WorldWideScience

Sample records for basin-centered gas systems

  1. BASIN-CENTERED GAS SYSTEMS OF THE U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin A. Popov; Vito F. Nuccio; Thaddeus S. Dyman; Timothy A. Gognat; Ronald C. Johnson; James W. Schmoker; Michael S. Wilson; Charles Bartberger

    2000-11-01

    The USGS is re-evaluating the resource potential of basin-centered gas accumulations in the U.S. because of changing perceptions of the geology of these accumulations, and the availability of new data since the USGS 1995 National Assessment of United States oil and gas resources (Gautier et al., 1996). To attain these objectives, this project used knowledge of basin-centered gas systems and procedures such as stratigraphic analysis, organic geochemistry, modeling of basin thermal dynamics, reservoir characterization, and pressure analysis. This project proceeded in two phases which had the following objectives: Phase I (4/1998 through 5/1999): Identify and describe the geologic and geographic distribution of potential basin-centered gas systems, and Phase II (6/1999 through 11/2000): For selected systems, estimate the location of those basin-centered gas resources that are likely to be produced over the next 30 years. In Phase I, we characterize thirty-three (33) potential basin-centered gas systems (or accumulations) based on information published in the literature or acquired from internal computerized well and reservoir data files. These newly defined potential accumulations vary from low to high risk and may or may not survive the rigorous geologic scrutiny leading towards full assessment by the USGS. For logistical reasons, not all basins received the level of detail desired or required.

  2. Characteristics of discrete and basin-centered parts of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation, Appalachian basin; preliminary results from a data set of 25 oil and gas fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.

    1998-01-01

    Oil and gas trapped in Lower Silurian 'Clinton' sands and Medina Group sandstone constitute a regional hydrocarbon accumulation that extends 425 mi in length from Ontario, Canada to northeastern Kentucky. The 125-mi width of the accumulation extends from central Ohio eastward to western Pennsylvania and west-central New York. Lenticular and intertonguing reservoirs, a gradual eastward decrease in reservoir porosity and permeability, and poorly segregated gas, oil, and water in the reservoirs make it very difficult to recognize clear-cut geologic- and production-based subdivisions in the accumulation that are relevant to resource assessment. However, subtle variations are recognizable that permit the regional accumulation to be subdivided into three tentative parts: a western gas-bearing part having more or less discrete fields; an eastern gas-bearing part having many characteristics of a basin-centered accumulation; and a central oil- and gas-bearing part with 'hybrid' fields that share characteristics of both discrete and basin-centered accumulation. A data set of 25 oil and gas fields is used in the report to compare selected attributes of the three parts of the regional accumulation. A fourth part of the regional accumulation, not discussed here, is an eastern extension of basin-centered accumulation having local commercial gas in the Tuscarora Sandstone, a proximal facies of the Lower Silurian depositional system. A basin-centered gas accumulation is a regionally extensive and commonly very thick zone of gas saturation that occurs in low-permeability rocks in the central, deeper part of a sedimentary basin. Another commonly used term for this type of accumulation is deep-basin gas accumulation. Basin-centered accumulation is a variety of continuous-type accumulation. The 'Clinton' sands and Medina Group sandstone part of the basin-centered gas accumulation is characterized by: a) reservoir porosity ranging from about 5 to 10 percent; b) reservoir permeability

  3. Resource-assessment perspectives for unconventional gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoker, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Concepts are described for assessing those unconventional gas systems that can also be defined as continous accumulations. Continuous gas accumulations exist more or less independently of the water column and do not owe their existence directly to the bouyancy of gas in water. They cannot be represented in terms of individual, countable fields or pools delineated by downdip water contacts. For these reasons, traditional resource-assessment methods based on estimating the sizes and numbers of undiscovered discrete fields cannot not be applied to continuous accumulations. Specialized assessment methods are required. Unconventional gas systems that are also continous accumulations include coalbed methane, basin-centered gas, so-called tight gas, fractured shale (and chalk) gas, and gas hydrates. Deep-basin and bacterial gas systems may or may not be continuous accumulations, depending on their geologic setting. Two basic resource-assessment approaches have been employed for continous accumulations. The first approach is based on estimates of gas in place. A volumetric estimate of total gas in place is commonly coupled with an overall recovery factor to narrow the assessment scope from a treatment of gas volumes residing in sedimentary strata to a prediction of potential additions to reserves. The second approach is based on the production performance of continous gas reservoirs, as shown empirically by wells and reservoir-simulation models. In these methods, production characteristics (as opposed to gas in place) are the foundation for forecasts of potential additions to reserves.

