Sample records for basins in-depth motion

  1. Two independent mechanisms for motion-in-depth perception: evidence from individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold T Nefs


    Full Text Available Our forward-facing eyes allow us the advantage of binocular visual information: using the tiny differences between right and left eye views to learn about depth and location in three dimensions. Our visual systems also contain specialized mechanisms to detect motion-in-depth from binocular vision, but the nature of these mechanisms remains controversial. Binocular motion-in-depth perception could theoretically be based on first detecting binocular disparity and then monitoring how it changes over time. The alternative is to monitor the motion in the right and left eye separately and then compare these motion signals. Here we used an individual differences approach to test whether the two sources of information are processed via dissociated mechanisms, and to measure the relative importance of those mechanisms. Our results suggest the existence of two distinct mechanisms, each contributing to the perception of motion in depth in most observers. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrate the relative prevalence of the two mechanisms within a normal population. In general, visual systems appear to rely mostly on the mechanism sensitive to changing binocular disparity, but perception of motion in depth is augmented by the presence of a less sensitive mechanism that uses interocular velocity differences. Occasionally, we find observers with the opposite pattern of sensitivity. More generally this work showcases the power of the individual differences approach in studying the functional organisation of cognitive systems.

  2. P1-17: Pseudo-Haptics Using Motion-in-Depth Stimulus and Second-Order Motion Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Sato


    Full Text Available Modification of motion of the computer cursor during the manipulation by the observer evokes illusory haptic sensation (Lecuyer et al., 2004 ACM SIGCHI '04 239–246. This study investigates the pseudo-haptics using motion-in-depth and second-order motion. A stereoscopic display and a PHANTOM were used in the first experiment. A subject was asked to move a visual target at a constant speed in horizontal, vertical, or front-back direction. During the manipulation, the speed was reduced to 50% for 500 msec. The haptic sensation was measured using the magnitude estimation method. The result indicates that perceived haptic sensation from motion-in-depth was about 30% of that from horizontal or vertical motion. A 2D display and the PHANTOM were used in the second experiment. The motion cue was second order—in each frame, dots in a square patch reverses in contrast (i.e., all black dots become white and all white dots become black. The patch was moved in a horizontal direction. The result indicates that perceived haptic sensation from second-order motion was about 90% of that from first-order motion.

  3. Neural correlates of visually induced self-motion illusion in depth. (United States)

    Kovács, Gyula; Raabe, Markus; Greenlee, Mark W


    Optic-flow fields can induce the conscious illusion of self-motion in a stationary observer. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to reveal the differential processing of self- and object-motion in the human brain. Subjects were presented a constantly expanding optic-flow stimulus, composed of disparate red-blue dots, viewed through red-blue glasses to generate a vivid percept of three-dimensional motion. We compared the activity obtained during periods of illusory self-motion with periods of object-motion percept. We found that the right MT+, precuneus, as well as areas located bilaterally along the dorsal part of the intraparietal sulcus and along the left posterior intraparietal sulcus were more active during self-motion perception than during object-motion. Additional signal increases were located in the depth of the left superior frontal sulcus, over the ventral part of the left anterior cingulate, in the depth of the right central sulcus and in the caudate nucleus/putamen. We found no significant deactivations associated with self-motion perception. Our results suggest that the illusory percept of self-motion is correlated with the activation of a network of areas, ranging from motion-specific areas to regions involved in visuo-vestibular integration, visual imagery, decision making, and introspection.

  4. Ground Motion Prediction Atop Geometrically Complex Sedimentary Basins - The Dead Sea Basin (United States)

    Shani-Kadmiel, S.; Tsesarsky, M.; Louie, J. N.; Gvirtzman, Z.


    The Dead Sea Transform (DST) is the source for some of the largest earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean. Several deep and structurally complex sedimentary basins are associated with the DST. These basins are up to 10 km deep and typically bounded by active fault zones. The low seismicity of the DST combined with the limited instrumental coverage of the seismic network in the area result in a critical knowledge gap. Therefore, it is necessary to complement the limited instrumental data with synthetic data based on computational modeling, in order to study the effects of earthquake ground motion in these sedimentary basins. We performed a 2D ground-motion analysis in the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) using a finite-difference code. Results indicate a complex pattern of ground motion amplification affected by the geometric features in the basin. To distinguish between the individual contributions of each geometrical feature in the basin, we developed a semiquantitative decomposition approach. This approach enabled us to interpret the DSB results as follows: (1) Ground-motion amplification as a result of resonance occurs basin-wide due to a high impedance contrast at the base of the uppermost layer; (2) Steep faults generate a strong edge-effect that further ampli- fies ground motions; (3) Sub-basins cause geometrical focusing that may significantly amplify ground motions; and (4) Salt diapirs diverge seismic energy and cause a de- crease in ground-motion amplitude. We address the significance of ground motion amplification due to geometrical focusing via an analytical and numerical study. We show that effective geometrical focusing occurs for a narrow set of eccentricities and velocity ratios, where seismic energy is converged to a region of ±0.5 km from surface. This mechanism leads to significant ground motion amplification at the center of the basin, up to a factor of 3; frequencies of the modeled spectrum are amplified up to the corner frequency of the source.

  5. Establishment of Antakya Basin Strong Ground Motion Monitoring System (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Özel, O.; Bikce, M.; Geneş, M. C.; Kacın, S.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Över, S.


    Turkey is located in one of the most active earthquake zones of the world. The cities located along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) are exposed to significant earthquake hazard. The Hatay province near the southern terminus of the EAF has always experienced a significant seismic activity, since it is on the intersection of the northernmost segment of Dead Sea Fault Zone coming from the south, with the Cyprean Arc approaching from south-west. Historical records extending over the last 2000 years indicate that Antakya, founded in the 3rd century B.C., is effected by intensity IX-X earthquakes every 150 years. In the region, the last destructive earthquake occurred in 1872. Destructive earthquakes should be expected in the region in the near future similar to the ones that occurred in the past. The strong response of sedimentary basins to seismic waves was largely responsible for the damage produced by the devastating earthquakes of 1985 Michoacan Earthquake which severely damaged parts of Mexico City, and the 1988 Spitak Earthquake which destroyed most of Leninakan, Armenia. Much of this devastating response was explained by the conversion of seismic body waves to surface waves at the sediment/rock contacts of sedimentary basins. "Antakya Basin Strong Ground Motion Monitoring System" is set up with the aim of monitoring the earthquake response of the Antakya Basin, contributing to our understanding of basin response, contributing to earthquake risk assessment of Antakya, monitoring of regional earthquakes and determining the effects of local and regional earthquakes on the urban environment of Antakya. The soil properties beneath the strong motion stations (S-Wave velocity structure and dominant soil frequency) are determined by array measurements that involve broad-band seismometers. The strong motion monitoring system consists of six instruments installed in small buildings. The stations form a straight line along the short axis

  6. Realistic modelling of observed seismic motion in complex sedimentary basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeh, D.; Panza, G.F.


    Three applications of a numerical technique are illustrated to model realistically the seismic ground motion for complex two-dimensional structures. First we consider a sedimentary basin in the Friuli region, and we model strong motion records from an aftershock of the 1976 earthquake. Then we simulate the ground motion caused in Rome by the 1915, Fucino (Italy) earthquake, and we compare our modelling with the damage distribution observed in the town. Finally we deal with the interpretation of ground motion recorded in Mexico City, as a consequence of earthquakes in the Mexican subduction zone. The synthetic signals explain the major characteristics (relative amplitudes, spectral amplification, frequency content) of the considered seismograms, and the space distribution of the available macroseismic data. For the sedimentary basin in the Friuli area, parametric studies demonstrate the relevant sensitivity of the computed ground motion to small changes in the subsurface topography of the sedimentary basin, and in the velocity and quality factor of the sediments. The total energy of ground motion, determined from our numerical simulation in Rome, is in very good agreement with the distribution of damage observed during the Fucino earthquake. For epicentral distances in the range 50km-100km, the source location and not only the local soil conditions control the local effects. For Mexico City, the observed ground motion can be explained as resonance effects and as excitation of local surface waves, and the theoretical and the observed maximum spectral amplifications are very similar. In general, our numerical simulations permit the estimate of the maximum and average spectral amplification for specific sites, i.e. are a very powerful tool for accurate micro-zonation. (author). 38 refs, 19 figs, 1 tab

  7. Seismic Response of a Sedimentary Basin: Preliminary Results from Strong Motion Downhole Array in Taipei Basin (United States)

    Young, B.; Chen, K.; Chiu, J.


    The Strong Motion Downhole Array (SMDA) is an array of 32 triggered strong motion broadband seismometers located at eight sites in Taipei Basin. Each site features three to five co-located three-component accelerometers--one at the surface and an additional two to four each down independent boreholes. Located in the center of Taipei Basin is Taipei City and the Taipei metropolitan area, the capital of Taiwan and home to more than 7 million residents. Taipei Basin is in a major seismic hazard area and is prone to frequent large earthquakes producing strong ground motion. This unique three-dimension seismic array presents new frontiers for seismic research in Taiwan and, along with it, new challenges. Frequency-dependent and site-specific amplification of seismic waves from depth to surface has been observed: preliminary results indicate that the top few tens of meters of sediment--not the entire thickness--are responsible for significant frequency-dependent amplification; amplitudes of seismic waves at the surface may be as much as seven times that at depth. Dominant amplification frequencies are interpreted as quarter-wavelength constructive interference between the surface and major interfaces in the sediments. Using surface stations with known orientation as a reference, borehole seismometer orientations in these data--which are unknown, and some of which vary considerably from event to event--have been determined using several methods. After low-pass filtering the strong motion data, iteratively rotating the two horizontal components from an individual borehole station and cross-correlating them with that from a co-located surface station has proven to be very effective. In cases where the iterative cross-correlation method does not provide a good fit, rotating both surface and borehole stations to a common axis of maximum seismic energy provides an alternative approach. The orientation-offset of a borehole station relative to the surface station may be

  8. Study of motion parallax in depth perception with a helmet-mounted display system used in teleoperation (United States)

    Rondot, Pascale; Lessard, Jean; Robert, Jean-Marc


    The objective of this study is to compare human performance in executing tasks with a helmet- mounted display interface using different visual cues of depth perception. The study involves two experiments, the first, with direct viewing, the second, with a helmet-mounted display (HMD). These experiments are designed to assess the subject's stereoacuity in an alignment task involving two rods, one mobile, the other fixed. In both experiments, the subject has not time constraints and simply has to perform the task as well as possible. The dependent variable is the depth positioning error. Ten subjects with a stereoacuity of 20 arc-seconds or less and 20/20 visual acuity (Snellen test) corrected or not took part in this study. In all experiments, the subject was exposed to four viewing conditions in direct view or HMD: mono-stationary, stereo-stationary, mono with motion parallax and stereo with motion parallax. The independent variables are the presence of stereo (with vs. without), the presence of motion parallax (with vs. without) and the session (session 1 or session 2). ANOVA 2 X 2 X 2 statistical processing is used.

  9. The effects of stereo disparity on the behavioural and electrophysiological correlates of perception of audio-visual motion in depth. (United States)

    Harrison, Neil R; Witheridge, Sian; Makin, Alexis; Wuerger, Sophie M; Pegna, Alan J; Meyer, Georg F


    Motion is represented by low-level signals, such as size-expansion in vision or loudness changes in the auditory modality. The visual and auditory signals from the same object or event may be integrated and facilitate detection. We explored behavioural and electrophysiological correlates of congruent and incongruent audio-visual depth motion in conditions where auditory level changes, visual expansion, and visual disparity cues were manipulated. In Experiment 1 participants discriminated auditory motion direction whilst viewing looming or receding, 2D or 3D, visual stimuli. Responses were faster and more accurate for congruent than for incongruent audio-visual cues, and the congruency effect (i.e., difference between incongruent and congruent conditions) was larger for visual 3D cues compared to 2D cues. In Experiment 2, event-related potentials (ERPs) were collected during presentation of the 2D and 3D, looming and receding, audio-visual stimuli, while participants detected an infrequent deviant sound. Our main finding was that audio-visual congruity was affected by retinal disparity at an early processing stage (135-160ms) over occipito-parietal scalp. Topographic analyses suggested that similar brain networks were activated for the 2D and 3D congruity effects, but that cortical responses were stronger in the 3D condition. Differences between congruent and incongruent conditions were observed between 140-200ms, 220-280ms, and 350-500ms after stimulus onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ground Motion Prediction for Great Interplate Earthquakes in Kanto Basin Considering Variation of Source Parameters (United States)

    Sekiguchi, H.; Yoshimi, M.; Horikawa, H.


    Broadband ground motions are estimated in the Kanto sedimentary basin which holds Tokyo metropolitan area inside for anticipated great interplate earthquakes along surrounding plate boundaries. Possible scenarios of great earthquakes along Sagami trough are modeled combining characteristic properties of the source area and adequate variation in source parameters in order to evaluate possible ground motion variation due to next Kanto earthquake. South to the rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake along the Japan trench, we consider possible M8 earthquake. The ground motions are computed with a four-step hybrid technique. We first calculate low-frequency ground motions at the engineering basement. We then calculate higher-frequency ground motions at the same position, and combine the lower- and higher-frequency motions using a matched filter. We finally calculate ground motions at the surface by computing the response of the alluvium-diluvium layers to the combined motions at the engineering basement.

  11. Characterizing directional variations in long-period ground motion amplifications in the Kanto Basin, Japan (United States)

    Mukai, Y.; Furumura, T.; Maeda, T.


    In the Kanto Basin (including Tokyo in Japan), the long-period (T=3-10 s) ground motions are strongly developed when large earthquakes occur nearby. The amplitude of the long-period ground motion in the basin varies strongly among earthquakes; it is tremendous from the earthquakes in Niigata (northwest of Kanto), but is several times weaker from the earthquakes in Tohoku (north of Kanto). In this study, we examined the cause of such azimuthal-dependent amplitude variation for the 2004 Niigata Chuetsu (M6.8) and the 2011 Fukushima Hamadori (M7.0) earthquake based on numerical simulations of seismic wave propagation by the finite-difference method. We first examined the non-isotropic source-radiation effect of these events. By performing numerical simulations for different strike angles of these source faults, significant variation in amplitude of the long-period ground motions were observed in Tokyo for both the events. Among tested strike angles, the source of the 2004 event (strike = 212 deg.) produced the largest long-period ground motion due to strong radiation of surface wave towards the Kanto Basin, while the 2011 event (strike = 132 deg.) produced the least. The minimum-to-maximum ratio of their amplitudes with respect to strike angle is about 2 and 1.3, respectively. These investigations suggest the source radiation effect considerably contributes to the variations of the long-period ground motions. We then examined the effect of the 3D structure of the Kanto Basin on the generation of the long-period ground motion. For the 2004 event, we found that the long-period signal first arrives at the central Tokyo from the western edge of the Kanto Basin. Then, later signals containing both the Rayleigh and Love waves were amplified dramatically due to the localized low-velocity structure to the northwestern part of the basin. On the other hand, in the case of the 2011 event, the seismic waves propagating towards the basin were dissipated significantly as it travels

  12. Broadband Ground Motion Reconstruction for the Kanto Basin during the 1923 Kanto Earthquake (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Haruko; Yoshimi, Masayuki


    Ground motions of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake inside the Kanto Basin are numerically simulated in a wide frequency range (0-10 Hz) based on new knowledge of the earthquake's source processes, the sedimentary structure of the basin, and techniques for generating broadband source models of great earthquakes. The Kanto Earthquake remains one of the most important exemplars for ground motion prediction in Japan due to its size, faulting geometry, and location beneath the densely populated Kanto sedimentary basin. We reconstruct a broadband source model of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake from inversion results by introducing small-scale heterogeneities. The corresponding ground motions are simulated using a hybrid technique comprising the following four calculations: (1) low-frequency ground motion of the engineering basement, modeled using a finite difference method; (2) high-frequency ground motion of the engineering basement, modeled using a stochastic Green's function method; (3) total ground motion of the engineering basement (i.e. 1 + 2); and (4) ground motion at the surface in response to the total basement ground motion. We employ a recently developed three-dimensional (3D) velocity structure model of the Kanto Basin that incorporates prospecting data, microtremor observations and measurements derived from strong ground motion records. Our calculations reveal peak ground velocities (PGV) exceeding 50 cm/s in the area above the fault plane: to the south, where the fault plane is shallowest, PGV reaches 150-200 cm/s at the engineering basement and 200-250 cm/s at the surface. Intensity 7, the maximum value in the Japan Meteorological Agency's intensity scale, is calculated to have occurred widely in Sagami Bay, which corresponds well with observed house-collapse rates due to the 1923 event. The modeling reveals a pronounced forward directivity effect for the area lying above the southern, shallow part of the fault plane. The high PGV and intensity seen above the

  13. 2.5D Simulation of basin-edge effects on the ground motion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ogy, since the 1985 Michoacan, Mexico earthquake. The Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake of 1995 and the. 1994 Northridge earthquake are recent reminders that soft sediments and the basin-edge gave the most significant effects on surface wave generation and ground motion amplification. The configuration for 2.5D wave ...

  14. 2.5D Simulation of basin-edge effects on the ground motion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effects of basin-edge and soil velocity on the ground motion characteristics have been simulated using 2.5D modeling. One of the most significant advantages of the 2.5D simulation is that 3D radiation pattern can be generated in a 2D numerical grid using double-couple shear dislocation source. Further, 2.5D ...

  15. 2.5 D Simulation of basin-edge effects on the ground motion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effects of basin-edge and soil velocity on the ground motion characteristics have been simulated using 2.5D modeling. One of the most significant advantages of the 2.5D simulation is that 3D radiation pattern can be generated in a 2D numerical grid using double-couple shear dislocation source. Further, 2.5D ...

  16. Basin-edge generated Rayleigh waves in the Almaty basin and corresponding consequences for ground motion amplification (United States)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Petrovic, Bojana; Silacheva, Natalya; Abakanov, Tanatkan; Orunbaev, Sagynbek; Moldobekov, Bolot


    During the past two centuries, several large earthquakes have caused extensive damages in the city of Almaty in Kazakhstan. Increasing the preparedness for future events, the definition of the optimal engineering designs for civil structures and the corresponding mitigation of earthquake risks involves the accomplishment of site response studies. To this regard, a temporary seismological network of 15 stations was installed in the city aiming at the accurate identification of local variations of site response at different locations. As the city is settled on a deep sediment-filled plain with laterally strongly varying thicknesses, bound to the south by the Tien-Shan mountain range, the city might face important site effects: large amplification and significant increase of shaking duration. In addition, surface waves in the low-frequency range around and slightly higher than the fundamental resonance frequency, which could be generated at the boundaries of the basin, can carry a large amount of energy. In turn, this will influence both the spatial distribution of the level of amplification and the temporal lengthening of ground motion significantly. For quantifying these effects, we apply complex trace analysis, which uses the instantaneous polarization characteristics of the seismic signal for separating waves arriving at a single site from different directions. In this way, secondary surface waves originating at various sites along the edge of the Almaty basin can be identified as well as their generation regions. After having assessed 1-D amplification effects with well-established techniques like the standard spectral ratio and the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio techniques, the results further indicate that thick layers of soft clay deposits and the 3-D structure of the basin give rise to lengthening of ground motion and high amplification values at low frequencies around 0.2 Hz. The steep structure of the sediment-bedrock interface at the southern edge

  17. Realistic modelling of observed seismic motion in compIex sedimentary basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Panza


    Full Text Available Three applications of a numerical technique are illustrated to model realistically the seismic ground motion for complex two-dimensional structures. First we consider a sedimentary basin in the Friuli region, and we model strong motion records from an aftershock of the 1976 earthquake. Then we simulate the ground motion caused in Rome by the 1915, Fucino (Italy earthquake, and we compare our modelling with the damage distribution observed in the town. Finally we deal with the interpretation of ground motion recorded in Mexico City, as a consequence of earthquakes in the Mexican subduction zone. The synthetic signals explain the major characteristics (relative amplitudes, spectral amplification, frequency content of the considered seismograms, and the space distribution of the available macroseismic data. For the sedimentary basin in the Friuli area, parametric studies demonstrate the relevant sensitivity of the computed ground motion to small changes in the subsurface topography of the sedimentary basin, and in the velocity and quality factor of the sediments. The relative Arias Intensity, determined from our numerical simulation in Rome, is in very good agreoment with the distribution of damage observed during the Fucino earthquake. For epicentral distances in the range 50 km-100 km, the source location and not only the local soil conditions control the local effects. For Mexico City, the observed ground motion can be explained as resonance effects and as excitation of local surface waves, and the theoretical and the observed maximum spectral amplifications are very similar. In general, our numerical simulations estimate the maximum and average spectral amplification for specific sites, i.e. they are a very powerful tool for accurate micro-zonation

  18. Constraining the vertical surface motions of the Hampshire Basin, south England During the Cenozoic (United States)

    Smith, Philip; England, Richard; Zalasiewicz, Jan


    The potential effect of rising sea level on the UK has received considerable attention in recent years. However, the ongoing long-term changes in surface topography of the UK driven by regional tectonics and the mechanisms responsible are not fully understood. It is thought that glacial loading/unloading is the primary influence. However, this is inconsistent with present-day vertical surface motions recorded from Continuous Global Positioning Stations (CGPS) across the UK. The lateral variations in the present day motions are too complex to be explained by glacial isostatic rebound. We are investigating the hypothesis that the vertical motions of SE England also reflect the long term tectonic history by backstripping the Cenozoic geological record. So far the Paleogene stratigraphic record of the Hampshire basin in southern England has been investigated and using a series of deep boreholes that reach the chalk basement, a 2-D backstripping method has been applied. Subsidence analysis of cliff sections and boreholes reveal the Hampshire Basin was tectonically subsiding at a steady rate from 56.5Ma and any major periods of uplift and denudation to the present day state must have occurred from the mid Oligocene onwards. At this time the northern and western regions of the UK were believed to be uplifting as evidenced by heavy mineral transport directionns and sediment drainage patterns. A rapid increase in tectonic subsidence from 42Ma recorded by the three Isle of Wight sections in close proximity to an existing Variscan fault, thought to reactivate as a thrust during the Cenozoic, suggests a compressional stress regime in this region. The stress pattern observed from the tectonic subsidence data and evidence from drainage patterns supports a model in which the UK was uplifting in the north and west while the south east was subsiding. As this pattern is similar to the present day vertical surface motions and pre-dates glaciation, we propose glacial unloading as a

  19. 3D basin-shape ratio effects on frequency content and spectral amplitudes of basin-generated surface waves and associated spatial ground motion amplification and differential ground motion (United States)

    Kamal; Narayan, J. P.


    This paper presents the effects of basin-shape ratio (BSR) on the frequency content and spectral amplitudes of the basin-generated surface (BGS) waves and the associated spatial variation of ground motion amplification and differential ground motion (DGM) in a 3D semi-spherical (SS) basin. Seismic responses were computed using a recently developed 3D fourth-order spatial accurate time-domain finite-difference (FD) algorithm based on the parsimonious staggered-grid approximation of the 3D viscoelastic wave equations. The simulated results revealed the decrease of both the frequency content and the spectral amplitudes of the BGS waves and the duration of ground motion in the SS basin with the decrease of BSR. An increase of the average spectral amplification (ASA), DGM and the average aggravation factor (AAF) towards the centre of the SS basin was obtained due to the focusing of the surface waves. A decrease of ASA, DGM and AAF with the decrease of BSR was also obtained.

  20. Observations of basin ground motions from a dense seismic array in San Jose, California (United States)

    Frankel, A.; Carver, D.; Cranswick, E.; Bice, T.; Sell, R.; Hanson, S.


    We installed a dense array of 41 digital seismographs in San Jose, California, to evaluate in detail the effects of a deep sedimentary basin and shallow sedimentary deposits on earthquake ground motions. This urban array is located near the eastern edge of the Santa Clara Valley and spans the Evergreen sedimentary basin identified by gravity data. Average station spacing is 1 km, with three stations initially spaced 110 m apart. Despite the high-noise urban environment, the stations of the array successfully triggered on and recorded small local earthquakes (M 2.5-2.8 at 10-25 km distance) and larger regional events such as the M 5.0 Bolinas earthquake (90 km distance), M 4.6-5.6 earthquakes near Mammoth Lakes (270 km distance), M 4.9-5.6 events in western Nevada (420 km distance) and the M 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake (590 km distance). Maps of spectral ratios across the array show that the highest amplitudes in all frequency bands studied (0.125-8 Hz) are generally observed at stations farther from the eastern edge of the Santa Clara Valley. Larger spectral amplitudes are often observed above the western edge of the Evergreen Basin. Snapshots of the recorded wavefield crossing the array for regional events to the east reveal that large, low-frequency (0.125-0.5 Hz) arrivals after the S-wave travel from south to north across the array. A moving-window, cross-correlation analysis finds that these later arrivals are surface waves traveling from the south. The timing and propagation direction of these arrivals indicates that they were likely produced by scattering of incident S waves at the border of the Santa Clara Valley to the south of the array. It is remarkable that the largest low-frequency phases at many of the valley sites for regional events to the east are basin surface waves coming from a direction about 70 degrees different from that of the epicenters. Basin surface waves emanating from the eastern edge of the valley are also identified by the cross

  1. 3D Ground-Motion Simulations for Magnitude 9 Earthquakes on the Cascadia Megathrust: Sedimentary Basin Amplification, Rupture Directivity, and Ground-Motion Variability (United States)

    Frankel, A. D.; Wirth, E. A.; Marafi, N.; Vidale, J. E.; Stephenson, W. J.


    We have produced broadband (0-10 Hz) synthetic seismograms for Mw 9 earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone by combining synthetics from 3D finite-difference simulations at low frequencies (≤ 1 Hz) and stochastic synthetics at high frequencies (≥ 1 Hz). These synthetic ground motions are being used to evaluate building response, liquefaction, and landslides, as part of the M9 Project of the University of Washington, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey. The kinematic rupture model is composed of high stress drop sub-events with Mw 8, similar to those observed in the Mw 9.0 Tohoku, Japan and Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquakes, superimposed on large background slip with lower slip velocities. The 3D velocity model is based on active and passive-source seismic tomography studies, seismic refraction and reflection surveys, and geologic constraints. The Seattle basin portion of the model has been validated by simulating ground motions from local earthquakes. We have completed 50 3D simulations of Mw 9 earthquakes using a variety of hypocenters, slip distributions, sub-event locations, down-dip limits of rupture, and other parameters. For sites not in deep sedimentary basins, the response spectra of the synthetics for 0.1-6.0 s are similar, on average, to the values from the BC Hydro ground motion prediction equations (GMPE). For periods of 7-10 s, the synthetic response spectra exceed these GMPE, partially due to the shallow dip of the plate interface. We find large amplification factors of 2-5 for response spectra at periods of 1-10 s for locations in the Seattle and Tacoma basins, relative to sites outside the basins. This amplification depends on the direction of incoming waves and rupture directivity. The basin amplification is caused by surface waves generated at basin edges from incoming S-waves, as well as amplification and focusing of S-waves and surface waves by the 3D basin structure. The inter-event standard deviation of response spectral

  2. Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George


    Take the mystery out of motion. Our resource gives you everything you need to teach young scientists about motion. Students will learn about linear, accelerating, rotating and oscillating motion, and how these relate to everyday life - and even the solar system. Measuring and graphing motion is easy, and the concepts of speed, velocity and acceleration are clearly explained. Reading passages, comprehension questions, color mini posters and lots of hands-on activities all help teach and reinforce key concepts. Vocabulary and language are simplified in our resource to make them accessible to str

  3. Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea


    Motion is all around us. Learn how it is used in art, technology, and engineering. Five easy-to-read chapters explain the science behind motion, as well as its real-world applications. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  4. A hybrid method for the estimation of ground motion in sedimentary basins: Quantitative modelling for Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeh, D.; Suhadolc, P.; Mueller, S.; Panza, G.F.


    To estimate the ground motion in two-dimensional, laterally heterogeneous, anelastic media, a hybrid technique has been developed which combines modal summation and the finite difference method. In the calculation of the local wavefield due to a seismic event, both for small and large epicentral distances, it is possible to take into account the sources, path and local soil effects. As practical application we have simulated the ground motion in Mexico City caused by the Michoacan earthquake of September 19, 1985. By studying the one-dimensional response of the two sedimentary layers present in Mexico City, it is possible to explain the difference in amplitudes observed between records for receivers inside and outside the lake-bed zone. These simple models show that the sedimentary cover produces the concentration of high-frequency waves (0.2-0.5 Hz) on the horizontal components of motion. The large amplitude coda of ground motion observed inside the lake-bed zone, and the spectral ratios between signals observed inside and outside the lake-bed zone, can only be explained by two-dimensional models of the sedimentary basin. In such models, the ground motion is mainly controlled by the response of the uppermost clay layer. The synthetic signals explain the major characteristics (relative amplitudes, spectral ratios, and frequency content) of the observed ground motion. The large amplitude coda of the ground motion observed in the lake-bed zone can be explained as resonance effects and the excitation of local surface waves in the laterally heterogeneous clay layer. Also, for the 1985 Michoacan event, the energy contributions of the three subevents are important to explain the observed durations. (author). 39 refs, 15 figs, 1 tab

  5. Sedimentary basin effects in Seattle, Washington: Ground-motion observations and 3D simulations (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Stephenson, William; Carver, David


    Seismograms of local earthquakes recorded in Seattle exhibit surface waves in the Seattle basin and basin-edge focusing of S waves. Spectral ratios of Swaves and later arrivals at 1 Hz for stiff-soil sites in the Seattle basin show a dependence on the direction to the earthquake, with earthquakes to the south and southwest producing higher average amplification. Earthquakes to the southwest typically produce larger basin surface waves relative to S waves than earthquakes to the north and northwest, probably because of the velocity contrast across the Seattle fault along the southern margin of the Seattle basin. S to P conversions are observed for some events and are likely converted at the bottom of the Seattle basin. We model five earthquakes, including the M 6.8 Nisqually earthquake, using 3D finite-difference simulations accurate up to 1 Hz. The simulations reproduce the observed dependence of amplification on the direction to the earthquake. The simulations generally match the timing and character of basin surface waves observed for many events. The 3D simulation for the Nisqually earth-quake produces focusing of S waves along the southern margin of the Seattle basin near the area in west Seattle that experienced increased chimney damage from the earthquake, similar to the results of the higher-frequency 2D simulation reported by Stephenson et al. (2006). Waveforms from the 3D simulations show reasonable agreement with the data at low frequencies (0.2-0.4 Hz) for the Nisqually earthquake and an M 4.8 deep earthquake west of Seattle.

  6. 2.5D Simulation of basin-edge effects on the ground motion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ation patterns using a double-couple source, cor- roborate with each other in the xz-plane (figure 1). Narayan (2001) also reported that site-specific ground motion can be predicted just by rotating the strike of the fault in the anti-clockwise direction by the same amount as the azimuth of the site with respect to the epicenter.

  7. Differential motion between upper crust and lithospheric mantle in the central Basin and Range (United States)

    Schulte-Pelkum, Vera; Biasi, Glenn; Sheehan, Anne; Jones, Craig


    Stretching of the continental crust in the Basin and Range, western USA, has more than doubled the surface area of the central province. But it is unknown whether stretching affects the entire column of lithosphere down to the convecting mantle, if deep extension occurs offset to the side, or if deeper layers are entirely decoupled from the upper crust. The central Basin and Range province is unusual, compared with its northern and southern counterparts: extension began later; volcanism was far less voluminous; and the unique geochemistry of erupted basalts suggests a long-preserved mantle source. Here we use seismic data and isostatic calculations to map lithospheric thickness in the central Basin and Range. We identify an isolated root of ancient mantle lithosphere that is ~125km thick, providing geophysical confirmation of a strong, cold mantle previously inferred from geochemistry. We suggest that the root caused the later onset of extension and prevented the eruption of voluminous volcanism at the surface. We infer that the root initially pulled away from the Colorado Plateau along with the crust, but then was left behind intact during extension across Death Valley to the Sierra Nevada. We conclude that the upper crust is now decoupled from and moving relative to the root.

  8. Institutional Strength in Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, M.


    Much work has been undertaken in order to identify, learn and implement the lessons from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. These have mainly targeted on engineering or operational lessons. Less attention has been paid to the institutional lessons, although there have been some measures to improve individual peer reviews, particularly by the World Association of Nuclear Operators, and the authoritative IAEA report published in 2015 brought forward several important lessons for regulators and advocated a system approach. The report noted that one of the contributing factors the accident was the tendency of stakeholders not to challenge. Additionally, it reported deficiencies in the regulatory authority and system. Earlier, the root cause of the accident was identified by a Japanese independent parliamentary report as being cultural and institutional. The sum total of the institutions, the safety system, was ineffective. While it is important to address the many technical and operational lessons these may not necessary address this more fundamental lesson, and may not serve to provide robust defences against human or institutional failings over a wide variety of possible events and combinations. The overall lesson is that we can have rigorous and comprehensive safety standards and other tools in place to deliver high levels of safety, but ultimately what is important is the ability of the nuclear safety system to ensure that the relevant institutions diligently and effectively apply those standards and tools — to be robust and resilient. This has led to the consideration of applying the principles of the strength in depth philosophy to a nuclear safety system as a way of providing a framework for developing, assessing, reviewing and improving the system. At an IAEA conference in October 2013, a model was presented for a robust national nuclear safety system based on strength in depth philosophy. The model highlighted three main layers: industry, the

  9. The Italian Project S2 - Task 4:Near-fault earthquake ground motion simulation in the Sulmona alluvial basin (United States)

    Stupazzini, M.; Smerzini, C.; Cauzzi, C.; Faccioli, E.; Galadini, F.; Gori, S.


    Recently the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC), in cooperation with Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) has promoted the 'S2' research project ( aimed at the design, testing and application of an open-source code for seismic hazard assessment (SHA). The tool envisaged will likely differ in several important respects from an existing international initiative (Open SHA, Field et al., 2003). In particular, while "the OpenSHA collaboration model envisions scientists developing their own attenuation relationships and earthquake rupture forecasts, which they will deploy and maintain in their own systems", the main purpose of S2 project is to provide a flexible computational tool for SHA, primarily suited for the needs of DPC, which not necessarily are scientific needs. Within S2, a crucial issue is to make alternative approaches available to quantify the ground motion, with emphasis on the near field region. The SHA architecture envisaged will allow for the use of ground motion descriptions other than those yielded by empirical attenuation equations, for instance user generated motions provided by deterministic source and wave propagation simulations. In this contribution, after a brief presentation of Project S2, we intend to illustrate some preliminary 3D scenario simulations performed in the alluvial basin of Sulmona (Central Italy), as an example of the type of descriptions that can be handled in the future SHA architecture. In detail, we selected some seismogenic sources (from the DISS database), believed to be responsible for a number of destructive historical earthquakes, and derive from them a family of simplified geometrical and mechanical source models spanning across a reasonable range of parameters, so that the extent of the main uncertainties can be covered. Then, purely deterministic (for frequencies Journal of Seismology, 1, 237-251. Field, E.H., T.H. Jordan, and C.A. Cornell (2003

  10. Defence in depth perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneau, Tania; Ferrier, Agnes; Barbaud, Jean


    The Defence in Depth (DiD) concept was introduced to the field of nuclear safety in the sixties and early seventies. Even though it was not well developed at the beginning, the principles rapidly became close to those currently used. The concept was then composed of 3 levels, and was already associated with operating conditions. These principles have progressed over time and now there are five levels, including progressively situations issued from design extension conditions, to cope with severe accidents and dealing with accident management off-site. Indeed, human and organizational features are considered as a part of the safety provisions at all levels in an integrated approach that is not just related to reactor design. That's the current vision from IAEA, addressed first in INSAG 3 then in INSAG 10, and in the IAEA standards requirements currently addressed by SSR-2/1 superseding NS-R-1). These five levels of DiD are also referred to in other texts including WENRA documents in Europe, but also in the national requirements from different countries. Thus, the application of DiD principle has become a recognized international practice. The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accidents, even if they raised many questions on nuclear safety issues, confirmed the merits of the DiD concept. Indeed, lessons learned from the accidents have reinforced the use of the DiD concept to ensure adequate safety. The discussions focused more on the implementation of the concept (how it has been or can be used in practice) than the concept itself, and in particular on the following subjects: the notion of level robustness, generally addressed separately from the levels definition, but playing an important role for the efficiency of the concept; the notion of levels independence and the need for strengthening them; the role of diversity to achieve levels independence. However, a prescription of additional diversity and independence across all safety levels could result in inappropriately

  11. A new GPS velocity field for the Pacific Plate - Part 1: constraints on plate motion, intraplate deformation, and the viscosity of Pacific basin asthenosphere (United States)

    DeMets, C.; Márquez-Azúa, Bertha; Cabral-Cano, Enrique


    We combine new, well-determined GPS velocities from Clarion, Guadalupe and Socorro islands on young seafloor in the eastern Pacific basin with newly estimated velocities for 26 GPS sites from older seafloor in the central, western and southern parts of the Pacific Plate to test for deformation within the interior of the Pacific Plate and estimate the viscosity of the asthenosphere below the plate. Relative to a Pacific Plate reference frame defined from the velocities of the 26 GPS sites in other areas of the Pacific Plate, GPS sites on Clarion and Guadalupe islands in the eastern Pacific move 1.2 ± 0.6 mm yr-1 (1σ) towards S09°W ± 38° and 1.9 ± 0.3 mm yr-1 towards S19°E ± 10°, respectively. The two velocities, which are consistent within their 95 per cent uncertainties, both differ significantly from Pacific Plate motion. Transient volcanic deformation related to a 1993-1996 eruption of the Socorro Island shield volcano renders our GPS velocity from that island unreliable for the tectonic analysis although its motion is also southward like those of Clarion and Guadalupe islands. We test but reject the possibilities that drift of Earth's origin in ITRF2008 or unmodelled elastic offsets due to large-magnitude earthquakes around the Pacific rim since 1993 can be invoked to explain the apparent slow southward motions of Clarion and Guadalupe islands. Similarly, corrections to the Pacific Plate GPS velocity field for possible viscoelastic deformation triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes since 1950 also fail to explain the southward motions of the two islands. Viscoelastic models with prescribed asthenospheric viscosities lower than 1 × 1019 Pa s instead introduce statistically significant inconsistencies into the Pacific Plate velocity field, suggesting that the viscosity of the asthenosphere below the plate is higher than 1 × 1019 Pa s. Elastic deformation from locked Pacific-North America Plate boundary faults is also too small to explain the southward

  12. Identifying Objective EEG Based Markers of Linear Vection in Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Palmisano


    Full Text Available This proof-of-concept study investigated whether a time-frequency EEG approach could be used to examine vection (i.e., illusions of self-motion. In the main experiment, we compared the event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP data of 10 observers during and directly after repeated exposures to two different types of optic flow display (each was 35° wide by 29° high and provided 20 s of motion stimulation. Displays consisted of either a vection display (which simulated constant velocity forward self-motion in depth or a control display (a spatially scrambled version of the vection display. ERSP data were decomposed using time-frequency Principal Components Analysis (t-f PCA. We found an increase in 10 Hz alpha activity, peaking some 14 s after display motion commenced, which was positively associated with stronger vection ratings. This followed decreases in beta activity, and was also followed by a decrease in delta activity; these decreases in EEG amplitudes were negatively related to the intensity of the vection experience. After display motion ceased, a series of increases in the alpha band also correlated with vection intensity, and appear to reflect vection- and/or motion-aftereffects, as well as later cognitive preparation for reporting the strength of the vection experience. Overall, these findings provide support for the notion that EEG can be used to provide objective markers of changes in both vection status (i.e., vection/no vection and vection strength.

  13. Coding In-depth Semistructured Interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Quincy, Charles; Osserman, Jordan


    Many social science studies are based on coded in-depth semistructured interview transcripts. But researchers rarely report or discuss coding reliability in this work. Nor is there much literature on the subject for this type of data. This article presents a procedure for developing coding scheme...... useful for situations where a single knowledgeable coder will code all the transcripts once the coding scheme has been established. This approach can also be used with other types of qualitative data and in other circumstances.......Many social science studies are based on coded in-depth semistructured interview transcripts. But researchers rarely report or discuss coding reliability in this work. Nor is there much literature on the subject for this type of data. This article presents a procedure for developing coding schemes...... for such data. It involves standardizing the units of text on which coders work and then improving the coding scheme’s discriminant capability (i.e., reducing coding errors) to an acceptable point as indicated by measures of either intercoder reliability or intercoder agreement. This approach is especially...

  14. Leap frog in slow motion: Divergent responses of tree species and life stages to climatic warming in Great Basin subalpine forests. (United States)

    Smithers, Brian V; North, Malcolm P; Millar, Constance I; Latimer, Andrew M


    In response to climate warming, subalpine treelines are expected to move up in elevation since treelines are generally controlled by growing season temperature. Where treeline is advancing, dispersal differences and early life stage environmental tolerances are likely to affect how species expand their ranges. Species with an establishment advantage will colonize newly available habitat first, potentially excluding species that have slower establishment rates. Using a network of plots across five mountain ranges, we described patterns of upslope elevational range shift for the two dominant Great Basin subalpine species, limber pine and Great Basin bristlecone pine. We found that the Great Basin treeline for these species is expanding upslope with a mean vertical elevation shift of 19.1 m since 1950, which is lower than what we might expect based on temperature increases alone. The largest advances were on limber pine-dominated granitic soils, on west aspects, and at lower latitudes. Bristlecone pine juveniles establishing above treeline share some environmental associations with bristlecone adults. Limber pine above-treeline juveniles, in contrast, are prevalent across environmental conditions and share few environmental associations with limber pine adults. Strikingly, limber pine is establishing above treeline throughout the region without regard to site characteristic such as soil type, slope, aspect, or soil texture. Although limber pine is often rare at treeline where it coexists with bristlecone pine, limber pine juveniles dominate above treeline even on calcareous soils that are core bristlecone pine habitat. Limber pine is successfully "leap-frogging" over bristlecone pine, probably because of its strong dispersal advantage and broader tolerances for establishment. This early-stage dominance indicates the potential for the species composition of treeline to change in response to climate change. More broadly, it shows how species differences in dispersal

  15. The Perception of Depicted Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio Dobrez


    Full Text Available Everyone knows that you can read a galloping horse in a still image as galloping. This paper asks how it is that we perceive motion in pictures. It considers perception of real motion in point-light experiments and the perception of motion in stills via the work of various psychologists, in the course of which it raises theoretical questions about the nature of visual perception. It then offers a detailed examination of knowledge regarding neural substrates for both real and depicted motion perception. Finally, it combines psychological and neurophysiological perspectives with phenomenologically-oriented observation of pictures, discussing both frontoparallel motion and motion in depth (in particular the phenomenon of “looming” in terms of two kinds of depictions, the “narrative” and the “performative”. Examples are drawn from all kinds of pictures, but focus is on world rock art, whose time depth is especially amenable to the universalist approach adopted by the paper.

  16. Performance of scalable coding in depth domain (United States)

    Sjöström, Mårten; Karlsson, Linda S.


    Common autostereoscopic 3D displays are based on multi-view projection. The diversity of resolutions and number of views of such displays implies a necessary flexibility of 3D content formats in order to make broadcasting efficient. Furthermore, distribution of content over a heterogeneous network should adapt to an available network capacity. Present scalable video coding provides the ability to adapt to network conditions; it allows for quality, temporal and spatial scaling of 2D video. Scalability for 3D data extends this list to the depth and the view domains. We have introduced scalability with respect to depth information. Our proposed scheme is based on the multi-view-plus-depth format where the center view data are preserved, and side views are extracted in enhancement layers depending on depth values. We investigate the performance of various layer assignment strategies: number of layers, and distribution of layers in depth, either based on equal number of pixels or histogram characteristics. We further consider the consequences to variable distortion due to encoder parameters. The results are evaluated considering their overall distortion verses bit rate, distortion per enhancement layer, as well as visual quality appearance. Scalability with respect to depth (and views) allows for an increased number of quality steps; the cost is a slight increase of required capacity for the whole sequence. The main advantage is, however, an improved quality for objects close to the viewer, even if overall quality is worse.

  17. Eye movements in depth to visual illusions (United States)

    Wismeijer, D. A.


    We perceive the three-dimensional (3D) environment that surrounds us with deceptive effortlessness. In fact, we are far from comprehending how the visual system provides us with this stable perception of the (3D) world around us. This thesis will focus on the interplay between visual perception of depth and its closely related action system, eye movements in depth. The human visual system is comprised of a sensory (input) and an output (motor) system. Processed information from the sensory system can result in two explicit measurable response types: conscious visual perception and ocular motor behavior. It is still a matter of debate whether conscious visual perception and action (including hand- and arm-movements) use the same information or whether the visual system has separate channels processing information for perception and action. In this thesis, we study (1) if separate channels, one for eye movements and one for conscious visual perception, indeed exist, and (2) if so, if there is a direct input from the perceptual pathway to the motor pathway. Assuming that either eye movements and conscious visual perception are based on information from a common source (a negative answer to issue 1) or perception can directly influence, or guide, eye movements (an affirmative answer to research question 2), (eye) movements reflect our conscious visual perception. If so, eye movements could provide us with an alternative method to probe our conscious visual perception, making explicit perceptual reports superfluous. In this thesis we focus on depth perception and the two types of eye movements that are closest related to depth perception, namely vergence (an eye movement that gets a certain depth plane into focus) and saccades (a rapid eye movement to change gaze direction). Over the last 20 years it has been shown that depth perception is based on a weighted combination of depth cues available such as linear perspective, occlusion and binocular disparity. How eye

  18. Motion sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bles, Willem; Bos, Jelte E.; Kruit, Hans


    The number of recently published papers on motion sickness may convey the impression that motion sickness is far from being understood. The current review focusses on a concept which tends to unify the different manifestations and theories of motion sickness. The paper highlights the relations

  19. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Defense-in-Depth Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward G. Wallace; Karl N. Fleming; Edward M. Burns


    The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Defense-in-Depth Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Edward G.; Fleming, Karl N.; Burns, Edward M.


    The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    We examine several “event reports” from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission database, which illustrate specific instances of violation of the observability-in-depth safety principle and the consequences that followed (e.g., unmonitored releases and loss of containments. We also revisit the Three Mile Island accident in light of the proposed principle, and identify causes and consequences of the lack of observability-in-depth related to this accident sequence. We illustrate both the benefits of adopting the observability-in-depth safety principle and the adverse consequences when this principle is violated or not implemented. This work constitutes a first step in the development of the observability-in-depth safety principle, and we hope this effort invites other researchers and safety professionals to further explore and develop this principle and its implementation.

  2. Infant manual performance during reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth. (United States)

    Domellöf, Erik; Barbu-Roth, Marianne; Rönnqvist, Louise; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; Fagard, Jacqueline


    Few studies have investigated manual performance in infants when reaching and grasping for objects moving in directions other than across the fronto-parallel plane. The present preliminary study explored object-oriented behavioral strategies and side preference in 8- and 10-month-old infants during reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth from three positions (midline, and 27° diagonally from the left and right). Effects of task constraint by using objects of three different types and two sizes were further examined for behavioral strategies and hand opening prior to grasping. Additionally, assessments of hand preference by a dedicated handedness test were performed. Regardless of object starting position, the 8-month-old infants predominantly displayed right-handed reaches for objects approaching in depth. In contrast, the older infants showed more varied strategies and performed more ipsilateral reaches in correspondence with the side of the approaching object. Conversely, 10-month-old infants were more successful than the younger infants in grasping the objects, independent of object starting position. The findings regarding infant hand use strategies when reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth are similar to those from earlier studies using objects moving along a horizontal path. Still, initiation times of reaching onset were generally long in the present study, indicating that the object motion paths seemingly affected how the infants perceived the intrinsic properties and spatial locations of the objects, possibly with an effect on motor planning. Findings are further discussed in relation to future investigations of infant reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth.

  3. Infant manual performance during reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eDomellöf


    Full Text Available Few studies have observed investigated manual asymmetries performance in infants when reaching and grasping for objects moving in directions other than across the fronto-parallel plane. The present preliminary study explored manual object-oriented behavioral strategies and hand side preference in 8- and 10-month-old infants during reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth from three positions (midline, and 27° diagonally from the left, and right, midline. Effects of task constraint by using objects of three different types and two sizes were further examined for behavioral strategies and . The study also involved measurements of hand position opening prior to grasping., and Additionally, assessments of general hand preference by a dedicated handedness test were performed. Regardless of object starting position, the 8-month-old infants predominantly displayed right-handed reaches for objects approaching in depth. In contrast, the older infants showed more varied strategies and performed more ipsilateral reaches in correspondence with the side of the approaching object. Conversely, 10-month-old infants were more successful than the younger infants in grasping the objects, independent of object starting position. The findings support the possibility of a shared underlying mechanism regarding for infant hand use strategies when reaching and grasping for horizontally objects moving in depth are similar to those from earlier studies using objects moving along a horizontal pathand vertically moving objects. Still, initiation times of reaching onset were generally long in the present study, indicating that the object motion paths seemingly affected how the infants perceived the intrinsic properties and spatial locations of the objects, possibly with an effect on motor planning. Findings are further discussed in relation to future investigations of infant reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth.

  4. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes. (United States)

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C


    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.

