatment seeking may assist in identifying points for intervention. In this study I explored the use of visual methods with in-depth interviews to represent people's substance use, critical events, and treatment…

  9. Implementation of defence in depth for next generation light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication of this IAEA technical document represents the conclusion of a task, initiated in 1995, devoted to defence in depth in future reactors. It focuses mainly on the next generation of LWRs, although many general considerations may also apply to other types of reactors

  10. An Analysis of "In-Depth" Schools Conducted by Area Extension Agents in the Agricultural Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Clarence J.

    The Ohio Extension Service conducted "in-depth" schools on Dairy Genetics and Reproduction, Beef Cattle, Capital Management, and Fertilizer and Lime at area centers in Wooster, Defiance and Fremont, Washington Court House, and McConnellsville. Two thirds of the instructional staff were area agents; others were specialists, resident staff, research…

  11. In-depth improvement of soil at the base of roads on taliks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexey Y Burukin; Svyatoslav Ya Lutskiy; Konstantin N Khripkov

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a new technological solution to improve the safety of embankment bases on taliks during construction periods. The use of geotextile-sleeved sand columns and geogrids on low-temperature permafrost is investigated. The correlations between mechanical and temperature processes under this in-depth base improvement method are calculated.

  12. In-depth study of personality disorders in first-admission patients with substance use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Langås Anne-Marit; Malt Ulrik; Opjordsmoen Stein

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of comorbid personality disorders (PDs) in patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) is challenging due to symptom overlap, additional mental and physical disorders, and limitations of the assessment methods. Our in-depth study applied methods to overcome these difficulties. Method A complete catchment area sample of 61 consecutively admitted patients with SUDs, with no previo...

  13. OCT Motion Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Martin F.; Hornegger, Joachim

    From the introduction of time domain OCT [1] up to recent swept source systems, motion continues to be an issue in OCT imaging. In contrast to normal photography, an OCT image does not represent a single point in time. Instead, conventional OCT devices sequentially acquire one-dimensional data over a period of several seconds, capturing one beam of light at a time and recording both the intensity and delay of reflections along its path through an object. In combination with unavoidable object motion which occurs in many imaging contexts, the problem of motion artifacts lies in the very nature of OCT imaging. Motion artifacts degrade image quality and make quantitative measurements less reliable. Therefore, it is desirable to come up with techniques to measure and/or correct object motion during OCT acquisition. In this chapter, we describe the effect of motion on OCT data sets and give an overview on the state of the art in the field of retinal OCT motion correction.

  14. Inflation and Cyclotron Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Greensite, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We consider, in the context of a braneworld cosmology, the motion of the universe coupled to a four-form gauge field, with constant field strength, defined in higher dimensions. It is found, under rather general initial conditions, that in this situation there is a period of exponential inflation combined with cyclotron motion in the inflaton field space. The main effect of the cyclotron motion is that conditions on the flatness of the inflaton potential, which are typically necessary for exponential inflation, can be evaded. There are Landau levels associated with the four-form gauge field, and these correspond to quantum excitations of the inflaton field.

  15. Generalized compliant motion primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1994-08-01

    This invention relates to a general primitive for controlling a telerobot with a set of input parameters. The primitive includes a trajectory generator; a teleoperation sensor; a joint limit generator; a force setpoint generator; a dither function generator, which produces telerobot motion inputs in a common coordinate frame for simultaneous combination in sensor summers. Virtual return spring motion input is provided by a restoration spring subsystem. The novel features of this invention include use of a single general motion primitive at a remote site to permit the shared and supervisory control of the robot manipulator to perform tasks via a remotely transferred input parameter set.

  16. ROV Motion Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dukan, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about automatic motion control systems for remotely operated vehicles (ROV). The work has focused on topics within guidance and navigation. In addition, a motion control system has been developed, implemented, tested and used on two ROVs in sea trials.The main motivation for the work has been the need to automate ROV tasks in order to make the ROV a more efficient tool for exploring the ocean space. Many parts of a motion control system for a ROV is similar to that of surface v...

  17. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  18. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic ... ibandronate sodium, risedronate sodium TREATMENT Nonpharmacologic treatments for preventing and treating motion sickness can be effective with ...

  19. Ballistic motion planning

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Mylène; Laumond, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the motion planning problem for a jumping point-robot. Each jump consists in a ballistic motion linking two positions in contact with obstacle surfaces. A solution path is thus a sequence of parabola arcs. The originality of the approach is to consider non-sliding constraints at contact points: slipping avoidance is handled by constraining takeoff and landing velocity vectors to belong to 3D friction cones. Furthermore the magnitude of these velocities is bounded. A balli...

  20. Humanoid Motion Description Language

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ben; Chen, Yanbing

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we propose a description language for specifying motions for humanoid robots and for allowing humanoid robots to acquire motor skills. Locomotion greatly increases our ability to interact with our environments, which in turn increases our mental abilities. This principle also applies to humanoid robots. However, there are great difficulties to specify humanoid motions and to represent motor skills, which in most cases require four-dimensional space representations. We propose a ...

  1. Motion of a Pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Wynn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to derive and solve the equation of motion for a pendulum swinging at small angles in one dimension. The pendulum may be either a simple pendulum like a ball hanging from a string or a physical pendulum like a pendulum on a clock. For simplicity, we only considered small rotational angles so that the equation of motion becomes a harmonic oscillator.

  2. An in-depth longitudinal analysis of mixing patterns in a small scientific collaboration network

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Many investigations of scientific collaboration are based on statistical analyses of large networks constructed from bibliographic repositories. These investigations often rely on a wealth of bibliographic data, but very little or no other information about the individuals in the network, and thus, fail to illustrate the broader social and academic landscape in which collaboration takes place. In this article, we perform an in-depth longitudinal analysis of a fairly small network of scientific collaboration (N = 291) constructed from the bibliographic record of a research center involved in the development and application of sensor network technologies. We perform a preliminary analysis of selected structural properties of the network, computing its range, configuration and topology. We then support our preliminary statistical analysis with an in-depth temporal investigation of the assortativity mixing of these node characteristics: academic department, affiliation, position, and country of origin, unveiling ...

  3. Coping With Antigay Violence: In-Depth Interviews With Flemish LGB Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haese, Lies; Dewaele, Alexis; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    In view of the possible negative mental health outcomes of antigay violence and the limited understanding of how lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men and women cope with such experiences, this study examined the coping and social support-seeking strategies that victims adopt. In 2012, in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 Flemish sexual minority victims of violence. These in-depth interviews show that antigay violence can generate profound negative outcomes. However, the respondents employed a range of coping strategies, of which four were discerned: (1) avoidance strategies, (2) assertiveness and confrontation, (3) cognitive change, and (4) social support. Applying a diverse set of coping strategies and actively attaching meaning to negative experiences helps victims of antigay violence to overcome negative effects such as fear, embarrassment, or depressive feelings. However, the presence of a supportive network seems an important condition in order for these positive outcomes to occur. PMID:26010740

  4. Data for in-depth characterisation of the lamb meat proteome from longissimus lumborum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Yang Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This Data article provides Supplementary data related to the research article titled “In-depth characterisation of the lamb meat proteome from longissimus lumborum” by Yu et al. [1]. This research article reports the proteome catalogue of the 48 h post-mortem lamb longissimus lumborum. A list of 388 ovine-specific proteins were identified and characterised after separating the samples into sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and insoluble fractions, followed by an in-depth shotgun proteomic evaluation and bioinformatic analysis. The detailed list of identified proteins, the annotated MS/MS spectra corresponding to the proteins identified by a single peptide-spectrum match, the raw Gene Ontology annotation data and other miscellaneous files, as will be described below, were contained in this Data article. We hope the data presented here will contribute to the current knowledge of the global protein composition of lamb skeletal muscle/meat.

  5. POST-SOVIET ETHNIC CONFLICTS: THE ECONOMIC ASPECTS REQUIRE AN IN-DEPTH STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Leiashvili, Paata

    2007-01-01

    The author has proved beyond the shadow of a doubt that the economic factors provoking and aggravating the post-Soviet ethnic conflicts, and still preventing their settlement, should be studied in-depth. An interdisciplinary approach combining the findings of conflict resolution studies and economic theory can produce highly interesting results and help develop an economic policy that would help avoid future conflicts. Prof. Leiashvili concludes that ethnic conflicts should be regarded not on...

  6. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS: A COMPARISON BETWEEN FOCUS-GROUP AND IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharia Rodica Milena; Grundey Dainora;

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research methods tend to be used more and more in academic research. The cost for these methods is quite low and the results may be very interesting and useful for many fields of study. However, the utility and the characteristic of qualitative research methods differ from subject to subject and from discipline to discipline. This paper comes close to a comparison of two qualitative research methods (focus-group and in-depth interview) used in investigating the opinion of academic...

  7. Ethical issues in the use of in-depth interviews: literature review and discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Allmark, Peter; Boote, Jonathan; Chambers, E.; Clarke, Amanda; McDonnell, A.; Thompson, Andrew; Tod, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a literature review on the topic of ethical issues in in-depth interviews. The review returned three types of article: general discussion, issues in particular studies, and studies of interview-based research ethics. Whilst many of the issues discussed in these articles are generic to research ethics, such as confidentiality, they often had particular manifestations in this type of research. For example, privacy was a significant problem as interviews sometimes probe unexpe...

  8. Nutritional & Health Claimed Products Market Development in Serbia: Exploration of Findings Obtained from In Depth Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovic, Zaklina; Ognjanov, Galjina; Dragutinovic-Mitrovic, Radmila

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the most relevant findings obtained from in depth interviews with processors and retailers about the N&H claimed products market in Serbia. In our research we addressed the following set of topics: motivations and barriers to offer N&H claimed products at domestic market and perception of consumer demand toward N&H claimed products in Serbia. Significant differences between Serbia and other WBC are explored. Statistical testing includes nonparame...

  9. Using reflexivity to enhance in-depth interviewing skills for the clinician researcher

    OpenAIRE

    Hegarty Kelsey; Taft Angela; McNair Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary health care clinicians are being encouraged to undertake qualitative research, however the in-depth interviewing skills required are not as straightforward as might be first supposed. While there are benefits and certain skills that clinicians can bring to interview-based research, there are important new skills to develop. To date there has been neither discussion about these new skills, nor any preparatory guidelines for clinicians entering into interview-based r...

  10. Challenges and Needs of Chinese and Korean American Breast Cancer Survivors: In-Depth Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; Ma, Grace X.; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Oh, Youngsuk; Scully, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and the number of breast cancer survivors have been rapidly increasing among Chinese and Korean women in the United States. However, few data are available regarding quality of life in Asian American breast cancer survivors. This qualitative study aims to describe Asian American women’s perceptions of quality of life and their breast cancer experiences. In-depth interviews with four Chinese and five Korean American breast cancer survivors and three oncologists were con...

  11. Motivating and Retaining Employees in the Chinese Retail Industry: In-depth Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Hang

    2008-01-01

    Motivating and retaining the key employees have been the major issues facing by many organizations in China today. The study attempts to investigate the Chinese retail sector for its related human resource management problems on employee motivation and retention. To accomplish this objective, an in-depth case study of one large retail company Golden HuaLian has been conducted. The key research interest has been placed on what motivate the retail employees, what might cause them to lea...

  12. An in-depth analysis of pharmaceutical regulation in the Republic of Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrario, Alessandra; Sautenkova, Nina; Bezverhni, Zinaida; Seicas, Rita; Habicht, Jarno; Kanavos, Panos; Safta, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regulation of the pharmaceutical system is a crucial, yet often neglected, component in ensuring access to safe and effective medicines. The aim of this study was to provide an in-depth analysis of the existing pharmaceutical regulation, including recent changes, in the Republic of Moldova. Methods Data from field work conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) together with a review of policy documents and quantitative secondary data analysis was used to achieve th...

  13. Vividness and Control of Mental Imagery and the Components of In-Depth Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fabello, María José; Campos, Alfredo; Meana, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of control and vividness of mental imagery on performance in several components of in-depth drawing in a sample of fine arts undergraduates. The sample consisted of 56 second-year undergraduates (44 women and 12 men, mean age = 21.18 years) from the Fine Arts Faculty of Vigo University,…

  14. The Perception of Symmetry in Depth: Effect of Symmetry Plane Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Farell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The visual system is sensitive to symmetries in the frontoparallel plane, and bilateral symmetry about a vertical axis has a particular salience. However, these symmetries represent only a subset of the symmetries realizable in three-dimensional space. The retinal image symmetries formed when viewing natural objects are typically the projections of three-dimensional objects—animals, for example—that have a symmetry in depth. To characterize human sensitivity to depth symmetry, experiments measured observers’ ability to discriminate stereo displays that were symmetrically distributed in depth and those that were asymmetrically distributed. Disparity values were distributed about one of four planes passing through the z-axis and differing in frontoparallel orientation. Asymmetrical patterns were generated by perturbing one of these disparities. Symmetrical-asymmetrical discrimination thresholds were lowest for symmetry about the vertical plane and highest for the horizontal plane. Thresholds for discriminating repetitions and non-repetitions of depth values did not differ across the four planes, whereas discriminations for depth gradients differed from both the symmetry and repetition cases. The heightened sensitivity to symmetry in depth about the vertical plane is a 3-D analog of 2-D mirror-image symmetry performance and could be its source.

  15. Permian Basin location recommendation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candidate study areas are screened from the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basin areas using data obtained from studies to date and criteria and specifications that consider: rock geometry; rock characteristics; human intrusion potential; surface characteristics; and environmental and socioeconomic conditions. Two preferred locations are recommended from among these areas for additional characterization to identify potential National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) salt repository sites. One location, in northeastern Deaf Smith County and southeastern Oldham County, is underlain by two salt units that meet the adopted screening specifications. The other location, in northcentral Swisher County, is underlain by one salt unit that meets the adopted screening specifications. Both locations have several favorable features, relative to surrounding areas, and no obviously undesirable characteristics. Both lie wholly on the Southern High Plains surface, are in relatively sparsely populated areas, contain no unique land use conflicts, and comprise large enough geographic areas to provide flexibility in site selection. Data gathered to date indicate that these locations contain salt units sufficient in thickness and in depth for the safe construction and operation of the underground facilities under consideration. 93 references, 34 figures, 6 tables

  16. BasinVis 1.0: A MATLAB®-based program for sedimentary basin subsidence analysis and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Novotny, Johannes; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Stratigraphic and structural mapping is important to understand the internal structure of sedimentary basins. Subsidence analysis provides significant insights for basin evolution. We designed a new software package to process and visualize stratigraphic setting and subsidence evolution of sedimentary basins from well data. BasinVis 1.0 is implemented in MATLAB®, a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment, and employs two numerical methods: interpolation and subsidence analysis. Five different interpolation methods (linear, natural, cubic spline, Kriging, and thin-plate spline) are provided in this program for surface modeling. The subsidence analysis consists of decompaction and backstripping techniques. BasinVis 1.0 incorporates five main processing steps; (1) setup (study area and stratigraphic units), (2) loading well data, (3) stratigraphic setting visualization, (4) subsidence parameter input, and (5) subsidence analysis and visualization. For in-depth analysis, our software provides cross-section and dip-slip fault backstripping tools. The graphical user interface guides users through the workflow and provides tools to analyze and export the results. Interpolation and subsidence results are cached to minimize redundant computations and improve the interactivity of the program. All 2D and 3D visualizations are created by using MATLAB plotting functions, which enables users to fine-tune the results using the full range of available plot options in MATLAB. We demonstrate all functions in a case study of Miocene sediment in the central Vienna Basin.

  17. Experimental Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, G. F. C.

    2014-05-01

    1. Elementary theory of harmonic motion; 2. Experimental work in harmonic motion; Experiment 1. Determination of g by a simple pendulum; Experiment 2. Harmonic motion of a body suspended by a spring; Experiment 3. Harmonic motion of a rigid body suspended by a torsion wire; Experiment 4. Study of a system with variable moment of inertia; Experiment 5. Dynamical determination of ratio of couple to twist for a torsion wire; Experiment 6. Comparison of the moments of inertia of two bodies; Experiment 7. Experiment with a pair of inertia bars; Experiment 8. Determination of the moment of inertia of a rigid pendulum; Experiment 9. Experiment on a pendulum with variable moment of inertia; Experiment 10. Determination of g by a rigid pendulum; Experiment 11. Pendulum on a yielding support; Experiment 12. Determination of the radius of curvature of a concave mirror by the oscillations of a sphere rolling in it; Experiment 13. Determination of g by the oscillations of a rod rolling on a cylinder; Experiment 14. Study of a vibrating system with two degrees of freedom; Note 1. On the vibration of a body suspended from a light spring; Note 2. Periodic time of a pendulum vibrating through a finite arc; Note 3. Periodic time for finite motion; Note 4. Periodic times of a pendulum with two degrees of freedom.

  18. The Particle--Motion Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demana, Franklin; Waits, Bert K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses solutions to real-world linear particle-motion problems using graphing calculators to simulate the motion and traditional analytic methods of calculus. Applications include (1) changing circular or curvilinear motion into linear motion and (2) linear particle accelerators in physics. (MDH)

  19. Eddy development and motion in the Caribbean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Carlos Alberto; Barton, Eric D.

    2000-01-01

    Eddy motion in the Caribbean Sea is described on the basis of sea level anomalies deduced from ERS‐1 altimetry data corrected with TOPEX/Poseidon data during the 15 months of the Exact Repeat Mission (October 1992 to December 1993). Both cyclones and anticyclones were observed in the satellite data as anomalies originating in the Venezuelan Basin or entering the Caribbean through the Antillean passages, mainly the St. Lucia Channel, Anegada Passage, and north of Trinidad. The diameter of the ...

  20. Method through motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    context, I have been conducting a practice-led research project. Central to the project is construction of a design model describing sets of procedures, concepts and terminology relevant for design and studies of motion graphics in spatial contexts. The focus of this paper is the role of model......Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... construction as a support to working systematically practice-led research project. The design model is being developed through design laboratories and workshops with students and professionals who provide feedback that lead to incremental improvements. Working with this model construction-as-method reveals...

  1. Muscle Motion Solenoid Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Shuji

    It is one of our dreams to mechanically recover the lost body for damaged humans. Realistic humanoid robots composed of such machines require muscle motion actuators controlled by all pulling actions. Particularly, antagonistic pairs of bi-articular muscles are very important in animal's motions. A system of actuators is proposed using the electromagnetic force of the solenoids with the abilities of the stroke length over 10 cm and the strength about 20 N, which are needed to move the real human arm. The devised actuators are based on developments of recent modern electro-magnetic materials, where old time materials can not give such possibility. Composite actuators are controlled by a high ability computer and software making genuine motions.

  2. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  3. Leap Motion development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegelmock, Mischa

    2013-01-01

    This book is a fast-paced guide with practical examples that aims to help you understand and master the Leap Motion SDK.This book is for developers who are either involved in game development or who are looking to utilize Leap Motion technology in order to create brand new user interaction experiences to distinguish their products from the mass market. You should be comfortable with high-level languages and object-oriented development concepts in order to get the most out of this book.

  4. Hand in motion reveals mind in motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JonathanFreeman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have measured hand movements en route to choices on a screen to understand the dynamics of a broad range of psychological processes. We review this growing body of research and explain how manual action exposes the real-time unfolding of underlying cognitive processing. We describe how simple hand motions may be used to continuously index participants’ tentative commitments to different choice alternatives during the evolution of a behavioral response. As such, hand-tracking can provide unusually high-fidelity, real-time motor traces of the mind. These motor traces cast novel theoretical and empirical light onto a wide range of phenomena and serve as a potential bridge between far-reaching areas of psychological science—from language, to high-level cognition and learning, to social cognitive processes.

  5. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  6. Teaching Beginning Undergraduates How to Do an In-Depth Interview: A Teaching Note with 12 Handy Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey-Etten, Victoria; Sharp, Shane

    2010-01-01

    In-depth interviewing is now a common method in sociology. Although there are many potential benefits of in-depth interviewing assignments for both majors and nonmajors, few have developed tools one can use to teach this method at the first and second year, especially in substantive classes where instruction in interviewing is constrained by time…

  7. 76 FR 6637 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Defense-in-Depth Is a Smart Investment for Cyber Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ...-Depth strategy for cyber security. The workshop will be held March 22, 2011 in the Washington DC area... protection. The Defense-in-Depth strategy was designed to provide multiple layers of security mechanisms.... \\1\\ Defense-in-Depth: A practical strategy for achieving Information Assurance in today's...

  8. In-Depth Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in in-depth inorganic chemistry courses at the postsecondary level; an in-depth course is defined by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training as a course that integrates and covers topics that were introduced in introductory and foundation…

  9. The Lunar Crust: Global Structure and Signature of Major Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Lemoine, Frank G.

    1996-01-01

    New lunar gravity and topography data from the Clementine Mission provide a global Bouguer anomaly map corrected for the gravitational attraction of mare fill in mascon basins. Most of the gravity signal remaining after corrections for the attraction of topography and mare fill can be attributed to variations in depth to the lunar Moho and therefore crustal thickness. The large range of global crustal thickness (approx. 20-120 km) is indicative of major spatial variations in melting of the lunar exterior and/or significant impact-related redistribution. The 6l-km average crustal thickness, constrained by a depth-to-Moho measured during the Apollo 12 and 14 missions, is preferentially distributed toward the farside, accounting for much of the offset in center-of-figure from the center-of-mass. While the average farside thickness is 12 km greater than the nearside, the distribution is nonuniform, with dramatic thinning beneath the farside, South Pole-Aitken basin. With the global crustal thickness map as a constraint, regional inversions of gravity and topography resolve the crustal structure of major mascon basins to half wavelengths of 150 km. In order to yield crustal thickness maps with the maximum horizontal resolution permitted by the data, the downward continuation of the Bouguer gravity is stabilized by a three- dimensional, minimum-slope and curvature algorithm. Both mare and non-mare basins are characterized by a central upwarped moho that is surrounded by rings of thickened crust lying mainly within the basin rims. The inferred relief at this density interface suggests a deep structural component to the surficial features of multiring lunar impact basins. For large (greater than 300 km diameter) basins, moho relief appears uncorrelated with diameter, but is negatively correlated with basin age. In several cases, it appears that the multiring structures were out of isostatic equilibrium prior to mare emplacement, suggesting that the lithosphere was strong

  10. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  11. K Basin safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  12. The Decision-Oriented Interview (DOI) as an in-depth selection interview

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Westhoff

    2014-01-01

    The Decision-Oriented Interview (DOI) as an in-depth selection interview technique is presented. The core idea of the Decision-Oriented Interview is described. Questions in a DOI are depicted in detail and then the interview guide for the DOI is characterized with its functions and features. A typical part of an interview guide for the description of behavior in a performance-differentiating situation illustrates the decision-oriented approach. In the outlook it is shown that the DOI rules ca...

  13. Reinforcement of Defence-in-Depth: Modification Practice After the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident revealed the importance and demand for further reinforcement of defence in- depth. CGN (China General Nuclear Power Group) has made a complete safety assessment on CPR1000 nuclear power plants under construction in China. Dozens of modifications have been implemented based on the assessment findings and lessons learned from Fukushima nuclear accident, taking into account of PSA (Probabilistic Safety Analysis) and comparison analysis of the latest regulations and standards. These modifications help to enhance nuclear safety significantly for nuclear power plants under construction in China, and provide helpful modification guidance for nuclear power plants in operation of the same type. (author)

  14. Nuclear motion is classical

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    The notion from ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations that nuclear motion is best described by classical Newton dynamics instead of the time-dependent Schr{\\"o}dinger equation is substantiated. In principle a single experiment should bring clarity. Caution is however necessary, as temperature dependent effects must be eliminated when trying to determine the existence of a zero-point energy.

  15. Noncommutative Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Willien O; Souza, Andre M C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the Brownian motion of a particle in a two-dimensional noncommutative (NC) space. Using the standard NC algebra embodied by the sympletic Weyl-Moyal formalism we find that noncommutativity induces a non-vanishing correlation between both coordinates at different times. The effect itself stands as a signature of spatial noncommutativity and offers further alternatives to experimentally detect the phenomena.

  16. Motion of magnetotactic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic moments for different magnetotactic microorganisms are obtained by electron microscopy analyses and studies of motion by optical microscopy. The results are analysed in terms of a model due to C.Bean. The considerations presented suggest that magnetotaxy is an efficient mechanism for orientation only if the time for reorientation is smaller than the cycles of environmental perturbations. (Author)

  17. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  18. Markerless Motion Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis; Czarowicz, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the Associated Technologies aspect of the ICDVRAT event. Two industry leading markerless motion capture systems are examined that offer advancement in the field of rehabilitation. Residing at each end of the cost continuum, technical differences such as 3D versus 360...

  19. Planets in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    All the planets in the solar system revolve around the Sun in the same direction, clockwise when viewed from above the North Pole. This is referred to as direct motion. From the perspective on the Earth's surface, the planets travel east across the sky in relation to the background of stars. The Sun also moves eastward daily, but this is an…

  20. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  1. A world in motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boynton, J.A. [SAE, Warrendale, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A World in Motion is a physical science curriculum supplement for grades four, five, and six which responds to the need to promote and teach sound science and mathematics concepts. Using the A World in Motion kits, teachers work in partnership with practicing engineer or scientists volunteers to provide students with fun, exciting, and relevant hands-on science and math experiences. During the A World in Motion experience, students work together in {open_quotes}Engineering Design Teams{close_quotes} exploring physics concepts through a series of activities. Each student is assigned a role as either a facilities engineer, development engineer, test engineer, or project engineer and is given responsibilities paralleling those of engineers in industry. The program culminates in a {open_quotes}Design Review{close_quotes} where students can communicate their results, demonstrate their designs, and receive recognition for their efforts. They are given a chance to take on responsibility and build self-esteem. Since January 1991, over 12,000 volunteers engineers have been involved with the program, with a distribution of 20,000 A World in Motion kit throughout the U.S. and Canada.

  2. Introducing Simple Harmonic Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, John

    2002-01-01

    Explains the origin and significance of harmonic motion which is an important topic that has wide application in the world. Describes the phenomenon by using an auxiliary circle to help illustrate the key relationships between acceleration, displacement, time, velocity, and phase. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  3. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  4. Motion dominance in binocular rivalry depends on extraretinal motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Ryohei; Motoyoshi, Isamu; Sato, Takao

    2016-01-01

    In binocular rivalry, moving stimulus is dominant over stationary stimulus. This is called motion dominance. The motion here is usually a motion defined on the retina (retinal motion). However, motion can be defined in several different coordinates. It can be defined with respect to objects in the background (object-based motion) or to observers' head or body (spatiotopic motion), as well as to the retinal coordinate. In this study, we examined the role of motions defined by these three coordinates. A dichoptic pair of gratings was presented to create a binocular rivalry, one of which was moving and the other stationary. A fixation point and a reference background were either moving with the grating or stationary, depending on the condition. Different combinations of the three types of motions were created by having the observer track the fixation point or the background when they are moving. It was found that the retinal motion does not necessarily yield motion dominance, and that the motion dominance is determined by the combination of motions defined by different coordinate systems. PMID:26943347

  5. Wada basin boundaries and basin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, H.E.; Yorke, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In dynamical systems examples are common in which two or more attractors coexist, and in such cases the basin boundary is nonempty. We consider a two-dimensional diffeomorphism F (that is, F is an invertible map and both F and its inverse are differentiable with continuous derivatives), which has at

  6. An in-depth longitudinal analysis of mixing patterns in a small scientific collaboration network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pepe, Alberto [UCLA

    2009-01-01

    Many investigations of scientific collaboration are based on large-scale statistical analyses of networks constructed from bibliographic repositories. These investigations often rely on a wealth of bibliographic data, but very little or no other information about the individuals in the network, and thus, fail to illustate the broader social and academic landscape in which collaboration takes place. In this article, we perform an in-depth longitudinal analysis of a small-scale network of scientific collaboration (N = 291) constructed from the bibliographic record of a research center involved in the development and application of sensor network technologies. We perform a preliminary analysis of selected structural properties of the network, computing its range, configuration and topology. We then support our preliminary statistical analysis with an in-depth temporal investigation of the assortativity mixing of these node characteristics: academic department, affiliation, position, and country of origin of the individuals in the network. Our qualitative analysis of mixing patterns offers clues as to the nature of the scientific community being modeled in relation to its organizational, disciplinary, institutional, and international arrangements of collaboration.

  7. Collaboration in sensor network research: an in-depth longitudinal analysis of assortative mixing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Alberto; Rodriguez, Marko A

    2010-09-01

    Many investigations of scientific collaboration are based on statistical analyses of large networks constructed from bibliographic repositories. These investigations often rely on a wealth of bibliographic data, but very little or no other information about the individuals in the network, and thus, fail to illustrate the broader social and academic landscape in which collaboration takes place. In this article, we perform an in-depth longitudinal analysis of a relatively small network of scientific collaboration (N = 291) constructed from the bibliographic record of a research centerin the development and application of wireless and sensor network technologies. We perform a preliminary analysis of selected structural properties of the network, computing its range, configuration and topology. We then support our preliminary statistical analysis with an in-depth temporal investigation of the assortative mixing of selected node characteristics, unveiling the researchers' propensity to collaborate preferentially with others with a similar academic profile. Our qualitative analysis of mixing patterns offers clues as to the nature of the scientific community being modeled in relation to its organizational, disciplinary, institutional, and international arrangements of collaboration. PMID:20700373

  8. In-depth micro-spectrochemical analysis of archaeological Egyptian pottery shards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Old Egyptian pottery samples have been in-depth microchemically analyzed using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Samples from two different ancient Islamic eras, Mamluk (1250-1517 AD), Fatimid (969-1169 AD) in addition to samples from the Roman period (30 BC-395 AD) were investigated. LIBS provided the analytical data necessary to study in micrometric steps the depth profiling of various elements in each sample. Common elements such as silicon, calcium, and aluminum relevant to the originally manufactured and processed clay, showed up in all the investigated samples. EDX and XRD techniques that have been used in the present work provided important chemical insight about the structure of the samples. The obtained analytical results demonstrated the possibility of using LIBS technique in performing in situ spectrochemical analysis of archaeological pottery. This leads to fast in-depth spatial characterization of the samples in the micron range with nearly invisible surface destructive effects. There is no doubt that this can help in restoration and conservation of such precious objects.

  9. CNS Orientations, Safety Objectives and Implementation of the Defence in Depth Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 6th Review Meeting of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) is convened in Vienna next year for two weeks from Monday March 24th to Friday April 4th 2014. The consequences and the lessons learnt from the accident that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant will be a major issue. The 2nd Extraordinary Meeting of the CNS in August 2012 was totally devoted to the Fukushima Daiichi accident. One of its main conclusions was Conclusion 17 included in the summary report which says: ''Nuclear power plants should be designed, constructed and operated with the objectives of preventing accidents and, should an accident occur, mitigating its effects and avoiding off-site contamination. The Contracting Parties also noted that regulatory authorities should ensure that these objectives are applied in order to identify and implement appropriate safety improvements at existing plants''. The wording of the sentences of Conclusion 17 dedicated, the first one to new built reactors, the second one to existing plants, can be improved and clarified. But obviously the issue of the off-site consequences of an accident is fundamental. So the in-depth question comes: what can and should be done to achieve these safety objectives? And in particular how to improve the definition and then the implementation of the Defence in Depth Concept? From my point of view, this is clearly the main issue of this Conference. (author)

  10. In-depth characterisation of the lamb meat proteome from longissimus lumborum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Yang Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lamb is one of the major red meats consumed globally, both as a key component in the diet of some countries, and as a niche meat product in others. Despite this relatively wide consumption, an in-depth description of the global protein composition of lamb has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the proteome of the 48 h post-mortem lamb longissimus lumborum through separation of the samples into sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and insoluble fractions, followed by an in-depth shotgun proteomic evaluation and bioinformatic analysis. As a result, 388 ovine-specific proteins were identified and characterised. The 207 proteins found in the sarcoplasmic fraction were dominated by glycolytic enzymes and mitochondrial proteins. This fraction also contained several sarcomeric proteins, e.g., myosin light chains and titin. Some of them might be the degradation products from the post-mortem proteolysis. Actin, myosin and tropomyosin were abundant in the myofibrillar fraction while nebulin and titin were also present. Collagen type I, III and IV were found in the insoluble fraction but there were also sequences from myosin and titin. The present study also confirms the existence of at least 300 predicted protein sequences obtained from the latest issue of the sheep genome (version 3 with high confidence.

  11. Reserves in western basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W. [Scotia Group, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  12. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...... basins when the direct transitions between them are “energetically favorable”. Edge weights endcode the corresponding saddle heights and thus measure the difficulties of these favorable transitions. BHGs can be approximated accurately and efficiently for RNA molecules well beyond the length range...

  13. Caribbean tectonics and relative plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, K.; Dewey, J. F.; Cooper, C.; Mann, P.; Pindell, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    During the last century, three different ways of interpreting the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean have been proposed, taking into account the Bailey Willis School of a permanent pre-Jurassic deep sea basin, the Edward Suess School of a subsided continental terrain, and the Alfred Wegener School of continental separation. The present investigation is concerned with an outline of an interpretation which follows that of Pindell and Dewey (1982). An attempt is made to point out ways in which the advanced hypotheses can be tested. The fit of Africa, North America, and South America is considered along with aspects of relative motion between North and South America since the early Jurasic. Attention is given to a framework for reconstructing Caribbean plate evolution, the evolution of the Caribbean, the plate boundary zones of the northern and southern Caribbean, and the active deformation of the Caribbean plate.

  14. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  15. Theory of coorbital motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopliv, Alexander Stephen

    The gravitational interaction of two small coorbital satellites in nearly identical orbits about a large central mass is investigated. This involves the study of the general three-body problem as well as the restricted three-body problem. Since the eccentricity is small, dynamical models are developed by expanding the equations of motion in rotating polar coordinates about a circular orbit. For numerical investigation, a combination of Hill's variables and equinoctial variables is used to find series solutions expanded in time. From these series solutions, highly accurate averaged equations are determined. To study the stability of the motion, periodic orbits are generated and the linearized stability is found from the eigenvalues of the state transition matrix.

  16. MOTION IN PAINTING

    OpenAIRE

    AKÇAOĞLU, ZELİHA

    2010-01-01

    Starting from primitive society until nowadays, the paint art, which shows the life with thoughts and fantasies, has awakened interest of people. Those, who were interested in it (paint art) were tryin to catch this elusive moment which is exposed in picture or paint. This short period of time called "moment"' is really important in paint art. Painter, who transfers the moment into a picture, at the same time tryin to transfer the motion. So far, all the light and regular mo...

  17. Motional Casimir force

    OpenAIRE

    Jaekel, Marc-Thierry; Reynaud, Serge

    2001-01-01

    We study the situation where two point like mirrors are placed in the vacuum state of a scalar field in a two-dimensional spacetime. Describing the scattering upon the mirrors by transmittivity and reflectivity functions obeying unitarity, causality and high frequency transparency conditions, we compute the fluctuations of the Casimir forces exerted upon the two motionless mirrors. We use the linear response theory to derive the motional forces exerted upon one mirror when it moves or when th...

  18. Motion of Confined Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David E

    2016-01-01

    We carry out numerical evaluations of the motion of classical particles in Minkowski Space $\\mathbb{M}^{4}$ which are confined to the inside of a bag. In particular, we analyze the structure of the paths evolving from the breaking of the dilatation symmetry, the conformal symmetry and the combination of both together. The confining forces arise directly from the corresponding nonconserved currents. We demonstrate in our evaluations that these particles under certain initial conditions move toward the interior of the bag.

  19. On the "in-depth design"%谈"深入设计"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇

    2009-01-01

    "深入设计"是针对建筑师一种特定的工作方法及流程所提出的概念;如何把设计工作做细致,保证建筑完成品质,尽量完美的呈现方案构思是一个至关重要的问题;"深入设计"工作应该由独立的设计团队来组织完成;"深入设计"工作模式把原来包含在传统的方案、初步、施工图设计中的一些与建筑完成品效果紧密相连的要素精简了出来,在由方案进入初步设计后开始发力,聚零为整,形成一条主线进行集中控制,高效而有力地保证了建筑,特别是其完成面能够沿着正确的、理想的轨迹实现进展,从而使建筑最终品质得以保证,最初设想得以实现.%"In-depth design"is the architect for the work of a particular method and put forward the concept of process; how to do detailed design work to ensure the completion of construction quality, as far as possible the idea of a perfect presentation of the program is a critical issue; "in-depth design "work should be undertaken by an independent team to organize the completion of the design;" in-depth design "mode of the original program included in the traditional preliminary, construction design and construction of some finished goods closely linked to elements of the effect of streamlining out by the program after the preliminary design entering force, poly zero for the whole, the main line to form a centralized control to ensure efficient and effective building, in particular, its surface can be completed along the right track to achieve the desired progress, so that ultimately the quality of construction to guarantee that the original can be achieved.

  20. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  1. Early Mesozoic basin aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Early Mesozoic basin aquifers in the states of Massachusettes, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland,...

  2. Mitigation : Closed Basin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The upcoming meeting on waterfowl mitigation for the Closed Basin Project will have several people talk about possible changes to the waterfowl mitigation program....

  3. Tulare Basin protection plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tulare Basin Protection Plan has been initiated by The Nature Conservancy to elucidate the problems and opportunities of natural diversity protection....

  4. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  5. Ground-motion modeling of Hayward fault scenario earthquakes, part II: Simulation of long-period and broadband ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Graves, Robert W.; Rodgers, Arthur; Brocher, Thomas M.; Simpson, Robert W.; Dreger, Douglas; Petersson, N. Anders; Larsen, Shawn C.; Ma, Shuo; Jachens, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    We simulate long-period (T>1.0–2.0 s) and broadband (T>0.1 s) ground motions for 39 scenario earthquakes (Mw 6.7–7.2) involving the Hayward, Calaveras, and Rodgers Creek faults. For rupture on the Hayward fault, we consider the effects of creep on coseismic slip using two different approaches, both of which reduce the ground motions, compared with neglecting the influence of creep. Nevertheless, the scenario earthquakes generate strong shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area, with about 50% of the urban area experiencing modified Mercalli intensity VII or greater for the magnitude 7.0 scenario events. Long-period simulations of the 2007 Mw 4.18 Oakland earthquake and the 2007 Mw 5.45 Alum Rock earthquake show that the U.S. Geological Survey’s Bay Area Velocity Model version 08.3.0 permits simulation of the amplitude and duration of shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area for Hayward fault earthquakes, with the greatest accuracy in the Santa Clara Valley (San Jose area). The ground motions for the suite of scenarios exhibit a strong sensitivity to the rupture length (or magnitude), hypocenter (or rupture directivity), and slip distribution. The ground motions display a much weaker sensitivity to the rise time and rupture speed. Peak velocities, peak accelerations, and spectral accelerations from the synthetic broadband ground motions are, on average, slightly higher than the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) ground-motion prediction equations. We attribute much of this difference to the seismic velocity structure in the San Francisco Bay area and how the NGA models account for basin amplification; the NGA relations may underpredict amplification in shallow sedimentary basins. The simulations also suggest that the Spudich and Chiou (2008) directivity corrections to the NGA relations could be improved by increasing the areal extent of rupture directivity with period.

  6. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  7. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  8. The Ebro river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria

    2011-01-01

    River basins worldwide are under pressure from economic activities. In Europe, the two main factors hindering the achievement of good chemical and ecological status of European river basins are pollution, mainly coming from agriculture, and hydromorphology (e.g. for navigation, hydroelectricity and flood control). The economic activities affect the chemical and ecological status of rivers, lakes and groundwater and deplete available soil, sediments and water resources. The w...

  9. Configuration of Risk Monitor System by PLant Defense-In.Depth Monitor and Relability Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Lind, Morten; Yang, Ming;

    2012-01-01

    A new method of risk monitor system of a nuclear power plant has been proposed from the aspect by what degree of safety functions incorporated in the plant system is maintained by multiple barriers of defense-in-depth (DiD). Wherein, the central idea is plant DiD risk monitor and reliability...... monitor derived from the four aspects of (i) design principle of nuclear safety to realize DiD concept, (ii) definition of risk and risk to be monitored, (iii) severe accident phenomena as major risk, (iv) scheme of risk ranking, and (v) dynamic risk display. In this paper, the overall frame of the...... proposed frame on risk monitor system is summarized and the detailed discussion is made on the definitions of major terminologies of risk, risk ranking, anatomy of fault occurrence, two-layer configuration of risk monitor, how to configure individual elements of plant DiD risk monitor and its example...

  10. Off-Line High-pH Reversed-Phase Fractionation for In-Depth Phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batth, Tanveer S; Francavilla, Chiara; Olsen, Jesper V

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification (PTM) involved in embryonic development, adult homeostasis, and disease. Over the past decade, several advances have been made in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based technologies to identify...... thousands of phosphorylation sites. However, in-depth phosphoproteomics often require off-line enrichment and fractionation techniques. In this study, we provide a detailed analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of phosphopeptides, which have been fractionated by off-line high-pH chromatography (Hp...... 14 HpH fractions, we routinely identified over 30 000 unique phosphopeptide variants, which is more than twice the number of that obtained from SCX fractionation. HpH chromatography displayed an exceptional ability to fractionate singly phosphorylated peptides, with minor benefits for doubly...

  11. An In-depth Study of Sparse Codes on Abnormality Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor;

    2016-01-01

    Sparse representation has been applied successfully in abnormal event detection, in which the baseline is to learn a dictionary accompanied by sparse codes. While much emphasis is put on discriminative dictionary construction, there are no comparative studies of sparse codes regarding abnormality...... detection. We present an in-depth study of two types of sparse codes solutions - greedy algorithms and convex L1-norm solutions - and their impact on abnormal- ity detection performance. We also propose our framework of combining sparse codes with different detection methods. Our comparative experiments are...... carried out from various angles to better understand the applicability of sparse codes, including computation time, reconstruction error, sparsity, detection accuracy, and their performance combining various detection methods. The experiment results show that combining OMP codes with maximum coordinate...

  12. Defence in Depth by Design for the Advanced GIII NPP in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design of the advanced nuclear power plant ACP1000 in China that keeps the principle of defence in depth. To enhance the safety of the new generation NPPs, passive and active engineering safety features are used. The reactor will be kept safe under design basis accidents by using active engineering safety features, such as the medium and low pressure safety injection systems, and the emergency feedwater system. Under beyond DBAs, the passive safety systems will be actuated to keep removing residual heat for more than 72 hours, and to keep the core melt retained and cooled in the vessel. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, there are six main design enhancements in ACP1000 to meet the demands of the China authorities. (author)

  13. TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE EFFECT OF SECONDARY FLOWS IN DEPTH AVERAGED MORPHODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas MALCHEREK

    2001-01-01

    Due to centrifugal forces in a bend secondary currents perpendicular to the main flow are generated.Because they can be the reason for important bed forming processes such as meandering they have to be taken into account in morphodynamic simulations. Their influence on the bed shear stress is proportional to the ratio of water depth and curve radius. The latter one is a curve parameter and is not defined in 2D digital terrain models. This paper presents a new formulation for the bed shear stress which takes into account the influence of secondary currents in depth averaged simulations without using the curve radius.The new formulation is applied to a morphodynamic model of the Weser estuary located in Northern Germany. Its capability to simulate the deflection of the bed shear stress in bends is shown.Because of the smoothness of the curves in the Weser no significant differences in the bed evolutioncan be seen in this case.

  14. Automated Array Assembly Task In-depth Study of Silicon Wafer Surface Texturizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Rhee, S. S.

    1979-01-01

    Several aspects of silicon wafer surface texturizing were studied. A low cost cleaning method that utilizes recycled Freon in an ultrasonic vapor degreaser to remove organic and inorganic contaminants from the surface of silicon wafers as received from silicon suppliers was investigated. The use of clean dry air and high throughout wafer batch drying techniques was shown to lower the cost of wafer drying. A two stage texturizing process was examined for suitability in large scale production. Also, an in-depth gettering study with the two stage texturizing process was performed for the enhancement of solar cell efficiency, minimization of current versus voltage curve dispersion, and improvement in process reproducibility. The 10% efficiency improvement goal was exceeded for the near term implementation of flat plate photovoltaic cost reduction.

  15. An in-Depth Survey of Visible Light Communication Based Positioning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Trong-Hop; Yoo, Myungsik

    2016-01-01

    While visible light communication (VLC) has become the candidate for the wireless technology of the 21st century due to its inherent advantages, VLC based positioning also has a great chance of becoming the standard approach to positioning. Within the last few years, many studies on VLC based positioning have been published, but there are not many survey works in this field. In this paper, an in-depth survey of VLC based positioning systems is provided. More than 100 papers ranging from pioneering papers to the state-of-the-art in the field were collected and classified based on the positioning algorithms, the types of receivers, and the multiplexing techniques. In addition, current issues and research trends in VLC based positioning are discussed. PMID:27187395

  16. Defense-in-depth approach against a beyond design basis event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, H., E-mail: Hoa.hoang@ge.com [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, 1989 Little Orchard St., 95125 San Jose, California (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The US industry, with the approval of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is promoting an approach to add diverse and flexible mitigation strategies, or Flex, that will increase the defense-in-depth capability for the nuclear power plants in the event of beyond design basis event, such as at the Fukushima Dai-ichi station. The objective of Flex is to establish and indefinite coping capability to prevent damage to the fuel in the core and spent fuel pool, and to maintain the containment function by utilizing installed equipment, on-site portable equipment and pre-staged off-site resources. This capability will address both an extended loss of all Ac power and a loss of ultimate heat sink which could arise following a design basis event with additional failures, and conditions from a beyond design basis event. (author)

  17. Spatial resolution in depth-controlled surface sensitive x-ray techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial resolution along the surface normal and the total depth probed are two important parameters in depth-controlled surface sensitive X-ray techniques employing grazing incidence geometry. The two parameters are analyzed in terms of optical properties (refractive indices) of the media involved and parameters of the incident X-ray beam: beam divergence, X-ray energy, and spectral bandwidth. We derive analytical expressions of the required beam divergence and spectral bandwidth of the incident beam as a function of the two parameters. Sample calculations are made for X-ray energies between 0.1 and 100 keV and for solid Be, Cu, and Au, representing material matrices consisting of low, medium, and high atomic number elements. A brief discussion on obtaining the required beam divergence and spectral bandwidth from present X-ray sources and optics is given

  18. Defense-in-depth approach against a beyond design basis event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US industry, with the approval of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is promoting an approach to add diverse and flexible mitigation strategies, or Flex, that will increase the defense-in-depth capability for the nuclear power plants in the event of beyond design basis event, such as at the Fukushima Dai-ichi station. The objective of Flex is to establish and indefinite coping capability to prevent damage to the fuel in the core and spent fuel pool, and to maintain the containment function by utilizing installed equipment, on-site portable equipment and pre-staged off-site resources. This capability will address both an extended loss of all Ac power and a loss of ultimate heat sink which could arise following a design basis event with additional failures, and conditions from a beyond design basis event. (author)

  19. Method for performing diversity and defense-in-depth analyses of reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this NUREG is to describe a method for analyzing computer-based nuclear reactor protection systems that discovers design vulnerabilities to common-mode failure. The potential for common-mode failure has become an important issue as the software content of protection systems has increased. This potential was not present in earlier analog protection systems because it could usually be assumed that common-mode failure, if it did occur, was due to slow processes such as corrosion or premature wear-out. This assumption is no longer true for systems containing software. It is the purpose of the analysis method described here to determine points of a design for which credible common-mode failures are uncompensated either by diversity or defense-in-depth

  20. Defense-in-depth evaluation model development strategy for pressurized heavy water reactor low power and shutdown operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of defense-in-depth evaluation is to assess the level of defense-in-depth maintained during the various plant maintenance activities. Especially for shutdown and outage operations, the defense-in-depth might be challenged due to the reduction in redundancy and diversity resulting from the maintenance. Outage Risk Indicator of Nuclear Power Plants(ORION) which is a outage risk monitor for Korean NPPs is under development. ORION has the ability to assess the outage risk qualitatively using safety function assessment trees and deterministic margins such as time to boil. For pressurized heavy water reactors in Korea, defense-in-depth evaluation model development strategy to reflect the unique characteristics of pressurized heavy water reactors. The strategy and development steps were discussed in this paper

  1. Use of strategies to improve retention in primary care randomised trials: a qualitative study with in-depth interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Brueton, V C; Stevenson, F; Vale, C L; Stenning, S P; Tierney, J F; Harding, S; Nazareth, I.; Meredith, S.; Rait, G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the strategies used to improve retention in primary care randomised trials.Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews and thematic analysis.Participants: 29 UK primary care chief and principal investigators, trial managers and research nurses.Methods: In-depth face-to-face interviews.Results: Primary care researchers use incentive and communication strategies to improve retention in trials, but were unsure of their effect. Small monetary incentives were used to increase res...

  2. Use of strategies to improve retention in primary care randomised trials: a qualitative study with in-depth interviews.

    OpenAIRE

    Brueton, V C; Stevenson, F; Vale, C L

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the strategies used to improve retention in primary care randomised trials. Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews and thematic analysis. Participants: 29 UK primary care chief and principal investigators, trial managers and research nurses. Methods: In-depth face-to-face interviews. Results: Primary care researchers use incentive and communication strategies to improve retention in trials, but were unsure of their effect. Small monetary in...

  3. Basin Structure and Numerical Simulation for the Mechanisms of Seismic Disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhixin; XU Jiren

    2004-01-01

    In the present study seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous media is numerically simulated by using the pseudospectral method with the staggered grid RFFT differentiation in order to clarify the cause for the complicated distribution characteristics of strong ground motion in regions with basin structure. The results show that the maximum amplitudes of simulated ground acceleration waveforms are closely related to the basin structure. Interference of seismic waves in the basin strongly affects the distribution of maximum seismic waveforms, which may result in peak disasters during earthquakes. Peak disasters might be away from basin boundaries or earthquake faults. Seismic energy transmitted into the basin from the bedrock can hardly penetrate the bottom of the basin and then travel back into the bedrock region.The seismic energy is absorbed by basin media, and transferred into the kinematical energy of seismic waves with great amplitude in the basin. Seismic waves between basins may result in serious damage to buildings over the basin. This is significant for aseismatic research. Geological surveys in and around urban areas would benefit aseismatic research and mitigation of seismic disasters of a city. Such geological surveys should involve seismic velocity structure in the media above the bedrock besides such subjects as active faults and geological structure.

  4. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    , Toshio Ando from the University of Kanazawa provides an overview of developments that have allowed atomic force microscopy to move from rates of the order of one frame a minute to over a thousand frames per second in constant height mode, as reported by Mervyn Miles and colleagues at Bristol University and University College London [8]. Among the pioneers in the field, Ando's group demonstrated the ability to record the Brownian motion of myosin V molecules on mica with image capture rates of 100 x 100 pixels in 80 ms over a decade ago [9]. The developments unleash the potential of atomic force microscopy to observe the dynamics of biological and materials systems. If seeing is believing, the ability to present real motion pictures of the nanoworld cannot fail to capture the public imagination and stimulate burgeoning new avenues of scientific endeavour. Nearly 350 years on from the publication Micrographia, images in microscopy have moved from the page to the movies. References [1] Binnig G, Quate C F, and Gerber Ch 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930-3 [2] Ando T 2012 Nanotechnology 23 062001 [3] J G 1934 Nature 134 635-6 [4] Bharadwaj P, Anger P and Novotny L 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044017 [5] The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986 Nobelprize.org [6] Kim K K, Reina A, Shi Y, Park H, Li L-J, Lee Y H and Kong J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 285205 [7] Phillips D B, Grieve J A, Olof S N, Kocher S J, Bowman R, Padgett M J, Miles M J and Carberry D M 2011 Nanotechnology 22 285503 [8] Picco L M, Bozec L, Ulcinas A, Engledew D J, Antognozzi M, Horton M A and Miles M J 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044030 [9] Ando T, Kodera N, Takai E, Maruyama D, Saito K and Toda A 2001 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98 12468

  5. WORKSHOP: Stable particle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Particle beam stability is crucial to any accelerator or collider, particularly big ones, such as Brookhaven's RHIC heavy ion collider and the larger SSC and LHC proton collider schemes. A workshop on the Stability of Particle Motion in Storage Rings held at Brookhaven in October dealt with the important issue of determining the short- and long-term stability of single particle motion in hadron storage rings and colliders, and explored new methods for ensuring it. In the quest for realistic environments, the imperfections of superconducting magnets and the effects of field modulation and noise were taken into account. The workshop was divided into three study groups: Short-Term Stability in storage rings, including chromatic and geometric effects and correction strategies; Long-Term Stability, including modulation and random noise effects and slow varying effects; and Methods for determining the stability of particle motion. The first two were run in parallel, but the third was attended by everyone. Each group considered analytical, computational and experimental methods, reviewing work done so far, comparing results and approaches and underlining outstanding issues. By resolving conflicts, it was possible to identify problems of common interest. The workshop reaffirmed the validity of methods proposed several years ago. Major breakthroughs have been in the rapid improvement of computer capacity and speed, in the development of more sophisticated mathematical packages, and in the introduction of more powerful analytic approaches. In a typical storage ring, a particle may be required to circulate for about a billion revolutions. While ten years ago it was only possible to predict accurately stability over about a thousand revolutions, it is now possible to predict over as many as one million turns. If this trend continues, in ten years it could become feasible to predict particle stability over the entire storage period. About ninety participants

  6. Electromechanical motion devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Pekarek, Steven D

    2012-01-01

    This text provides a basic treatment of modern electric machine analysis that gives readers the necessary background for comprehending the traditional applications and operating characteristics of electric machines-as well as their emerging applications in modern power systems and electric drives, such as those used in hybrid and electric vehicles. Through the appropriate use of reference frame theory, Electromagnetic Motion Devices, Second Edition introduces readers to field-oriented control of induction machines, constant-torque, and constant-power control of dc, permanent-magnet ac

  7. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear structure theories are reviewed concerned with nuclei rotational motion. The development of the deformed nucleus model facilitated a discovery of rotational spectra of nuclei. Comprehensive verification of the rotational scheme and a successful classification of corresponding spectra stimulated investigations of the rotational movement dynamics. Values of nuclear moments of inertia proved to fall between two marginal values corresponding to rotation of a solid and hydrodynamic pattern of an unrotating flow, respectively. The discovery of governing role of the deformation and a degree of a symmetry violence for determining rotational degrees of freedon is pointed out to pave the way for generalization of the rotational spectra

  8. Brownian Brownian Motion-1

    OpenAIRE

    Chernov, N.; Dolgopyat, D.

    2008-01-01

    A classical model of Brownian motion consists of a heavy molecule submerged into a gas of light atoms in a closed container. In this work we study a 2D version of this model, where the molecule is a heavy disk of mass M and the gas is represented by just one point particle of mass m = 1, which interacts with the disk and the walls of the container via elastic collisions. Chaotic behavior of the particles is ensured by convex (scattering) walls of the container. We prove that the position and ...

  9. Chronostratigraphy and tectonic deformation of the North Ecuadorian-South Colombian offshore Manglares forearc basin

    OpenAIRE

    Marcaillou, B.; Collot, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Forearc basins in convergent margins contain a nearly continuous record of sedimentation and deformation. Their chronostratigraphy reflects the manner in which the basin accommodates loads and vertical and horizontal motion caused by eustasy, tectonics and sedimentation during plate convergence. Along the North Ecuador and South Colombia (NESC) Margin (1 degrees-3.5 degrees N), thick Cenozoic sedimentary sequences accumulated over blocks of oceanic basement that accreted between the Late Cret...

  10. Fractal Erosion of the Safe Basin in a Helmholtz Oscillator and Its Control by Linear Delayed Velocity Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Hui-Lin; WEN Yong-Peng

    2011-01-01

    Fractal erosion of the safe basin in a Helmholtz oscillator system is studied. A linear delayed velocity feedback is employed to suppress the fractal erosion. The necessary basin erosion condition of the delayed feedback controlled system is obtained. The evolution of the boundary and area of the safe basin over time delay is also presented. It follows that the delayed velocity feedback can be used as an effective strategy to control fractal erosion of a safe basin.%Fractal erosion of the safe basin in a Helmholtz oscillator system is studied.A linear delayed velocity feedback is employed to suppress the fractal erosion.The necessary basin erosion condition of the delayed feedback controlled system is obtained.The evolution of the boundary and area of the safe basin over time delay is also presented.It follows that the delayed velocity feedback can be used as an effective strategy to control fractal erosion of a safe basin.Since the safe basin was induced to explain the integrity of dynamical systems,studies on safe basins have attracted much attention.[1-6] Leigh and Armin calculated the survival probability of a ferry in random seas by estimating the erosion of the safe basin during the ship rolling motion by using Monte Carlo simulations.[1] Lenci and Rega induced the erosion of a safe basin to explain pull-in phenomenon in micro-electro mechanical systems.[2

  11. Augmenting defense-in-depth with the concepts of observability and diagnosability from Control Theory and Discrete Event Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defense-in-depth is a fundamental principle/strategy for achieving system safety. First conceptualized within the nuclear industry, defense-in-depth is the basis for risk-informed decisions by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and is recognized under various names in other industries (e.g., layers of protection in the Chemical industry). Accidents typically result from the absence or breach of defenses or violation of safety constraints. Defense-in-depth is realized by a diversity of safety barriers and a network of redundancies. However, this same redundancy and the intrinsic nature of defense-in-depth - the multiple lines of defense or 'protective layers' along a potential accident sequence - may enhance mechanisms concealing the occurrence of incidents, or that the system has transitioned to a hazardous state (accident pathogens) and that an accident is closer to being released. Consequently, the ability to safely operate the system may be hampered and the efficiency of defense-in-depth may be degraded or worse may backfire. Several accidents reports identified hidden failures or degraded observability of accidents pathogens as major contributing factors. In this work, we begin to address this potential theoretical deficiency in defense-in-depth by bringing concepts from Control Theory and Discrete Event Systems to bear on issues of system safety and accident prevention. We introduce the concepts of controllability, observability, and diagnosability, and frame the current understanding of system safety as a 'control problem' handled by defense-in-depth and safety barriers (or safety constraints). Observability and diagnosability are information-theoretic concepts, and they provide important complements to the energy model of accident causation from which the defense-in-depth principle derives. We formulate a new safety-diagnosability principle for supporting accident prevention, and propose that defense-in-depth be augmented with this principle, without

  12. Segmentations of foreland belts and their tectonic mechanism in the Southwest Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Guosheng; LI Yigang; LI Yanfeng; J. Canerot; CHEN Xinfa; YIN Junping; CHEN Xinan; ZHANG Ning; J. Deramond

    2005-01-01

    Based on lots of field investigations and comprehensive interpretations of seismic profiles with outcrop cross-sections, this paper shows that the foreland belts surrounding the Southwest Tarim Foreland Basin have the regularity of segmentation along the strike of foreland belts. There are many thin-skinned thrusting systems thrusting from mountains to the basin and the arcuate back-thrusting systems to the mountains distributed at intervals in the front of West Kunlun-Pamir and Southern Tianshan. Between thrusting and back-thrusting systems, the strike-slip faults developed. The northeast uplifts and depressions of Southwest Tarim Basin correspond with the segmentation of foreland basin. The thin-skinned thrusting system is formed in the case that the thickness of sedimentary covers is less than 10 km in depth where the basement is an uplift belt in general. The back-thrusting systems and triangle zones are formed in the case that the thickness of sedimentary covers is larger than 8 km in depth where the basement is a depression zone. The main mechanics of segmentation of foreland basin are the difference of mountain uplift and deformation rate along the longitude of the mountains, the huge sedimentary rocks in different depression centers, the uplift belts and depression zones in the basement rocks, and multi-displaced weak layers in the foreland basin. The segmentation of Southwest Tarim Foreland Basin is due to the intra-plate deformation of re-orogenies of West Kunlun-Pamir and Southwest Tianshan and the co-related deformation between mountains and basement of basin since Neocene.

  13. Interfacial dislocation motion and interactions in single-crystal superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Raabe, D. [Max Planck Inst. fur Eisenforshung. Dusseldorf (Germany); Roters, F. [Max Planck Inst. fur Eisenforshung. Dusseldorf (Germany); Arsenlis, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The early stage of high-temperature low-stress creep in single-crystal superalloys is characterized by the rapid development of interfacial dislocation networks. Although interfacial motion and dynamic recovery of these dislocation networks have long been expected to control the subsequent creep behavior, direct observation and hence in-depth understanding of such processes has not been achieved. Incorporating recent developments of discrete dislocation dynamics models, we simulate interfacial dislocation motion in the channel structures of single-crystal superalloys, and investigate how interfacial dislocation motion and dynamic recovery are affected by interfacial dislocation interactions and lattice misfit. Different types of dislocation interactions are considered: self, collinear, coplanar, Lomer junction, glissile junction, and Hirth junction. The simulation results show that strong dynamic recovery occurs due to the short-range reactions of collinear annihilation and Lomer junction formation. The misfit stress is found to induce and accelerate dynamic recovery of interfacial dislocation networks involving self-interaction and Hirth junction formation, but slow down the steady interfacial motion of coplanar and glissile junction forming dislocation networks. The insights gained from these simulations on high-temperature low-stress creep of single-crystal superalloys are also discussed.

  14. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  15. 'Defense-in-Depth' Laser Safety and the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the largest and most energetic laser in the world contained in a complex the size of a football stadium. From the initial laser pulse, provided by telecommunication style infrared nanoJoule pulsed lasers, to the final 192 laser beams (1.8 Mega Joules total energy in the ultraviolet) converging on a target the size of a pencil eraser, laser safety is of paramount concern. In addition to this, there are numerous high-powered (Class 3B and 4) diagnostic lasers in use that can potentially send their laser radiation travelling throughout the facility. With individual beam paths of up to 1500 meters and a workforce of more than one thousand, the potential for exposure is significant. Simple laser safety practices utilized in typical laser labs just don't apply. To mitigate these hazards, NIF incorporates a multi layered approach to laser safety or 'Defense in Depth.' Most typical high-powered laser operations are contained and controlled within a single room using relatively simplistic controls to protect both the worker and the public. Laser workers are trained, use a standard operating procedure, and are required to wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) such as Laser Protective Eyewear (LPE) if the system is not fully enclosed. Non-workers are protected by means of posting the room with a warning sign and a flashing light. In the best of cases, a Safety Interlock System (SIS) will be employed which will 'safe' the laser in the case of unauthorized access. This type of laser operation is relatively easy to employ and manage. As the operation becomes more complex, higher levels of control are required to ensure personnel safety. Examples requiring enhanced controls are outdoor and multi-room laser operations. At the NIF there are 192 beam lines and numerous other Class 4 diagnostic lasers that can potentially deliver their hazardous energy to locations far from the laser source. This presents a serious and complex potential

  16. Seismicity of the Paradox Basin and the Colorado Plateau interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Waste Terminal Storage Program site qualification criteria require that a nuclear waste repository be located so that ground motion associated with the maximum credible and maximum probable earthquakes or other earthquake-associated effects will not have an unacceptable adverse impact on system performance. To determine whether a potential repository site located in the Paradox salt formation in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah satisfies these criteria, seismological studies were undertaken by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) in March 1978. These studies included: (1) analysis of historical seismicity; (2) analysis of contemporary seismicity and tectonics of both the Paradox Basin and surrounding Colorado Plateau, including an extensive program of microearthquake monitoring; (3) evaluation of the Paradox Basin crustal structure; (4) evaluation of mining-induced seismicity; and (5) characterization of design-related earthquake-induced ground motions pertinent to a potential repository site through studies of attentation and subsurface ground motions. A detailed discussion of the results of the seismological studies performed through December 1980 is contained in WCC (1982). The purpose of this topical report is to update and summarize the studies on the local, regional, and mining-induced seismicity conducted through December 1982. The limitations of any interpretations are also discussed and additional information that remains to be acquired is identified. 56 references, 45 figures, 4 tables

  17. Indian nuclear literature - contribution to INIS data base : an in-depth analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to analyse the Indian nuclear literature that has gone to form part of the INIS (International Nuclear Information System) Data Base as the contribution from India over the last five years. The in-depth analysis is based on the subject-wise statistics collected over the period 1975-1979 and gives a good idea of the wide coverage of nuclear literature published in the country. The inputs have been drawn from about 150 to 170 journals, 8 to 10 proceedings of conferences and symposia, 100 reports and other types of literature while the topics of symposia, reports and journal articles vary from pure physics and chemistry to any branch of engineering and biology. India has emerged as one of the most consistent inputters to the INIS Data Base, besides being the topmost amongst the developing countries. Though no claims or absolute statements are made on the actual state of Indian Scientific literature or its R and D activities, the analysis yet enables one to get a broad overall view of the same with the data available with the INIS group at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. (K.B.)

  18. Lessons Learned from Process Safety Management: A Practical Guide to Defence in Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Beginning with the experiences of Alfred Nobel, the chemical enterprise has learned from failures and implemented layers of protection to prevent unwanted incidents. Nobel developed dynamite as a more stable alternative to nitroglycerin, a process we would today call “inherently safer technology”. In recent years, the USA has issued regulations requiring formal “risk management plans” to identify and mitigate production risks. The USA set up the “Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board” as an independent investigator of serious chemical enterprise incidents with a mission to issue recommendations aimed at preventing repeated incidents based on lessons learned. Following a particularly violent explosion in Texas in 1989, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration issued the “Process Safety Management” (PSM) rule. PSM is a singular guide to defence in depth for preventing large-scale production incidents. The formalism is equally applicable to the chemical enterprise and the nuclear installation enterprise. This presentation will discuss the key elements of PSM and offer suggestions on using PSM as a guide to developing multiple layers of protection. The methods of PSM are applicable to Nuclear Generating Stations, research reactors, fuel reprocessing plants and fissile material storage and handling. Examples from both the chemical and nuclear enterprises will be used to illustrate key points. (author)

  19. Defence-in-depth in the design of the nuclear desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines several concepts to identify the appropriate defence-in-depth (DID) strategy for the SMART reactor which is being developed for desalination application in Korea. This paper analyzes the DID concepts for existing reactors, advanced reactors, and small and medium reactors, the multiple physical barriers design concepts for DID strategy, and the implementation measures for each DID level. In general, nuclear desalination plants are designed with two additional physical barriers compared to existing nuclear plants. The first is the safeguard vessel that surrounds the reactor vessel and minimizes radiological release to the environment following accidents. The second is the intermediate circuit which is located between the nuclear plant and the desalination plant, and prevents the radioactivity contamination of the fresh water. In particular, the design concepts such as an inherent safety, simplicity of design, and modular design of major equipment are considered for improving accident prevention capability. Passive safety systems for improving the capability to mitigate accident consequences and strengthened containment for limiting radiological release are also taken into account. Therefore, the safety and reliability of nuclear desalination plants including the SMART reactor is expected to be improved by establishing and implementing a systematic DID strategy

  20. Undiagnosed genetic muscle disease in the north of England: an in depth phenotype analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Elizabeth; Laval, Steve; Hudson, Judith; Barresi, Rita; De Waele, Liesbeth; Straub, Volker; Lochmüller, Hanns; Bushby, Kate; Sarkozy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the molecular characterisation of genetic muscle disease has been rapid, as demonstrated by a recent analysis of these conditions in the north of England by Norwood et al (2009), in which a genetic diagnosis was achieved for 75.7% of patients. However, there remain many patients with suspected genetic muscle disease in who a diagnosis is not obtained, often despite considerable diagnostic effort, and these patients are now being considered for the application of new technologies such as next generation sequencing. This study aimed to provide an in-depth phenotype analysis of undiagnosed patients referred to the Northern region muscle clinic with suspected genetic muscle disease, with the intention of gaining insight into these conditions, identifing cases with a shared phenotype who may be amenable to collective diagnostic testing or research, and evaluating the strengths and limitations of our current diagnostic strategy. We used two approaches: a review of clinical findings in patients with undiagnosed muscle disease, and a hierarchical cluster analysis to provide an unbiased interpretation of the phenotype data. These joint approaches identified a correlation of phenotypic features according to the age of disease onset and also delineated several interesting groups of patients, as well as highlighting areas of frequent diagnostic difficulty that could benefit from the use of new high-throughput diagnostic techniques. Correspondence to: anna.sarkozy@ncl.ac.uk. PMID:23788081

  1. Insights gained from in-depth reviews of several industry generated PRAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, W.T.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Bari, R.A.; Rosenthal, J.

    1985-01-01

    During the last several years BNL staff have performed in-depth reviews of the containment failure modes and fission product release analyses of all the ''industry'' PRAs submitted to the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, NRC. This program started with a reevaluation of the risks reported in the Zion and Indian Point Probabilistic Safety Studies (PWRs with large dry containments) and was followed by reviews of the Limerick (BWR with Mark II containment) and Big Rock Point (early BWR design) PRAs. We are currently completing reviews of the GESSAR-II (BWR with a Mark III containment) and Millstone-3 (PWR with a subatmospheric containment) PRAs. This paper therefore presents the insights gained from extensive reevaluations of the risk associated with a wide range of reactor and containment designs. In particular, the paper shows how changing methodology has influenced our understanding of containment performance under degraded core conditions and how this influences the frequency, timing and magnitude of fission product release to the environment, which in turn impacts potential off-site consequences. 18 refs.

  2. In-depth analysis of the causal factors of incidents reported in the Greek petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a statistical analysis of all reported incidents in the Greek petrochemical industry from 1997 to 2003. A comprehensive database has been developed to include industrial accidents (fires, explosions and substance releases), occupational accidents, incidents without significant consequences and near misses. The study concentrates on identifying and analyzing the causal factors related to different consequences of incidents, in particular, injury, absence from work and material damage. Methods of analysis include logistic regression with one of these consequences as dependent variable. The causal factors that are considered cover four major categories related to organizational issues, equipment malfunctions, human errors (of commission or omission) and external causes. Further analyses aim to confirm the value of recording near misses by comparing their causal factors with those of more serious incidents. The statistical analysis highlights the connection between the human factor and the underlying causes of accidents or incidents. - Highlights: → The research work is original, based on field data collected directly from the petrochemical industry. → It deals with the in-depth statistical analysis of accident data on human-organizational causes. → It researches underlying causes of accidents and the parameters affecting them. → The causal factors that are considered cover four big taxonomies. → Near misses are worth recording for comparing their causal factors with more serious incidents.

  3. Defense-in-depth and diversity assessment of the RESAR-414 Integrated Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the defense-in-depth and diversity principles as they apply to safety related instrumentation and presents guidelines which can be used to assess the degree to which the designs of complex, interconnected safety systems conform to these principles. These guidelines are based on the use of the block concept, an approach in which the components and modules of the system are aggregated into a small number of functional units, or blocks, to simplify the analysis. It is believed that the use of the block concept and the guidelines will result in a conservative assessment of the capability of such systems to function when subjected to postulated to common-mode failures. A preliminary assessment of the RESAR-414 Integrated Protection System by means of the guidelines is also presented. The results of this assessment support the conclusion that, for purposes of a preliminary design approval, the RESAR-414 Integrated Protection System is acceptable. However, the assessment, has also resulted in requirements for additional analyses and tests, the results of which must demonstrate conformance to the guidelines prior to the issuance of a Final Design Approval

  4. Defense-in-depth evaluation for the New Waste Transfer Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, T.G.; Kelly, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report fulfills part of the requirements of References 2 and 3 by documenting a Defense-In-Depth evaluation for the New Waste Transfer Facility (NWTF). This evaluation was performed using methodology similar to that used in an evaluation for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). It differs because the DWPF evaluation was based on an existing Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) while NWTF`s is based on a Preoperational Process Hazards Review (PHR) (Ref. 1). The accidents in the Process Hazards Review (PHR) were reviewed to determine those that might have significant consequences. Significance was based on the findings of the PHR, The facility design was reviewed to determine the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and administrative controls available before and after each accident. From this was developed a list of the Lines of Defense (LODs) available to contain the hazard associated with the accident. A summary of these LODs is given in Appendix C. Items are tabulated that are suggested for consideration in the functional classification as worker protection items. The specific criteria used in the evaluation is given in the methodology section of this report. The results are documented in Appendices A, B, C, and D.

  5. In-depth study of personality disorders in first-admission patients with substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langås Anne-Marit

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of comorbid personality disorders (PDs in patients with substance use disorders (SUDs is challenging due to symptom overlap, additional mental and physical disorders, and limitations of the assessment methods. Our in-depth study applied methods to overcome these difficulties. Method A complete catchment area sample of 61 consecutively admitted patients with SUDs, with no previous history of specialized treatment (addiction clinics, psychiatry were studied, addressing PDs and associated clinical and demographic variables. The thorough assessments included the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders. Results Forty-six percent of the SUD patients had at least one PD (16% antisocial [males only]; 13% borderline; and 8% paranoid, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive, respectively. Cluster C disorders were as prevalent as Cluster B disorders. SUD patients with PDs were younger at the onset of their first SUD and at admission; used more illicit drugs; had more anxiety disorders, particularly social phobia; had more severe depressive symptoms; were more distressed; and less often attended work or school. Conclusion The psychiatric comorbidity and symptom load of SUD patients with PDs differed from those of SUD patients without PDs, suggesting different treatment needs, and stressing the value of the assessment of PDs in SUD patients.

  6. In-depth Analysis and Evaluation of GSFC GRAIL Gravity Field Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were launched on September 10, 2011, and conducted their primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012. Primary mission data have been processed at NASA/GSFC using the GEODYN software, resulting in high-resolution (degree and order 420 in spherical harmonics) gravity field models of high accuracy. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of the GRAIL gravity field determination at GSFC. We especially focus on the Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data, and on the use of GRAIL gravity models on tracking data of other spacecraft. We also investigate to what extent the addition of other tracking data (especially Lunar Prospector data) can help to further enhance the lunar gravity field models. Since the orbit of the GRAIL spacecraft was not constant during the primary mission and sensibly elliptical at the beginning and end of the science phase (20 by 80 kilometers, in altitude above lunar surface), there are areas on the Moon where the spacecraft altitude was relatively low compared to the global average. This results in remaining signal in especially the KBRR data that is not necessarily captured by the global models expressed in spherical harmonics. We explore the performance of the GRAIL gravity field models over certain regions with low-altitude KBRR data, and we also investigate analysis methods to estimate local adjustments to the gravity field models.

  7. The in-depth safety assessment (ISA) pilot projects in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukraine operates pressurized water reactors of the Soviet-designed type, VVER. All Ukrainian plants are currently operating with annually renewable permits until they update their safety analysis reports (SARs). After approval of the SARS by the Ukrainian Nuclear Regulatory Authority, the plants will be granted longer-term operating licenses. In September 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Government Nuclear Power Coordinating Committee of Ukraine issued a new contents requirement for the safety analysis reports of VVERs in Ukraine. It contains requirements in three major areas: design basis accident (DBA) analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. The DBA requirements are an expanded version of the older SAR requirements. The last two requirements, on PRA and BDBA, are new. The US Department of Energy (USDOE), through the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), has initiated an assistance and technology transfer program to Ukraine to assist their nuclear power stations in developing a Western-type technical basis for the new SARS. USDOE sponsored In-Depth Safety Assessments (ISAs) have been initiated at three pilot nuclear reactor units in Ukraine, South Ukraine Unit 1, Zaporizhzhya Unit 5, and Rivne Unit 1. USDOE/INSP have structured the ISA program in such a way as to provide maximum assistance and technology transfer to Ukraine while encouraging and supporting the Ukrainian plants to take the responsibility and initiative and to perform the required assessments

  8. Studies of multilayer structure in depth direction by soft X-ray spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It is demonstrated that two kinds of soft X-ray spectroscopy are useful as nondestructive methods to investigate multilayer structures modified by interdiffusion or by chemical reaction of adjoining layers in depth direction. One is the total electron yield (TEY) spectroscopy involving angular dependence measurement. Using this method, it was found that in LiF/Si/LiF trilayers, the Si layers exhibited a characteristic similar to porous Si, and in CaF2/Si/CaF2 trilayers, it was found that CaF2 segregated through the Si layer. Moreover, it has been shown that the thickness of the top layer of a Mo/Si X-ray multilayer can be determined by analyzing TEY signals generated by the standing wave. The other is the soft X-ray emission spectroscopy involving spectral shape analysis. Using this method,it was found that in Mo/Si X-ray multilayers, the interdiffusion or chemical reaction giving rise to deterioration of reflectance character occurs in as-deposited samples as well as in heated samples. In antiferromagnetic Fe/Si multilayers, it was confirmed that there was no existence of pure Si layers, but insulating FeSi2 layers were present. This result suggests that the source of antiferromagnetic coupling is not conduction electrons but quantum wave interference.