  5. In-Depth Study Of European Union Fiscal Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Roxana TOMI


    Full Text Available The current study presents a viewpoint on the EU fiscal policy contents, advocating the need for an in-depth understanding and acceleration of the 27 national fiscal system components and the creation of the EU Tax System that would enable the Single Market operation and the enforcement of the four fundamental liberties within the European Union. In the author’s opinion, the extant common fiscal policy elements are only marginal, while the actions aimed at an in-depth understanding of a broad fiscal policy are essential to the extent they point at both direct and indirect taxation aspects whose approximation is a priority.

  6. Combining card sorts and in-depth interviews


    Saunders, MNK


    Trust research invariably asks questions about sensitive issues, highlighting the need to build rapport and trust between the researcher and participant. It may also be necessary to ensure participants are not sensitized to the focus on trust. This chapter outlines the use of a card sort, concurrent with an in-depth interview to help overcome these issues.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. HOW DO WE LOOK INTO MATERIALS IN DEPTH??? Learn about diffusion of photons. Rayleigh scattering applications – no depth specificity..photon correlation studies. Near IR absorption across tissues – brain scans. Photon propagation through turbid media.

  8. (Dahomey) Basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    13 km maximum width in the onshore at the basin axis along Nigerian and Republic of Benin boundary. This narrows westwards and eastwards to about 5 km (Coker and Ejedawe, 1987; Coker,. 2002). Detailed geology, evolution, stratigraphy and hydrocarbon occurrence of the basin have been described by Jones and ...

  9. A Pursuit Theory Account for the Perception of Common Motion in Motion Parallax. (United States)

    Ratzlaff, Michael; Nawrot, Mark


    The visual system uses an extraretinal pursuit eye movement signal to disambiguate the perception of depth from motion parallax. Visual motion in the same direction as the pursuit is perceived nearer in depth while visual motion in the opposite direction as pursuit is perceived farther in depth. This explanation of depth sign applies to either an allocentric frame of reference centered on the fixation point or an egocentric frame of reference centered on the observer. A related problem is that of depth order when two stimuli have a common direction of motion. The first psychophysical study determined whether perception of egocentric depth order is adequately explained by a model employing an allocentric framework, especially when the motion parallax stimuli have common rather than divergent motion. A second study determined whether a reversal in perceived depth order, produced by a reduction in pursuit velocity, is also explained by this model employing this allocentric framework. The results show than an allocentric model can explain both the egocentric perception of depth order with common motion and the perceptual depth order reversal created by a reduction in pursuit velocity. We conclude that an egocentric model is not the only explanation for perceived depth order in these common motion conditions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. QUIP: Understanding Clients Through In-Depth Interviews




    QUIP (Qualitative in-depth individual impact assessment protocol) is a practical method to help managers of microfinance institutions (MFIs) better understand their clients through market research or impact assessment. Most managers would like to know who is benefiting and who is losing out from their services, and why this might be. This is vital information if they wish to design services that are effective and useful for clients.

  11. Questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus groups


    Adams, Anne; Cox, Anna L.


    With fast changing technologies and related human interaction issues, there is an increased need for timely evaluation of systems with distributed users in varying contexts (Pace, 2004). This has led to the increased use of questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus groups in commercial usability and academic research contexts. Questionnaires are usually paper based or delivered online and consist of a set of questions which all participants are asked to complete. Once the questionnaire ha...

  12. Reinforcing Defence in Depth: A Practical Systemic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, G.; Misak, J.


    The concept of defence in depth for ensuring nuclear safety of nuclear installations is often oversimplified and interpreted as a set of physical barriers, whose integrity is ensured by safety provisions in the form of the plant systems implemented independently at various levels of defence. However, the provisions established at each level of defence should in general terms include not only hardware components (active and passive systems), but more comprehensively, also inherent safety characteristics, safety margins, operating procedures and guidelines, quality assurance, safety culture, staff training, and many other organizational measures as parts of management of safety. Many of the above mentioned provisions belong to the category of human and organizational factors. While various hardware components are typically specific for different levels of defence, human and organizational factors may have an impact on several levels of defence. These factors are associated with large uncertainties and can result in latent weaknesses. Their implementation can negatively affect several levels of defence at the same time. The proposed paper will underline the need for a more comprehensive view of the defence in depth concept in order to provide a practical and effective tool for a systemic approach to safety. The paper will consist of two main parts. The first part will introduce a screening method developed by the IAEA as a tool for facilitating the assessment of the comprehensiveness of defence in depth. The method uses screening of safety provisions at five levels of defence to ensure integrity of the physical barriers and achievement of safety objectives at each level of defence. The second part of the paper will focus on human and organizational factors considered as provisions for reliable performance of safety functions. It will explain the significant shift in the demands on the human system between levels 3 and 4 of the defence in depth framework, and will

  13. Seismic measures and defence in depth of nuclear power plant. Lessons learned from the great east Japan earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Kanehiro


    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011 brought about severe accident at nuclear power plant, which gave significant lessons to nuclear experts concerned with safety measures. Concepts of defence in depth was basic philosophy to assure safety of nuclear power plant even against uncertainties exceeding design basis. This concept consisted of prevention, monitoring, and action to mitigate consequences of failures such as a series of physical barriers between the reactor core and the environment, which were called multiple safety systems, each with backup and designed to accommodate human error. As for natural disaster, depth of recognition of characteristic of natural phenomena and its effect and engineering judgment was of prime importance. Different waveforms of ground motion at Fukushima and Onagawa at the Great East Japan Earthquake showed that design ground motion should have large uncertainties. To cope with uncertainties of ground motion, robust seismic measures based on experience were such as design of static seismic intensity and rigid structure of natural period less than 0.1 sec. As for tsunami, defence in depth measures were prepared for the cooling of reactor core, spent fuel and related electric generation equipment with taking into account 1) time lag between tsunami generation and arrival, 2) tsunami affected area could be limited by coastal levee or anti-inundation measure, 3) system redundancy could be assured by different locations of equipments and 4) repair works could be done by shipment of replacement equipment from outside due to limitation of affected regional area. Success examples of Onagawa, Tokai unit 2, Fukushima Daiichi unit 6 and Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plants could suggest definite tsunami defence in depth measures. Containment vent system as final heat sink and emergency condenser as reactor core cooling at outage should be properly utilized for Fukushima Daiichi unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Rapid and in-depth analysis for seismic risk evaluation (United States)

    Dwi Astuti, Novi; Anta Alvita, Meli; Sangadji, Senot; Rahmadi, AP; Purwanto, Edy


    The high public demand on housing in urban areas requires the government of Indonesia to adopt a policy of encouraging the development of vertical housing. Cilacap has been allocated Rusunawa (low-income apartment) development in 2006. Evident from some earthquakes occurrence in recent years, however, Cilacap may be seen as an earthquake prone region which posing some risk to this type of vertical structures. The Appropriate strategy should be performed to evaluate the seismic risks of this local government owned four stories low-income apartment. This paper demonstrates two tier evaluation strategy; rapid evaluation and in-depth analysis and compares both results. First evaluation was conducted by means of Building Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) of FEMA 154 of the Rusunawa block A and B. The result was used further to calculate seismic risk score (SR) which exhibit the probability of the building damage given the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER) that will occur during the Rusunawa service life. The in-depth analysis was conducted by developing fragility function expressed in the form of fragility curves for the Rusunawa. The fragility shows the probability that certain damage states will be exceeded given the intensity of earthquakes which will occur during building service life. The fragility was developed as lognormal curves in which the building response to earthquake input was analyzed by means of pushover.

  15. Virtual Dance and Motion-Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Boucher


    Full Text Available A general view of various ways in which virtual dance can be understood is presented in the first part of this article. It then appraises the uses of the term “virtual” in previous studies of digital dance. A more in-depth view of virtual dance as it relates to motion-capture is offered, and key issues are discussed regarding computer animation, digital imaging, motion signature, virtual reality and interactivity. The paper proposes that some forms of virtual dance be defined in relation to both digital technologies and contemporary theories of virtuality.

  16. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink


    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  17. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect. (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik


    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect-an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  18. In-depth Cultural Studies in Multicultural Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siliņa-Jasjukeviča Gunta


    Full Text Available There is much research and educational practices at all levels of education on how to deal with promoting acceptance and understanding between different cultures. A cultural study forms an important part of shaping intercultural understanding. The aim of the research is to analyze an innovative way of incorporating cultural studies in teacher education program from the perspective of encouraging multinational students to reveal common values within diverse manifestations of different cultures. The present article describes a qualitative study of multinational students’ experiences in international project related to the learning about Nordic and Baltic cultural traditions. In the conclusion of the article, the efficiency of the structure of content and the process of in-depth cultural studies are analyzed. The discussion contains problems for further research of this topic.

  19. [Significance of basic concepts in depth psychology for psychosomatics]. (United States)

    Barz, H


    The concept of "the unconscious" is considered the central concept of depth psychology. While the unconscious in Freud's conception consists essentially of repressed material and through conversion can result in psychosomatic illnesses, C. G. Jung saw in the "collective unconscious", which he discovered, the source of all psychic and spiritual development. Mediation between the collective unconscious and the conscious is effected by means of the "archetypes", whose function can be compared with the instincts. Archetypes are manifested through symbols, whose assimilation by consciousness is a prerequisite for psychic and physical health. Consideration of the archetype of the physician suggests that the grounding of medical science in depth psychology would modify not only our understanding of illnesses, but also the physician's understanding of himself.

  20. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server


    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  1. Dizziness and Motion Sickness (United States)

    ... You Dizziness and Motion Sickness Dizziness and Motion Sickness Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest ... medications Remember: Most cases of dizziness and motion sickness are ... Health Home Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head ...

  2. Salivary proteomics of healthy dogs: An in depth catalog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila M F Torres

    Full Text Available To provide an in-depth catalog of the salivary proteome and endogenous peptidome of healthy dogs, evaluate proteins and peptides with antimicrobial properties, and compare the most common salivary proteins and peptides between different breed phylogeny groups.36 healthy dogs without evidence of periodontal disease representing four breed phylogeny groups, based upon single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes (ancient, herding/sighthound, and two miscellaneous groups. Saliva collected from dogs was pooled by phylogeny group and analyzed using nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Resulting tandem mass spectra were compared to databases for identification of endogenous peptides and inferred proteins.2,491 proteins and endogenous peptides were found in the saliva of healthy dogs with no periodontal disease. All dog phylogeny groups' saliva was rich in proteins and peptides with antimicrobial functions. The ancient breeds group was distinct in that it contained unique proteins and was missing many proteins and peptides present in the other groups.Using a sophisticated nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we were able to identify 10-fold more salivary proteins than previously reported in dogs. Seven of the top 10 most abundant proteins or peptides serve immune functions and many more with various antimicrobial mechanisms were found. This is the most comprehensive analysis of healthy canine saliva to date, and will provide the groundwork for future studies analyzing salivary proteins and endogenous peptides in disease states.

  3. Salivary proteomics of healthy dogs: An in depth catalog. (United States)

    Torres, Sheila M F; Furrow, Eva; Souza, Clarissa P; Granick, Jennifer L; de Jong, Ebbing P; Griffin, Timothy J; Wang, Xiong


    To provide an in-depth catalog of the salivary proteome and endogenous peptidome of healthy dogs, evaluate proteins and peptides with antimicrobial properties, and compare the most common salivary proteins and peptides between different breed phylogeny groups. 36 healthy dogs without evidence of periodontal disease representing four breed phylogeny groups, based upon single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes (ancient, herding/sighthound, and two miscellaneous groups). Saliva collected from dogs was pooled by phylogeny group and analyzed using nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Resulting tandem mass spectra were compared to databases for identification of endogenous peptides and inferred proteins. 2,491 proteins and endogenous peptides were found in the saliva of healthy dogs with no periodontal disease. All dog phylogeny groups' saliva was rich in proteins and peptides with antimicrobial functions. The ancient breeds group was distinct in that it contained unique proteins and was missing many proteins and peptides present in the other groups. Using a sophisticated nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we were able to identify 10-fold more salivary proteins than previously reported in dogs. Seven of the top 10 most abundant proteins or peptides serve immune functions and many more with various antimicrobial mechanisms were found. This is the most comprehensive analysis of healthy canine saliva to date, and will provide the groundwork for future studies analyzing salivary proteins and endogenous peptides in disease states.

  4. The PSA assessment of Defense in Depth Memorandum and proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Gian-Luigi; La Rovere, Stefano


    This report concerns the peculiar roles of the Defence-in-Depth (DiD) concept and the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) approach for the optimization of the safety performances of the nuclear installation. It proposes a conceptual framework and related process for the assessment of the 'safety architecture' implementing DiD, which is articulated in four main steps devoted to (1) the formulation of the safety objectives, (2) the identification of loads and environmental conditions, (3) the representation of the safety architecture and (4) the evaluation of the physical performance and reliability of the levels of DiD. A final additional step achieves the practical assessment of the safety architecture and the corresponding DiD with the support of the PSA. The comprehensive safety assessment of the implemented architecture needs its multi-dimensional representation, i.e. for given initiating event, sequence of possible failures, affected safety function and level of DiD. The risk space (frequency/probability of occurrence, versus consequences) is the framework for the integration between the DiD concept and the PSA approach. Additional qualitative key-notions are introduced in order to address the compliance of the safety architecture with a number of international safety requirements. In this context, the role of the PSA is no longer limited to the verification of the fulfilment of probabilistic targets but includes different contributions to the assessment of the DiD identified in this report. (authors)

  5. Shared Communications: Volume 2. In-Depth Systems Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, LF


    This report is the second of two documents that examine the literature for actual examples of organizations and agencies that share communications resources. While the primary emphasis is on rural, intelligent transportation system (ITS) communications involving transit, examples will not be limited to rural activities, nor to ITS implementation, nor even to transit. In addition, the term ''communication'' will be broadly applied to include all information resources. The first document of this series, ''Shared Communications: Volume I. A Summary and Literature Review'', defines the meaning of the term ''shared communication resources'' and provides many examples of agencies that share resources. This document, ''Shared Communications: Volume II. In-Depth Systems Research'', reviews attributes that contributed to successful applications of the sharing communication resources concept. A few examples of each type of communication sharing are provided. Based on the issues and best practice realworld examples, recommendations for potential usage and recommended approaches for field operational tests are provided.

  6. Tectonic evolution of Tarim basin in Cambrian–Ordovician and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 2 ... In order to find the impact of regional tectonic evolution of Tarim basin on the inside distribution of sedimentary facies and reservoir development, this paper, based on the research of plate-tectonic evolution of Tarim basin, conducts an in-depth ...

  7. Evolution of System Safety at NASA as Related to Defense-in-Depth (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon


    Presentation given at the Defense-in-Depth Inter-Agency Workshop on August 26, 2015 in Rockville, MD by Homayoon Dezfuli. The presentation addresses the evolution of system safety at NASA as related to Defense-in-Depth.

  8. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.


    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  9. The Preoedipal and Oedipal Structure of Termination: An In-depth Case Study. (United States)

    Lubbe, Trevor


    Much has been written about the Oedipus complex as a central organizing focus for the understanding of early developmental attainments as well as for the structuring of the personality, but nowhere are triangular forces more vitally active, clinically, than in the termination phase. The decision to end, once agreed upon, typically sets in motion a symmetrical process in which two dynamics occur concurrently. First, what drives the termination is a mourning process in which the primary task is to relinquish the analyst as a transference object and to establish the analyst as an internal object. In parallel, oedipal structures take hold of the termination process so that the final working-through and the resolution of the transference/countertransference can be maximized-with the goal of integration. An eight-year, four-times-a-week analytic psychotherapy on the couch is described to illustrate the critical role of triangulation dynamics in termination. Using in-depth transcripts of dream and sessional material, the author highlights a number of conscious and unconscious resistances in the patient to this phase of work that were particular to his perverse oedipal pathology. Ron Britton's concept of an organized oedipal illusion or an oedipal delusion as defenses against the termination phase proved helpful to both patient and psychotherapist in negotiating some of the heightened emotional aspects of the final working-through.

  10. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia


    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPE...

  11. Acid/Caustic Basins: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Marine, I.W.


    There are six Acid/Caustic Basins at SRP, all of which are located in the reactor and separations areas. These basins are unlined earthen depressions with nominal dimensions of 15.2 m in length x 15.2 m in width x 2.1 m in depth. They were used to provide mixing and partial neutralization of dilute sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions from water treatment facilities before these solutions were discharged to tributaries of local streams. Closure options considered for the Acid/Caustic Basins are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical contaminants are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via general pathways for the three postulated closure options. A cost estimate for each closure was also made

  12. San Mateo Creek Basin (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  13. Objects in Motion (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen


    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  14. Effects of deep basins on structural collapse during large subduction earthquakes (United States)

    Marafi, Nasser A.; Eberhard, Marc O.; Berman, Jeffrey W.; Wirth, Erin A.; Frankel, Arthur


    Deep sedimentary basins are known to increase the intensity of ground motions, but this effect is implicitly considered in seismic hazard maps used in U.S. building codes. The basin amplification of ground motions from subduction earthquakes is particularly important in the Pacific Northwest, where the hazard at long periods is dominated by such earthquakes. This paper evaluates the effects of basins on spectral accelerations, ground-motion duration, spectral shape, and structural collapse using subduction earthquake recordings from basins in Japan that have similar depths as the Puget Lowland basin. For three of the Japanese basins and the Puget Lowland basin, the spectral accelerations were amplified by a factor of 2 to 4 for periods above 2.0 s. The long-duration subduction earthquakes and the effects of basins on spectral shape combined, lower the spectral accelerations at collapse for a set of building archetypes relative to other ground motions. For the hypothetical case in which these motions represent the entire hazard, the archetypes would need to increase up to 3.3 times its strength to compensate for these effects.

  15. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen


    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  16. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  17. Curves from Motion, Motion from Curves (United States)


    tautochrone and brachistochrone properties. To Descartes, however, the rectification of curves such as the spiral (3) and the cycloid (4) was suspect - they...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012017 TITLE: Curves from Motion, Motion from Curves DISTRIBUTION...Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: International Conference on Curves and Surfaces [4th

  18. Site response zones and short-period earthquake ground motion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A deterministic seismic hazard analysis was conducted to address the effect of local soil conditions on earthquake-induced strong ground motion in the Las Vegas Basin, Nevada (US). Using a large geological and geotechnical database, two response units were defined: a fine-grained unit, predominantly clay; and a ...

  19. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome


    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  20. Basins of attraction in human balance (United States)

    Smith, Victoria A.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Spano, Mark L.


    Falls are a recognized risk factor for unintentional injuries among older adults, accounting for a large proportion of fractures, emergency department visits, and urgent hospitalizations. Human balance and gait research traditionally uses linear or qualitative tests to assess and describe human motion; however, human motion is neither a simple nor a linear process. The objective of this research is to identify and to learn more about what factors affect balance using nonlinear dynamical techniques, such as basin boundaries. Human balance data was collected using dual force plates for leans using only ankle movements as well as for unrestricted leans. Algorithms to describe the basin boundary were created and compared based on how well each method encloses the experimental data points as well as captures the differences between the two leaning conditions.

  1. Transient chaotic transport in dissipative drift motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyarzabal, R.S. [Pós-Graduação em Ciências/Física, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Szezech, J.D. [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Batista, A.M., E-mail: [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Souza, S.L.T. de [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de São João del Rei, 36420-000, Ouro Branco, MG (Brazil); Caldas, I.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sanjuán, M.A.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Madrid (Spain)


    Highlights: • We consider a situation for which a chaotic transient is present in the dynamics of the two-wave model with damping. • The damping in plasma models can be a way for study a realistic behavior of confinement due the collisional effect. • The escape time as a function of the damping obey a power-law scaling. • We have made a qualitative transport analysis with a simple model that can be useful for more complete models. • We have shown that the pattern of the basin of attraction depends on the damping parameter. - Abstract: We investigate chaotic particle transport in magnetised plasmas with two electrostatic drift waves. Considering dissipation in the drift motion, we verify that the removed KAM surfaces originate periodic attractors with their corresponding basins of attraction. We show that the properties of the basins depend on the dissipation and the space-averaged escape time decays exponentially when the dissipation increases. We find positive finite time Lyapunov exponents in dissipative drift motion, consequently the trajectories exhibit transient chaotic transport. These features indicate how the transient plasma transport depends on the dissipation.

  2. A method to extract successive velocity pulses governing structural response from long-period ground motion (United States)

    Liu, Shuoyu; Li, Yingmin; Wang, Guojue


    A series of relatively long-period velocity pulses appearing in the later part of ground motion, which is the characterization of far-source long-period ground motions in basin ("long-period ground motion" for short), is mainly influenced by focal mechanism, basin effect, and dispersion. It was supposed that the successive low-frequency velocity pulses in long-period ground motion caused the resonance of long-period structures in basin, which are of special concern to designers of super high-rise buildings. The authors proposed a wavelet-based successive frequency-dependent pulse extraction (WSFPE) method to identify and extract these pulses with dominant period of interest from long-period ground motions. The pulses extracted by using two frequently used methods (zero-crossing analysis, empirical mode decomposition) were compared to the pulses extracted by using WSFPE. The results demonstrate that the WSFPE provides higher resolution in time-frequency domain than the other two methods do. The velocity pulses extracted by using WSFPE are responsible for the resonance and maximum response of structure subjected to long-period ground motions. WSFPE can be used to make a better understanding of long-period ground motions and to promote the formation of long-period ground motion model which will help the seismic design of long-period structures built in sedimentary basin.

  3. Plucking in Mixed Alluvial-Bedrock Rivers: The Incipient Motion Problem (United States)

    Hurst, A. A.; Furbish, D. J.


    Bedrock river channel erosion is an important factor in the evolution of landscapes, driving the relief of mountainous drainage basins and setting the lowest erosional positions of terrestrial landscapes. The mechanics behind erosional processes (predominantly plucking and abrasion) in these rivers are only recently being explored in depth. Plucking, the fracture and extraction of jointed blocks, is observationally an order of magnitude more efficient than abrasion, but if a river cannot provide the force necessary to move the plucked block, erosion by plucking cannot proceed. Therefore, incipient motion of blocks starting at rest on a solid surface is an important factor in erosion by plucking. Calculations of forces necessary for incipient motion require values of drag coefficients, which do not exist for bedrock contact geometry. We discovered from experiments on a flume that drag coefficients (CD) are inversely proportional to aspect ratios (RA), defined as the frontal block height to width. We used the relationship with field data from plucked blocks at a stream at Montgomery Bell State Park in Burns, TN, a mixed-alluvial bedrock channel with an actively incising knick zone, to support our theory and experimental data. Sizes of plucked blocks were compared to the velocities needed to move them, and then calculations done for bankfull velocities at the stream at Montgomery Bell to determine if it could attain these velocities. It was discovered that this stream has a bankfull depth-averaged velocity of 1.26 m s-1 and is capable of moving a large range of plucked block sizes. Therefore, erosion of this particular stream is plucking-limited, not transport-limited.

  4. Superimposed versus residual basin: The North Yellow Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyong Li


    Full Text Available The North Yellow Sea Basin is a Mesozoic and Cenozoic basin. Based on basin-margin facies, sedimentary thinning, size and shape of the basin and vitrinite reflectance, North Yellow Sea Basin is not a residual basin. Analysis of the development of the basin’s three structural layers, self-contained petroleum systems, boundary fault activity, migration of the Mesozoic–Cenozoic sedimentation centers, different basin structures formed during different periods, and superposition of a two-stage extended basin and one-stage depression basin, the North Yellow Sea Basin is recognized as a superimposed basin.

  5. New aerogeophysical study of the Eurasia Basin and Lomonosov Ridge: Implications for basin development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brozena, J.M.; Childers, V.A.; Lawver, L.A.


    data reveal prominent bends in the isochrons that provide solid geometrical constraints for plate reconstructions. Tentative identification of anomaly 25 in the Eurasia Basin links early basin opening to spreading in the Labrador Sea before the locus of spreading in the North Atlantic shifted...... the southern Gakkel Ridge. This collision may have contributed to vollcanism on the Morris Jesup Rise. By chron 13, Greenland had ended its northward motion and had become fixed to North America, and the plateau north of Greenland had rifted apart to become the Morris Jesup Rise and the Yermak Plateau....

  6. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus


    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  7. Motion and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Infeld, Leopold


    Motion and Relativity focuses on the methodologies, solutions, and approaches involved in the study of motion and relativity, including the general relativity theory, gravitation, and approximation.The publication first offers information on notation and gravitational interaction and the general theory of motion. Discussions focus on the notation of the general relativity theory, field values on the world-lines, general statement of the physical problem, Newton's theory of gravitation, and forms for the equation of motion of the second kind. The text then takes a look at the approximation meth

  8. Quantitative and qualitative proteome characteristics extracted from in-depth integrated genomics and proteomics analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, T.Y.; van Heesch, S.; van den Toorn, H.; Giansanti, P.; Cristobal, A.; Toonen, P.; Schafer, S.; Hubner, N.; van Breukelen, B.; Mohammed, S.; Cuppen, E.; Heck, A.J.R.; Guryev, V.


    Quantitative and qualitative protein characteristics are regulated at genomic, transcriptomic, and posttranscriptional levels. Here, we integrated in-depth transcriptome and proteome analyses of liver tissues from two rat strains to unravel the interactions within and between these layers. We

  9. Modeling and Analyzing Intrusion Attempts to a Computer Network Operating in a Defense in Depth Posture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Givens, Mark


    In order to ensure the confidentially, integrity, and availability of networked resources operating on the Global Information Grid, the Department of Defense has incorporated a "Defense-in-Depth" posture...

  10. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M


    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  11. Some practical examples of defence in depth analysis for category IV gamma irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de Araujo, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica


    The Defence in Depth concept provides a major contribution to the safety philosophy of irradiation facilities. But problems occur when somebody tries to understand or analyse a safety system or develop a new one because there is a lack of practical examples in Safety Series 107 or other IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) publications for irradiation facilities. This paper tries to fill this lack of information by providing a series of practical examples and explanations about Defence in Depth concepts. (author)

  12. [Puppets as a resource for in-depth interviews with pre-school children]. (United States)

    González-Gil, Teresa


    Doing research about children health and illness process involves to consider their own experience interpretation, so that listening to children's voice in necessary. Qualitative research offers us the possibility to access children's subjective experience. Nevertheless doing research with children is not easy and sometimes the use of support tools is necessary. This article goes in depth into the use of puppets as an strategy to carry out in-depth interviews with preschools.

  13. Some practical examples of defence in depth analysis for category IV gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de Araujo


    The Defence in Depth concept provides a major contribution to the safety philosophy of irradiation facilities. But problems occur when somebody tries to understand or analyse a safety system or develop a new one because there is a lack of practical examples in Safety Series 107 or other IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) publications for irradiation facilities. This paper tries to fill this lack of information by providing a series of practical examples and explanations about Defence in Depth concepts. (author)

  14. Motion control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sabanovic, Asif


    "Presents a unified approach to the fundamental issues in motion control, starting from the basics and moving through single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom systems In Motion Control Systems, Šabanovic and Ohnishi present a unified approach to very diverse issues covered in motion control systems, offering know-how accumulated through work on very diverse problems into a comprehensive, integrated approach suitable for application in high demanding high-tech products. It covers material from single degree of freedom systems to complex multi-body non-redundant and redundant systems. The discussion of the main subject is based on original research results and will give treatment of the issues in motion control in the framework of the acceleration control method with disturbance rejection technique. This allows consistent unification of different issues in motion control ranging from simple trajectory tracking to topics related to haptics and bilateral control without and with delay in the measure...

  15. Motion sickness in migraine sufferers. (United States)

    Marcus, Dawn A; Furman, Joseph M; Balaban, Carey D


    Motion sickness commonly occurs after exposure to actual motion, such as car or amusement park rides, or virtual motion, such as panoramic movies. Motion sickness symptoms may be disabling, significantly limiting business, travel and leisure activities. Motion sickness occurs in approximately 50% of migraine sufferers. Understanding motion sickness in migraine patients may improve understanding of the physiology of both conditions. Recent literature suggests important relationships between the trigeminal system and vestibular nuclei that may have implications for both motion sickness and migraine. Studies demonstrating an important relationship between serotonin receptors and motion sickness susceptibility in both rodents and humans suggest possible new motion sickness prevention therapies.

  16. Intensity attenuation in the Pannonian Basin (United States)

    Győri, Erzsébet; Gráczer, Zoltán; Szanyi, Gyöngyvér


    Ground motion prediction equations play a key role in seismic hazard assessment. Earthquake hazard has to be expressed in macroseismic intensities in case of seismic risk estimations where a direct relation to the damage associated with ground shaking is needed. It can be also necessary for shake map generation where the map is used for prompt notification to the public, disaster management officers and insurance companies. Although only few instrumental strong motion data are recorded in the Pannonian Basin, there are numerous historical reports of past earthquakes since the 1763 Komárom earthquake. Knowing the intensity attenuation and comparing them with relations of other areas - where instrumental strong motion data also exist - can help us to choose from the existing instrumental ground motion prediction equations. The aim of this work is to determine an intensity attenuation formula for the inner part of the Pannonian Basin, which can be further used to find an adaptable ground motion prediction equation for the area. The crust below the Pannonian Basin is thin and warm and it is overlain by thick sediments. Thus the attenuation of seismic waves here is different from the attenuation in the Alp-Carpathian mountain belt. Therefore we have collected intensity data only from the inner part of the Pannonian Basin and defined the boundaries of the studied area by the crust thickness of 30 km (Windhoffer et al., 2005). 90 earthquakes from 1763 until 2014 have sufficient number of macroseismic data. Magnitude of the events varies from 3.0 to 6.6. We have used individual intensity points to eliminate the subjectivity of drawing isoseismals, the number of available intensity data is more than 3000. Careful quality control has been made on the dataset. The different types of magnitudes of the used earthquake catalogue have been converted to local and momentum magnitudes using relations determined for the Pannonian Basin. We applied the attenuation formula by Sorensen

  17. Fast Optimal Motion Planning (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computationally-efficient, fast and real-time, and provably-optimal motion planner for systems with highly nonlinear dynamics that can be extended for cooperative...

  18. Motion Sickness: First Aid (United States)

    ... com. Accessed July 29, 2017. Priesol AJ. Motion sickness. Accessed July 29, 2017. Brunette GW, et al. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2018. New York, N. ...

  19. Toying with Motion. (United States)

    Galus, Pamela J.


    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  20. Motion of a Pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Wynn


    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to derive and solve the equation of motion for a pendulum swinging at small angles in one dimension. The pendulum may be either a simple pendulum like a ball hanging from a string or a physical pendulum like a pendulum on a clock. For simplicity, we only considered small rotational angles so that the equation of motion becomes a harmonic oscillator.

  1. In-depth porosity control of mesoporous silicon layers by an anodization current adjustment (United States)

    Lascaud, J.; Defforge, T.; Certon, D.; Valente, D.; Gautier, G.


    The formation of thick mesoporous silicon layers in P+-type substrates leads to an increase in the porosity from the surface to the interface with silicon. The adjustment of the current density during the electrochemical etching of porous silicon is an intuitive way to control the layer in-depth porosity. The duration and the current density during the anodization were varied to empirically model porosity variations with layer thickness and build a database. Current density profiles were extracted from the model in order to etch layer with in-depth control porosity. As a proof of principle, an 80 μm-thick porous silicon multilayer was synthetized with decreasing porosities from 55% to 35%. The results show that the assessment of the in-depth porosity could be significantly enhanced by taking into account the pure chemical etching of the layer in the hydrofluoric acid-based electrolyte.

  2. Data Collection via In-Depth Email Interviewing: Lessons From the Field. (United States)

    Fritz, Roschelle L; Vandermause, Roxanne


    This methods article is a reflection on the use of in-depth email interviewing in a qualitative descriptive study. The use of emailing to conduct interviews is thought to be an effective way to collect qualitative data. Building on current methodological literature in qualitative research regarding in-depth email interviewing, we move the conversation toward elicitation of quality data and management of multiple concurrent email interviews. Excerpts are shared from a field journal that was kept throughout one study, with commentary on developing insights. Valuable lessons learned include the importance of (a) logistics and timing related to the management of multiple concurrent email interviews, (b) language and eliciting the data, (c) constructing the email, and (d) processing text-based data and preparing transcripts. Qualitative researchers seeking deeply reflective answers and geographically diverse samples may wish to consider using in-depth email interviews.

  3. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.


    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  4. Measuring Behavior using Motion Capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; van der Kooij, Herman; Ruttkay, Z.M.; van Welbergen, H.; Spink, A.J.; Ballintijn, M.R.; Bogers, N.D.; Grieco, F; Loijens, L.W.S.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.; Smit, G; Zimmerman, P.H.


    Motion capture systems, using optical, magnetic or mechanical sensors are now widely used to record human motion. Motion capture provides us with precise measurements of human motion at a very high recording frequency and accuracy, resulting in a massive amount of movement data on several joints of

  5. Great Basin insect outbreaks (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans


    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  6. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossdarf, A.


    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  7. Quantitative and Qualitative Proteome Characteristics Extracted from In-Depth Integrated Genomics and Proteomics Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, Teck Yew; van Heesch, Sebastiaan; van den Toorn, Henk; Giansanti, Piero; Cristobal, Alba; Toonen, Pim; Schafer, Sebastian; Huebner, Norbert; van Breukelen, Bas; Mohammed, Shabaz; Cuppen, Edwin; Heck, Albert J. R.; Guryev, Victor


    Quantitative and qualitative protein characteristics are regulated at genomic, transcriptomic, and post-transcriptional levels. Here, we integrated in-depth transcriptome and proteome analyses of liver tissues from two rat strains to unravel the interactions within and between these layers. We

  8. [In-depth interviews and the Kano model to determine user requirements in a burns unit]. (United States)

    González-Revaldería, J; Holguín-Holgado, P; Lumbreras-Marín, E; Núñez-López, G

    To determine the healthcare requirements of patients in a Burns Unit, using qualitative techniques, such us in-depth personal interviews and Kano's methodology. Qualitative methodology using in-depth personal interviews (12 patients), Kano's conceptual model, and the SERVQHOS questionnaire (24 patients). All patients had been hospitalised in the last 12 months in the Burns Unit. Using Kano's methodology, service attributes were grouped by affinity diagrams, and classified as follows: must-be, attractive (unexpected, great satisfaction), and one-dimensional (linked to the degree of functionality of the service). The outcomes were compared with those obtained with SERVQHOS questionnaire. From the analysis of in-depth interviews, 11 requirements were obtained, referring to hotel aspects, information, need for closer staff relationship, and organisational aspects. The attributes classified as must-be were free television and automatic TV disconnection at midnight. Those classified as attractive were: individual room for more privacy, information about dressing change times in order to avoid anxiety, and additional staff for in-patients. The results were complementary to those obtained with the SERVQHOS questionnaire. In-depth personal interviews provide extra knowledge about patient requirements, complementing the information obtained with questionnaires. With this methodology, a more active patient participation is achieved and the companion's opinion is also taken into account. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Response to in-depth safety audit of the L Lake sampling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, J.B.


    An in-depth safety audit of several of the facilities and operations supporting the Biological Monitoring Program on L Lake was conducted. Subsequent to the initial audit, the audit team evaluated the handling of samples taken for analysis of Naegleria fowleri at the 704-U laboratory facility.

  10. Principles of Defense-in-depth philosophy applied in NPP engineering management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guangwei


    Based on the Defense-in-depth Concept in nuclear and radiation safety, Defense-in-depth Concept for design management of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is developed in this paper to analyze the feasibility and importance of the application of the basic principle: Defense-in-depth concept in NPP systems performed during the design control of NPP. This paper focuses on the NPP engineering management process, and according to the analysis of such process, 5 principles of Defense-in-depth Concept applied in NPP design management are raised: (1) preventing the non-conformities of design via effective design quality management system; (2) discovering and correcting non-conformities of design quality in time via design checkup and design review meeting; (3) carrying out timely analysis and treatment against design non-conformities which have been transferred to construction phase; (4) Assessing and judging the severe non-conformities in construction phase, putting forward treatment opinions and remedies accordingly so as to avoid the existence of such non-conformities in physical construction of NPP; (5) Paying 'return-visit' and performing 'post-assessment' for NPP design to assess the designed functions and safety of NPP comprehensively. (author)

  11. In-depth agglomeration of d-metals at Si-on-Mo interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Tsarfati,; Zoethout, E.; van de Kruijs, R.; F. Bijkerk,


    Reflective Si/Mo multilayer mirrors with protective d-metal surfaces onto a range of upper Mo and Si layer thicknesses have been grown with physical vapor deposition and investigated on diffusion and in-depth compound formation. Laterally inhomogeneous upward Si and downward d-metal diffusion occurs

  12. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.


    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  13. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.


    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  14. Determination of in-depth contamination in concrete using a non-destructive technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, S.; Cantrel, E.


    The decommissioning of the BR3 (Belgian Reactor 3) approaches its final phase, in which the building structures are being decontaminated and either denuclearized for possible reuse or demolished. Apart from the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials, other radionuclides might be present due to activation or contamination. The BR3 bioshield has been exposed to rather high neutron leakage fluxes during the reactor operation and is therefore activated. Building structure contamination usually results from leakages during reactor operation, releases due to maintenance works or even dismantling operations. In case of in-depth contamination in concrete it is important to know the exact in-depth profile before decontamination, in order to minimize the amount of radioactive waste that will be produced during the decontamination process and to optimize both the decontamination process and the final control measurements. Common non-destructive analyses used in decommissioning are usually based on the measurement of beta radiation, using e.g. hand-held plastic scintillators. This kind of measurement technique can not be used to determine in-depth contamination. Therefore, most of the decontamination specialists currently base themselves on the results of the radiological analysis of samples taken by core drilling. The use of such a destructive method implies a number of disadvantages: it is time consuming and therefore costly and the different sample preparation steps can conceivably lead to cross-contamination. Moreover, one only receives results of a limited number of points, while the in-depth contamination is usually very inhomogeneously distributed and the relationship between in-depth contamination and surface contamination and/or dose rate (hotspot detection) is generally rather poor.The objective therefore is to test the use of the ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) for the determination of contamination depth

  15. Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for the Puente Hills Fault System (United States)

    Graves, R. W.


    Recent geologic studies have identified the seismic potential of the Puente Hills fault system. This system is comprised of multiple blind thrust segments, a portion of which ruptured in the Mw 5.9 Whittier-Narrows earthquake. Rupture of the entire system could generate a Mw 7.2 (or larger) earthquake. To assess the potential hazard posed by the fault system, we have simulated the response for several earthquake scenarios. These simulations are unprecedented in scope and scale. Broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions are computed at 66,000 sites, covering most of the LA metropolitan region. Low frequency (f 1 Hz) motions are calculated using a stochastic approach. We consider scenarios ranging from Mw 6.7 to Mw 7.2, including both high and low stress drop events. Finite-fault rupture models for these scenarios are generated following a wavenumber filtering technique (K-2 model) that has been calibrated against recent earthquakes. In all scenarios, strong rupture directivity channels large amplitude pulses of motion directly into the Los Angeles basin, which then propagate southward as basin surface waves. Typically, the waveforms near downtown Los Angeles are dominated by a strong, concentrated pulse of motion. At Long Beach (across the LA basin from the rupture) the waveforms are dominated by late arriving longer period surface waves. The great density of sites used in the calculation allows the construction of detailed maps of various ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV, SA), as well as full animations of the propagating broadband wave field. Additionally, the broadband time histories are available for use in non-linear response analyses of built structures.

  16. Leap Motion development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegelmock, Mischa


    This book is a fast-paced guide with practical examples that aims to help you understand and master the Leap Motion SDK.This book is for developers who are either involved in game development or who are looking to utilize Leap Motion technology in order to create brand new user interaction experiences to distinguish their products from the mass market. You should be comfortable with high-level languages and object-oriented development concepts in order to get the most out of this book.

  17. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens


    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of deciencies in control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance limitations....... This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  18. Tectonic setting of Cretaceous basins on the NE Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the Jungong basin (United States)

    Craddock, W.H.; Kirby, E.; Dewen, Z.; Jianhui, L.


    Quantifying the Cenozoic growth of high topography in the Indo-Asian collision zone remains challenging, due in part to significant shortening that occurred within Eurasia before collision. A growing body of evidence suggests that regions far removed from the suture zone experienced deformation before and during the early phases of Himalayan orogenesis. In the present-day north-eastern Tibetan Plateau, widespread deposits of Cretaceous sediment attest to significant basin formation; however, the tectonic setting of these basins remains enigmatic. We present a study of a regionally extensive network of sedimentary basins that are spatially associated with a system of SE-vergent thrust faults and are now exposed in the high ranges of the north-eastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau. We focus on a particularly well-exposed basin, located ~20km north of the Kunlun fault in the Anyemaqen Shan. The basin is filled by ~900m of alluvial sediments that become finer-grained away from the basin-bounding fault. Additionally, beds in the proximal footwall of the basin-bounding fault exhibit progressive, up-section shallowing and several intraformational unconformities which can be traced into correlative conformities in the distal part of the basin. The observations show sediment accumulated in the basin during fault motion. Regional constraints on the timing of sediment deposition are provided by both fossil assemblages from the Early Cretaceous, and by K-Ar dating of volcanic rocks that floor and cross-cut sedimentary fill. We argue that during the Cretaceous, the interior NE Tibetan Plateau experienced NW-SE contractional deformation similar to that documented throughout the Qinling-Dabie orogen to the east. The Songpan-Ganzi terrane apparently marked the southern limit of this deformation, such that it may have been a relatively rigid block in the Tibetan lithosphere, separating regions experiencing deformation north of the convergent Tethyan margin from regions deforming

  19. Wada basin boundaries and basin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, H.E.; Yorke, J.A.


    In dynamical systems examples are common in which two or more attractors coexist, and in such cases the basin boundary is nonempty. We consider a two-dimensional diffeomorphism F (that is, F is an invertible map and both F and its inverse are differentiable with continuous derivatives), which has at

  20. A world in motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boynton, J.A. [SAE, Warrendale, PA (United States)


    A World in Motion is a physical science curriculum supplement for grades four, five, and six which responds to the need to promote and teach sound science and mathematics concepts. Using the A World in Motion kits, teachers work in partnership with practicing engineer or scientists volunteers to provide students with fun, exciting, and relevant hands-on science and math experiences. During the A World in Motion experience, students work together in {open_quotes}Engineering Design Teams{close_quotes} exploring physics concepts through a series of activities. Each student is assigned a role as either a facilities engineer, development engineer, test engineer, or project engineer and is given responsibilities paralleling those of engineers in industry. The program culminates in a {open_quotes}Design Review{close_quotes} where students can communicate their results, demonstrate their designs, and receive recognition for their efforts. They are given a chance to take on responsibility and build self-esteem. Since January 1991, over 12,000 volunteers engineers have been involved with the program, with a distribution of 20,000 A World in Motion kit throughout the U.S. and Canada.

  1. MotionsFloorball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup, Jacob; Seidelin, Kåre

    Med denne "opskriftsbog" er I nu klar til at begynde med MotionsFloorball. Ingen vellykket middagsret tilbereder som bekendt sig selv - de vigtigste ingredienser til et succesfuldt forløb er vilje og handlingskraft. Tilsættes værktøjerne og vidensdelen fra denne bog, er der dog ikke langt fra tanke...

  2. Superluminal motion (review) (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Romanets, E. A.


    Prior to the development of Special Relativity, no restrictions were imposed on the velocity of the motion of particles and material bodies, as well as on energy transfer and signal propagation. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, it was shown that a charge that moves at a velocity faster than the speed of light in an optical medium, in particular, in vacuum, gives rise to impact radiation, which later was termed the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. Shortly after the development of Special Relativity, some researchers considered the possibility of superluminal motion. In 1923, the Soviet physicist L.Ya. Strum suggested the existence of tachyons, which, however, have not been discovered yet. Superluminal motions can occur only for images, e.g., for so-called "light spots," which were considered in 1972 by V.L. Ginzburg and B.M. Bolotovskii. These spots can move with a superluminal phase velocity but are incapable of transferring energy and information. Nevertheless, these light spots may induce quite real generation of microwave radiation in closed waveguides and create the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation in vacuum. In this work, we consider various paradoxes, illusions, and artifacts associated with superluminal motion.

  3. A Harmonic Motion Experiment (United States)

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev


    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  4. Algebraic Description of Motion (United States)

    Davidon, William C.


    An algebraic definition of time differentiation is presented and used to relate independent measurements of position and velocity. With this, students can grasp certain essential physical, geometric, and algebraic properties of motion and differentiation before undertaking the study of limits. (Author)

  5. Procedures for evaluation of vibratory ground motions of soil deposits at nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    According to USNRC requirements set forth in Appendix A, 10 CFR, Part 100, vibratory ground motion criteria for a nuclear plant must be based on local soil conditions, as well as on the seismicity, geology, and tectonics of the region. This report describes how such criteria can be developed by applying the latest technology associated with analytical predictions of site-dependent ground motions and with the use of composite spectra obtained from the current library of strong motion records. Recommended procedures for defining vibratory ground motion criteria contain the following steps: (1) geologic and seismologic studies; (2) site soils investigations; (3) site response sensitivity studies; (4) evaluation of local site response characteristics; (5) selection of site-matched records; and (6) appraisal and selection of seismic input criteria. An in-depth discussion of the engineering characteristics of earthquake ground motions including parameters used to characterize earthquakes and strong motion records, geologic factors that influence ground shaking, the current strong motion data base, and case histories of the effects of past earthquake events is presented. Next, geotechnical investigations of the seismologic, geologic, and site soil conditions required to develop vibratory motion criteria are briefly summarized. The current technology for establishing vibratory ground motion criteria at nuclear plant sites, including site-independent and site-dependent procedures that use data from strong motion records and from soil response analyses is described. (auth)

  6. Data for in-depth characterisation of the lamb meat proteome from longissimus lumborum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Yang Yu


    Full Text Available This Data article provides Supplementary data related to the research article titled “In-depth characterisation of the lamb meat proteome from longissimus lumborum” by Yu et al. [1]. This research article reports the proteome catalogue of the 48 h post-mortem lamb longissimus lumborum. A list of 388 ovine-specific proteins were identified and characterised after separating the samples into sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and insoluble fractions, followed by an in-depth shotgun proteomic evaluation and bioinformatic analysis. The detailed list of identified proteins, the annotated MS/MS spectra corresponding to the proteins identified by a single peptide-spectrum match, the raw Gene Ontology annotation data and other miscellaneous files, as will be described below, were contained in this Data article. We hope the data presented here will contribute to the current knowledge of the global protein composition of lamb skeletal muscle/meat.

  7. In-depth morphological study of mesiobuccal root canal systems in maxillary first molars: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Woo Chang


    Full Text Available A common failure in endodontic treatment of the permanent maxillary first molars is likely to be caused by an inability to locate, clean, and obturate the second mesiobuccal (MB canals. Because of the importance of knowledge on these additional canals, there have been numerous studies which investigated the maxillary first molar MB root canal morphology using in vivo and laboratory methods. In this article, the protocols, advantages and disadvantages of various methodologies for in-depth study of maxillary first molar MB root canal morphology were discussed. Furthermore, newly identified configuration types for the establishment of new classification system were suggested based on two image reformatting techniques of micro-computed tomography, which can be useful as a further 'Gold Standard' method for in-depth morphological study of complex root canal systems.

  8. Reflections and Recommendations for Conducting In-Depth Interviews With People With Dementia. (United States)

    Cridland, Elizabeth K; Phillipson, Lyn; Brennan-Horley, Christopher; Swaffer, Kate


    Despite the importance and advantages of including people with dementia in research, there are various challenges for researchers and participants to their involvement. This article draws on the literature and experiences of a diverse group of authors, including a person with dementia, to provide recommendations about conducting research with people with dementia. Particular attention is given to in-depth interviews as a qualitative technique. More specifically, topics discussed include interview guide preparation, recruitment, obtaining consent/assent, conducting effective interviews, analysis and interpretation of data, effective communication of research findings, and reflections and recommendations for maintaining researcher and participant health. Given the current obstacles to participation in research of people with dementia, this is a timely article providing useful insights to promote improved outcomes using in-depth interviews. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Coping With Antigay Violence: In-Depth Interviews With Flemish LGB Adults. (United States)

    D'haese, Lies; Dewaele, Alexis; Van Houtte, Mieke


    In view of the possible negative mental health outcomes of antigay violence and the limited understanding of how lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men and women cope with such experiences, this study examined the coping and social support-seeking strategies that victims adopt. In 2012, in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 Flemish sexual minority victims of violence. These in-depth interviews show that antigay violence can generate profound negative outcomes. However, the respondents employed a range of coping strategies, of which four were discerned: (1) avoidance strategies, (2) assertiveness and confrontation, (3) cognitive change, and (4) social support. Applying a diverse set of coping strategies and actively attaching meaning to negative experiences helps victims of antigay violence to overcome negative effects such as fear, embarrassment, or depressive feelings. However, the presence of a supportive network seems an important condition in order for these positive outcomes to occur.