  9. Defense-in-depth evaluation for the New Waste Transfer Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report fulfills part of the requirements of References 2 and 3 by documenting a Defense-In-Depth evaluation for the New Waste Transfer Facility (NWTF). This evaluation was performed using methodology similar to that used in an evaluation for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). It differs because the DWPF evaluation was based on an existing Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) while NWTF's is based on a Preoperational Process Hazards Review (PHR) (Ref. 1). The accidents in the Process Hazards Review (PHR) were reviewed to determine those that might have significant consequences. Significance was based on the findings of the PHR, The facility design was reviewed to determine the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and administrative controls available before and after each accident. From this was developed a list of the Lines of Defense (LODs) available to contain the hazard associated with the accident. A summary of these LODs is given in Appendix C. Items are tabulated that are suggested for consideration in the functional classification as worker protection items. The specific criteria used in the evaluation is given in the methodology section of this report. The results are documented in Appendices A, B, C, and D

  10. Improvements in Defense in Depth in French Nuclear Power Plants Following Fukushima Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accidents which occurred in the nuclear power plants in Fukushima-Daiichi resulted in a complementary safety assessment (CSA or stress-tests) of all French NPPs to confirm their compliance with their design bases and to evaluate their behaviour beyond it. They have shown that nuclear facilities have a satisfactory level of safety, but it had been decided to significantly improve their robustness to extreme situations, beyond the safety margins they have already. Planned improvements include several parts, where the main ones are the implementation of a hardened safety core (HSC) of key components for the management of extreme situations resulting from a hazard beyond the design and deployment of a nuclear rapid response force (FARN). The hardened safety core aims to avoid massive releases and lasting effects in the environment. It relies on existing or new components designed or verified to hazards with significant margins compared to the design levels of NPP beyond. It also includes provisions allowing crisis management, including crisis centre and communication means. The FARN complements the HSC and the crisis organization to bring from off-site sufficient human and material resources to increase the autonomy of the site. All these improvement contribute to a better defence in depth. (author)

  11. In-depth proteomic analysis of banana (Musa spp.) fruit with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Musa ssp. is among the world's leading fruit crops. Although a strong interest on banana biochemistry exists in the scientific community, focused on metabolite composition, proteins have been scarcely investigated even if they play an important role in food allergy and stability, are a source of biologically active peptides, and can provide information about nutritional aspects of this fruit. In this work we have employed the combinatorial peptide ligand libraries after different types of protein extractions, for searching the very low-abundance proteins in banana. The use of advanced MS techniques and Musa ssp. mRNAs database in combination with the Uniprot_viridiplantae database allowed us to identify 1131 proteins. Among this huge amount of proteins we found several already known allergens such as Mus a 1, pectinesterase, superoxide dismutase, and potentially new allergens. Additionally several enzymes involved in degradation of starch granules and strictly correlated to ripening stage were identified. This is the first in-depth exploration of the banana fruit proteome and one of the largest descriptions of the proteome of any vegetable system. PMID:23161558

  12. Defence in depth for electric power supplies in Indian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of electric power supply system in a nuclear power plant is to supply and distribute reliable electric power to safety related systems and systems important to safety in various forms, arrangements and combinations of redundancy and diversity in order to perform safety functions required during operational states and design basis events (DBE) such as shutting down the reactor, maintaining the reactor in safe shutdown state, containment isolation and reactor core cooling preventing significant release of radioactive material to the environment. Hence the design basis of electric power supply systems includes identification of DBE that require power supplies, adequacy of redundancy and diversity, environmental conditions to which electric equipment are qualified, identification of loads requiring interrupted and uninterrupted power supplies, time sequence in which emergency loads are to be supplied in case of interruption, provisions for maintaining and testing, consideration for minimum duration capability of emergency power supplies during station blackout etc. Based on operation experience, results of probability safety assessment and certain weaknesses noticed in defence in depth of electric power supply systems, several continuous design improvements have been made in Indian nuclear power plants during operating phase and life extension. Instituting various tests during initial commissioning, subsequent operation and life extension has ensured high standards of performance of electric power supplies. Some of these aspects are highlighted in this paper

  13. Variation in depth of whitetip reef sharks: does provisioning ecotourism change their behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard; Abrantes, Kátya G.; Seymour, Jamie; Barnett, Adam

    2011-09-01

    In the dive tourism industry, shark provisioning has become increasingly popular in many places around the world. It is therefore important to determine the impacts that provisioning may have on shark behaviour. In this study, eight adult whitetip reef sharks Triaenodon obesus were tagged with time-depth recorders at Osprey Reef in the Coral Sea, Australia. Tags collected time and depth data every 30 s. The absolute change in depth over 5-min blocks was considered as a proxy for vertical activity level. Daily variations in vertical activity levels were analysed to determine the effects of time of day on whitetip reef shark behaviour. This was done for days when dive boats were absent from the area, and for days when dive boats were present, conducting shark provisioning. Vertical activity levels varied between day and night, and with the presence of boats. In natural conditions (no boats present), sharks remained at more constant depths during the day, while at night animals continuously moved up and down the water column, showing that whitetip reef sharks are nocturnally active. When boats were present, however, there were also long periods of vertical activity during the day. If resting periods during the day are important for energy budgets, then shark provisioning may affect their health. So, if this behaviour alteration occurs frequently, e.g., daily, this has the potential to have significant negative effects on the animals' metabolic rates, net energy gain and overall health, reproduction and fitness.

  14. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the categorization adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), small and medium sized reactors are those with the equivalent electric output less than 700 MW. In most of the cases, deployment potential of SMRs is supported by their ability to fill niches in which they would address market situations different from those of currently operated large-capacity nuclear power plants. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth (DID) is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by IAEA, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve DID in the eleven representative concepts of SMRs. The SMRs considered included reactors of different types - pressurized water reactors, pressurized boiling light water cooled heavy water moderated reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, fast reactors,and non conventional very high temperature designs. The design descriptions were structured to follow the definitions and recommendations of the IAEA safety standardNS-R-1 'Safety of the Nuclear Power Plants: Design Requirements'. The focus of this paper would be on sodium cooled and lead cooled fast reactors -the 4S-LMR (Japan) and the SSTAR and the STAR-LM (USA)

  15. In-depth characterization of wastewater bacterial community in response to algal growth using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangho; Lee, Juyoun; Lee, Tae Kwon; Woo, Sung-Geun; Baek, Gyu Seok; Park, Joonhong

    2013-10-28

    Microalgae have been regarded as a natural resource for sustainable materials and fuels, as well as for removal of nutrients and micropollutants from wastewater, and their interaction with bacteria in wastewater is a critical factor to consider because of the microbial diversity and complexity in a variety of wastewater conditions. Despite their importance, very little is known about the ecological interactions between algae and bacteria in a wastewater environment. In this study, we characterized the wastewater bacterial community in response to the growth of a Selenastrum gracile UTEX 325 population in a real municipal wastewater environment. The Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technique was used for indepth analysis of amplicons of 16S rRNA genes from different conditions in each reactor, with and without the algal population. The algal growth reduced the bacterial diversity and affected the bacterial community structure in the wastewater. The following in-depth analysis of the deep-sequenced amplicons showed that the algal growth selectively stimulated Sphingobacteria class members, especially the Sediminibacterium genus population, in the municipal wastewater environment. PMID:23867704

  16. In-depth analysis of switchable glycerol based polymeric coatings for cell sheet engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherer, Tobias; Heinen, Silke; Wei, Qiang; Haag, Rainer; Weinhart, Marie

    2015-10-01

    Scaffold-free cell sheet engineering using thermoresponsive substrates provides a promising alternative to conventional tissue engineering which in general employs biodegradable scaffold materials. We have previously developed a thermoresponsive coating with glycerol based linear copolymers that enables gentle harvesting of entire cell sheets. In this article we present an in-depth analysis of these thermoresponsive linear polyglycidyl ethers and their performance as coating for substrates in cell culture in comparison with commercially available poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) coated culture dishes. A series of copolymers of glycidyl methyl ether (GME) and glycidyl ethyl ether (EGE) was prepared in order to study their thermoresponsive properties in solution and on the surface with respect to the comonomer ratio. In both cases, when grafted to planar surfaces or spherical nanoparticles, the applied thermoresponsive polyglycerol coatings render the respective surfaces switchable. Protein adsorption experiments on copolymer coated planar surfaces with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy reveal the ability of the tested thermoresponsive coatings to be switched between highly protein resistant and adsorptive states. Cell culture experiments demonstrate that these thermoresponsive coatings allow for adhesion and proliferation of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts comparable to TCPS and faster than on PNIPAM substrates. Temperature triggered detachment of complete cell sheets from copolymer coated substrates was accomplished within minutes while maintaining high viability of the harvested cells. Thus such glycerol based copolymers present a promising alternative to PNIPAM as a thermoresponsive coating of cell culture substrates. PMID:26143602

  17. WiBasin: basin management through an integrated platform

    OpenAIRE

    Llort Pavon, Xavier; Sánchez-Diezma Guijarro, Rafael; Sancho, David; Rodríguez, Álvaro; Berenguer Ferrer, Marc; Sempere Torres, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present WiBasin, a cloud platform for basin and dam management. It includes different sources of precipitation (both observed and forecasted), integration over the catchment domain (to provide an aggregated value of potential rainfall accumulated over the basin) , and a complete dissemination environment (web-viewer, capability of issuing hazard warnings with configurable thresholds, SMS, mails, etc.)

  18. Deterministic Brownian Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefan, Gyorgy

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to contribute to the ambitious program of the foundation of developing statistical physics using chaos. We build a deterministic model of Brownian motion and provide a microscopic derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation. Since the Brownian motion of a particle is the result of the competing processes of diffusion and dissipation, we create a model where both diffusion and dissipation originate from the same deterministic mechanism--the deterministic interaction of that particle with its environment. We show that standard diffusion which is the basis of the Fokker-Planck equation rests on the Central Limit Theorem, and, consequently, on the possibility of deriving it from a deterministic process with a quickly decaying correlation function. The sensitive dependence on initial conditions, one of the defining properties of chaos insures this rapid decay. We carefully address the problem of deriving dissipation from the interaction of a particle with a fully deterministic nonlinear bath, that we term the booster. We show that the solution of this problem essentially rests on the linear response of a booster to an external perturbation. This raises a long-standing problem concerned with Kubo's Linear Response Theory and the strong criticism against it by van Kampen. Kubo's theory is based on a perturbation treatment of the Liouville equation, which, in turn, is expected to be totally equivalent to a first-order perturbation treatment of single trajectories. Since the boosters are chaotic, and chaos is essential to generate diffusion, the single trajectories are highly unstable and do not respond linearly to weak external perturbation. We adopt chaotic maps as boosters of a Brownian particle, and therefore address the problem of the response of a chaotic booster to an external perturbation. We notice that a fully chaotic map is characterized by an invariant measure which is a continuous function of the control parameters of the map

  19. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  20. Towards Integrated Marmara Strong Motion Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Ansal, A.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Kafadar, N.; Korkmaz, A.; Kurtulus, A.

    2009-04-01

    Array (72 ch. dense accelerometric array to be installed in 2010) - Gemlik Array (a dense basin array of 8 stations, to be installed in 2010) The objectives of these systems and networks are: (1) to produce rapid earthquake intensity, damage and loss assessment information after an earthquake (in the case of IERREWS), (2) to monitor conditions of structural systems, (3) to develop real-time data processing, analysis, and damage detection and location tools (in the case of structural networks) after an extreme event, (4) to assess spatial properties of strong ground motion and ground strain, and to characterise basin response (in the case of special arrays), (5) to investigate site response and wave propagation (in the case of vertical array). Ground motion data obtained from these strong motion networks have and are being used for investigations of attenuation, spatial variation (coherence), simulation benchmarking, source modeling, site response, seismic microzonation, system identification and structural model verification and structural health control. In addition to the systems and networks outlined above there are two temporary networks: KIMNET - a dense urban noise and microtremor network consisting of 50 broadband stations expected to be operational in mid 2009, and SOSEWIN - a 20-station, self-organizing structural integrated array at Ataköy in Istanbul.

  1. Confining collective motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Denis; Bricard, Antoine; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Savoie, Charles; Das, Debasish; Chepizhko, Oleskar; Peruani, Fernando; Saintillan, David

    2014-11-01

    It is well established that geometrical confinement have a significant impact on the structure and the flow properties of complex fluids. Prominent examples include the formation of topological defects in liquid crystals, and the flow instabilities of viscoelastic fluids in curved geometries. In striking contrast very little is known about the macroscopic behavior of confined active fluids. In this talk we show how to motorize plastic colloidal beads and turn them into self-propelled particles. Using microfluidic geometries we demonstrate how confinement impacts their collective motion. Combining quantitative experiments, analytical theory and numerical simulations we show how a population of motile bodies interacting via alignement and repulsive interactions self-organizes into a single heterogeneous macroscopic vortex that lives on the verge of a phase separation.

  2. Bayesian estimation of turbulent motion

    OpenAIRE

    Héas, P.; Herzet, C.; Mémin, E.; Heitz, D.; P. D. Mininni

    2013-01-01

    International audience Based on physical laws describing the multi-scale structure of turbulent flows, this article proposes a regularizer for fluid motion estimation from an image sequence. Regularization is achieved by imposing some scale invariance property between histograms of motion increments computed at different scales. By reformulating this problem from a Bayesian perspective, an algorithm is proposed to jointly estimate motion, regularization hyper-parameters, and to select the ...

  3. Motion camouflage in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, P.V.; Justh, E. W.; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    We formulate and analyze a three-dimensional model of motion camouflage, a stealth strategy observed in nature. A high-gain feedback law for motion camouflage is formulated in which the pursuer and evader trajectories are described using natural Frenet frames (or relatively parallel adapted frames), and the corresponding natural curvatures serve as controls. The biological plausibility of the feedback law is discussed, as is its connection to missile guidance. Simulations illustrating motion ...

  4. Longitudinal motion in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general description is given of the longitudinal motion of an idealized synchronous particle, exactly in step with the radiofrequency field of a circular accelerator, and a domain in phase and energy, called a bucket, around this particle within which particles are focused around the synchronous particle. This general picture is then made more precise and quantitative. The equations of longitudinal motion and their solutions and the resulting motion are discussed, followed by applications and amplication of the theory. 7 refs., 8 figs

  5. Multivariate respiratory motion prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In extracranial robotic radiotherapy, tumour motion is compensated by tracking external and internal surrogates. To compensate system specific time delays, time series prediction of the external optical surrogates is used. We investigate whether the prediction accuracy can be increased by expanding the current clinical setup by an accelerometer, a strain belt and a flow sensor. Four previously published prediction algorithms are adapted to multivariate inputs—normalized least mean squares (nLMS), wavelet-based least mean squares (wLMS), support vector regression (SVR) and relevance vector machines (RVM)—and evaluated for three different prediction horizons. The measurement involves 18 subjects and consists of two phases, focusing on long term trends (M1) and breathing artefacts (M2). To select the most relevant and least redundant sensors, a sequential forward selection (SFS) method is proposed. Using a multivariate setting, the results show that the clinically used nLMS algorithm is susceptible to large outliers. In the case of irregular breathing (M2), the mean root mean square error (RMSE) of a univariate nLMS algorithm is 0.66 mm and can be decreased to 0.46 mm by a multivariate RVM model (best algorithm on average). To investigate the full potential of this approach, the optimal sensor combination was also estimated on the complete test set. The results indicate that a further decrease in RMSE is possible for RVM (to 0.42 mm). This motivates further research about sensor selection methods. Besides the optical surrogates, the sensors most frequently selected by the algorithms are the accelerometer and the strain belt. These sensors could be easily integrated in the current clinical setup and would allow a more precise motion compensation. (paper)

  6. Multivariate respiratory motion prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürichen, R.; Wissel, T.; Ernst, F.; Schlaefer, A.; Schweikard, A.

    2014-10-01

    In extracranial robotic radiotherapy, tumour motion is compensated by tracking external and internal surrogates. To compensate system specific time delays, time series prediction of the external optical surrogates is used. We investigate whether the prediction accuracy can be increased by expanding the current clinical setup by an accelerometer, a strain belt and a flow sensor. Four previously published prediction algorithms are adapted to multivariate inputs—normalized least mean squares (nLMS), wavelet-based least mean squares (wLMS), support vector regression (SVR) and relevance vector machines (RVM)—and evaluated for three different prediction horizons. The measurement involves 18 subjects and consists of two phases, focusing on long term trends (M1) and breathing artefacts (M2). To select the most relevant and least redundant sensors, a sequential forward selection (SFS) method is proposed. Using a multivariate setting, the results show that the clinically used nLMS algorithm is susceptible to large outliers. In the case of irregular breathing (M2), the mean root mean square error (RMSE) of a univariate nLMS algorithm is 0.66 mm and can be decreased to 0.46 mm by a multivariate RVM model (best algorithm on average). To investigate the full potential of this approach, the optimal sensor combination was also estimated on the complete test set. The results indicate that a further decrease in RMSE is possible for RVM (to 0.42 mm). This motivates further research about sensor selection methods. Besides the optical surrogates, the sensors most frequently selected by the algorithms are the accelerometer and the strain belt. These sensors could be easily integrated in the current clinical setup and would allow a more precise motion compensation.

  7. Reversing the indus basin closure

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    After independence, a swift and extensive development of Indus river basin has intensified commitment of water resources. During dry period, the indication of over commitment and basin closure are visible. In the beginning 2000s, he river basin water resources were committed to more than 99% without any environmental flows. The paper tries to unfold drivers closing the Indus basin and the scope for change. Defining and implementing water allocation mechanism to ascertain equity, sustainabilit...

  8. Steering laws for motion camouflage

    OpenAIRE

    Justh, E. W.; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    2005-01-01

    Motion camouflage is a stealth strategy observed in nature. We formulate the problem as a feedback system for particles moving at constant speed, and define what it means for the system to be in a state of motion camouflage. (Here we focus on the planar setting, although the results can be generalized to three-dimensional motion.) We propose a biologically plausible feedback law, and use a high-gain limit to prove accessibility of a motion camouflage state in finite time. We discuss connectio...

  9. Respiratory impact on motion sickness induced by linear motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Bles, W.

    2009-01-01

    Motion sickness incidence (MSI) for vertical sinusoidal motion reaches a maximum at 0.167 Hz. Normal breathing frequency is close to this frequency. There is some evidence for synchronization of breathing with this stimulus frequency. If this enforced breathing takes place over a larger frequency ra

  10. Implementation of Defence in Depth at Nuclear Power Plants. Lessons Learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defence in depth (DiD) is a concept that has been used for many years alongside tools to optimise nuclear safety in reactor design, assessment and regulation. The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident raised many questions and gave unique insight into nuclear safety issues, including DiD. In June 2013, the NEA held a Joint Workshop on Challenges and Enhancements to DiD in Light of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (NEA, 2014), organised by the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) and the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA). It was noted at the time that further work would be beneficial to enhance nuclear safety worldwide, especially with regard to the implementation of DiD. Accordingly, a senior-level task group (STG) was set up to produce a regulatory guidance booklet that would assist member countries in the use of DiD, taking into account lessons learnt from the 2011 accident. This regulatory guidance booklet builds on the work of this NEA workshop, of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) and of other members of the STG. It uses as its basis the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group's Defence in Depth in Nuclear Safety study (INSAG-10) (IAEA, 1996). The booklet provides insights into the implementation of DiD by regulators and emergency management authorities after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, aiming to enhance global harmonisation by providing guidance on: - the background to the DiD concept; - the need for independent effectiveness among the safety provisions for the various DiD levels, to the extent practicable; - the need for greater attention to reinforce prevention and mitigation at the various levels; - the vital importance of ensuring that common cause and common mode failures, especially external events acting in combination, do not lead to breaches of safety provisions at several DiD levels, taking note of the

  11. Attention and expectation problems in bicycle-car collisions: an in-depth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, M; Summala, H

    1998-09-01

    One hundred and eighty-eight bicycle-car accidents in four cities were studied by multidisciplinary in-depth analysis. The sample was representative of the national accident statistics. All the accidents were analyzed in detail to reconstruct the actual movements of those involved and to assess detection of the other party. In 37% of collisions, neither driver nor cyclist realized the danger or had time to yield. In the remaining collisions, the driver (27%), the cyclist (24%) or both (12%) did something to avert the accident. Two common mechanisms underlying the accidents were identified. First, allocation of attention such that others were not detected, and second, unjustified expectations about the behavior of others. These mechanisms were found to be closely related to the system of two-way cycle tracks and to the fact that the general priority rule is applied to the crossings of a cycle track and a roadway. The most frequent accident type among collisions between cyclists and cars at bicycle crossings was a driver turning right and a bicycle coming from the driver's right along a cycle track. The result confirmed an earlier finding (Accident Analysis and Prevention 28, 147-153, 1996) that drivers turning right hit cyclists because they looked left for cars during the critical phase. Only 11% of drivers noticed the cyclist before impact. Cyclists' behavior was in marked contrast to that of drivers. In these cases, 68% of cyclists noticed the driver before the accident, and 92% of those who noticed believed the driver would give way as required by law. Cyclists with a driving license and those who cycled daily through the accident site were involved in different accident types to other cyclists. PMID:9678219

  12. Will solid-state drives accelerate your bioinformatics? In-depth profiling, performance analysis and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungmin; Min, Hyeyoung; Yoon, Sungroh

    2016-07-01

    A wide variety of large-scale data have been produced in bioinformatics. In response, the need for efficient handling of biomedical big data has been partly met by parallel computing. However, the time demand of many bioinformatics programs still remains high for large-scale practical uses because of factors that hinder acceleration by parallelization. Recently, new generations of storage devices have emerged, such as NAND flash-based solid-state drives (SSDs), and with the renewed interest in near-data processing, they are increasingly becoming acceleration methods that can accompany parallel processing. In certain cases, a simple drop-in replacement of hard disk drives by SSDs results in dramatic speedup. Despite the various advantages and continuous cost reduction of SSDs, there has been little review of SSD-based profiling and performance exploration of important but time-consuming bioinformatics programs. For an informative review, we perform in-depth profiling and analysis of 23 key bioinformatics programs using multiple types of devices. Based on the insight we obtain from this research, we further discuss issues related to design and optimize bioinformatics algorithms and pipelines to fully exploit SSDs. The programs we profile cover traditional and emerging areas of importance, such as alignment, assembly, mapping, expression analysis, variant calling and metagenomics. We explain how acceleration by parallelization can be combined with SSDs for improved performance and also how using SSDs can expedite important bioinformatics pipelines, such as variant calling by the Genome Analysis Toolkit and transcriptome analysis using RNA sequencing. We hope that this review can provide useful directions and tips to accompany future bioinformatics algorithm design procedures that properly consider new generations of powerful storage devices. PMID:26330577

  13. An Approach to Adaptive Correction Factors in Depth-Averaged Model for Debris Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yih-Chin; Cheng, Chin-Kai; Lai, Guan-Cen

    2016-04-01

    In modeling the debris flows, the governing equations are often given in depth-averaged form, where scaling analysis is employed to reduce the complexity and expense in computation. As a result, the non-uniform distributions of the sediment concentration and velocity along the flow thickness bring the correction parameters into the equation system. Since the flows are generally not at steady state, these distributions vary dynamically, so that the values of the correction factors should not be given by constant values. With the concept of two-phase mixture, we revisit the depth-averaged balance equations, where four correction factors are present and inevitable in the resultant model equations if the distributions of the sediment concentration and velocity along the flow thickness are non-uniform. Through theoretical analysis and experimental investigation, we found that a piecewise-linear distribution for velocity and a linear distribution of sediment concentration in the immature debris flows (where the clear water exists) seem plausible. This assumption may significantly simplify the complicated determination of the correction factors. In the resultant model equations, the correcting parameters due to the non-uniform distributions are present, which are of significant impacts on the characteristic of the equation system, and play crucial roles in performing the numerical simulation. In this study, the values of these factors with respect to the corresponding profiles are investigated. By means of numerical examples, we shall illustrate their impacts on the flow behaviors, such as the concentration variation, the geometry of the deposit and the maximum run-out distance.

  14. Confocal Raman microscopy for in depth analysis in the field of cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, G.; Striova, J.; Zoppi, A.; Castellucci, E. M.

    2011-05-01

    In the field of cultural heritage, the main concern when a sample is analyzed is its safeguard, and this means that non-destructive techniques are required. In this work, we show how confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) may be successfully applied in the study of works of art as a valuable alternative to other well established techniques. CRM with a metallurgical objective was tested for the in depth study of thin samples that are of interest in the field of cultural heritage. The sensitivity of the instrumentation was first evaluated by analyzing single layers of pure polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films having a thickness of 12, 25, and 50 μm, respectively, and a multilayer sample of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE). Subsequently, the technique was applied to the analysis of historical dyed cotton yarns in order to check whether it was possible to achieve a better discrimination of the fibres' signals for an easier identification. A substantial improvement of the signal to noise ratio was found in the confocal arrangement with respect to the non-confocal one, suggesting the use of this technique for this kind of analysis in the field of cultural heritage. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy in confocal configuration was exploited in the evaluation of cleaning performed on the mural painting specimens, treated with acrylic resin (Paraloid B72). Confocal Raman experiments were performed before and after laser cleaning (at different conditions) in order to monitor the presence and to approximate the polymer thickness: the method proved to be a valid comparative tool in assessment of cleaning efficiencies.

  15. In-depth, high-accuracy proteomics of sea urchin tooth organic matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Matthias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organic matrix contained in biominerals plays an important role in regulating mineralization and in determining biomineral properties. However, most components of biomineral matrices remain unknown at present. In sea urchin tooth, which is an important model for developmental biology and biomineralization, only few matrix components have been identified. The recent publication of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome sequence rendered possible not only the identification of genes potentially coding for matrix proteins, but also the direct identification of proteins contained in matrices of skeletal elements by in-depth, high-accuracy proteomic analysis. Results We identified 138 proteins in the matrix of tooth powder. Only 56 of these proteins were previously identified in the matrices of test (shell and spine. Among the novel components was an interesting group of five proteins containing alanine- and proline-rich neutral or basic motifs separated by acidic glycine-rich motifs. In addition, four of the five proteins contained either one or two predicted Kazal protease inhibitor domains. The major components of tooth matrix were however largely identical to the set of spicule matrix proteins and MSP130-related proteins identified in test (shell and spine matrix. Comparison of the matrices of crushed teeth to intact teeth revealed a marked dilution of known intracrystalline matrix proteins and a concomitant increase in some intracellular proteins. Conclusion This report presents the most comprehensive list of sea urchin tooth matrix proteins available at present. The complex mixture of proteins identified may reflect many different aspects of the mineralization process. A comparison between intact tooth matrix, presumably containing odontoblast remnants, and crushed tooth matrix served to differentiate between matrix components and possible contributions of cellular remnants. Because LC-MS/MS-based methods directly

  16. South Bohemian basins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spudil, J.; Brož, B.; Dašková, Jiřina; Holcová, K.; Kvaček, Z.; Pešek, J.; Svobodová, Marcela; Sýkorová, Ivana; Teodoridis, V.

    Prague: Czech Geological Survey, 2014, s. 190-206 ISBN 978-80-7075-862-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0653 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Tertiary basins * Czech Republic * Cenomanian and Tertiary lignite * geology * stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  17. Pasco Basin hydrometeorological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides detailed precipitation and evapotranspiration distributions for the Pasco Basin for use in groundwater recharge calculations. The results are shown on precipitation and evapotranspiration distribution maps. The parameters, calculation methods, sensitivity determinations, and fitting methods used in the development of these maps are also discussed

  18. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.;

    2008-01-01

    genetically from the rest of the populations in the Mediterranean area. This result supports the hypothesis of a low incidence of the south-north genetic interchange at the western shores of the Mediterranean basin. A low genetic distance was found between populations in the Middle East and the western part...

  19. Restoring the Nile Basin

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    Watershed management has come to be recognized as a critical issue in the Nile Basin. Upstream land use can cause degradation and soil erosion, resulting in lower agricultural yields locally and causing sedimentation downstream. The increased sediment load causes economic problems by reducing water quality, and irrigation and hydropower potential, as well as increasing flooding. This note ...

  20. Stress Field and Seismicity in the Basin of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesca-Perez, E.; Quintanar, L.; Garcia-Palomo, A.

    2007-12-01

    Mexico City is located in the basin of Mexico, inside the so called Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The region in general and the basin in particular, is characterized by local low magnitude seismicity (Mc 4.0) that may represent a risk to the city due of the nearness from epicenters. We can distinguish three main areas of local activity: 1).- surrounding the old basin of Texcoco lake, 2)- Chalco and 3)- Juchitepec - Milpa Alta outside Mexico City; the rest of the basin presents lower seismic activity. We recorded and located 336 earthquakes with digital seismograms between 1996 and 2007. From them, just 23 focal mechanisms could be evaluated because of low magnitude that creates recording problems in the seismological networks and high frequency background noise. The focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip and dip-slip (normal) faulting. We used three different techniques (when possible) to calculate the focal mechanisms: simple and composite first motion focal mechanism, Hash's S/P amplitude rate focal mechanism and time domain moment tensor inversion using broadband three components seismograms. The final goal is to find the local and regional stress field for the whole basin.

  1. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  2. Fusion of motion segmentation algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Anna-Louise

    2008-01-01

    Many algorithms have been developed to achieve motion segmentation for video surveillance. The algorithms produce varying performances under the infinite amount of changing conditions. It has been recognised that individually these algorithms have useful properties. Fusing the statistical result of these algorithms is investigated, with robust motion segmentation in mind.

  3. Algorithmic Issues in Modeling Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, P. K; Guibas, L. J; Edelsbrunner, H.;

    2003-01-01

    This article is a survey of research areas in which motion plays a pivotal role. The aim of the article is to review current approaches to modeling motion together with related data structures and algorithms, and to summarize the challenges that lie ahead in producing a more unified theory...

  4. Isynchronous motion in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Those oscillatory motions for which the period is independent of the total energy are investigated. There is only one corresponding symmetric potential, the quadratic potential of the simple harmonic motion but infinite classes of asymmetric potentials must be considered. Geometric and analytic requirements of isochronism are discussed and several specific examples are given

  5. Motion-corrected Fourier ptychography

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Liheng; Guo, Kaikai; Suo, Jinli; Yang, Changhuei; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-01-01

    Fourier ptychography (FP) is a recently proposed computational imaging technique for high space-bandwidth product imaging. In real setups such as endoscope and transmission electron microscope, the common sample motion largely degrades the FP reconstruction and limits its practicability. In this paper, we propose a novel FP reconstruction method to efficiently correct for unknown sample motion. Specifically, we adaptively update the sample's Fourier spectrum from low spatial-frequency regions towards high spatial-frequency ones, with an additional motion recovery and phase-offset compensation procedure for each sub-spectrum. Benefiting from the phase retrieval redundancy theory, the required large overlap between adjacent sub-spectra offers an accurate guide for successful motion recovery. Experimental results on both simulated data and real captured data show that the proposed method can correct for unknown sample motion with its standard deviation being up to 10% of the field-of-view scale. We have released...

  6. The Perception of Auditory Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon; Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  7. Entropic forces in Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Nico

    2013-01-01

    The interest in the concept of entropic forces has risen considerably since E. Verlinde proposed to interpret the force in Newton s second law and Gravity as entropic forces. Brownian motion, the motion of a small particle (pollen) driven by random impulses from the surrounding molecules, may be the first example of a stochastic process in which such forces are expected to emerge. In this note it is shown that at least two types of entropic motion can be identified in the case of 3D Brownian motion (or random walk). This yields simple derivations of known results of Brownian motion, Hook s law and, applying an external (nonradial) force, Curie s law and the Langevin-Debye equation.

  8. Brownian Motion Theory and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, K; Basu, Kasturi; Baishya, Kopinjol

    2003-01-01

    Brownian motion is the perpetual irregular motion exhibited by small particles immersed in a fluid. Such random motion of the particles is produced by statistical fluctuations in the collisions they suffer with the molecules of the surrounding fluid. Brownian motion of particles in a fluid (like milk particles in water) can be observed under a microscope. Here we describe a simple experimental set-up to observe Brownian motion and a method of determining the diffusion coefficient of the Brownian particles, based on a theory due to Smoluchowski. While looking through the microscope we focus attention on a fixed small volume, and record the number of particles that are trapped in that volume, at regular intervals of time. This gives us a time-series data, which is enough to determine the diffusion coefficient of the particles to a good degree of accuracy.

  9. In-depth mass spectrometric mapping of the human vitreous proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Sebastian; Krohne, Tim U; Kammerer, Kerstin; Warnken, Uwe; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Bergmann, Marion; Stanzel, Boris V; Kempf, Tore; Holz, Frank G; Schnölzer, Martina; Kopitz, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Mapping of proteins involved in normal eye functions is a prerequisite to identify pathological changes during eye disease processes. We therefore analysed the proteome of human vitreous by applying in-depth proteomic screening technologies. For ethical reasons human vitreous samples were obtained by vitrectomy from "surrogate normal patients" with epiretinal gliosis that is considered to constitute only negligible pathological vitreoretinal changes. We applied different protein prefractionation strategies including liquid phase isoelectric focussing, 1D SDS gel electrophoresis and a combination of both and compared the number of identified proteins obtained by the respective method. Liquid phase isoelectric focussing followed by SDS gel electrophoresis increased the number of identified proteins by a factor of five compared to the analysis of crude unseparated human vitreous. Depending on the prefractionation method proteins were subjected to trypsin digestion either in-gel or in solution and the resulting peptides were analysed on a UPLC system coupled online to an LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. The obtained mass spectra were searched against the SwissProt database using the Mascot search engine. Bioinformatics tools were used to annotate known biological functions to the detected proteins. Following this strategy we examined the vitreous proteomes of three individuals and identified 1111 unique proteins. Besides structural, transport and binding proteins, we detected 261 proteins with known enzymatic activity, 51 proteases, 35 protease inhibitors, 35 members of complement and coagulation cascades, 15 peptide hormones, 5 growth factors, 11 cytokines, 47 receptors, 30 proteins of visual perception, 91 proteins involved in apoptosis regulation and 265 proteins with signalling activity. This highly complex mixture strikingly differs from the human plasma proteome. Thus human vitreous fluid seems to be a unique body fluid. 262 unique proteins were detected which

  10. In-depth characterization of microRNA transcriptome in melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kozubek

    Full Text Available The full repertoire of human microRNAs (miRNAs that could distinguish common (benign nevi from cutaneous (malignant melanomas remains to be established. In an effort to gain further insight into the role of miRNAs in melanoma, we applied Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS platform to carry out an in-depth analysis of miRNA transcriptome in biopsies of nevi, thick primary (>4.0 mm and metastatic melanomas with matched normal skin in parallel to melanocytes and melanoma cell lines (both primary and metastatic (n=28. From this data representing 698 known miRNAs, we defined a set of top-40 list, which properly classified normal from cancer; also confirming 23 (58% previously discovered miRNAs while introducing an additional 17 (42% known and top-15 putative novel candidate miRNAs deregulated during melanoma progression. Surprisingly, the miRNA signature distinguishing specimens of melanoma from nevus was significantly different than that of melanoma cell lines from melanocytes. Among the top list, miR-203, miR-204-5p, miR-205-5p, miR-211-5p, miR-23b-3p, miR-26a-5p and miR-26b-5p were decreased in melanomas vs. nevi. In a validation cohort (n=101, we verified the NGS results by qRT-PCR and showed that receiver-operating characteristic curves for miR-211-5p expression accurately discriminated invasive melanoma (AUC=0.933, melanoma in situ (AUC=0.933 and dysplastic (atypical nevi (AUC=0.951 from common nevi. Target prediction analysis of co-transcribed miRNAs showed a cooperative regulation of key elements in the MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, we found extensive sequence variations (isomiRs and other non-coding small RNAs revealing a complex melanoma transcriptome. Deep-sequencing small RNAs directly from clinically defined specimens provides a robust strategy to improve melanoma diagnostics.

  11. Chaos and Fractals in Geodesic Motions Around a Non-Rotating Black-Hole with an External Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Servio de Moura, A P; Moura, Alessandro P. S. de; Letelier, Patricio S.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the occurrence chaos in the escape of test particles moving in the field of a Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by an external halo. The motion of both material particles and zero rest mass particles is considered. The chaos is characterized by the fractal dimension of boundary between the basins of the different escapes, which is a topologically invariant characterization. We find chaos in the motion of both material particles and null geodesics.

  12. Motion in a stochastic layer described by symbolic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The motion in the stochastic layer surrounding an island can be studied by using the standard map: this problem is of direct relevance to the diffusion of magnetic field lines in a tokamak. In a previous work it was shown that this process can be adequately modelled by a continuous time random walk (CTRW) describing transitions of the running point between three basins representing, respectively, trapped motion around the island, and passing motion above or below the island. The sticking property of the island deeply modifies the nature of the transport process, leading to sub-diffusive behavior. In the present work it is shown that the motion can be analyzed in terms of a symbolic dynamics which leads to the possibility of an automatic measurement of the data necessary for the construction of the CTRW. The logical features of the procedure are described, and the method is applied to an analysis of long time series, thus completing the results of the previous work. (author)

  13. MOM Failure Modes: An In-Depth Look at Metal Ions and Implant Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Donaldson, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary MOM bearings (large-diameter heads offered the perceived benefits of much greater range of motion and greater stability with reduced risk of impingement and dislocation. A variety of design and Both positive [1-3] and negative reports [4-8] have now emerged with regard to total hip arthroplasty (THA and resurfacing arthroplasty. As a result, there has been an avalanche of studies focused on critical issues such as: surgical positioning, shallow cups (face angles 144-170° [9-11] and “edge loading”. [5,7,12-17] However, there are several, possibly synergistic, risk scenarios that could trigger adverse MOM wear and very little progress has been made in understanding such interacting parameters. In an effort to understand the role of metal ion analysis and how it relates to revision surgery and implant wear, selected MOM revised cases were reviewed [28]. Retrieval data was included in conjunction with metal ion analyses and intraoperative observations to determine various failure modes.  We suggest MOM devices that are well fixed but fail after 2 years can be classified into one of six modes: (i normal, (ii allergic reaction, (iii 3rd body wear, (iv repetitive subluxation with metal impingement, (v multi-directional subluxation with soft tissue impingement, and (vi repetitive subluxation with soft tissue impingement.

  14. Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural-dwelling women and men. Method: Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results: Both older women and men rely heavily on…

  15. Team Regulation in a Simulated Medical Emergency: An In-Depth Analysis of Cognitive, Metacognitive, and Affective Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Melissa C.; Azevedo, Roger; Sun, Ning-Zi; Griscom, Sophia E.; Stead, Victoria; Crelinsten, Linda; Wiseman, Jeffrey; Maniatis, Thomas; Lachapelle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the nature of cognitive, metacognitive, and affective processes among a medical team experiencing difficulty managing a challenging simulated medical emergency case by conducting in-depth analysis of process data. Medical residents participated in a simulation exercise designed to help trainees to develop medical expertise,…

  16. Ground motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake II: Ground motion estimates for the 1906 earthquake and scenario events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B; Brocher, T; Dreger, D; Frankel, A; Graves, R; Harmsen, S; Hartzell, S; Larsen, S; McCandless, K; Nilsson, S; Petersson, N A; Rodgers, A; Sjogreen, B; Tkalcic, H; Zoback, M L

    2007-02-09

    We estimate the ground motions produced by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.

  17. Petroleum exploration potential of Tamtsag Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Guo-qing; GUO Qing-xia; ZHANG Ya-jin; ZHAO Hong-wen

    2004-01-01

    The Tamtsag Basin is located in the extreme eastern portion of the Mongolia. The Basin and its counterpart in China (the Hailar Basin) are united a whole basin on the structural setting. In recent years, the Tamtsag Basin attracts more and more attention with the important exploration discovered in the 19th block by SOCO and in Hailar Basin of China. This paper discusses the exploration potential of Tamtsag Basin from the viewpoint of petroleum geology.

  18. Ground motion modeling of Hayward fault scenario earthquakes II:Simulation of long-period and broadband ground motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B T; Graves, R W; Rodgers, A; Brocher, T M; Simpson, R W; Dreger, D; Petersson, N A; Larsen, S C; Ma, S; Jachens, R C

    2009-11-04

    We simulate long-period (T > 1.0-2.0 s) and broadband (T > 0.1 s) ground motions for 39 scenarios earthquakes (Mw 6.7-7.2) involving the Hayward, Calaveras, and Rodgers Creek faults. For rupture on the Hayward fault we consider the effects of creep on coseismic slip using two different approaches, both of which reduce the ground motions compared with neglecting the influence of creep. Nevertheless, the scenario earthquakes generate strong shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area with about 50% of the urban area experiencing MMI VII or greater for the magnitude 7.0 scenario events. Long-period simulations of the 2007 Mw 4.18 Oakland and 2007 Mw 4.5 Alum Rock earthquakes show that the USGS Bay Area Velocity Model version 08.3.0 permits simulation of the amplitude and duration of shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area, with the greatest accuracy in the Santa Clara Valley (San Jose area). The ground motions exhibit a strong sensitivity to the rupture length (or magnitude), hypocenter (or rupture directivity), and slip distribution. The ground motions display a much weaker sensitivity to the rise time and rupture speed. Peak velocities, peak accelerations, and spectral accelerations from the synthetic broadband ground motions are, on average, slightly higher than the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) ground-motion prediction equations. We attribute at least some of this difference to the relatively narrow width of the Hayward fault ruptures. The simulations suggest that the Spudich and Chiou (2008) directivity corrections to the NGA relations could be improved by including a dependence on the rupture speed and increasing the areal extent of rupture directivity with period. The simulations also indicate that the NGA relations may under-predict amplification in shallow sedimentary basins.

  19. Canterbury Basin Sea Level

    OpenAIRE

    Fulthorpe, C. S.; Institute for Geophysics John A. and Katherine G. Jackson School of Geosciences The University of Texas at Austin J.J. Pickle Research Campus, Building 196 (ROC) 10100 Burnet Road (R2200) Austin TX 78758-4445 USA; Hoyanagi, K.; Department of Geology Faculty of Science Shinshu University 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 Japan; Blum, P.; United States Implementing Organization Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University 1000 Discovery Drive College Station TX 77845 USA; Guèrin, G.; Borehole Research Group Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W Palisades NY 10964 USA; Slagle, A. L.; Borehole Research Group Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W Palisades NY 10964 USA; Blair, S. A.; Department of Geological Sciences Florida State University 006 Carraway Building Tallahassee FL 32306 USA; Browne, G. H.; Hydrocarbon Section GNS Science PO Box 30368 Lower Hutt New Zealand; Carter, R. M.; Marine Geophysical Laboratory James Cook University of North Queensland Townsville QLD 4811 Australia; Ciobanu, M.; Laboratoire de Microbiologie des Environnements Extrêmes CNRS UMR-6197 Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer Technopole Brest-Iroise Plouzane 29280 France; Claypool, G. E.; Organic Geochemist 8910 West 2nd Avenue Lakewood CO 80226 USA; Crundwell, M. P.; New Zealand Observer/Paleontologist (foraminifers) Paleontology and Environmental Change Section GNS Science PO Box 30368 Lower Hutt New Zealand; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Ding, X.; School of Marine Sciences China University of Geosciences (Beijing) 29 XueYuan Road, Haidian District Beijing P.R. China; George, S. C.; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences Macquarie University Sydney NSW 2109 Australia; Hepp, D. A.; MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences and Department of Geosciences University of Bremen Leobener Strasse MARUM Building, Room 2230 28359 Bremen Germany

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 317 was devoted to understanding the relative importance of global sea level (eustasy) versus local tectonic and sedimentary processes in controlling continental margin sedimentary cycles. The expedition recovered sediments from the Eocene to recent period, with a particular focus on the sequence stratigraphy of the late Miocene to recent, when global sea level change was dominated by glacioeustasy. Drilling in the Canterbury Basin,...

  20. Investigating the elastic properties of sedimentary basins on different spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Martin; Methe, Pascal; Goepel, Andreas; Bleibinhaus, Florian; Kukowski, Nina

    2014-05-01

    The study of subsurface fluid motion is important e.g. for understanding ground water motion or processes of compaction, diagenesis, and hydrocarbon migration in sedimentary basins. The multidisciplinary project INFLUINS (INtegrated FLUid dynamics IN Sedimentary basins) aims for investigating the coupled dynamics of near surface and deep fluid patterns and material transport in the Thuringian Basin (Germany). In order to gain information on how fluid flow processes depend on basin architecture, and therefore its physical properties, we first image the subsurface structure of the Thuringian Basin using seismic methods. Then, relations between hydraulic and elastic material parameters are required to also image the hydraulic structure of the basin's subsurface. As hydraulic properties often significantly vary with spatial scales, such a study requires a combination of small- to large-scale seismic data sets. In the framework of INFLUINS a variety of seismic data sets aiming for different subsurface parameters and spatial scales have been acquired. Basin scale seismic data sets are available from a set of 2D reflection seismic profiles as well as 2.5D and 3D seismic travel time tomography. Laboratory scale seismic data characterizing the basin's rocks is provided by ultrasound experiments on drill cores from the Thuringian Basin. Deep drilling conducted in the framework of INFLUINS in 2013 provides further useful data sets for our purpose: we acquired core material for laboratory ultrasound analysis and sonic-log data. As the drill site is located at the cross point of two seismic reflection profiles and also within the array of seismic stations we used for the 3D travel time tomography, it serves a direct transfer of elastic properties between different scales.

  1. IBIEM modelling of the amplification of seismic waves by a three-dimensional layered alluvial basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongxian; Liang, Jianwen; Huang, Yihe; Liu, Lei

    2016-02-01

    We develop an indirect boundary integral equation method (IBIEM) to solve the scattering of seismic waves by a 3-D layered alluvial basin. We adopt the dynamic Green's functions for concentrated loads for a layered half-space derived from the modified stiffness method. This new algorithm of Green's function can solve the near-source response efficiently and accurately, and also facilitates the meshless implementation of the IBIEM. The numerical accuracy and stability of the IBIEM are tested for a homogeneous, hemispherical alluvial basin, and a two-layered model. Based on the IBIEM, the effects of several important parameters, such as the incident frequency, the angle of incidence and the properties of the alluvial layers are investigated for incident plane P and SV waves, respectively. The results show that the local amplification effects of a 3-D layered alluvial basin on the ground motion are strikingly significant, and that the spatial variation of the displacement response is drastic. We also find that the thickness of the near-surface low-velocity alluvial layer has a pronounced influence on the frequency spectrum of ground motion within the basin. As for the thick low-velocity layer, the amplification effect on the displacement amplitude spectrum appears in a wide range of frequencies, with more resonant models in the same frequency range. As for the thin low-velocity layer, in contrast, the amplification effect is close to the homogeneous case but becomes more significant for high-frequency waves. The displacement amplification for a basin with a soft intermediate layer is larger than that of the homogeneous basin for the lower frequencies, but seems to be weakened for high-frequency waves. Additionally, the damping ratio of the alluvial layer can substantially reduce the displacement amplitude in the basin, especially in the range of resonant frequencies. Our results provide a better understanding of the 3-D wave focusing and basin-edge effect within 3-D

  2. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  3. Long-Period Ground Motion in the Arabian Gulf from Earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains Thrust Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarka, Arben; Al-Amri, Abdullah; Pasyanos, Michael E.; Rodgers, Arthur J.; Mellors, Robert J.

    2015-10-01

    The Arabian Gulf is adjacent to the Zagros Mountains, one of the most seismically active regions in the world. We observe that broadband seismic records of Zagros earthquakes recorded on the Arabian side of the Gulf display long-duration surface waves. While shorter periods (10 km) of the Gulf basin, the long-period energy is enhanced and transmitted efficiently. Consequently, large earthquakes in the Zagros could result in amplified ground motions at long periods (2-10 s) relative to average behavior. Such ground motions are of concern for large engineered structures, such as tall buildings and long bridges with resonant periods in the same period range. Here we present results of investigations of the characteristics of ground motions recorded on the western shore of the Gulf from selected earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains region. Exceptionally, long-duration seismic waves, as compared with standard models, are shown to occur with periods of 2-10 s. This may be due to waveguide effects in the deep sedimentary basin structure of the Arabian Platform. In addition to analyzing recorded ground motion we performed 3D wave propagation simulations using a finite difference method and experimental velocity models of the Gulf, with different shallow sedimentary layers structures. The simulation results confirm our hypothesis that long-period waves with extremely long duration and relatively large amplitudes are caused by the geometry of the basin sedimentary layers and, to some extent, by shallow earthquake depths. Combined effects of basin edge geometry with sharp velocity contrasts and shallow sources (<10 km) on the eastern side of the Arabian Gulf can cause large long-period ground motion on the western side of the Gulf. In contrast, the short-period content of ground motion (<2 s) at long distances is relatively weak. This is mainly due to wave propagation scattering and attenuation in the shallow sedimentary layers of the Gulf basin.

  4. Motions of a Powered Top with a Spherical Tip on a Curved Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Meeker

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to model the dynamics of a top with a finite radius tip on a curved basin in a gravitational field without (and with energy addition and dissipation. This is an extension of a very general and classical problem and requires development of a method for treating the dynamical interactions between the two curved surfaces. The full nonlinear equations of motion are indicated; however, these equations are complex and do not show the dominant mechanisms that define the system motions. A novel method of “partial linearization” is employed that reduces the equations of motion to a relevant and tractable form in which these mechanisms are clearly exposed. The model and related results are compared with relevant examples from the literature. The movement of the top is simulated by an integration of the fully nonlinear equations of motion and compared with the partially linearized results.

  5. Alignment between seafloor spreading directions and absolute plate motions through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon E.; Flament, Nicolas; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-02-01

    The history of seafloor spreading in the ocean basins provides a detailed record of relative motions between Earth's tectonic plates since Pangea breakup. Determining how tectonic plates have moved relative to the Earth's deep interior is more challenging. Recent studies of contemporary plate motions have demonstrated links between relative plate motion and absolute plate motion (APM), and with seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. Here we explore the link between spreading directions and APM since the Early Cretaceous. We find a significant alignment between APM and spreading directions at mid-ocean ridges; however, the degree of alignment is influenced by geodynamic setting, and is strongest for mid-Atlantic spreading ridges between plates that are not directly influenced by time-varying slab pull. In the Pacific, significant mismatches between spreading and APM direction may relate to a major plate-mantle reorganization. We conclude that spreading fabric can be used to improve models of APM.

  6. Surface Chest Motion Decomposition for Cardiovascular Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ghufran Shafiq; Kalyana C. Veluvolu

    2014-01-01

    Surface chest motion can be easily monitored with a wide variety of sensors such as pressure belts, fiber Bragg gratings and inertial sensors, etc. The current applications of these sensors are mainly restricted to respiratory motion monitoring/analysis due to the technical challenges involved in separation of the cardiac motion from the dominant respiratory motion. The contribution of heart to the surface chest motion is relatively very small as compared to the respiratory motion. Further, t...

  7. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumesh P Thampi; Rama Govindarajan

    2015-03-01

    Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling motion for any intermediate shape, and recently obtained a universal curve for the amount of roll as a function of a shape parameter using hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations. In this paper, we discuss the linear relationship which is expected between the Capillary and Bond numbers, and provide detailed confirmation by simulations. We also show that the viscosity of the surrounding medium can qualitatively affect dynamics. Our results provide an answer to a natural question of whether drops roll or slide on a surface and carry implications for various applications where rolling motion may or may not be preferred.

  8. Dance notations and robot motion

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    How and why to write a movement? Who is the writer? Who is the reader? They may be choreographers working with dancers. They may be roboticists programming robots. They may be artists designing cartoons in computer animation. In all such fields the purpose is to express an intention about a dance, a specific motion or an action to perform, in terms of intelligible sequences of elementary movements, as a music score that would be devoted to motion representation. Unfortunately there is no universal language to write a motion. Motion languages live together in a Babel tower populated by biomechanists, dance notators, neuroscientists, computer scientists, choreographers, roboticists. Each community handles its own concepts and speaks its own language. The book accounts for this diversity. Its origin is a unique workshop held at LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse in 2014. Worldwide representatives of various communities met there. Their challenge was to reach a mutual understanding allowing a choreographer to access robotics ...

  9. Brownian Motion, "Diverse and Undulating"

    CERN Document Server

    Duplantier, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    We describe in detail the history of Brownian motion, as well as the contributions of Einstein, Sutherland, Smoluchowski, Bachelier, Perrin and Langevin to its theory. The always topical importance in physics of the theory of Brownian motion is illustrated by recent biophysical experiments, where it serves, for instance, for the measurement of the pulling force on a single DNA molecule. In a second part, we stress the mathematical importance of the theory of Brownian motion, illustrated by two chosen examples. The by-now classic representation of the Newtonian potential by Brownian motion is explained in an elementary way. We conclude with the description of recent progress seen in the geometry of the planar Brownian curve. At its heart lie the concepts of conformal invariance and multifractality, associated with the potential theory of the Brownian curve itself.

  10. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siddharth Gautam; S Mitra; R Mukhopadhyay

    2008-10-01

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time scales involved in the motion and the geometry of motion can be studied using QENS. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation not only provides insight into the details of the different types of motion possible but also does not suffer limitations of the experimental set-up. Here we report the effect of confinement on molecular dynamics in various restricted geometries as studied by QENS and MD simulations: An example where the QENS technique provided direct evidence of phase transition associated with change in the dynamical behaviour of the molecules is also discussed.

  11. Outlier detection and motion segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torr, Philip H. S.; Murray, David W.

    1993-08-01

    We present a new method for solving the problem of motion segmentation, identifying the objects within an image moving independently of the background. We utilize the fact that two views of a static 3D point set are linked by a 3 X 3 Fundamental Matrix (F). The Fundamental Matrix contains all the information on structure and motion from a given set of point correspondences and is derived by a least squares method under the assumption that the majority of the image is undergoing a rigid motion. Least squares is the most commonly used method of parameter estimation in computer vision algorithms. However the estimated parameters from a least squares fit can be corrupted beyond recognition in the presence of gross errors or outliers which plague any data from real imagery. Features with a motion independent of the background are those statistically inconsistent from the calculated value of (F). Well founded methods for detecting these outlying points are described.

  12. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  13. Is Diaphragm Motion a Good Surrogate for Liver Tumor Motion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Juan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Cai, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Wang, Hongjun [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Chang, Zheng; Czito, Brian G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Bashir, Mustafa R. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Palta, Manisha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yin, Fang-Fang, E-mail: fangfang.yin@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between liver tumor motion and diaphragm motion. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (10 of 14) or liver metastases (4 of 14) undergoing radiation therapy were included in this study. All patients underwent single-slice cine–magnetic resonance imaging simulations across the center of the tumor in 3 orthogonal planes. Tumor and diaphragm motion trajectories in the superior–inferior (SI), anterior–posterior (AP), and medial–lateral (ML) directions were obtained using an in-house-developed normalized cross-correlation–based tracking technique. Agreement between the tumor and diaphragm motion was assessed by calculating phase difference percentage, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis (Diff). The distance between the tumor and tracked diaphragm area was analyzed to understand its impact on the correlation between the 2 motions. Results: Of all patients, the mean (±standard deviation) phase difference percentage values were 7.1% ± 1.1%, 4.5% ± 0.5%, and 17.5% ± 4.5% in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.97 ± 0.02, and 0.08 ± 0.06 in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean Diff values were 2.8 ± 1.4 mm, 2.4 ± 1.1 mm, and 2.2 ± 0.5 mm in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. Tumor and diaphragm motions had high concordance when the distance between the tumor and tracked diaphragm area was small. Conclusions: This study showed that liver tumor motion had good correlation with diaphragm motion in the SI and AP directions, indicating diaphragm motion in the SI and AP directions could potentially be used as a reliable surrogate for liver tumor motion.

  14. Is Diaphragm Motion a Good Surrogate for Liver Tumor Motion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between liver tumor motion and diaphragm motion. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (10 of 14) or liver metastases (4 of 14) undergoing radiation therapy were included in this study. All patients underwent single-slice cine–magnetic resonance imaging simulations across the center of the tumor in 3 orthogonal planes. Tumor and diaphragm motion trajectories in the superior–inferior (SI), anterior–posterior (AP), and medial–lateral (ML) directions were obtained using an in-house-developed normalized cross-correlation–based tracking technique. Agreement between the tumor and diaphragm motion was assessed by calculating phase difference percentage, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis (Diff). The distance between the tumor and tracked diaphragm area was analyzed to understand its impact on the correlation between the 2 motions. Results: Of all patients, the mean (±standard deviation) phase difference percentage values were 7.1% ± 1.1%, 4.5% ± 0.5%, and 17.5% ± 4.5% in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.97 ± 0.02, and 0.08 ± 0.06 in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean Diff values were 2.8 ± 1.4 mm, 2.4 ± 1.1 mm, and 2.2 ± 0.5 mm in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. Tumor and diaphragm motions had high concordance when the distance between the tumor and tracked diaphragm area was small. Conclusions: This study showed that liver tumor motion had good correlation with diaphragm motion in the SI and AP directions, indicating diaphragm motion in the SI and AP directions could potentially be used as a reliable surrogate for liver tumor motion

  15. Motion Planning and Irreducible Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Orthey, Andreas; Stasse, Olivier; Lamiraux, Florent

    2015-01-01

    — We introduce a novel notion for lowering the dimensionality of motion planning problems: Irreducibility. Irreducibility of a configuration space trajectory τ means: We cannot find another configuration space trajectory τ , such that the swept volume of τ is included in the swept volume of τ. The main contribution of our work is twofold: First, we show that motion planning in the space of irreducible trajectories is complete. Second, we show that we can construct reducible subspaces by reaso...

  16. The mathematics of motion camouflage.

    OpenAIRE

    Glendinning, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Motion camouflage is a strategy whereby an aggressor moves towards a target while appearing stationary to the target except for the inevitable change in perceived size of the aggressor as it approaches. The strategy has been observed in insects, and mathematical models using discrete time or neural-network control have been used to simulate the behaviour. Here, the differential equations for motion camouflage are derived and some simple cases are analysed. These equations are easy to simulate...

  17. Thermocapillary Motion in an Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukhnachov, Vladislav V.; Voinov, Oleg V.

    1996-01-01

    The phenomenological model for the motion of an emulsion or a gas-liquid mixture exposed to thermocapillary forces and micro-acceleration is formulated. The analytical and numerical investigation of one-dimensional flows for these media is fulfilled, the structure of discontinuous motion is studied. The stability conditions of a space-uniform state and of the interface between an emulsion and a pure liquid are obtained.

  18. Motion estimation via dynamic vision

    OpenAIRE

    Soatto, Stefano; Frezza, Ruggero; Perona, Pietro

    1996-01-01

    Estimating the three-dimensional motion of an object from a sequence of projections is of paramount importance in a variety of applications in control and robotics, such as autonomous navigation, manipulation, servo, tracking, docking, planning, and surveillance. Although “visual motion estimation” is an old problem (the first formulations date back to the beginning of the century), only recently have tools from nonlinear systems estimation theory hinted at acceptable solutions. In this paper...

  19. Dynamical evolution of motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Ryota; Sheth, Bhavin R; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2007-03-01

    Motion is defined as a sequence of positional changes over time. However, in perception, spatial position and motion dynamically interact with each other. This reciprocal interaction suggests that the perception of a moving object itself may dynamically evolve following the onset of motion. Here, we show evidence that the percept of a moving object systematically changes over time. In experiments, we introduced a transient gap in the motion sequence or a brief change in some feature (e.g., color or shape) of an otherwise smoothly moving target stimulus. Observers were highly sensitive to the gap or transient change if it occurred soon after motion onset ( or = 300 ms). Our findings suggest that the moving stimulus is initially perceived as a time series of discrete potentially isolatable frames; later failures to perceive change suggests that over time, the stimulus begins to be perceived as a single, indivisible gestalt integrated over space as well as time, which could well be the signature of an emergent stable motion percept. PMID:17316736

  20. Slow motion increases perceived intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Eugene M; Burns, Zachary C; Converse, Benjamin A

    2016-08-16

    To determine the appropriate punishment for a harmful action, people must often make inferences about the transgressor's intent. In courtrooms and popular media, such inferences increasingly rely on video evidence, which is often played in "slow motion." Four experiments (n = 1,610) involving real surveillance footage from a murder or broadcast replays of violent contact in professional football demonstrate that viewing an action in slow motion, compared with regular speed, can cause viewers to perceive an action as more intentional. This slow motion intentionality bias occurred, in part, because slow motion video caused participants to feel like the actor had more time to act, even when they knew how much clock time had actually elapsed. Four additional experiments (n = 2,737) reveal that allowing viewers to see both regular speed and slow motion replay mitigates the bias, but does not eliminate it. We conclude that an empirical understanding of the effect of slow motion on mental state attribution should inform the life-or-death decisions that are currently based on tacit assumptions about the objectivity of human perception. PMID:27482091

  1. Intracontinental basins and strong earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓起东; 高孟潭; 赵新平; 吴建春

    2004-01-01

    The September 17, 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake occurred in Linfen basin of Shanxi down-faulted basin zone. It is the first recorded M=8 earthquake since the Chinese historical seismic records had started and is a great earthquake occurring in the active intracontinental basin. We had held a Meeting of the 700th Anniversary of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 Earthquake in Shanxi and a Symposium on Intracontinental Basins and Strong Earthquakes in Taiyuan City of Shanxi Province on September 17~18, 2003. The articles presented on the symposium discussed the relationships between active intracontinental basins of different properties, developed in different regions, including tensional graben and semi-graben basins in tensile tectonic regions, compression-depression basins and foreland basins in compressive tectonic regions and pull-apart basins in strike-slip tectonic zones, and strong earthquakes in China. In this article we make a brief summary of some problems. The articles published in this special issue are a part of the articles presented on the symposium.

  2. Escape dynamics and fractal basin boundaries in Seyfert galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zotos, Euaggelos E

    2015-01-01

    The escape dynamics in a simple analytical gravitational model which describes the motion of stars in a Seyfert galaxy is investigated in detail. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis distinguishing between regular and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering only unbounded motion for several energy levels. In order to distinguish safely and with certainty between ordered and chaotic motion, we apply the Smaller ALingment Index (SALI) method. It is of particular interest to locate the escape basins through the openings around the collinear Lagrangian points $L_1$ and $L_2$ and relate them with the corresponding spatial distribution of the escape times of the orbits. Our exploration takes place both in the physical $(x,y)$ and in the phase $(x,\\dot{x})$ space in order to elucidate the escape process as well as the overall orbital properties of the galactic system. Our numerical analysis reveals the strong dependence of the properties of the considered escape basins with the...

  3. Multiple oscillatory modes of the Argentine Basin. Part II. The spectral origin of the basin modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Vevier, F.; Gille, S.T.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the spectrum of barotropic basin modes of the Argentine Basin is shown to be connected to the classical Rossby basin modes of a flat-bottom (constant depth), rectangular basin. First, the spectrum of basin modes is calculated for the Argentine Basin, by performing a normal-mode analysi

  4. Chaos in motion of scalar particles coupling to Einstein tensor in Schwarzschild-Melvin black hole spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Mingzhi; Jing, Jiliang

    2016-01-01

    We present firstly the equation of motion for the scalar particle coupling to Einstein tensor in the Schwarzschild-Melvin black hole spacetime through the short-wave approximation. Through analysing Poincar\\'{e} sections, the power spectrum, the fast Lyapunov exponent indicator, the bifurcation diagram and the basins of attraction of the dynamical system, we confirm that the chaos exists in the geodesic motion of the coupled scalar particles. Moreover, we probe the effects of the magnetic field parameter and coupling parameter on the chaotic behavior of the particles. Our results show that the coupling together with the magnetic field brings richer physics for the motion of particles.

  5. The Congo Basin Walker circulation: dynamics and connections to precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kerry H.; Vizy, Edward K.

    2016-08-01

    The existence, seasonality, and variability of a Congo Basin Walker circulation are investigated in reanalyses, and connections with rainfall are explored. A zonal overturning circulation along the equator connects rising motion in the Congo Basin and sinking in the eastern Atlantic during June through October. This timing is out of phase with precipitation over equatorial Africa, which greatest during spring and fall, and does not correlate with the seasonality of land temperatures. Rather, the zonally-overturning circulation only occurs when the Atlantic cold tongue has formed. Although the cold tongue formation is essential for setting up the Congo Basin Walker circulation, variations in equatorial eastern Atlantic sea surface temperatures are not associated with interannual variability in the strength of the circulation. When cold tongue SSTs are anomalously cool (warm), evaporation from the ocean surface is reduced (enhanced) and the westerly flow advects less (more) moisture into the base of the Congo Basin Walker circulation. This reduces (increases) the release of latent heat in the upbranch and weakens (strengthens) the Walker circulation. This process dominates the pure dry dynamical response to enhanced land/sea temperature differences, which has an opposite sign. A positive correlation connects low-level vertical velocity in the Congo basin with low-level vertical velocity and precipitation over West Africa. A wave response to anomalous vertical velocity in the Congo Basin in several reanalyses suggests a teleconnection into West Africa such that an anomalously strong (weak) upbranch is associated with anomalously strong (weak) rainfall over the Guinean coast and southern Sahel.

  6. Motion estimation for video coding efficient algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Indrajit; Chatterjee, Sumit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The need of video compression in the modern age of visual communication cannot be over-emphasized. This monograph will provide useful information to the postgraduate students and researchers who wish to work in the domain of VLSI design for video processing applications. In this book, one can find an in-depth discussion of several motion estimation algorithms and their VLSI implementation as conceived and developed by the authors. It records an account of research done involving fast three step search, successive elimination, one-bit transformation and its effective combination with diamond search and dynamic pixel truncation techniques. Two appendices provide a number of instances of proof of concept through Matlab and Verilog program segments. In this aspect, the book can be considered as first of its kind. The architectures have been developed with an eye to their applicability in everyday low-power handheld appliances including video camcorders and smartphones.

  7. When the Heartbeat Quickens Things are Set in Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poetz, Katharina; Poetz, Marion

    are little investigated. Drawing on experiential learning and affective events theory we carve out learning events from six longitudinal, in-depth case studies of portfolio entrepreneurs operating in the small food processing industry of a developing country to investigate how the processing of events......Portfolio entrepreneurs, i.e., entrepreneurs who simultaneously master multiple businesses, are particularly relevant for the creation of economic value. Portfolio entrepreneurship has thus gained scholarly attention. However, related processes of how portfolios are developed by the entrepreneurs...... changes in the entrepreneurs business portfolios. Notably, learning and change are set in motion on the basis of getting aroused by others" success, exposure to modern technologies, and internal management problems. However, some counterintuitive patterns emerged, particularly with regards to portfolio...

  8. THE IMPACT OF IFRS ON REPORTING FOR BUSINESS COMBINATIONS: AN IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS USING THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Garry M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The mandatory use of IFRS by all publicly listed companies in the European Union created challenges for accounting and reporting of business combinations, goodwill impairment and disclosures for these items. Major issues are allocation of amounts to goodwill and specific intangible assets arising from acquisition. This study presents an in-depth exploration of compliance with IFRS 3 and IAS 36 using content analysis methodology of annual reports of eight European telecommunications that were chose because the industry is well known for significant acquisitions involving intangibles. The results show only partial compliance with little change over the four year period since mandatory IFRS adoption. While results cannot be generalized outside this group, the in-depth analysis yielded important insights for continued research using broader research methods.

  9. In-depth cDNA Library Sequencing Provides Quantitative Gene Expression Profiling in Cancer Biomarker Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanling Yang; Dingge Ying; Yu-Lung Lau

    2009-01-01

    procedures may allow detection of many expres-sion features for less abundant gene variants. With the reduction of sequencing cost and the emerging of new generation sequencing technology, in-depth sequencing of cDNA pools or libraries may represent a better and powerful tool in gene expression profiling and cancer biomarker detection. We also propose using sequence-specific subtraction to remove hundreds of the most abundant housekeeping genes to in-crease sequencing depth without affecting relative expression ratio of other genes, as transcripts from as few as 300 most abundantly expressed genes constitute about 20% of the total transcriptome. In-depth sequencing also represents a unique ad-vantage of detecting unknown forms of transcripts, such as alternative splicing variants, fusion genes, and regulatory RNAs, as well as detecting mutations and polymorphisms that may play important roles in disease pathogenesis.

  10. Safety principles, safety requirements and implementations of Defence-in-depth - introduction to major novel designs and their safety cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An OECD NEA Workshop on Advanced Nuclear Reactor Safety Issues and Research Needs was organized from 18 to 20 February 2002. This paper presents, for each sessions of the workshop, a summary of the presentations. Session one is devoted to the safety principles, safety requirements and implementation of defence-in-depth; session two deals with the issues important for safety and their assessment. Session three answers the question: how to deal with safety issues, questions and concerns? (A.L.B.)

  11. Exploring research participation among cancer patients: analysis of a national survey and an in-depth interview study

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Grath-Lone, Louise; Day, Sophie; Schoenborn, Claudia; Ward, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Inequalities in cancer research participation are thought to exist with certain groups under-represented in research populations; however, much of the evidence is based on small-scale studies. The aim of this study was to explore data from in-depth interviews with cancer patients and a large national survey to investigate variation in who is asked to participate in research and who takes part. Methods Factors associated with research discussion and participation were explored in Na...

  12. Perceived health after percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation: in-depth interviews of patients and next-of-kin

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen, Brith; Andersen, Marit Helen; Lindberg, Harald; Døhlen, Gaute; Fosse, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Objective Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation is an alternative to open heart surgery in selected patients with pulmonary outflow tract disorder. The technique may reduce the number of open-chest surgeries in these patients. This study was conducted to understand how the patients and their next-of-kin experienced this new treatment option. Design Qualitative explorative design with individual in-depth interviews. Setting Oslo University Hospital, the only cardiac centre in Norway offeri...

  13. Barriers to Emergency Obstetric Care Services in Perinatal Deaths in Rural Gambia: A Qualitative In-Depth Interview Study

    OpenAIRE

    Siri Vangen; Johanne Sundby; Abdou Jammeh

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The Gambia has one of the world's highest perinatal mortality rates. We explored barriers of timely access to emergency obstetric care services resulting in perinatal deaths and in survivors of severe obstetric complications in rural Gambia. Method. We applied the “three delays” model as a framework for assessing contributing factors to perinatal deaths and obstetric complications. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 survivors of severe obstetric complications at...

  14. 76 FR 2151 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Defense-in-Depth is a Smart Investment for Cyber Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ...The NCO, on behalf of the Special Cyber Operations Research and Engineering (SCORE) Committee, an interagency working group that coordinates cyber security research activities in support of national security systems, is seeking expert participants in a day-long workshop on the pros and cons of the defense-in-depth strategy for cyber security. The workshop will be held March 22, 2011 in the......

  15. NEA’S Plans for Strengthening International Implementation of the Application of Defence in Depth Philosophies in Nuclear Power Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Following the Fukushima Daiichi Accident the OECD NEA established and delivered three tasks related to Defence in Depth for its member states. These consisted of: • A review of member state and NEA activities directly related to the accident by the Fukushima Senior Task Group set up by the OECD NEA Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA). • An international expert review of the NEA’s wide ranging joint nuclear safety research portfolio. • A joint workshop on ‘Challenges and Enhancements to Defence in Depth (DiD) in light of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident’ on 5th June 2013 by both the OECD NEA Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) and Committee for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). These tasks encompassed firstly, how the NEA member states understand the concept of DiD and its value within Nuclear Safety. Secondly, how DiD is implemented at present, focussing on how it is implemented to deal with external events, and finally what future areas the NEA members considered NEA as a whole should be carrying forward to enhance the understanding and implementation of Defence-in-Depth. Such areas included: • Exploring what the DiD safety goal concept ”practically eliminate large and early offsite releases” means and how is it implemented. • Independence and margins in the implementation of DiD. • Human interventions considering catastrophic external events effects on emergency response and recovery. • Detailed identification of additional safety research after Fukushima. This presentation provides a summary of those tasks and NEA’s international programme of activities to bring its members together in those areas they highlighted to deliver enhancement in the understanding and implementation of defence in depth. (author)

  16. Application of the Defense-in-Depth Concept in the Projects of New-Generation NPPs Equipped with VVER Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The projects of new-generation NPPs equipped with VVER reactors are developed as projects the safety level of which is superior to that of NPPs that are currently in operation. The main design solutions adopted for implementing the defence-in-depth (DiD) concept in the projects of new-generation NPPs equipped with VVER reactors are briefly characterized in the paper. (author)

  17. Defense In-Depth Accident Analysis Evaluation of Tritium Facility Bldgs. 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The primary purpose of this report is to document a Defense-in-Depth (DID) accident analysis evaluation for Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facility Buildings 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H. The purpose of a DID evaluation is to provide a more realistic view of facility radiological risks to the offsite public than the bounding deterministic analysis documented in the Safety Analysis Report, which credits only Safety Class items in the offsite dose evaluation.'

  18. In-Depth Profiling of Lysine-Producing Corynebacterium glutamicum by Combined Analysis of the Transcriptome, Metabolome, and Fluxome

    OpenAIRE

    Krömer, Jens Olaf; Sorgenfrei, Oliver; Klopprogge, Kai; Heinzle, Elmar; Wittmann, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    An in-depth analysis of the intracellular metabolite concentrations, metabolic fluxes, and gene expression (metabolome, fluxome, and transcriptome, respectively) of lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13287 was performed at different stages of batch culture and revealed distinct phases of growth and lysine production. For this purpose, 13C flux analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-labeling measurement of free intracellular amino acids, metabolite balancing, and isot...

  19. In-depth Permeability Modifier for Improvement of Sweep Efficiency in a Heterogeneous Oil Reservoir: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelazim Abbas Ahmed; A.P. Ismail Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study reviews and assessed some of in-depth permeability modification techniques used in the industry with regards to improving conformance problems in heterogeneous oil reservoirs. Reservoir conformance problems frequently limit the success of many of water and chemical EOR flooding projects. Basically, there are many types of conformance problems and many different conformance improvement techniques. The challenge is to properly identify and then to select a suitable conformance improv...