  10. Defence in depth in nuclear safety learning from 'pre-symptomatic diseases'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Shigeru


    Traditional Chinese medicine argued 'pre-symptomatic diseases', which encouraged for a physician to treat before the ailment occurred. This article described such prophylactic concept was compared to that of defense in depth in nuclear safety, which suggested encouragement of daily activities with safety awareness, preventive maintenance and appropriate treatment for incidents of aged plants would reduce or mitigate their effects. Area of safety culture was also included. Importance of human resources development for safety culture and need of establishment of database concerning new knowledge and experiences were highly recommended. In reality various slight events, whose level of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) were less than 2, occurred before a large accident happened to occur. Efforts to reduce events whose level of INES was less than 2 or precursor of accidents would prevent level 3 serious accidents as maximum accident of defense in depth or mitigate the extension to a larger accident. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Hardware-software complex of in-depth studies of hexapod walking robot (United States)

    Ankudinov, V. Kh; Maksimov, A. V.; Starkov, S. O.


    A hardware-software complex of in-depth studies of hexapod walking robot including the hexapod mockup and its simulator is described. Possible applications of the complex for the study of statically stable hexapod gaits and obstacle clearance algorithms are considered. An important feature of the simulator is the ability to work in real time that allows you to use it in the control loop.

  12. Neurologic patient safety: an in-depth study of malpractice claims. (United States)

    Glick, Thomas H; Cranberg, Lee D; Hanscom, Robert B; Sato, Luke


    This in-depth study of neurologic malpractice claims indicated authentic, preventable patient harm in 24 of 42 cases, enabling comparison with larger but administratively abstracted summary reports. Principal findings included the common occurrence of outpatient events, lapses in communication with patients and other providers, the need for follow-through by the consultant neurologist even when not primarily responsible, the frequency of diagnostic errors, and pitfalls associated with imaging.

  13. Infant manual performance during reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth


    Domellöf, Erik; Barbu-Roth, Marianne; Rönnqvist, Louise; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; Fagard, Jacqueline


    Few studies have observed investigated manual asymmetries performance in infants when reaching and grasping for objects moving in directions other than across the fronto-parallel plane. The present preliminary study explored manual object-oriented behavioral strategies and hand side preference in 8- and 10-month-old infants during reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth from three positions (midline, and 27° diagonally from the left, and right, midline). Effects of task constra...

  14. Music Genre Classification Revisited: An In-Depth Examination Guided by Music Experts


    Pálmason, Haukur; Jónsson, Björn Thór; Schedl, Markus; Knees, Peter


    Despite their many identified shortcomings, music genres are still often used as ground truth and as a proxy for music similarity. In this work we therefore take another in-depth look at genre classification, this time with the help of music experts. In comparison to existing work, we aim at including the viewpoint of different stakeholders to investigate whether musicians and end-user music taxonomies agree on genre ground truth, through a user study among 20 professional and semi-profession...

  15. California Air Basins (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  16. BASINS Framework and Features (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  17. Watershed Planning Basins (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  18. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.


    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  19. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.


    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  20. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.


    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  1. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.


    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  2. Motion of the esophagus due to cardiac motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Palmer

    Full Text Available When imaging studies (e.g. CT are used to quantify morphological changes in an anatomical structure, it is necessary to understand the extent and source of motion which can give imaging artifacts (e.g. blurring or local distortion. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of esophageal motion due to cardiac motion. We used retrospective electrocardiogram-gated contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography images for this study. The anatomic region from the carina to the bottom of the heart was taken at deep-inspiration breath hold with the patients' arms raised above their shoulders, in a position similar to that used for radiation therapy. The esophagus was delineated on the diastolic phase of cardiac motion, and deformable registration was used to sequentially deform the images in nearest-neighbor phases among the 10 cardiac phases, starting from the diastolic phase. Using the 10 deformation fields generated from the deformable registration, the magnitude of the extreme displacements was then calculated for each voxel, and the mean and maximum displacement was calculated for each computed tomography slice for each patient. The average maximum esophageal displacement due to cardiac motion for all patients was 5.8 mm (standard deviation: 1.6 mm, maximum: 10.0 mm in the transverse direction. For 21 of 26 patients, the largest esophageal motion was found in the inferior region of the heart; for the other patients, esophageal motion was approximately independent of superior-inferior position. The esophagus motion was larger at cardiac phases where the electrocardiogram R-wave occurs. In conclusion, the magnitude of esophageal motion near the heart due to cardiac motion is similar to that due to other sources of motion, including respiratory motion and intra-fraction motion. A larger cardiac motion will result into larger esophagus motion in a cardiac cycle.

  3. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C


    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  4. The effect of sedimentary basins on surface waves that pass through them (United States)

    Feng, Lili; Ritzwoller, Michael H.


    Surface waves propagating through sedimentary basins undergo elastic wavefield complications that include multiple scattering, amplification, the formation of secondary wave fronts and subsequent wave front healing. Unless these effects are accounted for accurately, they may introduce systematic bias to estimates of source characteristics, the inference of the anelastic structure of the Earth, and ground motion predictions for hazard assessment. Most studies of the effects of basins on surface waves have centred on waves inside the basins. In contrast, the purpose of this paper is to investigate wavefield effects downstream from sedimentary basins, with particular emphasis on continental basins and propagation paths, elastic structural heterogeneity and Rayleigh waves at 10 s period. Based on wavefield simulations through a recent 3-D crustal and upper-mantle model of East Asia, we demonstrate significant Rayleigh wave amplification downstream from sedimentary basins in eastern China such that Ms measurements made on the simulated wavefield vary by more than a magnitude unit. We show that surface wave amplification caused by basins results predominantly from elastic focusing and that amplification effects produced through 3-D basin models are reproduced using 2-D membrane wave simulations through an appropriately defined phase velocity map. The principal characteristics of elastic focusing in both 2-D and 3-D simulations include (1) retardation of the wave front inside the basins; (2) deflection of the wave propagation direction; (3) formation of a high-amplitude lineation directly downstream from the basin bracketed by two low-amplitude zones and (4) formation of a secondary wave front. We illustrate with several examples how the size and geometry of the basin affects focusing. Finally, by comparing the impact of elastic focusing with anelastic attenuation, we argue that on-continent sedimentary basins are expected to affect surface wave amplitudes more strongly

  5. Motion characterization scheme to minimize motion artifacts in intravital microscopy (United States)

    Lee, Sungon; Courties, Gabriel; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Weissleder, Ralph; Vinegoni, Claudio


    Respiratory- and cardiac-induced motion artifacts pose a major challenge for in vivo optical imaging, limiting the temporal and spatial imaging resolution in fluorescence laser scanning microscopy. Here, we present an imaging platform developed for in vivo characterization of physiologically induced axial motion. The motion characterization system can be straightforwardly implemented on any conventional laser scanning microscope and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of different motion stabilization schemes. This method is particularly useful to improve the design of novel tissue stabilizers and to facilitate stabilizer positioning in real time, therefore facilitating optimal tissue immobilization and minimizing motion induced artifacts.

  6. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling motion ...

  7. Statistics of bicycle rider motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, J.K.; Hubbard, M.; Schwab, A.L.; Kooijman, J.D.G.; Peterson, D.L.


    An overview of bicycle and rider kinematic motions from a series of experimental treadmill tests is presented. The full kinematics of bicycles and riders were measured with an active motion capture system. Motion across speeds are compared graphically with box and whiskers plots. Trends and ranges

  8. Spin motion at and near orbital resonance in storage rings with Siberian snakes I. At orbital resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.P.; Vogt, M.


    Here, and in a sequel, we invoke the invariant spin field to provide an in-depth study of spin motion at and near low order orbital resonances in a simple model for the effects of vertical betatron motion in a storage ring with Siberian Snakes. This leads to a clear understanding, within the model, of the behaviour of the beam polarization at and near so-called snake resonances in proton storage rings. (orig.)

  9. Spin motion at and near orbital resonance in storage rings with Siberian snakes I. At orbital resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, D.P.; Vogt, M.


    Here, and in a sequel, we invoke the invariant spin field to provide an in-depth study of spin motion at and near low order orbital resonances in a simple model for the effects of vertical betatron motion in a storage ring with Siberian Snakes. This leads to a clear understanding, within the model, of the behaviour of the beam polarization at and near so-called snake resonances in proton storage rings. (orig.)

  10. Heat flow in Indian Gondwana basins and heat production of their basement rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, G.V.; Rao, R.U.M.


    Temperatures have been measured in eight boreholes (ranging from 260 to 800 m in depth) in five Gondwana basins of the Damodar and Son valleys. With the aid of about 250 thermal conductivity determinations on core samples from these holes, heat flow has been evaluated. Measurements of radioactive heat generation have been made on samples of Precambrian gneisses constituting the basement for the Sonhat (Son valley) and Chintalapudi (Godavari valley) basins. Heat-flow values from all of the Damodar valley basins are within the narrow range of 69-79 mW/m exp(2). The value from the Sonhat basin (107 mW/m exp(2)) is significantly higher. The generally high heat flows observed in Gondwana basins of India cannot be attributed to the known tectonism or igneous activity associated with these basins. The plots of heat flow vs. heat generation for three Gondwana basins (Jharia, Sonhat and Chintalapudi) are on the same line as those of three regions in the exposed Precambrian crystalline terrains in the northern part of the Indian shield. This indicates that the crust under exposed regions of the Precambrian crystalline rocks as well as the Gondwana basins, form an integral unit as far as the present-day geothermal character is concerned. (5 figs., 14 refs., 4 tables).

  11. Heat flow in Indian Gondwana basins and heat production of their basement rocks (United States)

    Rao, G. V.; Rao, R. U. M.


    Temperatures have been measured in eight boreholes (ranging from 260 to 800 m in depth) in five Gondwana basins of the Damodar and Son valleys. With the aid of about 250 thermal conductivity determinations on core samples from these holes, heat flow has been evaluated. Measurements of radioactive heat generation have been made on samples of Precambrian gneisses constituting the basement for the Sonhat (Son valley) and Chintalapudi (Godavari valley) basins. Heat-flow values from all of the Damodar valley basins are within the narrow range of 69-79 mW/m 2. The value from the Sonhat basin (107 mW/m 2) is significantly higher. The generally high heat flows observed in Gondwana basins of India cannot be attributed to the known tectonism or igneous activity associated with these basins. The plots of heat flow vs. heat generation for three Gondwana basins (Jharia, Sonhat and Chintalapudi) are on the same line as those of three regions in the exposed Precambrian crystalline terrains in the northern part of the Indian shield. This indicates that the crust under exposed regions of the Precambrian crystalline rocks as well as the Gondwana basins, form an integral unit as far as the present-day geothermal character is concerned.

  12. Teaching Beginning Undergraduates How to Do an In-Depth Interview: A Teaching Note with 12 Handy Tips (United States)

    Healey-Etten, Victoria; Sharp, Shane


    In-depth interviewing is now a common method in sociology. Although there are many potential benefits of in-depth interviewing assignments for both majors and nonmajors, few have developed tools one can use to teach this method at the first and second year, especially in substantive classes where instruction in interviewing is constrained by time…

  13. In-Depth Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.


    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in in-depth inorganic chemistry courses at the postsecondary level; an in-depth course is defined by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training as a course that integrates and covers topics that were introduced in introductory and foundation…

  14. 76 FR 6637 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Defense-in-Depth Is a Smart Investment for Cyber Security (United States)


    ... need technological leaps to get, and keep, ahead of adversaries who are themselves rapidly improving... new dimension for Defense-in-Depth along the lifecycle of an attack. \\1\\ Defense-in-Depth: A practical... provide robust information assurance properties if implemented along multiple dimensions; however, we must...

  15. Estimation of self-motion duration and distance in rodents (United States)

    Kautzky, Magdalena


    Spatial orientation and navigation rely on information about landmarks and self-motion cues gained from multi-sensory sources. In this study, we focused on self-motion and examined the capability of rodents to extract and make use of information about own movement, i.e. path integration. Path integration has been investigated in depth in insects and humans. Demonstrations in rodents, however, mostly stem from experiments on heading direction; less is known about distance estimation. We introduce a novel behavioural paradigm that allows for probing temporal and spatial contributions to path integration. The paradigm is a bisection task comprising movement in a virtual reality environment in combination with either timing the duration ran or estimating the distance covered. We performed experiments with Mongolian gerbils and could show that the animals can keep track of time and distance during spatial navigation. PMID:27293792

  16. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion (United States)

    Demming, Anna


    , Toshio Ando from the University of Kanazawa provides an overview of developments that have allowed atomic force microscopy to move from rates of the order of one frame a minute to over a thousand frames per second in constant height mode, as reported by Mervyn Miles and colleagues at Bristol University and University College London [8]. Among the pioneers in the field, Ando's group demonstrated the ability to record the Brownian motion of myosin V molecules on mica with image capture rates of 100 x 100 pixels in 80 ms over a decade ago [9]. The developments unleash the potential of atomic force microscopy to observe the dynamics of biological and materials systems. If seeing is believing, the ability to present real motion pictures of the nanoworld cannot fail to capture the public imagination and stimulate burgeoning new avenues of scientific endeavour. Nearly 350 years on from the publication Micrographia, images in microscopy have moved from the page to the movies. References [1] Binnig G, Quate C F, and Gerber Ch 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930-3 [2] Ando T 2012 Nanotechnology 23 062001 [3] J G 1934 Nature 134 635-6 [4] Bharadwaj P, Anger P and Novotny L 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044017 [5] The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986 [6] Kim K K, Reina A, Shi Y, Park H, Li L-J, Lee Y H and Kong J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 285205 [7] Phillips D B, Grieve J A, Olof S N, Kocher S J, Bowman R, Padgett M J, Miles M J and Carberry D M 2011 Nanotechnology 22 285503 [8] Picco L M, Bozec L, Ulcinas A, Engledew D J, Antognozzi M, Horton M A and Miles M J 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044030 [9] Ando T, Kodera N, Takai E, Maruyama D, Saito K and Toda A 2001 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98 12468

  17. 3D Numerical Modeling of Flow in Sedimentation Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan Dhemi


    Full Text Available Normal operation sedimentation basin flushing systems require large volumes of water, typically up ten times of the deposited sediment volume for efficient flushing. A complete sediment removal, can only be realized by combination of mechanical removal with drawdown flushing. This operation reaches much longer operation time resulting in water loss and reducing power and energy production of Mini Hydro Power Plant (MHPP. The objective of this study is to improve the flushing system of sedimentation basin based on a numerical approach. Fluid motion is described with non-linear, transient, second-order differential equations. A numerical solution of these equations involves approximating the various terms with algebraic expressions. The resulting equations are then solved to yield an approximate solution to the original problem. The simulation result shows that the 3D numerical modeling of flow in sedimentation basin gives the reasonable result to predict the suspended load movement in the flow.

  18. Human motion simulation predictive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Malek, Karim


    Simulate realistic human motion in a virtual world with an optimization-based approach to motion prediction. With this approach, motion is governed by human performance measures, such as speed and energy, which act as objective functions to be optimized. Constraints on joint torques and angles are imposed quite easily. Predicting motion in this way allows one to use avatars to study how and why humans move the way they do, given specific scenarios. It also enables avatars to react to infinitely many scenarios with substantial autonomy. With this approach it is possible to predict dynamic motion without having to integrate equations of motion -- rather than solving equations of motion, this approach solves for a continuous time-dependent curve characterizing joint variables (also called joint profiles) for every degree of freedom. Introduces rigorous mathematical methods for digital human modelling and simulation Focuses on understanding and representing spatial relationships (3D) of biomechanics Develops an i...

  19. Using reflexivity to enhance in-depth interviewing skills for the clinician researcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegarty Kelsey


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care clinicians are being encouraged to undertake qualitative research, however the in-depth interviewing skills required are not as straightforward as might be first supposed. While there are benefits and certain skills that clinicians can bring to interview-based research, there are important new skills to develop. To date there has been neither discussion about these new skills, nor any preparatory guidelines for clinicians entering into interview-based research in the qualitative research literature. In the absence of formal guidelines, we suggest the use of reflexivity throughout the interview process as a means to become more accomplished in this area. We present our own experiences as a novice general practitioner (GP researcher undertaking a PhD study and her experienced supervisors. The PhD study used critical phenomenology through in-depth interviews to understand the experience of the patient-doctor relationship between same-sex attracted women and their usual GP in Australia. Results We used reflexivity to improve the rigour of the data collection. This enabled improved probing, fewer assumptions, avoidance of premature interpretation, and an accentuated sense of curiosity during interviews. We also enlisted reciprocity between interviewer and interviewee as a tool to improve engagement and trust, share interview control, and ultimately improve the depth of the interview content. Conclusion Preparatory recommendations for novice clinician research interviewers include the importance of recognising the multiple identities that they bring to the interview. In this setting in particular this involves acknowledging the clinician interviewer as a potential insider in relation to interviewees and negotiating shared understanding to avoid insider assumptions. Other essential requirements are having an experienced research supervisor, arranging pilot interviews that include active feedback on interviewing

  20. Using reflexivity to enhance in-depth interviewing skills for the clinician researcher. (United States)

    McNair, Ruth; Taft, Angela; Hegarty, Kelsey


    Primary health care clinicians are being encouraged to undertake qualitative research, however the in-depth interviewing skills required are not as straightforward as might be first supposed. While there are benefits and certain skills that clinicians can bring to interview-based research, there are important new skills to develop. To date there has been neither discussion about these new skills, nor any preparatory guidelines for clinicians entering into interview-based research in the qualitative research literature. In the absence of formal guidelines, we suggest the use of reflexivity throughout the interview process as a means to become more accomplished in this area. We present our own experiences as a novice general practitioner (GP) researcher undertaking a PhD study and her experienced supervisors. The PhD study used critical phenomenology through in-depth interviews to understand the experience of the patient-doctor relationship between same-sex attracted women and their usual GP in Australia. We used reflexivity to improve the rigour of the data collection. This enabled improved probing, fewer assumptions, avoidance of premature interpretation, and an accentuated sense of curiosity during interviews. We also enlisted reciprocity between interviewer and interviewee as a tool to improve engagement and trust, share interview control, and ultimately improve the depth of the interview content. Preparatory recommendations for novice clinician research interviewers include the importance of recognising the multiple identities that they bring to the interview. In this setting in particular this involves acknowledging the clinician interviewer as a potential insider in relation to interviewees and negotiating shared understanding to avoid insider assumptions. Other essential requirements are having an experienced research supervisor, arranging pilot interviews that include active feedback on interviewing style from interviewees, and being reflexive during

  1. Defense-in-depth for common cause failure of nuclear power plant safety system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Lu


    This paper briefly describes the development of digital I and C system in nuclear power plant, and analyses the viewpoints of NRC and other nuclear safety authorities on Software Common Cause Failure (SWCCF). In view of the SWCCF issue introduced by the digitized platform adopted in nuclear power plant safety system, this paper illustrated a diversified defence strategy for computer software and hardware. A diversified defence-in-depth solution is provided for digital safety system of nuclear power plant. Meanwhile, analysis on problems may be faced during application of nuclear safety license are analyzed, and direction of future nuclear safety I and C system development are put forward. (author)

  2. In-depth assessment of modifications induced during the laser cleaning of modern paintings (United States)

    Selimis, Alexandros; Vounisiou, Panagiota; Tserevelakis, George J.; Melessanaki, Kristalia; Pouli, Paraskevi; Filippidis, George; Beltsios, Costas; Georgiou, Savas; Fotakis, Costas


    A critical challenge for the broader implementation of laser cleaning interventions in modern paintings is the assessment of the extent of any photochemical or structural modifications induced in the original substrate following laser irradiation. For this reason, we investigate several polymeric materials (PMMA, Paraloid B72) doped with aromatic photosensitisers (PhenI, POPOP) of known photochemistry, coated with uniform layers of acrylics of different thicknesses to simulate real case scenarios. Following laser irradiation, a variety of spectroscopic techniques LIF, MPEF are employed for the in depth monitoring of any photochemical and structural modifications induced in the bulk material.

  3. Off-Line High-pH Reversed-Phase Fractionation for In-Depth Phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batth, Tanveer S; Francavilla, Chiara; Olsen, Jesper V


    H) before subsequent titanium dioxide (TiO2) enrichment and LC-MS/MS analysis. Our results demonstrate that HpH is superior to standard strong-cation exchange (SCX) fractionation in the total number of phosphopeptides detected when analyzing the same number of fractions by identical LC-MS/MS gradients. From...... phosphorylated peptides over that with SCX. Further optimizations in the pooling and concatenation strategy increased the total number of multiphosphorylated peptides detected after HpH fractionation. In conclusion, we provide a basic framework and resource for performing in-depth phosphoproteome studies...

  4. Seismicity of the Paradox Basin and the Colorado Plateau interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, I.G.


    National Waste Terminal Storage Program site qualification criteria require that a nuclear waste repository be located so that ground motion associated with the maximum credible and maximum probable earthquakes or other earthquake-associated effects will not have an unacceptable adverse impact on system performance. To determine whether a potential repository site located in the Paradox salt formation in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah satisfies these criteria, seismological studies were undertaken by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) in March 1978. These studies included: (1) analysis of historical seismicity; (2) analysis of contemporary seismicity and tectonics of both the Paradox Basin and surrounding Colorado Plateau, including an extensive program of microearthquake monitoring; (3) evaluation of the Paradox Basin crustal structure; (4) evaluation of mining-induced seismicity; and (5) characterization of design-related earthquake-induced ground motions pertinent to a potential repository site through studies of attentation and subsurface ground motions. A detailed discussion of the results of the seismological studies performed through December 1980 is contained in WCC (1982). The purpose of this topical report is to update and summarize the studies on the local, regional, and mining-induced seismicity conducted through December 1982. The limitations of any interpretations are also discussed and additional information that remains to be acquired is identified. 56 references, 45 figures, 4 tables

  5. The Agost Basin (Betic Cordillera, Alicante province, Spain): a pull-apart basin involving salt tectonics (United States)

    Martín-Martín, Manuel; Estévez, Antonio; Martín-Rojas, Ivan; Guerrera, Francesco; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Serrano, Francisco; Tramontana, Mario


    The Agost Basin is characterized by a Miocene-Quaternary shallow marine and continental infilling controlled by the evolution of several curvilinear faults involving salt tectonics derived from Triassic rocks. From the Serravallian on, the area experienced a horizontal maximum compression with a rotation of the maximum stress axis from E-W to N-S. The resulting deformation gave rise to a strike-slip fault whose evolution is characterized progressively by three stages: (1) stepover/releasing bend with a dextral motion of blocks; (2) very close to pure horizontal compression; and (3) restraining bend with a sinistral movement of blocks. In particular, after an incipient fracturing stage, faults generated a pull-apart basin with terraced sidewall fault and graben subzones developed in the context of a dextral stepover during the lower part of late Miocene p.p. The occurrence of Triassic shales and evaporites played a fundamental role in the tectonic evolution of the study area. The salty material flowed along faults during this stage generating salt walls in root zones and salt push-up structures at the surface. During the purely compressive stage (middle part of late Miocene p.p.) the salt walls were squeezed to form extrusive mushroom-like structures. The large amount of clayish and salty material that surfaced was rapidly eroded and deposited into the basin, generating prograding fan clinoforms. The occurrence of shales and evaporites (both in the margins of the basin and in the proper infilling) favored folding of basin deposits, faulting, and the formation of rising blocks. Later, in the last stage (upper part of late Miocene p.p.), the area was affected by sinistral restraining conditions and faults must have bent to their current shape. The progressive folding of the basin and deformation of margins changed the supply points and finally caused the end of deposition and the beginning of the current erosive systems. On the basis of the interdisciplinary results

  6. WORKSHOP: Stable particle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Alessandro G.


    Full text: Particle beam stability is crucial to any accelerator or collider, particularly big ones, such as Brookhaven's RHIC heavy ion collider and the larger SSC and LHC proton collider schemes. A workshop on the Stability of Particle Motion in Storage Rings held at Brookhaven in October dealt with the important issue of determining the short- and long-term stability of single particle motion in hadron storage rings and colliders, and explored new methods for ensuring it. In the quest for realistic environments, the imperfections of superconducting magnets and the effects of field modulation and noise were taken into account. The workshop was divided into three study groups: Short-Term Stability in storage rings, including chromatic and geometric effects and correction strategies; Long-Term Stability, including modulation and random noise effects and slow varying effects; and Methods for determining the stability of particle motion. The first two were run in parallel, but the third was attended by everyone. Each group considered analytical, computational and experimental methods, reviewing work done so far, comparing results and approaches and underlining outstanding issues. By resolving conflicts, it was possible to identify problems of common interest. The workshop reaffirmed the validity of methods proposed several years ago. Major breakthroughs have been in the rapid improvement of computer capacity and speed, in the development of more sophisticated mathematical packages, and in the introduction of more powerful analytic approaches. In a typical storage ring, a particle may be required to circulate for about a billion revolutions. While ten years ago it was only possible to predict accurately stability over about a thousand revolutions, it is now possible to predict over as many as one million turns. If this trend continues, in ten years it could become feasible to predict particle stability over the entire storage period. About ninety participants

  7. Method through motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur


    context, I have been conducting a practice-led research project. Central to the project is construction of a design model describing sets of procedures, concepts and terminology relevant for design and studies of motion graphics in spatial contexts. The focus of this paper is the role of model...... construction as a support to working systematically practice-led research project. The design model is being developed through design laboratories and workshops with students and professionals who provide feedback that lead to incremental improvements. Working with this model construction-as-method reveals...

  8. Electromechanical motion devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Pekarek, Steven D


    This text provides a basic treatment of modern electric machine analysis that gives readers the necessary background for comprehending the traditional applications and operating characteristics of electric machines-as well as their emerging applications in modern power systems and electric drives, such as those used in hybrid and electric vehicles. Through the appropriate use of reference frame theory, Electromagnetic Motion Devices, Second Edition introduces readers to field-oriented control of induction machines, constant-torque, and constant-power control of dc, permanent-magnet ac

  9. The ShakeOut earthquake source and ground motion simulations (United States)

    Graves, R.W.; Houston, Douglas B.; Hudnut, K.W.


    The ShakeOut Scenario is premised upon the detailed description of a hypothetical Mw 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas Fault and the associated simulated ground motions. The main features of the scenario, such as its endpoints, magnitude, and gross slip distribution, were defined through expert opinion and incorporated information from many previous studies. Slip at smaller length scales, rupture speed, and rise time were constrained using empirical relationships and experience gained from previous strong-motion modeling. Using this rupture description and a 3-D model of the crust, broadband ground motions were computed over a large region of Southern California. The largest simulated peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) generally range from 0.5 to 1.0 g and 100 to 250 cm/s, respectively, with the waveforms exhibiting strong directivity and basin effects. Use of a slip-predictable model results in a high static stress drop event and produces ground motions somewhat higher than median level predictions from NGA ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs).

  10. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei


    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  11. Empirical ground motion prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Archuleta


    Full Text Available New methods of site-specific ground motion prediction in the time and frequency domains are presented. A large earthquake is simulated as a composite (linear combination of observed small earthquakes (subevents assuming Aki-Brune functional models of the source time functions (spectra. Source models incorporate basic scaling relations between source and spectral parameters. Ground motion predictions are consistent with the entire observed seismic spectrum from the lowest to the highest frequencies. These methods are designed to use all the available empirical Green’s functions (or any subset of observations at a site. Thus a prediction is not biased by a single record, and different possible source-receiver paths are taken into account. Directivity is accounted for by adjusting the apparent source duration at each site. Our time-series prediction algorithm is based on determination of a non-uniform distribution of rupture times of subevents. By introducing a specific rupture velocity we avoid the major problem of deficiency of predictions around the main event's corner frequency. A novel notion of partial coherence allows us to sum subevents' amplitude spectra directly without using any information on their rupture times and phase histories. Predictions by this spectral method are not Jependent on details of rupture nucleation and propagation, location of asperities and other predominantly phase-affecting factors, responsible for uncertainties in time-domain simulations.

  12. Perceptually Uniform Motion Space. (United States)

    Birkeland, Asmund; Turkay, Cagatay; Viola, Ivan


    Flow data is often visualized by animated particles inserted into a flow field. The velocity of a particle on the screen is typically linearly scaled by the velocities in the data. However, the perception of velocity magnitude in animated particles is not necessarily linear. We present a study on how different parameters affect relative motion perception. We have investigated the impact of four parameters. The parameters consist of speed multiplier, direction, contrast type and the global velocity scale. In addition, we investigated if multiple motion cues, and point distribution, affect the speed estimation. Several studies were executed to investigate the impact of each parameter. In the initial results, we noticed trends in scale and multiplier. Using the trends for the significant parameters, we designed a compensation model, which adjusts the particle speed to compensate for the effect of the parameters. We then performed a second study to investigate the performance of the compensation model. From the second study we detected a constant estimation error, which we adjusted for in the last study. In addition, we connect our work to established theories in psychophysics by comparing our model to a model based on Stevens' Power Law.

  13. In-depth characterisation of the lamb meat proteome from longissimus lumborum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Yang Yu


    Full Text Available Lamb is one of the major red meats consumed globally, both as a key component in the diet of some countries, and as a niche meat product in others. Despite this relatively wide consumption, an in-depth description of the global protein composition of lamb has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the proteome of the 48 h post-mortem lamb longissimus lumborum through separation of the samples into sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and insoluble fractions, followed by an in-depth shotgun proteomic evaluation and bioinformatic analysis. As a result, 388 ovine-specific proteins were identified and characterised. The 207 proteins found in the sarcoplasmic fraction were dominated by glycolytic enzymes and mitochondrial proteins. This fraction also contained several sarcomeric proteins, e.g., myosin light chains and titin. Some of them might be the degradation products from the post-mortem proteolysis. Actin, myosin and tropomyosin were abundant in the myofibrillar fraction while nebulin and titin were also present. Collagen type I, III and IV were found in the insoluble fraction but there were also sequences from myosin and titin. The present study also confirms the existence of at least 300 predicted protein sequences obtained from the latest issue of the sheep genome (version 3 with high confidence.

  14. An in-depth analysis of theoretical frameworks for the study of care coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Van Houdt


    Full Text Available Introduction: Complex chronic conditions often require long-term care from various healthcare professionals. Thus, maintaining quality care requires care coordination. Concepts for the study of care coordination require clarification to develop, study and evaluate coordination strategies. In 2007, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality defined care coordination and proposed five theoretical frameworks for exploring care coordination. This study aimed to update current theoretical frameworks and clarify key concepts related to care coordination. Methods: We performed a literature review to update existing theoretical frameworks. An in-depth analysis of these theoretical frameworks was conducted to formulate key concepts related to care coordination.Results: Our literature review found seven previously unidentified theoretical frameworks for studying care coordination. The in-depth analysis identified fourteen key concepts that the theoretical frameworks addressed. These were ‘external factors’, ‘structure’, ‘tasks characteristics’, ‘cultural factors’, ‘knowledge and technology’, ‘need for coordination’, ‘administrative operational processes’, ‘exchange of information’, ‘goals’, ‘roles’, ‘quality of relationship’, ‘patient outcome’, ‘team outcome’, and ‘(interorganizational outcome’.Conclusion: These 14 interrelated key concepts provide a base to develop or choose a framework for studying care coordination. The relational coordination theory and the multi-level framework are interesting as these are the most comprehensive.

  15. Women's understandings of sexual problems: findings from an in-depth interview study. (United States)

    Bellamy, Gary; Gott, Merryn; Hinchliff, Sharron


    To explore women's understandings of sexual problems. Prevailing knowledge about women's sexual problems has prioritised the material body. Particular attention is given to the importance of penetrative sexual intercourse, orgasm and the reproductive imperative, which fail to take account of contextual factors that contribute to women's experiences of sexual problems. Qualitative in-depth interview study. Individual in-depth interviews conducted with 23 women aged 23-72 years, recruited from members of the general public and a psychosexual clinic. The findings suggest that sexual problems are bodily experienced and socially and psychologically mediated. Women's views were influenced by the relational context of their experiences. At the same time, their views were deeply embedded within a patriarchal framework to make sense of their own sexual functioning and satisfaction. This study presents a challenge in the drive to medicalise women's sexual problems via the female sexual dysfunction label. It problematises the current diagnostic criteria for sexual problems outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, which presupposes a highly individualised framework and favours a more nuanced approach. Rather than adopting or eschewing an entirely medical or psychosocial model, women presenting with sexual problems should be seen by a clinician whose assessment is holistic and takes into account relational, cultural, psychosocial and health-related concerns. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Collaboration in sensor network research: an in-depth longitudinal analysis of assortative mixing patterns. (United States)

    Pepe, Alberto; Rodriguez, Marko A


    Many investigations of scientific collaboration are based on statistical analyses of large networks constructed from bibliographic repositories. These investigations often rely on a wealth of bibliographic data, but very little or no other information about the individuals in the network, and thus, fail to illustrate the broader social and academic landscape in which collaboration takes place. In this article, we perform an in-depth longitudinal analysis of a relatively small network of scientific collaboration (N = 291) constructed from the bibliographic record of a research centerin the development and application of wireless and sensor network technologies. We perform a preliminary analysis of selected structural properties of the network, computing its range, configuration and topology. We then support our preliminary statistical analysis with an in-depth temporal investigation of the assortative mixing of selected node characteristics, unveiling the researchers' propensity to collaborate preferentially with others with a similar academic profile. Our qualitative analysis of mixing patterns offers clues as to the nature of the scientific community being modeled in relation to its organizational, disciplinary, institutional, and international arrangements of collaboration.

  17. An in-depth longitudinal analysis of mixing patterns in a small scientific collaboration network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pepe, Alberto [UCLA


    Many investigations of scientific collaboration are based on large-scale statistical analyses of networks constructed from bibliographic repositories. These investigations often rely on a wealth of bibliographic data, but very little or no other information about the individuals in the network, and thus, fail to illustate the broader social and academic landscape in which collaboration takes place. In this article, we perform an in-depth longitudinal analysis of a small-scale network of scientific collaboration (N = 291) constructed from the bibliographic record of a research center involved in the development and application of sensor network technologies. We perform a preliminary analysis of selected structural properties of the network, computing its range, configuration and topology. We then support our preliminary statistical analysis with an in-depth temporal investigation of the assortativity mixing of these node characteristics: academic department, affiliation, position, and country of origin of the individuals in the network. Our qualitative analysis of mixing patterns offers clues as to the nature of the scientific community being modeled in relation to its organizational, disciplinary, institutional, and international arrangements of collaboration.

  18. In-depth analyses of paleolithic pigments in cave climatic conditions (United States)

    Touron, Stéphanie; Trichereau, Barbara; Syvilay, Delphine


    Painted caves are a specific environment which preservation needs multidisciplinary studies carried out within the different actors. The actions set-up must follow national and European ethics and treaties and be as less invasive as possible to preserve the integrity of the site. Studying colorants in caves should meet these expectations and take into account on-field conditions: high humidity rate, reduced access to electricity, etc. Therefore, non-invasive analyses should be preferred. However, their limits restrict the field of application and sometimes sampling and laboratory analyses must be used to answer the problematic. It is especially true when the pigment is covered by calcite. For this purpose, the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been assessed to identify the composition with stratigraphic analyses. This study carries out in-depth profile on laboratory samples in conditions close to the ones meet in caves. Samples were prepared on a calcareous substrate using three pigments: red ochre, manganese black and carbon black and two binding media: water and saliva. All samples have been covered by calcite. Four sets of measurements have then been done using the LIBS instrument. The in-depth profiles were obtained using the Standard Normal Variate (SNV) normalization. For all the samples, the pigment layer was identified in the second or third shot, the calcite layer being quite thin. However, the results remain promising with the carbon black pigment but not really conclusive, the carbon being generally quite difficult to quantify.

  19. The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test: an in-depth analysis of recall patterns. (United States)

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Hogervorst, Eef; W Rahardjo, Tri Budi


    One of the earliest signs of dementia is memory issues and verbal word lists, such as the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), are successfully used for screening. To gain insight in how memory is affected in dementia, and to further improve the efficacy of the HVLT, in-depth analysis of the recall patterns of dementia cases and controls was conducted. Dementia cases and controls were matched for factors that can affect performance, such as age, gender and education level. Word frequency, syllable length, and orthographic neighbourhood size did not differ in the Indonesian version of the HVLT, nor did these characteristics affect recall. However dementia cases showed consistent and poor recall across the three trials; with the worst recall for the "human shelter" category and best recall for the "animals" category. Dementia cases also showed impaired accessibility of all categories with reduced subsequent recall from accessed categories and reduced primacy and recency levels. Finally, dementia cases exhibited lower levels of re-remembering and recalling new words, and higher levels of immediate forgetting and never recalling words. It was concluded that utilising the extra information provided by the in-depth analyses of the recall patterns could be beneficial to improve dementia screening.

  20. Practical In-Depth Analysis of IDS Alerts for Tracing and Identifying Potential Attackers on Darknet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsuk Song


    Full Text Available The darknet (i.e., a set of unused IP addresses is a very useful solution for observing the global trends of cyber threats and analyzing attack activities on the Internet. Since the darknet is not connected with real systems, in most cases, the incoming packets on the darknet (‘the darknet traffic’ do not contain a payload. This means that we are unable to get real malware from the darknet traffic. This situation makes it difficult for security experts (e.g., academic researchers, engineers, operators, etc. to identify whether the source hosts of the darknet traffic are infected by real malware or not. In this paper, we present the overall procedure of the in-depth analysis between the darknet traffic and IDS alerts using real data collected at the Science and Technology Cyber Security Center (S&T CSC in Korea and provide the detailed in-depth analysis results. The ultimate goal of this paper is to provide practical experience, insight and know-how to security experts so that they are able to identify and trace the root cause of the darknet traffic. The experimental results show that correlation analysis between the darknet traffic and IDS alerts is very useful to discover potential attack hosts, especially internal hosts, and to find out what kinds of malware infected them.

  1. Interfacial dislocation motion and interactions in single-crystal superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Raabe, D. [Max Planck Inst. fur Eisenforshung. Dusseldorf (Germany); Roters, F. [Max Planck Inst. fur Eisenforshung. Dusseldorf (Germany); Arsenlis, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The early stage of high-temperature low-stress creep in single-crystal superalloys is characterized by the rapid development of interfacial dislocation networks. Although interfacial motion and dynamic recovery of these dislocation networks have long been expected to control the subsequent creep behavior, direct observation and hence in-depth understanding of such processes has not been achieved. Incorporating recent developments of discrete dislocation dynamics models, we simulate interfacial dislocation motion in the channel structures of single-crystal superalloys, and investigate how interfacial dislocation motion and dynamic recovery are affected by interfacial dislocation interactions and lattice misfit. Different types of dislocation interactions are considered: self, collinear, coplanar, Lomer junction, glissile junction, and Hirth junction. The simulation results show that strong dynamic recovery occurs due to the short-range reactions of collinear annihilation and Lomer junction formation. The misfit stress is found to induce and accelerate dynamic recovery of interfacial dislocation networks involving self-interaction and Hirth junction formation, but slow down the steady interfacial motion of coplanar and glissile junction forming dislocation networks. The insights gained from these simulations on high-temperature low-stress creep of single-crystal superalloys are also discussed.

  2. Towards Integrated Marmara Strong Motion Network (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Ansal, A.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Kafadar, N.; Korkmaz, A.; Kurtulus, A.


    Array (72 ch. dense accelerometric array to be installed in 2010) - Gemlik Array (a dense basin array of 8 stations, to be installed in 2010) The objectives of these systems and networks are: (1) to produce rapid earthquake intensity, damage and loss assessment information after an earthquake (in the case of IERREWS), (2) to monitor conditions of structural systems, (3) to develop real-time data processing, analysis, and damage detection and location tools (in the case of structural networks) after an extreme event, (4) to assess spatial properties of strong ground motion and ground strain, and to characterise basin response (in the case of special arrays), (5) to investigate site response and wave propagation (in the case of vertical array). Ground motion data obtained from these strong motion networks have and are being used for investigations of attenuation, spatial variation (coherence), simulation benchmarking, source modeling, site response, seismic microzonation, system identification and structural model verification and structural health control. In addition to the systems and networks outlined above there are two temporary networks: KIMNET - a dense urban noise and microtremor network consisting of 50 broadband stations expected to be operational in mid 2009, and SOSEWIN - a 20-station, self-organizing structural integrated array at Ataköy in Istanbul.

  3. Peculiarities of motion at low velocities. Motion in space and motion in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheludev, I.S.


    Motion referred to certain space coordinate x and described by space-time relationships of the special theory of relativity, is interpreted as a motion in space. The concept of motion referred to the certain moment of time t, is introduced and called as a motion in time. Space-time relationships for the latter case are followed from the transformations x→t, t→x, v→α (α=1/v, mod(αsub(t))=mod(vsub(s))), c→αsub(max)=1/c 0 , mod(c)=mod(αsub(max)). The invariable characteristic of inertial motion in time is determined by a given equation. The peculiar features of motion in time are found at low velocities (α→αsub(max)). The combined approach is based on both limiting quantities c and αsub(max). If the space coordinate x is measured through motion in space and time t through motion in time (parity frame-reference), all inertial movements have the same velocity, velocity of self-divergence v 0 = √cc 0 . There is no distortion of spatial and temporal scales when the motion is described in the parity frame-reference. The use of different intervals characterizing invariable quantities of inertial motion in space and times makes it possible to understand some problems of cosmological expansion of non-interacting galaxies (Hubble's law v = HR and, the ''low of limited distances'', v = R/t characterizing linear dimension of Universe etc.). (Auth.)

  4. Manyame River Basin, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available on website ISSN 1816-7950 (On-line) = Water SA Vol. 42 No. 1 January 2016. Published under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence. A test of the Lake Habitat Survey method in Cleveland Reservoir and. Lake Chivero (Manyame River Basin, Zimbabwe). Tatenda Dalu1*, Edwin ...

  5. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.


    genetically from the rest of the populations in the Mediterranean area. This result supports the hypothesis of a low incidence of the south-north genetic interchange at the western shores of the Mediterranean basin. A low genetic distance was found between populations in the Middle East and the western part...

  6. Stress Field and Seismicity in the Basin of Mexico (United States)

    Huesca-Perez, E.; Quintanar, L.; Garcia-Palomo, A.


    Mexico City is located in the basin of Mexico, inside the so called Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The region in general and the basin in particular, is characterized by local low magnitude seismicity (Mc risk to the city due of the nearness from epicenters. We can distinguish three main areas of local activity: 1).- surrounding the old basin of Texcoco lake, 2)- Chalco and 3)- Juchitepec - Milpa Alta outside Mexico City; the rest of the basin presents lower seismic activity. We recorded and located 336 earthquakes with digital seismograms between 1996 and 2007. From them, just 23 focal mechanisms could be evaluated because of low magnitude that creates recording problems in the seismological networks and high frequency background noise. The focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip and dip-slip (normal) faulting. We used three different techniques (when possible) to calculate the focal mechanisms: simple and composite first motion focal mechanism, Hash's S/P amplitude rate focal mechanism and time domain moment tensor inversion using broadband three components seismograms. The final goal is to find the local and regional stress field for the whole basin.

  7. Respiratory impact on motion sickness induced by linear motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Bles, W.


    Motion sickness incidence (MSI) for vertical sinusoidal motion reaches a maximum at 0.167 Hz. Normal breathing frequency is close to this frequency. There is some evidence for synchronization of breathing with this stimulus frequency. If this enforced breathing takes place over a larger frequency

  8. Prehospital Cervical Spine Motion: Immobilization Versus Spine Motion Restriction. (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Tucker, W Steven; Nowak, Matthew; Roberto, Jason; Hollingworth, Amy; Decoster, Laura C; Trimarco, Thomas W; Mihalik, Jason P


    This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of two different spinal immobilization techniques on cervical spine movement in a simulated prehospital ground transport setting. A counterbalanced crossover design was used to evaluate two different spinal immobilization techniques in a standardized environment. Twenty healthy male volunteers (age = 20.9 ± 2.2 yr) underwent ambulance transport from a simulated scene to a simulated emergency department setting in two separate conditions: utilizing traditional spinal immobilization (TSI) and spinal motion restriction (SMR). During both transport scenarios, participants underwent the same simulated scenario. The main outcome measures were cervical spine motion (cumulative integrated motion and peak range of motion), vital signs (heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation), and self-reported pain. Vital signs and pain were collected at six consistent points throughout each scenario. Participants experienced greater transverse plane cumulative integrated motion during TSI compared to SMR (F 1,57 = 4.05; P = 0.049), and greater transverse peak range of motion during participant loading/unloading in TSI condition compared to SMR (F 1,57 = 17.32; P TSI compared to 25% of participants during SMR (χ 2 = 1.29; P = 0.453). Spinal motion restriction controlled cervical motion at least as well as traditional spinal immobilization in a simulated prehospital ground transport setting. Given these results, along with well-documented potential complications of TSI in the literature, SMR is supported as an alternative to TSI. Future research should involve a true patient population.

  9. Motion direction discrimination training reduces perceived motion repulsion. (United States)

    Jia, Ke; Li, Sheng


    Participants often exaggerate the perceived angular separation between two simultaneously presented motion stimuli, which is referred to as motion repulsion. The overestimation helps participants differentiate between the two superimposed motion directions, yet it causes the impairment of direction perception. Since direction perception can be refined through perceptual training, we here attempted to investigate whether the training of a direction discrimination task changes the amount of motion repulsion. Our results showed a direction-specific learning effect, which was accompanied by a reduced amount of motion repulsion both for the trained and the untrained directions. The reduction of the motion repulsion disappeared when the participants were trained on a luminance discrimination task (control experiment 1) or a speed discrimination task (control experiment 2), ruling out any possible interpretation in terms of adaptation or training-induced attentional bias. Furthermore, training with a direction discrimination task along a direction 150° away from both directions in the transparent stimulus (control experiment 3) also had little effect on the amount of motion repulsion, ruling out the contribution of task learning. The changed motion repulsion observed in the main experiment was consistent with the prediction of the recurrent model of perceptual learning. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that training in direction discrimination can benefit the precise direction perception of the transparent stimulus and provide new evidence for the recurrent model of perceptual learning.

  10. 41 CFR 60-30.8 - Motions; disposition of motions. (United States)


    ... a supporting memorandum. Within 10 days after a written motion is served, or such other time period... writing. If made at the hearing, motions may be stated orally; but the Administrative Law Judge may require that they be reduced to writing and filed and served on all parties in the same manner as a formal...

  11. Visual motion influences the contingent auditory motion aftereffect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroomen, J.; de Gelder, B.


    In this study, we show that the contingent auditory motion aftereffect is strongly influenced by visual motion information. During an induction phase, participants listened to rightward-moving sounds with falling pitch alternated with leftward-moving sounds with rising pitch (or vice versa).

  12. Modeling Safety Barriers and Defense in Depth with Mulitlevel Flow Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten


    through control actions in order to limit the consequences of critical plant events. The barrier concept has had a significant practical value for industry by guiding the design thinking of safety engineers. The provision of material barriers preventing the release of radioactive materials from...... the reactor core to the environment is accordingly a basic principle of nuclear safety design. The application of barriers is furthermore an integral part of the defence in depth principle applied by nuclear industry. Here several barriers are combined with reliability techniques such as redundancy...... and diversity to create systems with a high level of safety. Chemical industries apply similar techniques for protection of the environment against the release of toxic materials. The paper exploresdifferent ways barriers can be represented in Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM).One of the existing flow functions...

  13. Impact of in-depth interviews on the interviewer: roller coaster ride. (United States)

    Beale, Barbara; Cole, Rose; Hillege, Sharon; McMaster, Rose; Nagy, Sue


    The authors investigated the experiences of parents with children/adult children in metropolitan Sydney, Australia who were living with, or had recovered from, an eating disorder. During regular team meetings, the research assistant who conducted the interviews had described her reactions which led the research team to investigate her experience in more depth. The aim of the present paper was to explore the impact on the research assistant who conducted 22 in-depth interviews with the parents. One of the members of the research team interviewed the research assistant to elicit her reactions. The interview was content analyzed and the following themes were identified: (i). appreciation of an egalitarian model of research; (ii). the emotions expressed by the research assistant; (iii). making sense of the inexplicable and (iv). reflections and comparison to her own life role. The research team would like to advance the theory that the adoption of a formal debriefing mechanism be integrated into the qualitative research process.

  14. Experiences of anabolic steroid use: in-depth interviews with men and women body builders. (United States)

    Grogan, Sarah; Shepherd, Sarah; Evans, Ruth; Wright, Sam; Hunter, Geoff


    This study was designed to investigate anabolic steroid users' experiences of, and motivations for, use. Five men and six women users took part in in-depth interviews. Four themes emerged: Steroid Use vs Abuse; Side-effects; Trusted Information Sources; and Social Pressure. Many users believed that steroids used in moderation were safe. Serious side-effects (liver and kidney damage, hypertension) were not significant disincentives. Information from health professionals tended to be mistrusted because it was not based on first-hand experience of use. Social support, especially from within the body building community, was an important motivator. It is concluded that intervention programmes need the support of the body building community in order to be effective.

  15. Music Genre Classification Revisited: An In-Depth Examination Guided by Music Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálmason, Haukur; Jónsson, Björn Thór; Schedl, Markus


    Despite their many identified shortcomings, music genres are still often used as ground truth and as a proxy for music similarity. In this work we therefore take another in-depth look at genre classification, this time with the help of music experts. In comparison to existing work, we aim...... at including the viewpoint of different stakeholders to investigate whether musicians and end-user music taxonomies agree on genre ground truth, through a user study among 20 professional and semi-professional music protagonists. We then compare the results of their genre judgments with different commercial...... taxonomies and with that of computational genre classification experiments, and discuss individual cases in detail. Our findings coincide with existing work and provide further evidence that a simple classification taxonomy is insufficient....