  20. Molecules in strong laser fields. In depth study of H2 molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) describing the electronic motion of the molecules exposed to very short intense laser pulses has been developed. The time-dependent electronic wavefunction is expanded in terms of a superposition of field-free eigenstates. The field-free eigenstates are calculated in two ways. In the first approach, which is applicable to two electron systems like H2, fully correlated field-free eigenstates are obtained in complete dimensionality using configuration-interaction calculation where the one-electron basis functions are built from B splines. In the second approach, which is even applicable to larger molecules, the field-free eigenstates are calculated within the single-active-electron (SAE) approximation using density functional theory. In general, the method can be divided into two parts, in the first part the field-free eigenstates are calculated and then in the second part a time propagation for the laser pulse parameters is performed. The H2 molecule is the testing ground for the implementation of both the methods. The reliability of the configuration interaction (CI) based method for the solution of TDSE (CI-TDSE) is tested by comparing results in the low-intensity regime to the prediction of lowest-order perturbation theory. Another test for the CI-TDSE method is in the united atom limit for the H2 molecule. By selecting a very small value of the internuclear distance close to zero for the H2 molecule, Helium atom is obtained. Once the functionality and the reliability of the method is established, it is used for obtaining accurate results for molecular hydrogen exposed to intense laser fields. The results for the standard 800 nm Titanium-Sapphire laser and its harmonics at 400 nm and 266 nm are shown. The results for a scan over a wide range of incident photon energies as well as dependence on the internuclear distance are presented. The photoelectron spectra including above

  1. Molecules in strong laser fields. In depth study of H{sub 2} molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awasthi, Manohar

    2009-10-29

    A method for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) describing the electronic motion of the molecules exposed to very short intense laser pulses has been developed. The time-dependent electronic wavefunction is expanded in terms of a superposition of field-free eigenstates. The field-free eigenstates are calculated in two ways. In the first approach, which is applicable to two electron systems like H{sub 2}, fully correlated field-free eigenstates are obtained in complete dimensionality using configuration-interaction calculation where the one-electron basis functions are built from B splines. In the second approach, which is even applicable to larger molecules, the field-free eigenstates are calculated within the single-active-electron (SAE) approximation using density functional theory. In general, the method can be divided into two parts, in the first part the field-free eigenstates are calculated and then in the second part a time propagation for the laser pulse parameters is performed. The H{sub 2} molecule is the testing ground for the implementation of both the methods. The reliability of the configuration interaction (CI) based method for the solution of TDSE (CI-TDSE) is tested by comparing results in the low-intensity regime to the prediction of lowest-order perturbation theory. Another test for the CI-TDSE method is in the united atom limit for the H{sub 2} molecule. By selecting a very small value of the internuclear distance close to zero for the H{sub 2} molecule, Helium atom is obtained. Once the functionality and the reliability of the method is established, it is used for obtaining accurate results for molecular hydrogen exposed to intense laser fields. The results for the standard 800 nm Titanium-Sapphire laser and its harmonics at 400 nm and 266 nm are shown. The results for a scan over a wide range of incident photon energies as well as dependence on the internuclear distance are presented. The photoelectron spectra including

  2. Motion Aftereffects Transfer between Touch and Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkle, Talia; Wang, Qi; Hayward, Vincent; Moore, Christopher I.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Current views on multisensory motion integration assume separate substrates where visual motion perceptually dominates tactile motion [1, 2]. However, recent neuroimaging findings demonstrate strong activation of visual motion processing areas by tactile stimuli [3–6], implying a potentially bidirectional relationship. To test the relationship between visual and tactile motion processing, we examined the transfer of motion aftereffects. In the well-known visual motion aftereffect, adapting to visual motion in one direction causes a subsequently presented stationary stimulus to be perceived as moving in the opposite direction [7, 8]. The existence of motion aftereffects in the tactile domain was debated [9–11], though robust tactile motion aftereffects have recently been demonstrated [12, 13]. By using a motion adaptation paradigm, we found that repeated exposure to visual motion in a given direction produced a tactile motion aftereffect, the illusion of motion in the opponent direction across the finger pad. We also observed that repeated exposure to tactile motion induces a visual motion aftereffect, biasing the perceived direction of counterphase gratings. These crossmodal aftereffects, operating both from vision to touch and from touch to vision, present strong behavioral evidence that the processing of visual and tactile motion rely on shared representations that dynamically impact modality-specific perception. PMID:19361996

  3. Role of the Regulatory Body in Implementing Defence in Depth in Nuclear Installations - Regulatory Oversight in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that nuclear facilities are operated at all times in an acceptably safe manner including the safe conduct of decommissioning activities. Defence in depth is recognized as one of the fundamental safety principles that underlie the safety of nuclear power plants. Defence in depth is implemented to provide a graded protection against a wide variety of transients, incidents and accidents, including equipment failures and human errors within nuclear power plants and events initiated outside plants. The Regulator Body plays an important role in implementing defence in depth in nuclear installations in the context of a clear allocation of responsibilities with an operating organization. This role starting with setting safety objectives and by its own independent review and technical assessment of the safety justifications provided by the operating organization in addition to safety culture investigating within relevant organizations. This paper briefly reviews this role in normal operation and post accidents, and its effects on overall nuclear safety in nuclear installations with reference to Egyptian regulatory oversight. (author)

  4. Driver inattention and driver distraction in serious casualty crashes: data from the Australian National Crash In-depth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beanland, Vanessa; Fitzharris, Michael; Young, Kristie L; Lenné, Michael G

    2013-05-01

    Driver inattention and driver distraction represent a major problem in road safety. Although both are believed to contribute to increased crash risk, there is currently limited reliable information on their role in crashes. The current study used in-depth data from the Australian National Crash In-depth Study to investigate the role of driver distraction and inattention in serious casualty crashes. The sample included 856 crashes from 2000 to 2011, in which at least one party was admitted to hospital due to crash-related injuries. Crashes were coded using a taxonomy of driver inattention that delineates five inattention subtypes: restricted attention, misprioritised attention, neglected attention, cursory attention, and diverted attention (distraction). Approximately 45% of crashes could not be coded due to insufficient information while in an additional 15% the participant indicated the "other driver was at fault" without specifying whether inattention was involved. Of the 340 remaining cases, most showed evidence of driver inattention (57.6%) or possible inattention (5.9%). The most common subtypes of inattention were restricted attention, primarily due to intoxication and/or fatigue, and diverted attention or distraction. The most common types of distraction involved voluntary, non-driving related distractions originating within the vehicle, such as passenger interactions. The current study indicates that a majority of serious injury crashes involve driver inattention. Most forms of inattention and distraction observed are preventable. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using in-depth crash data to investigate driver inattention in casualty crashes. PMID:23499981

  5. Characterization of in-depth cavity distribution after thermal annealing of helium-implanted silicon and gallium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-crystalline silicon wafers covered with sacrificial oxide layer and epitaxially grown gallium nitride layers were implanted with high-fluence helium ions (2–6 × 1016 cm−2) at energies of 20–30 keV. Thermal annealings at 650–1000 °C, 1 h were performed on the Si samples and rapid thermal annealings at 600–1000 °C, 120 s under N2 were performed on the GaN samples. The as-implanted samples and the near-surface cavity distributions of the annealed samples were investigated with variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. In-depth defect profiles and cavity profiles can be best described with multiple independent effective medium sublayers of varying ratio of single-crystal/void. The number of sublayers was chosen to maximize the fit quality without a high parameter cross-correlation. The dependence of the implantation fluence, oxide layer thickness and annealing temperature on the cavity distribution was separately investigated. The ellipsometric fitted distributions were compared and cross-checked with analyses of transmission electron micrographs where the average surface cavity was determined sublayer by sublayer. The in-depth profiles were also compared with simulations of He and vacancy distributions. - Highlights: • He implanted and annealed Si and GaN measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry • Effective medium approximation models developed • Cavity formation as function of oxide thickness, ion dose, annealing temperature • Cavity in-depth distributions compared with transmission electron micrographs

  6. Apollo Basin, Moon: Estimation of Impact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaurren, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Apollo Basin is a, pre-Nectarian, multi-ring basin located within the large South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Multispectral data from both Galileo and Clementine showed that the composition of materials in Apollo is distinct…

  7. Tectonic evolution of Kashmir basin in northwest Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Akhtar; Ahmad, Shabir; Bhat, M. Sultan; Ahmad, Bashir

    2015-06-01

    Geomorphology has long been recognised as a key to evaluate the interplay between tectonics and landscape geometry in the regions of active deformation. We use geomorphic signatures at varied spatial scales interpreted from SRTM-DEM/Landsat-ETM data, supplemented with field observations to review the tectonic evolution of Kashmir basin in northwest Himalayas. Geomorphic evidence is persuasive of a credible NNW-SSE trending dextral strike-slip structure (central Kashmir Fault - CKF), with the strike length of ~ 165 km, stretched centrally over the NNW-SSE length of the Kashmir basin. As a result of the strike-slip motion and subsequent erosion, significant deformation has taken place along the CKF. In addition, broad geomorphic architecture of the basin reveals typical pull-apart characteristics. Hence, we deduce that the Kashmir basin has evolved as a pull-apart Quaternary sediment depression owing to the deformation along the central Kashmir Fault. The spatial distribution pattern of seismic events (NEIC-catalogue, 1973-2013) and GPS measurements (published), collectively substantiate our geomorphic interpretations.

  8. Aeromagnetic expression of faults that offset basin fill, Albuquerque basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, M.R.; Minor, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic data acquired over the Albuquerque basin show widespread expression of faults that offset basin fill and demonstrate that the aeromagnetic method can be an important hydrogeologic and surficial mapping tool in sediment-filled basins. Aeromagnetic expression of faults is recognized by the common correspondence of linear anomalies to surficial evidence of faulting across the area. In map view, linear anomalies show patterns typical of extensional faulting, such as anastomosing and en echelon segments. Depths to the tops of faulted magnetic layers showing the most prominent aeromagnetic expression range from 0 to 100 m. Sources related to subtler fault expressions range in depths from 200 to 500 m. We estimate that sources of the magnetic expressions of the near-surface faults likely reside within the upper 500-600 m of the subsurface. The linear anomalies in profile form show a range of shapes, but all of them can be explained by the juxta-position of layers having different magnetic properties. One typical anomaly differs from the expected symmetric fault anomaly by exhibiting an apparent low over the fault zone and more than one inflection point. Although the apparent low could easily be misinterpreted as representing multiple faults or an anomalous fault zone, geophysical analysis, magnetic-property measurements, and geologic considerations lead instead to a "thin-thick model" in which magnetic layers of different thickness are juxtaposed. The general geometry of this model is a thin magnetic layer on the upthrown block and a thick magnetic layer on the downthrown block. The thin-thick model can be represented geologically by growth faulting and syntectonic sedimentation, where relatively coarse-grained sediment (which is more magnetic than fine-grained material) has accumulated in the hanging wall. This implies that the aeromagnetic data have potential for mapping growth faults and locating concentrations of coarse-grained material

  9. Seismic amplification within the Seattle Basin, Washington State: Insights from SHIPS seismic tomography experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelson, C.M.; Brocher, T.M.; Miller, K.C.; Pratt, T.L.; Trehu, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that the Seattle sedimentary basin, underlying Seattle and other urban centers in the Puget Lowland, Washington, amplifies long-period (1-5 sec) weak ground motions by factors of 10 or more. We computed east-trending P- and S-wave velocity models across the Seattle basin from Seismic Hazard Investigations of Puget Sound (SHIPS) experiments to better characterize the seismic hazard the basin poses. The 3D tomographic models, which resolve features to a depth of 10 km, for the first time define the P- and S-wave velocity structure of the eastern end of the basin. The basin, which contains sedimentary rocks of Eocene to Holocene, is broadly symmetric in east-west section and reaches a maximum thickness of 6 km along our profile beneath north Seattle. A comparison of our velocity model with coincident amplification curves for weak ground motions produced by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake suggests that the distribution of Quaternary deposits and reduced velocity gradients in the upper part of the basement east of Seattle have significance in forecasting variations in seismic-wave amplification across the basin. Specifically, eastward increases in the amplification of 0.2- to 5-Hz energy correlate with locally thicker unconsolidated deposits and a change from Crescent Formation basement to pre-Tertiary Cascadia basement. These models define the extent of the Seattle basin, the Seattle fault, and the geometry of the basement contact, giving insight into the tectonic evolution of the Seattle basin and its influence on ground shaking.

  10. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  11. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  12. Particle motion in fluidised beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas fluidised beds are important components in many process industries, e.g. coal combustors and granulators, but not much is known about the movement of the solids. Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) enables the movement of a single, radioactive tracer particle to be followed rapidly and faithfully. Experiments were carried out in columns sized between 70 and 240mm. diameter, operating in the bubbling regime at ambient process conditions using particles of group B and D (Geldart Classification). Particle motion was tracked and the data applied to models for particle movement at the gas distributor as well as close to other surfaces and to models for particle circulation in beds of cohesive particles. In the light of these data, models for particle and bubble interaction, particle circulation, segregation, attrition, erosion, heat transfer and fluidised bed scale-up rules were reassessed. Particle motion is directly caused by bubble motion, and their velocities were found to be equal for particles travelling in a bubble. PEPT enables particle circulation to be measured, giving a more accurate correlation for future predictions. Particle motion follows the scale-up rules based on similarities of the bubble motion in the bed. A new group of parameters was identified controlling the amount of attrition in fluidised beds and a new model to predict attrition is proposed. (author)

  13. Motion perception modelling in flight simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Hosman, R.J.A.W.; Bos, J.E.; Dominicus, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Motion cueing algorithms are indispensable to transform aircraft motions into simulator motions. Usually, such algorithms apply to the whole flight envelope. Since a motion base should stay within its six degrees of freedom workspace, the parameter settings necessarily involve concessions, which may

  14. Project Physics Reader 1, Concepts of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 1, 21 articles are presented in this reader. Concepts of motion are discussed under headings: motion, motion in words, representation of movement, introducing vectors, Galileo's discussion of projectile motion, Newton's laws of dynamics, the dynamics of a golf club, report on Tait's lecture on force, and bad…

  15. Tectonoestratigraphic and Thermal Models of the Tiburon and Wagner Basins, northern Gulf of California Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J.; Ramirez Zerpa, N. A.; Negrete-Aranda, R.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Gulf of California Rift System consist sofa series faults that accommodate both normal and strike-slip motion. The faults formed a series of half-greens filled with more than 7 km of siliciclastic suc­cessions. Here, we present tectonostratigraphic and heat flow models for the Tiburón basin, in the southern part of the system, and the Wag­ner basin in the north. The models are constrained by two-dimensional seis­mic lines and by two deep boreholes drilled by PEMEX­-PEP. Analysis of the seismic lines and models' results show that: (i) subsidence of the basins is controlled by high-angle normal faults and by flow of the lower crust, (ii) basins share a common history, and (iii) there are significant differences in the way brittle strain was partitioned in the basins, a feature frequently observed in rift basins. On one hand, the bounding faults of the Tiburón basin have a nested geometry and became active following a west-to-east sequence of activation. The Tiburon half-graben was formed by two pulses of fault activity. One took place during the protogulf extensional phase in the Miocene and the other during the opening of Gulf of California in the Pleistocene. On the other hand, the Wagner basin is the result of two fault generations. During the late-to middle Miocene, the west-dipping Cerro Prieto and San Felipe faults formed a domino array. Then, during the Pleistocene the Consag and Wagner faults dissected the hanging-wall of the Cerro Prieto fault forming the modern Wagner basin. Thermal modeling of the deep borehole temperatures suggests that the heat flow in these basins in the order of 110 mW/m2 which is in agreement with superficial heat flow measurements in the northern Gulf of California Rift System.

  16. Salar de Atacama basin: A record of compressional tectonics in the central Andes since the mid-Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriagada, Cesar; Cobbold, Peter R.; Roperch, Pierrick

    2006-02-01

    The Salar de Atacama basin lies in the inner fore arc of northern Chile. Topographically and structurally, it is a first-order feature of the central Andes. The sedimentary fill of the basin constrains the timing and extent of crustal deformation since the mid-Cretaceous. We have studied good exposures along the western edge of the basin and have correlated them with seismic reflection sections and data from an exploration well. Throughout most of its history, the basin developed in a foreland setting, during periods of thin-skinned and thick-skinned thrusting. Growth strata provide evidence for coeval sedimentation and thrust motions during mid-Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene times. Pre-Neogene deformation was significant in the basin and in surounding areas of the early central Andes. Models that attempt to explain the current thickness of the central Andes should consider Late Cretaceous and Paleogene shortening, as well as the more obvious Neogene and Quaternary shortening.

  17. Comparison between staggered grid finite difference method and stochastic method in simulating strong ground motions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Man-sheng; JIANG Hui; HU Yu-xian

    2005-01-01

    Strong ground motion of an earthquake is simulated by using both staggered grid finite difference method (FDM)and stochastic method, respectively. The acceleration time histories obtained from the both ways and their response spectra are compared. The result demonstrates that the former is adequate to simulate the low-frequency seismic wave; the latter is adequate to simulate the high-frequency seismic wave. Moreover, the result obtained from FDM can better reflect basin effects.

  18. Piezoelectric step-motion actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentesana; Charles P.

    2006-10-10

    A step-motion actuator using piezoelectric material to launch a flight mass which, in turn, actuates a drive pawl to progressively engage and drive a toothed wheel or rod to accomplish stepped motion. Thus, the piezoelectric material converts electrical energy into kinetic energy of the mass, and the drive pawl and toothed wheel or rod convert the kinetic energy of the mass into the desired rotary or linear stepped motion. A compression frame may be secured about the piezoelectric element and adapted to pre-compress the piezoelectric material so as to reduce tensile loads thereon. A return spring may be used to return the mass to its resting position against the compression frame or piezoelectric material following launch. Alternative embodiment are possible, including an alternative first embodiment wherein two masses are launched in substantially different directions, and an alternative second embodiment wherein the mass is eliminated in favor of the piezoelectric material launching itself.

  19. To the Fluid Motion Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Arsenjev, S L

    2006-01-01

    A fluid motion through the flow element is presented in the kind of an autooscillating system with the distributed parameters: mass, elasticity, viscosity. The system contains a self-excited oscillator and possesses a self-regulation on base of the intrinsic voluntary negative servo output feedback. The interaction dynamics of the submerged jet, out-flowing out of a flow element, with the homogeneous for it surrounding medium as well as dynamics of evolution of the spiral-vortex structures, appearing at the relative motion of fluids, are described for the first time. The conceptual model of a flow in the kind of the completed system of the cause and effect relationship, that presents the fluid motion process as a result in interaction of the motive power, applied from without, and the internal wave mechanism, selfregulating the flow structure and its intensity, is created.

  20. Robot Motion and Control 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Robot Motion Control 2011 presents very recent results in robot motion and control. Forty short papers have been chosen from those presented at the sixth International Workshop on Robot Motion and Control held in Poland in June 2011. The authors of these papers have been carefully selected and represent leading institutions in this field. The following recent developments are discussed: • Design of trajectory planning schemes for holonomic and nonholonomic systems with optimization of energy, torque limitations and other factors. • New control algorithms for industrial robots, nonholonomic systems and legged robots. • Different applications of robotic systems in industry and everyday life, like medicine, education, entertainment and others. • Multiagent systems consisting of mobile and flying robots with their applications The book is suitable for graduate students of automation and robotics, informatics and management, mechatronics, electronics and production engineering systems as well as scientists...

  1. Entropic forces in Brownian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Nico

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the concept of entropic forces has risen considerably since Verlinde proposed in 2011 to interpret the force in Newton's second law and gravity as entropic forces. Brownian motion—the motion of a small particle (pollen) driven by random impulses from the surrounding molecules—may be the first example of a stochastic process in which such forces are expected to emerge. In this article, it is shown that at least two types of entropic force can be identified in three-dimensional Brownian motion. This analysis yields simple derivations of known results of Brownian motion, Hooke's law, and—applying an external (non-radial) force—Curie's law and the Langevin-Debye equation.

  2. Motion sensor technologies in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bratitsis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to raise a discussion regarding motion sensor technologies, mainly seen as peripherals of contemporary video game consoles, by examining their exploitation within educational context. An overview of the existing literature is presented, while attempting to categorize the educational approaches which involve motion sensor technologies, in two parts. The first one concerns the education of people with special needs. The utilization of motion sensor technologies, incorporated by game consoles, in the education of such people is examined. The second one refers to various educational approaches in regular education, under which not so many research approaches, but many teaching ideas can be found. The aim of the paper is to serve as a reference point for every individual/group, willing to explore the Sensor-Based Games Based Learning (SBGBL research area, by providing a complete and structured literature review.

  3. Compensation for incoherent ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power spectrum density and coherence function for ground motions are studied for the construction of the next generation electron-positron linear collider. It should provide a center of mass energy between 500 GeV-1 TeV with luminosity as high as 1033 to 1034 cm-2 sec-1. Since the linear collider has a relatively slow repetition rate, large number of particles and small sizes of the beam should be generated and preserved in the machine to obtain the required high luminosity. One of the most critical parameters is the extremely small vertical beam size at the interaction point, thus a proper alignment system for the focusing and accelerating elements of the machine is necessary to achieve the luminosity. We describe recent observed incoherent ground motions and an alignment system to compensate the distortion by the ground motions. (authors)

  4. An Impact Motion Generation Support Software

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujita, Teppei; Konno, Atsushi; Nomura, Yuki; Komizunai, Shunsuke; Ayaz, Yasar; Uchiyama, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    The detail of impact motion generation support software is presented in this paper. The developed software supports impact motion design with OpenHRP or OpenHRP3. A preliminary impact motion experiment is performed by a humanoid robot and the analyses of its result are presented. The analysis reveals that the designed motion is not robust against error in the position of the nail since the timing of pulling up the hammer is defined in the designed motion in advance. Therefore, ...

  5. Sound-contingent visual motion aftereffect

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi Maori; Teramoto Wataru; Hidaka Souta; Sugita Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background After a prolonged exposure to a paired presentation of different types of signals (e.g., color and motion), one of the signals (color) becomes a driver for the other signal (motion). This phenomenon, which is known as contingent motion aftereffect, indicates that the brain can establish new neural representations even in the adult's brain. However, contingent motion aftereffect has been reported only in visual or auditory domain. Here, we demonstrate that a visual motion a...

  6. Quantum mechanics and discontinuous motion of particles

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Rui

    2002-01-01

    We discuss a new realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics based on discontinuous motion of particles. The historical and logical basis of discontinuous motion of particles is given. It proves that if there exists only one kind of physical reality--particles, then the realistic motion of particles described by quantum mechanics should be discontinuous motion. We further denote that protective measurement may provide a direct method to confirm the existence of discontinuous motion of parti...

  7. Free fall - A partial unique motion environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybiel, A.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions leading to the elicitation of motion sickness have been divided into two main categories: partial motion environments, in which head movements are required to elicit motion sickness, and complete motion environments, in which independent movements of the head are not required for the production of symptoms. It is postulated that, according to this categorization, free fall constitutes a partial motion environment. In support of this hypothesis evidence is reviewed from Skylab missions, experiments in parabolic flight, and ground-based studies.

  8. Motion Model Employment using interacting Motion Model Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a simulation study to track a maneuvering target using a selective approach in choosing Interacting Multiple Models (IMM) algorithm to provide a wider coverage to track such targets.  Initially, there are two motion models in the system to track a target.  Probability of each m...

  9. Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probe, John D.

    1993-01-01

    In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body a wide variety of technologies has been developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development, coupled with recent advances in video technology, have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) to develop data on shirtsleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on-orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. APAS is a fully integrated system of hardware and software for biomechanics and the analysis of human performance and generalized motion measurement. Major components of the complete system include the video system, the AT compatible computer, and the proprietary software.

  10. Methods for Structure from Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    .g. within entertainment, reverse engineering and architecture. This thesis is a study within this area of structure from motion. The result of the work, which this thesis represents is the development of new methods for addressing some of the problems within the field. Mainly in robustifying the...... factorization approach, relaxing the rigidity constrains, and in considering alternative ways of solving the surface estimation problem. In Danish: Structure from motion problematikken beskæftiger sig med at estimere 3D struktur fra 2D afbildninger heraf. Denne problemstilling er en af de mest populære og...

  11. Feynman Rules For Brownian Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Hatamian, S T

    2003-01-01

    We present a perturbation theory extending a prescription due to Feynman for computing the probability density function in Brownian-motion. The method used, can be applied to a wide variety of otherwise difficult circumstances in Brownian-motion. The exact moments and kurtosis, if not the distribution itself, for many important cases can be summed for arbitrary times. As expected, the behavior at early time regime, for the sample processes considered, deviate significantly from the usual diffusion theory; a fact with important consequences in various applications such as financial physics. A new class of functions dubbed "Damped-exponential-integrals" are also identified.

  12. Wave motion in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Graff, Karl F

    1991-01-01

    This highly useful textbook presents comprehensive intermediate-level coverage of nearly all major topics of elastic wave propagation in solids. The subjects range from the elementary theory of waves and vibrations in strings to the three-dimensional theory of waves in thick plates. The book is designed not only for a wide audience of engineering students, but also as a general reference for workers in vibrations and acoustics. Chapters 1-4 cover wave motion in the simple structural shapes, namely strings, longitudinal rod motion, beams and membranes, plates and (cylindrical) shells. Chapter

  13. Estimation of strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event

  14. The influence of zero-flux surface motion on chemical reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Amanda; Morgenstern, Charles; Miorelli, Jonathan; Wilson, Tim; Eberhart, M E

    2016-02-21

    Visualizing and predicting the response of the electron density, ρ(r), to an external perturbation provides a portion of the insight necessary to understand chemical reactivity. One strategy used to portray electron response is the electron pushing formalism commonly utilized in organic chemistry, where electrons are pictured as flowing between atoms and bonds. Electron pushing is a powerful tool, but does not give a complete picture of electron response. We propose using the motion of zero-flux surfaces (ZFSs) in the gradient of the charge density, ∇ρ(r), as an adjunct to electron pushing. Here we derive an equation rooted in conceptual density functional theory showing that the movement of ZFSs contributes to energetic changes in a molecule undergoing a chemical reaction. Using a substituted acetylene, 1-iodo-2-fluoroethyne, as an example, we show the importance of both the boundary motion and the change in electron counts within the atomic basins of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules for chemical reactivity. This method can be extended to study the ZFS motion between smaller gradient bundles in ρ(r) in addition to larger atomic basins. Finally, we show that the behavior of ∇ρ(r) within atomic basins contains information about electron response and can be used to predict chemical reactivity. PMID:26832068

  15. Las Vegas Basin Seismic Response Project: Preliminary Results From Seismic Refraction Experiments, Las Vegas, NV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, S. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Harder, S. H.; Kaip, G.; Luke, B.; Buck, B. J.; Hanson, A. D.

    2002-12-01

    NW/SE trending step in the basin floor across which the basement drops from 2 to 4 km in depth. In addition, the profiles cross several Quaternary fault scarps, which have recently been identified as tectonic in origin. Preliminary analyses of the seismic refraction data indicate that the basin has an average P-wave velocity of 4.5 km/s and is in agreement with the estimated basin depths from isostatic gravity studies (2 to 5 km depth). Both tomographic inversion and forward modeling techniques are being used to analyze these data. These data will be used to produce a velocity model of the basin and image the basin/bedrock contact. In addition, these data will be integrated into a community model, which is being produced by the Las Vegas Basin Seismic Response working group to further assess the site response of the basin.

  16. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A dolphin glides through the water looking for fish in the turn basin, which is located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. Dolphins inhabit the waters, known as the Indian River Lagoon, around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  17. Characterization of in-depth cavity distribution after thermal annealing of helium-implanted silicon and gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, B., E-mail: fodor.balint@ttk.mta.hu [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences (MTA TTK MFA), 1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege u. 29-33 (Hungary); Faculty of Science, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs, Ifjúság útja 6 (Hungary); Cayrel, F. [GREMAN, pôle MTECH, Université François Rabelais, 16 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, B.P. 7155, F37071 Tours Cedex (France); Agocs, E. [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences (MTA TTK MFA), 1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege u. 29-33 (Hungary); Doctoral School of Molecular- and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem 8200 (Hungary); Alquier, D. [GREMAN, pôle MTECH, Université François Rabelais, 16 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, B.P. 7155, F37071 Tours Cedex (France); Fried, M.; Petrik, P. [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences (MTA TTK MFA), 1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege u. 29-33 (Hungary); Doctoral School of Molecular- and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem 8200 (Hungary)

    2014-11-28

    Single-crystalline silicon wafers covered with sacrificial oxide layer and epitaxially grown gallium nitride layers were implanted with high-fluence helium ions (2–6 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}) at energies of 20–30 keV. Thermal annealings at 650–1000 °C, 1 h were performed on the Si samples and rapid thermal annealings at 600–1000 °C, 120 s under N{sub 2} were performed on the GaN samples. The as-implanted samples and the near-surface cavity distributions of the annealed samples were investigated with variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. In-depth defect profiles and cavity profiles can be best described with multiple independent effective medium sublayers of varying ratio of single-crystal/void. The number of sublayers was chosen to maximize the fit quality without a high parameter cross-correlation. The dependence of the implantation fluence, oxide layer thickness and annealing temperature on the cavity distribution was separately investigated. The ellipsometric fitted distributions were compared and cross-checked with analyses of transmission electron micrographs where the average surface cavity was determined sublayer by sublayer. The in-depth profiles were also compared with simulations of He and vacancy distributions. - Highlights: • He implanted and annealed Si and GaN measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry • Effective medium approximation models developed • Cavity formation as function of oxide thickness, ion dose, annealing temperature • Cavity in-depth distributions compared with transmission electron micrographs.

  18. In-depth Permeability Modifier for Improvement of Sweep Efficiency in a Heterogeneous Oil Reservoir: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelazim Abbas Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews and assessed some of in-depth permeability modification techniques used in the industry with regards to improving conformance problems in heterogeneous oil reservoirs. Reservoir conformance problems frequently limit the success of many of water and chemical EOR flooding projects. Basically, there are many types of conformance problems and many different conformance improvement techniques. The challenge is to properly identify and then to select a suitable conformance improvement technology. Conventionally, In-situ gels have been widely used and placed near the well-bore of injectors or producers to improve conformance. However, in heterogeneous reservoirs permeability variation extends throughout the whole reservoir structure and in some cases presence of cross-flow between adjacent layers limits the effectiveness of in-situ gels. Alternatively, conformance improvement has been obtained by continuous polymer injection. This method still by-passes significant amounts of oil as evidenced from a number of recent reports. Preformed cross-linked gel particles have become an interesting technology to overcome some of the distinct drawbacks of in In-situ gels and polymer flooding. Although, this method show promising oil improvement, lack of in-depth knowledge is available as well as their mechanisms to plug rock pores are not fully understood. It's the aim of the study to review the reservoir conformance problems as well as conformance improvement techniques. The focus has been given to studies of current in-depth permeability modifiers and highlight chemistry, applications and inadequacy of these technologies. Finally we briefly outline the major challenges, which must be addressed to successfully implement preformed cross-liked particles in improving sweep efficiency applications are highlighted.

  19. K-Basins design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  20. K-Basins design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines

  1. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries) Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus)

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Ha; Manya Sabherwal; Elizabeth Duncan; Stewart Stevens; Peter Stockwell; Michelle McConnell; Alaa El-Din Bekhit; Alan Carne

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner) was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 pr...

  2. In-depth scan of promising energy saving measures in the mushroom sector; Dieptescan kansrijke energiebesparende maatregelen in de paddestoelensector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    An in-depth scan has been conducted of the mushroom sector to get a picture of the experiences of these businesses with regard to energy efficiency measures. An inventory was also made of opportunities of further reducing energy use (inside the business and in the sector) [Dutch] Door middel van een dieptescan in de paddestoelensector is een beeld verkregen van de ervaringen die bedrijven hebben met uitgevoerde energiebesparingsmaatregelen. Ook is geinventariseerd waar nog mogelijkheden zijn om het energieverbruik verder terug te brengen (bij het bedrijf zelf en in de sector)

  3. Estimation of Motion Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the estimation of 2-D motion vector fields from time varying image sequences. We use a piecewise smooth model based on coupled vector/binary Markov random fields. We find the maximum a posteriori solution by simulated annealing. The algorithm generate sample...

  4. Pendulum Motion and Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Thomas F.; King, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    A common example of real-world motion that can be modeled by a differential equation, and one easily understood by the student, is the simple pendulum. Simplifying assumptions are necessary for closed-form solutions to exist, and frequently there is little discussion of the impact if those assumptions are not met. This article presents a…

  5. Marketing San Juan Basin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

  6. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  7. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S T G Raghu Kanth

    2008-11-01

    Success of earthquake resistant design practices critically depends on how accurately the future ground motion can be determined at a desired site. But very limited recorded data are available about ground motion in India for engineers to rely upon. To identify the needs of engineers, under such circumstances, in estimating ground motion time histories, this article presents a detailed review of literature on modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion data. In particular, modeling of seismic sources and earth medium, analytical and empirical Green’s functions approaches for ground motion simulation, stochastic models for strong motion and ground motion relations are covered. These models can be used to generate realistic near-field and far-field ground motion in regions lacking strong motion data. Numerical examples are shown for illustration by taking Kutch earthquake-2001 as a case study.

  8. Stress tensor and focal mechanisms in the Dead Sea basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, A.; Dorbath, C.; Dorbath, L.; Braeuer, B.; Weber, M.

    2016-04-01

    We use the recorded seismicity, confined to the Dead Sea basin and its boundaries, by the Dead Sea Integrated Research (DESIRE) portable seismic network and the Israel and Jordan permanent seismic networks for studying the mechanisms of earthquakes in the Dead Sea basin. The observed seismicity in the Dead Sea basin is divided into nine regions according to the spatial distribution of the earthquakes and the known tectonic features. The large number of recording stations and the adequate station distribution allowed the reliable determinations of 494 earthquake focal mechanisms. For each region, based on the inversion of the observed polarities of the earthquakes, we determine the focal mechanisms and the associated stress tensor. For 159 earthquakes, out of the 494 focal mechanisms, we could determine compatible fault planes. On the eastern side, the focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip mechanism with nodal planes in the N-S and E-W directions. The azimuths of the stress axes are well constrained presenting minimal variability in the inversion of the data, which is in agreement with the Eastern Boundary fault on the east side of the Dead Sea basin and what we had expected from the regional geodynamics. However, larger variabilities of the azimuthal and dip angles are observed on the western side of the basin. Due to the wider range of azimuths of the fault planes, we observe the switching of σ1 and σ2 or the switching of σ2 and σ3 as major horizontal stress directions. This observed switching of stress axes allows having dip-slip and normal mechanisms in a region that is dominated by strike-slip motion.

  9. Generation of Earthquake Ground Motion Considering Local Site Effects and Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of Ancient Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kwan; Lee, J. S.; Yang, T. S.; Cho, J. R.; R, H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    In order to establish a correct correlation between them, mechanical characteristics of the ancient structures need to be investigated. Since sedimentary basins are preferred dwelling sites in ancient times, it is necessary to perform SSI analysis to derive correct correlation between the damage and ground motion intensity. Contents of Project are as follows: (1) Generation of stochastic earthquake ground motion considering source mechanism and site effects. (2) Analysis of seismic response of sedimentary basin. (3) Soil-structure interaction analysis of ancient structures (4) Investigation of dynamic response characteristics of ancient structure considering soil-structure interaction effects. A procedure is presented for generation of stochastic earthquake ground motion considering source mechanism and site effects. The simulation method proposed by Boore is used to generate the outcropping rock motion. The free field motion at the soil site is obtained by a convolution analysis. And for the study of wood structures, a nonlinear SDOF model is developed. The effects of soil-structure interaction on the behavior of the wood structures are found to be very minor. But the response can be significantly affected due to the intensity and frequency contents of the input motion. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 31 figs. (author)

  10. Development of Core Heat Removal Objective Provision Trees for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Defense-in-Depth Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the definition of Defense-in-Depth levels and safety functions for KALIMER sodium-cooled fast reactor, suggested in the reference and, OPTs for level 1, 2, and 3 defense-in-depth and core heat removal safety function, were developed and suggested in this paper. The purpose of this OPT is first to assure the defensein-depth design during the licensing of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR), but it will also contribute in evaluating the completeness of regulatory requirements under development by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). The challenges and mechanisms and provisions were briefly explained in this paper. Comparing the mechanisms and provisions with the requirements will contribute in identifying the missing requirements. Since the design of PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV SFR) is not mature yet, the OPT is developed for KALIMER design. Developed OPTs in this study can be used for the identification of potential design vulnerabilities. When detailed identification of provisions in terms of design features were achieved through the next step of this study, it can contribute to the establishment of defensein-depth evaluation frame for the regulatory reviews for the licensing process. At this moment, the identified provisions have both aspects as requirements and design features already adopted in KALIMER design. In the next stage of this study, derived provisions to be adopted will be compared with the actual design features and findings can be suggested as recommendations for the safety improvement

  11. Omnidirectional antireflective properties of porous tungsten oxide films with in-depth variation of void fraction and stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourdas, Nikolaos; Dalamagkidis, Konstantinos; Kostis, Ioannis; Vasilopoulou, Maria; Davazoglou, Dimitrios

    2012-11-01

    We report on the fabrication of porous hot-wire deposited WOx (hwWOx) films with omnidirectional antireflective properties coming from in-depth variation of both (i) void fraction from 0% at the Si substrate/hwWOx interface to 30% within less than 7 nm and to higher than 50% at the hwWOx/air interface, and (ii) x, namely hwWOx stoichiometry, from 2.5 at the Si/hwWOx to 3 within less than 7 nm. hwWOx films were deposited by means of hw deposition at rough vacuum and controlled chamber environment. The films were analyzed by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry to extract the graded refractive index profile, which was then used in a rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) model to simulate the antireflective properties. RCWA followed reasonably the experimental reflection measurements. Void fraction and x in-depth variation, controlled by the hw process, greatly affect the antireflective properties, and improve the omnidirectional and broadband characteristics. The reflection suppression below 10% within the range of 500-1000 nm for angles of incidence up to more than 60° is demonstrated.

  12. Verification of RSRM Nozzle Thermal Models With ETM-3 Aft Exit Cone In-depth Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maw, Joel F.; Lui, Robbie C.; Totman, Peter D.

    2004-01-01

    One of the goals of the Engineering Test Motor (ETM-3) static test was to verify analytical models through the use of instrumentation that provide real-time transient temperature response of ablating phenolic liners. Accurate measurement of in-depth temperature is critical for validating the analytical models and assessing design safety margins for nozzle insulation materials. Recent developments of in-depth thermocouple plugs have been made to more accurately measure temperature response of nozzle Liners. Thermocouple plugs were installed at two axial stations (four plugs circumferentially at each station) near the end of the ETM-3 nozzle aft exit cone to gather temperature histories during and after motor operation. The thermocouple plugs were placed at depths that bounded the reusable solid rocket motor nominal measured char depth in order to portray the carbon phenolic temperature response during the charring process. The data were used to verify the analytical models during motor operation and to better define char penetration during heat soak after motor burn out.

  13. Quasiperiodic spin-orbit motion and spin tunes in storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, D.P.; Heinemann, K.; Ellison, J.A. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics

    2004-12-01

    We present an in-depth analysis of the concept of spin precession frequency for integrable orbital motion in storage rings. Spin motion on the periodic closed orbit of a storage ring can be analyzed in terms of the Floquet theorem for equations of motion with periodic parameters and a spin precession frequency emerges in a Floquet exponent as an additional frequency of the system. To define a spin precession frequency on nonperiodic synchro-betatron orbits we exploit the important concept of quasiperiodicity. This allows a generalization of the Floquet theorem so that a spin precession frequency can be defined in this case too. This frequency appears in a Floquet-like exponent as an additional frequency in the system in analogy with the case of motion on the closed orbit. These circumstances lead naturally to the definition of the uniform precession rate and a definition of spin tune. A spin tune is a uniform precession rate obtained when certain conditions are fulfilled. Having defined spin tune we define spin-orbit resonance on synchro-betatron orbits and examine its consequences. We give conditions for the existence of uniform precession rates and spin tunes (e.g. where small divisors are controlled by applying a Diophantine condition) and illustrate the various aspects of our description with several examples. The formalism also suggests the use of spectral analysis to ''measure'' spin tune during computer simulations of spin motion on synchro-betatron orbits. (orig.)

  14. Harmonic functions on Walsh's Brownian motion

    OpenAIRE

    Jehring, Kristin Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation we examine a variation of two- dimensional Brownian motion introduced in 1978 by Walsh. Walsh's Brownian motion can be described as a Brownian motion on the spokes of a (rimless) bicycle wheel. We will construct such a process by randomly assigning an angle to the excursions of a reflecting Brownian motion from 0. With this construction we see that Walsh's Brownian motion in R² behaves like one-dimensional Brownian motion away from the origin, but at the origin behaves di...

  15. Beyond Resonance: Characterizing Complex Basin Effects Using a Dense Seismic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, P.; Denolle, M.; Hirata, N.; Nakagawa, S.; Beroza, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Cross-correlation of the ambient seismic field is now a well-established approach to create high-resolution images of the crust and the upper mantle, to explore the spatial and temporal variations in elastic wave speeds, and to develop images of complex wavefields themselves. Recent ambient-field studies have successfully observed higher-mode surface waves and body wave propagation at various scales of the Earth. These new observations paved the way for a more accurate seismic hazard assessment for which a detailed knowledge of seismic wave propagation is critical, especially in complex media such as sedimentary basins. While the effects of basin resonance are widely appreciated and understood, basin-edge effects are usually less well constrained, but have been used to explain zones of concentrated damage in the 1994 Northridge and 1995 Kobe earthquakes. In this study, we use the dense MeSO-net (MEtropolitan Seismic Observation network) seismic network, deployed in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and the sparse, but high quality, Hi-net (High sensitivity seismograph network) to identify the dominant modes of wave propagation within the Kanto Basin. Our goal is to explore how the wavefield behaves in the vicinity of sharp basin edges. When combined with the ambient seismic field interferometry, dense, 3-component, seismic arrays provide a new opportunity to image such propagation effects. Using array processing techniques, we show that mode conversions, reflection, and diffractions, in particular at basin edges dominate the ground motion in the Kanto Basin. Accurate predictions of strong ground motion, and its variability, must account for these effects.