  16. An In-Depth Tutorial on Constitutive Equations for Elastic Anisotropic Materials (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.


    An in-depth tutorial on the constitutive equations for elastic, anisotropic materials is presented. Basic concepts are introduced that are used to characterize materials, and notions about how anisotropic material deform are presented. Hooke s law and the Duhamel-Neuman law for isotropic materials are presented and discussed. Then, the most general form of Hooke s law for elastic anisotropic materials is presented and symmetry requirements are given. A similar presentation is also given for the generalized Duhamel-Neuman law for elastic, anisotropic materials that includes thermal effects. Transformation equations for stress and strains are presented and the most general form of the transformation equations for the constitutive matrices are given. Then, specialized transformation equations are presented for dextral rotations about the coordinate axes. Next, concepts of material symmetry are introduced and criteria for material symmetries are presented. Additionally, engineering constants of fully anisotropic, elastic materials are derived from first principles and the specialized to several cases of practical importance.

  17. What Motivates Student Environmental Activists on College Campuses? An In-Depth Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadi Y. Fung


    Full Text Available Public concern for the natural environment continues to grow as complex environmental problems emerge. One avenue where concern for the environment has been expressed is through activism. However, research on environmental activism, often aimed at understanding the motivations behind activist behavior, has largely focused on older adults. In this study, we extend the state of knowledge on environmental activism further by focusing on college students. We use qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and observations to examine the motivations behind student involvement in environmental activism on a state university campus. Our findings underscore that young people’s activist motivations are not stand-alone phenomena; they work in tandem with other processes and factors in a dynamic way and are influenced by an individual’s history, previous experiences and passion, a sense of community, existing incentives, and self-satisfaction derived from activist behavior.

  18. Method for performing diversity and defense-in-depth analyses of reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.


    The purpose of this NUREG is to describe a method for analyzing computer-based nuclear reactor protection systems that discovers design vulnerabilities to common-mode failure. The potential for common-mode failure has become an important issue as the software content of protection systems has increased. This potential was not present in earlier analog protection systems because it could usually be assumed that common-mode failure, if it did occur, was due to slow processes such as corrosion or premature wear-out. This assumption is no longer true for systems containing software. It is the purpose of the analysis method described here to determine points of a design for which credible common-mode failures are uncompensated either by diversity or defense-in-depth

  19. The phakic intraocular lens implant: in-depth focus on posterior chamber phakic IOLs. (United States)

    Zaldivar, R; Ricur, G; Oscherow, S


    Phakic Intraocular surgery has come a long way in the past 20 years, especially in the evolution of posterior chamber phakic intraocular lenses (PC PIOLs). Clinical trials worldwide are showing acceptable results concerning efficacy, predictability, stability, and safety. PC PIOLS are proving to be a promising option for patients with high and extreme ametropia who cannot benefit from conventional corneal refractive procedures. This article provides an in-depth examination of PC PIOLs, their origin and evolution, and the results of past and current clinical studies. Reports of historical importance and studies published since the 1990s in peer-reviewed journals, textbooks, and monthly eye magazines, as well as Food and Drug Administration preliminary clinical findings, are reviewed. Anterior chamber phakic intraocular lenses are mentioned briefly.

  20. Defense-in-depth approach against a beyond design basis event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, H., E-mail: [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, 1989 Little Orchard St., 95125 San Jose, California (United States)


    The US industry, with the approval of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is promoting an approach to add diverse and flexible mitigation strategies, or Flex, that will increase the defense-in-depth capability for the nuclear power plants in the event of beyond design basis event, such as at the Fukushima Dai-ichi station. The objective of Flex is to establish and indefinite coping capability to prevent damage to the fuel in the core and spent fuel pool, and to maintain the containment function by utilizing installed equipment, on-site portable equipment and pre-staged off-site resources. This capability will address both an extended loss of all Ac power and a loss of ultimate heat sink which could arise following a design basis event with additional failures, and conditions from a beyond design basis event. (author)

  1. In-depth investigation of escalator riding accidents in heavy capacity MRT stations. (United States)

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Chang, Tin-Chang; Tsou, Chi-Lin


    In 2000, the accident rate for escalator riding was about 0.815 accidents per million passenger trips through Taipei Metro Rapid Transit (MRT) heavy capacity stations. In order to reduce the probability and severity of escalator riding accidents and enhance the safety of passengers, the Drury and Brill model [Drury, C.G., Brill, M., 1983. Human factors in consumer product accident investigation. Hum. Factors 25 (3), 329-342] for in-depth investigation was adopted to analyze the 194 escalator riding accidents in terms of victim, task, product and environment. Prevention measures have been developed based on the major causes of accidents and other related contributing factors. The results from the analysis indicated that the majority of the escalator riding accidents was caused by passengers' carrying out other tasks (38 cases, including carrying luggage 24 cases, looking after accompany persons 9 cases, and 5 others), loss of balance (26 cases, 13.4%), not holding the handrail (20 cases, 10.3%), unhealthy passengers (18 cases, 9.3%), followed by people struck by other passenger (16 cases, 8.2%). For female passengers aged 15-64 years, their rushing for trains accidents could have been prevented by wearing safer footwear or by appropriate signing being provided indicating the location and traveling direction of escalators. Female passengers aged 65 years and above whose accidents were caused by loss of balance, should be encouraged to take the elevator instead. To prevent entrapment injuries, following a stricter design code can be most effective. Further in-depth accident investigation is suggested to cover the activity of the victim prior to the accident, any involved product, the location of the accident on the escalator, any medical treatment, what went wrong, opinion of the respondent on the causes of the accident, and personal characteristics of the passengers. Also, management must trade off productivity and safety appropriately to prevent "Organizational

  2. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 19, 2015 ... Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling ...

  3. Algorithmic Issues in Modeling Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, P. K; Guibas, L. J; Edelsbrunner, H.


    This article is a survey of research areas in which motion plays a pivotal role. The aim of the article is to review current approaches to modeling motion together with related data structures and algorithms, and to summarize the challenges that lie ahead in producing a more unified theory...

  4. Rigid Motion and Adapted Frames (United States)

    Lyle, Stephen N.

    The aim here is to describe the rigid motion of a continuous medium in special and general relativity. Section 7.1 defines a rigid rod in special relativity, and Sect. 7.2 shows the link with the space coordinates of a certain kind of accelerating frame in flat spacetimes. Section 7.3 then sets up a notation for describing the arbitrary smooth motion of a continuous medium in general curved spacetimes, defining the proper metric of such a medium. Section 7.4 singles out rigid motions and shows that the rod in Sect. 7.1 undergoes rigid motion in the more generally defined sense. Section 7.5 defines a rate of strain tensor for a continuous medium in general relativity and reformulates the rigidity criterion. Section 7.6 aims to classify all possible rigid motions in special relativity, reemphasizing the link with semi-Euclidean frames adapted to accelerating observers in special relativity. Then, Sects. 7.7 and 7.8 describe rigid motion without rotation and rigid rotation, respectively. Along the way we introduce the notion of Fermi-Walker transport and discuss its relevance for rigid motions. Section 7.9 brings together all the above themes in an account of a recent generalization of the notion of uniform acceleration, thereby characterizing a wide class of rigid motions.

  5. Motion signals bias localization judgments (United States)

    Eagleman, David M.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.


    In the flash-lag illusion, a moving object aligned with a flash is perceived to be offset in the direction of motion following the flash. In the “flash-drag” illusion, a flash is mislocalized in the direction of nearby motion. In the “flash-jump” illusion, a transient change in the appearance of a moving object (e.g., color) is mislocalized in the direction of subsequent motion. Finally, in the Frohlich illusion, the starting position of a suddenly appearing moving object is mislocalized in the direction of the subsequent motion. We demonstrate, in a series of experiments, a unified explanation for all these illusions: Perceptual localization is influenced by motion signals collected over ∼80 ms after a query is triggered. These demonstrations rule out “latency difference” and asynchronous feature binding models, in which objects appear in their real positions but misaligned in time. Instead, the illusions explored here are best understood as biases in localization caused by motion signals. We suggest that motion biasing exists because it allows the visual system to account for neural processing delays by retrospectively “pushing” an object closer to its true physical location, and we propose directions for exploring the neural mechanisms underlying the dynamic updating of location by the activity of motion-sensitive neurons. PMID:17461687

  6. Isynchronous motion in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osypowski, E.; Olsson, M.G.


    Those oscillatory motions for which the period is independent of the total energy are investigated. There is only one corresponding symmetric potential, the quadratic potential of the simple harmonic motion but infinite classes of asymmetric potentials must be considered. Geometric and analytic requirements of isochronism are discussed and several specific examples are given

  7. Motion simulator with exchangeable unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.A.; Beukers, A.; Baarspul, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.; De Winter, S.E.E.


    A motion simulator provided with a movable housing, preferably carried by a number of length-adjustable legs, in which housing projection means are arranged for visual information supply, while in the housing a control environment of a motion apparatus to be simulated is situated, the control

  8. Commercially available video motion detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A market survey of commercially available video motion detection systems was conducted by the Intrusion Detection Systems Technology Division of Sandia Laboratories. The information obtained from this survey is summarized in this report. The cutoff date for this information is May 1978. A list of commercially available video motion detection systems is appended.

  9. Higher order equations of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.


    The possibility that the motion of elementary particles be described by higher order differential equations induced by supersymmetry in higher dimensional space-time is discussed. The specific example of six dimensions writing the corresponding Lagrangian and equations of motion, is presented. (author) [pt

  10. Commercially available video motion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A market survey of commercially available video motion detection systems was conducted by the Intrusion Detection Systems Technology Division of Sandia Laboratories. The information obtained from this survey is summarized in this report. The cutoff date for this information is May 1978. A list of commercially available video motion detection systems is appended

  11. A comparative analysis of modal motions for the gyroscopic and non-gyroscopic two degree-of-freedom conservative systems (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Dong; An, Hua-Zhen; Qian, Ying-Jing; Zhang, Wei; Melnik, Roderick V. N.


    The synchronous in-unison motions in vibrational mechanics and the non-synchronous out-of-unison motions are the most frequently found periodic motions in every fields of science and everywhere in the universe. In contrast to the in-unison normal modes, the out-of-unison complex modes feature a π/2 phase difference. By the complex mode analysis we classify the out-of-unison planar motion into two types, gyroscopic motions and elliptic motions. It is found that the gyroscopic and elliptic motions have different characteristics for a two degree-of-freedom (2DOF) system. The gyroscopic motion involves two distinct frequencies with, respectively, two corresponding complex modes. However, the elliptic motion the nonlinear non-gyroscopic 2DOF system with repeated frequencies involves only single frequency with corresponding two complex modes. The study of the differences and similarities of the gyroscopic and elliptic modes sheds new light on the in-depth mechanism of the planar motions in the universe and the man-made engineering systems.

  12. Canada Basin revealed (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth


    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  13. Absolute migration of Pacific basin mid-ocean ridges since 85 Ma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mid-ocean ridges are major physiographic features that dominate the world seafloor. Their absolute motion and tectonics are recorded in magnetic lineations they created. The absolute migration of mid-ocean ridges in the Pacific basin since 85 Ma and their tectonic implications was investigated in this work and the results ...

  14. Motion in a stochastic layer described by symbolic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misguich, J.H.; Reuss, J.D. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Elskens, Y. [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France); Balescu, R. [Association Euratom, Brussels (Belgium)


    The motion in the stochastic layer surrounding an island can be studied by using the standard map: this problem is of direct relevance to the diffusion of magnetic field lines in a tokamak. In a previous work it was shown that this process can be adequately modelled by a continuous time random walk (CTRW) describing transitions of the running point between three basins representing, respectively, trapped motion around the island, and passing motion above or below the island. The sticking property of the island deeply modifies the nature of the transport process, leading to sub-diffusive behavior. In the present work it is shown that the motion can be analyzed in terms of a symbolic dynamics which leads to the possibility of an automatic measurement of the data necessary for the construction of the CTRW. The logical features of the procedure are described, and the method is applied to an analysis of long time series, thus completing the results of the previous work. (author) 10 refs.

  15. Soliton trains in motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hause, A.; Mitschke, F.


    Two solitons in an optical fiber can form pairs in which the double-humped shape is maintained even when the pair is shifted in frequency by the Raman effect. We show here analytically that this is possible even when the two solitons have unequal power. We discuss the forces that cause relative motion of the two solitons, and determine a condition for balance, i.e., for a pair to maintain their separation while the phase keeps evolving. At a specific parameter point we find a solution in which even the phase profile of the pulse pair is maintained. We then discuss that this special point exists also for multipeak structures, or soliton trains. These trains can move as an entity due to Raman shifting. The results are tested by numerical simulation. A comparison to literature reveals that both the rotating phase pair and the constant phase soliton pair apparently have been seen before by others in numerical simulations. Our treatment provides the general framework.

  16. Measurement of shoulder motion fraction and motion ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yeong Han


    This study was to understand about the measurement of shoulder motion fraction and motion ratio. We proposed the radiological criterior of glenohumeral and scapulothoracic movement ratio. We measured the motion fraction of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic movement using CR (computed radiological system) of arm elevation at neutral, 90 degree, full elevation. Central ray was 15 .deg., 19 .deg., 22 .deg. to the cephald for the parallel scapular spine, and the tilting of torso was external oblique 40 .deg., 36 .deg., 22 .deg. for perpendicular to glenohumeral surface. Healthful donor of 100 was divided 5 groups by age (20, 30, 40, 50, 60). The angle of glenohumeral motion and scapulothoracic motion could be taken from gross arm angle and radiological arm angle. We acquired 3 images at neutral, 90 .deg. and full elevation position and measured radiographic angle of glenoheumeral, scapulothoracic movement respectively. While the arm elevation was 90 .deg., the shoulder motion fraction was 1.22 (M), 1.70 (W) in right arm and 1.31, 1.54 in left. In full elevation, Right arm fraction was 1.63, 1.84 and left was 1.57, 1.32. In right dominant arm (78%), 90 .deg. and Full motion fraction was 1.58, 1.43, in left (22%) 1.82, 1.94. In generation 20, 90 .deg. and Full motion fraction was 1.56, 1.52, 30' was 1.82, 1.43, 40' was 1.23, 1.16, 50' was 1.80, 1.28,60' was 1.24, 1.75. There was not significantly by gender, dominant arm and age. The criteria of motion fraction was useful reference for clinical diagnosis the shoulder instability

  17. Measurement of shoulder motion fraction and motion ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han [Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    This study was to understand about the measurement of shoulder motion fraction and motion ratio. We proposed the radiological criterior of glenohumeral and scapulothoracic movement ratio. We measured the motion fraction of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic movement using CR (computed radiological system) of arm elevation at neutral, 90 degree, full elevation. Central ray was 15 .deg., 19 .deg., 22 .deg. to the cephald for the parallel scapular spine, and the tilting of torso was external oblique 40 .deg., 36 .deg., 22 .deg. for perpendicular to glenohumeral surface. Healthful donor of 100 was divided 5 groups by age (20, 30, 40, 50, 60). The angle of glenohumeral motion and scapulothoracic motion could be taken from gross arm angle and radiological arm angle. We acquired 3 images at neutral, 90 .deg. and full elevation position and measured radiographic angle of glenoheumeral, scapulothoracic movement respectively. While the arm elevation was 90 .deg., the shoulder motion fraction was 1.22 (M), 1.70 (W) in right arm and 1.31, 1.54 in left. In full elevation, Right arm fraction was 1.63, 1.84 and left was 1.57, 1.32. In right dominant arm (78%), 90 .deg. and Full motion fraction was 1.58, 1.43, in left (22%) 1.82, 1.94. In generation 20, 90 .deg. and Full motion fraction was 1.56, 1.52, 30' was 1.82, 1.43, 40' was 1.23, 1.16, 50' was 1.80, 1.28,60' was 1.24, 1.75. There was not significantly by gender, dominant arm and age. The criteria of motion fraction was useful reference for clinical diagnosis the shoulder instability.

  18. Ground motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake II: Ground motion estimates for the 1906 earthquake and scenario events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B; Brocher, T; Dreger, D; Frankel, A; Graves, R; Harmsen, S; Hartzell, S; Larsen, S; McCandless, K; Nilsson, S; Petersson, N A; Rodgers, A; Sjogreen, B; Tkalcic, H; Zoback, M L


    We estimate the ground motions produced by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.

  19. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus...

  20. Motion perception in motion : how we perceive object motion during smooth pursuit eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souman, J.L.


    Eye movements change the retinal image motion of objects in the visual field. When we make an eye movement, the image of a stationary object will move across the retinae, while the retinal image of an object that we follow with the eyes is approximately stationary. To enable us to perceive motion in

  1. "Defense-in-Depth" Laser Safety and the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J J


    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the largest and most energetic laser in the world contained in a complex the size of a football stadium. From the initial laser pulse, provided by telecommunication style infrared nanoJoule pulsed lasers, to the final 192 laser beams (1.8 Mega Joules total energy in the ultraviolet) converging on a target the size of a pencil eraser, laser safety is of paramount concern. In addition to this, there are numerous high-powered (Class 3B and 4) diagnostic lasers in use that can potentially send their laser radiation travelling throughout the facility. With individual beam paths of up to 1500 meters and a workforce of more than one thousand, the potential for exposure is significant. Simple laser safety practices utilized in typical laser labs just don't apply. To mitigate these hazards, NIF incorporates a multi layered approach to laser safety or 'Defense in Depth.' Most typical high-powered laser operations are contained and controlled within a single room using relatively simplistic controls to protect both the worker and the public. Laser workers are trained, use a standard operating procedure, and are required to wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) such as Laser Protective Eyewear (LPE) if the system is not fully enclosed. Non-workers are protected by means of posting the room with a warning sign and a flashing light. In the best of cases, a Safety Interlock System (SIS) will be employed which will 'safe' the laser in the case of unauthorized access. This type of laser operation is relatively easy to employ and manage. As the operation becomes more complex, higher levels of control are required to ensure personnel safety. Examples requiring enhanced controls are outdoor and multi-room laser operations. At the NIF there are 192 beam lines and numerous other Class 4 diagnostic lasers that can potentially deliver their hazardous energy to locations far from the laser source. This presents a serious

  2. 'Defense-in-Depth' Laser Safety and the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.J.


    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the largest and most energetic laser in the world contained in a complex the size of a football stadium. From the initial laser pulse, provided by telecommunication style infrared nanoJoule pulsed lasers, to the final 192 laser beams (1.8 Mega Joules total energy in the ultraviolet) converging on a target the size of a pencil eraser, laser safety is of paramount concern. In addition to this, there are numerous high-powered (Class 3B and 4) diagnostic lasers in use that can potentially send their laser radiation travelling throughout the facility. With individual beam paths of up to 1500 meters and a workforce of more than one thousand, the potential for exposure is significant. Simple laser safety practices utilized in typical laser labs just don't apply. To mitigate these hazards, NIF incorporates a multi layered approach to laser safety or 'Defense in Depth.' Most typical high-powered laser operations are contained and controlled within a single room using relatively simplistic controls to protect both the worker and the public. Laser workers are trained, use a standard operating procedure, and are required to wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) such as Laser Protective Eyewear (LPE) if the system is not fully enclosed. Non-workers are protected by means of posting the room with a warning sign and a flashing light. In the best of cases, a Safety Interlock System (SIS) will be employed which will 'safe' the laser in the case of unauthorized access. This type of laser operation is relatively easy to employ and manage. As the operation becomes more complex, higher levels of control are required to ensure personnel safety. Examples requiring enhanced controls are outdoor and multi-room laser operations. At the NIF there are 192 beam lines and numerous other Class 4 diagnostic lasers that can potentially deliver their hazardous energy to locations far from the laser source. This presents a serious and complex potential

  3. Ground motion modeling of Hayward fault scenario earthquakes II:Simulation of long-period and broadband ground motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B T; Graves, R W; Rodgers, A; Brocher, T M; Simpson, R W; Dreger, D; Petersson, N A; Larsen, S C; Ma, S; Jachens, R C


    We simulate long-period (T > 1.0-2.0 s) and broadband (T > 0.1 s) ground motions for 39 scenarios earthquakes (Mw 6.7-7.2) involving the Hayward, Calaveras, and Rodgers Creek faults. For rupture on the Hayward fault we consider the effects of creep on coseismic slip using two different approaches, both of which reduce the ground motions compared with neglecting the influence of creep. Nevertheless, the scenario earthquakes generate strong shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area with about 50% of the urban area experiencing MMI VII or greater for the magnitude 7.0 scenario events. Long-period simulations of the 2007 Mw 4.18 Oakland and 2007 Mw 4.5 Alum Rock earthquakes show that the USGS Bay Area Velocity Model version 08.3.0 permits simulation of the amplitude and duration of shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area, with the greatest accuracy in the Santa Clara Valley (San Jose area). The ground motions exhibit a strong sensitivity to the rupture length (or magnitude), hypocenter (or rupture directivity), and slip distribution. The ground motions display a much weaker sensitivity to the rise time and rupture speed. Peak velocities, peak accelerations, and spectral accelerations from the synthetic broadband ground motions are, on average, slightly higher than the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) ground-motion prediction equations. We attribute at least some of this difference to the relatively narrow width of the Hayward fault ruptures. The simulations suggest that the Spudich and Chiou (2008) directivity corrections to the NGA relations could be improved by including a dependence on the rupture speed and increasing the areal extent of rupture directivity with period. The simulations also indicate that the NGA relations may under-predict amplification in shallow sedimentary basins.

  4. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case - Crasna River Basin (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert


    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  5. Multi-Sensor Methods for Mobile Radar Motion Capture and Compensation (United States)

    Nakata, Robert

    Remote sensing has many applications, including surveying and mapping, geophysics exploration, military surveillance, search and rescue and counter-terrorism operations. Remote sensor systems typically use visible image, infrared or radar sensors. Camera based image sensors can provide high spatial resolution but are limited to line-of-sight capture during daylight. Infrared sensors have lower resolution but can operate during darkness. Radar sensors can provide high resolution motion measurements, even when obscured by weather, clouds and smoke and can penetrate walls and collapsed structures constructed with non-metallic materials up to 1 m to 2 m in depth depending on the wavelength and transmitter power level. However, any platform motion will degrade the target signal of interest. In this dissertation, we investigate alternative methodologies to capture platform motion, including a Body Area Network (BAN) that doesn't require external fixed location sensors, allowing full mobility of the user. We also investigated platform stabilization and motion compensation techniques to reduce and remove the signal distortion introduced by the platform motion. We evaluated secondary ultrasonic and radar sensors to stabilize the platform resulting in an average 5 dB of Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) improvement. We also implemented a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) motion compensation algorithm that improved the SIR by 18 dB on average. These techniques could be deployed on a quadcopter platform and enable the detection of respiratory motion using an onboard radar sensor.

  6. Learned Non-Rigid Object Motion is a View-Invariant Cue to Recognizing Novel Objects. (United States)

    Chuang, Lewis L; Vuong, Quoc C; Bülthoff, Heinrich H


    There is evidence that observers use learned object motion to recognize objects. For instance, studies have shown that reversing the learned direction in which a rigid object rotated in depth impaired recognition accuracy. This motion reversal can be achieved by playing animation sequences of moving objects in reverse frame order. In the current study, we used this sequence-reversal manipulation to investigate whether observers encode the motion of dynamic objects in visual memory, and whether such dynamic representations are encoded in a way that is dependent on the viewing conditions. Participants first learned dynamic novel objects, presented as animation sequences. Following learning, they were then tested on their ability to recognize these learned objects when their animation sequence was shown in the same sequence order as during learning or in the reverse sequence order. In Experiment 1, we found that non-rigid motion contributed to recognition performance; that is, sequence-reversal decreased sensitivity across different tasks. In subsequent experiments, we tested the recognition of non-rigidly deforming (Experiment 2) and rigidly rotating (Experiment 3) objects across novel viewpoints. Recognition performance was affected by viewpoint changes for both experiments. Learned non-rigid motion continued to contribute to recognition performance and this benefit was the same across all viewpoint changes. By comparison, learned rigid motion did not contribute to recognition performance. These results suggest that non-rigid motion provides a source of information for recognizing dynamic objects, which is not affected by changes to viewpoint.

  7. Drainage basins features and hydrological behaviour river Minateda basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Sarria, F.


    Nine basin variables (shape, size and topology) have been analyzed in four small basins with non-permanent run off (SE of Spain). These geomorphological variables have been selected for their high correlation with the Instantaneous unit hydrograph parameters. It is shown that the variables can change from one small basin to another within a very short area; because of it, generalizations about the behaviour of the run off are not possible. In conclusion, it is stated that the variations in geomorphological aspects between different basins, caused mainly by geological constraints, are a very important factor to be controlled in a study of geoecological change derived from climatic change

  8. Muon motion in titanium hydride (United States)

    Kempton, J. R.; Petzinger, K. G.; Kossler, W. J.; Schone, H. E.; Hitti, B. S.; Stronach, C. E.; Adu, N.; Lankford, W. F.; Reilly, J. J.; Seymour, E. F. W.


    Motional narrowing of the transverse-field muon spin rotation signal was observed in gamma-TiH(x) for x = 1.83, 1.97, and 1.99. An analysis of the data for TiH1.99 near room temperature indicates that the mechanism responsible for the motion of the muon out of the octahedral site is thermally activated diffusion with an attempt frequency comparable to the optical vibrations of the lattice. Monte Carlo calculations to simulate the effect of muon and proton motion upon the muon field-correlation time were used to interpret the motional narrowing in TiH1.97 near 500 K. The interpretation is dependent upon whether the Bloembergen, Purcell, and Pound (BPP) theory or an independent spin-pair relaxation model is used to obtain the vacancy jump rate from proton NMR T1 measurements. Use of BPP theory shows that the field-correction time can be obtained if the rate of motion of the muon with respect to the rate of the motion for the protons is decreased. An independent spin-pair relaxation model indicates that the field-correlation time can be obtained if the rate of motion for the nearest-neighbor protons is decreased.

  9. Motion sickness on tilting trains. (United States)

    Cohen, Bernard; Dai, Mingjia; Ogorodnikov, Dmitri; Laurens, Jean; Raphan, Theodore; Müller, Philippe; Athanasios, Alexiou; Edmaier, Jürgen; Grossenbacher, Thomas; Stadtmüller, Klaus; Brugger, Ueli; Hauser, Gerald; Straumann, Dominik


    Trains that tilt on curves can go faster, but passengers complain of motion sickness. We studied the control signals and tilts to determine why this occurs and how to maintain speed while eliminating motion sickness. Accelerometers and gyros monitored train and passenger yaw and roll, and a survey evaluated motion sickness. The experimental train had 3 control configurations: an untilted mode, a reactive mode that detected curves from sensors on the front wheel set, and a predictive mode that determined curves from the train's position on the tracks. No motion sickness was induced in the untilted mode, but the train ran 21% slower than when it tilted 8° in either the reactive or predictive modes (113 vs. 137 km/h). Roll velocities rose and fell faster in the predictive than the reactive mode when entering and leaving turns (0.4 vs. 0.8 s for a 4°/s roll tilt, P<0.001). Concurrently, motion sickness was greater (P<0.001) in the reactive mode. We conclude that the slower rise in roll velocity during yaw rotations on entering and leaving curves had induced the motion sickness. Adequate synchronization of roll tilt with yaw velocity on curves will reduce motion sickness and improve passenger comfort on tilting trains.

  10. Open architecture CMM motion controller (United States)

    Chang, David; Spence, Allan D.; Bigg, Steve; Heslip, Joe; Peterson, John


    Although initially the only Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) sensor available was a touch trigger probe, technological advances in sensors and computing have greatly increased the variety of available inspection sensors. Non-contact laser digitizers and analog scanning touch probes require very well tuned CMM motion control, as well as an extensible, open architecture interface. This paper describes the implementation of a retrofit CMM motion controller designed for open architecture interface to a variety of sensors. The controller is based on an Intel Pentium microcomputer and a Servo To Go motion interface electronics card. Motor amplifiers, safety, and additional interface electronics are housed in a separate enclosure. Host Signal Processing (HSP) is used for the motion control algorithm. Compared to the usual host plus DSP architecture, single CPU HSP simplifies integration with the various sensors, and implementation of software geometric error compensation. Motion control tuning is accomplished using a remote computer via 100BaseTX Ethernet. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is used to enter geometric error compensation data, and to optimize the motion control tuning parameters. It is shown that this architecture achieves the required real time motion control response, yet is much easier to extend to additional sensors.

  11. Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary basins related to the distribution of planetary cryptoblemes (United States)

    Windolph, J.F.


    Massive/high velocity solar, galactic, and cosmic debris impacting the Earths surface may account for the enormous energy required for the formation of Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary basins and related mountain building orogenies. Analysis of satellite immagry, sea floor sonar, geophysical data, and geotectonic fabrics show a strong correlation throughout geologic time between sedimentary basin origin and planetary cryptoblemes. Cryptoblemes are subtile, multi-ringed, radial centric impact shock signatures covering the entire terrestrial surface and ocean floors, having a geometry and distribution strikingly similar to the surfaces of the lunar planetary bodies in the solar system. Investigations of Permo-Carboniferous basins show an intensely overprinted pattern of cryptoblemes coinciding with partial obliteration and elliptical compression of pre-existing basins and accompanying shock patterns. Large distorted cryptoblemes may incorporate thin skin deformation, localized sediment diagenesis, regional metamorphism, and juxtaposed exotic terrains. These data, related to basin morphogenic symmetry, suggest that large episodic impact events are the primary cause of tectonogenic features, geologic boundary formation and mass extinction episodes on the planet Earth. Plate tectonics may be only a slow moving, low energy secondary effect defined and set in motion by megacosmic accretion events. Permo-Carboniferous sediments of note are preserved or accumulated in relatively small rectangular to arcuate rift valleys and synclinal down warps, such as the Narraganset basin of Massachusetts, USA, and Paganzo basin in Argentina, S.A. These deposits and depocenters may originate from dynamic reinforcement/cancellation impact effects, as can be seen in the Basin Range of Nevada and Utah, USA. Large circular to oval sedimentary basins commonly include internal ring structures indicating post depositional subsidence and rebound adjustments with growth faulting, notable in the

  12. Motion Compensation on DCT Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Ray Liu


    Full Text Available Alternative fully DCT-based video codec architectures have been proposed in the past to address the shortcomings of the conventional hybrid motion compensated DCT video codec structures traditionally chosen as the basis of implementation of standard-compliant codecs. However, no prior effort has been made to ensure interoperability of these two drastically different architectures so that fully DCT-based video codecs are fully compatible with the existing video coding standards. In this paper, we establish the criteria for matching conventional codecs with fully DCT-based codecs. We find that the key to this interoperability lies in the heart of the implementation of motion compensation modules performed in the spatial and transform domains at both the encoder and the decoder. Specifically, if the spatial-domain motion compensation is compatiable with the transform-domain motion compensation, then the states in both the coder and the decoder will keep track of each other even after a long series of P-frames. Otherwise, the states will diverge in proportion to the number of P-frames between two I-frames. This sets an important criterion for the development of any DCT-based motion compensation schemes. We also discuss and develop some DCT-based motion compensation schemes as important building blocks of fully DCT-based codecs. For the case of subpixel motion compensation, DCT-based approaches allow more accurate interpolation without any increase in computation. Furthermore, a scare number of DCT coefficients after quantization significantly decreases the number of calculations required for motion compensation. Coupled with the DCT-based motion estimation algorithms, it is possible to realize fully DCT-based codecs to overcome the disadvantages of conventional hybrid codecs.

  13. What motion is: William Neile and the laws of motion. (United States)

    Kemeny, Max


    In 1668-1669 William Neile and John Wallis engaged in a protracted correspondence regarding the nature of motion. Neile was unhappy with the laws of motion that had been established by the Royal Society in three papers published in 1668, deeming them not explanations of motion at all, but mere descriptions. Neile insisted that science could not be informative without a discussion of causes, meaning that Wallis's purely kinematic account of collision could not be complete. Wallis, however, did not consider Neile's objections to his work to be serious. Rather than engage in a discussion of the proper place of natural philosophy in science, Wallis decided to show how Neile's preferred treatment of motion lead to absurd conclusions. This dispute is offered as a case study of dispute resolution within the early Royal Society.

  14. Teachers' Experience of Working with Socio-scientific Issues: A Large Scale and in Depth Study (United States)

    Ekborg, Margareta; Ottander, Christina; Silfver, Eva; Simon, Shirley


    The research is an investigation of teachers' experience of working with socio-scientific issues (SSI). A large group of teachers (55) chose one of six cases with the characteristics of SSI and were free to organize the work as they found appropriate. The research focuses on how teachers chose content, organized their work and experienced the students' interest and learning. The teachers answered a questionnaire after working with the cases and seven of them were interviewed to provide in-depth understanding of issues raised in the questionnaire. The teachers found the SSI to be current topics with interesting content and relevant tasks and they felt confident about the work. They were quite content with the students' learning of scientific facts, how to apply scientific knowledge and to search for information. However, they found that the students did not easily formulate questions, critically examine arguments or use media to obtain information about the task. The interviewed teachers did not find this work new, but they organized it as `a special event'. They understood SSI work as `free' work and group work was frequent, but only a few of the teachers developed explicit strategies for teaching SSI. They had different ideas about learning but they all talked about knowledge as a set of facts to be taken in by the students. They all included elements of SSI but mostly to introduce the regular science content. However the teachers started to reflect upon the potential of using SSI to cover more goals in the curriculum.

  15. An in-depth analysis of pharmaceutical regulation in the Republic of Moldova. (United States)

    Ferrario, Alessandra; Sautenkova, Nina; Bezverhni, Zinaida; Seicas, Rita; Habicht, Jarno; Kanavos, Panos; Safta, Vladimir


    Regulation of the pharmaceutical system is a crucial, yet often neglected, component in ensuring access to safe and effective medicines. The aim of this study was to provide an in-depth analysis of the existing pharmaceutical regulation, including recent changes, in the Republic of Moldova. Data from field work conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) together with a review of policy documents and quantitative secondary data analysis was used to achieve this aim. This analysis identified several ways in which pharmaceutical regulation affects availability of quality medicines in the Republic of Moldova. These include lack of full implementation bioequivalence requirements for generics registration, incomplete implementation of good manufacturing practices and no implementation of good distribution practices, use of quality control instead of quality assurance as a method to ensure quality of medicines, frequent change of power within the Medicines and Medical Devices Agency (MMDA) leading to lack of long-term strategy and plans, conflict of interest between the different functions of the MMDA, the lack of sufficient funding for the MMDA to conduct its activities and to invest in continuous training of its staff (particularly inspectors) and very weak post-marketing control. Notably, several improvements have been recently introduced, including a roadmap for change for the MMDA, the introduction of good manufacturing practices and the drafting of a quality manual for the Agency. Based on these findings the authors propose a set of priority actions to address existing gaps and draw lessons learned from other countries.

  16. The concept of 'vulnerability' in research ethics: an in-depth analysis of policies and guidelines. (United States)

    Bracken-Roche, Dearbhail; Bell, Emily; Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Racine, Eric


    The concept of vulnerability has held a central place in research ethics guidance since its introduction in the United States Belmont Report in 1979. It signals mindfulness for researchers and research ethics boards to the possibility that some participants may be at higher risk of harm or wrong. Despite its important intended purpose and widespread use, there is considerable disagreement in the scholarly literature about the meaning and delineation of vulnerability, stemming from a perceived lack of guidance within research ethics standards. The aim of this study was to assess the concept of vulnerability as it is employed in major national and international research ethics policies and guidelines. We conducted an in-depth analysis of 11 (five national and six international) research ethics policies and guidelines, exploring their discussions of the definition, application, normative justification and implications of vulnerability. Few policies and guidelines explicitly defined vulnerability, instead relying on implicit assumptions and the delineation of vulnerable groups and sources of vulnerability. On the whole, we found considerable richness in the content on vulnerability across policies, but note that this relies heavily on the structure imposed on the data through our analysis. Our results underscore a need for policymakers to revisit the guidance on vulnerability in research ethics, and we propose that a process of stakeholder engagement would well-support this effort.

  17. Indian nuclear literature - contribution to INIS data base : an in-depth analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaraman, Kamala


    An attempt has been made to analyse the Indian nuclear literature that has gone to form part of the INIS (International Nuclear Information System) Data Base as the contribution from India over the last five years. The in-depth analysis is based on the subject-wise statistics collected over the period 1975-1979 and gives a good idea of the wide coverage of nuclear literature published in the country. The inputs have been drawn from about 150 to 170 journals, 8 to 10 proceedings of conferences and symposia, 100 reports and other types of literature while the topics of symposia, reports and journal articles vary from pure physics and chemistry to any branch of engineering and biology. India has emerged as one of the most consistent inputters to the INIS Data Base, besides being the topmost amongst the developing countries. Though no claims or absolute statements are made on the actual state of Indian Scientific literature or its R and D activities, the analysis yet enables one to get a broad overall view of the same with the data available with the INIS group at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. (K.B.)

  18. Defence in depth in design of NPPs: pre and post Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Koley, J.; Bansal, P.; Harikumar, S.


    The strategy for Defence in Depth (DiD) always remained twofold, to prevent accidents and to limit their potential consequences and in that priority. It was realized that preventing the degradation of plant status and performance generally will provide the most effective protection of the public and the environment. Robustness of the design provisions for handling the postulated initiating events within the design basis is a regulatory requirement, and their availability and operability is monitored through the existing licensing and inspection mechanisms. India introduced the periodic safety review (PSR) of its operating NPPs as early as in the year 1993. Review during PSR involves comparison with the current safety requirements/practices. Ageing management and preservation of equipment qualification of structures, systems and components (SSC) also form an important part of the review during PSR. Such reviews along with extensive operational experience feedback and feedback from special safety assessments of Indian NPPs conducted subsequent to accidents at ‘Three Miles Island’ (USA), Chernobyl (Former USSR) and incident of Narora fire in India, led to substantial safety up-gradations in the past in Indian NPPs. Subsequently, reviews following the external events like flooding at KAPS and the tsunami at MAPS in 2004, led to additional enhancement of safety of Indian NPPs with respect to external hazards. This paper provides insights into such review and their outcome that not only maintained the level of safety in older NPPs but continually enhanced the safety level

  19. Challenges and Needs of Chinese and Korean American Breast Cancer Survivors: In-Depth Interviews. (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; Ma, Grace X; Fang, Carolyn Y; Oh, Youngsuk; Scully, Lynn


    Breast cancer incidence and the number of breast cancer survivors have been rapidly increasing among Chinese and Korean women in the United States. However, few data are available regarding quality of life in Asian American breast cancer survivors. This qualitative study aims to describe Asian American women's perceptions of quality of life and their breast cancer experiences. In-depth interviews with four Chinese and five Korean American breast cancer survivors and three oncologists were conducted in Chinese, Korean, or English. Interviews were recorded and transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative analyses were performed by two independent coders and then discussed and agreed upon by the research team. The respondents reported that the breast cancer experience had affected various domains of quality of life, but women reported having limited resources with which to cope effectively. Depression, anxiety, and stress were commonly reported, but women rarely discussed these issues with family and friends or sought professional help. As immigrants, women's loneliness and a lack of social support and culturally relevant resources seemed to be major barriers to maintaining good quality of life. Women also expressed interest in learning more about alternative therapies and relaxation skills. These findings can be used to help inform the development of a culturally appropriate intervention for Asian American breast cancer survivors. Future programs may provide information in women's native languages to teach skills to cope with stress and anxiety, increase women's self-efficacy within the context of their cultural background, and enhance social support among women from the same ethnic group.

  20. Living and dying with metastatic bowel cancer: Serial in-depth interviews with patients. (United States)

    Carduff, E; Kendall, M; Murray, S A


    Colorectal cancer is the second highest cause of cancer deaths. There are significant physical and psycho-social effects on quality of life with advanced disease. Despite this, there are few accounts of the patient experience from advanced illness through to dying. We elicited the longitudinal experiences of living and dying with incurable metastatic colorectal cancer by conducting serial interviews with patients for 12 months or until they died. The interviews were analysed, using a narrative approach, longitudinally as case studies and then together. Thirty-six interviews with 16 patients were conducted. Patients experience metastatic colorectal cancer in three phases; (1) Diagnosis and initial treatment; (2) Deterioration and social isolation and (3) Death and dying. Many patients initially said they hoped to survive, but, as "private" and in-depth accounts of the experience emerged in further interviews, so did the understanding that this hope co-existed with the knowledge that death was near. Palliative chemotherapy and the challenge of accessing private accounts of patient experience can inhibit care planning and prevent patients benefitting from an active holistic palliative care approach earlier in the disease trajectory. This study has immediate clinical relevance for health care professionals in oncology, palliative care and primary care. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Cancer Care Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. How do palliative medicine specialists conceptualize depression? Findings from a qualitative in-depth interview study. (United States)

    Ng, Felicity; Crawford, Gregory B; Chur-Hansen, Anna


    Different professional conceptualizations of depression may complicate the clinical approach to depression in the palliative care setting. This study aimed to explore and characterize how palliative medicine specialists conceptualize depression. Palliative medicine specialists (i.e., consultants/attending physicians in palliative medicine) practicing in Australia were recruited. Participants were purposively sampled. Individual semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted to explore their conceptualizations of depression. Nine participants were interviewed to reach data saturation. Interview transcripts were analyzed for themes. Four main themes were identified in relation to the conceptualization of depression: (1) depression is a varied concept--it was variously considered as abnormal, a medical problem, an emotional experience, a social product, and an action-oriented construct; (2) depression has unclear boundaries, with differentiation between depression and sadness being especially challenging; (3) depression is different in the palliative care setting--it was seen as more understandable, and distinct from depression that predates life-limiting illnesses; and (4) depression is a challenging issue. Depression is conceptualized by palliative medicine specialists in divergent, ontologically heterogeneous and ill-defined ways. A unitary concept of depression was not evident in this study. The concepts of depression need to be actively debated and refined in clinical practice, medical education, and research in order for more sophisticated and consistent models to be developed. The distinction of de novo depression from recurrent or persistent forms of depression also warrants further study.

  2. Psychological strains found from in-depth interviews with 105 Chinese rural youth suicides. (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Dong, Nini; Delprino, Robert; Zhou, Li


    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of different aspects of psychological strain in Chinese rural young suicides, so as to test the strain theory of suicide with the Chinese samples. A Psychological Autopsy (PA) was conducted on 105 suicides in rural China. The background and deep reasons for suicide were obtained from in-depth interviews with survivors and close friends. For each suicide, a story is composed out of the provided information, and the stories were content-analyzed with the SPSS Text Analysis for Surveys. Depression or other mental disorders were observed for less than half of the sampled suicides (42.9%). All suicides (100%) had experienced at least one type of the four strains: conflicting values; aspiration and reality; relative deprivation; and coping deficiency. While 24.9% of all suicides experienced only one type of strain, 36.2% experienced two types of strains, 32.4% experienced three types of strains, and only 6.7% of the suicides experienced all four types of strains. Males are more likely than females to experience aspiration and deprivation strains, and the younger suicides (15-22 years of age) were more likely than the older suicides (23-29 years of age) to experience coping strain. Psychological strains are more prevalent than mental disorders among Chinese rural young suicides. Mental illness might be a function of strain resulting from some negative life events, and future studies need to disentangle the relationship between strain and mental disorders.

  3. Understanding women's experiences with medical abortion: In-depth interviews with women in two Indian clinics. (United States)

    Ganatra, B; Kalyanwala, S; Elul, B; Coyaji, K; Tewari, S


    We explored women's perspectives on using medical abortion, including their reasons for selecting the method, their experiences with it and their thoughts regarding demedicalisation of part or all of the process. Sixty-three women from two urban clinics in India were interviewed within four weeks of abortion completion using a semi-structured in-depth interview guide. While women appreciated the non-invasiveness of medical abortion, other factors influencing method selection were family support and distance from the facility. The degree of medicalisation that women wanted or felt was necessary also depended on the way expectations were set by their providers. Confirmation of abortion completion was a source of anxiety for many women and led to unnecessary interventions in a few cases. Ultimately, experiences depended more on women's expectations about the method, and on the level of emotional and logistic support they received rather than on inherent characteristics of the method. These findings emphasise the circumstances under which women make reproductive choices and underscore the need to tailor service delivery to meet women's needs. Women-centred counselling and care that takes into consideration individual circumstances are needed.

  4. Ion-beam-induced topography and compositional changes in depth profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.


    When energetic ions penetrate and stop in solids they not only add a new atomic constituent to the matrix but they also create atomic recoils and defects. The fluxes of these entities can give rise to spatial redistribution of atomic components, which may be partly or completely balanced by reordering and relaxation processes. These latter, in turn, may be influenced by fields and gradients induced by the primary relocation processes and by the energy deposited. These will include quasi-thermal, concentration (or chemical potential) and electrostatic gradients and may act to enhance or suppress atomic redistribution. Some, or all, of these processes will operate, depending upon the system under study, when energetic ions are employed to sputter erode a substrate for depth sectioning and, quite generally, can perturb the atomic depth profile that it is intended to evaluate. Theoretical and computational approaches to modelling such processes will be outlined and experimental examples shown which illustrate specific phenomena. In particular the accumulation of implant species and defect generation or redistribution can modify, with increasing ion fluence, the local sputtering mechanism and create further problems in depth profile analysis as a changing surface topography penetrates the solid. Examples of such topographic evolution and its influence on depth profiling analysis will be given and models to explain general and specific behaviour will be outlined. The commonality of models which examine both depth-dependent composition modification and surface topography evolution will be stressed. (author)

  5. An In-Depth Analysis of Tags and Controlled Metadata for Book Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien


    Book search for information needs that go beyond standard bibliographic data is far from a solved problem. Such complex information needs often cover a combination of di erent aspects, such as specific genres or plot elements, engagement or novelty. By design, subject information in controlled vo....... Finally, we perform a detailed failure analysis and show, using tags and controlled vocabulary terms, that some request types are inherently more di cult to solve than others....... vocabularies is not always adequate in covering such complex needs, and social tags have been proposed as an alternative. In this paper we present a large-scale empirical comparison and in-depth analysis of the value of controlled vocabularies and tags for book retrieval using a test collection of over 2...... million book records and over 330 real-world book information needs. We find that while tags and controlled vocabulary terms provide complementary performance, tags perform better overall. However, this is not due to a popularity e ect; instead, tags are better at matching the language of regular users...

  6. Defense-in-depth and diversity assessment of the RESAR-414 Integrated Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report discusses the defense-in-depth and diversity principles as they apply to safety related instrumentation and presents guidelines which can be used to assess the degree to which the designs of complex, interconnected safety systems conform to these principles. These guidelines are based on the use of the block concept, an approach in which the components and modules of the system are aggregated into a small number of functional units, or blocks, to simplify the analysis. It is believed that the use of the block concept and the guidelines will result in a conservative assessment of the capability of such systems to function when subjected to postulated to common-mode failures. A preliminary assessment of the RESAR-414 Integrated Protection System by means of the guidelines is also presented. The results of this assessment support the conclusion that, for purposes of a preliminary design approval, the RESAR-414 Integrated Protection System is acceptable. However, the assessment, has also resulted in requirements for additional analyses and tests, the results of which must demonstrate conformance to the guidelines prior to the issuance of a Final Design Approval

  7. Wind wave analysis in depth limited water using OCEANLYZ, A MATLAB toolbox (United States)

    Karimpour, Arash; Chen, Qin


    There are a number of well established methods in the literature describing how to assess and analyze measured wind wave data. However, obtaining reliable results from these methods requires adequate knowledge on their behavior, strengths and weaknesses. A proper implementation of these methods requires a series of procedures including a pretreatment of the raw measurements, and adjustment and refinement of the processed data to provide quality assurance of the outcomes, otherwise it can lead to untrustworthy results. This paper discusses potential issues in these procedures, explains what parameters are influential for the outcomes and suggests practical solutions to avoid and minimize the errors in the wave results. The procedure of converting the water pressure data into the water surface elevation data, treating the high frequency data with a low signal-to-noise ratio, partitioning swell energy from wind sea, and estimating the peak wave frequency from the weighted integral of the wave power spectrum are described. Conversion and recovery of the data acquired by a pressure transducer, particularly in depth-limited water like estuaries and lakes, are explained in detail. To provide researchers with tools for a reliable estimation of wind wave parameters, the Ocean Wave Analyzing toolbox, OCEANLYZ, is introduced. The toolbox contains a number of MATLAB functions for estimation of the wave properties in time and frequency domains. The toolbox has been developed and examined during a number of the field study projects in Louisiana's estuaries.

  8. In-depth study of personality disorders in first-admission patients with substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langås Anne-Marit


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of comorbid personality disorders (PDs in patients with substance use disorders (SUDs is challenging due to symptom overlap, additional mental and physical disorders, and limitations of the assessment methods. Our in-depth study applied methods to overcome these difficulties. Method A complete catchment area sample of 61 consecutively admitted patients with SUDs, with no previous history of specialized treatment (addiction clinics, psychiatry were studied, addressing PDs and associated clinical and demographic variables. The thorough assessments included the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders. Results Forty-six percent of the SUD patients had at least one PD (16% antisocial [males only]; 13% borderline; and 8% paranoid, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive, respectively. Cluster C disorders were as prevalent as Cluster B disorders. SUD patients with PDs were younger at the onset of their first SUD and at admission; used more illicit drugs; had more anxiety disorders, particularly social phobia; had more severe depressive symptoms; were more distressed; and less often attended work or school. Conclusion The psychiatric comorbidity and symptom load of SUD patients with PDs differed from those of SUD patients without PDs, suggesting different treatment needs, and stressing the value of the assessment of PDs in SUD patients.

  9. In-depth proteomic analysis of banana (Musa spp.) fruit with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries. (United States)

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio


    Musa ssp. is among the world's leading fruit crops. Although a strong interest on banana biochemistry exists in the scientific community, focused on metabolite composition, proteins have been scarcely investigated even if they play an important role in food allergy and stability, are a source of biologically active peptides, and can provide information about nutritional aspects of this fruit. In this work we have employed the combinatorial peptide ligand libraries after different types of protein extractions, for searching the very low-abundance proteins in banana. The use of advanced MS techniques and Musa ssp. mRNAs database in combination with the Uniprot_viridiplantae database allowed us to identify 1131 proteins. Among this huge amount of proteins we found several already known allergens such as Mus a 1, pectinesterase, superoxide dismutase, and potentially new allergens. Additionally several enzymes involved in degradation of starch granules and strictly correlated to ripening stage were identified. This is the first in-depth exploration of the banana fruit proteome and one of the largest descriptions of the proteome of any vegetable system. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Configuration of risk monitor system by plant defense-in-depth risk monitor and reliability monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Lind Morten; Yang Ming; Hashim Muhammad; Zhang Zhijian


    A new method of risk monitor system of a nuclear power plant has been proposed from the aspect by what degree of safety functions incorporated in the plant system is maintained by multiple barriers of defense-in-depth (DiD). Wherein, the central idea is plant DiD risk monitor and reliability monitor derived from the five aspects of (1) design principle of nuclear safety based on DiD concept, (2) definition of risk and risk to be monitored, (3) severe accident phenomena as major risk, (4) scheme of risk ranking, and (5) dynamic risk display. In this paper, the overall frame of the proposed risk monitor system is summarized and the detailed discussion is made on major items such as definition of risk and risk ranking, anatomy of fault occurrence, two-layer configuration of risk monitor, how to configure individual elements of plant DiD risk monitor, and lastly how to apply for a PWR safety system. (author)

  11. Determining global distribution of microplastics by combining citizen science and in-depth case studies. (United States)

    Bosker, Thijs; Behrens, Paul; Vijver, Martina G


    Microplastics (microplastics levels. The difference in extraction procedures can especially impact study outcomes, making it difficult, and sometimes impossible, to directly compare results among studies. To address this, we recently developed a standard operating procedure (SOP) for sampling microplastics on beaches. We are now assessing regional and global variations in beach microplastics using this standardized approach for 2 research projects. Our first project involves the general public through citizen science. Participants collect sand samples from beaches using a basic protocol, and we subsequently extract and quantify microplastics in a central laboratory using the SOP. Presently, we have 80+ samples from around the world and expect this number to further increase. Second, we are conducting 2, in-depth, regional case studies: one along the Dutch coast (close to major rivers, a known source of microplastic input into marine systems), and the other on the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean (in the proximity to a hotspot of plastics in the North Atlantic Ocean). In both projects, we use our new SOP to determine regional variation in microplastics, including differences in physicochemical characteristics such as size, shape, and polymer type. Our research will provide, for the first time, a systematic comparison on levels of microplastics on beaches at both a regional and global scale. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:536-541. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  12. Variation in depth of whitetip reef sharks: does provisioning ecotourism change their behaviour? (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard; Abrantes, Kátya G.; Seymour, Jamie; Barnett, Adam


    In the dive tourism industry, shark provisioning has become increasingly popular in many places around the world. It is therefore important to determine the impacts that provisioning may have on shark behaviour. In this study, eight adult whitetip reef sharks Triaenodon obesus were tagged with time-depth recorders at Osprey Reef in the Coral Sea, Australia. Tags collected time and depth data every 30 s. The absolute change in depth over 5-min blocks was considered as a proxy for vertical activity level. Daily variations in vertical activity levels were analysed to determine the effects of time of day on whitetip reef shark behaviour. This was done for days when dive boats were absent from the area, and for days when dive boats were present, conducting shark provisioning. Vertical activity levels varied between day and night, and with the presence of boats. In natural conditions (no boats present), sharks remained at more constant depths during the day, while at night animals continuously moved up and down the water column, showing that whitetip reef sharks are nocturnally active. When boats were present, however, there were also long periods of vertical activity during the day. If resting periods during the day are important for energy budgets, then shark provisioning may affect their health. So, if this behaviour alteration occurs frequently, e.g., daily, this has the potential to have significant negative effects on the animals' metabolic rates, net energy gain and overall health, reproduction and fitness.

  13. The in-depth safety assessment (ISA) pilot projects in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C. A.


    Ukraine operates pressurized water reactors of the Soviet-designed type, VVER. All Ukrainian plants are currently operating with annually renewable permits until they update their safety analysis reports (SARs). After approval of the SARS by the Ukrainian Nuclear Regulatory Authority, the plants will be granted longer-term operating licenses. In September 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Government Nuclear Power Coordinating Committee of Ukraine issued a new contents requirement for the safety analysis reports of VVERs in Ukraine. It contains requirements in three major areas: design basis accident (DBA) analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. The DBA requirements are an expanded version of the older SAR requirements. The last two requirements, on PRA and BDBA, are new. The US Department of Energy (USDOE), through the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), has initiated an assistance and technology transfer program to Ukraine to assist their nuclear power stations in developing a Western-type technical basis for the new SARS. USDOE sponsored In-Depth Safety Assessments (ISAs) have been initiated at three pilot nuclear reactor units in Ukraine, South Ukraine Unit 1, Zaporizhzhya Unit 5, and Rivne Unit 1. USDOE/INSP have structured the ISA program in such a way as to provide maximum assistance and technology transfer to Ukraine while encouraging and supporting the Ukrainian plants to take the responsibility and initiative and to perform the required assessments


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouyid BIN ISLAM


    Full Text Available The rising trend of motorization and improving socio-economic status of Thai people directly influences the aggravating road safety situation with fatalities and permanently disabled injuries of about 130,000 and 500,000 respectively over the past decades. An estimated annual cost from road crashes amounts to about US$2,500 million, 3.4 percent of Gross National Product (GNP, undoubtedly inflicts Thailand with a burning public health concern in the South East Asian region. This paper addresses an in-depth study through crash investigation and reconstruction which has not yet been practised in Thailand to identify the contributory factors in road crashes by the concerned authorities. This research attempts to establish the linkage between the causes and consequences with event classification of an investigated case by highlighting the dynamic driving situation with initial traveling speed, pre-impact and post-impact speed of the involved vehicles to describe the crash scenario. Moreover, inaccurate risk assessment and late evasive action, absence of street-light facilities, inadequate lane marking and visibility were also outlined as major risk factors increasing the severity of crash and injury in this investigated case.

  15. Estimation of object motion parameters from noisy images. (United States)

    Broida, T J; Chellappa, R


    An approach is presented for the estimation of object motion parameters based on a sequence of noisy images. The problem considered is that of a rigid body undergoing unknown rotational and translational motion. The measurement data consists of a sequence of noisy image coordinates of two or more object correspondence points. By modeling the object dynamics as a function of time, estimates of the model parameters (including motion parameters) can be extracted from the data using recursive and/or batch techniques. This permits a desired degree of smoothing to be achieved through the use of an arbitrarily large number of images. Some assumptions regarding object structure are presently made. Results are presented for a recursive estimation procedure: the case considered here is that of a sequence of one dimensional images of a two dimensional object. Thus, the object moves in one transverse dimension, and in depth, preserving the fundamental ambiguity of the central projection image model (loss of depth information). An iterated extended Kalman filter is used for the recursive solution. Noise levels of 5-10 percent of the object image size are used. Approximate Cramer-Rao lower bounds are derived for the model parameter estimates as a function of object trajectory and noise level. This approach may be of use in situations where it is difficult to resolve large numbers of object match points, but relatively long sequences of images (10 to 20 or more) are available.

  16. From fractional Brownian motion to multifractional and multistable motion (United States)

    Falconer, Kenneth


    Fractional Brownian motion, introduced by Benoit Mandelbrot and John Van Ness in 1968, has had a major impact on stochastic processes and their applications. We survey a few of the many developments that have stemmed from their ideas. In particular we discuss the local structure of fractional and multifractional Brownian, stable and multistable processes, emphasising the `diagonal' construction of such processes. In all this, the ubiquity and centrality of fractional Brownian motion is striking.

  17. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J


    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  18. Motion management in gastrointestinal cancers. (United States)

    Abbas, Hassan; Chang, Bryan; Chen, Zhe Jay


    The presence of tumor and organ motions complicates the planning and delivery of radiotherapy for gastrointestinal cancers. Without proper accounting of the movements, target volume could be under-dosed and the nearby normal critical organs could be over-dosed. This situation is further exacerbated by the close proximity of abdominal tumors to many normal organs at risk (OARs). A number of strategies have been developed to deal with tumor and organ motions in radiotherapy. This article presents a review of the techniques used in the evaluation, quantification, and management of tumor and organ motions for radiotherapy of gastrointestinal cancers.

  19. Motion perception and driving: predicting performance through testing and shortening braking reaction times through training. (United States)

    Wilkins, Luke; Gray, Rob; Gaska, James; Winterbottom, Marc


    A driving simulator was used to examine the relationship between motion perception and driving performance. Although motion perception test scores have been shown to be related to driving safety, it is not clear which combination of tests are the best predictors and whether motion perception training can improve driving performance. In experiment 1, 60 younger drivers (22.4 ± 2.5 years) completed three motion perception tests (2-dimensional [2D] motion-defined letter [MDL] identification, 3D motion in depth sensitivity [MID], and dynamic visual acuity [DVA]) followed by two driving tests (emergency braking [EB] and hazard perception [HP]). In experiment 2, 20 drivers (21.6 ± 2.1 years) completed 6 weeks of motion perception training (using the MDL, MID, and DVA tests), while 20 control drivers (22.0 ± 2.7 years) completed an online driving safety course. The EB performance was measured before and after training. In experiment 1, MDL (r = 0.34) and MID (r = 0.46) significantly correlated with EB score. The change in DVA score as a function of target speed (i.e., "velocity susceptibility") was correlated most strongly with HP score (r = -0.61). In experiment 2, the motion perception training group had a significant decrease in brake reaction time on the EB test from pre- to posttreatment, while there was no significant change for the control group: t(38) = 2.24, P = 0.03. Tests of 3D motion perception are the best predictor of EB, while DVA velocity susceptibility is the best predictor of hazard perception. Motion perception training appears to result in faster braking responses.

  20. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.


    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  1. Human factors/usability barriers to home medical devices among individuals with disabling conditions: in-depth interviews with positive airway pressure device users. (United States)

    Fung, Constance H; Igodan, Uyi; Alessi, Cathy; Martin, Jennifer L; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Josephson, Karen; Kramer, B Josea


    Evidence suggests that medical equipment often fails to accommodate the needs of individuals with disabling conditions. Few studies have focused on the accessibility of home medical devices such as positive airway pressure (PAP), which is a type of home medical equipment prescribed for long-term therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore in detail the types of difficulties experienced by patients with physical/sensory impairments who use PAP devices, as an initial step in designing a questionnaire to survey users about this topic. In this descriptive study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 participants (9 patients with physical/sensory impairment and 10 health care providers). Interviews were coded and analyzed for major topics. Participants detailed the numerous ways in which current PAP devices fail to meet the needs of individuals with physical/sensory impairments (e.g., tremor, poor depth perception, paresis), by requiring patients to perform manually difficult tasks, such as inserting PAP parts through small apertures, attaching parts using a twisting motion, and lifting arms overhead to apply PAP headgear. These demands contributed to patients' frustration with and reduced usage of the home medical device. Our findings suggest that home medical devices such as PAP may not be currently designed to meet the needs of some users with physical/sensory impairments. Additional studies are needed to measure the prevalence and impact of impairment-related barriers on PAP adherence for this common medical equipment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Multiple oscillatory modes of the Argentine Basin. Part II. The spectral origin of the basin modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Vevier, F.; Gille, S.T.; Dijkstra, H.A.


    In this paper the spectrum of barotropic basin modes of the Argentine Basin is shown to be connected to the classical Rossby basin modes of a flat-bottom (constant depth), rectangular basin. First, the spectrum of basin modes is calculated for the Argentine Basin, by performing a normal-mode

  3. Weigh-in-Motion Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  4. Generalized quantal equation of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, M.W.; Embaby, M.


    In the present paper, an attempt is made for establishing a generalized equation of motion for quantal objects, in which intrinsic self adjointness is naturally built in, independently of any prescribed representation. This is accomplished by adopting Hamilton's principle of least action, after incorporating, properly, the quantal features and employing the generalized calculus of variations, without being restricted to fixed end points representation. It turns out that our proposed equation of motion is an intrinsically self-adjoint Euler-Lagrange's differential equation that ensures extremization of the quantal action as required by Hamilton's principle. Time dependence is introduced and the corresponding equation of motion is derived, in which intrinsic self adjointness is also achieved. Reducibility of the proposed equation of motion to the conventional Schroedinger equation is examined. The corresponding continuity equation is established, and both of the probability density and the probability current density are identified. (author)

  5. Dance notations and robot motion

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Naoko


    How and why to write a movement? Who is the writer? Who is the reader? They may be choreographers working with dancers. They may be roboticists programming robots. They may be artists designing cartoons in computer animation. In all such fields the purpose is to express an intention about a dance, a specific motion or an action to perform, in terms of intelligible sequences of elementary movements, as a music score that would be devoted to motion representation. Unfortunately there is no universal language to write a motion. Motion languages live together in a Babel tower populated by biomechanists, dance notators, neuroscientists, computer scientists, choreographers, roboticists. Each community handles its own concepts and speaks its own language. The book accounts for this diversity. Its origin is a unique workshop held at LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse in 2014. Worldwide representatives of various communities met there. Their challenge was to reach a mutual understanding allowing a choreographer to access robotics ...

  6. q-deformed Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, V I


    Brownian motion may be embedded in the Fock space of bosonic free field in one dimension.Extending this correspondence to a family of creation and annihilation operators satisfying a q-deformed algebra, the notion of q-deformation is carried from the algebra to the domain of stochastic processes.The properties of q-deformed Brownian motion, in particular its non-Gaussian nature and cumulant structure,are established.

  7. Implementation of Defence in Depth at Nuclear Power Plants. Lessons Learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachaume, Jean-Luc; Miller, Douglass; Rzentkowski, Greg; Lahtinen, Nina; Valtonen, Keijo; Foucher, Laurent; Harikumar, Shri S.; Yamada, Tomoho; Sharafutdinov, Rashet; Kuznetsov, Mark; Carlsson, Lennart; Hanberg, Jan; Theiss, Klaus; Holahan, Gary; Williams, Donna; Nuenighoff, Kay; Wattelle, Emmanuel; Lazo, Edward; White, Andrew; Reig, Javier; Salgado, Nancy; Weightman, Mike


    Defence in depth (DiD) is a concept that has been used for many years alongside tools to optimise nuclear safety in reactor design, assessment and regulation. The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident raised many questions and gave unique insight into nuclear safety issues, including DiD. In June 2013, the NEA held a Joint Workshop on Challenges and Enhancements to DiD in Light of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (NEA, 2014), organised by the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) and the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA). It was noted at the time that further work would be beneficial to enhance nuclear safety worldwide, especially with regard to the implementation of DiD. Accordingly, a senior-level task group (STG) was set up to produce a regulatory guidance booklet that would assist member countries in the use of DiD, taking into account lessons learnt from the 2011 accident. This regulatory guidance booklet builds on the work of this NEA workshop, of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) and of other members of the STG. It uses as its basis the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group's Defence in Depth in Nuclear Safety study (INSAG-10) (IAEA, 1996). The booklet provides insights into the implementation of DiD by regulators and emergency management authorities after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, aiming to enhance global harmonisation by providing guidance on: - the background to the DiD concept; - the need for independent effectiveness among the safety provisions for the various DiD levels, to the extent practicable; - the need for greater attention to reinforce prevention and mitigation at the various levels; - the vital importance of ensuring that common cause and common mode failures, especially external events acting in combination, do not lead to breaches of safety provisions at several DiD levels, taking note of the

  8. What Matters in Weight Loss? An In-Depth Analysis of Self-Monitoring. (United States)

    Painter, Stefanie Lynn; Ahmed, Rezwan; Hill, James O; Kushner, Robert F; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy


    Using technology to self-monitor body weight, dietary intake, and physical activity is a common practice used by consumers and health companies to increase awareness of current and desired behaviors in weight loss. Understanding how to best use the information gathered by these relatively new methods needs to be further explored. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of self-monitoring to weight loss in participants in a 6-month commercial weight-loss intervention administered by Retrofit and to specifically identify the significant contributors to weight loss that are associated with behavior and outcomes. A retrospective analysis was performed using 2113 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2015 in a Retrofit weight-loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a starting body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2, who also provided a weight measurement at the sixth month of the program. Multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures of self-monitoring behaviors involving weight measurements, dietary intake, and physical activity to predict weight loss at 6 months. Each significant predictor was analyzed in depth to reveal the impact on outcome. Participants in the Retrofit Program lost a mean -5.58% (SE 0.12) of their baseline weight with 51.87% (1096/2113) of participants losing at least 5% of their baseline weight. Multiple regression model (R 2 =.197, Pself-monitoring behaviors of self-weigh-in, daily steps, high-intensity activity, and persistent food logging were significant predictors of weight loss during a 6-month intervention. ©Stefanie Lynn Painter, Rezwan Ahmed, James O Hill, Robert F Kushner, Richard Lindquist, Scott Brunning, Amy Margulies. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (, 12.05.2017.

  9. Crashes involving cyclists aged 50 and over in the Netherlands: An in-depth study. (United States)

    Boele-Vos, M J; Van Duijvenvoorde, K; Doumen, M J A; Duivenvoorden, C W A E; Louwerse, W J R; Davidse, R J


    The number of seriously injured cyclists is increasing in the Netherlands. The majority of these seriously injured cyclists were involved in single-bicycle or bicycle-bicycle crashes. Little is known about the circumstances in which these crashes occur, as the police only registers 4% of these crashes. Therefore, an in-depth study was carried out to gain insight into the factors and circumstances that influence the occurrence and consequences of these crashes. The focus was on crashes involving cyclists aged 50 and over, as this group has a large share in the number of cyclist-only crashes. Detailed information on 41 single-bicycle and bicycle-bicycle crashes was collected and analysed. This resulted in a description of the course of events for every analysed crash, including a list of factors that had contributed to the occurrence of the crash and possible injuries. Subsequently, crashes with a similar course of events and a comparable combination of contributory factors were grouped into types of crashes. Results showed that cyclists aged 75 and over are more often involved in falls from a bicycle than younger cyclists. Contributory factors that played a role in a large number of crashes were behaviour of another road user, distraction and narrow cycling facilities or traffic lanes. However, which factors played a role in the occurrence of a crash depended on the type of crash. Eight types of crashes were identified. Based on the factors that played a role in the occurrence of these crashes, remedial measures can be developed to prevent similar crashes from occurring in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term experiences of Norwegian live kidney donors: qualitative in-depth interviews. (United States)

    Meyer, Käthe B; Bjørk, Ida Torunn; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Lennerling, Annette; Andersen, Marit Helen


    Live kidney donation is generally viewed as a welcome treatment option for severe kidney disease. However, there is a disparity in the body of research on donor experiences and postdonation outcome, and lack of knowledge on long-term consequences described by the donors. This study was conducted to provide insight into donors' subjective meanings and interpretation of their experiences ∼10 years after donation. Qualitative explorative in-depth interviews. The sampling strategy employed maximum variation. Setting Oslo University Hospital is the national centre for organ transplantation and donation in Norway, and there are 26 local nephrology centres. 16 donors representing all parts of Norway who donated a kidney in 2001-2004 participated in the study. The interviews were analysed using an interpretative approach. The analysis resulted in 4 main themes; the recipient outcome justified long-term experiences, family dynamics-tension still under the surface, ambivalence-healthy versus the need for regular follow-up, and life must go on. These themes reflect the complexity of live kidney donation, which fluctuated from positive experiences such as pride and feeling privileged to adverse experiences such as altered family relationships or reduced health. Live kidney donors seemed to possess resilient qualities that enabled them to address the long-term consequences of donation. The challenge is to provide more uniform information about long-term consequences. In future research, resilient qualities could be a topic to explore in live donation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  11. Enhanced defence in depth: a fundamental approach for innovative nuclear systems recommended by INPRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczera, B.; Juhn, P.E.


    In May 2001, the IAEA initiated the 'International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)'. Having in mind that nuclear power will be an important option for meeting future electricity needs, the scope of INPRO covers nuclear reactors expected to come into service in the next fifty years, together with their associated fuel cycles. This article deals with enhanced defence in depth (DID) strategy that is recommended by INPRO. This strategy is twofold: first, to prevent accidents and second, if prevention fails, to limit their potential consequences and prevent any evolution to more serious conditions. Accident prevention is the first priority. For innovative nuclear systems, the effectiveness of preventive measures should be enhanced compared with existing systems. DID is generally structured in 5 levels of protection, including successive barriers preventing the release of radioactive material to the environment. These levels are: 1) prevention of abnormal operation and failures, 2) control of abnormal operation and detection of failures, 3) control of accidents within the design basis, 4) control of severe plant conditions, including prevention and mitigation of the consequences of severe accidents, and 5) mitigation of radiological consequences of significant release of radioactive materials. In the area of nuclear safety, INPRO has set 5 principles: 1) incorporate DID as a part of the safety approach and make the 5 levels of DID more independent from each other than in current installations; 2) prevent, reduce or contain releases of radioactive or hazardous materials in any normal or abnormal plant operation; 3) incorporate increased emphasis on inherent safety characteristics and passive safety features; 4) include research and development work to bring the capability of computer codes used for the safety of innovative nuclear systems to the standard of codes used for the safety of current reactors; and 5) include a holistic life

  12. Trajectories to seeking demedicalised assistance in suicide: a qualitative in-depth interview study. (United States)

    Hagens, Martijn; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Pasman, H Roeline W


    In the Netherlands, people can receive (limited) demedicalised assistance in suicide (DAS)-an option less well known than physician-assisted dying (PAD). This study explores which trajectories people take to seek DAS, through open-coding and inductive analysis of in-depth interviews with 17 people who receive(d) DAS from counsellors facilitated by foundation De Einder. People sought DAS as a result of current suffering or as a result of anticipating possible prospective suffering. People with current suffering were unable or assumed they would be unable to obtain PAD. For people anticipating possible prospective suffering, we distinguished two trajectories. In one trajectory, people preferred PAD but were not reassured of help by the physician in due time and sought DAS as a backup plan. In the other trajectory, people expressed a preference for DAS mainly as a result of emphasising self-determination, independence, taking their own responsibility and preparing suicide carefully. In all trajectories, dissatisfaction with physician-patient communication-for instance about (a denied request for) PAD or fearing to discuss this-influenced the decision to seek DAS. While PAD is the preferred option of people in two trajectories, obtaining PAD is uncertain and not always possible. Dissatisfaction with physician-patient communication can result in the physician not being involved in DAS, being unable to diagnose diseases and offer treatment nor offer reassurance that people seem to seek. We plea for more mutual understanding, respect and empathy for the limitations and possibilities of the position of the physician and the patient in discussing assistance in dying. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. Social capital and health during pregnancy; an in-depth exploration from rural Sri Lanka. (United States)

    Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Rheinländer, Thilde; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika; Glozier, Nicholas; Siribaddana, Sisira


    Dimensions of social capital relevant to health in pregnancy are sparsely described in the literature. This study explores dimensions of social capital and the mechanisms in which they could affect the health of rural Sri Lankan pregnant women. An exploratory qualitative study of solicited diaries written by pregnant women on their social relationships, diary interviews and in-depth interviews with key informants was conducted. A framework approach for qualitative data analysis was used. Pregnant women (41), from eight different communities completed diaries and 38 post-diary interviews. Sixteen key informant interviews were conducted with public health midwives and senior community dwellers. We identified ten cognitive and five structural constructs of social capital relevant to health in pregnancy. Domestic and neighborhood cohesion were the most commonly expressed constructs. Social support was limited to support from close family, friends and public health midwives. A high density of structural social capital was observed in the micro-communities. Membership in local community groups was not common. Four different pathways by which social capital could influence health in pregnancy were identified. These include micro-level cognitive social capital by promoting mental wellbeing; micro-level structural social capital by reducing minor ailments in pregnancy; micro-level social support mechanisms promoting physical and mental wellbeing through psychosocial resources and health systems at each level providing focused maternal care. Current tools available may not contain the relevant constructs to capture the unique dimensions of social capital in pregnancy. Social capital can influence health during pregnancy, mainly through improved psychosocial resources generated by social cohesion in micro-communities and by the embedded neighborhood public health services.

  14. Attention and expectation problems in bicycle-car collisions: an in-depth study. (United States)

    Räsänen, M; Summala, H


    One hundred and eighty-eight bicycle-car accidents in four cities were studied by multidisciplinary in-depth analysis. The sample was representative of the national accident statistics. All the accidents were analyzed in detail to reconstruct the actual movements of those involved and to assess detection of the other party. In 37% of collisions, neither driver nor cyclist realized the danger or had time to yield. In the remaining collisions, the driver (27%), the cyclist (24%) or both (12%) did something to avert the accident. Two common mechanisms underlying the accidents were identified. First, allocation of attention such that others were not detected, and second, unjustified expectations about the behavior of others. These mechanisms were found to be closely related to the system of two-way cycle tracks and to the fact that the general priority rule is applied to the crossings of a cycle track and a roadway. The most frequent accident type among collisions between cyclists and cars at bicycle crossings was a driver turning right and a bicycle coming from the driver's right along a cycle track. The result confirmed an earlier finding (Accident Analysis and Prevention 28, 147-153, 1996) that drivers turning right hit cyclists because they looked left for cars during the critical phase. Only 11% of drivers noticed the cyclist before impact. Cyclists' behavior was in marked contrast to that of drivers. In these cases, 68% of cyclists noticed the driver before the accident, and 92% of those who noticed believed the driver would give way as required by law. Cyclists with a driving license and those who cycled daily through the accident site were involved in different accident types to other cyclists.

  15. Confocal Raman microscopy for in depth analysis in the field of cultural heritage (United States)

    Lorenzetti, G.; Striova, J.; Zoppi, A.; Castellucci, E. M.


    In the field of cultural heritage, the main concern when a sample is analyzed is its safeguard, and this means that non-destructive techniques are required. In this work, we show how confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) may be successfully applied in the study of works of art as a valuable alternative to other well established techniques. CRM with a metallurgical objective was tested for the in depth study of thin samples that are of interest in the field of cultural heritage. The sensitivity of the instrumentation was first evaluated by analyzing single layers of pure polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films having a thickness of 12, 25, and 50 μm, respectively, and a multilayer sample of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE). Subsequently, the technique was applied to the analysis of historical dyed cotton yarns in order to check whether it was possible to achieve a better discrimination of the fibres' signals for an easier identification. A substantial improvement of the signal to noise ratio was found in the confocal arrangement with respect to the non-confocal one, suggesting the use of this technique for this kind of analysis in the field of cultural heritage. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy in confocal configuration was exploited in the evaluation of cleaning performed on the mural painting specimens, treated with acrylic resin (Paraloid B72). Confocal Raman experiments were performed before and after laser cleaning (at different conditions) in order to monitor the presence and to approximate the polymer thickness: the method proved to be a valid comparative tool in assessment of cleaning efficiencies.

  16. Unbiased in-depth characterization of CEX fractions from a stressed monoclonal antibody by mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Griaud, François; Denefeld, Blandine; Lang, Manuel; Hensinger, Héloïse; Haberl, Peter; Berg, Matthias


    Characterization of charge-based variants by mass spectrometry (MS) is required for the analytical development of a new biologic entity and its marketing approval by health authorities. However, standard peak-based data analysis approaches are time-consuming and biased toward the detection, identification, and quantification of main variants only. The aim of this study was to characterize in-depth acidic and basic species of a stressed IgG1 monoclonal antibody using comprehensive and unbiased MS data evaluation tools. Fractions collected from cation ion exchange (CEX) chromatography were analyzed as intact, after reduction of disulfide bridges, and after proteolytic cleavage using Lys-C. Data of both intact and reduced samples were evaluated consistently using a time-resolved deconvolution algorithm. Peptide mapping data were processed simultaneously, quantified and compared in a systematic manner for all MS signals and fractions. Differences observed between the fractions were then further characterized and assigned. Time-resolved deconvolution enhanced pattern visualization and data interpretation of main and minor modifications in 3-dimensional maps across CEX fractions. Relative quantification of all MS signals across CEX fractions before peptide assignment enabled the detection of fraction-specific chemical modifications at abundances below 1%. Acidic fractions were shown to be heterogeneous, containing antibody fragments, glycated as well as deamidated forms of the heavy and light chains. In contrast, the basic fractions contained mainly modifications of the C-terminus and pyroglutamate formation at the N-terminus of the heavy chain. Systematic data evaluation was performed to investigate multiple data sets and comprehensively extract main and minor differences between each CEX fraction in an unbiased manner.

  17. In-depth analysis of solvent effects on bulk heterojunction solar cell performance (United States)

    Zohourian Aboutorabi, Reihaneh; Joodaki, Mojtaba; Shahbazi, Kowsar


    Efficiency of an organic solar cell is very sensitive to fabrication procedure. One of the most important parameters is active layer morphology which radically influences several cell properties such as generation rate, layer resistance, charge carrier motilities etc. Meantime, in P3HT:fullerene based solar cells, using PCBM would improve the morphology and increase the cost simultaneously. On the other hand, C60 is way less expensive, but its limited solubility in common solvents would influence cell performance. To benefit from its cost and as the formation of C60 aggregates and P3HT crystallinity significantly depend on the solvent which would influence several cell properties, one should find a proper solvent. To make an in-depth investigation of solvent effects, experimental investigations will not suffice and using a precise model to fit the data and extract hidden parameters would help us to have a deep understanding of the cells physical basis. In this work, an optimization algorithm is employed to fit a numerical model simulation results with experiments and the model benefits from a field dependent series resistance. Simulation results indicate that a suitable solvent mainly improves the cell performance by changing 3 basic parameters which are G, μn and μp. Additionally, although parameters such as Eg and DC dielectric constant are very crucial in determining power conversion efficiency, they cannot be effectively improved changing the solvent. It is reported that the cell prepared by Cl-naph:CB performs better than the other cells. Considering our results, it can be attributed to its larger G, μn and μp. It also has the least Rs and the largest Rsh among all other P3HT:C60 based cells (which is caused by its higher mobility-carrier density product). This work gives experimentalists an idea of how they should choose a solvent. The results can also be generalized to find a proper solvent for other active layer materials.

  18. Bibliography on the defense in depth (DiD) approach for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielenberg, Andreas


    This report is a bibliography on references related to the concept of defence-in-depth (DiD), particularly in the field of nuclear reactor safety. In addition, selected publications on the application of DiD outside of the field of nuclear reactor safety are referenced. For each reference, the main data of the publication, an assignment of key words, a short summary of the relation to DiD and, if applicable, a link to an internet resource for the document is provided. The bibliography report aims at covering all the major sources of regulatory documents and texts related to DiD in nuclear reactor safety for major international organisation on nuclear reactor safety and regulators in the Europe, North America, and selected Asian countries. In order to manage the scope of the work, more recent publications have received precedence by the authors, outdated versions or superseded documents might not be included in this report. Since there are a lot of publications on the concept on DiD in a number of contexts, producing a comprehensive listing beyond the context of regulatory publications was not possible for this publication. There are, therefore, a lot of textbooks, publications in scientific journals, conference contributions, etc. related to the concept of DiD, which are not included into this report. Their omission is due to the constraints for the production of this report and is in no way intended as a negative statement on either their relevance or their technical quality. Publications after 2014 are not reflected in this report. (authors)

  19. In-depth, high-accuracy proteomics of sea urchin tooth organic matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Matthias


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organic matrix contained in biominerals plays an important role in regulating mineralization and in determining biomineral properties. However, most components of biomineral matrices remain unknown at present. In sea urchin tooth, which is an important model for developmental biology and biomineralization, only few matrix components have been identified. The recent publication of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome sequence rendered possible not only the identification of genes potentially coding for matrix proteins, but also the direct identification of proteins contained in matrices of skeletal elements by in-depth, high-accuracy proteomic analysis. Results We identified 138 proteins in the matrix of tooth powder. Only 56 of these proteins were previously identified in the matrices of test (shell and spine. Among the novel components was an interesting group of five proteins containing alanine- and proline-rich neutral or basic motifs separated by acidic glycine-rich motifs. In addition, four of the five proteins contained either one or two predicted Kazal protease inhibitor domains. The major components of tooth matrix were however largely identical to the set of spicule matrix proteins and MSP130-related proteins identified in test (shell and spine matrix. Comparison of the matrices of crushed teeth to intact teeth revealed a marked dilution of known intracrystalline matrix proteins and a concomitant increase in some intracellular proteins. Conclusion This report presents the most comprehensive list of sea urchin tooth matrix proteins available at present. The complex mixture of proteins identified may reflect many different aspects of the mineralization process. A comparison between intact tooth matrix, presumably containing odontoblast remnants, and crushed tooth matrix served to differentiate between matrix components and possible contributions of cellular remnants. Because LC-MS/MS-based methods directly

  20. An in-depth examination into pharmacy technician worklife through an organizational behavior framework. (United States)

    Desselle, Shane P


    Pharmacy technicians are a vital part of the health care workforce. Little is known about perceptions of their own work environment that would engender more effective recruitment, retention, and management strategies by pharmacists and employers. The purpose of this study was to gain a greater understanding of certified pharmacy technician worklife. Specific objectives included the identification of themes of worklife phenomena to assist with the development of appropriate responses by other pharmacy stakeholders and to ascertain the contribution of various factors engendering or discouraging career commitment of pharmacy technicians. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out with a convenience sample of pharmacy technicians in one U.S. state, who varied by their work settings and level of experience. The interview guide and corresponding participant responses were framed from around an organizational cultural basis rooted in organizational behavior theory. Notes from the interviews were analyzed thematically using directed content analysis. Four primary themes emerged, including: career impetus, job responsibilities, quality of work life, and equitable partnership. The data revealed pharmacy technicians' need for self-actualization and recognition of the value they bring to the organization. The participants identified primary responsibilities that contribute to their sense of worth and those that if not managed adequately potentially detract from their well-being and effectiveness. Findings in regard to rate of pay corroborate previous work on wages as both an intrinsic and extrinsic motivator. Pharmacy technicians seek equity among each other (their peers) and in a mutually beneficial relationship with their employing organization. This study provides the impetus for interventions and further study that should serve to enhance pharmacy technician effectiveness, quality of work life, and longevity in an emerging profession. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  1. An In-Depth View into Human Intestinal Fluid Colloids: Intersubject Variability in Relation to Composition. (United States)

    Riethorst, Danny; Baatsen, Peter; Remijn, Caroline; Mitra, Amitava; Tack, Jan; Brouwers, Joachim; Augustijns, Patrick


    Intestinal fluids dictate the intraluminal environment, and therefore, they substantially affect the absorption of orally taken drugs. The characterization of human intestinal fluids (HIF) and the design of simulated intestinal fluids (SIF) mainly focus on composition, not necessarily taking into account the ultrastructure of HIF. Colloidal structures in HIF and SIF can enhance the solubilizing capacity for lipophilic drugs while decreasing the bioaccessible fraction. As such, colloids present in HIF play a crucial role and require an in-depth characterization. Therefore, the present study pursued a comprehensive characterization of the ultrastructure of fasted and fed state HIF, focusing on (i) intersubject variability in relation to composition and (ii) differences between the ultrastructure of HIF and SIF. Individual as well as pooled HIF were collected from human volunteers near the ligament of Treitz and compositionally characterized previously. A HIF population pool (20 healthy volunteers) for both fasted (FaHIF) and fed state (FeHIF) was compared to current SIF, as well as selected HIF from different individuals. The selected individual HIF represented the full spectrum of compositional characteristics. Three complementary electron microscopy techniques, cryo-TEM (transmission electron microscopy), negative stain TEM, and cryo-SEM (scanning electron microscopy), were employed to provide a comprehensive view of the colloidal structures in HIF and SIF. The use of complementary EM techniques provided a unique insight into the ultrastructure of HIF, including their native conformation. These characterizations showed that FaHIF and FaSSIF (fasted state simulated intestinal fluids) only consist of (mixed)-micelles with minimal intersubject variability. Ultrastructures in FeSSIF (fed state simulated intestinal fluids) and FeSSIF-v2 are not representative of the colloids in FeHIF since SIF lack (multi)-lamellar vesicles and lipid droplets. Furthermore, the images

  2. End Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ju


    Full Text Available This paper presents the end Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin by interpreting stress-response structures (dykes, folds, faults with slickenside and conjugate joints. The direction of the maximum principal stress axes is interpreted to be NW–SE (about 325°, and the accommodated motion among plates is assigned as the driving force of this tectonic stress field. The average value of the stress index R′ is about 2.09, which indicates a variation from strike-slip to compressive tectonic stress regime in the study area during the end Late Paleozoic period. The reconstruction of the tectonic field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin provides insights into the tectonic deformation processes around the southern Junggar Basin and contributes to the further understanding of basin evolution and tectonic settings during the culmination of the Paleozoic.

  3. Passive infrared motion sensing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, A.P.


    In the last 10 years passive IR based (8--12 microns) motion sensing has matured to become the dominant method of volumetric space protection and surveillance. These systems currently cost less than $25 to produce and yet use traditionally expensive IR optics, filters, sensors and electronic circuitry. This IR application is quite interesting in that the volumes of systems produced and the costs and performance level required prove that there is potential for large scale commercial applications of IR technology. This paper will develop the basis and principles of operation of a staring motion sensor system using a technical approach. A model for the motion of the target is developed and compared to the background. The IR power difference between the target and the background as well as the optical requirements are determined from basic principles and used to determine the performance of the system. Low cost reflective and refractive IR optics and bandpass IR filters are discussed. The pyroelectric IR detector commonly used is fully discussed and characterized. Various schemes for ''false alarms'' have been developed and are also explained. This technology is also used in passive IR based motion sensors for other applications such as lighting control. These applications are also discussed. In addition the paper will discuss new developments in IR surveillance technology such as the use of linear motion sensing arrays. This presentation can be considered a ''primer'' on the art of Passive IR Motion Sensing as applied to Surveillance Technology

  4. Differentially Constrained Motion Planning with State Lattice Motion Primitives (United States)


    power limitations. Moreover, the rovers are CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 20 typically designed to move in stop and go fashion. GESTALT , the rover navigation...applied in other ways. For example, given its efficiency, it’s reasonable to imagine that navigation algorithms such as GESTALT could be enhanced with...accurately guides the search such that backtracking is minimized. The search can be visualized as proceeding in depth-first manner, but leading

  5. Designing a compact MRI motion phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmiedel Max


    Full Text Available Even today, dealing with motion artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a challenging task. Image corruption due to spontaneous body motion complicates diagnosis. In this work, an MRI phantom for rigid motion is presented. It is used to generate motion-corrupted data, which can serve for evaluation of blind motion compensation algorithms. In contrast to commercially available MRI motion phantoms, the presented setup works on small animal MRI systems. Furthermore, retrospective gating is performed on the data, which can be used as a reference for novel motion compensation approaches. The motion of the signal source can be reconstructed using motor trigger signals and be utilized as the ground truth for motion estimation. The proposed setup results in motion corrected images. Moreover, the importance of preprocessing the MRI raw data, e.g. phase-drift correction, is demonstrated. The gained knowledge can be used to design an MRI phantom for elastic motion.

  6. Geophysical Investigation of the Raton Basin. (United States)


    65 miles wide, the Raton Basin is divided by the Cimarron Arch into the northern Raton Basin and the Las Vegas Basin on the south. The the east, the Cimarron Arch on the north, and was linked by a low saddle to the Tucumcari Basin to the south. The Colorado and Rowe-Mora Basins...sedimentary rock thinning near the Apishipa, Cimarron , and Sierra Grande Arches; 2) presence of volcanic rock in the southern portion of the Basin; 3

  7. Response analysis of curved bridge with unseating failure control system under near-fault ground motions (United States)

    Zuo, Ye; Sun, Guangjun; Li, Hongjing


    Under the action of near-fault ground motions, curved bridges are prone to pounding, local damage of bridge components and even unseating. A multi-scale fine finite element model of a typical three-span curved bridge is established by considering the elastic-plastic behavior of piers and pounding effect of adjacent girders. The nonlinear time-history method is used to study the seismic response of the curved bridge equipped with unseating failure control system under the action of near-fault ground motion. An in-depth analysis is carried to evaluate the control effect of the proposed unseating failure control system. The research results indicate that under the near-fault ground motion, the seismic response of the curved bridge is strong. The unseating failure control system perform effectively to reduce the pounding force of the adjacent girders and the probability of deck unseating.

  8. Tectonoestratigraphic and Thermal Models of the Tiburon and Wagner Basins, northern Gulf of California Rift System (United States)

    Contreras, J.; Ramirez Zerpa, N. A.; Negrete-Aranda, R.


    The northern Gulf of California Rift System consist sofa series faults that accommodate both normal and strike-slip motion. The faults formed a series of half-greens filled with more than 7 km of siliciclastic suc­cessions. Here, we present tectonostratigraphic and heat flow models for the Tiburón basin, in the southern part of the system, and the Wag­ner basin in the north. The models are constrained by two-dimensional seis­mic lines and by two deep boreholes drilled by PEMEX­-PEP. Analysis of the seismic lines and models' results show that: (i) subsidence of the basins is controlled by high-angle normal faults and by flow of the lower crust, (ii) basins share a common history, and (iii) there are significant differences in the way brittle strain was partitioned in the basins, a feature frequently observed in rift basins. On one hand, the bounding faults of the Tiburón basin have a nested geometry and became active following a west-to-east sequence of activation. The Tiburon half-graben was formed by two pulses of fault activity. One took place during the protogulf extensional phase in the Miocene and the other during the opening of Gulf of California in the Pleistocene. On the other hand, the Wagner basin is the result of two fault generations. During the late-to middle Miocene, the west-dipping Cerro Prieto and San Felipe faults formed a domino array. Then, during the Pleistocene the Consag and Wagner faults dissected the hanging-wall of the Cerro Prieto fault forming the modern Wagner basin. Thermal modeling of the deep borehole temperatures suggests that the heat flow in these basins in the order of 110 mW/m2 which is in agreement with superficial heat flow measurements in the northern Gulf of California Rift System.

  9. When the Heartbeat Quickens Things are Set in Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poetz, Katharina; Poetz, Marion

    are little investigated. Drawing on experiential learning and affective events theory we carve out learning events from six longitudinal, in-depth case studies of portfolio entrepreneurs operating in the small food processing industry of a developing country to investigate how the processing of events...... that are experienced as pleasant or unpleasant and with higher or lower levels of arousal influences learning directions and the entrepreneurs - behavior relative to starting, improving, maintaining, and quitting businesses. Findings indicate that affectivity indeed influences learning directions and changes...... in the entrepreneurs business portfolios. Notably, learning and change are set in motion on the basis of getting aroused by others" success, exposure to modern technologies, and internal management problems. However, some counterintuitive patterns emerged, particularly with regards to portfolio entrepreneurs starting...

  10. Motion estimation for video coding efficient algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Indrajit; Chatterjee, Sumit Kumar


    The need of video compression in the modern age of visual communication cannot be over-emphasized. This monograph will provide useful information to the postgraduate students and researchers who wish to work in the domain of VLSI design for video processing applications. In this book, one can find an in-depth discussion of several motion estimation algorithms and their VLSI implementation as conceived and developed by the authors. It records an account of research done involving fast three step search, successive elimination, one-bit transformation and its effective combination with diamond search and dynamic pixel truncation techniques. Two appendices provide a number of instances of proof of concept through Matlab and Verilog program segments. In this aspect, the book can be considered as first of its kind. The architectures have been developed with an eye to their applicability in everyday low-power handheld appliances including video camcorders and smartphones.

  11. When the Heartbeat Quickens Things are Set in Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poetz, Katharina; Poetz, Marion

    in the entrepreneurs business portfolios. Notably, learning and change are set in motion on the basis of getting aroused by others" success, exposure to modern technologies, and internal management problems. However, some counterintuitive patterns emerged, particularly with regards to portfolio entrepreneurs starting......Portfolio entrepreneurs, i.e., entrepreneurs who simultaneously master multiple businesses, are particularly relevant for the creation of economic value. Portfolio entrepreneurship has thus gained scholarly attention. However, related processes of how portfolios are developed by the entrepreneurs...... are little investigated. Drawing on experiential learning and affective events theory we carve out learning events from six longitudinal, in-depth case studies of portfolio entrepreneurs operating in the small food processing industry of a developing country to investigate how the processing of events...

  12. MOM Failure Modes: An In-Depth Look at Metal Ions and Implant Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Donaldson, MD


    Full Text Available Contemporary MOM bearings (large-diameter heads offered the perceived benefits of much greater range of motion and greater stability with reduced risk of impingement and dislocation. A variety of design and Both positive [1-3] and negative reports [4-8] have now emerged with regard to total hip arthroplasty (THA and resurfacing arthroplasty. As a result, there has been an avalanche of studies focused on critical issues such as: surgical positioning, shallow cups (face angles 144-170° [9-11] and “edge loading”. [5,7,12-17] However, there are several, possibly synergistic, risk scenarios that could trigger adverse MOM wear and very little progress has been made in understanding such interacting parameters. In an effort to understand the role of metal ion analysis and how it relates to revision surgery and implant wear, selected MOM revised cases were reviewed [28]. Retrieval data was included in conjunction with metal ion analyses and intraoperative observations to determine various failure modes.  We suggest MOM devices that are well fixed but fail after 2 years can be classified into one of six modes: (i normal, (ii allergic reaction, (iii 3rd body wear, (iv repetitive subluxation with metal impingement, (v multi-directional subluxation with soft tissue impingement, and (vi repetitive subluxation with soft tissue impingement.

  13. In-depth characterization of microRNA transcriptome in melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kozubek

    Full Text Available The full repertoire of human microRNAs (miRNAs that could distinguish common (benign nevi from cutaneous (malignant melanomas remains to be established. In an effort to gain further insight into the role of miRNAs in melanoma, we applied Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS platform to carry out an in-depth analysis of miRNA transcriptome in biopsies of nevi, thick primary (>4.0 mm and metastatic melanomas with matched normal skin in parallel to melanocytes and melanoma cell lines (both primary and metastatic (n=28. From this data representing 698 known miRNAs, we defined a set of top-40 list, which properly classified normal from cancer; also confirming 23 (58% previously discovered miRNAs while introducing an additional 17 (42% known and top-15 putative novel candidate miRNAs deregulated during melanoma progression. Surprisingly, the miRNA signature distinguishing specimens of melanoma from nevus was significantly different than that of melanoma cell lines from melanocytes. Among the top list, miR-203, miR-204-5p, miR-205-5p, miR-211-5p, miR-23b-3p, miR-26a-5p and miR-26b-5p were decreased in melanomas vs. nevi. In a validation cohort (n=101, we verified the NGS results by qRT-PCR and showed that receiver-operating characteristic curves for miR-211-5p expression accurately discriminated invasive melanoma (AUC=0.933, melanoma in situ (AUC=0.933 and dysplastic (atypical nevi (AUC=0.951 from common nevi. Target prediction analysis of co-transcribed miRNAs showed a cooperative regulation of key elements in the MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, we found extensive sequence variations (isomiRs and other non-coding small RNAs revealing a complex melanoma transcriptome. Deep-sequencing small RNAs directly from clinically defined specimens provides a robust strategy to improve melanoma diagnostics.