  16. Motion motif extraction from high-dimensional motion information

    OpenAIRE

    Araki, Yutaka; Arita, Daisaku; Taniguchi, Rin-ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there are a lot of researches on virtual environments for distant human communication. Real-time Human Proxy (RHP), which is a concept for such a virtual environment, has been proposed. For realizing natural communication by RHP, it is necessary to recognize human actions essential for human communication. However, it is difficult for system developers to decide which human actions should be recognized. For supporting the decision, we propose a human motion analysis method which aut...

  17. A Motion Planning Approach to Studying Molecular Motions

    KAUST Repository

    Amato, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    While structurally very different, protein and RNA molecules share an important attribute. The motions they undergo are strongly related to the function they perform. For example, many diseases such as Mad Cow disease or Alzheimer\\'s disease are associated with protein misfolding and aggregation. Similarly, RNA folding velocity may regulate the plasmid copy number, and RNA folding kinetics can regulate gene expression at the translational level. Knowledge of the stability, folding, kinetics and detailed mechanics of the folding process may help provide insight into how proteins and RNAs fold. In this paper, we present an overview of our work with a computational method we have adapted from robotic motion planning to study molecular motions. We have validated against experimental data and have demonstrated that our method can capture biological results such as stochastic folding pathways, population kinetics of various conformations, and relative folding rates. Thus, our method provides both a detailed view (e.g., individual pathways) and a global view (e.g., population kinetics, relative folding rates, and reaction coordinates) of energy landscapes of both proteins and RNAs. We have validated these techniques by showing that we observe the same relative folding rates as shown in experiments for structurally similar protein molecules that exhibit different folding behaviors. Our analysis has also been able to predict the same relative gene expression rate for wild-type MS2 phage RNA and three of its mutants.

  18. Remapping motion across modalities: tactile rotations influence visual motion judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Martin V; Thomaschke, Roland; Linhardt, Matthias J; Herbort, Oliver

    2010-11-01

    Multisensory interactions between haptics and vision remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that shapes, such as letters of the alphabet, when drawn on the skin, are differently perceived dependent upon which body part is stimulated and on how the stimulated body part, such as the hand, is positioned. Another line of research within this area has investigated multisensory interactions. Tactile perceptions, for example, have the potential to disambiguate visually perceived information. While the former studies focused on explicit reports about tactile perception, the latter studies relied on fully aligned multisensory stimulus dimensions. In this study, we investigated to what extent rotating tactile stimulations on the hand affect directional visual motion judgments implicitly and without any spatial stimulus alignment. We show that directional tactile cues and ambiguous visual motion cues are integrated, thus biasing the judgment of visually perceived motion. We further show that the direction of the tactile influence depends on the position and orientation of the stimulated part of the hand relative to a head-centered frame of reference. Finally, we also show that the time course of the cue integration is very versatile. Overall, the results imply immediate directional cue integration within a head-centered frame of reference. PMID:20878396

  19. Trip report Rainwater Basin Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary a trip to Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District in 1991, and focuses on the hydrology and soil habitat types. It is part of the...

  20. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  1. Deficient Biological Motion Perception in Schizophrenia: Results from a Motion Noise Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jejoong eKim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia patients exhibit deficient processing of perceptual and cognitive information. However, it is not well understood how basic perceptual deficits contribute to higher level cognitive problems in this mental disorder. Perception of biological motion, a motion-based cognitive recognition task, relies on both basic visual motion processing and social cognitive processing, thus providing a useful paradigm to evaluate the potentially hierarchical relationship between these two levels of information processing. Methods: In this study, we designed a biological motion paradigm in which basic visual motion signals were manipulated systematically by incorporating different levels of motion noise. We measured the performances of schizophrenia patients (n=21 and healthy controls (n=22 in this biological motion perception task, as well as in coherent motion detection, theory of mind, and a widely used biological motion recognition task. Results: Schizophrenia patients performed the biological motion perception task with significantly lower accuracy than healthy controls when perceptual signals were moderately degraded by noise. A more substantial degradation of perceptual signals, through using additional noise, impaired biological motion perception in both groups. Performance levels on biological motion recognition, coherent motion detection and theory of mind tasks were also reduced in patients. Conclusion: The results from the motion-noise biological motion paradigm indicate that in the presence of visual motion noise, the processing of biological motion information in schizophrenia is deficient. Combined with the results of poor basic visual motion perception (coherent motion task and biological motion recognition, the association between basic motion signals and biological motion perception suggests a need to incorporate the improvement of visual motion perception in social cognitive remediation.

  2. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  3. Motion vision for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrb, Matthieu

    The problem of using computer vision in mobile robots is dealt with. The datacube specialized cards and a parallel machine using a transputer network are studied. The tracking and localization of a three dimensional object in a sequence of images is examined, using first order prediction of the motion in the image plane and verification by a maximal clique search in the graph of mutually compatible matchings. A dynamic environment modeling module, using numerical fusion between trinocular stereovision and tracking of stereo matched primitives is presented. The integration of this perception system in the control architecture of a mobile robot is examined to achieve various functions, such as vision servo motion and environment modeling. The functional units implementing vision tasks and the data exchanged with other units are outlined. Experiments realized with the mobile robot Hilare 1.5 allowed the proposed algorithms and concepts to be validated.

  4. MR imaging, flow and motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staahlberg, F.; Ericsson, A.; Nordell, B.; Thomsen, C.; Henriksen, O.; Persson, B.R.R. (Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Radiation Physics Hvidovre Hospital (Denmark). Danish Research Center of Magnetic Resonance Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Hospital Physics)

    1992-05-01

    The present work is intended as a nonmatheamtical review of the role of flow and motion in nuclear magnetic resonannce (MR) imaging. A historical review of MR flow measurement techniques is given, followed by a short overview of flow models in vitro and vivo. The theory behind the influence of motion on the modulus and phase MR signal information is discussed and effects such as washin/washout, flow-induced signal void, phase offset, and phase dispersion are defined. A simple approach to the concept of MR angiography is given, and methods for quantitative flow measurements such as the phase mapping technique, are surveyed. Aspects of the measurement of diffusion and microcirculation are given, and finally, an overview of the role of MR flow imaging in present and future clinical application is given. (orig.) With 143 refs.

  5. Dissipation and nuclear collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution is intended to give a brief summary of a forthcoming paper which shall review extensively the linear response theory for dissipation and statistical fluctuations as well as its application to heavy-ion collisions. It shall contain new results on the following subjects: numerical computations of response functions and transport coefficients; dissipation in a self-consistent treatment of harmonic vibrations; introduction of collective variables within a quantum theory. The method used consists of an extended version of the Bohm and Pines treatment of the electron gas. It allows to deduce a quantum Hamiltonian for the collective and intrinsic motion including coupling terms; discussion and solution of a quantal Master equation for non-linear collective motion. Additionally, a somewhat elaborate discussion of the problems of irreversibility is given, especially in connection to a treatment within the moving basis

  6. Wheelchair control by head motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajkanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric wheelchairs are designed to aid paraplegics. Unfortunately, these can not be used by persons with higher degree of impairment, such as quadriplegics, i.e. persons that, due to age or illness, can not move any of the body parts, except of the head. Medical devices designed to help them are very complicated, rare and expensive. In this paper a microcontroller system that enables standard electric wheelchair control by head motion is presented. The system comprises electronic and mechanic components. A novel head motion recognition technique based on accelerometer data processing is designed. The wheelchair joystick is controlled by the system’s mechanical actuator. The system can be used with several different types of standard electric wheelchairs. It is tested and verified through an experiment performed within this paper.

  7. Observing electron motion in molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study analytically the possibility for monitoring electron motion in a molecule using two ultrashort laser pulses. The first prepares a coherent superposition of two electronic molecular states whereas the second (attosecond pulse) photoionizes the molecule. We show that interesting information about electron dynamics can be obtained from measurement of the photoelectron spectra as a function of the time delay between two pulses. In particular, asymmetries in photoelectron angular distribution provide a simple signature of the electron motion within the initial time-dependent coherently coupled two molecular states. Both asymmetries and electron spectra show very strong two-centre interference patterns. We illustrate these effects using as an example a dissociating hydrogen molecular ion probed by the attosecond pulses

  8. Linear Accelerating Superluminal Motion Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, J F; Li, T P; Su, Y; Venturi, T

    2004-01-01

    Accelerating superluminal motions were detected recently by multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations. Here, a Linear Accelerating Superluminal Motion (LASM) model is proposed to interpret the observed phenomena. The model provides a direct and accurate way to estimate the viewing angle of a relativistic jet. It also predicts that both Doppler boosting and deboosting effects may take place in an accelerating forward jet. The LASM model is applied to the data of the quasar 3C 273, and the initial velocity, acceleration and viewing angle of its three components are derived through model fits. The variations of the viewing angle suggest that a supermassive black hole binary system may exist in the center of 3C273. The gap between the inner and outer jet in some radio loud AGNs my be explained in terms of Doppler deboosting effects when the components accelerate to ultra-relativistic speed.

  9. Radiation Reaction on Brownian Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Seto, Keita

    2016-01-01

    Tracking the real trajectory of a quantum particle is one of the interpretation problem and it is expressed by the Brownian (stochastic) motion suggested by E. Nelson. Especially the dynamics of a radiating electron, namely, radiation reaction which requires us to track its trajectory becomes important in the high-intensity physics by PW-class lasers at present. It has been normally treated by the Furry picture in non-linear QED, but it is difficult to draw the real trajectory of a quantum particle. For the improvement of this, I propose the representation of a stochastic particle interacting with fields and show the way to describe radiation reaction on its Brownian motion.

  10. Motion correction in thoracic positron emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Gigengack, Fabian; Dawood, Mohammad; Schäfers, Klaus P

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motion leads to image degradation in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which impairs quantification. In this book, the authors present approaches to motion estimation and motion correction in thoracic PET. The approaches for motion estimation are based on dual gating and mass-preserving image registration (VAMPIRE) and mass-preserving optical flow (MPOF). With mass-preservation, image intensity modulations caused by highly non-rigid cardiac motion are accounted for. Within the image registration framework different data terms, different variants of regularization and parametric and non-parametric motion models are examined. Within the optical flow framework, different data terms and further non-quadratic penalization are also discussed. The approaches for motion correction particularly focus on pipelines in dual gated PET. A quantitative evaluation of the proposed approaches is performed on software phantom data with accompanied ground-truth motion information. Further, clinical appl...

  11. Motion correction in MRI of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godenschweger, F.; Kägebein, U.; Stucht, D.; Yarach, U.; Sciarra, A.; Yakupov, R.; Lüsebrink, F.; Schulze, P.; Speck, O.

    2016-03-01

    Subject motion in MRI is a relevant problem in the daily clinical routine as well as in scientific studies. Since the beginning of clinical use of MRI, many research groups have developed methods to suppress or correct motion artefacts. This review focuses on rigid body motion correction of head and brain MRI and its application in diagnosis and research. It explains the sources and types of motion and related artefacts, classifies and describes existing techniques for motion detection, compensation and correction and lists established and experimental approaches. Retrospective motion correction modifies the MR image data during the reconstruction, while prospective motion correction performs an adaptive update of the data acquisition. Differences, benefits and drawbacks of different motion correction methods are discussed.

  12. Motion Editing for Time-Varying Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Yamasaki, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Kiyoharu

    2008-12-01

    Recently, time-varying mesh (TVM), which is composed of a sequence of mesh models, has received considerable interest due to its new and attractive functions such as free viewpoint and interactivity. TVM captures the dynamic scene of the real world from multiple synchronized cameras. However, it is expensive and time consuming to generate a TVM sequence. In this paper, an editing system is presented to reuse the original data, which reorganizes the motions to obtain a new sequence based on the user requirements. Hierarchical motion structure is observed and parsed in TVM sequences. Then, the representative motions are chosen into a motion database, where a motion graph is constructed to connect those motions with smooth transitions. After the user selects some desired motions from the motion database, the best paths are searched by a modified Dijkstra algorithm to achieve a new sequence. Our experimental results demonstrate that the edited sequences are natural and smooth.

  13. Motion Editing for Time-Varying Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoharu Aizawa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, time-varying mesh (TVM, which is composed of a sequence of mesh models, has received considerable interest due to its new and attractive functions such as free viewpoint and interactivity. TVM captures the dynamic scene of the real world from multiple synchronized cameras. However, it is expensive and time consuming to generate a TVM sequence. In this paper, an editing system is presented to reuse the original data, which reorganizes the motions to obtain a new sequence based on the user requirements. Hierarchical motion structure is observed and parsed in TVM sequences. Then, the representative motions are chosen into a motion database, where a motion graph is constructed to connect those motions with smooth transitions. After the user selects some desired motions from the motion database, the best paths are searched by a modified Dijkstra algorithm to achieve a new sequence. Our experimental results demonstrate that the edited sequences are natural and smooth.

  14. The effect of motion acceleration on displacement of continuous and staircase motion in the frontoparallel plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Poljanšek

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available If a moving target suddenly disappears, memory for the final location of the target is displaced forward in the direction of motion. This displacement depends on higher order motion regularities (e.g., velocity, acceleration, and so a consideration of displacement might reveal which other motion regularities observers are sensitive to. Perceptually continuous or staircase motions exhibiting either negative, zero, or positive acceleration were presented. Displacement magnitude was smallest for negative acceleration and largest for positive acceleration, and these differences were stronger with continuous motion than with staircase motion. The effect of acceleration is consistent with effects of velocity and an incorporation of effects of momentum into the representation. The weaker effect of acceleration condition with staircase motion is consistent with previous findings that motion signals are more impoverished with staircase motion than with continuous motion. Implications for theories of representational momentum and for perception of motion are considered.

  15. Geometric Reasoning About Translational Motions

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzer, Fabian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problems of planning highly coordinated collision-free translational motions of multiple objects (general polygons or polyhedra) and finding sequences of translations that allow for the removal of one or more objects. These problems are known to be PSPACE-hard in general. Our main focus is therefore on the design and analysis of adaptive algorithms that can cope with practically relevant cases such as tightly interlaced placements. Exact and complete algorithms are i...

  16. 100 Years of Brownian motion

    OpenAIRE

    Hänggi, Peter; Marchesoni, Fabio

    2005-01-01

    In the year 1905 Albert Einstein published four papers that raised him to a giant in the history of science of all times. These works encompass the photon hypothesis (for which he obtained the Nobel prize in 1921), his first two papers on (special) relativity theory and, of course, his first paper on Brownian motion, entitled "\\"Uber die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der W\\"arme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Fl\\"ussigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen'' (submitted on May 11, 1905). Th...

  17. Attentional Networks and Biological Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Chandramouli Chandrasekaran; Lucy Turner; Heinrich H Bülthoff; Thornton, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to see meaningful actions when presented with pointlight traces of human movement is commonly referred to as the perception of biological motion. While traditionalexplanations have emphasized the spontaneous and automatic nature of this ability, morerecent findings suggest that attention may play a larger role than is typically assumed. Intwo studies we show that the speed and accuracy of responding to point-light stimuli is highly correlated with the ability to control selective ...

  18. Motion of floating wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Linde, Børge

    2010-01-01

    Motion of floating wind turbines has been studied. A literature study on different concepts and what tools are available for simulating them is presented. Marintek’s simulation software SIMO is used for time simulations. In the calculations, the hydrodynamic forces, mooring line forces and aerodynamic forces from the tower and rotor are taken into account. In addition a pitch control algorithm is used for the rotor blades. Results are compared to available experimental results from model test...

  19. Breast motion asymmetry during running

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Chris; Risius, Debbie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Breast asymmetry is common in females, despite a similar driving force; dynamic activity may result in asymmetrical breast motion. This preliminary study investigated how breast categorisation (left/right or dominant/non-dominant) may affect breast support recommendations and its relationship with breast pain. Ten females ran on a treadmill at 10 kph in three breast supports (no bra, everyday bra, sports bra). Five reflective markers on the thorax and nipples were tracked using infrared camer...

  20. From Lagrangian to Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a Lagrangian describing an idealized liquid interacting with a particle immersed in it. We show that the equation describing the motion of the particle as a functional of the initial conditions of the liquid incorporates noise and friction, which are attributed to specific dynamical processes. The equation is approximated to yield a Langevin equation with parameters depending on the Lagrangian and the temperature of the liquid. The origin of irreversibility and dissipation is discussed

  1. Motion Analysis in the Hemicochlea

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Hongxue; Richter, Claus-Peter; Chadwick, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    Optical flow techniques are often used to estimate velocity fields to represent motion in successive video images. Usually the method is mathematically ill-posed, because the single scalar equation representing the conservation of local intensity contains more than one unknown velocity component. Instead of regularizing the problem using optimization techniques, we formulate a well-posed problem for the gerbil hemicochlea preparation by introducing an in-plane incompressibility constraint, an...

  2. Avalonian crustal controls on basin evolution: implications for the Mesozoic basins of the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the Southern North Sea Basin's (SNSB) Pre-Permian basement due to a lack of outcrop and cores. The nature and structure of the East Avalonian crust and lithosphere remain even less constrained in the absence of deep seismic (refraction) lines. However, various studies have hinted at the importance of the Reactivation of the Early Carboniferous fault network during each consecutive Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic phase, demonstrating the key role of weak zones from the Early Carboniferous structural grain in partitioning of structural deformation and vertical basin motions at various scales. Although the older basin history and the basement attract increasing attention, the Pre-Permian tectonics of the SNSB remains little studied with most attention focused on the Permian and younger history. The strong dispersal of existing constraints requires a comprehensive study from Denmark to the UK, i.e. the East Avalonian microplate, bordered by the Variscan Rheïc suture, the Atlantic and Baltica. Based on an extensive literature study and the reinterpretation of publicly available data, linking constraints from the crust and mantle to stratigraphic-sedimentological information, we complement the map of Early Carboniferous rifting of East Avalonia and propose a new tectonic scenario. From the reinterpretation of the boundary between Avalonia and Baltica we propose a new outline for the Avalonian microplate with implications for the tectonics of the North German Basin. Furthermore, we highlight the nature and extent of the major crustal/lithospheric domains with contrasting structural behaviour and the major boundaries that separate them. Results shed light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric that are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints

  3. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lamu basin of south-east Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagah, K.; Cloeter, J.J.; Maende, A. [National Oil Corp. of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1996-12-31

    The Lamu basin occupies the coastal onshore and offshore areas of south-east Kenya. This fault bounded basin formed as a result of the Paleozoic-early Mesozoic phase of rifting that developed at the onset of Gondwana dismemberment. The resultant graben was filled by Karroo (Permian-Early Jurassic) continental siliciclastic sediments. Carbonate deposits associated with the Tethyan sea invasion, dominate the Middle to Late Jurassic basin fill. Cessation of the relative motion between Madagascar and Africa in the Early Cretaceous, heralded passive margin development and deltaic sediment progradation until the Paleogene. Shallow seas transgressed the basin in the Miocene when another carbonate regime prevailed. The basin depositional history is characterized by pulses of transgressive and regressive cycles, bounded by tectonically enhanced unconformities dividing the total sedimentary succession into discrete megasequences. Source rock strata occur within Megasequence III (Paleogene) depositional cycle and were lowered into the oil window in Miocene time, when the coastal parts of the basin experienced the greatest amount of subsidence. The tectono-eustatic pulses of the Tertiary brought about source and reservoir strata into a spatial relationship in which hydrocarbons could be entrapped. A basement high on the continental shelf has potential for Karroo sandstone and Jurassic limestone reservoirs. Halokinesis of Middle Jurassic salt in Miocene time provides additional prospects in the offshore area. Paleogene deltaic sands occur in rotated listric fault blacks. A Miocene reef Play coincides with an Eocene source rock kitchen.

  4. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lamu basin of south-east Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagah, K.; Cloeter, J.J.; Maende, A. (National Oil Corp. of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya))

    1996-01-01

    The Lamu basin occupies the coastal onshore and offshore areas of south-east Kenya. This fault bounded basin formed as a result of the Paleozoic-early Mesozoic phase of rifting that developed at the onset of Gondwana dismemberment. The resultant graben was filled by Karroo (Permian-Early Jurassic) continental siliciclastic sediments. Carbonate deposits associated with the Tethyan sea invasion, dominate the Middle to Late Jurassic basin fill. Cessation of the relative motion between Madagascar and Africa in the Early Cretaceous, heralded passive margin development and deltaic sediment progradation until the Paleogene. Shallow seas transgressed the basin in the Miocene when another carbonate regime prevailed. The basin depositional history is characterized by pulses of transgressive and regressive cycles, bounded by tectonically enhanced unconformities dividing the total sedimentary succession into discrete megasequences. Source rock strata occur within Megasequence III (Paleogene) depositional cycle and were lowered into the oil window in Miocene time, when the coastal parts of the basin experienced the greatest amount of subsidence. The tectono-eustatic pulses of the Tertiary brought about source and reservoir strata into a spatial relationship in which hydrocarbons could be entrapped. A basement high on the continental shelf has potential for Karroo sandstone and Jurassic limestone reservoirs. Halokinesis of Middle Jurassic salt in Miocene time provides additional prospects in the offshore area. Paleogene deltaic sands occur in rotated listric fault blacks. A Miocene reef Play coincides with an Eocene source rock kitchen.

  5. Global motion estimation with Gabor wavelet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A novel algorithm of global motion estimation is proposed. First, through Gabor wavelet transform (GWT), a kind of energy distribution of image is obtained and checkpoints are selected according to a probability decision approach proposed. Then, the initialized motion vectors are obtained via a hierarchal block-matching based on these checkpoints.Finally, by employing a 3-parameter motion model, precise parameters of global motion are found. From the experiment, the algorithm is reliable and robust.

  6. The neural basis of tactile motion perception

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Yu-Cheng; Sliman J Bensmaia

    2014-01-01

    The manipulation of objects commonly involves motion between object and skin. In this review, we discuss the neural basis of tactile motion perception and its similarities with its visual counterpart. First, much like in vision, the perception of tactile motion relies on the processing of spatiotemporal patterns of activation across populations of sensory receptors. Second, many neurons in primary somatosensory cortex are highly sensitive to motion direction, and the response properties of th...

  7. Symbolic Modelling of Dynamic Human Motions

    OpenAIRE

    Stirling, David; Hesami, Amir; Ritz, Christian; Adistambha, Kevin; Naghdy, Fazel

    2010-01-01

    The results from Section 4 and Section 5 clearly support all of the three objectives discussed at the end of Section 2. These being to firstly; develop a plausible model for dynamic finger printing of motion data between individuals. Secondly, investigate a model that could to also identify distinctions between various motion tasks, and finally to formulate a model to identify motion pretence, or acting, as well as normal and (physically induced) abnormal motion behaviours.

  8. Animation of People from Surface Motion Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton, A; Starck, J

    2007-01-01

    Digital content production traditionally requires highly skilled artists and animators to first manually craft shape and appearance models and then instill the models with a believable performance. Motion capture technology is now increasingly used to record the articulated motion of a real human performance to increase the visual realism in animation. Motion capture is limited to recording only the skeletal motion of the human body and requires the use of specialist suits and markers to trac...

  9. Advances in ground motion studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许力生; 俞言祥; 陈运泰

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the works in the processing of strong ground motion data, the factors affecting strong ground motion, the modeling of strong ground motion and the calculating of broad-band response spectrum which have been done recent years by engineering seismologists and seismologists of China. In addition, we think back to the international cooperation in strong ground motion of the recent years and make some expectations for the future.

  10. Motion of vortex lines in quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia; Sliwa, Cezary

    1999-01-01

    Exact analytic solutions of the time dependent Schrodinger equation are produced that exhibit a variety of vortex structures. The qualitative analysis of the motion of vortex lines is presented and various types of vortex behavior are identified. Vortex creation and annihilation and vortex interactions are illustrated in the special cases of the free motion, the motion in the harmonic potential, and in the constant magnetic field. Similar analysis of the vortex motions is carried out also for...

  11. Probiotics: In Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in our bodies. The History of Probiotics The concept behind probiotics was introduced in the early 20th ... experts have cautioned that the rapid growth in marketing and use of probiotics may have outpaced scientific ...

  12. Acupuncture: In Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Multimedia (Video, Images, and Audio) NCCIH Clinical Digest A monthly newsletter with evidence-based information on ... require a viewer such as the free Adobe Reader . NCCIH Pub No.: D404 Date Created: December 2007 ...

  13. Jupiter Clouds in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 619 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 727 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 890 nmImages from NASA's Cassini spacecraft using three different filters reveal cloud structures and movements at different depths in the atmosphere around Jupiter's south pole.Cassini's cameras come equipped with filters that sample three wavelengths where methane gas absorbs light. These are in the red at 619 nanometer (nm) wavelength and in the near-infrared at 727 nm and 890 nm. Absorption in the 619 nm filter is weak. It is stronger in the 727 nm band and very strong in the 890 nm band where 90 percent of the light is absorbed by methane gas. Light in the weakest band can penetrate the deepest into Jupiter's atmosphere. It is sensitive to the amount of cloud and haze down to the pressure of the water cloud, which lies at a depth where pressure is about 6 times the atmospheric pressure at sea level on the Earth). Light in the strongest methane band is absorbed at high altitude and is sensitive only to the ammonia cloud level and higher (pressures less than about one-half of Earth's atmospheric pressure) and the middle methane band is sensitive to the ammonia and ammonium hydrosulfide cloud layers as deep as two times Earth's atmospheric pressure.The images shown here demonstrate the power of these filters in studies of cloud stratigraphy. The images cover latitudes from about 15 degrees north at the top down to the southern polar region at the bottom. The left and middle images are ratios, the image in the methane filter divided by the image at a nearby wavelength outside the methane band. Using ratios emphasizes where contrast is due to methane absorption and not to other factors, such as the absorptive properties of the cloud particles, which influence contrast at all wavelengths.The most prominent feature seen in all three filters is the polar stratospheric haze that makes Jupiter bright near the pole. The equatorial band is also very bright in the strong 890-nm (right) image and to a lesser extent in the 727 band (middle image) but is subdued in the weak 619-nm image on the left. These are high, thin, haze layers that are nearly transparent at wavelengths outside the methane absorption bands. Another prominent feature is the Great Red Spot. About a third of it appears at the right-hand edge of the frame. It is a bright feature in methane absorption because it has extensive cloud cover reaching to high altitude. A wisp of high thin cloud can be seen trailing off its western rim in the middle and right images.Features mentioned above have been seen from ground-based telescopes, from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and from NASA's Galileo spacecraft. This is the first high-resolution image in all three methane bands, and a comparison of all three reveals some interesting features. Chief among these is the very dark patch seen in the left (weak methane) image near the top-middle of the frame. It is almost invisible in the right image and it appears to be composed of strands of bright clouds in the middle image. This is a region similar to the hot spot where the Galileo Probe entered Jupiter's atmosphere in 1995. These images indicate that cloud cover is present at the higher altitudes but absent from the lower altitudes. This is also what the Galileo Probe found when it entered Jupiter's atmosphere.To the northwest (above and to the left) of the dark feature is a small cloud that is bright in the 619-nm (left) image but has no contrast at the other wavelengths. This is the signature expected for a thick water cloud. Another feature seen only in the weak-methane (left image) ratio is a dark ring near the center of the image. This feature is probably a counter-clockwise rotating, upwelling core surrounded by a sinking perimeter with diminished cloudiness. The fact that it is seen only in the weak methane ratio indicates the effects of a lower-level circulation that does not penetrated to the upper ammonia cloud level and may be confined to the deeper water cloud.The opposite behavior is evident in an oval storm that appears dark in the middle and right images but is absent in the weak, 619-nm image. It is located to the southwest of the Great Red Spot. Further to the west at slightly more northerly latitudes are a series of small spots that are dark at all wavelengths. These and a myriad of other contrast features at many latitudes reveal much about Jupiter's complicated cloud structure and meteorology.Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  14. Software Architecture in Depth

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Heinemann; Christian Neumann; Birgit Penzenstadler; Wassiou Sitou

    2016-01-01

    The quality of software architecture is one of the crucial success factors for the development of large and/or complex systems. Therefore, a good software architect plays a key role in every demanding project: She or he has the overview of the overall system and sets the framework for the implementation. In order to be successful in this task, software architects need well-founded and encompassing knowledge about design, which exceeds pure programming and specific spe- cialization a...

  15. APL2 in depth

    CERN Document Server

    Thomson, Norman D

    1995-01-01

    This book is designed for people with a working knowledge of APL who would like to increase their fluency in the wide range of extra facilities offered by second-generation APL products. Although the primary product in view is IBM's APL2 as implemented on mainframe, PC and RS/6000, the language fea­ tures covered share considerable common ground with APL *PLUS II and Oyalog APL. This is a book about skills rather than knowledge, and an acquaintance with some variety of APL on the reader's part is assumed from the start. It is designed to be read as a continuous text, interspersed with exer­ cises designed to give progressively deeper insight into what the authors conceive as the features which have the greatest impact on programming techniques. It would also be suitable as a text-book for a second course in APL2, although experience suggests that most programming language learning is now by self­ study, so that this volume is more likely to provide follow-up reading to more elementary texts such as "APL2 a...

  16. Coherent Motion of Monolayer Sheets under Confinement and Its Pathological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, S S; Gupta, Animesh; Cugno, Andrea; Deseri, Luca; Dayal, Kaushik; Das, Dibyendu; Sen, Shamik; Inamdar, Mandar M

    2015-12-01

    Coherent angular rotation of epithelial cells is thought to contribute to many vital physiological processes including tissue morphogenesis and glandular formation. However, factors regulating this motion, and the implications of this motion if perturbed, remain incompletely understood. In the current study, we address these questions using a cell-center based model in which cells are polarized, motile, and interact with the neighboring cells via harmonic forces. We demonstrate that, a simple evolution rule in which the polarization of any cell tends to orient with its velocity vector can induce coherent motion in geometrically confined environments. In addition to recapitulating coherent rotational motion observed in experiments, our results also show the presence of radial movements and tissue behavior that can vary between solid-like and fluid-like. We show that the pattern of coherent motion is dictated by the combination of different physical parameters including number density, cell motility, system size, bulk cell stiffness and stiffness of cell-cell adhesions. We further observe that perturbations in the form of cell division can induce a reversal in the direction of motion when cell division occurs synchronously. Moreover, when the confinement is removed, we see that the existing coherent motion leads to cell scattering, with bulk cell stiffness and stiffness of cell-cell contacts dictating the invasion pattern. In summary, our study provides an in-depth understanding of the origin of coherent rotation in confined tissues, and extracts useful insights into the influence of various physical parameters on the pattern of such movements. PMID:26691341

  17. Influence of Visual Motion, Suggestion, and Illusory Motion on Self-Motion Perception in the Horizontal Plane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven David Rosenblatt

    Full Text Available A moving visual field can induce the feeling of self-motion or vection. Illusory motion from static repeated asymmetric patterns creates a compelling visual motion stimulus, but it is unclear if such illusory motion can induce a feeling of self-motion or alter self-motion perception. In these experiments, human subjects reported the perceived direction of self-motion for sway translation and yaw rotation at the end of a period of viewing set visual stimuli coordinated with varying inertial stimuli. This tested the hypothesis that illusory visual motion would influence self-motion perception in the horizontal plane. Trials were arranged into 5 blocks based on stimulus type: moving star field with yaw rotation, moving star field with sway translation, illusory motion with yaw, illusory motion with sway, and static arrows with sway. Static arrows were used to evaluate the effect of cognitive suggestion on self-motion perception. Each trial had a control condition; the illusory motion controls were altered versions of the experimental image, which removed the illusory motion effect. For the moving visual stimulus, controls were carried out in a dark room. With the arrow visual stimulus, controls were a gray screen. In blocks containing a visual stimulus there was an 8s viewing interval with the inertial stimulus occurring over the final 1s. This allowed measurement of the visual illusion perception using objective methods. When no visual stimulus was present, only the 1s motion stimulus was presented. Eight women and five men (mean age 37 participated. To assess for a shift in self-motion perception, the effect of each visual stimulus on the self-motion stimulus (cm/s at which subjects were equally likely to report motion in either direction was measured. Significant effects were seen for moving star fields for both translation (p = 0.001 and rotation (p0.1 for both. Thus, although a true moving visual field can induce self-motion, results of this

  18. 5 CFR 185.130 - Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Motions. 185.130 Section 185.130 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.130 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling shall be by motion....

  19. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

  20. Audiovisual biofeedback improves motion prediction accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; Keall, Paul; Kim, Taeho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The accuracy of motion prediction, utilized to overcome the system latency of motion management radiotherapy systems, is hampered by irregularities present in the patients’ respiratory pattern. Audiovisual (AV) biofeedback has been shown to reduce respiratory irregularities. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves the accuracy of motion prediction.

  1. Model-Based Motion Tracking of Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    Even though motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure human movements, only a few studies focus on motion tracking of infants. In recent years, a number of studies have emerged focusing on analyzing the motion pattern of infants, using computer vision. Most of these studies...

  2. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion pictures. 705.8 Section 705.8 National... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures given in... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...

  3. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants

  4. Rotational motion control of a spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    2003-01-01

    The paper adopts the energy shaping method to control of rotational motion. A global representation of the rigid body motion is given in the canonical form by a quaternion and its conjugate momenta. A general method for motion control on a cotangent bundle to the 3-sphere is suggested. The design...

  5. Rotational Motion Control of a Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    2001-01-01

    The paper adopts the energy shaping method to control of rotational motion. A global representation of the rigid body motion is given in the canonical form by a quaternion and its conjugate momenta. A general method for motion control on a cotangent bundle to the 3-sphere is suggested. The design...

  6. Sunspots and Their Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, C. I.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an example of a simple harmonic motion, the apparent motion of sunspots due to the Sun's rotation, is described, which can be used to teach this subject to high-school students. Using real images of the Sun, students can calculate the star's rotation period with the simple harmonic motion mathematical expression.

  7. Untangling the relationships between proximity dimensions – an in-depth study of collaboration in the Danish cleantech industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    tested. This paper aims to contribute to this field of research by analysing collaborative development projects in the Danish cleantech industry. An ordered logit model will be applied to a unique database of 180 inter-firm collaborations created through in-depth interviews with cleantech firms. The...... analysis will in this way reveal to what extent the other proximity dimensions are consequences of geographical proximity. Additionally, the paper will provide a detailed picture of the use of knowledge networks in the cleantech industry. This is in itself a novel contribution, as the industry is rarely...... conceptualised as a whole in academic work due to the lack of a cleantech-code in industrial classifications. Thus, a further aim is to identify similarities and differences in innovation patterns between firms from diverse backgrounds such as wind energy, biomass energy and green construction....

  8. In-depth analysis of eight criteria for integrated leakage rate tests for nuclear power plant containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Small Business Innovation research (SBIR) Contract investigated ten integrated leakage rate test (ILRT) analysis models which have been proposed for evaluation of ILRT data. This contract involved in-depth analysis of two ILRTs with data collected at accelerated rates and 80 conventional ILRTs with data collected at a frequency between 10-15 minutes. All ten methods were applied to all data. The study considered the appropriateness of each method to analyze containment data (air mass versus time), the influence of data collection frequency on ILRT duration, and the influence of collection frequency on each method. The study is described in the paper. Results are presented

  9. Application of the defense-in-depth concept to qualify computer-based instrumentation and control systems important to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In parallel to the technological development, the authorities and expert organisations are preparing the application of computer-based I and C to NPPs from the regulatory point of view. Generally the associated world-wide procedure follows steps like identification of safety issues, completion of the regulatory framework particularly regarding the licensing requirements and furthermore, recommendation of an appropriate set of qualification methods to prove that the requirements are met. The paper's intention is to show from the regulatory point of view that the choice as well as the combination of the qualification methods depend on system design features and development strategy. Similar as for the safety system design required, a defense-in-depth qualification concept is suggested to be helpful in order to prove that the computer-based system meets the licensing requirements. (author)

  10. In-Depth Analysis of Selected Topics Related to the Quality Assessment of E-Commerce Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Antonia; Stavrinoudis, Dimitris; Xenos, Michalis

    This paper provides an in-depth analysis of selected important topics related to the quality assessment of e-commerce systems. It briefly introduces to the reader a quality assessment model based on Bayesian Networks and presents in detail the practical application of this model, highlighting practical issues related to the involvement of human subjects, conflict resolution, and calibration of the measurement instruments. Furthermore, the paper presents the application process of the model for the quality assessment of various e-commerce systems; it also discusses in detail how particular features (data) of the assessed e-commerce systems can be identified and, using the described automated assessment process, lead to higher abstraction information (desiderata) regarding the quality of the assessed e-commerce systems.

  11. Proterozoic basin in the southern Midcontinent of the United States revealed by COCORP deep seismic reflection profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J. A.; Brown, L. D.; Steiner, D.; Oliver, J. E.; Kaufman, S.; Denison, R. E.

    1981-12-01

    COCORP deep crustal seismic profiles in southwestern Oklahoma show strong, persistent, continuous, and undeformed layering in the basement over an area probably very much greater than 2,500 km2. Such layering is very unusual, judging by COCORP experience with basement rocks elsewhere in the United States. The data can be interpreted as representing a Proterozoic basin filled with clastic sedimentary and felsic volcanic rocks 7 to 10 km thick, whose base lies 10 to 13 km deep. These rocks are believed, on the basis of sparse evidence from regional geology, to have been deposited or extruded about 1,200 to 1,400 m.y. ago, and some of them may now be metamorphosed. This basin lies on the south side of the Wichita Mountains, under the Paleozoic Hardeman Basin, and is similar in depth to the Paleozoic Anadarko Basin north of the mountains. The deep basement layering is truncated on the south side of the Wichita Mountains, probably by Precambrian faults in conjunction with granitic intrusions. Pennsylvanian compression probably reactivated these Precambrian trends. Extensive Precambrian basin deposits in this area were unexpected, on the basis of evidence from sparse well control, and reports of other layered basement reflections elsewhere in the southern Midcontinent suggest that Precambrian basins may be an important feature of this region. Simple models for the evolution of southwestern Oklahoma as an aulacogen must be reformulated in the light of these new data.