  14. In-Depth Analysis of Human Neonatal and Adult IgM Antibody Repertoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Hong


    Full Text Available Although high-throughput sequencing and associated bioinformatics technologies have enabled the in-depth, sequence-based characterization of human immune repertoires, only a few studies on a relatively small number of sequences explored the characteristics of antibody repertoires in neonates, with contradictory conclusions. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the human IgM antibody repertoire, we performed Illumina sequencing and IMGT/HighV-QUEST analysis of IgM heavy chain repertoire of the B lymphocytes from the cord blood (CB of neonates, as well as the repertoire from peripheral blood of healthy human adults (HH. The comparative study revealed unexpectedly high levels of similarity between the neonatal and adult repertoires. In both repertoires, the VDJ gene usage showed no significant difference, and the most frequently used VDJ gene was IGHV4-59, IGHD3-10, and IGHJ3. The average amino acid (aa length of CDR1 (CB: 8.5, HH: 8.4 and CDR2 (CB: 7.6, HH: 7.5, as well as the aa composition and the average hydrophobicity of the CDR3 demonstrated no significant difference between the two repertories. However, the average aa length of CDR3 was longer in the HH repertoire than the CB repertoire (CB: 14.5, HH: 15.5. Besides, the frequencies of aa mutations in CDR1 (CB: 19.33%, HH: 25.84% and CDR2 (CB: 9.26%, HH: 17.82% were higher in the HH repertoire compared to the CB repertoire. Interestingly, the most prominent difference between the two repertoires was the occurrence of N2 addition (CB: 64.87%, HH: 85.69%, a process that occurs during V-D-J recombination for introducing random nucleotide additions between D- and J-gene segments. The antibody repertoire of healthy adults was more diverse than that of neonates largely due to the higher occurrence of N2 addition. These findings may lead to a better understanding of antibody development and evolution pathways and may have potential practical value for facilitating the generation of more

  15. In-Depth Analysis of Human Neonatal and Adult IgM Antibody Repertoires (United States)

    Hong, Binbin; Wu, Yanling; Li, Wei; Wang, Xun; Wen, Yumei; Jiang, Shibo; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; Ying, Tianlei


    Although high-throughput sequencing and associated bioinformatics technologies have enabled the in-depth, sequence-based characterization of human immune repertoires, only a few studies on a relatively small number of sequences explored the characteristics of antibody repertoires in neonates, with contradictory conclusions. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the human IgM antibody repertoire, we performed Illumina sequencing and IMGT/HighV-QUEST analysis of IgM heavy chain repertoire of the B lymphocytes from the cord blood (CB) of neonates, as well as the repertoire from peripheral blood of healthy human adults (HH). The comparative study revealed unexpectedly high levels of similarity between the neonatal and adult repertoires. In both repertoires, the VDJ gene usage showed no significant difference, and the most frequently used VDJ gene was IGHV4-59, IGHD3-10, and IGHJ3. The average amino acid (aa) length of CDR1 (CB: 8.5, HH: 8.4) and CDR2 (CB: 7.6, HH: 7.5), as well as the aa composition and the average hydrophobicity of the CDR3 demonstrated no significant difference between the two repertories. However, the average aa length of CDR3 was longer in the HH repertoire than the CB repertoire (CB: 14.5, HH: 15.5). Besides, the frequencies of aa mutations in CDR1 (CB: 19.33%, HH: 25.84%) and CDR2 (CB: 9.26%, HH: 17.82%) were higher in the HH repertoire compared to the CB repertoire. Interestingly, the most prominent difference between the two repertoires was the occurrence of N2 addition (CB: 64.87%, HH: 85.69%), a process that occurs during V-D-J recombination for introducing random nucleotide additions between D- and J-gene segments. The antibody repertoire of healthy adults was more diverse than that of neonates largely due to the higher occurrence of N2 addition. These findings may lead to a better understanding of antibody development and evolution pathways and may have potential practical value for facilitating the generation of more effective

  16. Dynamic visual attention: motion direction versus motion magnitude (United States)

    Bur, A.; Wurtz, P.; Müri, R. M.; Hügli, H.


    Defined as an attentive process in the context of visual sequences, dynamic visual attention refers to the selection of the most informative parts of video sequence. This paper investigates the contribution of motion in dynamic visual attention, and specifically compares computer models designed with the motion component expressed either as the speed magnitude or as the speed vector. Several computer models, including static features (color, intensity and orientation) and motion features (magnitude and vector) are considered. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations are performed by comparing the computer model output with human saliency maps obtained experimentally from eye movement recordings. The model suitability is evaluated in various situations (synthetic and real sequences, acquired with fixed and moving camera perspective), showing advantages and inconveniences of each method as well as preferred domain of application.

  17. Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.


    Objective: Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural-dwelling women and men. Method: Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results: Both older women and men rely heavily on…

  18. Untangling the relationships between proximity dimensions – an in-depth study of collaboration in the Danish cleantech industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    tested. This paper aims to contribute to this field of research by analysing collaborative development projects in the Danish cleantech industry. An ordered logit model will be applied to a unique database of 180 inter-firm collaborations created through in-depth interviews with cleantech firms...

  19. Individual Differences in Students' Knowing and Learning about Fractions: Evidence from an In-Depth Qualitative Study (United States)

    Bempeni, Maria; Vamvakoussi, Xenia


    We present the results of an in-depth qualitative study that examined ninth graders' conceptual and procedural knowledge of fractions as well as their approach to mathematics learning, in particular fraction learning. We traced individual differences, even extreme, in the way that students combine the two kinds of knowledge. We also provide…

  20. Steady motions exhibited by Duffing's equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshisuke


    Various types of steady states take place in the system exhibited by Duffing's equation. Among them harmonic, higher harmonic and subharmonic motions are popularly known. Then ultrasubharmonic motions of different orders are fairly known. However chaotic motions are scarcely known. By using analog and digital computers, this report makes a survey of the whole aspect of steady motions exhibited by Duffing's equation. (author)

  1. 12 CFR 747.23 - Motions. (United States)


    ... written motions except as otherwise directed by the administrative law judge. Written memorandum, briefs... Procedure § 747.23 Motions. (a) In writing. (1) Except as otherwise provided herein, an application or request for an order or ruling must be made by written motion. (2) All written motions must state with...

  2. 7 CFR 1.327 - Motions. (United States)


    ... be in writing. The ALJ may require that oral motions be reduced to writing. (c) The ALJ may require written motions to be accompanied by supporting memorandums. (d) Within 15 days after a written motion is...) The ALJ may not grant a written motion prior to expiration of the time for filing responses thereto...

  3. Particle motion in fluidised beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, M.G.


    Gas fluidised beds are important components in many process industries, e.g. coal combustors and granulators, but not much is known about the movement of the solids. Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) enables the movement of a single, radioactive tracer particle to be followed rapidly and faithfully. Experiments were carried out in columns sized between 70 and 240mm. diameter, operating in the bubbling regime at ambient process conditions using particles of group B and D (Geldart Classification). Particle motion was tracked and the data applied to models for particle movement at the gas distributor as well as close to other surfaces and to models for particle circulation in beds of cohesive particles. In the light of these data, models for particle and bubble interaction, particle circulation, segregation, attrition, erosion, heat transfer and fluidised bed scale-up rules were reassessed. Particle motion is directly caused by bubble motion, and their velocities were found to be equal for particles travelling in a bubble. PEPT enables particle circulation to be measured, giving a more accurate correlation for future predictions. Particle motion follows the scale-up rules based on similarities of the bubble motion in the bed. A new group of parameters was identified controlling the amount of attrition in fluidised beds and a new model to predict attrition is proposed. (author)

  4. Motion Learning Based on Bayesian Program Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Meng-Zhen


    Full Text Available The concept of virtual human has been highly anticipated since the 1980s. By using computer technology, Human motion simulation could generate authentic visual effect, which could cheat human eyes visually. Bayesian Program Learning train one or few motion data, generate new motion data by decomposing and combining. And the generated motion will be more realistic and natural than the traditional one.In this paper, Motion learning based on Bayesian program learning allows us to quickly generate new motion data, reduce workload, improve work efficiency, reduce the cost of motion capture, and improve the reusability of data.

  5. Investigation for Strong Ground Shaking across the Taipei Basin during the MW 7.0 Eastern Taiwan Offshore Earthquake of 31 March 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ling Huang


    Full Text Available According to reconstructed ground motion snapshots of the northern Taiwan area during the MW 7.0 eastern Taiwan offshore earthquake of 31 March 2002, the composite effects indicated complicated wave propagation behavior in the ground motion of the Taipei basin. A major low frequency pulse arose after the S-wave with the duration of about 20 seconds was observed in northern Taiwan and dominated the radial direction. Observed waveforms of a low frequency pulse show amplification during the seismic wave across the Taipei basin from its eastern edge to western portion. This effect has been considered to be generated by an unusual source radiation, deep Moho reflection or basin bottom surface. In this study, recorded ground motions from a dense seismic network were analyzed using a frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis for seismic wave propagation properties. We investigated temporal and spatial variations in strong shaking in different frequency bands. Results show that a simple pulse incident seismic wave strongly interacts with inside soft sediments and the surrounding topography of the Taipei basin which in turn extends its shaking duration. Evidence showed that seismic waves have been reflected back from its western boundary of basin with a dominant frequency near one Hz. Findings in this study have been rarely reported and may provide useful information to further constrain a three-dimensional numerical simulation for the basin response and velocity structure, and to predict ground motions of further large earthquakes.

  6. Chukchi Borderland | Crustal Complex of the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Ilhan, I.; Coakley, B.; Houseknecht, D. W.


    tectonic models proposed for tectonic development of the Amerasia Basin. Models that require significant relative motion between the Chukchi Shelf and Borderland since the Early Cretaceous are precluded by these observations.

  7. Confluence and redistribution of Atlantic water in the Nansen, Amundsen and Makarov basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schauer


    the Eurasian Basin waters enter the Canadian Basin not only along the continental slope but they may also cross the Lomonosov Ridge at other topographic irregularities. A decrease in salinity around 1000 m in depth in the Amundsen Basin probably originates from a larger input of fresh water to the Barents Sea. The inherent density changes may affect the flow towards the Canadian Basin.Key words. Oceanography: general (Artic and Antartic oceanography; descriptive and regional oceanography Oceanography: physical (hydrography

  8. Compensation for incoherent ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigeru, Takeda; Hiroshi, Matsumoto; Masakazu, Yoshioka; Yasunori, Takeuchi; Kikuo, Kudo [KEK, High Energy Alccelerator Research Organization (Japan); Tsuneya, Tsubokawa [National Astronomical Observatory, Mizusawa Astrogeodynamics Observatory (Japan); Mitsuaki, Nozaki; Kiyotomo, Kawagoe [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics


    The power spectrum density and coherence function for ground motions are studied for the construction of the next generation electron-positron linear collider. It should provide a center of mass energy between 500 GeV-1 TeV with luminosity as high as 10{sup 33} to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. Since the linear collider has a relatively slow repetition rate, large number of particles and small sizes of the beam should be generated and preserved in the machine to obtain the required high luminosity. One of the most critical parameters is the extremely small vertical beam size at the interaction point, thus a proper alignment system for the focusing and accelerating elements of the machine is necessary to achieve the luminosity. We describe recent observed incoherent ground motions and an alignment system to compensate the distortion by the ground motions. (authors)

  9. Theoretical motions of hydrofoil systems (United States)

    Imlay, Frederick H


    Results are presented of an investigation that has been undertaken to develop theoretical methods of treating the motions of hydrofoil systems and to determine some of the important parameters. Variations of parameters include three distributions of area between the hydrofoils, two rates of change of downwash angle with angle of attack, three depths of immersion, two dihedral angles, two rates of change of lift with immersion, three longitudinal hydrofoil spacings, two radii of gyration in pitching, and various horizontal and vertical locations of the center of gravity. Graphs are presented to show locations of the center of gravity for stable motion, values of the stability roots, and motions following the sudden application of a vertical force or a pitching moment to the hydrofoil system for numerous sets of values of the parameters.

  10. Motion sensor technologies in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bratitsis


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to raise a discussion regarding motion sensor technologies, mainly seen as peripherals of contemporary video game consoles, by examining their exploitation within educational context. An overview of the existing literature is presented, while attempting to categorize the educational approaches which involve motion sensor technologies, in two parts. The first one concerns the education of people with special needs. The utilization of motion sensor technologies, incorporated by game consoles, in the education of such people is examined. The second one refers to various educational approaches in regular education, under which not so many research approaches, but many teaching ideas can be found. The aim of the paper is to serve as a reference point for every individual/group, willing to explore the Sensor-Based Games Based Learning (SBGBL research area, by providing a complete and structured literature review.

  11. Methods for Structure from Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik


    .g. within entertainment, reverse engineering and architecture. This thesis is a study within this area of structure from motion. The result of the work, which this thesis represents is the development of new methods for addressing some of the problems within the field. Mainly in robustifying......Structure from motion, the problem of estimating 3D structure from 2D images hereof, is one of the most popular and well studied problems within computer vision. In part because it is academically interesting, but also because it holds a wealth of commercially very interesting prospects, e...... the factorization approach, relaxing the rigidity constrains, and in considering alternative ways of solving the surface estimation problem. In Danish: Structure from motion problematikken beskæftiger sig med at estimere 3D struktur fra 2D afbildninger heraf. Denne problemstilling er en af de mest populære og...

  12. Robot Motion and Control 2011

    CERN Document Server


    Robot Motion Control 2011 presents very recent results in robot motion and control. Forty short papers have been chosen from those presented at the sixth International Workshop on Robot Motion and Control held in Poland in June 2011. The authors of these papers have been carefully selected and represent leading institutions in this field. The following recent developments are discussed: • Design of trajectory planning schemes for holonomic and nonholonomic systems with optimization of energy, torque limitations and other factors. • New control algorithms for industrial robots, nonholonomic systems and legged robots. • Different applications of robotic systems in industry and everyday life, like medicine, education, entertainment and others. • Multiagent systems consisting of mobile and flying robots with their applications The book is suitable for graduate students of automation and robotics, informatics and management, mechatronics, electronics and production engineering systems as well as scientists...

  13. Visualization system of swirl motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, K.; Umeda, K.; Ichikawa, T.; Nagano, T.; Sakata, H.


    The instrumentation of a system composed of an experimental device and numerical analysis is presented to visualize flow and identify swirling motion. Experiment is performed with transparent material and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) instrumentation, by which velocity vector field is obtained. This vector field is then analyzed numerically by 'swirling flow analysis', which estimates its velocity gradient tensor and the corresponding eigenvalue (swirling function). Since an instantaneous flow field in steady/unsteady states is captured by PIV, the flow field is analyzed, and existence of vortices or swirling motions and their locations are identified in spite of their size. In addition, intensity of swirling is evaluated. The analysis enables swirling motion to emerge, even though it is hidden in uniform flow and velocity filed does not indicate any swirling. This visualization system can be applied to investigate condition to control flow or design flow. (authors)

  14. Alpha motion based on a motion detector, but not on the Müller-Lyer illusion (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiro


    This study examined the mechanism of alpha motion, the apparent motion of the Müller-Lyer figure's shaft that occurs when the arrowheads and arrow tails are alternately presented. The following facts were found: (a) reduced exposure duration decreased the amount of alpha motion, and this phenomenon was not explainable by the amount of the Müller-Lyer illusion; (b) the motion aftereffect occurred after adaptation to alpha motion; (c) occurrence of alpha motion became difficult when the temporal frequency increased, and this characteristic of alpha motion was similar to the characteristic of a motion detector that motion detection became difficult when the temporal frequency increased from the optimal frequency. These findings indicated that alpha motion occurs on the basis of a motion detector but not on the Müller-Lyer illusion, and that the mechanism of alpha motion is the same as that of general motion perception.

  15. Mental imagery of gravitational motion. (United States)

    Gravano, Silvio; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco


    There is considerable evidence that gravitational acceleration is taken into account in the interaction with falling targets through an internal model of Earth gravity. Here we asked whether this internal model is accessed also when target motion is imagined rather than real. In the main experiments, naïve participants grasped an imaginary ball, threw it against the ceiling, and caught it on rebound. In different blocks of trials, they had to imagine that the ball moved under terrestrial gravity (1g condition) or under microgravity (0g) as during a space flight. We measured the speed and timing of the throwing and catching actions, and plotted ball flight duration versus throwing speed. Best-fitting duration-speed curves estimate the laws of ball motion implicit in the participant's performance. Surprisingly, we found duration-speed curves compatible with 0g for both the imaginary 0g condition and the imaginary 1g condition, despite the familiarity with Earth gravity effects and the added realism of performing the throwing and catching actions. In a control experiment, naïve participants were asked to throw the imaginary ball vertically upwards at different heights, without hitting the ceiling, and to catch it on its way down. All participants overestimated ball flight durations relative to the durations predicted by the effects of Earth gravity. Overall, the results indicate that mental imagery of motion does not have access to the internal model of Earth gravity, but resorts to a simulation of visual motion. Because visual processing of accelerating/decelerating motion is poor, visual imagery of motion at constant speed or slowly varying speed appears to be the preferred mode to perform the tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Motion Verbs in Learner Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pınar BABANOĞLU


    Full Text Available Motions verbs differ across languages in respect of spatial relations and syntactic/semantic conceptualization. Languages have two typological groups for motion events: (a verb-framed languages in which the main verb expresses the core information of the path of movement, and the manner information is expressed in a subordinate structure (e.g. a gerundive and (b satellite-framed languages where the main verb expresses information about manner of movement and a subordinate satellite element (e.g., a verb particle to the verb conveys the path of movement (Talmy, 1985; Chen & Guo, 2009. In this corpus-based study, two learner corpora from two different native languages as Turkish as a verb-framed language and German as satellite-framed language are investigated in terms of motion verbs in English like move, fly, walk, go via frequency and statistical analysis for corpora comparison. The purpose of the study is to find out whether there is a statistical difference in the use of motion verbs by Turkish (as a verb-framed L1 and German (as a satellite-framed L1 learners in due of cross-linguistic difference between Turkish and German which may be a factor that influence learners essay writing in English (as a satellite-framed L2 in the use of motion verbs. Results indicated that German learners of English use especially manner of motion verbs in English statistically more frequent and lexically more diverse in their essays than Turkish learners of English.

  17. K-Basins design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.


    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines

  18. Roll motion stimuli : sensory conflict, perceptual weighting and motion sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, B. de; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.


    In an experiment with seventeen subjects interactions of visual roll motion stimuli and vestibular body tilt stimuli were examined in determining the subjective vertical. Interindi-vidual differences in weighting the visual information were observed, but in general visual and vestibular responses

  19. Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis (United States)

    Probe, John D.


    In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body a wide variety of technologies has been developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development, coupled with recent advances in video technology, have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) to develop data on shirtsleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on-orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. APAS is a fully integrated system of hardware and software for biomechanics and the analysis of human performance and generalized motion measurement. Major components of the complete system include the video system, the AT compatible computer, and the proprietary software.

  20. Motion Model Employment using interacting Motion Model Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar


    model being correct is computed through a likelihood function for each model.  The study presented a simple technique to introduce additional models into the system using deterministic acceleration which basically defines the dynamics of the system.  Therefore, based on this value more motion models can...

  1. An Alternative for In-Depth Monitoring of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (United States)

    Lindner, L.; Gensch, S.; Henneberger, R.; Lendholt, M.; Hammitzsch, M.


    This article presents a concept for in-depth monitoring of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS) developed in the projects German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) , Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) and Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC). Traditionally such systems are monitored using existing standard software solutions such as Nagios with different levels of customization. This talk discusses the operational shortcomings of monitoring larger heterogeneous, loosely coupled infrastructures that are not integrated within a service oriented architecture (SOA) framework providing sufficient monitoring utilities. Such a service-level framework could provide the proper means to monitor service interactions. Without such a framework e.g. in case of a loosely coupled component architecture, the means for a proper component-level supervision do not exist. This manifest in creating Nagios-based "service" checks for such an architecture. Service monitoring using Nagios employs active and passive service checks mostly via ICMP, SSH. The control flow is pulling status from the supervised hosts. When monitoring components, interacting via interfaces not necessarily exposed to a service-level monitoring, pulling the component status becomes inefficient. Nagios administrators bypass this by implementing host-local inspection checks that simulate testable service endpoints to Nagios. We believe that such checks fundamentally fail the service concept of Nagios. The main problems with this approach are (1) duplicating component code by implementation white box tests based on the internal component control flow or/and data structure and (2) an inevitable divergence of component behaviour and check assumptions over the component development life-cycle. This amounts to a continuously needed administrative action to update the service checks and to inspect whether recent errors reported by the monitoring are real errors or

  2. Is topsoil water repellency a mechanism for improving water conservation in depth? (United States)

    Lozano, Elena; Jiménez-Pinilla, Patricia; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Mataix-Beneyto, Jorge


    . However, differences in evaporation rates were not significant between samples with different WR levels of persistence nor between samples with different initial water content. Our preliminary results indicated that soil WR is a mechanism which clearly contributes to the conservation of moisture in depth, making more sense of the hypothesis of a possible ecological strategy for plants. Keywords: Soil water repellency, hydrophobicity. References: Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.P.D., 2000. Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth-Sci. Rev. 51, 33-65. Robinson D.A., Lebron I., Ryel R.J., Jones S.B., 2010. Soil Water Repellency: A Method of Soil Moisture Sequestration in Pinyon-Juniper Woodland Soil Science Society of America Journal 74 (2), 624-634. Rodriguez-Iturbe, I., 2000. Ecohydrology: a hydrologic perspective of climate-soil-vegetation dynamics. Water Resour. Res., 36 (1), 3-9.

  3. Biological Motion Perception in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Cusack


    Full Text Available Typically developing adults can readily recognize human actions, even when conveyed to them via point-like markers placed on the body of the actor (Johansson, 1973. Previous research has suggested that children affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD are not equally sensitive to this type of visual information (Blake et al, 2003, but it remains unknown why ASD would impact the ability to perceive biological motion. We present evidence which looks at how adolescents and adults with autism are affected by specific factors which are important in biological motion perception, such as (eg, inter-agent synchronicity, upright/inverted, etc.

  4. String Motion in Fivebrane Geometry


    Khuri, Ramzi R.; La, HoSeong


    The classical motion of a test string in the transverse space of two types of heterotic fivebrane sources is fully analyzed, for arbitrary instanton scale size. The singular case is treated as a special case and does not arise in the continuous limit of zero instanton size. We find that the orbits are either circular or open, which is a solitonic analogy with the motion of an electron around a magnetic monopole, although the system we consider is quantitatively different. We emphasize that at...

  5. Motion of rectangular prismatic bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poreh, M.; Wray, R.N.


    Rectangular prismatic bodies can assume either a translatory or an auto-rotating mode of motion during free motion in the atmosphere. The translatory mode is stable only when the dimensionless moment of inertia of the bodies is large, however, large perturbations will always start auto-rotation. The characteristics of the auto-rotational mode are shown to depend primarily on the aspect ratio of the bodies which determines the dimensionless rotational speed and the lift coefficient. Both the average drag and lift-coefficients of auto-rotating bodies are estimated, but it is shown that secondary effects make it impossible to determine their exact trajectories in atmospheric flows

  6. The quasi-stationary feature of nocturnal precipitation in the Sichuan Basin and the role of the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Jin, Xia; Wu, Tongwen; Li, Laurent


    The nocturnal precipitation in the Sichuan Basin in summer has been studied in many previous works. This paper expands the study on the diurnal cycle of precipitation in the Sichuan Basin to the whole year. Results show that the nocturnal precipitation has a specific quasi-stationary feature in the basin. It occurs not only in summer but also in other three seasons, even more remarkable in spring and autumn than in summer. There is a prominent eastward timing delay in the nocturnal precipitation, that is, the diurnal peak of precipitation occurs at early-night in the western basin whereas at late-night in the center and east of the basin. The Tibetan Plateau plays an essential role in the formation of this quasi-stationary nocturnal precipitation. The early-night peak of precipitation in the western basin is largely due to strong ascending over the plateau and its eastern lee side. In the central and eastern basin, three coexisting factors contribute to the late-night peak of precipitation. One is the lower-tropospheric southwesterly flow around the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, which creates a strong cyclonic rotation and ascendance in the basin at late-night, as well as brings abundant water vapor. The second is the descending motion downslope along the eastern lee side of the plateau, together with an air mass accumulation caused by the warmer air mass transport from the southeast of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, creating a diabatic warming at low level of the troposphere in the central basin. The third is a cold advection from the plateau to the basin at late-night, which leads to a cooling in the middle troposphere over the central basin. All these factors are responsible for precipitation to occur at late-night in the central to eastern basin.

  7. Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...

  8. Marketing San Juan Basin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posner, D.M.


    Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

  9. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen


    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  10. River basin management and community : the Great Ouse Basin, 1850–present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, E.


    River basins are difficult units to manage. Society is generally not organized on the basis of river basins, yet river basins are important units for society and vice versa. This paper discusses the development and effectiveness of river basin management, using the Great Ouse Basin in the east of

  11. Beyond Resonance: Characterizing Complex Basin Effects Using a Dense Seismic Array (United States)

    Boué, P.; Denolle, M.; Hirata, N.; Nakagawa, S.; Beroza, G. C.


    Cross-correlation of the ambient seismic field is now a well-established approach to create high-resolution images of the crust and the upper mantle, to explore the spatial and temporal variations in elastic wave speeds, and to develop images of complex wavefields themselves. Recent ambient-field studies have successfully observed higher-mode surface waves and body wave propagation at various scales of the Earth. These new observations paved the way for a more accurate seismic hazard assessment for which a detailed knowledge of seismic wave propagation is critical, especially in complex media such as sedimentary basins. While the effects of basin resonance are widely appreciated and understood, basin-edge effects are usually less well constrained, but have been used to explain zones of concentrated damage in the 1994 Northridge and 1995 Kobe earthquakes. In this study, we use the dense MeSO-net (MEtropolitan Seismic Observation network) seismic network, deployed in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and the sparse, but high quality, Hi-net (High sensitivity seismograph network) to identify the dominant modes of wave propagation within the Kanto Basin. Our goal is to explore how the wavefield behaves in the vicinity of sharp basin edges. When combined with the ambient seismic field interferometry, dense, 3-component, seismic arrays provide a new opportunity to image such propagation effects. Using array processing techniques, we show that mode conversions, reflection, and diffractions, in particular at basin edges dominate the ground motion in the Kanto Basin. Accurate predictions of strong ground motion, and its variability, must account for these effects.

  12. Generation of Earthquake Ground Motion Considering Local Site Effects and Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of Ancient Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kwan; Lee, J. S.; Yang, T. S.; Cho, J. R.; R, H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    In order to establish a correct correlation between them, mechanical characteristics of the ancient structures need to be investigated. Since sedimentary basins are preferred dwelling sites in ancient times, it is necessary to perform SSI analysis to derive correct correlation between the damage and ground motion intensity. Contents of Project are as follows: (1) Generation of stochastic earthquake ground motion considering source mechanism and site effects. (2) Analysis of seismic response of sedimentary basin. (3) Soil-structure interaction analysis of ancient structures (4) Investigation of dynamic response characteristics of ancient structure considering soil-structure interaction effects. A procedure is presented for generation of stochastic earthquake ground motion considering source mechanism and site effects. The simulation method proposed by Boore is used to generate the outcropping rock motion. The free field motion at the soil site is obtained by a convolution analysis. And for the study of wood structures, a nonlinear SDOF model is developed. The effects of soil-structure interaction on the behavior of the wood structures are found to be very minor. But the response can be significantly affected due to the intensity and frequency contents of the input motion. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 31 figs. (author)

  13. Faraday's Law and Seawater Motion (United States)

    De Luca, R.


    Using Faraday's law, one can illustrate how an electromotive force generator, directly utilizing seawater motion, works. The conceptual device proposed is rather simple in its components and can be built in any high school or college laboratory. The description of the way in which the device generates an electromotive force can be instructive not…

  14. Estimation of Motion Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus


    This paper presents an approach to the estimation of 2-D motion vector fields from time varying image sequences. We use a piecewise smooth model based on coupled vector/binary Markov random fields. We find the maximum a posteriori solution by simulated annealing. The algorithm generate sample...

  15. Storyboard dalam Pembuatan Motion Graphic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrya Mahardhika


    Full Text Available Motion graphics is one category in the animation that makes animation with lots of design elements in each component. Motion graphics needs long process including preproduction, production, and postproduction. Preproduction has an important role so that the next stage may provide guidance or instructions for the production process or the animation process. Preproduction includes research, making the story, script, screenplay, character, environment design and storyboards. The storyboard will be determined through camera angles, blocking, sets, and many supporting roles involved in a scene. Storyboard is also useful as a production reference in recording or taping each scene in sequence or as an efficient priority. The example used is an ad creation using motion graphic animation storyboard which has an important role as a blueprint for every scene and giving instructions to make the transition movement, layout, blocking, and defining camera movement that everything should be done periodically in animation production. Planning before making the animation or motion graphic will make the job more organized, presentable, and more efficient in the process.  

  16. Procedure to describe clavicular motion. (United States)

    Gutierrez Delgado, Guivey; De Beule, Matthieu; Ortega Cardentey, Dolgis R; Segers, Patrick; Iznaga Benítez, Arsenio M; Rodríguez Moliner, Tania; Verhegghe, Benedict; Palmans, Tanneke; Van Hoof, Tom; Van Tongel, Alexander


    For many years, researchers have attempted to describe shoulder motions by using different mathematical methods. The aim of this study was to describe a procedure to quantify clavicular motion. The procedure proposed for the kinematic analysis consists of 4 main processes: 3 transcortical pins in the clavicle, motion capture, obtaining 3-dimensional bone models, and data processing. Clavicular motion by abduction (30° to 150°) and flexion (55° to 165°) were characterized by an increment of retraction of 27° to 33°, elevation of 25° to 28°, and posterior rotation of 14° to 15°, respectively. In circumduction, clavicular movement described an ellipse, which was reflected by retraction and elevation. Kinematic analysis shows that the articular surfaces move by simultaneously rolling and sliding on the convex surface of the sternum for the 3 movements of abduction, flexion, and circumduction. The use of 3 body landmarks in the clavicle and the direct measurement of bone allowed description of the osteokinematic and arthrokinematic movement of the clavicle. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantum equations from Brownian motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, B.S.


    Classical Schrodinger and Dirac equations have been derived from Brownian motions of a particle, it has been shown that the classical Schrodinger equation can be transformed to usual Schrodinger Quantum equation on applying Heisenberg uncertainty principle between position and momentum while Dirac Quantum equation follows it's classical counter part on applying Heisenberg uncertainly principle between energy and time without applying any analytical continuation. (author)

  18. Pendulum Motion and Differential Equations (United States)

    Reid, Thomas F.; King, Stephen C.


    A common example of real-world motion that can be modeled by a differential equation, and one easily understood by the student, is the simple pendulum. Simplifying assumptions are necessary for closed-form solutions to exist, and frequently there is little discussion of the impact if those assumptions are not met. This article presents a…

  19. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time ...

  20. The Visual Priming of Motion-Defined 3D Objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Jiang

    Full Text Available The perception of a stimulus can be influenced by previous perceptual experience, a phenomenon known as perceptual priming. However, there has been limited investigation on perceptual priming of shape perception of three-dimensional object structures defined by moving dots. Here we examined the perceptual priming of a 3D object shape defined purely by motion-in-depth cues (i.e., Shape-From-Motion, SFM using a classic prime-target paradigm. The results from the first two experiments revealed a significant increase in accuracy when a "cloudy" SFM stimulus (whose object structure was difficult to recognize due to the presence of strong noise was preceded by an unambiguous SFM that clearly defined the same transparent 3D shape. In contrast, results from Experiment 3 revealed no change in accuracy when a "cloudy" SFM stimulus was preceded by a static shape or a semantic word that defined the same object shape. Instead, there was a significant decrease in accuracy when preceded by a static shape or a semantic word that defined a different object shape. These results suggested that the perception of a noisy SFM stimulus can be facilitated by a preceding unambiguous SFM stimulus--but not a static image or a semantic stimulus--that defined the same shape. The potential neural and computational mechanisms underlying the difference in priming are discussed.

  1. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Garry M.


    Full Text Available The mandatory use of IFRS by all publicly listed companies in the European Union created challenges for accounting and reporting of business combinations, goodwill impairment and disclosures for these items. Major issues are allocation of amounts to goodwill and specific intangible assets arising from acquisition. This study presents an in-depth exploration of compliance with IFRS 3 and IAS 36 using content analysis methodology of annual reports of eight European telecommunications that were chose because the industry is well known for significant acquisitions involving intangibles. The results show only partial compliance with little change over the four year period since mandatory IFRS adoption. While results cannot be generalized outside this group, the in-depth analysis yielded important insights for continued research using broader research methods.

  3. Molecules in strong laser fields. In depth study of H2 molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Manohar


    A method for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) describing the electronic motion of the molecules exposed to very short intense laser pulses has been developed. The time-dependent electronic wavefunction is expanded in terms of a superposition of field-free eigenstates. The field-free eigenstates are calculated in two ways. In the first approach, which is applicable to two electron systems like H 2 , fully correlated field-free eigenstates are obtained in complete dimensionality using configuration-interaction calculation where the one-electron basis functions are built from B splines. In the second approach, which is even applicable to larger molecules, the field-free eigenstates are calculated within the single-active-electron (SAE) approximation using density functional theory. In general, the method can be divided into two parts, in the first part the field-free eigenstates are calculated and then in the second part a time propagation for the laser pulse parameters is performed. The H 2 molecule is the testing ground for the implementation of both the methods. The reliability of the configuration interaction (CI) based method for the solution of TDSE (CI-TDSE) is tested by comparing results in the low-intensity regime to the prediction of lowest-order perturbation theory. Another test for the CI-TDSE method is in the united atom limit for the H 2 molecule. By selecting a very small value of the internuclear distance close to zero for the H 2 molecule, Helium atom is obtained. Once the functionality and the reliability of the method is established, it is used for obtaining accurate results for molecular hydrogen exposed to intense laser fields. The results for the standard 800 nm Titanium-Sapphire laser and its harmonics at 400 nm and 266 nm are shown. The results for a scan over a wide range of incident photon energies as well as dependence on the internuclear distance are presented. The photoelectron spectra including above

  4. Molecules in strong laser fields. In depth study of H{sub 2} molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awasthi, Manohar


    A method for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) describing the electronic motion of the molecules exposed to very short intense laser pulses has been developed. The time-dependent electronic wavefunction is expanded in terms of a superposition of field-free eigenstates. The field-free eigenstates are calculated in two ways. In the first approach, which is applicable to two electron systems like H{sub 2}, fully correlated field-free eigenstates are obtained in complete dimensionality using configuration-interaction calculation where the one-electron basis functions are built from B splines. In the second approach, which is even applicable to larger molecules, the field-free eigenstates are calculated within the single-active-electron (SAE) approximation using density functional theory. In general, the method can be divided into two parts, in the first part the field-free eigenstates are calculated and then in the second part a time propagation for the laser pulse parameters is performed. The H{sub 2} molecule is the testing ground for the implementation of both the methods. The reliability of the configuration interaction (CI) based method for the solution of TDSE (CI-TDSE) is tested by comparing results in the low-intensity regime to the prediction of lowest-order perturbation theory. Another test for the CI-TDSE method is in the united atom limit for the H{sub 2} molecule. By selecting a very small value of the internuclear distance close to zero for the H{sub 2} molecule, Helium atom is obtained. Once the functionality and the reliability of the method is established, it is used for obtaining accurate results for molecular hydrogen exposed to intense laser fields. The results for the standard 800 nm Titanium-Sapphire laser and its harmonics at 400 nm and 266 nm are shown. The results for a scan over a wide range of incident photon energies as well as dependence on the internuclear distance are presented. The photoelectron spectra including

  5. An In-Depth Look At the Lunar Crater Copernicus: Exposed Mineralogy by High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy



    Abstract Highlights ?We present an in-depth study of Copernicus crater. ? First publication based on new NIR data from the SIR-2 mission to the Moon. ? New NIR spectral classification of surface materials within the crater. ? Highly detailed mapping of spectrally-prominent mineral species. Abstract Newly acquired, sequentially spaced, high resolution near-infrared spectra across the central section of crater Copernicus? interior have been analysed using a r...

  6. The novel programmable riometer for in-depth ionospheric and magnetospheric observations (PRIAMOS) using direct sampling DSP techniques


    Dekoulis, G.; Honary, F.


    This paper describes the feasibility study and simulation results for the unique multi-frequency, multi-bandwidth, Programmable Riometer for in-depth Ionospheric And Magnetospheric ObservationS (PRIAMOS) based on direct sampling digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. This novel architecture is based on sampling the cosmic noise wavefront at the antenna. It eliminates the usage of any intermediate frequency (IF) mixer stages (-6 dB) and the noise balancing technique (-3 dB), providing a m...

  7. Defense In-Depth Accident Analysis Evaluation of Tritium Facility Bldgs. 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.


    'The primary purpose of this report is to document a Defense-in-Depth (DID) accident analysis evaluation for Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facility Buildings 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H. The purpose of a DID evaluation is to provide a more realistic view of facility radiological risks to the offsite public than the bounding deterministic analysis documented in the Safety Analysis Report, which credits only Safety Class items in the offsite dose evaluation.'

  8. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, A.


    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  9. Plate motions and deformations from geologic and geodetic data (United States)

    Jordan, T. H.


    Research effort on behalf of the Crustal Dynamics Project focused on the development of methodologies suitable for the analysis of space-geodetic data sets for the estimation of crustal motions, in conjunction with results derived from land-based geodetic data, neo-tectonic studies, and other geophysical data. These methodologies were used to provide estimates of both global plate motions and intraplate deformation in the western U.S. Results from the satellite ranging experiment for the rate of change of the baseline length between San Diego and Quincy, California indicated that relative motion between the North American and Pacific plates over the course of the observing period during 1972 to 1982 were consistent with estimates calculated from geologic data averaged over the past few million years. This result, when combined with other kinematic constraints on western U.S. deformation derived from land-based geodesy, neo-tectonic studies, and other geophysical data, places limits on the possible extension of the Basin and Range province, and implies significant deformation is occurring west of the San Andreas fault. A new methodology was developed to analyze vector-position space-geodetic data to provide estimates of relative vector motions of the observing sites. The algorithm is suitable for the reduction of large, inhomogeneous data sets, and takes into account the full position covariances, errors due to poorly resolved Earth orientation parameters and vertical positions, and reduces baises due to inhomogeneous sampling of the data. This methodology was applied to the problem of estimating the rate-scaling parameter of a global plate tectonic model using satellite laser ranging observations over a five-year interval. The results indicate that the mean rate of global plate motions for that interval are consistent with those averaged over several million years, and are not consistent with quiescent or greatly accelerated plate motions. This methodology was also

  10. The Heidelberg Basin Drilling Project — basin analysis (United States)

    Tanner, David C.; Martini, Nicole; Buness, Hermann; Gabriel, Gerald; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.


    Within the context of the Heidelberg Basin Project (Gabriel et al. 2008), we present the first results of three-dimensional structural modelling of the basin, based on interpretation of reflection seismics and decompaction using porosity data measured from core material. Firstly, we interpreted six horizons (Base Quaternary, Internal and Base Pliocene, Base Upper Miocene, Internal and Base Mid Miocene Hydrobien beds) from all available industrial (ca. 100 km) and our own reflection seismic sections (ca. 15 km), which lie within a 8 km radius around the Heidelberg UniNord 1/2 boreholes. This data was used to construct a three-dimensional geometrical model of the Heidelberg Basin. Using 300 core samples, we determined the porosity of the Quaternary sediments and constructed an exponential porosity/depth relationship for these rocks, which were then attributed to the model. Lower strata were given values from the literature. The model shows that the Heidelberg basin has a N-S and E-W areal extent of only 10 × 6 km, directly abutting the eastern fault boundary of the Upper Rhine Graben. The strongest synsedimentary tectonic subsidence occurred during the Upper Miocene, Upper Pliocene, and Quarternary. Faults are not seen within the basin at this level, but a NW-SE striking strike-slip structure is recorded to the west of the basin. Furthermore, the sedimentary depocentre shifted 2 km northwards over time to the present location, directly below the city of Heidelberg. We determined that Quaternary sediments have porosities of over 60% at the surface, but at the Base Quaternary porosity is less than 35%. This strong decrease means that 740 m of sediments were compacted to produce the present ca. 500 m thickness of Quaternary strata. Gabriel, G., Ellwanger, D., Hoselmann, C. & Weidenfeller, M. (2008): The Heidelberg Basin Drilling Project. -- Quaternary Science Journal, 57, 3-4, 253-260.

  11. Ground-Motion Simulations of Scenario Earthquakes on the Hayward Fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B; Graves, R; Larsen, S; Ma, S; Rodgers, A; Ponce, D; Schwartz, D; Simpson, R; Graymer, R


    We compute ground motions in the San Francisco Bay area for 35 Mw 6.7-7.2 scenario earthquake ruptures involving the Hayward fault. The modeled scenarios vary in rupture length, hypocenter, slip distribution, rupture speed, and rise time. This collaborative effort involves five modeling groups, using different wave propagation codes and domains of various sizes and resolutions, computing long-period (T > 1-2 s) or broadband (T > 0.1 s) synthetic ground motions for overlapping subsets of the suite of scenarios. The simulations incorporate 3-D geologic structure and illustrate the dramatic increase in intensity of shaking for Mw 7.05 ruptures of the entire Hayward fault compared with Mw 6.76 ruptures of the southern two-thirds of the fault. The area subjected to shaking stronger than MMI VII increases from about 10% of the San Francisco Bay urban area in the Mw 6.76 events to more than 40% of the urban area for the Mw 7.05 events. Similarly, combined rupture of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults in a Mw 7.2 event extends shaking stronger than MMI VII to nearly 50% of the urban area. For a given rupture length, the synthetic ground motions exhibit the greatest sensitivity to the slip distribution and location inside or near the edge of sedimentary basins. The hypocenter also exerts a strong influence on the amplitude of the shaking due to rupture directivity. The synthetic waveforms exhibit a weaker sensitivity to the rupture speed and are relatively insensitive to the rise time. The ground motions from the simulations are generally consistent with Next Generation Attenuation ground-motion prediction models but contain long-period effects, such as rupture directivity and amplification in shallow sedimentary basins that are not fully captured by the ground-motion prediction models.

  12. A Motion Planning Approach to Studying Molecular Motions

    KAUST Repository

    Amato, Nancy M.


    While structurally very different, protein and RNA molecules share an important attribute. The motions they undergo are strongly related to the function they perform. For example, many diseases such as Mad Cow disease or Alzheimer\\'s disease are associated with protein misfolding and aggregation. Similarly, RNA folding velocity may regulate the plasmid copy number, and RNA folding kinetics can regulate gene expression at the translational level. Knowledge of the stability, folding, kinetics and detailed mechanics of the folding process may help provide insight into how proteins and RNAs fold. In this paper, we present an overview of our work with a computational method we have adapted from robotic motion planning to study molecular motions. We have validated against experimental data and have demonstrated that our method can capture biological results such as stochastic folding pathways, population kinetics of various conformations, and relative folding rates. Thus, our method provides both a detailed view (e.g., individual pathways) and a global view (e.g., population kinetics, relative folding rates, and reaction coordinates) of energy landscapes of both proteins and RNAs. We have validated these techniques by showing that we observe the same relative folding rates as shown in experiments for structurally similar protein molecules that exhibit different folding behaviors. Our analysis has also been able to predict the same relative gene expression rate for wild-type MS2 phage RNA and three of its mutants.

  13. The application of biological motion research: biometrics, sport, and the military. (United States)

    Steel, Kylie; Ellem, Eathan; Baxter, David


    The body of research that examines the perception of biological motion is extensive and explores the factors that are perceived from biological motion and how this information is processed. This research demonstrates that individuals are able to use relative (temporal and spatial) information from a person's movement to recognize factors, including gender, age, deception, emotion, intention, and action. The research also demonstrates that movement presents idiosyncratic properties that allow individual discrimination, thus providing the basis for significant exploration in the domain of biometrics and social signal processing. Medical forensics, safety garments, and victim selection domains also have provided a history of research on the perception of biological motion applications; however, a number of additional domains present opportunities for application that have not been explored in depth. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the current applications of biological motion-based research and to propose a number of areas where biological motion research, specific to recognition, could be applied in the future.

  14. Avalonian crustal controls on basin evolution: implications for the Mesozoic basins of the southern North Sea (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd


    Little is known of the Southern North Sea Basin's (SNSB) Pre-Permian basement due to a lack of outcrop and cores. The nature and structure of the East Avalonian crust and lithosphere remain even less constrained in the absence of deep seismic (refraction) lines. However, various studies have hinted at the importance of the Reactivation of the Early Carboniferous fault network during each consecutive Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic phase, demonstrating the key role of weak zones from the Early Carboniferous structural grain in partitioning of structural deformation and vertical basin motions at various scales. Although the older basin history and the basement attract increasing attention, the Pre-Permian tectonics of the SNSB remains little studied with most attention focused on the Permian and younger history. The strong dispersal of existing constraints requires a comprehensive study from Denmark to the UK, i.e. the East Avalonian microplate, bordered by the Variscan Rheïc suture, the Atlantic and Baltica. Based on an extensive literature study and the reinterpretation of publicly available data, linking constraints from the crust and mantle to stratigraphic-sedimentological information, we complement the map of Early Carboniferous rifting of East Avalonia and propose a new tectonic scenario. From the reinterpretation of the boundary between Avalonia and Baltica we propose a new outline for the Avalonian microplate with implications for the tectonics of the North German Basin. Furthermore, we highlight the nature and extent of the major crustal/lithospheric domains with contrasting structural behaviour and the major boundaries that separate them. Results shed light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric that are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints

  15. Social-ecological resilience and law in the Platte River Basin (United States)

    Birge, Hannah E.; Allen, Craig R.; Craig, Robin; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Hamm, Joseph A.; Babbitt, Christina; Nemec, Kristine T.; Schlager, Edella


    Efficiency and resistance to rapid change are hallmarks of both the judicial and legislative branches of the United States government. These defining characteristics, while bringing stability and predictability, pose challenges when it comes to managing dynamic natural systems. As our understanding of ecosystems improves, we must devise ways to account for the non-linearities and uncertainties rife in complex social-ecological systems. This paper takes an in-depth look at the Platte River basin over time to explore how the system's resilience—the capacity to absorb disturbance without losing defining structures and functions—responds to human driven change. Beginning with pre-European settlement, the paper explores how water laws, policies, and infrastructure influenced the region's ecology and society. While much of the post-European development in the Platte River basin came at a high ecological cost to the system, the recent tri-state and federal collaborative Platte River Recovery and Implementation Program is a first step towards flexible and adaptive management of the social-ecological system. Using the Platte River basin as an example, we make the case that inherent flexibility and adaptability are vital for the next iteration of natural resources management policies affecting stressed basins. We argue that this can be accomplished by nesting policy in a resilience framework, which we describe and attempt to operationalize for use across systems and at different levels of jurisdiction. As our current natural resources policies fail under the weight of looming global change, unprecedented demand for natural resources, and shifting land use, the need for a new generation of adaptive, flexible natural resources govern-ance emerges. Here we offer a prescription for just that, rooted in the social , ecological and political realities of the Platte River basin. Social-Ecological Resilience and Law in the Platte River Basin (PDF Download Available). Available

  16. Basin amplification of seismic waves in the city of Pahrump, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert E.


    Sedimentary basins can increase the magnitude and extend the duration of seismic shaking. This potential for seismic amplification is investigated for Pahrump Valley, Nevada-California. The Pahrump Valley is located approximately 50 km northwest of Las Vegas and 75 km south of the Nevada Test Site. Gravity data suggest that the city of Pahrump sits atop a narrow, approximately 5 km deep sub-basin within the valley. The seismic amplification, or ''site effect'', was investigated using a combination of in situ velocity modeling and comparison of the waveforms and spectra of weak ground motion recorded in the city of Pahrump, Nevada, and those recorded in the nearby mountains. Resulting spectral ratios indicate seismic amplification factors of 3-6 over the deepest portion of Pahrump Valley. This amplification predominantly occurs at 2-2.5 Hz. Amplification over the deep sub-basin is lower than amplification at the sub-basin edge, location of the John Blume and Associates PAHA seismic station, which recorded many underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. A comprehensive analysis of basin amplification for the city of Pahrump should include 3-D basin modeling, due to the extreme basement topography of the Pahrump Valley.

  17. Deficient Biological Motion Perception in Schizophrenia: Results from a Motion Noise Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jejoong eKim


    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia patients exhibit deficient processing of perceptual and cognitive information. However, it is not well understood how basic perceptual deficits contribute to higher level cognitive problems in this mental disorder. Perception of biological motion, a motion-based cognitive recognition task, relies on both basic visual motion processing and social cognitive processing, thus providing a useful paradigm to evaluate the potentially hierarchical relationship between these two levels of information processing. Methods: In this study, we designed a biological motion paradigm in which basic visual motion signals were manipulated systematically by incorporating different levels of motion noise. We measured the performances of schizophrenia patients (n=21 and healthy controls (n=22 in this biological motion perception task, as well as in coherent motion detection, theory of mind, and a widely used biological motion recognition task. Results: Schizophrenia patients performed the biological motion perception task with significantly lower accuracy than healthy controls when perceptual signals were moderately degraded by noise. A more substantial degradation of perceptual signals, through using additional noise, impaired biological motion perception in both groups. Performance levels on biological motion recognition, coherent motion detection and theory of mind tasks were also reduced in patients. Conclusion: The results from the motion-noise biological motion paradigm indicate that in the presence of visual motion noise, the processing of biological motion information in schizophrenia is deficient. Combined with the results of poor basic visual motion perception (coherent motion task and biological motion recognition, the association between basic motion signals and biological motion perception suggests a need to incorporate the improvement of visual motion perception in social cognitive remediation.

  18. Plate interactions control middle late Miocene, proto-Gulf and Basin and Range extension in the southern Basin and Range (United States)

    Henry, Christopher D.; Aranda-Gomez, J. Jorge


    Middle-late Miocene (proto-Gulf; ˜12-6 Ma) extension around the Gulf of California (Gulf Extensional Province) is commonly interpreted as resulting from partitioning of oblique Pacific-North American plate motion into strike-slip displacement along the margin and east-northeast extension perpendicular to the margin within the North American plate. We propose that this mechanism also applies to kinematically similar, predominantly east-northeast extension that occurred at the same time throughout the southern Basin and Range province, from southern Arizona and New Mexico to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. New field and 40Ar/ 39Ar data in Sinaloa and Durango confirm that this episode of extension occurred on the mainland side of the Gulf and in the Basin and Range east of the Sierra Madre Occidental, which is generally considered the eastern margin of the Gulf Extensional Province. Published data indicate the middle-late Miocene episode also occurred across the northern and southern ends of the Sierra Madre where the Gulf Extensional Province connects with the Basin and Range: (1) from central Sonora into southern Arizona and New Mexico, and (2) from Nayarit into central Mexico north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This episode appears to have affected an area that continues to the eastern edge of the Basin and Range province in Texas and San Luis Potosi. Recognition that this episode of extension affected the entire southern Basin and Range resolves the discrepancy between the amount of extension calculated based on plate reconstructions and that based on field data within the Gulf Extensional Province alone. Published plate reconstructions require 160 to 110 km of east-northeast extension between ˜12 and 6 Ma. If taken up solely within the Gulf Extensional Province, this would have generated 66 to 78% extension, which is much greater than observed. Spread across the entire southern Basin and Range it requires only ˜20% total extension, which is more

  19. Initiation, evolution and extinction of pull-apart basins: Implications for opening of the Gulf of California (United States)

    van Wijk, J.; Axen, G.; Abera, R.


    We present a model for the origin, crustal architecture, and evolution of pull-apart basins. The model is based on results of three-dimensional upper crustal elastic models of deformation, field observations, and fault theory, and is generally applicable to basin-scale features, but predicts some intra-basin structural features. Geometric differences between pull-apart basins are inherited from the initial geometry of the strike-slip fault step-over, which results from the forming phase of the strike-slip fault system. As strike-slip motion accumulates, pull-apart basins are stationary with respect to underlying basement, and the fault tips propagate beyond the rift basin, increasing the distance between the fault tips and pull-apart basin center. Because uplift is concentrated near the fault tips, the sediment source areas may rejuvenate and migrate over time. Rift flank uplift results from compression along the flank of the basin. With increasing strike-slip movement the basins deepen and lengthen. Field studies predict that pull-apart basins become extinct when an active basin-crossing fault forms; this is the most likely fate of pull-apart basins, because basin-bounding strike-slip systems tend to straighten and connect as they evolve. The models show that larger length-to-width ratios with overlapping faults are least likely to form basin-crossing faults, and pull-apart basins with this geometry are thus most likely to progress to continental rupture. In the Gulf of California, larger length-to-width ratios are found in the southern Gulf, which is the region where continental breakup occurred rapidly. The initial geometry in the northern Gulf of California and Salton Trough at 6 Ma may have been one of widely-spaced master strike-slip faults (lower length-to-width ratios), which our models suggest inhibits continental breakup and favors straightening of the strike-slip system by formation of basin-crossing faults within the step-over, as began 1.2 Ma when the


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell


    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  1. Motion correction in thoracic positron emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Gigengack, Fabian; Dawood, Mohammad; Schäfers, Klaus P


    Respiratory and cardiac motion leads to image degradation in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which impairs quantification. In this book, the authors present approaches to motion estimation and motion correction in thoracic PET. The approaches for motion estimation are based on dual gating and mass-preserving image registration (VAMPIRE) and mass-preserving optical flow (MPOF). With mass-preservation, image intensity modulations caused by highly non-rigid cardiac motion are accounted for. Within the image registration framework different data terms, different variants of regularization and parametric and non-parametric motion models are examined. Within the optical flow framework, different data terms and further non-quadratic penalization are also discussed. The approaches for motion correction particularly focus on pipelines in dual gated PET. A quantitative evaluation of the proposed approaches is performed on software phantom data with accompanied ground-truth motion information. Further, clinical appl...

  2. Hyperventilation in a motion sickness desensitization program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.; Nooij, S.A.E.


    Introduction: In motion sickness desensitization programs, the motion sickness provocative stimulus is often a forward bending of the trunk on a rotating chair, inducing Coriolis effects. Since respiratory relaxation techniques are applied successfully in these courses, we investigated whether these

  3. Wheelchair control by head motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajkanović Aleksandar


    Full Text Available Electric wheelchairs are designed to aid paraplegics. Unfortunately, these can not be used by persons with higher degree of impairment, such as quadriplegics, i.e. persons that, due to age or illness, can not move any of the body parts, except of the head. Medical devices designed to help them are very complicated, rare and expensive. In this paper a microcontroller system that enables standard electric wheelchair control by head motion is presented. The system comprises electronic and mechanic components. A novel head motion recognition technique based on accelerometer data processing is designed. The wheelchair joystick is controlled by the system’s mechanical actuator. The system can be used with several different types of standard electric wheelchairs. It is tested and verified through an experiment performed within this paper.

  4. Motion sensor evaluation using simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmutz, J.D.; McNerney, G.M.; Workhoven, R.M.


    Thorough evaluation testing of interior motion sensors requires repeated testing under a variety of environmental conditions. Although the sensors are intended primarily for interior installations, many of the buildings where protection may be required are warehouses or bunkers without environmental control. In evaluating sensors for such installations, it becomes important to collect data not only on coverage or sensitivity at room temperature but also at environmental extremes. This paper describes a system Sandia National Laboratories at Albuquerque (SNLA) has designed and built to provide repeatability in environmental testing. The system has been dubbed Sandia Intruder Motion Simulator (SIMS). This system is used to acquire much of the data now collected on sensors in the laboratory and a duplicate system has been delivered to the Belvoir R and D Center so that the laboratory can now run similar tests. 11 figures

  5. Homothetic motions in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, C.B.G.


    Properties of homothetic or self-similar motions in general relativity are examined with particular reference to vacuum and perfect-fluid space-times. The role of the homothetic bivector with components Hsub((a;b)) formed from the homothetic vector H is discussed in some detail. It is proved that a vacuum space-time only admits a nontrivial homothetic motion if the homothetic vector field is non-null and is not hypersurface orthogonal. As a subcase of a more general result it is shown that a perfect-fluid space-time cannot admit a non-trivial homothetic vector which is orthogonal to the fluid velocity 4-vector. (author)

  6. ITRF2014 plate motion model (United States)

    Altamimi, Zuheir; Métivier, Laurent; Rebischung, Paul; Rouby, Hélène; Collilieux, Xavier


    For various geodetic and geophysical applications, users need to have access to a plate motion model (PMM) that is consistent with the ITRF2014 frame. This paper describes the approach used for determining a PMM from the horizontal velocities of a subset of the ITRF2014 sites away from plate boundaries, Glacial Isostatic Adjustment regions and other deforming zones. In theory it would be necessary to include in the inversion model a translational motion vector (called in this paper origin rate bias, ORB) that would represent the relative motion between the ITRF2014 origin (long-term averaged centre of mass of the Earth as sensed by SLR) and the centre of tectonic plate motion. We show that in practice, the magnitude of the estimated ORB is strongly dependent on the selection of ITRF2014 sites used for the PMM adjustment. Its Z-component can in particular range between 0 and more than 1 mm yr-1 depending on the station network used, preventing any geophysical interpretation of the estimated value. Relying on rigorous statistical criteria, the site selection finally adopted for the ITRF2014-PMM adjustment leads to a relatively small ORB (0.30 ± 0.18 mm yr-1 in the Z-component), which is statistically insignificant at the 2-sigma level, but also according to an F-ratio test. Therefore we opted for an ITRF2014-PMM without estimating the ORB, which in turn accommodates geodetic applications that require access to the ITRF2014 frame through pure plate rotation poles.

  7. Male Spine Motion During Coitus (United States)

    Sidorkewicz, Natalie


    Study Design. Repeated measures design. Objective. To describe male spine movement and posture characteristics during coitus and compare these characteristics across 5 common coital positions. Summary of Background Data. Exacerbation of pain during coitus due to coital movements and positions is a prevalent issue reported by low back pain patients. A biomechanical analysis of spine movements and postures during coitus has never been conducted. Methods. Ten healthy males and females engaged in coitus in the following preselected positions and variations: QUADRUPED, MISSIONARY, and SIDELYING. An optoelectronic motion capture system was used to measure 3-dimensional lumbar spine angles that were normalized to upright standing. To determine whether each coital position had distinct spine kinematic profiles, separate univariate general linear models, followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc analysis were used. The presentation of coital positions was randomized. Results. Both variations of QUADRUPED, mQUAD1 and mQUAD2, were found to have a significantly higher cycle speed than mSIDE (P = 0.043 and P = 0.034, respectively), mMISS1 (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively), and mMISS2 (P = 0.001 and P spine movement varied depending on the coital position; however, across all positions, the majority of the range of motion used was in flexion. Based on range of motion, the least-to-most recommended positions for a male flexion-intolerant patient are mSIDE, mMISS2, mQUAD2, mMISS1, and mQUAD1. Conclusion. Initial recommendations—which include specific coital positions to avoid, movement strategies, and role of the partner—were developed for male patients whose low back pain is exacerbated by specific motions and postures. Level of Evidence: N/A PMID:25208042

  8. Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision. (United States)


    TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA I WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square . Cambridge, MA 02139 C\\ II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO0 ADDRESS...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A.I.Memo No. 1037 April, 1988 Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision Joachim Heel Abstract: In this... Artificial Intelligence L3 Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the Laboratory’s [1 Artificial Intelligence Research is

  9. p-adic Brownian motion (United States)

    Zelenov, E. I.


    We define p-adic Brownian motion (Wiener process) and study its properties. We construct a presentation of the trajectories of this process by their series expansions with respect to van der Put's basis and show that they are nowhere differentiable functions satisfying the p-adic Lipschitz condition of order 1. We define the p-adic Wiener measure on the space of continuous functions and study its properties.

  10. Extremes of multifractional Brownian motion


    Bai, Long


    Let $B_{H}(t), t\\geq [0,T], T\\in(0,\\infty)$ be the standard Multifractional Brownian Motion(mBm), in this contribution we are concerned with the exact asymptotics of \\begin{eqnarray*} \\mathbb{P}\\left\\{\\sup_{t\\in[0,T]}B_{H}(t)>u\\right\\} \\end{eqnarray*} as $u\\rightarrow\\infty$. Mainly depended on the structures of $H(t)$, the results under several important cases are investigated.

  11. Electronic Textiles for Motion Analysis


    Edmison, Joshua Nathaniel


    The union of electronics and textiles to form electronic textiles (e-textiles) provides a promising substrate upon which motion analysis applications can be developed and implemented. Familiarity with clothing allows sensors and computational elements to be naturally integrated into garments such that wearability and usability is preserved. The dynamics of the human body and the wide variety of sensor and processing choices render the typical prototype-based design methodology prohibitively d...

  12. Identification of resonant earthquake ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonant ground motion has been observed in earthquake records measured at several parts of the world. This class of ground motion is characterized by its energy being contained in a narrow frequency band. This paper develops measures to quantify the frequency content of the ground motion using the entropy ...

  13. Visualization of Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion (United States)

    Lu, Meishu; Su, Jun; Wang, Weiguo; Lu, Jianlong


    For this article, we use a 3D printer to print a surface similar to universal gravitation for demonstrating and investigating Kepler's laws of planetary motion describing the motion of a small ball on the surface. This novel experimental method allows Kepler's laws of planetary motion to be visualized and will contribute to improving the…

  14. Rotational Motion Control of a Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.


    The paper adopts the energy shaping method to control of rotational motion. A global representation of the rigid body motion is given in the canonical form by a quaternion and its conjugate momenta. A general method for motion control on a cotangent bundle to the 3-sphere is suggested. The design...... algorithm is validated for three-axis spacecraft attitude control...

  15. Rotational motion control of a spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.


    The paper adopts the energy shaping method to control of rotational motion. A global representation of the rigid body motion is given in the canonical form by a quaternion and its conjugate momenta. A general method for motion control on a cotangent bundle to the 3-sphere is suggested. The design...... algorithm is validated for three-axis spacecraft attitude control. Udgivelsesdato: APR...

  16. A Psycho-logic of Motion. (United States)

    Ogborn, Jon; Bliss, Joan


    Offers a theory of how commonsense reasoning about motion may develop. Takes as fundamental the basic categories: action, object, space, cause, time, and movement. Suggests that very primitive elements could combine to provide schemes of motion recognizable in psychological accounts of infancy and generate prototypes of and rules for motion. (DK)

  17. Identification of resonant earthquake ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Resonant ground motion has been observed in earthquake records measured at several parts of the world. This class of ground motion is characteri- zed by its energy being contained in a narrow frequency band. This paper deve- lops measures to quantify the frequency content of the ground motion using the.

  18. Rotational motion control of a spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.


    The paper adopts the energy shaping method to control of rotational motion. A global representation of the rigid body motion is given in the canonical form by a quaternion and its conjugate momenta. A general method for motion control on a cotangent bundle to the 3-sphere is suggested. The design...

  19. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.


    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants

  20. Sunspots and Their Simple Harmonic Motion (United States)

    Ribeiro, C. I.


    In this paper an example of a simple harmonic motion, the apparent motion of sunspots due to the Sun's rotation, is described, which can be used to teach this subject to high-school students. Using real images of the Sun, students can calculate the star's rotation period with the simple harmonic motion mathematical expression.

  1. 32 CFR 150.23 - Motions. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motions. 150.23 Section 150.23 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MILITARY JUSTICE COURTS OF CRIMINAL APPEALS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 150.23 Motions. (a) Content. All motions, unless made...

  2. Influence of Visual Motion, Suggestion, and Illusory Motion on Self-Motion Perception in the Horizontal Plane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven David Rosenblatt

    Full Text Available A moving visual field can induce the feeling of self-motion or vection. Illusory motion from static repeated asymmetric patterns creates a compelling visual motion stimulus, but it is unclear if such illusory motion can induce a feeling of self-motion or alter self-motion perception. In these experiments, human subjects reported the perceived direction of self-motion for sway translation and yaw rotation at the end of a period of viewing set visual stimuli coordinated with varying inertial stimuli. This tested the hypothesis that illusory visual motion would influence self-motion perception in the horizontal plane. Trials were arranged into 5 blocks based on stimulus type: moving star field with yaw rotation, moving star field with sway translation, illusory motion with yaw, illusory motion with sway, and static arrows with sway. Static arrows were used to evaluate the effect of cognitive suggestion on self-motion perception. Each trial had a control condition; the illusory motion controls were altered versions of the experimental image, which removed the illusory motion effect. For the moving visual stimulus, controls were carried out in a dark room. With the arrow visual stimulus, controls were a gray screen. In blocks containing a visual stimulus there was an 8s viewing interval with the inertial stimulus occurring over the final 1s. This allowed measurement of the visual illusion perception using objective methods. When no visual stimulus was present, only the 1s motion stimulus was presented. Eight women and five men (mean age 37 participated. To assess for a shift in self-motion perception, the effect of each visual stimulus on the self-motion stimulus (cm/s at which subjects were equally likely to report motion in either direction was measured. Significant effects were seen for moving star fields for both translation (p = 0.001 and rotation (p0.1 for both. Thus, although a true moving visual field can induce self-motion, results of this

  3. Plio-Quaternary tectonic evolution off Al Hoceima, Moroccan Margin of the Alboran Basin. (United States)

    Lafosse, Manfred; d'Acremont, Elia; Rabaute, Alain; Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Gorini, Christian; Ammar, Abdellah; Tahayt, Abdelilah


    We use data from a compilation of industrial and academic 2D surveys and recent data from MARLBORO-1 (2011), MARLBORO-2 (2012), and SARAS (2012) surveys, which provide high resolution bathymetry and 2D seismic reflexion data. We focus on the key area located south of the Alboran Ridge and the Tofiño Bank, and encompassing the Nekor and Boudinar onshore-offshore basins on the Moroccan side of the Alboran Sea. The Nekor basin is a present pull-apart basin in relay between inherited N050° sinistral strike-slip faults. We consider that these faults define the Principal Displacement Zones (PDZ). The northern PDZ marks the position of the crustal Bokkoya fault, which is connected to the Al-Idrisi Fault Zone en relais with the Adra and Carboneras Fault Zones. On the seabed, right-stepping non-coalescent faults characterize the sinistral kinematics of the northern PDZ and give a general N050° azimuth for the crustal discontinuity. The southern PDZ corresponds to the Nekor fault Zone, a Miocene sinistral strike-slip fault acting as the structural limit of the External Rif. On its eastern edge, the Nekor basin is bounded by the N-S onshore-offshore Trougout fault, connecting the northern and the southern PDZ. The western boundary of the Nekor basin is marked by the Rouadi and El-Hammam Quaternary active N-S normal faults. In the offshore Nekor basin, recent N155° conjugated normal faults affect the seabed. Further east, the Boudinar basin is a Plio-Quaternary uplifted Neogene basin. The northeastern segment of the Nekor fault bounds this basin to the south but is inactive in the Quaternary. Normal east-dipping N150° faults are visible offshore in the continuity of the Boudinar fault. From our perspective, the orientation of major tectonic structures (Bokkoya, Nekor and Carboneras faults and the Alboran ridge) under the present compressive regime due to the Europe/Africa convergence is not compatible with a strike-slip motion. The orientation of the most recent Plio

  4. Motion in images is essential to cause motion sickness symptoms, but not to increase postural sway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubeck, A.J.A.; Bos, J.E.; Stins, J.F.


    Abstract Objective It is generally assumed that motion in motion images is responsible for increased postural sway as well as for visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). However, this has not yet been tested. To that end, we studied postural sway and VIMS induced by motion and still images. Method

  5. Émotions au travail, travail des émotions


    Fortino, Sabine; Jeantet, Aurélie; Tcholakova, Albena


    Le travail, qui occupe une place centrale dans nos sociétés, sollicite sans cesse les émotions. Au cœur des rapports sociaux et des conflits, il engendre tout à la fois violence ou solidarité, suscitant des sentiments d’injustice, de colère, d’envie, de haine, mais aussi de satisfaction et de plaisir. Dans le cadre de leurs activités professionnelles quotidiennes, le travail mobilise les individus dans leur « entier », corps et âme, les incitant à s’appuyer sur des savoir-faire techniques mai...

  6. Auditory motion in the sighted and blind: Early visual deprivation triggers a large-scale imbalance between auditory and "visual" brain regions. (United States)

    Dormal, Giulia; Rezk, Mohamed; Yakobov, Esther; Lepore, Franco; Collignon, Olivier


    How early blindness reorganizes the brain circuitry that supports auditory motion processing remains controversial. We used fMRI to characterize brain responses to in-depth, laterally moving, and static sounds in early blind and sighted individuals. Whole-brain univariate analyses revealed that the right posterior middle temporal gyrus and superior occipital gyrus selectively responded to both in-depth and laterally moving sounds only in the blind. These regions overlapped with regions selective for visual motion (hMT+/V5 and V3A) that were independently localized in the sighted. In the early blind, the right planum temporale showed enhanced functional connectivity with right occipito-temporal regions during auditory motion processing and a concomitant reduced functional connectivity with parietal and frontal regions. Whole-brain searchlight multivariate analyses demonstrated higher auditory motion decoding in the right posterior middle temporal gyrus in the blind compared to the sighted, while decoding accuracy was enhanced in the auditory cortex bilaterally in the sighted compared to the blind. Analyses targeting individually defined visual area hMT+/V5 however indicated that auditory motion information could be reliably decoded within this area even in the sighted group. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate that early visual deprivation triggers a large-scale imbalance between auditory and "visual" brain regions that typically support the processing of motion information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural evolution of Lake Superior II: Eastern basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.J. (Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)); Coakley, B.J.; Wang, H.F. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)


    The authors have interpreted 1,400 km of industry and government multichannel seismic reflection data from eastern Lake Superior. Seismic sequences have been identified by using reflection character and reflector terminations and truncations. This framework, coupled with outcrop information, has allowed them to assign lithologic units to some of these reflectors and reconstruct the timing and geometry of structures within the basin. The authors have mapped the Base Jacobsville-Bayfield Group/Top oronto Group, Base oronto Group/Top Keweenawan volcanics, and Basement as well as several reflectors internal to these groups. Integration of gravity and magnetic data with the seismic grid permits regional mapping of faults and folds between seismic lines. In the eastern part of the basin, high-angle basement-involved reverse faults, such as the southeastern combination of the Keweenaw fault, trend NNW-SSE, while broad folds trend E-W. The Keweenaw fault is a complex structural zone and, in the Manitou Island region, steeply-dipping reflectors with abrupt dip reversals indicate a transpressive flower structure. Reactivation of the Keweenaw fault along the southern margin of the basin has rotated and uplifted the basin fill. This region is where the unconformity on top of the Oronto Group is best developed and shows that much of the compressive motion on this fault system occurred post-Oronto and syn-Jacobsville as the top of Jacobsville Group reflector is only slightly deformed. The stratal relationships seen in the seismic data suggest that compressive deformation was synchronous with Oronto and early Jacobsville deposition.

  8. Confronting chemobrain: an in-depth look at survivors' reports of impact on work, social networks, and health care response. (United States)

    Boykoff, Nelli; Moieni, Mona; Subramanian, Saskia Karen


    Mild cognitive impairment following chemotherapy is one of the most commonly reported post treatment symptoms by breast cancer survivors. This deterioration in cognitive function, commonly referred to as "chemobrain" or "chemofog," was largely unacknowledged by the medical community until recent years. Although chemobrain has now become the subject of more vigorous exploration, little is known about this specific phenomenon's psychosocial impact on breast cancer survivors. This research documents in-depth the effects that cognitive impairment has on women's personal and professional lives, and our data suggest that greater attention needs to be focused on this arena of survivorship. The results are based on an in-depth qualitative study of 74 white and African American breast cancer survivors in California who experience post-treatment side effects. The data reported herein were obtained through the use of focus groups and in-depth interviews. Our data indicate that cognitive impairment can be problematic for survivors, with many asserting that it is their most troublesome post treatment symptom. Survivors report diminished quality of life and daily functioning as a result of chemobrain. Respondents detail a range of coping strategies that they are forced to employ in order to manage their social and professional lives. Chemobrain significantly impairs a proportion of cancer survivors, at great cost to them economically, emotionally, and interpersonally. This suggests that more research needs to be conducted on the psychosocial ramifications of post treatment symptoms in order to inform the efforts of the medical and mental health communities as well as the support networks of survivors. A better and broader understanding of the effects of cognitive impairment both in the medical community and among lay people could pave the way for improved social and psychological services for this population.

  9. Influence of Thermal Treatments on In-depth Compositional Uniformity of CuIn(S,Se)2 Thin Films (United States)

    Xie, Hai-bing; Liu, Wei-feng; Jiang, Guo-shun; Li, Xin-yi; Yan, Fei; Zhu, Chang-fei


    CuIn(S,Se)2 thin films were prepared by thermal crystallization of co-sputtered Cu-In alloy precursors in S/Se atmosphere. In-depth compositional uniformity is an important prerequisite for obtaining device-quality CuIn(S,Se)2 absorber thin films. In order to figure out the influence of heat treatments on in-depth composition uniformity of CuIn(S,Se)2 thin films, two kinds of reaction temperature profiles were investigated. One process is “one step profile", referring to formation of CuIn(S,Se)2 thin films just at elevated temperature (e.g. 500 °C). The other is “two step profile", which allows for slow diffusion of S and Se elements into the alloy precursors at a low temperature before the formation and re-crystallization of CuIn(S,Se)2 thin films at higher temperature (e.g. first 250 °C then 500 °C). X-ray diffraction studies reveal that there is a discrepancy in the shape of (112) peak. Samples annealed with “one step profile" have splits on (112) peaks, while samples annealed with “two step profile" have relatively symmetrical (112) peaks. Grazing incident X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrum measurements of samples successively etched in bromine methanol show that CuIn(S,Se)2 thin films have better in-depth composition uniformity after “two step profile" annealing. The reaction mechanism during the two thermal processing was also investigated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra.

  10. The Axiom and Laws of Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Harokopos, E


    The law of inertia and the law of interaction are derived from the axiom of motion, an expression relating the time rate of change of the kinetic energy of a particle to its velocity and time rate of change of momentum. These laws of motion are shown to (i) treat uniform circular orbits as effects of inertia, (ii) encompass Newton’s Laws of Motion and (iii) have a special link to Leibniz’s Laws of Motion. I also discuss some metaphysical issues arising from the axiom and laws of motion regarding the ontology of space-time.

  11. Mosaicism in segmental darier disease: an in-depth molecular analysis quantifying proportions of mutated alleles in various tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Theresa Larriba; Willems, Patrick; Jespersgaard, Cathrine


    , peripheral leukocytes and hair revealed an uneven distribution of the mutated allele, from 14% in semen to 37% in affected skin. We suggest a model for segmental manifestation expression where a threshold number of mutated cells is needed for manifestation development. We further recommend molecular analysis...... of transmitting a nonsegmental phenotype to offspring is of unknown magnitude. We present the first in-depth molecular analysis of a mosaic patient with segmental disease, quantifying proportions of mutated and normal alleles in various tissues. Pyrosequence analysis of DNA from semen, affected and normal skin...

  12. Computational Assessment of Neural Probe and Brain Tissue Interface under Transient Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Polanco


    Full Text Available The functional longevity of a neural probe is dependent upon its ability to minimize injury risk during the insertion and recording period in vivo, which could be related to motion-related strain between the probe and surrounding tissue. A series of finite element analyses was conducted to study the extent of the strain induced within the brain in an area around a neural probe. This study focuses on the transient behavior of neural probe and brain tissue interface with a viscoelastic model. Different stages of the interface from initial insertion of neural probe to full bonding of the probe by astro-glial sheath formation are simulated utilizing analytical tools to investigate the effects of relative motion between the neural probe and the brain while friction coefficients and kinematic frequencies are varied. The analyses can provide an in-depth look at the quantitative benefits behind using soft materials for neural probes.

  13. The Mechanism of Yaw Torque Compensation in the Human and Motion Design for Humanoid Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Zhang


    Full Text Available When a humanoid robot walks fast or runs, the yaw torque is so large that the supporting foot slips easily and the robot may become unstable. The compensation for the yaw torque is important for fast humanoid walking and many studies have been focusing on yaw torque compensation. However, the issue of humanoid robot motion design that can make the movements of the robot more human-like, as well as guarantee the stability of the robot, has not been studied in-depth. In this paper, the mechanism of yaw torque compensating for human walking is firstly studied. Then we propose a method to compensate yaw torque for a humanoid robot through the motion of the arms and waist joint based on the human yaw torque compensation mechanism and ZMP stability citation. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by the results from the simulation and walking experiments on the newly developed BHR humanoid robot.

  14. Testing for Basins of Wada. (United States)

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; Yorke, James A


    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has the Wada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries.

  15. Music can elicit a visual motion aftereffect. (United States)

    Hedger, Stephen C; Nusbaum, Howard C; Lescop, Olivier; Wallisch, Pascal; Hoeckner, Berthold


    Motion aftereffects (MAEs) are thought to result from the adaptation of both subcortical and cortical systems involved in the processing of visual motion. Recently, it has been reported that the implied motion of static images in combination with linguistic descriptions of motion is sufficient to elicit an MAE, although neither factor alone is thought to directly activate visual motion areas in the brain. Given that the monotonic change of musical pitch is widely recognized in music as a metaphor for vertical motion, we investigated whether prolonged exposure to ascending or descending musical scales can also produce a visual motion aftereffect. After listening to ascending or descending musical scales, participants made decisions about the direction of visual motion in random-dot kinematogram stimuli. Metaphoric motion in the musical stimuli did affect the visual direction judgments, in that repeated exposure to rising or falling musical scales shifted participants' sensitivity to visual motion in the opposite direction. The finding that music can induce an MAE suggests that the subjective interpretation of monotonic pitch change as motion may have a perceptual foundation.

  16. Effects of Auditory Information on Self-Motion Perception during Simultaneous Presentation of Visual Shearing Motion


    Shigehito eTanahashi; Kaoru eAshihara; Hiroyasu eUjike


    Recent studies have found that self-motion perception induced by simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion is facilitated when the directions of visual and auditory motion stimuli are identical. They did not, however, examine possible contributions of auditory motion information for determining direction of self-motion perception. To examine this, a visual stimulus projected on a hemisphere screen and an auditory stimulus presented through headphones were presented separately or...

  17. Sensing Movement: Microsensors for Body Motion Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Zeng


    Full Text Available Recognition of body posture and motion is an important physiological function that can keep the body in balance. Man-made motion sensors have also been widely applied for a broad array of biomedical applications including diagnosis of balance disorders and evaluation of energy expenditure. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art sensing components utilized for body motion measurement. The anatomy and working principles of a natural body motion sensor, the human vestibular system, are first described. Various man-made inertial sensors are then elaborated based on their distinctive sensing mechanisms. In particular, both the conventional solid-state motion sensors and the emerging non solid-state motion sensors are depicted. With their lower cost and increased intelligence, man-made motion sensors are expected to play an increasingly important role in biomedical systems for basic research as well as clinical diagnostics.

  18. Motion Analysis Based on Invertible Rapid Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the use of invertible rapid transform (IRT for the motion estimation in a sequence of images. Motion estimation algorithms based on the analysis of the matrix of states (produced in the IRT calculation are described. The new method was used experimentally to estimate crowd and traffic motion from the image data sequences captured at railway stations and at high ways in large cities. The motion vectors may be used to devise a polar plot (showing velocity magnitude and direction for moving objects where the dominant motion tendency can be seen. The experimental results of comparison of the new motion estimation methods with other well known block matching methods (full search, 2D-log, method based on conventional (cross correlation (CC function or phase correlation (PC function for application of crowd motion estimation are also presented.

  19. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd


    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend

  20. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  1. Detention basin alternative outlet design study. (United States)


    This study examines the outlets structures CDOT has historically employed to drain water quality treatment detention basins and flood control basins, presents two new methods of metering the water quality capture volume (WQCV), namely 1) the Elliptic...

  2. A head motion estimation algorithm for motion artifact correction in dental CT imaging (United States)

    Hernandez, Daniel; Elsayed Eldib, Mohamed; Hegazy, Mohamed A. A.; Hye Cho, Myung; Cho, Min Hyoung; Lee, Soo Yeol


    A small head motion of the patient can compromise the image quality in a dental CT, in which a slow cone-beam scan is adopted. We introduce a retrospective head motion estimation method by which we can estimate the motion waveform from the projection images without employing any external motion monitoring devices. We compute the cross-correlation between every two successive projection images, which results in a sinusoid-like displacement curve over the projection view when there is no patient motion. However, the displacement curve deviates from the sinusoid-like form when patient motion occurs. We develop a method to estimate the motion waveform with a single parameter derived from the displacement curve with aid of image entropy minimization. To verify the motion estimation method, we use a lab-built micro-CT that can emulate major head motions during dental CT scans, such as tilting and nodding, in a controlled way. We find that the estimated motion waveform conforms well to the actual motion waveform. To further verify the motion estimation method, we correct the motion artifacts with the estimated motion waveform. After motion artifact correction, the corrected images look almost identical to the reference images, with structural similarity index values greater than 0.81 in the phantom and rat imaging studies.

  3. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project... (United States)


    ...; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, WA AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION... Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, established by the... future projects being funded with Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project funds. The CAG will also...

  4. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE) (United States)


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE...about Arctic acoustics during the Cold War is now obsolete. The goal of the Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE) is to determine the...Canada Basin (McLaughlin et al., 2011). These changing conditions make the Canada Basin an ideal location to test the hypothesis put forward by P

  5. Exploring research participation among cancer patients: analysis of a national survey and an in-depth interview study. (United States)

    Mc Grath-Lone, Louise; Day, Sophie; Schoenborn, Claudia; Ward, Helen


    Inequalities in cancer research participation are thought to exist with certain groups under-represented in research populations; however, much of the evidence is based on small-scale studies. The aim of this study was to explore data from in-depth interviews with cancer patients and a large national survey to investigate variation in who is asked to participate in research and who takes part. Factors associated with research discussion and participation were explored in National Cancer Patient Experience Survey data using multivariate logistic regression and during in-depth interviews with 25 breast cancer patients. Survey data were available for 66,953 cancer patients; 30.4% reported having discussions about, and 18.9% took part in, research. Barriers to participation at staff, patient and trust level were evident; for example, staff were less likely to discuss research with older patients, Asian and black patients were less likely to take part and patients treated at specialist or teaching trusts had higher levels of discussion and participation. Interviews showed that patients' willingness to participate changed over time and was not synonymous with participation as some were ineligible. Some patient groups were less likely to have discussions about or participate in research. Analysis of this variation vis-à-vis the composition of the patient population may be useful to ensure that there is equity regarding the potential benefits of research participation and that research findings are applicable to target populations in the translational model.

  6. Qualitative studies using in-depth interviews with older people from multiple language groups: methodological systematic review. (United States)

    Fryer, Caroline; Mackintosh, Shylie; Stanley, Mandy; Crichton, Jonathan


    This paper is a report of a methodological review of language appropriate practice in qualitative research, when language groups were not determined prior to participant recruitment. When older people from multiple language groups participate in research using in-depth interviews, additional challenges are posed for the trustworthiness of findings. This raises the question of how such challenges are addressed. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Ageline, PsycINFO, Sociological abstracts, Google Scholar and Allied and Complementary Medicine databases were systematically searched for the period 1840 to September 2009. The combined search terms of 'ethnic', 'cultural', 'aged', 'health' and 'qualitative' were used. In this methodological review, studies were independently appraised by two authors using a quality appraisal tool developed for the review, based on a protocol from the McMaster University Occupational Therapy Evidence-Based Practice Research Group. Nine studies were included. Consideration of language diversity within research process was poor for all studies. The role of language assistants was largely absent from study methods. Only one study reported using participants' preferred languages for informed consent. More examples are needed of how to conduct rigorous in-depth interviews with older people from multiple language groups, when languages are not determined before recruitment. This will require both researchers and funding bodies to recognize the importance to contemporary healthcare of including linguistically diverse people in participant samples. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. In-depth cDNA library sequencing provides quantitative gene expression profiling in cancer biomarker discovery. (United States)

    Yang, Wanling; Ying, Dingge; Lau, Yu-Lung


    Quantitative gene expression analysis plays an important role in identifying differentially expressed genes in various pathological states, gene expression regulation and co-regulation, shedding light on gene functions. Although microarray is widely used as a powerful tool in this regard, it is suboptimal quantitatively and unable to detect unknown gene variants. Here we demonstrated effective detection of differential expression and co-regulation of certain genes by expressed sequence tag analysis using a selected subset of cDNA libraries. We discussed the issues of sequencing depth and library preparation, and propose that increased sequencing depth and improved preparation procedures may allow detection of many expression features for less abundant gene variants. With the reduction of sequencing cost and the emerging of new generation sequencing technology, in-depth sequencing of cDNA pools or libraries may represent a better and powerful tool in gene expression profiling and cancer biomarker detection. We also propose using sequence-specific subtraction to remove hundreds of the most abundant housekeeping genes to increase sequencing depth without affecting relative expression ratio of other genes, as transcripts from as few as 300 most abundantly expressed genes constitute about 20% of the total transcriptome. In-depth sequencing also represents a unique advantage of detecting unknown forms of transcripts, such as alternative splicing variants, fusion genes, and regulatory RNAs, as well as detecting mutations and polymorphisms that may play important roles in disease pathogenesis.

  8. Phosphor-Doped Thermal Barrier Coatings Deposited by Air Plasma Spray for In-Depth Temperature Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Peng


    Full Text Available Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ-based thermal barrier coating (TBC has been integrated with thermographic phosphors through air plasma spray (APS for in-depth; non-contact temperature sensing. This coating consisted of a thin layer of Dy-doped YSZ (about 40 µm on the bottom and a regular YSZ layer with a thickness up to 300 µm on top. A measurement system has been established; which included a portable; low-cost diode laser (405 nm; a photo-multiplier tube (PMT and the related optics. Coating samples with different topcoat thickness were calibrated in a high-temperature furnace from room temperature to around 900 °C. The results convincingly showed that the current sensor and the measurement system was capable of in-depth temperature sensing over 800 °C with a YSZ top layer up to 300 µm. The topcoat thickness was found to have a strong effect on the luminescent signal level. Therefore; the measurement accuracy at high temperatures was reduced for samples with thick topcoats due to strong light attenuation. However; it seemed that the light transmissivity of YSZ topcoat increased with temperature; which would improve the sensor’s performance at high temperatures. The current sensor and the measurement technology have shown great potential in on-line monitoring of TBC interface temperature.

  9. Decentralized water resources management in Mozambique: Challenges of implementation at the river basin level (United States)

    Inguane, Ronaldo; Gallego-Ayala, Jordi; Juízo, Dinis

    In the context of integrated water resources management implementation, the decentralization of water resources management (DWRM) at the river basin level is a crucial aspect for its success. However, decentralization requires the creation of new institutions on the ground, to stimulate an environment enabling stakeholder participation and integration into the water management decision-making process. In 1991, Mozambique began restructuring its water sector toward operational decentralized water resources management. Within this context of decentralization, new legal and institutional frameworks have been created, e.g., Regional Water Administrations (RWAs) and River Basin Committees. This paper identifies and analyzes the key institutional challenges and opportunities of DWRM implementation in Mozambique. The paper uses a critical social science research methodology for in-depth analysis of the roots of the constraining factors for the implementation of DWRM. The results obtained suggest that RWAs should be designed considering the specific geographic and infrastructural conditions of their jurisdictional areas and that priorities should be selected in their institutional capacity building strategies that match local realities. Furthermore, the results also indicate that RWAs have enjoyed limited support from basin stakeholders, mainly in basins with less hydraulic infrastructure, in securing water availability for their users and minimizing the effect of climate variability.

  10. Ground Motion Prediction of Subduction Earthquakes using the Onshore-Offshore Ambient Seismic Field (United States)

    Viens, L.; Miyake, H.; Koketsu, K.


    Seismic waves produced by earthquakes already caused plenty of damages all around the world and are still a real threat to human beings. To reduce seismic risk associated with future earthquakes, accurate ground motion predictions are required, especially for cities located atop sedimentary basins that can trap and amplify these seismic waves. We focus this study on long-period ground motions produced by subduction earthquakes in Japan which have the potential to damage large-scale structures, such as high-rise buildings, bridges, and oil storage tanks. We extracted the impulse response functions from the ambient seismic field recorded by two stations using one as a virtual source, without any preprocessing. This method allows to recover the reliable phases and relative, rather than absolute, amplitudes. To retrieve corresponding Green's functions, the impulse response amplitudes need to be calibrated using observational records of an earthquake which happened close to the virtual source. We show that Green's functions can be extracted between offshore submarine cable-based sea-bottom seismographic observation systems deployed by JMA located atop subduction zones and on-land NIED/Hi-net stations. In contrast with physics-based simulations, this approach has the great advantage to predict ground motions of moderate earthquakes (Mw ~5) at long-periods in highly populated sedimentary basin without the need of any external information about the velocity structure.

  11. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, D.G.J. te; Smits, A.J.M.; Yu, X.; Lifeng, L.; Lei, G.; Zhang, C.


    This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are

  12. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period

  13. On the significance of ELF basins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    to complement to chemical intuition (see, e.g., refs. 2, 3). In a mathematically more rigorous way, such regions, ELF basins,4 were defined following the spirit of Bader's Atoms in Molecules (AIM). All points in space which lead to the a given maximum of ELF, by following the gradient of ELF, belong to the same basin. Basins ...

  14. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  15. Proterozoic intracontinental basin: The Vindhyan example

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Vindhyan basin is a classic example of Proterozoic intracontinental basin that developed in the central part of the Indian shield along with several other basins such as Cuddapah,Chattisgarh,etc.The strata are exposed in three major sectors:Son valley,Bundelkhand and Rajasthan. Substantially thick Vindhyan rocks ...

  16. Brownian motion of tethered nanowires. (United States)

    Ota, Sadao; Li, Tongcang; Li, Yimin; Ye, Ziliang; Labno, Anna; Yin, Xiaobo; Alam, Mohammad-Reza; Zhang, Xiang


    Brownian motion of slender particles near a boundary is ubiquitous in biological systems and in nanomaterial assembly, but the complex hydrodynamic interaction in those systems is still poorly understood. Here, we report experimental and computational studies of the Brownian motion of silicon nanowires tethered on a substrate. An optical interference method enabled direct observation of microscopic rotations of the slender bodies in three dimensions with high angular and temporal resolutions. This quantitative observation revealed anisotropic and angle-dependent hydrodynamic wall effects: rotational diffusivity in inclined and azimuth directions follows different power laws as a function of the length, ∼ L(-2.5) and ∼ L(-3), respectively, and is more hindered for smaller inclined angles. In parallel, we developed an implicit simulation technique that takes the complex wire-wall hydrodynamic interactions into account efficiently, the result of which agreed well with the experimentally observed angle-dependent diffusion. The demonstrated techniques provide a platform for studying the microrheology of soft condensed matters, such as colloidal and biological systems near interfaces, and exploring the optimal self-assembly conditions of nanostructures.

  17. Brownian Motion in Minkowski Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O'Hara


    Full Text Available We construct a model of Brownian motion in Minkowski space. There are two aspects of the problem. The first is to define a sequence of stopping times associated with the Brownian “kicks” or impulses. The second is to define the dynamics of the particle along geodesics in between the Brownian kicks. When these two aspects are taken together, the Central Limit Theorem (CLT leads to temperature dependent four dimensional distributions defined on Minkowski space, for distances and 4-velocities. In particular, our processes are characterized by two independent time variables defined with respect to the laboratory frame: a discrete one corresponding to the stopping times when the impulses take place and a continuous one corresponding to the geodesic motion in-between impulses. The subsequent distributions are solutions of a (covariant pseudo-diffusion equation which involves derivatives with respect to both time variables, rather than solutions of the telegraph equation which has a single time variable. This approach simplifies some of the known problems in this context.

  18. Random motion and Brownian rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, G.


    The course is centred on the Brownian motion - the random movement of molecules arising from thermal fluctuations of the surrounding medium - and starts with the classical theory of A. Einstein, M.v. Smoluchowski and P. Langevin. The first part of this article is quite elementary, and several of the questions raised in it have been instructively treated in a much more sophisticated way in recent reviews by Pomeau and Resibois and by Fox. This simple material may nevertheless be helpful to some readers whose main interest lies in approaching the work on Brownian rotation reviewed in the latter part of the present article. The simplest, and most brutally idealised, problem in our field of interest is that of the random walk in one dimension of space. Its solution leads on, through the diffusivity-mobility relation of Einstein, to Langevin's treatment of the Brownian motion. The application of these ideas to the movement of a molecule in a medium of similar molecules is clearly unrealistic, and much energy has been devoted to finding a suitable generalisation. We shall discuss in particular ideas due to Green, Zwanzig and Mori. (orig./WL)

  19. Biological motion distorts size perception (United States)

    Veto, Peter; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Troje, Nikolaus F.


    Visual illusions explore the limits of sensory processing and provide an ideal testbed to study perception. Size illusions - stimuli whose size is consistently misperceived - do not only result from sensory cues, but can also be induced by cognitive factors, such as social status. Here we investigate, whether the ecological relevance of biological motion can also distort perceived size. We asked observers to judge the size of point-light walkers (PLWs), configurations of dots whose movements induce the perception of human movement, and visually matched control stimuli (inverted PLWs). We find that upright PLWs are consistently judged as larger than inverted PLWs, while static point-light figures do not elicit the same effect. We also show the phenomenon using an indirect paradigm: observers judged the relative size of a disc that followed an inverted PLW larger than a disc following an upright PLW. We interpret this as a contrast effect: The upright PLW is perceived larger and thus the subsequent disc is judged smaller. Together, these results demonstrate that ecologically relevant biological-motion stimuli are perceived larger than visually matched control stimuli. Our findings present a novel case of illusory size perception, where ecological importance leads to a distorted perception of size.

  20. Estimation of strong ground motion and micro-zonation for the city of Rome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeh, D.; Iodice, C.; Suhadolc, P.; Panza, G.F.


    A hybrid technique, based on mode summation and finite differences, is used to simulate the ground motion induced in the city of Rome by possible earthquakes occurring in the main seismogenetic areas surrounding the city: the Central Apennines and the Alban Hills. The results of the numerical simulations are used for a first order seismic micro-zonation in the city of Rome, which can be used for the retrofitting of buildings of special social and cultural value. Rome can be divided into six main zones: (1) the edge and (2) the central part of the alluvial basin of the river Tiber; (3) the edges and (4) the central part of the Paleotiber basin; the areas outside the large basins of the Tiber and Paleotiber, where we distinguish between (5) areas without, and (6) areas with a layer of volcanic rocks close to the surface. The strongest amplification effects have to be expected at the edges of the Tiber basin, with maximum spectral amplification of the order of 5 to 6, and strong amplifications occur inside the entire alluvial basin of the Tiber. The presence of a near-surface layer of rigid material is not sufficient to classify a location as a ''hard-rock site'', when the rigid material covers a sedimentary complex. The reason is that the underlying sedimentary complex causes amplifications at the surface due to resonance effects. This phenomenon can be observed in the Paleotiber basin, where spectral amplifications in the frequency range 0.3-1.0 Hz reach values of the order of 3 to 4. (author). 17 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  1. A seismic hazard overview of the Mitidja Basin (Northern Algeria) (United States)

    Fontiela, J. F.; Borges, J.; Ouyed, M.; Bezzeghoud, M.; Idres, M.; Caldeira, B.; Boughacha, M. S.; Carvalho, J.; Samai, S.; Aissa, S.; Benfadda, A.; Chimouni, R.; Yalaoui, R.; Dias, R.


    The Mitidja Basin (MB) is located in N Algeria and it is filled by quaternary sediments with a length of 100 km on the EW direction and around 20 km width. The S and N limites comprise the Boumerdes-Larbaa-Blida, and the Thenia-Sahel active fault system, respectively. Both fault systems are of the reverse type with opposed dips and accommodate a general slip rate of ˜4 mm/year. In the basin occurred earthquakes that caused severe damage and losses such as the ones of Algiers (1365, Io=X; 1716, Io=X) and the Bourmedes earthquake (Mw 6.9; May 2003) that affected the area of Zemmouri and caused 2.271 deaths. The event was caused by the reactivation of the MB boundary faults. The earthquake generated a max uplift of 0.8m along the coast and a horizontal max. slip of 0.24m.Recent studies show that the Boumerdes earthquake overloaded the adjacent faults system with a stress increase between 0.4 and 1.5 bar. The stress change recommends a detailed study of mentioned faults system due to the increase of the seismic hazard. The high seismogenic potential of the fault system bordering the MB, increases the vulnerability of densely populated areas of Algiers and the amplification effect caused by the basin are the motivation of this project that will focus on the evaluation of the seismic hazard of the region. To achieve seismic hazard assessment on the MB, through realistic predictions of strong ground motion, caused by moderate and large earthquakes, it is important 1) develop a detailed 3D velocity/structure model of the MB that includes geological constraints, seismic reflection data acquired on wells, refraction velocities and seismic noise data, and determination of the attenuation laws based on instrumental records; 2) evaluate the seismic potential and parameters of the main active faults of the MB; 3) develop numerical methods (deterministic and stochastic) to simulate strong ground motions produced by extended seismic sources. To acquire seismic noise were used

  2. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface (United States)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas


    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  3. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Project goals, project tasks, progress on tasks, and problems encountered are described and discussed for each of the studies that make up the Great Basin Paleoenvironmental Studies Project for Yucca Mountain. These studies are: Paleobotany, Paleofauna, Geomorphology, and Transportation. Budget summaries are also given for each of the studies and for the overall project

  4. Evolution of the Congo Basin (United States)

    Glasmacher, U. A.; Bauer, F. U.; Kollenz, S.; Delvaux, D.


    The Congo Basin is one of the largest basins in the World with very little knowledge on the geological evolution as well as the oil and gas potential. In the past, oil seeps are recorded in the central part of the basin. Four sides in the Congo basin have been drilled so far. The cores of the two drill sides Dekese and Samba are located at the Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Belgium. In a reconnaissance survey, we sampled both drill cores in a nearly even spacing of ~ 150 m covering the whole stratigraphy from Albian to Proterozoic. The red and green to grey sandstone samples were prepared by usual heavy minerals separation technique. Most of the samples revealed enough apatite and zircon grains for the two thermochronometric techniques fission track and (U-Th-Sm)/He. The time-temperature (t-T) evolution for the two drill locations were modelled by using the determined thermochronological data within the software code HeFTy. We tested various geological evolutionary constrains. Both techniques provide us information on the thermal and exhumation of the possible source area and on the drill location by themselves.