  12. Computational Assessment of Neural Probe and Brain Tissue Interface under Transient Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Polanco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The functional longevity of a neural probe is dependent upon its ability to minimize injury risk during the insertion and recording period in vivo, which could be related to motion-related strain between the probe and surrounding tissue. A series of finite element analyses was conducted to study the extent of the strain induced within the brain in an area around a neural probe. This study focuses on the transient behavior of neural probe and brain tissue interface with a viscoelastic model. Different stages of the interface from initial insertion of neural probe to full bonding of the probe by astro-glial sheath formation are simulated utilizing analytical tools to investigate the effects of relative motion between the neural probe and the brain while friction coefficients and kinematic frequencies are varied. The analyses can provide an in-depth look at the quantitative benefits behind using soft materials for neural probes.

  13. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Maps for Seattle, Washington, Based on 3D Ground-Motion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, A. D.; Stephenson, W. J.; Carver, D. L.; Williams, R. A.; Odum, J. K.; Rhea, S.

    2007-12-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Seattle using over 500 3D finite-difference simulations of ground motions from earthquakes in the Seattle fault zone, Cascadia subduction zone, South Whidbey Island fault, and background shallow and deep source areas. The maps depict 1 Hz response spectral accelerations with 2, 5, and 10% probabilities of being exceeded in 50 years. The simulations were used to generate site and source dependent amplification factors that are applied to rock-site attenuation relations. The maps incorporate essentially the same fault sources and earthquake recurrence times as the 2002 national seismic hazard maps. The simulations included basin surface waves and basin-edge focusing effects from a 3D model of the Seattle basin. The 3D velocity model was validated by modeling several earthquakes in the region, including the 2001 M6.8 Nisqually earthquake, that were recorded by our Seattle Urban Seismic Network and the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network. The simulations duplicate our observation that earthquakes from the south and southwest typically produce larger amplifications in the Seattle basin than earthquakes from other azimuths, relative to rock sites outside the basin. Finite-fault simulations were run for earthquakes along the Seattle fault zone, with magnitudes ranging from 6.6 to 7.2, so that the effects of rupture directivity were included. Nonlinear amplification factors for soft-soil sites of fill and alluvium were also applied in the maps. For the Cascadia subduction zone, 3D simulations with point sources at different locations along the zone were used to determine amplification factors across Seattle expected for great subduction-zone earthquakes. These new urban seismic hazard maps are based on determinations of hazard for 7236 sites with a spacing of 280 m. The maps show that the highest hazard locations for this frequency band (around 1 Hz) are soft-soil sites (fill and alluvium) within the Seattle basin and

  14. High-resolution Neogene and Quaternary estimates of Nubia-Eurasia-North America Plate motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, C.; Iaffaldano, G.; Merkouriev, S.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstructions of the history of convergence between the Nubia and Eurasia plates constitute an important part of a broader framework for understanding deformation in the Mediterranean region and the closing of the Mediterranean Basin. Herein, we combine high-resolution reconstructions of Eurasia-North America and Nubia-North America Plate motions to determine rotations that describe Nubia-Eurasia Plate motion at ˜1 Myr intervals for the past 20 Myr. We apply trans-dimensional hierarchical Bayesian inference to the Eurasia-North America and Nubia-North America rotation sequences in order to reduce noise in the newly estimated Nubia-Eurasia rotations. The noise-reduced rotation sequences for the Eurasia-North America and Nubia-North America Plate pairs describe remarkably similar kinematic histories since 20 Ma, consisting of relatively steady seafloor spreading from 20 to 8 Ma, ˜20 per cent opening-rate slowdowns at 8-6.5 Ma, and steady plate motion from ˜7 Ma to the present. Our newly estimated Nubia-Eurasia rotations predict that convergence across the central Mediterranean Sea slowed by ˜50 per cent and rotated anticlockwise after ˜25 Ma until 13 Ma. Motion since 13 Ma has remained relatively steady. An absence of evidence for a significant change in motion immediately before or during the Messinian Salinity Crisis at 6.3-5.6 Ma argues against a change in plate motion as its causative factor. The detachment of the Arabian Peninsula from Africa at 30-24 Ma may have triggered the convergence rate slowdown before 13 Ma; however, published reconstructions of Nubia-Eurasia motion for times before 20 Ma are too widely spaced to determine with confidence whether the two are correlated. A significant discrepancy between our new estimates of Nubia-Eurasia motion during the past few Myr and geodetic estimates calls for further investigation.

  15. X-ray diffraction analysis of clay stones, Muglad Sedimentary Basin, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the theoretical and experimental aspects of X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Moreover the XRD technique has been used to investigate the clay mineral types and their distribution for samples obtained from exploration wells in the Mugald Sedimentary Basin in Western Sudan. The studied samples range in depth from 1524 m to 4572 m. The XRD analysis of samples shows that they consist of kaolinite, smectite, illite, chlorite and the mixed-layer smectite/illite. Kaolinite has higher abundance (15 - 72 %) followed by illite (7 - 34 %), smectite (11 - 76 %) and the less abundance of chlorite and the mixed-layer smectite/illite. Non-clay minerals found include quartz and cristabolite. The clay mineral types and their vertical distribution reflect various controls such as environmental, burial diagenesis, source rocks and climatic influences in the Muglad Sedimentary Basin. (author). 19 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Growth structures : examples of integrated sedimentological and structural-geological basin analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nijman, W

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is based on research in the interface oftwo geological disciplines, sedimentology (the study of sediments, like sandstone and limestone) and structural geology (the study of rock deformation). Sedimentation is influenced by cosmic and climatological processes, sea-level change, and deformation of the earth's crust. Prerequisites for the generation of sediments are uplift and erosion in source areas, and subsidence and deposition in basins. Contrary to these vertical motions, defor...

  17. Reciprocating motion of active deformable particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarama, M.; Ohta, T.

    2016-05-01

    Reciprocating motion of an active deformable particle in a homogeneous medium is studied theoretically. For generality, we employ a simple model derived from symmetry considerations for the center-of-mass velocity and elliptical and triangular deformations in two dimensions. We carry out, for the first time, a systematic investigation of the reciprocating motion of a self-propelled particle. It is clarified that spontaneous breaking of the front-rear asymmetry is essential for the reciprocating motion. Moreover, two routes are found for the formation of the reciprocating motion. One is a bifurcation from a motionless stationary state. The other is destabilisation of an oscillatory rectilinear motion.

  18. Probabilistic Motion Estimation Based on Temporal Coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Burgi, Pierre-Yves; Grzywacz, Norberto M; 10.1162/089976600300015169

    2012-01-01

    We develop a theory for the temporal integration of visual motion motivated by psychophysical experiments. The theory proposes that input data are temporally grouped and used to predict and estimate the motion flows in the image sequence. This temporal grouping can be considered a generalization of the data association techniques used by engineers to study motion sequences. Our temporal-grouping theory is expressed in terms of the Bayesian generalization of standard Kalman filtering. To implement the theory we derive a parallel network which shares some properties of cortical networks. Computer simulations of this network demonstrate that our theory qualitatively accounts for psychophysical experiments on motion occlusion and motion outliers.

  19. Covariance, Curved Space, Motion and Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostol M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak external forces and non-inertial motion are equivalent with thefree motion in a curved space. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is derivedfor such motion and the effects of the curvature upon the quantizationare analyzed, starting from a generalization of the Klein-Gordon equation in curved spaces. It is shown that the quantization is actually destroyed, in general, by a non-inertial motion in the presence of external forces, in the sense that such a motion may produce quantum transitions. Examples are given for a massive scalar field and for photons.

  20. Covariance, Curved Space, Motion and Quantization

    OpenAIRE

    Apostol M.

    2008-01-01

    Weak external forces and non-inertial motion are equivalent with the free motion in a curved space. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is derived for such motion and the effects of the curvature upon the quantization are analyzed, starting from a generalization of the Klein-Gordon equation in curved spaces. It is shown that the quantization is actually destroyed, in general, by a non-inertial motion in the presence of external forces, in the sense that such a motion may produce quant...

  1. Recent ground motion studies at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; Volk, J.; /Fermilab; Singatulin, S.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2009-04-01

    Understanding slow and fast ground motion is important for the successful operation and design for present and future colliders. Since 2000 there have been several studies of ground motion at Fermilab. Several different types of HLS (hydro static level sensors) have been used to study slow ground motion (less than 1 hertz) seismometers have been used for fast (greater than 1 hertz) motions. Data have been taken at the surface and at locations 100 meters below the surface. Data of recent slow ground motion measurements with HLSs, many years of alignment data and results of the ATL-analysis are presented and discussed.

  2. A Global Correction to PPMXL Proper Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Vickers, John J; Grebel, Eva K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we notice that extragalactic sources seem to have non-zero proper motions in the PPMXL proper motion catalog. We collect a large, all-sky sample of extragalactic objects and fit their reported PPMXL proper motions to an ensemble of spherical harmonics in magnitude shells. A magnitude dependent proper motion correction is thus constructed. This correction is applied to a set of fundamental radio sources, quasars, and is compared to similar corrections to assess its utility. We publish, along with this paper, code which may be used to correct proper motions in the PPMXL catalog over the full sky which have 2 Micron All Sky Survey photometry.

  3. Yaw Motion Cues in Helicopter Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Walter W.

    1996-01-01

    A piloted simulation that examined the effects of yaw motion cues on pilot-vehicle performance, pilot workload, and pilot motion perception was conducted on the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. The vehicle model that was used represented an AH-64 helicopter. Three tasks were performed in which only combinations of vehicle yaw and vertical displacement were allowed. The commands issued to the motion platform were modified to present the following four motion configurations for a pilot located forward of the center of rotation: (1) only the linear translations, (2) only the angular rotation, (3) both the linear translations and the angular rotation, and (4) no motion. The objective data indicated that pilot-vehicle performance was reduced and the necessary control activity increased when linear motion was removed; however, the lack of angular rotation did not result in a measured degradation for almost all cases. Also, pilots provided subjective assessments of their compensation required, the motion fidelity, and their judgment of whether or not linear or rotational cockpit motion was present. Ratings of compensation and fidelity were affected only by linear acceleration, and the rotational motion had no significant impact. Also, when only linear motion was present, pilots typically reported the presence of rotation. Thus, linear acceleration cues, not yaw rotational cues, appear necessary to simulate hovering flight.

  4. Origin and evolution of marginal basins of the NW Pacific: Diffuse-plate tectonic reconstructions

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Junyuan; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Yu, Ho-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Formation of the gigantic linked dextral pull-apart basin system in the NW Pacific is due to NNE- to ENE-ward motion of east Eurasia. This mainly was a response to the Indo-Asia collision which started about 50 Ma ago. The displacement of east Eurasia can be estimated using three aspects: (1) the magnitude of pull-apart of the dextral pull-apart basin system, (2) paleomagnetic data from eastern Eurasia and the region around the Arctic, and (3) the shortening deficits in the Large Tibetan Plateau. All the three aspects indicate that there was a large amount (about 1200 km) of northward motion of the South China block and compatible movements of other blocks in eastern Eurasia during the rifting period of the basin system. Such large motion of the eastern Eurasia region contradicts any traditional rigid plate tectonic reconstruction, but agrees with the more recent concepts of non-rigidity of both continental and oceanic lithosphere over geological times. Based on these estimates, the method developed for resto...

  5. Sensing Movement: Microsensors for Body Motion Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of body posture and motion is an important physiological function that can keep the body in balance. Man-made motion sensors have also been widely applied for a broad array of biomedical applications including diagnosis of balance disorders and evaluation of energy expenditure. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art sensing components utilized for body motion measurement. The anatomy and working principles of a natural body motion sensor, the human vestibular system, are first described. Various man-made inertial sensors are then elaborated based on their distinctive sensing mechanisms. In particular, both the conventional solid-state motion sensors and the emerging non solid-state motion sensors are depicted. With their lower cost and increased intelligence, man-made motion sensors are expected to play an increasingly important role in biomedical systems for basic research as well as clinical diagnostics.

  6. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus of...... this book is on the optimization framework, which can be applied to every pose estimation problem of articulated objects. The motion function is formed with a combination of kinematic chains. This formulation leads to a Nonlinear Optimization problem and is solved with gradient-based methods, which are...... compared with respect to their efficiency. A new contribution is the inclusion of second order motion derivatives within the pose estimation. The pose estimation step requires correspondences between known model of the person and observed data. Computer Vision techniques are used to combine multiple types...

  7. PCA-based lung motion model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ruijiang; Jia, Xun; Zhao, Tianyu; Lamb, James; Yang, Deshan; Low, Daniel A; Jiang, Steve B

    2010-01-01

    Organ motion induced by respiration may cause clinically significant targeting errors and greatly degrade the effectiveness of conformal radiotherapy. It is therefore crucial to be able to model respiratory motion accurately. A recently proposed lung motion model based on principal component analysis (PCA) has been shown to be promising on a few patients. However, there is still a need to understand the underlying reason why it works. In this paper, we present a much deeper and detailed analysis of the PCA-based lung motion model. We provide the theoretical justification of the effectiveness of PCA in modeling lung motion. We also prove that under certain conditions, the PCA motion model is equivalent to 5D motion model, which is based on physiology and anatomy of the lung. The modeling power of PCA model was tested on clinical data and the average 3D error was found to be below 1 mm.

  8. Motion Analysis Based on Invertible Rapid Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the use of invertible rapid transform (IRT for the motion estimation in a sequence of images. Motion estimation algorithms based on the analysis of the matrix of states (produced in the IRT calculation are described. The new method was used experimentally to estimate crowd and traffic motion from the image data sequences captured at railway stations and at high ways in large cities. The motion vectors may be used to devise a polar plot (showing velocity magnitude and direction for moving objects where the dominant motion tendency can be seen. The experimental results of comparison of the new motion estimation methods with other well known block matching methods (full search, 2D-log, method based on conventional (cross correlation (CC function or phase correlation (PC function for application of crowd motion estimation are also presented.

  9. Ground-motion Attenuation Relation from Strong-motion Records of the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj Earthquake Sequence (2001-2006), Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Prantik; Kumar, N.; Satyamurthy, C.; Raju, I. P.

    2009-03-01

    Predictive relations are developed for peak ground acceleration (PGA) from the engineering seismoscope (SRR) records of the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake and 239 strong-motion records of 32 significant aftershocks of 3.1 ≤ Mw ≤ 5.6 at epicentral distances of 1 ≤ R ≤ 288 km. We have taken advantage of the recent increase in strong-motion data at close distances to derive new attenuation relation for peak horizontal acceleration in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat. This new analysis uses the Joyner-Boore’s method for a magnitude-independent shape, based on geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation, for the attenuation curve. The resulting attenuation equation is, eqalign{ ln ({Y}) = -7.9527 + 1.4043 {M}_{{W}} - ln left( {{r}_{{jb}}2 + 19.822} right)^{1/2} - 0.0682 {S} ŗ{for} 3.1 { data recorded at short distances (0-50 km) from the source. The relation is in demonstrable agreement with the recorded strong-ground motion data from earthquakes of Mw 3.5, 4.1, 4.5, 5.6, and 7.7. There are insufficient data from the Kachchh region to adequately judge the relation for the magnitude range 5.7 ≤ Mw ≤ 7.7. But, our ground-motion prediction model shows a reasonable correlation with the PGA data of the 29 March, 1999 Chamoli main shock (Mw 6.5), validating our ground-motion attenuation model for an Mw6.5 event. However, our ground-motion prediction shows no correlation with the PGA data of the 10 December, 1967 Koyna main shock (Mw 6.3). Our ground-motion predictions show more scatter in estimated residual for the distance range (0-30 km), which could be due to the amplification/noise at near stations situated in the Kachchh sedimentary basin. We also noticed smaller residuals for the distance range (30-300 km), which could be due to less amplification/noise at sites distant from the Kachchh basin. However, the observed less residuals for the longer distance range (100-300 km) are less reliable due to the lack of available PGA values in the same distance

  10. Brownian motion of helical flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, H; Saito, N

    1979-07-01

    We develops a theory of the Brownian motion of a rigid helical object such as bacterial flagella. The statistical properties of the random forces acting on the helical object are discussed and the coefficients of the correlations of the random forces are determined. The averages , and are also calculated where z and theta are the position along and angle around the helix axis respectively. Although the theory is limited to short time interval, direct comparison with experiment is possible by using the recently developed cinematography technique. PMID:16997210

  11. Video clustering using camera motion

    OpenAIRE

    Tort Alsina, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Com el moviment de càmera en un clip de vídeo pot ser útil per a la seva classificació en termes semàntics. [ANGLÈS] This document contains the work done in INP Grenoble during the second semester of the academic year 2011-2012, completed in Barcelona during the first months of the 2012-2013. The work presented consists in a camera motion study in different types of video in order to group fragments that have some similarity in the content. In the document it is explained how the data extr...

  12. Musique et émotion

    OpenAIRE

    Ciarcia, Gaetano; DeNora, Tia; Jouvenet, Morgan; De L'Estoile, Benoît; Maisonneuve, Sophie; Martin, Denis-Constant; Paradis, Annie; Roueff, Olivier; Segré, Gabriel; Seraïdari, Katerina; Wateau, Fabienne

    2005-01-01

    Loin de relever par excellence d'un ineffable résistant à toute analyse, voire à toute description, la musique est le fruit de pratiques et d'usages riches et complexes. C'est pourquoi les articles réunis ici n'appréhendent pas " la musique " en tant que phénomène universel dont il faudrait décrire les illustrations locales mais mettent en avant ses utilisations et leurs effets réels et, notamment, le rapport privilégié des pratiques musicales aux émotions.

  13. Quantum trajectories for Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Strunz, W T; Gisin, Nicolas; Yu, T; Strunz, Walter T.; Diosi, Lajos; Gisin, Nicolas

    1999-01-01

    We present the stochastic Schroedinger equation for the dynamics of a quantum particle coupled to a high temperature environment and apply it the dynamics of a driven, damped, nonlinear quantum oscillator. Apart from an initial slip on the environmental memory time scale, in the mean, our result recovers the solution of the known non-Lindblad quantum Brownian motion master equation. A remarkable feature of our approach is its localization property: individual quantum trajectories remain localized wave packets for all times, even for the classically chaotic system considered here, the localization being stronger the smaller $\\hbar$.

  14. Quantum theory of collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third in a series of papers which intends to develop a new microscopic theory capable by itself to determine the ''maximal-decoupled'' collective subspace in the many-particle Hilbert space as well as the collective Hamiltonian specifying the subspace. The fundamental principle to formulate the theory is called the Invariance principle of the Schroedinger equation. The main purpose of this paper is to show that, when we positively utilize the invariance principle, we can directly obtain a quantum theory of collective motion going beyond the random phase approximation. (author)

  15. New Constraints on Baja California-North America Relative Plate Motion Since 11 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S. E.; Skinner, L. A.; Darin, M. H.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Oskin, M. E.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Pacific-North America (PAC-NAM) plate boundary across the Gulf of California and Salton Trough (GCAST) constrain the controversial magnitude of Baja California microplate-North America (BCM-NAM) relative motion since middle Miocene time. We use estimates of total PAC-NAM relative dextral-oblique motion from the updated global plate-circuit model (Atwater and Stock, 2013; GSA Cordilleran Mtg) to resolve the proportion of this motion on faults east of the BCM. Modern GPS studies and offset of late Miocene cross-gulf geologic tie points both suggest that BCM has never been completely coupled to the Pacific plate. Thus, our preferred GCAST reconstruction uses 93% BCM-PAC coupling from the present back to 6 Ma. We assume BCM-PAC coupling of 60% between 6 and 7 Ma, and 25% between 7 and 11 Ma, to avoid unacceptable overlap of continental crustal blocks between Baja California and the Sierra Madre Occidental (on stable NAM). Using these coupling ratios and PAC-NAM stage Euler poles, we determine the azimuth and velocity of individual points on the BCM in 1 million year increments back to 11 Ma. This procedure accounts for minor clockwise rotation of BCM that occurred during oblique rifting, and shows how total BCM-NAM relative motion increases from north to south due to greater distance from the Euler pole. Finer-scale restoration of tectonic blocks along significant (>1 km offset) faults, across extensional (e.g. pull-apart and half-graben) basins, and by vertical-axis rotation is constrained by local geologic and marine-geophysical datasets and accomplished via the open-source Tectonic Reconstruct ArcGIS tool. We find that restoration across the Gulf of California completely closes marine basins and their terrestrial predecessors between 6 and 9 Ma. Latest Miocene opening of these basins was coincident with a ~10° clockwise azimuthal change from 8 to 6 Ma in PAC-NAM relative motion, as revealed by the global plate circuit model. The

  16. Understanding Ground Motion in Las Vegas: Insights from Data Analysis and Two-Dimensional Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; McCallen, D

    2004-02-05

    Seismic ground motions are amplified in low velocity sedimentary basins relative to adjacent sites on high velocity hard rock. We used historical recordings of NTS nuclear explosions and earthquake recordings in Las Vegas Valley to quantify frequency-dependent basin amplification using Standard Spectral Ratios. We show that amplifications, referred to as site response, can reach a factor of 10 in the frequency band 0.4-2.0 Hz. Band-averaged site response between 0.4-2.0 Hz is strongly correlated with basin depth. However, it is also well known that site response is related to shallow shear-wave velocity structure. We simulated low frequency (f<1Hz) ground motion and site response with two-dimensional elastic finite difference simulations. We demonstrate that physically plausible models of the shallow subsurface, including low velocity sedimentary structure, can predict relative amplification as well as some of the complexity in the observed waveforms. This study demonstrates that site response can be modeled without invoking complex and computationally expensive three-dimensional structural models.

  17. Hydrocarbon habitat in rifted basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, P.A. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland)

    1996-12-01

    Tectonically active rifts, palaeo-rifts and passive margin basins contain major hydrocarbon provinces. Their hydrocarbon charge can rely exclusively on pre-rift, syn-rift sedimentary sequences or a combination thereof. Maturation of source-rocks can be achieved during the syn-and/or post-rift stage of basin evolution. During rifting, conductive and convective heat transfer accounts for elevated geothermal gradients; these play an important role in the maturation of pre- and syn-rift source-rocks; as geothermal gradients decrease asymptotically during the post-rift stage, maturation of late syn- and post-rift source-rocks depends on massif overburden thicknesses. In most rift structuration and trap-formation predate or are contemporaneous with peak oil and gas generation. Post-rift subsidence and stress-induced basin tilting or inversion can cause modification of trap configurations, causing loss of hydrocarbons. (author). 58 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Decentralized water resources management in Mozambique: Challenges of implementation at the river basin level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguane, Ronaldo; Gallego-Ayala, Jordi; Juízo, Dinis

    In the context of integrated water resources management implementation, the decentralization of water resources management (DWRM) at the river basin level is a crucial aspect for its success. However, decentralization requires the creation of new institutions on the ground, to stimulate an environment enabling stakeholder participation and integration into the water management decision-making process. In 1991, Mozambique began restructuring its water sector toward operational decentralized water resources management. Within this context of decentralization, new legal and institutional frameworks have been created, e.g., Regional Water Administrations (RWAs) and River Basin Committees. This paper identifies and analyzes the key institutional challenges and opportunities of DWRM implementation in Mozambique. The paper uses a critical social science research methodology for in-depth analysis of the roots of the constraining factors for the implementation of DWRM. The results obtained suggest that RWAs should be designed considering the specific geographic and infrastructural conditions of their jurisdictional areas and that priorities should be selected in their institutional capacity building strategies that match local realities. Furthermore, the results also indicate that RWAs have enjoyed limited support from basin stakeholders, mainly in basins with less hydraulic infrastructure, in securing water availability for their users and minimizing the effect of climate variability.

  19. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de (Administracion Nacional de Combustibles, Alcohol y Portland (Uruguay))

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  20. Transitions in a genetic transcriptional regulatory system under Lévy motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yayun; Serdukova, Larissa; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Based on a stochastic differential equation model for a single genetic regulatory system, we examine the dynamical effects of noisy fluctuations, arising in the synthesis reaction, on the evolution of the transcription factor activator in terms of its concentration. The fluctuations are modeled by Brownian motion and α-stable Lévy motion. Two deterministic quantities, the mean first exit time (MFET) and the first escape probability (FEP), are used to analyse the transitions from the low to high concentration states. A shorter MFET or higher FEP in the low concentration region facilitates such a transition. We have observed that higher noise intensities and larger jumps of the Lévy motion shortens the MFET and thus benefits transitions. The Lévy motion activates a transition from the low concentration region to the non-adjacent high concentration region, while Brownian motion can not induce this phenomenon. There are optimal proportions of Gaussian and non-Gaussian noises, which maximise the quantities MFET and FEP for each concentration, when the total sum of noise intensities are kept constant. Because a weaker stability indicates a higher transition probability, a new geometric concept is introduced to quantify the basin stability of the low concentration region, characterised by the escaping behaviour. PMID:27411445

  1. WATSTORE Stream Flow Basin Characteristics File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Stream Flow Basin Characteristics file contains information about the drainage basins of selected USGS gaging stations. Data elements of this file were...

  2. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins are proposed to be mare-type basins produced 4 billion y.a. by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upward from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the earth indicates that at least 50% of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60% oceanic, 40% continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  3. Isentropic Analysis of Convective Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauluis, Olivier M.; Mrowiec, Agnieszka A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the convective mass transport by sorting air parcels in terms of their equivalent potential temperature to determine an isentropic streamfunction. By averaging the vertical mass flux at a constant value of the equivalent potential temperature, one can compute an isentropic mass transport that filters out reversible oscillatory motions such as gravity waves. This novel approach emphasizes the fact that the vertical energy and entropy transports by convection are due to the combination of ascending air parcels with high energy and entropy and subsiding air parcels with lower energy and entropy. Such conditional averaging can be extended to other dynamic and thermodynamic variables such as vertical velocity, temperature, or relative humidity to obtain a comprehensive description of convective motions. It is also shown how this approach can be used to determine the mean diabatic tendencies from the three-dimensional dynamic and thermodynamic fields. A two-stream approximation that partitions the isentropic circulation into a mean updraft and a mean downdraft is also introduced. This offers a straightforward way to identify the mean properties of rising and subsiding air parcels. The results from the two-stream approximation are compared with two other definitions of the cloud mass flux. It is argued that the isentropic analysis offers a robust definition of the convective mass transport that is not tainted by the need to arbitrarily distinguish between convection and its environment, and that separates the irreversible convective overturning fromoscillations associated with gravity waves.

  4. Phytoplankton's motion in turbulent ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouxon, Itzhak; Leshansky, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    We study the influence of turbulence on upward motion of phytoplankton. Interaction with the flow is described by the Pedley-Kessler model considering spherical microorganisms. We find a range of parameters when the upward drift is only weakly perturbed or when turbulence completely randomizes the drift direction. When the perturbation is small, the drift is either determined by the local vorticity or is Gaussian. We find a range of parameters where the phytoplankton interaction with the flow can be described consistently as diffusion of orientation in effective potential. By solving the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation we find exponential steady-state distribution of phytoplankton's propulsion orientation. We further identify the range of parameters where phytoplankton's drift velocity with respect to the flow is determined uniquely by its position. In this case, one can describe phytoplankton's motion by a smooth flow and phytoplankton concentrates on fractal. We find fractal dimensions and demonstrate that phytoplankton forms vertical stripes in space with a nonisotropic pair-correlation function of concentration increased in the vertical direction. The probability density function of the distance between two particles obeys power law with the negative exponent given by the ratio of integrals of the turbulent energy spectrum. We find the regime of strong clustering where the exponent is of order one so that turbulence increases the rate of collisions by a large factor. The predictions hold for Navier-Stokes turbulence and stand for testing.

  5. Phytoplankton's motion in turbulent ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouxon, Itzhak; Leshansky, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    We study the influence of turbulence on upward motion of phytoplankton. Interaction with the flow is described by the Pedley-Kessler model considering spherical microorganisms. We find a range of parameters when the upward drift is only weakly perturbed or when turbulence completely randomizes the drift direction. When the perturbation is small, the drift is either determined by the local vorticity or is Gaussian. We find a range of parameters where the phytoplankton interaction with the flow can be described consistently as diffusion of orientation in effective potential. By solving the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation we find exponential steady-state distribution of phytoplankton's propulsion orientation. We further identify the range of parameters where phytoplankton's drift velocity with respect to the flow is determined uniquely by its position. In this case, one can describe phytoplankton's motion by a smooth flow and phytoplankton concentrates on fractal. We find fractal dimensions and demonstrate that phytoplankton forms vertical stripes in space with a nonisotropic pair-correlation function of concentration increased in the vertical direction. The probability density function of the distance between two particles obeys power law with the negative exponent given by the ratio of integrals of the turbulent energy spectrum. We find the regime of strong clustering where the exponent is of order one so that turbulence increases the rate of collisions by a large factor. The predictions hold for Navier-Stokes turbulence and stand for testing. PMID:26274279

  6. Brownian Motion in Minkowski Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O'Hara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We construct a model of Brownian motion in Minkowski space. There are two aspects of the problem. The first is to define a sequence of stopping times associated with the Brownian “kicks” or impulses. The second is to define the dynamics of the particle along geodesics in between the Brownian kicks. When these two aspects are taken together, the Central Limit Theorem (CLT leads to temperature dependent four dimensional distributions defined on Minkowski space, for distances and 4-velocities. In particular, our processes are characterized by two independent time variables defined with respect to the laboratory frame: a discrete one corresponding to the stopping times when the impulses take place and a continuous one corresponding to the geodesic motion in-between impulses. The subsequent distributions are solutions of a (covariant pseudo-diffusion equation which involves derivatives with respect to both time variables, rather than solutions of the telegraph equation which has a single time variable. This approach simplifies some of the known problems in this context.

  7. Quantization of Equations of Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kochan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Classical Newton-Lagrange equations of motion represent the fundamental physical law of mechanics. Their traditional Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian precursors when available are essential in the context of quantization. However, there are situations that lack Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian settings. This paper discusses a description of classical dynamics and presents some irresponsible speculations about its quantization by introducing a certain canonical two-form ?. By its construction ? embodies kinetic energy and forces acting within the system (not their potential. A new type of variational principle employing differential two-form ? is introduced. Variation is performed over “umbilical surfaces“ instead of system histories. It provides correct Newton-Lagrange equations of motion. The quantization is inspired by the Feynman path integral approach. The quintessence is to rearrange it into an “umbilical world-sheet“ functional integral in accordance with the proposed variational principle. In the case of potential-generated forces, the new approach reduces to the standard quantum mechanics. As an example, Quantum Mechanics with friction is analyzed in detail. 

  8. Visualizing motion in potential wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Pratibha; Zollman, Dean; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Dimitrova, Albena

    1998-01-01

    The concept of potential-energy diagrams is of fundamental importance in the study of quantum physics. Yet, students are rarely exposed to this powerful alternative description in introductory classes and thus have difficulty comprehending its significance when they encounter it in beginning-level quantum courses. We describe a learning unit that incorporates a sequence of computer-interfaced experiments using dynamics or air-track systems. This unit is designed to make the learning of potential-energy diagrams less abstract. Students begin by constructing the harmonic or square-well potential diagrams using either the velocity data and assuming conservation of energy or the force-displacement graph for the elastic interaction of an object constrained by springs or bouncing off springy blocks. Then, they investigate the motion of a rider magnet interacting with a configuration of field magnets and plot directly the potential-energy diagrams using a magnetic field sensor. The ease of measurement allows exploring the motion in a large variety of potential shapes in a short duration class.

  9. Krušné hory Piedmont basins. Sokolov Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rojík, P.; Dašková, Jiřina; Kvaček, Z.; Pešek, J.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Teodoridis, V.

    Prague: Czech Geological Survey, 2014, s. 90-142 ISBN 978-80-7075-862-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0653 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Tertiary basins * Czech Republic * Cenomanian and Tertiary lignite * geology * stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  10. SinoCor: motion correction in SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Debasis; Eiland, Daniel; Abdallah, Mahmoud; Bouthcko, Rostyslav; Gullberg, Grant T.; Schechtmann, Norberto

    2012-02-01

    Motion is a serious artifact in Cardiac nuclear imaging because the scanning operation takes a long time. Since reconstruction algorithms assume consistent or stationary data the quality of resulting image is affected by motion, sometimes significantly. Even after adoption of the gold standard MoCo(R) algorithm from Cedars-Sinai by most vendors, heart motion remains a significant challenge. Also, any serious study in quantitative analysis necessitates correction for motion artifacts. It is generally recognized that human eye is a very sensitive tool for detecting motion. However, two reasons prevent such manual correction: (1) it is costly in terms of specialist's time, and (2) no such tool for manual correction is available currently. Previously, at SPIE-MIC'11, we presented a simple tool (SinoCor) that allows sinograms to be corrected manually or automatically. SinoCor performs correction of sinograms containing inter-frame patient or respiratory motions using rigid-body dynamics. The software is capable of detecting the patient motion and estimating the body-motion vector using scanning geometry parameters. SinoCor applies appropriate geometrical correction to all the frames subsequent to the frame when the movement has occurred in a manual or automated mode. For respiratory motion, it is capable of automatically smoothing small oscillatory (frame-wise local) movements. Lower order image moments are used to represent a frame and the required rigid body movement compensation is computed accordingly. Our current focus is on enhancement of SinoCor with the capability to automatically detect and compensate for intra-frame motion that causes motion blur on the respective frame. Intra-frame movements are expected in both patient and respiratory motions. For a controlled study we also have developed a motion simulator. A stable version of SinoCor is available under license from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  11. A new adaptive fast motion estimation algorithm based on local motion similarity degree (LMSD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Long; HAN Chongzhao; BAI Yan

    2005-01-01

    In the motion vector field adaptive search technique (MVFAST) and the predictive motion vector field adaptive search technique (PMVFAST), the size of the largest motion vector from the three adjacent blocks (left, top, top-right) is compared with the threshold to select different search scheme. But a suitable search center and search pattern will not be selected in the adaptive search technique when the adjacent motion vectors are not coherent in local region. This paper presents an efficient adaptive search algorithm. The motion vector variation degree (MVVD) is considered a reasonable factor for adaptive search selection. By the relationship between local motion similarity degree (LMSD) and the variation degree of motion vector (MVVD), the motion vectors are classified as three categories according to corresponding LMSD; then different proposed search schemes are adopted for motion estimation. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a significant computational speedup compared with MVFAST and PMVFAST algorithms, and offers a similar, even better performance.

  12. The Las Vegas Valley Seismic Response Project: Ground Motions in Las Vegas Valley from Nuclear Explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; McCallen, D

    2005-03-18

    Between 2001-2004 the Las Vegas Seismic Response Project has sought to understand the response of Las Vegas Valley (LVV) to seismic excitation. In this study, the author report the findings of this project with an emphasis on ground motions in LVV from nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These ground motions are used to understand building structural response and damage as well as human perception. Historical nuclear explosion observations are augmented with earthquake recordings from a temporary deployment of seismometers to improve spatial coverage of LVV. The nuclear explosions were conducted between 1968 and 1989 and were recorded at various sites within Las Vegas. The data from past nuclear tests were used to constrain ground motions in LVV and to gain a predictive capability of ground motions for possible future nuclear tests at NTS. Analysis of ground motion data includes peak ground motions (accelerations and velocities) and amplification of basin sites relative to hard rock sites (site response). Site response was measured with the Standard Spectral Ratios (SSR) technique relative to hard rock reference sites on the periphery of LVV. The site response curves indicate a strong basin amplification of up to a factor of ten at frequencies between 0.5-2 Hz. Amplifications are strongest in the central and northern portions of LVV, where the basin is deeper than 1 km based on the reported basin depths of Langenheim et al (2001a). They found a strong correlation between amplification and basin depth and shallow shear wave velocities. Amplification below 1 Hz is strongly controlled by slowness-averaged shear velocities to depths of 30 and 100 meters. Depth averaged shear velocities to 10 meters has modest control of amplifications between 1-3 Hz. Modeling reveals that low velocity material in the shallow layers (< 200 m) effectively controls amplification. They developed a method to scale nuclear explosion ground motion time series to sites around LVV

  13. Estimation of strong ground motion and micro-zonation for the city of Rome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid technique, based on mode summation and finite differences, is used to simulate the ground motion induced in the city of Rome by possible earthquakes occurring in the main seismogenetic areas surrounding the city: the Central Apennines and the Alban Hills. The results of the numerical simulations are used for a first order seismic micro-zonation in the city of Rome, which can be used for the retrofitting of buildings of special social and cultural value. Rome can be divided into six main zones: (1) the edge and (2) the central part of the alluvial basin of the river Tiber; (3) the edges and (4) the central part of the Paleotiber basin; the areas outside the large basins of the Tiber and Paleotiber, where we distinguish between (5) areas without, and (6) areas with a layer of volcanic rocks close to the surface. The strongest amplification effects have to be expected at the edges of the Tiber basin, with maximum spectral amplification of the order of 5 to 6, and strong amplifications occur inside the entire alluvial basin of the Tiber. The presence of a near-surface layer of rigid material is not sufficient to classify a location as a ''hard-rock site'', when the rigid material covers a sedimentary complex. The reason is that the underlying sedimentary complex causes amplifications at the surface due to resonance effects. This phenomenon can be observed in the Paleotiber basin, where spectral amplifications in the frequency range 0.3-1.0 Hz reach values of the order of 3 to 4. (author). 17 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  15. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period

  16. Cyber security level assignment for research reactor digital instrumentation and control system architecture using concept of defense in depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to recent aging of the analog instrumentation of many nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors, the system reliability decreases while maintenance and testing costs increase. In addition, it is difficult to find the substitutable analog equipment s due to obsolescence. Therefore, the instrumentation and control (I and C) systems have changed from analog system to digital system due to these facts. With the introduction of digital systems, research reactors are forced to care for the problem of cyber attacks because I and C systems have been digitalized using networks or communication systems. Especially, it is more issued at research reactors due to the accessibility of human resources. In the real world, an IBM researcher has been successful in controlling the software by penetrating a NPPs network in U.S. on July 2008 and acquiring the control right of nuclear facilities after one week. Moreover, the malignant code called 'stuxnet' impaired the nearly 1,000 centrifugal separators in Iran according to an IAEA report. The problem of cyber attacks highlights the important of cyber security, which should be emphasized. Defense.in.depth (DID) is a significant concept for the cyber security to work properly. DID institutes and maintains a hardy program for critical digital asset (CDA) by implementing multiple security boundaries. In this work, we assign cyber security levels to a typical digital I and C system using DID concept. This work is very useful in applying the concept of DID to nuclear industry with respect to cyber security

  17. The SONATA-IV Project in pursuit of In-Vessel Defense-in-Depth-Against A severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cooling mechanism due to boiling in a narrow, spherical, irregular gap between the debris crust and the reactor vessel wall was proposed for interpreting the cooling of the vessel lower head during the TMI-2 accident. The proposed in-vessel cooling mechanism due to material creep and water ingression into the expanding gap between was found to explain the non-failure of the TMI-2. With the success of the modeling effort, we propose to carry out a large-scale, high-pressure, prototype-material experimental program SONATA-IV in parallel with the analytical endeavor LILAC to perform pre- and post-test calculations and other supporting calculations. The program is factored into basic thermal hydraulic, high-temperature high pressure melt, and material property tests in various phases of differing degrees. In addition to the natural mechanism, the program will also pioneer newly engineered concepts of in- and ex-vessel gap cooling structures for advanced reactor designs. This newly proposed mechanism and structures, when experimentally and analytically validated, could be considered, counted on, and utilized as part of critical in-vessel severe accident management strategies for the current and next-generation reactors. The engineered in- and ex-vessel gap structures will further be tested on a prototype scale for implementation in the D2R2 defense-in-depth reactor design

  18. In-Depth Analysis of Simulation Engine Codes for Comparison with DOE s Roof Savings Calculator and Measured Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huang, Yu [White Box Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sanyal, Jibonananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mellot, Joe [The Garland Company, Cleveland, OH (United States); Childs, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kriner, Scott [Green Metal Consulting, Inc., Macungie, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) was developed through collaborations among Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), White Box Technologies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and the Environmental Protection Agency in the context of a California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research project to make cool-color roofing materials a market reality. The RSC website and a simulation engine validated against demonstration homes were developed to replace the liberal DOE Cool Roof Calculator and the conservative EPA Energy Star Roofing Calculator, which reported different roof savings estimates. A preliminary analysis arrived at a tentative explanation for why RSC results differed from previous LBNL studies and provided guidance for future analysis in the comparison of four simulation programs (doe2attic, DOE-2.1E, EnergyPlus, and MicroPas), including heat exchange between the attic surfaces (principally the roof and ceiling) and the resulting heat flows through the ceiling to the building below. The results were consolidated in an ORNL technical report, ORNL/TM-2013/501. This report is an in-depth inter-comparison of four programs with detailed measured data from an experimental facility operated by ORNL in South Carolina in which different segments of the attic had different roof and attic systems.