  5. Coastal inlets and tidal basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.; Dronkers, J.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Dongeren, A.; Wang, J.H.


    lecture note: Tidal inlets and their associated basins (lagoons) are a common feature of lowland coasts all around the world. A significant part ofthe world's coastlines is formed by barrier island coasts, and most other tidal coasts are interrupted by estuaries and lagoon inlets. These tidal

  6. The Amazon Basin in transition (United States)

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy


    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  7. Site-effect estimations for Taipei Basin based on shallow S-wave velocity structures (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chi; Huang, Huey-Chu; Wu, Cheng-Feng


    Shallow S-wave velocities have been widely used for earthquake ground-motion site characterization. Thus, the S-wave velocity structures of Taipei Basin, Taiwan were investigated using array records of microtremors at 15 sites (Huang et al., 2015). In this study, seven velocity structures are added to the database describing Taipei Basin. Validity of S-wave velocity structures are first examined using the 1D Haskell method and well-logging data at the Wuku Sewage Disposal Plant (WK) borehole site. Basically, the synthetic results match well with the observed data at different depths. Based on S-wave velocity structures at 22 sites, theoretical transfer functions at five different formations of the sedimentary basin are calculated. According to these results, predominant frequencies for these formations are estimated. If the S-wave velocity of the Tertiary basement is assumed to be 1000 m/s, the predominant frequencies of the Quaternary sediments are between 0.3 Hz (WUK) and 1.4 Hz (LEL) in Taipei Basin while the depths of sediments between 0 m (i.e. at the edge of the basin) and 616 m (i.e. site WUK) gradually increase from southeast to northwest. Our results show good agreement with available geological and geophysical information.

  8. L-Reactor 186-basin cleaning alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, M.D.S.


    Operation of L Reactor will necessitate annual cleaning of the L Area 186 basins. Alternatives are presented for sediment discharge due to 186-basin cleaning activities as a basis for choosing the optimal cleaning method. Current cleaning activities (i.e. removal of accumulated sediments) for the P, C and K-Area 186 basins result in suspended solids concentrations in the effluent waters above the NPDES limits, requiring an exemption from the NPDES permit for these short-term releases. The objective of mitigating the 186-basin cleaning activities is to decrease the suspended solids concentrations to within permit limits while continuing satisfactory operation of the basins

  9. Predicting articulated human motion from spatial processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup


    coordinates, the approach allows us to construct high quality application specific motion models with little effort. Thirdly, the state space is a real vector space, which allows us to use off-the-shelf stochastic processes as motion models, which is rarely possible when working with joint angles. Fourthly...... recent work where prior models are derived in terms of joint angles. This approach has several advantages. First of all, it allows us to construct motion models in low dimensional spaces, which makes motion estimation more robust. Secondly, as many types of motion are easily expressed in spatial......, we avoid the problem of accumulated variance, where noise in one joint affects all joints further down the kinematic chains. All this combined allows us to more easily construct high quality motion models. In the evaluation, we show that an activity independent version of our model is superior...

  10. APL2 in depth

    CERN Document Server

    Thomson, Norman D


    This book is designed for people with a working knowledge of APL who would like to increase their fluency in the wide range of extra facilities offered by second-generation APL products. Although the primary product in view is IBM's APL2 as implemented on mainframe, PC and RS/6000, the language fea­ tures covered share considerable common ground with APL *PLUS II and Oyalog APL. This is a book about skills rather than knowledge, and an acquaintance with some variety of APL on the reader's part is assumed from the start. It is designed to be read as a continuous text, interspersed with exer­ cises designed to give progressively deeper insight into what the authors conceive as the features which have the greatest impact on programming techniques. It would also be suitable as a text-book for a second course in APL2, although experience suggests that most programming language learning is now by self­ study, so that this volume is more likely to provide follow-up reading to more elementary texts such as "APL2 a...

  11. Water Pressure in Depth (United States)

    Lynch, Mary Jean; Zenchak, John


    How can a science concept be taught in a way that generates interest, gives students the opportunity to consider other possibilities, does not lock them into one way of doing or seeing things, and gives them some ownership of their learning? These authors searched high and low for the perfect activity to illustrate a key concept for their partner…

  12. Acupuncture: In Depth (United States)

    ... suggested that actual acupuncture has a very slight advantage over simulated acupuncture in reducing tension-type headache ... links Pinterest Read our disclaimer about external links Instagram Read our disclaimer about external links LinkedIn E- ...

  13. Antioxidants: In Depth (United States)

    ... policy urges people to eat more of these foods. Research has shown that people who eat more vegetables ... health: for better or for worse? Molecular Nutrition & Food Research . 2011;55(1):122–135. Klein EA, Thompson ...

  14. Probiotics: In Depth (United States)

    ... experts have cautioned that the rapid growth in marketing and use of probiotics may have outpaced scientific ... links Facebook Read our disclaimer about external links YouTube Read our disclaimer about external links Google+ Read ...

  15. Operator Fractional Brownian Motion and Martingale Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshuai Dai


    Full Text Available It is well known that martingale difference sequences are very useful in applications and theory. On the other hand, the operator fractional Brownian motion as an extension of the well-known fractional Brownian motion also plays an important role in both applications and theory. In this paper, we study the relation between them. We construct an approximation sequence of operator fractional Brownian motion based on a martingale difference sequence.

  16. Model-Based Motion Tracking of Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo


    Even though motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure human movements, only a few studies focus on motion tracking of infants. In recent years, a number of studies have emerged focusing on analyzing the motion pattern of infants, using computer vision. Most of these studie...... that resembles the body surface of an infant, where the model is based on simple geometric shapes and a hierarchical skeleton model....

  17. Dynamic Motion Modelling for Legged Robots


    Edgington, Mark; Kassahun, Yohannes; Kirchner, Frank


    An accurate motion model is an important component in modern-day robotic systems, but building such a model for a complex system often requires an appreciable amount of manual effort. In this paper we present a motion model representation, the Dynamic Gaussian Mixture Model (DGMM), that alleviates the need to manually design the form of a motion model, and provides a direct means of incorporating auxiliary sensory data into the model. This representation and its accompanying algorithms are va...

  18. Relative Motion Modeling and Autonomous Navigation Accuracy (United States)


    the use of nonsingular elements, this version of relative motion STM has singularities for reference orbits that lie in the equatorial plane ...improved by including the lunar orbit’s eccentricity and inclination in the studies presented in References [17-19]. Since the perturbed relative motion ...satellites are equipped with solar flaps or aerodynamic flaps. By appropriate rotation of these flaps, it is possible to influence the relative motion

  19. General techniques for constrained motion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong K.; Watterberg, P.A.; Chen, Pang, C.; Lewis, C.L.


    This report presents automatic motion planning algorithms for robotic manipulators performing a variety of tasks. Given a task and a robot manipulator equipped with a tool in its hand, the motion planners compute robot motions to complete the task while respecting manipulator kinematic constraints and avoiding collisions with objects in the robot`s work space. To handle the high complexity of the motion planning problem, a sophisticated search strategy called SANDROS is developed and used to solve many variations of the motion planning problem. To facilitate systematic development of motion planning algorithms, robotic tasks are classified into three categories according to the dimension of the manifold the robot tool has to travel: visit-point (0 dimensional), trace-curve (1 dimensional) and cover-surface (2 dimensional) tasks. The motion planner for a particular dimension is used as a sub-module by the motion planner for the next-higher dimension. This hierarchy of motion planners has led to a set of compact and systematic algorithms that can plan robot motions for many types of robotic operations. In addition, an algorithm is developed that determines the optimal robot-base configuration for minimum cycle time. The SANDROS search paradigm is complete in that it finds a solution path if one exists, up to a user specified resolution. Although its worst-case time complexity is exponential in the degrees of freedom of the manipulator, its average performance is commensurate with the complexity of the solution path. Since solution paths for most of motion planning problems consist of a few monotone segments, the motion planners based on SANDROS search strategy show approximately two-orders of magnitude improvements over existing complete algorithms.

  20. Understanding family responses to life-limiting illness: In-depth interviews with hospice patients and their family members. (United States)

    Waldrop, Deborah P; Milch, Robert A; Skretny, Judith A


    Understanding family dynamics is a key component in providing comprehensive care for persons with progressive illnesses and their caregivers. The purpose of this study was to investigate what families experience during an advancing illness and to describe their pattems of response. In-depth interviews (n=108) were conducted with families two weeks after hospice admission. Interviews were tape recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative methods. Six modes were distilled: reactive (illness generates intense responses), advocacy (vulnerability ignites assertive actions), fused (illness and decline are shared experiences), dissonant (diametrically opposed viewpoints cause struggle), resigned (decline and death are anticipated), and closed (outward responses are impassive). Three events triggered movement from one mode to another: (1) functional changes, (2) crisis events, and (3) provider communication. Providers who understand varied family reactions can ease the patient's suffering, assist relatives in providing effective care, and prepare them for the approaching death.

  1. [Terminal illness, death... in the words of professionals. A qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with health professionals]. (United States)

    Caro, García M P; Rio-Valle, Schmidt J; Quintana, Cruz F; Peña, Prados D; Vinuesa, Muñoz A; Pappous, Athanasios


    The authors of this study are interested in listening to the experiences professional doctors and nurses who work face to face with patients in terminal phase of their illnesses have. For this reason, the authors carried out a series of in-depth interviews with these professionals in order to know the real difficulties and obstacles which these professionals experience in real cases, as well as the procedure methods followed with these patients. The authors publish the results obtained in eight of these interviews, four with doctors and four with nurses; given the length of these interviews, the authors have decided to publish them in two consecutive articles which form one complete study This study is qualitative and the analysis of data obtained has been structured around the proposed research questions, keeping the diversity and variability how to deal with patients, plus the experiences shown by those interviewed, by citing their words textually.

  2. Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) as a tool for in-depth quantitative gene expression profiling in all organisms. (United States)

    Reinartz, Jeanette; Bruyns, Eddy; Lin, Jing-Zhong; Burcham, Tim; Brenner, Sydney; Bowen, Ben; Kramer, Michael; Woychik, Rick


    Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) is one of the newest tools available for conducting in-depth expression profiling. MPSS is an open-ended platform that analyses the level of expression of virtually all genes in a sample by counting the number of individual mRNA molecules produced from each gene. There is no requirement that genes be identified and characterised prior to conducting an experiment. MPSS has a routine sensitivity at a level of a few molecules of mRNA per cell, and the datasets are in a digital format that simplifies the management and analysis of the data. Therefore, of the various microarray and non-microarray technologies currently available, MPSS provides many advantages for generating the type of complete datasets that will help to facilitate hypothesis-driven experiments in the era of digital biology.

  3. Application of the defense-in-depth concept to qualify computer-based instrumentation and control systems important to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, F.


    In parallel to the technological development, the authorities and expert organisations are preparing the application of computer-based I and C to NPPs from the regulatory point of view. Generally the associated world-wide procedure follows steps like identification of safety issues, completion of the regulatory framework particularly regarding the licensing requirements and furthermore, recommendation of an appropriate set of qualification methods to prove that the requirements are met. The paper's intention is to show from the regulatory point of view that the choice as well as the combination of the qualification methods depend on system design features and development strategy. Similar as for the safety system design required, a defense-in-depth qualification concept is suggested to be helpful in order to prove that the computer-based system meets the licensing requirements. (author)

  4. Governing and Managing Customer-initiated Engineering Change – An in-depth case study of a global industrial supplier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis; Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra


    Engineering change management is managing an alteration made to the technical system and/or its related value chain processes and documentation that has already been released during the product and process design process. The change can either emerge during the process or be initiated internally....... Through an in-depth case study, this paper investigates which process and what governance setup is appropriate to manage customer initiated engineering changes, referred to as request management. The paper includes a proposal for a request management framework and a task-based iterative process model...... or externally by for instance customers. Managing initiated engineering changes is a vital source for improving product performance and radically reducing change costs. Customer-initiated engineering change is an area growing in importance decreasing product life cycles and increasing demand for customisation...

  5. Machine learning in motion control (United States)

    Su, Renjeng; Kermiche, Noureddine


    The existing methodologies for robot programming originate primarily from robotic applications to manufacturing, where uncertainties of the robots and their task environment may be minimized by repeated off-line modeling and identification. In space application of robots, however, a higher degree of automation is required for robot programming because of the desire of minimizing the human intervention. We discuss a new paradigm of robotic programming which is based on the concept of machine learning. The goal is to let robots practice tasks by themselves and the operational data are used to automatically improve their motion performance. The underlying mathematical problem is to solve the problem of dynamical inverse by iterative methods. One of the key questions is how to ensure the convergence of the iterative process. There have been a few small steps taken into this important approach to robot programming. We give a representative result on the convergence problem.

  6. Motion Control along Relative Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj


    The subject of this thesis is control of mechanical systems as they evolve along the steady motions called relative equilibria. These trajectories are of interest in theory and applications and have the characterizing property that the system's body-fixed velocity is constant. For example, constant......-speed rotation about a principal axis is a relative equilibrium of a rigid body in three dimensions. We focus our study on simple mechanical control systems on Lie groups, i.e., mechanical systems with the following properties: the configuration manifold is a matrix Lie group, the total energy is equal...... on a Lie group is locally controllable along a relative equilibrium. These conditions subsume the well-known local controllability conditions for equilibrium points. Second, for systems that have fewer controls than degrees of freedom, we present a novel algorithm to control simple mechanical control...

  7. Superluminal motion of extragalactic objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveenko, L.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij)


    Extragalactic objects with active nuclei are reviewed. Experimental data are obtained with the method of superfar radiointerferometry. The main peculiarities of the complex structure of Seyfert galaxies, quasars and lacertae objects are considered: the distribution of radiobrightness, spectra, alteration of the density of radiation flux and the distance between the components of sources. The superluminal velocities of component divergence observed are explained by different reasons: fast motion of components considerable difference of the Hubble component or non-cosmologic nature of the red shift of objects, effect of echoreflection of radiation, gravitation lens, systematic alteration of the optical thickness of the object, synchronouys radiation of electrons in the dipole magnetic field, as well as different kinematic illusions connected with the final time of signal propagation.

  8. Superluminal motion of extragalactic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveenko, L.I.


    Extragalactic objects with active nuclei are reviewed. Experimental data are obtained with the method of superfar radiointerferometry. The main peculiarities of the complex strUcture of Seyfert galaxies quasars and lacertae ob ects are considered: the distribution of radiobrightness, spectra, alteration of the density of radiation flux and the distance between the components of sources. The superluminal velocities of component divergence observed are explained by different reasons: fast motion of components considerable difference of the Hubble component or non-cosmologic nature of the red shift of objects, effect of echoreflection of radiation, gravitation lens, systematic alteration of the optical thickness of the object, synchronoUs radiation of electrons in the dipole magnetic field, as well as different kinematic illusions connected with the final time of signal propagation

  9. Exoskeleton Motion Control for Children Walking Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ploscaru


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a quick method for motion control of an exoskeleton used on children walking rehabilitation with ages between four to seven years old. The exoskeleton used on this purpose has six servomotors which work independently and actuates each human lower limb joints (hips, knees and ankles. For obtaining the desired motion laws, a high-speed motion analysis equipment was used. The experimental rough data were mathematically modeled in order to obtain the proper motion equations for controlling the exoskeleton servomotors.

  10. Equation of Motion for a Grain Boundary (United States)

    Zhang, Luchan; Han, Jian; Xiang, Yang; Srolovitz, David J.


    Grain boundary (GB) migration controls many forms of microstructural evolution in polycrystalline materials. Recent theory, simulations, and experiments demonstrate that GB migration is controlled by the motion of discrete line defects or disconnections. We present a continuum equation of motion for grain boundary derived from the underlying discrete disconnection mechanism. We also present an equation of motion for the junctions where multiple grain boundaries meet—as is always the case in a polycrystal. The resulting equation of motion naturally exhibits junction drag—a widely observed phenomena in junction dynamics in solids and liquids.

  11. Animal models in motion sickness research (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.


    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  12. Conditional shape models for cardiac motion estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metz, Coert; Baka, Nora; Kirisli, Hortense


    We propose a conditional statistical shape model to predict patient specific cardiac motion from the 3D end-diastolic CTA scan. The model is built from 4D CTA sequences by combining atlas based segmentation and 4D registration. Cardiac motion estimation is, for example, relevant in the dynamic...... alignment of pre-operative CTA data with intra-operative X-ray imaging. Due to a trend towards prospective electrocardiogram gating techniques, 4D imaging data, from which motion information could be extracted, is not commonly available. The prediction of motion from shape information is thus relevant...

  13. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, James K; Geigel, Joe; Lee, Jong W; Gritz, Larry; Takala, Tapio; Mishra, Suneil


    Until recently, sound has been given little attention in computer graphics and related domains of computer animation and virtual environments, although sounds which are properly synchronized to motion...

  14. Motion: the long and short of it. (United States)

    Cavanagh, P; Mather, G


    Several authors have proposed that motion is analyzed by two separate processes: short-range and long-range. We claim that the differences between short-range and long-range motion phenomena are a direct consequence of the stimuli used in the two paradigms and are not evidence for the existence of two qualitatively different motion processes. We propose that a single style of motion analysis, similar to the well known Reichardt and Marr-Ullman motion detectors, underlies all motion phenomena. Although there are different detectors of this type specialized for different visual attributes (namely first-order and second-order stimuli), they all share the same mode of operation. We review the studies of second-order motion stimuli to show that they share the basic phenomena observed for first-order stimuli. The similarity across stimulus types suggests, not parallel streams of motion extraction, one short-range and passive and the other long-range and intelligent, but a concatenation of a common mode of initial motion extraction followed by a general inference process.

  15. Post-depositional remanent magnetization lock-in depth in precisely dated varved sediments assessed by archaeomagnetic field models (United States)

    Mellström, Anette; Nilsson, Andreas; Stanton, Tania; Muscheler, Raimund; Snowball, Ian; Suttie, Neil


    Accurate and precise chronologies are needed to evaluate the existence and effect of a post-depositional remanent magnetization lock-in process on sedimentary palaeomagnetic records. Here we present lock-in modelling results of two palaeomagnetic records from varved lake sediments (lakes Kälksjön and Gyltigesjön) in Sweden by using model predictions based on archaeomagnetic data. We used the 14C wiggle-match dating technique to improve the precision of the Kälksjön varve chronology in the period between 3000 and 2000 cal BP, which is characterized by pronounced palaeomagnetic secular variation. This method allowed us to infer an age model with uncertainties of ±20 years (95.4% probability range). Furthermore, we compared the palaeomagnetic record of Kälksjön to Gyltigesjön, which has a corresponding 14C wiggle-matched chronology. The ages of palaeomagnetic features derived from the wiggle-matched varve chronologies are older than those predicted by the archaeomagnetic models. Lock-in modelling was performed with different filter functions to explain the temporal offset and the amplitude of the lake sediment palaeomagnetic data. The analyses suggest that a linear lock-in function with lock-in depths (the depth below which no more natural magnetic remanence is acquired) that range between 30 and 80 cm in Kälksjön and 50 and 160 cm in Gyltigesjön are most appropriate to explain the data. These relatively deep lock-in depths in sediments without a bioturbated 'mixed-zone' can be attributed to the relatively high organic contents and low density of the lake sediments, which contribute to a thick unconsolidated upper zone of the sediment sequence in which re-alignment of magnetic particles can take place.

  16. Multiple Coordinate Systems and Motor Strategies for Reaching Movements When Eye and Hand Are Dissociated in Depth and Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Bosco


    Full Text Available Reaching behavior represents one of the basic aspects of human cognitive abilities important for the interaction with the environment. Reaching movements towards visual objects are controlled by mechanisms based on coordinate systems that transform the spatial information of target location into appropriate motor response. Although recent works have extensively studied the encoding of target position for reaching in three-dimensional space at behavioral level, the combined analysis of reach errors and movement variability has so far been investigated by few studies. Here we did so by testing 12 healthy participants in an experiment where reaching targets were presented at different depths and directions in foveal and peripheral viewing conditions. Each participant executed a memory-guided task in which he/she had to reach the memorized position of the target. A combination of vector and gradient analysis, novel for behavioral data, was applied to analyze patterns of reach errors for different combinations of eye/target positions. The results showed reach error patterns based on both eye- and space-centered coordinate systems: in depth more biased towards a space-centered representation and in direction mixed between space- and eye-centered representation. We calculated movement variability to describe different trajectory strategies adopted by participants while reaching to the different eye/target configurations tested. In direction, the distribution of variability between configurations that shared the same eye/target relative configuration was different, whereas in configurations that shared the same spatial position of targets, it was similar. In depth, the variability showed more similar distributions in both pairs of eye/target configurations tested. These results suggest that reaching movements executed in geometries that require hand and eye dissociations in direction and depth showed multiple coordinate systems and different trajectory

  17. Defence-in-depth strategy of fire protection and its relevance after final shutdown (by the example of Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beesen, Michael; Ernst, Benjamin; Fischer, Guenter [TUeV SUeD Industrie Service GmbH (Germany)


    Nuclear power plants (NPP) are protected against internal and external fires by a fire protection defence-in-depth concept including the following precautionary measures: operational, structural and equipment related fire protection measures as well as manual fire fighting. The fire protection measures are designed in consideration of fires to be expected (from fire loads permanently and temporarily present together with potential ignition sources) in order to prevent a violation of both the protection goals of public law and the nuclear protection goals / radiological safety objectives in case of internal and external fires. The aspect ''What is the future significance of the fire protection defence-in-depth concept?'' needs to be considered with regard to the situation following the final shutdown. From our point of view as a TSO (technical safety organization) both the non-nuclear protection goals (e.g. prevent occurrence of a fire; ensure escape and rescue of humans) as well as the nuclear ones have to be ensured after final shutdown of a nuclear plant. The protection goals of public law will almost completely remain after the plant has stopped commercial operation while the nuclear safety objectives will be stepwise reduced in consideration of the decommissioning status until the end of the nuclear supervision. Nevertheless, the fire protection concept must clearly specify those fire protection measures that are necessary to ensure the plants' safety. The situation on site regularly needs to be under examination to check if the fire protection concept covers all conditions to be considered and if the existing fire protection measures are sufficient or if an adaption is necessary.

  18. Perceived health after percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation: in-depth interviews of patients and next-of-kin. (United States)

    Andresen, Brith; Andersen, Marit Helen; Lindberg, Harald; Døhlen, Gaute; Fosse, Erik


    Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation is an alternative to open heart surgery in selected patients with pulmonary outflow tract disorder. The technique may reduce the number of open-chest surgeries in these patients. This study was conducted to understand how the patients and their next-of-kin experienced this new treatment option. Qualitative explorative design with individual in-depth interviews. Oslo University Hospital, the only cardiac centre in Norway offering advanced surgical and interventional treatment to patient with congenital heart defects, serving the whole Norwegian population. During a 2-year period a total of 10 patients, median age 17 (7-30) and 18 next-of-kin were consecutively selected for individual in-depth interviews 3-6 months after the pulmonary valve implantation. The verbatim transcripts were analysed using a phenomenological methodology. Patients emphasised the importance of regaining independence and taking control of daily life shortly after the new interventional treatment. Renewed hope towards treatment options was described as 'a light in the tunnel'. Next-of-kin emphasised the importance both for the patient and their family of resuming normal life quickly after the procedure. The physical burden was experienced as minor after the minimally invasive intervention, compared to their previous experience with surgical procedures. The importance of maintaining normality in everyday life for a good family function. The repeated surgeries during infancy and adolescence of patients with congenital heart disease represent a heavy burden both for the patient and their family. All families especially emphasised the importance of resuming normal life quickly after each procedure. The novel technique of pulmonary valve implantation is thus a favourable approach because of minor interference in daily life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  19. Use of strategies to improve retention in primary care randomised trials: a qualitative study with in-depth interviews. (United States)

    Brueton, V C; Stevenson, F; Vale, C L; Stenning, S P; Tierney, J F; Harding, S; Nazareth, I; Meredith, S; Rait, G


    To explore the strategies used to improve retention in primary care randomised trials. Qualitative in-depth interviews and thematic analysis. 29 UK primary care chief and principal investigators, trial managers and research nurses. In-depth face-to-face interviews. Primary care researchers use incentive and communication strategies to improve retention in trials, but were unsure of their effect. Small monetary incentives were used to increase response to postal questionnaires. Non-monetary incentives were used although there was scepticism about the impact of these on retention. Nurses routinely used telephone communication to encourage participants to return for trial follow-up. Trial managers used first class post, shorter questionnaires and improved questionnaire designs with the aim of improving questionnaire response. Interviewees thought an open trial design could lead to biased results and were negative about using behavioural strategies to improve retention. There was consensus among the interviewees that effective communication and rapport with participants, participant altruism, respect for participant's time, flexibility of trial personnel and appointment schedules and trial information improve retention. Interviewees noted particular challenges with retention in mental health trials and those involving teenagers. The findings of this qualitative study have allowed us to reflect on research practice around retention and highlight a gap between such practice and current evidence. Interviewees describe acting from experience without evidence from the literature, which supports the use of small monetary incentives to improve the questionnaire response. No such evidence exists for non-monetary incentives or first class post, use of which may need reconsideration. An exploration of barriers and facilitators to retention in other research contexts may be justified.

  20. Medical students are afraid to include abortion in their future practices: in-depth interviews in Maharastra, India. (United States)

    Sjöström, Susanne; Essén, Birgitta; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie


    Unsafe abortions are estimated to cause eight per-cent of maternal mortality in India. Lack of providers, especially in rural areas, is one reason unsafe abortions take place despite decades of legal abortion. Education and training in reproductive health services has been shown to influence attitudes and increase chances that medical students will provide abortion care services in their future practice. To further explore previous findings about poor attitudes toward abortion among medical students in Maharastra, India, we conducted in-depth interviews with medical students in their final year of education. We used a qualitative design conducting in-depth interviews with twenty-three medical students in Maharastra applying a topic guide. Data was organized using thematic analysis with an inductive approach. The participants described a fear to provide abortion in their future practice. They lacked understanding of the law and confused the legal regulation of abortion with the law governing gender biased sex selection, and concluded that abortion is illegal in Maharastra. The interviewed medical students' attitudes were supported by their experiences and perceptions from the clinical setting as well as traditions and norms in society. Medical abortion using mifepristone and misoprostol was believed to be unsafe and prohibited in Maharastra. The students perceived that nurse-midwives were knowledgeable in Sexual and Reproductive Health and many found that they could be trained to perform abortions in the future. To increase chances that medical students in Maharastra will perform abortion care services in their future practice, it is important to strengthen their confidence and knowledge through improved medical education including value clarification and clinical training.

  1. Perceived health after percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation: in-depth interviews of patients and next-of-kin (United States)

    Andresen, Brith; Andersen, Marit Helen; Lindberg, Harald; Døhlen, Gaute; Fosse, Erik


    Objective Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation is an alternative to open heart surgery in selected patients with pulmonary outflow tract disorder. The technique may reduce the number of open-chest surgeries in these patients. This study was conducted to understand how the patients and their next-of-kin experienced this new treatment option. Design Qualitative explorative design with individual in-depth interviews. Setting Oslo University Hospital, the only cardiac centre in Norway offering advanced surgical and interventional treatment to patient with congenital heart defects, serving the whole Norwegian population. Participants During a 2-year period a total of 10 patients, median age 17 (7–30) and 18 next-of-kin were consecutively selected for individual in-depth interviews 3–6 months after the pulmonary valve implantation. The verbatim transcripts were analysed using a phenomenological methodology. Results Patients emphasised the importance of regaining independence and taking control of daily life shortly after the new interventional treatment. Renewed hope towards treatment options was described as ‘a light in the tunnel’. Next-of-kin emphasised the importance both for the patient and their family of resuming normal life quickly after the procedure. The physical burden was experienced as minor after the minimally invasive intervention, compared to their previous experience with surgical procedures. Main outcome measure The importance of maintaining normality in everyday life for a good family function. Conclusions The repeated surgeries during infancy and adolescence of patients with congenital heart disease represent a heavy burden both for the patient and their family. All families especially emphasised the importance of resuming normal life quickly after each procedure. The novel technique of pulmonary valve implantation is thus a favourable approach because of minor interference in daily life. PMID:25079930

  2. Modelling Forearc Basin Formation and Stratigraphy (United States)

    Mannu, Utsav; Ueda, Kosuke; Willett, Sean; Gerya, Taras; Strasser, Michael


    Comparison of synthetic stratigraphy of forearc basins as generated in coupled plate subduction and accretionary wedge models to the stratal patterns observed for forearc basins in nature, could be used to ascertain the dynamic consistency of the interpreted deformational history of the wedge. Additionally, it could help us understand the emergence of stratigraphic patterns in forearc basins as an interplay between sedimentary flux and wedge dynamics. Here we present a simple methodology to generate synthetic stratigraphy by emplacing isochronal surfaces during the evolution of the wedge. We use a dynamic 2D, high-resolution, thermo-mechanical, subduction model coupled to an adaptive irregular surface grid to model the free surface. In this model, we track basin stratigraphy developing in the wedge top basins atop the accretionary prism by emplacing lines of Lagrangian markers at discrete times along the upper surface of the model, which subsequently are buried, transported, and deformed according to the velocity field generated in the model. We conduct numerical experiments to identify the stratigraphic signatures of different forearc basin formation mechanisms. We also study the impact of hinterland and trench sedimentation on the wedge evolution and its impact on forearc basin formation. Forearc basins that form on top of the overriding plate remain passive to the deformation history of the wedge. Forearc basins formed as negative alpha basins remain mostly undeformed. Forearc basins that form due to wedge stabilization exhibit landward tilting of strata with time. We also find that trench sedimentation enhances the landward tilting of the basin by shifting deformation landwards and potentially triggering out-of-sequence-thrust emergence/reactivation. Predicted stratigraphic features in our numerical models agree well with stratigraphic patterns observed in different types of forearc basins in the Nankai Trough, Sunda Strait and Lombok Basin offshore Japan, Java


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III


    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  4. Complex Rayleigh Waves Produced by Shallow Sedimentary Basins and their Potential Effects on Mid-Rise Buildings (United States)

    Kohler, M. D.; Castillo, J.; Massari, A.; Clayton, R. W.


    Earthquake-induced motions recorded by spatially dense seismic arrays in buildings located in the northern Los Angeles basin suggest the presence of complex, amplified surface wave effects on the seismic demand of mid-rise buildings. Several moderate earthquakes produced large-amplitude, seismic energy with slow shear-wave velocities that cannot be explained or accurately modeled by any published 3D seismic velocity models or by Vs30 values. Numerical experiments are conducted to determine if sedimentary basin features are responsible for these rarely modeled and poorly documented contributions to seismic demand computations. This is accomplished through a physics-based wave propagation examination of the effects of different sedimentary basin geometries on the nonlinear response of a mid-rise structural model based on an existing, instrumented building. Using two-dimensional finite-difference predictive modeling, we show that when an earthquake focal depth is near the vertical edge of an elongated and relatively shallow sedimentary basin, dramatically amplified and complex surface waves are generated as a result of the waveguide effect introduced by this velocity structure. In addition, for certain source-receiver distances and basin geometries, body waves convert to secondary Rayleigh waves that propagate both at the free-surface interface and along the depth interface of the basin that show up as multiple large-amplitude arrivals. This study is motivated by observations from the spatially dense, high-sample-rate acceleration data recorded by the Community Seismic Network, a community-hosted strong-motion network, currently consisting of hundreds of sensors located in the southern California area. The results provide quantitative insight into the causative relationship between a sedimentary basin shape and the generation of Rayleigh waves at depth, surface waves at the free surface, scattered seismic energy, and the sensitivity of building responses to each of

  5. Survey of Motion Tracking Methods Based on Inertial Sensors: A Focus on Upper Limb Human Motion. (United States)

    Filippeschi, Alessandro; Schmitz, Norbert; Miezal, Markus; Bleser, Gabriele; Ruffaldi, Emanuele; Stricker, Didier


    Motion tracking based on commercial inertial measurements units (IMUs) has been widely studied in the latter years as it is a cost-effective enabling technology for those applications in which motion tracking based on optical technologies is unsuitable. This measurement method has a high impact in human performance assessment and human-robot interaction. IMU motion tracking systems are indeed self-contained and wearable, allowing for long-lasting tracking of the user motion in situated environments. After a survey on IMU-based human tracking, five techniques for motion reconstruction were selected and compared to reconstruct a human arm motion. IMU based estimation was matched against motion tracking based on the Vicon marker-based motion tracking system considered as ground truth. Results show that all but one of the selected models perform similarly (about 35 mm average position estimation error).

  6. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  7. 3D ground‐motion simulations of Mw 7 earthquakes on the Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch fault zone: Variability of long‐period (T≥1  s) ground motions and sensitivity to kinematic rupture parameters (United States)

    Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hartzell, Stephen; Ramirez-Guzman, Leonardo; Frankel, Arthur; Angster, Stephen J.; Stephenson, William J.


    We examine the variability of long‐period (T≥1  s) earthquake ground motions from 3D simulations of Mw 7 earthquakes on the Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch fault zone, Utah, from a set of 96 rupture models with varying slip distributions, rupture speeds, slip velocities, and hypocenter locations. Earthquake ruptures were prescribed on a 3D fault representation that satisfies geologic constraints and maintained distinct strands for the Warm Springs and for the East Bench and Cottonwood faults. Response spectral accelerations (SA; 1.5–10 s; 5% damping) were measured, and average distance scaling was well fit by a simple functional form that depends on the near‐source intensity level SA0(T) and a corner distance Rc:SA(R,T)=SA0(T)(1+(R/Rc))−1. Period‐dependent hanging‐wall effects manifested and increased the ground motions by factors of about 2–3, though the effects appeared partially attributable to differences in shallow site response for sites on the hanging wall and footwall of the fault. Comparisons with modern ground‐motion prediction equations (GMPEs) found that the simulated ground motions were generally consistent, except within deep sedimentary basins, where simulated ground motions were greatly underpredicted. Ground‐motion variability exhibited strong lateral variations and, at some sites, exceeded the ground‐motion variability indicated by GMPEs. The effects on the ground motions of changing the values of the five kinematic rupture parameters can largely be explained by three predominant factors: distance to high‐slip subevents, dynamic stress drop, and changes in the contributions from directivity. These results emphasize the need for further characterization of the underlying distributions and covariances of the kinematic rupture parameters used in 3D ground‐motion simulations employed in probabilistic seismic‐hazard analyses.

  8. TMS reveals flexible use of form and motion cues in biological motion perception


    Mather, George; Battaglini, Luca; Campana, Gianluca


    The perception of human movement is a key component of daily social interactions. Although extrastriate area MT+/V5 is closely associated with motion processing, its role in the processing of sparse ‘biological motion’ displays is still unclear. We developed two closed matched psychophysical tasks to assess simple coherent motion perception and biological motion perception, and measured changes in performance caused by application of TMS over MT+/V5. Performance of the simple motion discrimin...

  9. Anomalous Late Jurassic motion of the Pacific Plate with implications for true polar wander (United States)

    Fu, R. R.; Kent, D.


    True polar wander, or TPW, is the rotation of the entire mantle-crust system that results in simultaneous change in latitude and orientation for all lithospheric plates. One of the most recent candidate TPW events consists of a 30˚ rotation during Late Jurassic time (160 - 145 Ma). However, existing paleomagnetic documentation of this event derives exclusively from continental studies. Because all major landmasses except China were connected directly or via spreading centers in the Late Jurassic, the velocities of these continents were mutually constrained and their motion as a group over the underlying mantle would be indistinguishable from TPW using only continental data. On the other hand, plates of the Pacific Basin constituted a kinematically independent domain, interfacing with continents at subduction zones and slip-strike boundaries. Coherent motion of both Pacific Basin and continental plates would therefore indicate uniform motion of virtually the entire lithosphere, providing a means to distinguish TPW from continental drift. We performed thermal demagnetization on remaining samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 801B, which were cored from the oldest sampled oceanic crust in the Western Pacific, to determine its change in paleolatitude during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous (167 - 134 Ma). We find that the Pacific Plate likely underwent a steady southward drift during this time period, consistent with previous results from magnetic anomalies, except for an episode of northward motion between Oxfordian and Tithonian time (161 - 147 Ma). Although the amplitude of this northward shift is subject to significant uncertainty due to the sparse recovery of core samples, the trajectory of the Pacific Plate is most simply explained by TPW in the 160 - 145 Ma interval as inferred from continental data. Furthermore, such an interpretation is consistent with the sense of shear inferred at the Farallon-North American Plate boundary, whereas uniform

  10. Motion sickness symptoms in a ship motion simulator: effects of inside, outside, and no view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; MacKinnon, S.N.; Patterson, A.


    Vehicle motion characteristics differ between air, road, and sea environments, both vestibularly and visually. Effects of vision on motion sickness have been studied before, though less systematically in a naval setting. It is hypothesized that appropriate visual information on self-motion is

  11. Integration of motion responses underlying directional motion anisotropy in human early visual cortical areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, W.; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; Petridou, N.; Ramsey, N.F.; Raemaekers, M.


    Recent imaging studies have reported directional motion biases in human visual cortex when perceiving moving random dot patterns. It has been hypothesized that these biases occur as a result of the integration of motion detector activation along the path of motion in visual cortex. In this study we

  12. The Role of Motion Concepts in Understanding Non-Motion Concepts (United States)

    Khatin-Zadeh, Omid; Banaruee, Hassan; Khoshsima, Hooshang; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando


    This article discusses a specific type of metaphor in which an abstract non-motion domain is described in terms of a motion event. Abstract non-motion domains are inherently different from concrete motion domains. However, motion domains are used to describe abstract non-motion domains in many metaphors. Three main reasons are suggested for the suitability of motion events in such metaphorical descriptions. Firstly, motion events usually have high degrees of concreteness. Secondly, motion events are highly imageable. Thirdly, components of any motion event can be imagined almost simultaneously within a three-dimensional space. These three characteristics make motion events suitable domains for describing abstract non-motion domains, and facilitate the process of online comprehension throughout language processing. Extending the main point into the field of mathematics, this article discusses the process of transforming abstract mathematical problems into imageable geometric representations within the three-dimensional space. This strategy is widely used by mathematicians to solve highly abstract and complex problems. PMID:29240715

  13. Direct Contribution of Auditory Motion Information to Sound-Induced Visual Motion Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souta Hidaka


    Full Text Available We have recently demonstrated that alternating left-right sound sources induce motion perception to static visual stimuli along the horizontal plane (SIVM: sound-induced visual motion perception, Hidaka et al., 2009. The aim of the current study was to elucidate whether auditory motion signals, rather than auditory positional signals, can directly contribute to the SIVM. We presented static visual flashes at retinal locations outside the fovea together with a lateral auditory motion provided by a virtual stereo noise source smoothly shifting in the horizontal plane. The flashes appeared to move in the situation where auditory positional information would have little influence on the perceived position of visual stimuli; the spatiotemporal position of the flashes was in the middle of the auditory motion trajectory. Furthermore, the auditory motion altered visual motion perception in a global motion display; in this display, different localized motion signals of multiple visual stimuli were combined to produce a coherent visual motion perception so that there was no clear one-to-one correspondence between the auditory stimuli and each visual stimulus. These findings suggest the existence of direct interactions between the auditory and visual modalities in motion processing and motion perception.

  14. The sedimentary basins of Tanzania - reviewed (United States)

    Mbede, E. I.

    The sedimentary basins of Tanzania have been classified into four morphotectonic groups: the coastal basin, the Karoo rift basins, basins found within the present East African rift valley and the cratonic sag basins. Except for the cratonic sag basins, each of these basin group has been affected by rifting at one time or another. The geology of each basin is discussed, structural evolution is evaluated and the prospectivity is thence looked into. Coal is exploited at Songwe-Kiwira coalfield and is found in potentially economic quantities in other Karoo basins. Prospecting for hydrocarbon resources has been going on since the 50s. Gas has been discovered in Songosongo and Mnazi bay fields, uneconomical quantities of oil have also been reported in Songosongo. Being basically rift basins which have reached different stages of development, source rocks normally associated with Initial-rifting, synrifting as well as post-rifting processes are probably well developed. Reservoir rocks, traps and cap rocks are normally not rare in such tectonic environments. Thermal gradients associated with the rifting stage are normaly high to effect maturation of source rocks even at low sedimentary thicknesses. Studies done so far are still inconclusive, because while testing has mainly been focused on structural traps stratigraphic traps seems to be more promising.

  15. Uranium geochemistry of Orca Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.F. Jr.; Sackett, W.M.


    Orca Basin, an anoxic, brine-filled depression at a depth of 2200 m in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope, has been studied with respect to its uranium geochemistry. Uranium concentration profiles for four cores from within the basin were determined by delayed-neutron counting. Uranium concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 ppm on a salt-free and carbonate-corrected basis. The highest uranium concentrations were associated with the lowest percentage and delta 13 C organic carbon values. For comparison, cores from the brine-filled Suakin and Atlantis II Deeps, both in the Red Sea, were also analyzed. Uranium concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 ppm in the Suakin Deep and from 8.0 to 11.0 ppm in the Atlantis II Deep. No significant correlation was found between uranium concentrations and organic carbon concentrations and delta 13 C values for these cores. Although anoxic conditions are necessary for significant uranium uptake by non-carbonate marine sediments, other factors such as dilution by rapidly depositing materials and uranium supply via mixing and diffusion across density gradients may be as important in determining uranium concentrations in hypersaline basin sediments. (author)

  16. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.


    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  17. Seismic microzoning from synthetic ground motion parameters: Case study, Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Leonardo; Vaccari, Franco; Panza, Giuliano F.; Pico, Ramon


    Synthetic seismograms (P - SV and SH waves) have been calculated along 6 profiles in Santiago de Cuba basin, with a cutoff frequency of 5 Hz, by using the hybrid approach (modal summation for a regional (ID) structure plus finite differences for a local (2D) structure embedded in the first). They correspond to a scenario earthquake of M S = 7 that may occur in Oriente fault zone, directly south of the city. As initial data for a seismic microzoning, the characterisation of earthquake effects has been made considering several relative (2D/1D) quantities (PGDR, PGVR, PGAR, DGAR, I A R etc.) and functions representative of the ground motion behaviour in soil (2D) with respect to bedrock (ID). The functions are the response spectra ratio RSR(f), already routinely used in this kind of work, and the elastic energy input ratio E I R(f), defined, for the first time, in this paper. These data, sampled at 105 sites within all the profiles have been classified in two steps, using logical combinatory algorithms: connected sets and compact sets. In the first step, from the original ground motion parameters or functions extracted from the synthetic seismograms, 9 sets have been classified and the partial results show the spatial distribution of the soil behaviour as function of the component of motion. In the second step, the results of the classification of the 9 sets have been used as input for a further classification that shows a spatial distribution of sites with a quasi-homogeneous integral ground motion behaviour. By adding the available geological surface data, a microzoning scheme of Santiago de Cuba basin has been obtained. (author)

  18. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  19. Motion planning for gantry mounted manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Lau; Petersen, Henrik Gordon


    We present a roadmap based planner for finding robot motions for gantry mounted manipulators for a line welding application at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). The robot motions are planned subject to constraints on when the gantry may be moved. We show that random sampling of gantry configurations...

  20. Motion sensing using WLAN signal fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavitha Muthukrishnan, K.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.


    The ability to infer the motion of the user has previously been possible only with the usage of additional hardware. In this paper we show how motion sensing can be obtained just by observing the WLAN radio’s signal strength and its fluctuations. For the first time, we have analyzed the signal

  1. Large proper motions in the Orion nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudworth, K.M.; Stone, R.C.


    Several nebular features, as well as one faint star, with large proper motions were identified within the Orion nebula. The measured proper motions correspond to tangential velocities of up to approximately 70 km sec -1 . One new probable variable star was also found

  2. Sound-contingent visual motion aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Maori


    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a prolonged exposure to a paired presentation of different types of signals (e.g., color and motion, one of the signals (color becomes a driver for the other signal (motion. This phenomenon, which is known as contingent motion aftereffect, indicates that the brain can establish new neural representations even in the adult's brain. However, contingent motion aftereffect has been reported only in visual or auditory domain. Here, we demonstrate that a visual motion aftereffect can be contingent on a specific sound. Results Dynamic random dots moving in an alternating right or left direction were presented to the participants. Each direction of motion was accompanied by an auditory tone of a unique and specific frequency. After a 3-minutes exposure, the tones began to exert marked influence on the visual motion perception, and the percentage of dots required to trigger motion perception systematically changed depending on the tones. Furthermore, this effect lasted for at least 2 days. Conclusions These results indicate that a new neural representation can be rapidly established between auditory and visual modalities.

  3. Using Phun to Study "Perpetual Motion" Machines (United States)

    Kores, Jaroslav


    The concept of "perpetual motion" has a long history. The Indian astronomer and mathematician Bhaskara II (12th century) was the first person to describe a perpetual motion (PM) machine. An example of a 13th-century PM machine is shown in Fig. 1. Although the law of conservation of energy clearly implies the impossibility of PM construction, over…

  4. Motion compensation for MRI-guided radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glitzner, M.


    Radiotherapy aims to deliver a lethal radiation dose to cancer cells immersed in the body using a high energetic photon beam. Due to physiologic motion of the human anatomy (e.g. caused by filling of internal organs or breathing), the target volume is under permanent motion during irradiation,

  5. Structural principles governing domain motions in proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayward, S


    With the use of a recently developed method, twenty-four proteins for which two or more X-ray conformers are known have been analyzed to reveal structural principles that govern domain motions in proteins. In all 24 cases, the domain motion is a rotation about a physical axis created through local

  6. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren


    using one or multiple previous images, predictor dependent error modelling, and selection of motion field by code length. For slow pan or slow zoom sequences, coding methods that use multiple previous images are up to 20% better than motion compensation using a single previous image and up to 40% better...

  7. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren


    Summary form only given. We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding and motion compensation. The new coding methods combine state-of-the-art lossless techniques as JPEG (context based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding), with high resolution motion field estimati......, 3D predictors, prediction using one or multiple (k) previous images, predictor dependent error modelling, and selection of motion field by code length. We treat the problem of precision of the motion field as one of choosing among a number of predictors. This way, we can incorporate 3D......-predictors and intra-frame predictors as well. As proposed by Ribas-Corbera (see PhD thesis, University of Michigan, 1996), we use bi-linear interpolation in order to achieve sub-pixel precision of the motion field. Using more reference images is another way of achieving higher accuracy of the match. The motion...... information is coded with the same algorithm as is used for the data. For slow pan or slow zoom sequences, coding methods that use multiple previous images perform up to 20% better than motion compensation using a single previous image and up to 40% better than coding that does not utilize motion compensation...

  8. Informed Use of Motion Synthesis Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Welbergen, H.; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Varga, B.; Egges, A.; Kamphuis, A.; Overmars, M.


    In virtual human (VH) applications, and in particular, games, motions with different functions are to be synthesized, such as communicative and manipulative hand gestures, locomotion, expression of emotions or identity of the character. In the bodily behavior, the primary motions define the

  9. Three scales of motions associated with tornadoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, G.S.


    This dissertation explores three scales of motion commonly associated with tornadoes, and the interaction of these scales: the tornado cyclone, the tornado, and the suction vortex. The goal of the research is to specify in detail the character and interaction of these scales of motion to explain tornadic phenomena

  10. Branner-Hubbard Motions and attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Tan, Lei


    We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....

  11. Branner-Hubbard motions and attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Tan, Lei

    We introduce the new notion an aatracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-likke mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce the new notion an aatracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-likke mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....

  12. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion pictures. 705.8 Section 705.8 National... the preceding for TV will also apply to cooperation with commercial motion picture producers. (b) The... Information via the appropriate Navy headquarters activity for coordination with the Assistant Secretary of...

  13. Unidirectional Motion of Vehicle on Sinusoidal Path

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. Unidirectional Motion of Vehicle on Sinusoidal Path: Can it Cause Illusory Forward and Backward Motion? Anuj Bhatnagar. Classroom Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 387-392 ...

  14. Geodesic motion and confinement in Goedel's universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Soares, I.D.; Tiomno, J.


    A complete study of geodesic motion in Goedel's universe, using the method of the Effective Potential is presented. It then emerges a clear physical picture of free motion and its stability in this universe. Geodesics of a large class have finite intervals in which the particle moves back in time (dt/ds [pt

  15. Motion in an Asymmetric Double Well


    Brizard, Alain J.; Westland, Melissa C.


    The problem of the motion of a particle in an asymmetric double well is solved explicitly in terms of the Weierstrass and Jacobi elliptic functions. While the solution of the orbital motion is expressed simply in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic function, the period of oscillation is more directly expressed in terms of periods of the Jacobi elliptic functions.

  16. 42 CFR 3.528 - Motions. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motions. 3.528 Section 3.528 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.528 Motions. (a) An application to the ALJ for...

  17. Adaptive motion of animals and machines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimura, Hiroshi


    ... single function in a control system and mechanism. That is, adaptation in motion is induced at every level from the central nervous system to the musculoskeletal system. Thus, we organized the International Symposium on Adaptive Motion in Animals and Machines (AMAM) for scientists and engineers concerned with adaptation on various levels to be broug...

  18. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Success of earthquake resistant design practices critically depends on how accurately the future ground motion can be determined at a desired site. But very limited recorded data are available about ground motion in India for engineers to rely upon. To identify the needs of engineers, under such circumstances, in ...

  19. 45 CFR 672.9 - Motions. (United States)


    ... memorandum relied upon. (b) Response to motions. A party must file a response to any written motion within..., shall (1) be in writing; (2) state the basis or grounds with particularity; (3) set forth the relief or... response shall be accompanied by any affidavit, certificate, other evidence, or legal memorandum relied...

  20. 10 CFR 820.39 - Motions. (United States)


    ... an enforcement adjudication except those made orally, shall be in writing, state the grounds therefor..., certificate, other evidence, or legal memorandum relied upon. (b) Answer to motions. Except as otherwise... to file a written answer to the motion of another party within 10 days after the filing of such...