  19. In-depth characterization of six cellulose tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) chiral stationary phases in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Syame; Zhang, Yingru; West, Caroline

    2013-08-16

    Since the expiration of the patent protection of Chiralcel OD, similar chiral stationary phases (CSPs), all based on the same chiral selector, have been introduced on the market with the promise to reproduce or improve the performance of the original cellulose tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) CSP. We report here-in an in-depth evaluation of four generic versions of Chiralcel OD (CelluCoat, RegisCell, Lux Cellulose-1, Reprosil-OM) and the immobilized version (Chiralpak IB) in comparison to the original Chiralcel OD in terms of retention and enantioselectivity, with the help of chemometrics. First of all, the CSPs are compared based on the retentions of 230 achiral compounds. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering and quantitative structure-retention relationships based on a modified version of the solvation parameter model are used to assess the differences in non-enantioselective interactions contributing to retention. Secondly, the CSPs are compared based on the separation factors measured for 130 racemates. Discriminant analysis is then used to unravel the structural features contributing to the successful enantioselective separations. Chiralcel OD is shown to be the most versatile of the six tested CSPs, and involves a unique and unequalled mechanism to achieve enantioseparation. PMID:23838300

  20. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Ha

    Full Text Available An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 proteins in sheep whey that, to our knowledge, is the largest inventory of sheep whey proteins identified to date. A comprehensive list of cow whey proteins currently available in the literature (783 proteins from unique genes was assembled and compared to the sheep whey proteome data obtained in this study (606 proteins from unique genes. This comparison revealed that while the 233 proteins shared by the two species were significantly enriched for immune and inflammatory responses in gene ontology analysis, proteins only found in sheep whey in this study were identified that take part in both cellular development and immune responses, whereas proteins only found in cow whey in this study were identified to be associated with metabolism and cellular growth.

  1. High surface area zincosilicates as efficient catalysts for the synthesis of ethyl lactate: an in-depth structural investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Xavier; Louette, Pierre; Fiorilli, Sonia; Aprile, Carmela

    2015-10-28

    Novel Zn-MCM-41 mesoporous materials with particle diameters ranging from 20 to 120 nm were successfully prepared following a straightforward synthesis route. The structural and textural properties of the solids were characterized by N2-physisorption, X-ray diffraction, (29)Si MAS-NMR, TEM and EDX. These results allow evidencing the presence of an ordered mesoporous structure with a very high specific surface area. The insertion of zinc as single site species within the silica framework was investigated using XPS via the Auger parameter in a Wagner plot representation. This is the first time that an in-depth investigation of these types of solids using XPS techniques was performed. The presence of Brønsted and Lewis acidity was elucidated by following in the IR the interaction with ammonia and carbon monoxide. The materials were tested for the conversion of dihydroxyacetone into ethyl lactate with good results both in terms of yield and selectivity and the catalytic activity resulted in excellent agreement with IR and XPS analysis. PMID:26394539

  2. In-Depth Functional Diagnostics of Mouse Models by Single-Flash and Flicker Electroretinograms without Adapting Background Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Michalakis, Stylianos; Weber, Bernhard H F; Wahl-Schott, Christian A; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Seeliger, Mathias W

    2016-01-01

    Electroretinograms (ERGs) are commonly recorded at the cornea for an assessment of the functional status of the retina in mouse models. Full-field ERGs can be elicited by single-flash as well as flicker light stimulation although in most laboratories flicker ERGs are recorded much less frequently than singleflash ERGs. Whereas conventional single-flash ERGs contain information about layers, i.e., outer and inner retina, flicker ERGs permit functional assessment of the vertical pathways of the retina, i.e., rod system, cone ON-pathway, and cone OFF-pathway, when the responses are evoked at a relatively high luminance (0.5 log cd s/m(2)) with varying frequency (from 0.5 to 30 Hz) without any adapting background illumination. Therefore, both types of ERGs complement an in-depth functional characterization of the mouse retina, allowing for a discrimination of an underlying functional pathology. Here, we introduce the systematic interpretation of the single-flash and flicker ERGs by demonstrating several different patterns of functional phenotype in genetic mouse models, in which photoreceptors and/or bipolar cells are primarily or secondarily affected. PMID:26427467

  3. Progress in the U.S. department of energy sponsored in-depth safety assessments of VVER and RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the disastrous accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 in 1986, there has been international recognition of the safety concerns posed by the operation of 67 Soviet-designed commercial nuclear reactors. These reactors are operated in eight countries from the former Soviet Union and its former satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe. The majority of these plants are in the Russian Federation (30 units) and Ukraine (14 units). New plants are in various stages of construction. U.S. support to improve the safety of Soviet-designed reactors over the past decade has been intended to enhance operational safety, provide for risk-reduction measures, and enhance regulatory capability. The U.S. approach to improving the safety of Soviet-designed reactors has matured into a large multi-year program known as the Soviet-Designed Reactor Safety Program that is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE). The mission of the program is to implement a self-sustaining nuclear safety improvement program that would lead to internationally accepted safety practices at the plants. Those practices would create a safety culture that would be reflected in the operation, regulation, and professional attitudes of the designers, operators, and regulators of the nuclear facilities. A key component of this larger program has been the Plant Safety Evaluation Program, which supports in-depth safety assessments of VVER and RBMK plants. (author)

  4. Double protein functionalized poly-ε-caprolactone surfaces: in depth ToF-SIMS and XPS characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, T; Poleunis, C; Delcorte, A; Dubruel, P

    2012-02-01

    In biomaterial research, great attention has focussed on the immobilization of biomolecules with the aim to increase cell-adhesive properties of materials. Many different strategies can be applied. In previously published work, our group focussed on the treatment of poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) films by an Ar-plasma, followed by the grafting of 2-aminoethyl methacrylate (AEMA) under UV-irradiation. The functional groups introduced, enabled the subsequent covalent immobilisation of gelatin. The obtained coating was finally applied for the physisorption of fibronectin. The successful PCL surface functionalization was preliminary confirmed using XPS, wettability studies, AFM and SEM. In the present article, we report on an in-depth characterization of the materials developed using ToF-SIMS and XPS analysis. The homogeneous AEMA grafting and the subsequent protein coating steps could be confirmed by both XPS and ToF-SIMS. Using ToF-SIMS, it was possible to demonstrate the presence of polymethacrylates on the surface. From peak deconvoluted XPS results (C- and N-peak), the presence of proteins could be confirmed. Using ToF-SIMS, different positive ions, correlating to specific amino-acids could be identified. Importantly, the gelatin and the fibronectin coatings could be qualitatively distinguished. Interestingly for biomedical applications, ethylene oxide sterilization did not affect the surface chemical composition. This research clearly demonstrates the complementarities of XPS and ToF-SIMS in biomedical surface modification research. PMID:22203514

  5. In-Depth Characterization and Validation of Human Urine Metabolomes Reveal Novel Metabolic Signatures of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ling; Greer, Tyler; Page, David; Shi, Yatao; Vezina, Chad M.; Macoska, Jill A.; Marker, Paul C.; Bjorling, Dale E.; Bushman, Wade; Ricke, William A.; Li, Lingjun

    2016-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are a range of irritative or obstructive symptoms that commonly afflict aging population. The diagnosis is mostly based on patient-reported symptoms, and current medication often fails to completely eliminate these symptoms. There is a pressing need for objective non-invasive approaches to measure symptoms and understand disease mechanisms. We developed an in-depth workflow combining urine metabolomics analysis and machine learning bioinformatics to characterize metabolic alterations and support objective diagnosis of LUTS. Machine learning feature selection and statistical tests were combined to identify candidate biomarkers, which were statistically validated with leave-one-patient-out cross-validation and absolutely quantified by selected reaction monitoring assay. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed highly-accurate prediction power of candidate biomarkers to stratify patients into disease or non-diseased categories. The key metabolites and pathways may be possibly correlated with smooth muscle tone changes, increased collagen content, and inflammation, which have been identified as potential contributors to urinary dysfunction in humans and rodents. Periurethral tissue staining revealed a significant increase in collagen content and tissue stiffness in men with LUTS. Together, our study provides the first characterization and validation of LUTS urinary metabolites and pathways to support the future development of a urine-based diagnostic test for LUTS. PMID:27502322

  6. An in-depth study of patent medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria in a rural Nigerian community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Theodora A; Uzochukwu, Benjamin SC; Okafor, Henrietta U

    2006-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major cause of mortality among under five children in Nigeria. Most of the early treatments for fever and malaria occur through self-medication with antimalarial drugs bought from medicine sellers. These have led to increasing calls for interventions to improve treatment obtained in these outlets. However, information about the current practices of these medicine sellers is needed before such interventions. This study aims to determine the medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria and the determinants that underlie their dispensing patterns of antimalarial drugs. Methods The study was conducted in Ugwugo-Nike, a rural community in south-east Nigeria. It involved in-depth interviews with 13 patent medicine sellers. Results A majority of the medicine sellers were not trained health professionals and malaria is recognized as a major health problem by them. There is poor knowledge and poor dispensing behaviour in relation to childhood malaria episodes. Although referral of severe malaria is common, there are those who will not refer. Verbal advice is rarely given to the care-givers. Conclusion More action research and interventions to improve prescription and referral practices and giving verbal advice to care-givers is recommended. Ways to integrate the drug sellers in the health system are also recommended. PMID:17078875

  7. An in-depth study of patent medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria in a rural Nigerian community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Henrietta U

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major cause of mortality among under five children in Nigeria. Most of the early treatments for fever and malaria occur through self-medication with antimalarial drugs bought from medicine sellers. These have led to increasing calls for interventions to improve treatment obtained in these outlets. However, information about the current practices of these medicine sellers is needed before such interventions. This study aims to determine the medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria and the determinants that underlie their dispensing patterns of antimalarial drugs. Methods The study was conducted in Ugwugo-Nike, a rural community in south-east Nigeria. It involved in-depth interviews with 13 patent medicine sellers. Results A majority of the medicine sellers were not trained health professionals and malaria is recognized as a major health problem by them. There is poor knowledge and poor dispensing behaviour in relation to childhood malaria episodes. Although referral of severe malaria is common, there are those who will not refer. Verbal advice is rarely given to the care-givers. Conclusion More action research and interventions to improve prescription and referral practices and giving verbal advice to care-givers is recommended. Ways to integrate the drug sellers in the health system are also recommended.

  8. The role of in-depth reproductive health counseling in addressing reproductive health concerns in female survivors of nongynecologic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M S; Letourneau, J M; Niemasik, E E; Bleil, M; McCulloch, Charles E; Rosen, M P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize reproductive concerns among female cancer survivors and determine the role of targeted counseling in improving overall reproductive quality of life (QOL). A survey was administered to women from the California Cancer Registry, ages 18-40, with nongynecologic cancers diagnosed from 1993 to 2007, who received fertility-compromising treatments. In total, 356 women completed the survey, which included questions regarding their reproductive health counseling history and the reproductive concerns scale (RCS), a validated reproductive QOL tool. Factors independently associated with higher RCS scores included a desire for children at the time of diagnosis, posttreatment infertility, treatment with chemoradiation or bone marrow transplant, and income less than $100,000 per year at diagnosis. Among the highest reported reproductive concerns were those related to loss of control over one's reproductive future and concerns about the effect of illness on one's future fertility. Across our population and independent of age, in-depth reproductive health counseling prior to cancer treatment was associated with significantly lower RCS scores. Our findings highlight the importance of early counseling and targeting high-risk groups for additional counseling after completion of cancer treatment. This approach may be an effective strategy for optimizing long-term reproductive QOL in this vulnerable population. PMID:27144587

  9. In-Depth Interfacial Chemistry and Reactivity Focused Investigation of Lithium-Imide- and Lithium-Imidazole-Based Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Diemant, Thomas; Grugeon, Sylvie; Behm, R Jürgen; Laruelle, Stephane; Armand, Michel; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-06-29

    A comparative and in-depth investigation on the reactivity of various Li-based electrolytes and of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed at graphite electrode is carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), chemical simulation test, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The electrolytes investigated include LiX (X = PF6, TFSI, TDI, FSI, and FTFSI), dissolved in EC-DMC. The reactivity and SEI nature of electrolytes containing the relatively new imide (LiFSI and LiFTFSI) and imidazole (LiTDI) salts are evaluated and compared to those of well-researched LiPF6(-) and LiTFSI-based electrolytes. The thermal reactivity of LixC6 in the various electrolytes is found to be in the order of LiFSI > LiTDI > LiTFSI > LiFTFSI > LiPF6 and LiFSI > LiFTFSI > LiPF6 > LiTFSI > LiTDI in terms of onset exothermic temperature and total heat generated, respectively. Surface and depth-profiling XPS analysis of the SEI formed with the diverse electrolyte formulations provide insight into the differences and similarities (composition, thickness, and evolution, etc.) emanating from the structure of the various salt anions. PMID:27299469

  10. Numerical simulation analysis on Wenchuan seismic strong motion in Hanyuan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Gao, M.; Guo, J.; Li, Z.; Li, T.

    2015-12-01

    69227 deaths, 374643 injured, 17923 people missing, direct economic losses 845.1 billion, and a large number houses collapse were caused by Wenchuan Ms8 earthquake in Sichuan Province on May 12, 2008, how to reproduce characteristics of its strong ground motion and predict its intensity distribution, which have important role to mitigate disaster of similar giant earthquake in the future. Taking Yunnan-Sichuan Province, Wenchuan town, Chengdu city, Chengdu basin and its vicinity as the research area, on the basis of the available three-dimensional velocity structure model and newly topography data results from ChinaArray of Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, 2 type complex source rupture process models with the global and local source parameters are established, we simulated the seismic wave propagation of Wenchuan Ms8 earthquake throughout the whole three-dimensional region by the GMS discrete grid finite-difference techniques with Cerjan absorbing boundary conditions, and obtained the seismic intensity distribution in this region through analyzing 50×50 stations data (simulated ground motion output station). The simulated results indicated that: (1)Simulated Wenchuan earthquake ground motion (PGA) response and the main characteristics of the response spectrum are very similar to those of the real Wenchuan earthquake records. (2)Wenchuan earthquake ground motion (PGA) and the response spectra of the Plain are much greater than that of the left Mountain area because of the low velocity of the shallow surface media and the basin effect of the Chengdu basin structure. Simultaneously, (3) the source rupture process (inversion) with far-field P-wave, GPS data and InSAR information and the Longmenshan Front Fault (source rupture process) are taken into consideration in GMS numerical simulation, significantly different waveform and frequency component of the ground motion are obtained, though the strong motion waveform is distinct asymmetric

  11. 7Be distribution in soil and its seasonal reference inventory in the hilly area of Sichuan Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    7Be fallout is predominantly distributed in the surface soil of 0-20 mm in depth. The highest 7Be content occurs in the surface horizon of 0-2 mm in depth and it exponentially declines with depth. The soil horizon below 20 mm in depth contains little 7Be. Our measurements show that there is a clear difference in 7Be depth distributions in purple soil between grass land and cultivated land in Yanting, Sichuan. 7Be contents in the surface horizon on grassland are higher and decline more rapidly with depth than those in cultivated land, because the cultivated soil is more porous and prone to infiltration of precipitation than the grass soil. 7Be seasonal reference inventories are 117.4 Bq·m-2 in spring and 169.9 Bq·m-2 in autumn, respectively in Yanting. By comparison with the reported 7Be seasonal reference inventories in other regions in the world, the reference inventories in Yanting are quite lower. Probably this is attributed to the facts that the air moistures of the south-western currents from the low latitude area, which have a low 7Be concentrations, and the air moistures of local evaporation, which contains little 7Be, make great contributions to the precipitation in Sichuan Basin, and that the thick cloud layers and the cloudy climate in the Basin prevent cosmic ray penetration from producing 7Be nuclide. (authors)

  12. Effects of soil amplification ratio and multiple wave interference for ground motion due to earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhixin; XU Jiren; Ryuji Kubota

    2004-01-01

    Influences on the ground motion simulations by soil amplification effects and multiple seismic wave interferences in the heterogeneous medium are investigated. Detailed velocity structure obtained from the microtremor array survey is adopted in the ground motion simulation. Analyses for amplification ratios of core samples of ten drill holes with 40 m deep in the sedimentary layers show that the soil amplification ratio influences nonlinearly the seismic ground motion. Based on the above analysis results, the ground motion in the heavily damaged zone in the Japanese Kobe earthquake of 1995 is simulated in a digital SH seismic wave model by using the pseudospectral method with the staggered grid RFFT differentiation (SGRFFTD). The simulated results suggest that the heterogeneous velocity structure results in a complicated distribution of the maximum amplitudes of acceleration waveforms with multiple peaks at the surface. Spatial distribution of the maximum amplitudes coincides well with that of collapse ratios of buildings in Kobe. The dual peaks of the collapse ratios away from the earthquake fault coincide well with the double peak amplitudes of simulated seismic acceleration waves also. The cause for the first peak amplitude of the ground motion is attributable to the interference of the secondary surface wave from the bedrock propagating horizontally along the surface sedimentary layer and the body wave from the basin bottom according to analyses of wave snapshots propagating in inhomogeneous structure of the Osaka group layers. The second peak amplitude of the ground motion may be attributive to the interference of the secondary surface wave from the tunneling waves in the shallow sediments and the body wave. It is important for the study on complicated distributions of earthquake damages to investigate influences on the ground motion by soil amplification effects and multiple seismic wave interferences due to the structure. Explorations of the structure to the

  13. Application of data assimilation methods for analysis and integration of observed and modeled Arctic Sea ice motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Walter Neil

    This thesis demonstrates the applicability of data assimilation methods to improve observed and modeled ice motion fields and to demonstrate the effects of assimilated motion on Arctic processes important to the global climate and of practical concern to human activities. Ice motions derived from 85 GHz and 37 GHz SSM/I imagery and estimated from two-dimensional dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice models are compared to buoy observations. Mean error, error standard deviation, and correlation with buoys are computed for the model domain. SSM/I motions generally have a lower bias, but higher error standard deviations and lower correlation with buoys than model motions. There are notable variations in the statistics depending on the region of the Arctic, season, and ice characteristics. Assimilation methods are investigated and blending and optimal interpolation strategies are implemented. Blending assimilation improves error statistics slightly, but the effect of the assimilation is reduced due to noise in the SSM/I motions and is thus not an effective method to improve ice motion estimates. However, optimal interpolation assimilation reduces motion errors by 25--30% over modeled motions and 40--45% over SSM/I motions. Optimal interpolation assimilation is beneficial in all regions, seasons and ice conditions, and is particularly effective in regimes where modeled and SSM/I errors are high. Assimilation alters annual average motion fields. Modeled ice products of ice thickness, ice divergence, Fram Strait ice volume export, transport across the Arctic and interannual basin averages are also influenced by assimilated motions. Assimilation improves estimates of pollutant transport and corrects synoptic-scale errors in the motion fields caused by incorrect forcings or errors in model physics. The portability of the optimal interpolation assimilation method is demonstrated by implementing the strategy in an ice thickness distribution (ITD) model. This research presents an

  14. Quantum motion in complex space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is dedicated to the development of a general theory unifying classical and quantum mechanics in complex space, and to the conveyance of the philosophy that what have been considered as probabilistic quantum events have a common origin from the particle's deterministic motion in complex space. We postulate that the actual scenario of dynamic motion happens in complex space and what we customarily consider as physical reality is merely the projection of the actual scenario into the real space. The proposed theory employs complex-extended classical mechanics to describe and model quantum systems in such a way that all the particle-like properties can be reserved due to its classical nature and in the meanwhile, all the wave-like properties are manifested naturally via the multi-path behavior of complex trajectories. The proposed framework of complex mechanics makes use of classical concepts and tools to deal with particle's quantum behavior by the introduction of a complex Hamiltonian from which complex Hamilton equations describing particle's quantum motion are derived in a form of Newton's second law defined in complex space. Complex mechanics is then connected with quantum mechanics by showing the equivalence between the complex Hamilton-Jacobi equation and Schroedinger equation. The solutions of the complex Hamilton equations give us the complex trajectories traced by a particle, which are found to be non-unique. It is this non-uniqueness of the complex trajectories projected into real space that produces the multi-path phenomenon and the observed wave behavior of a material particle in the real space. This conclusion seems to be consistent with that of Elnaschie ε (∞) space-time [Elnaschie MS. The Feynman path intergal and E-infinity from the two-slit Geclanken experiment. Int J Nonlinear Sci Numer Simul 2005;6(4):335-42; Elnaschie MS. A review of the E-infinity theory and the mass spectrum of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and

  15. New bifurcations of basin boundaries involving Wada and a smooth Wada basin boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Hai-Lin; Xu Jian-Xue; Jiang Jun

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates and analyses double heteroclinic tangency in a three-well potential model,which can produce three new types of bifurcations of basin boundaries including from smooth to Wada basin boundaries,from fractal to Wada basin boundaries in which no changes of accessible periodic orbits happen,and from Wada to Wada basin boundaries.In a model of mechanical oscillator,it shows that a Wada basin boundary can be smooth.

  16. The Mackenzie Basin impacts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, a commitment was made to begin development of a framework for an integrated regional impact assessment of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, the most populated region of Canada's north. The project, called Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS), is led by a multidisciplinary working group from government and non-governmental organizations with interests in the Basin. Objectives of MBIS include defining the direction and magnitude of regional-scale impacts of global warming scenarios on the physical, biological, and human systems of the Basin. MBIS will also identify regional sensitivities to climate, inter-system linkages, uncertainties, policy implications, and research needs. MBIS research activities as of March 1992 are outlined and policy concerns related to global warming are listed. Two new methodologies are being developed by MBIS to address particular economic and policy concerns: a socio-economic resource accounting framework and an integrated land assessment framework. Throughout MBIS, opportunities will be presented for western science and traditional native knowledge to be integrated

  17. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    , 3D predictors, prediction using one or multiple (k) previous images, predictor dependent error modelling, and selection of motion field by code length. We treat the problem of precision of the motion field as one of choosing among a number of predictors. This way, we can incorporate 3D......-predictors and intra-frame predictors as well. As proposed by Ribas-Corbera (see PhD thesis, University of Michigan, 1996), we use bi-linear interpolation in order to achieve sub-pixel precision of the motion field. Using more reference images is another way of achieving higher accuracy of the match. The motion......Summary form only given. We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding and motion compensation. The new coding methods combine state-of-the-art lossless techniques as JPEG (context based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding), with high resolution motion field estimation...

  18. Vasopressin and motion sickness in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. A.; Keil, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.; Lucot, J.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in cats under several motion-sickness-inducing conditions. Plasma AVP increased significantly in both susceptible and resistant animals exposed to motion. When vomiting occurred, levels of plasma AVP were drmatically elevated (up to 27 times resting levels). There was no difference in resting levels of AVP of susceptible and resistant cats. Levels of CSF-AVP were not elevated immediately after vomiting, but the testing levels of CSF-AVP were lower in animals that vomited during motion than in those animals which did not vomit during motion. The results of these experiments show that changes in systemic AVP are directly related to vomiting induced by motion, however, CSF-AVP apparently does not change in association with vomiting. CSF-AVP does appear to be lower in animals that reach frank vomiting during motion stimulation than in animals which do not vomit.

  19. Non-Ballistic Motions in Relativistic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, D. C.

    2002-12-01

    We present results from the 2cm Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) survey of motions in relativistic jets (Kellermann et al. 1998; Zensus et al. 2002). In particular, we discuss the distribution of non-ballistic motions and present several examples from our sample. The non-ballistic motions we observe are generally in the direction of the downstream jet emission, providing evidence that jet features follow streaming flows in curved, bent jets. We also discuss the jet of the quasar 3C279, which displays a distinct change in the motion of a bright superluminal component. The new motion for this component is along a parallel track to the motion of an older superluminal component, suggesting collimation of the jet may still be occurring at radii (de-projected) of a kiloparsec or more.

  20. Mass balance, meteorological, ice motion, surface altitude, and runoff data at Gulkana Glacier, Alaska, 1992 balance year

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, R.S.; Trabant, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    The 1992 measured winter snow, maximum winter snow, net, and annual balances in the Gulkana Glacier basin were evaluated on the basis of meteorological, hydrological, and glaciological data measured in the basin and are reported herein. Averaged over the glacier, the measured winter snow balance was 0.97 meters on March 26, 1992; the maximum winter snow balance was 1.05 meters on May 19, 1992; the net balance (from September 8, 1991 to August 17, 1992) was -0.29 meters; and the annual balance (October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992) was -0.38 meters. Ice surface, motion, and altitude changes measured at three index sites document seasonal changes in ice speed and glacier thickness. Annual stream runoff was 1.24 meters averaged over the basin.

  1. Mass balance, meteorological, ice motion, surface altitude, and runoff data at Gulkana Glacier, Alaska, 1994 balance year

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Rod S.

    1998-01-01

    The 1994 measured winter snow, maximum winter snow, net, and annual balances in the Gulkana Glacier basin were evaluated on the basis of meteorological, hydrological, and glaciological data obtained in the basin. Averaged over the glacier, the measured winter snow balance was 1.34 meters on April 29, 1994, 0.9 standard deviation above the long-term average; the maximum winter snow balance, 1.43 meters, was reached on April 18, 1994; the net balance (from September 8, 1993 to September 17, 1994) was -0.72 meter, 0.7 standard deviation below the long-term average. The annual balance (October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993) was -0.88 meter. Ice-surface motion and altitude changes measured at three index sites document seasonal ice speed and glacier-thickness changes. Annual stream runoff was 1.93 meters averaged over the basin, approximately equal to the long-term average.

  2. Machine learning in motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Renjeng; Kermiche, Noureddine

    1989-01-01

    The existing methodologies for robot programming originate primarily from robotic applications to manufacturing, where uncertainties of the robots and their task environment may be minimized by repeated off-line modeling and identification. In space application of robots, however, a higher degree of automation is required for robot programming because of the desire of minimizing the human intervention. We discuss a new paradigm of robotic programming which is based on the concept of machine learning. The goal is to let robots practice tasks by themselves and the operational data are used to automatically improve their motion performance. The underlying mathematical problem is to solve the problem of dynamical inverse by iterative methods. One of the key questions is how to ensure the convergence of the iterative process. There have been a few small steps taken into this important approach to robot programming. We give a representative result on the convergence problem.

  3. Brownian motion meets Riemann curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general covariance of the diffusion equation is exploited in order to explore the curvature effects appearing in Brownian motion over a d-dimensional curved manifold. We use the local frame defined by the so-called Riemann normal coordinates to derive a general formula for the mean-square geodesic distance (MSD) at the short-time regime. This formula is written in terms of O(d) invariants that depend on the Riemann curvature tensor. We study the n-dimensional sphere case to validate these results. We also show that the diffusion for positive constant curvature is slower than the diffusion in a plane space, while the diffusion for negative constant curvature turns out to be faster. Finally the two-dimensional case is emphasized, as it is relevant for single-particle diffusion on biomembranes

  4. Collective motion of oscillatory walkers

    CERN Document Server

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    We study a system of interacting self-propelled particles whose walking velocity depends on the stage of the locomotion cycle. The model introduces a phase equation in the optimal velocity model for vehicular traffic. We find that the system exhibits novel types of flow: synchronized free flow, phase-anchoring free flow, orderly jam flow, and disordered jam flow. The first two flows are characterized by synchronization of the phase, while the others do not have the global synchronization. Among these, the disordered jam flow is very complex, although the underlying model is simple. This phenomenon implies that the crowd behavior of moving particles can be destabilized by coupling their velocity to the phase of their motion. We also focus on "phase-anchoring" phenomena. They strongly affect particle flow in the system, especially when the density of particles is high.

  5. Motion Control along Relative Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is control of mechanical systems as they evolve along the steady motions called relative equilibria. These trajectories are of interest in theory and applications and have the characterizing property that the system's body-fixed velocity is constant. For example, constant......-speed rotation about a principal axis is a relative equilibrium of a rigid body in three dimensions. We focus our study on simple mechanical control systems on Lie groups, i.e., mechanical systems with the following properties: the configuration manifold is a matrix Lie group, the total energy is equal to the...... Lie group is locally controllable along a relative equilibrium. These conditions subsume the well-known local controllability conditions for equilibrium points. Second, for systems that have fewer controls than degrees of freedom, we present a novel algorithm to control simple mechanical control...

  6. Combinatorial fractal Brownian motion model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炬波; 梁甸农

    2000-01-01

    To solve the problem of how to determine the non-scaled interval when processing radar clutter using fractal Brownian motion (FBM) model, a concept of combinatorial FBM model is presented. Since the earth (or sea) surface varies diversely with space, a radar clutter contains several fractal structures, which coexist on all scales. Taking the combination of two FBMs into account, via theoretical derivation we establish a combinatorial FBM model and present a method to estimate its fractal parameters. The correctness of the model and the method is proved by simulation experiments and computation of practial data. Furthermore, we obtain the relationship between fractal parameters when processing combinatorial model with a single FBM model. Meanwhile, by theoretical analysis it is concluded that when combinatorial model is observed on different scales, one of the fractal structures is more obvious.

  7. Brownian motion and stochastic calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Karatzas, Ioannis

    1998-01-01

    This book is designed as a text for graduate courses in stochastic processes. It is written for readers familiar with measure-theoretic probability and discrete-time processes who wish to explore stochastic processes in continuous time. The vehicle chosen for this exposition is Brownian motion, which is presented as the canonical example of both a martingale and a Markov process with continuous paths. In this context, the theory of stochastic integration and stochastic calculus is developed. The power of this calculus is illustrated by results concerning representations of martingales and change of measure on Wiener space, and these in turn permit a presentation of recent advances in financial economics (option pricing and consumption/investment optimization). This book contains a detailed discussion of weak and strong solutions of stochastic differential equations and a study of local time for semimartingales, with special emphasis on the theory of Brownian local time. The text is complemented by a large num...

  8. Motion Primitives for Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...... the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize...... different temporal actions using a probabilistic Edit Distance method. The method is tested on different actions with and without noise and the results show recognition rates of 88.7% and 85.5%, respectively....

  9. Action Recognition using Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Thomas B.; Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft

    The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...... the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize...... different temporal actions using a probabilistic Edit Distance method. The method is tested on different actions with and without noise and the results show recognizing rates of 88.7% and 85.5%, respectively....

  10. Amoeboid motion in confined geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hao; Hu, Wei-Fan; Farutin, Alexander; Rafaï, Salima; Lai, Ming-Chih; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system, as well as cancer cells, migrating in confined environment of tissues undergo frequent shape changes (described as amoeboid motion) that enable them to move forward through these porous media without the assistance of adhesion sites. In other words, they perform amoeboid swimming (AS) while using extracellular matrices and cells of tissues as support. We introduce a simple model of AS in a confined geometry solved by means of 2D numerical simulations. We find that confinement promotes AS, unless being so strong that it restricts shape change amplitude. A straight AS trajectory in the channel is found to be unstable, and ample lateral excursions of the swimmer prevail. For weak confinement, these excursions are symmetric, while they become asymmetric at stronger confinement, whereby the swimmer is located closer to one of the two walls. This is a spontaneous symmetry-breaking bifurcation. We find that there exists an optimal confinement for migration. We provide numerical results as...

  11. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Summary form only given. We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding and motion compensation. The new coding methods combine state-of-the-art lossless techniques as JPEG (context based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding), with high resolution motion field estimation, 3D predictors, prediction using one or multiple (k) previous images, predictor dependent error modelling, and selection of motion field by code length. We treat the problem of precision of the mot...

  12. SMC framework in motion control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Şabanoviç, Asif; Sabanovic, Asif

    2007-01-01

    Design of a motion control system should take into account both the unconstrained motion performed without interaction with environment or another system, and the constrained motion where the system is in contact with environment or has certain functional interactions with another system. In this paper control systems design approach, based on siding mode methods, that allows selection of control for generic tasks as trajectory and/or force tracking as well as for systems that require maintai...

  13. Nonholonomic Motion Planning Strategy for Underactuated Manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Li; Yuegang Tan; Zhang Li

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops nonholonomic motion planning strategy for three-joint underactuated manipulator, which uses only two actuators and can be converted into chained form. Since the manipulator was designed focusing on the control simplicity, there are several issues for motion planning, mainly including transformation singularity, path estimation, and trajectory robustness in the presence of initial errors, which need to be considered. Although many existing motion planning control laws for c...

  14. On Human Motion Imitation by Humanoid Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Suleiman, Wael; Yoshida, Eiichi; Kanehiro, Fumio; Laumond, Jean-Paul; Monin, André

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the imitation of human recorded motions by a humanoid robot is considered. The main objective is to reproduce an imitated motion as closely as possible to the original human recored motion. To achieve this goal, the imitation problem is formulated as an optimization problem and the physical limits of the humanoid robot is considered as constraints. The optimization problem is then solved recursively by using an efficient dynamics algorithm, which allows the calculation of the g...

  15. Operator Fractional Brownian Motion and Martingale Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshuai Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that martingale difference sequences are very useful in applications and theory. On the other hand, the operator fractional Brownian motion as an extension of the well-known fractional Brownian motion also plays an important role in both applications and theory. In this paper, we study the relation between them. We construct an approximation sequence of operator fractional Brownian motion based on a martingale difference sequence.

  16. Robot motion control in mobile environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iliya V Miroshnik; HUANG Xian-lin(黄显林); HE Jie(贺杰)

    2003-01-01

    With the problem of robot motion control in dynamic environment represented by mobile obstacles,working pieces and external mechanisms considered, a relevant control actions design procedure has been pro-posed to provide coordination of robot motions with respect to the moving external objects so that an extension ofrobot spatial motion techniques and active robotic strategies based on approaches of nonlinear control theory canbe achieved.

  17. General techniques for constrained motion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong K.; Watterberg, P.A.; Chen, Pang, C.; Lewis, C.L.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents automatic motion planning algorithms for robotic manipulators performing a variety of tasks. Given a task and a robot manipulator equipped with a tool in its hand, the motion planners compute robot motions to complete the task while respecting manipulator kinematic constraints and avoiding collisions with objects in the robot`s work space. To handle the high complexity of the motion planning problem, a sophisticated search strategy called SANDROS is developed and used to solve many variations of the motion planning problem. To facilitate systematic development of motion planning algorithms, robotic tasks are classified into three categories according to the dimension of the manifold the robot tool has to travel: visit-point (0 dimensional), trace-curve (1 dimensional) and cover-surface (2 dimensional) tasks. The motion planner for a particular dimension is used as a sub-module by the motion planner for the next-higher dimension. This hierarchy of motion planners has led to a set of compact and systematic algorithms that can plan robot motions for many types of robotic operations. In addition, an algorithm is developed that determines the optimal robot-base configuration for minimum cycle time. The SANDROS search paradigm is complete in that it finds a solution path if one exists, up to a user specified resolution. Although its worst-case time complexity is exponential in the degrees of freedom of the manipulator, its average performance is commensurate with the complexity of the solution path. Since solution paths for most of motion planning problems consist of a few monotone segments, the motion planners based on SANDROS search strategy show approximately two-orders of magnitude improvements over existing complete algorithms.

  18. Dynamic signatures of driven vortex motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We probe the dynamic nature of driven vortex motion in superconductors with a new type of transport experiment. An inhomogeneous Lorentz driving force is applied to the sample, inducing vortex velocity gradients that distinguish the hydrodynamic motion of the vortex liquid from the elastic and plastic motion of the vortex solid. We observe elastic depinning of the vortex lattice at the critical current, and shear induced plastic slip of the lattice at high Lorentz force gradients. (orig.)

  19. Motion blur removal with orthogonal parabolic exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Taeg Sang; Levin, Anat; Durand, Fredo; Freeman, William T.

    2010-01-01

    Object movement during exposure generates blur. Removing blur is challenging because one has to estimate the motion blur, which can spatially vary over the image. Even if the motion is successfully identified, blur removal can be unstable because the blur kernel attenuates high frequency image contents. We address the problem of removing blur from objects moving at constant velocities in arbitrary 2D directions. Our solution captures two images of the scene with a parabolic motion in two orth...

  20. Computer Vision Method in Human Motion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Li; FANG Shuai; XU Xin-he

    2007-01-01

    Human motion detection based on computer vision is a frontier research topic and is causing an increasing attention in the field of computer vision research. The wavelet transform is used to sharpen the ambiguous edges in human motion image. The shadow's effect to the image processing is also removed. The edge extraction can be successfully realized.This is an effective method for the research of human motion analysis system.