  4. Gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlin, J.C.; Frick, G.; Kempfer, C.; North, C.

    1988-09-01

    The state of work on the Vivitron gas transfer system and the system functions are summarized. The system has to: evacuate the Vivitron reservoir; transfer gas from storage tanks to the Vivitron; recirculate gas during operation; transfer gas from the Vivitron to storage tanks; and assure air input. The system is now being installed. Leak alarms are given by SF6 detectors, which set off a system of forced ventilation. Another system continuously monitors the amount of SF6 in the tanks [fr

  5. Gas venting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  6. Process gas solidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A process for withdrawing gaseous UF 6 from a first system and directing same into a second system for converting the gas to liquid UF 6 at an elevated temperature, additionally including the step of withdrawing the resulting liquid UF 6 from the second system, subjecting it to a specified sequence of flash-evaporation, cooling and solidification operations, and storing it as a solid in a plurality of storage vessels. (author)

  7. Upper Paleozoic coal measures and unconventional natural gas systems of the Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Tang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper Paleozoic coal measures in the Ordos Basin consist of dark mudstone and coal beds and are important source rocks for gas generation. Gas accumulations include coal-bed methane (CBM, tight gas and conventional gas in different structural areas. CBM accumulations are mainly distributed in the marginal area of the Ordos Basin, and are estimated at 3.5 × 1012 m3. Tight gas accumulations exist in the middle part of the Yishan Slope area, previously regarded as the basin-centered gas system and now considered as stratigraphic lithologic gas reservoirs. This paper reviews the characteristics of tight gas accumulations: poor physical properties (porosity < 8%, permeability < 0.85 × 10−3 μm2, abnormal pressure and the absence of well-defined gas water contacts. CBM is a self-generation and self-reservoir, while gas derived from coal measures migrates only for a short distance to accumulate in a tight reservoir and is termed near-generation and near-reservoir. Both CBM and tight gas systems require source rocks with a strong gas generation ability that extends together over wide area. However, the producing area of the two systems may be significantly different.

  8. Gas detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Bayly, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    The gas detection system provides for the effective detection of gas leaks over a large area. It includes a laser which has a laser line corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. A He-Xe laser scans a number of retroreflectors which are strategically located around a D 2 O plant to detect H 2 S leaks. The reflected beam is focused by a telescope, filtered, and passed into an infrared detector. The laser may be made to emit two frequencies, one of which corresponds with an H 2 S absorption line; or it may be modulated on and off the H 2 S absorption line. The relative amplitude of the absorbed light will be a measure of the H 2 S present

  9. A Hyperspectral Gas Analysis System (HyGAS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owensby, Pam

    1997-01-01

    A prototype software hyperspectral gas analysis system (HyGAS) for standoff (remote) gas detection, identification, and analysis was designed for use with developing hyperspectral imaging spectrometer systems...

  10. Gas turbine premixing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  11. LHCB RICH gas system proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Bosteels, Michel; Haider, S

    2001-01-01

    Both LHCb RICH will be operated with fluorocarbon as gas radiator. RICH 1 will be filled with 4m^3 of C4F10 and RICH 2 with 100m^3 of CF4. The gas systems will run as a closed loop circulation and a gas recovery system within the closed loop is planned for RICH 1, where the recovery of the CF4 will only be realised during filling and emptying of the detector. Inline gas purification is foreseen for the gas systems in order to limit water and oxygen impurities.

  12. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  13. Gas storage and recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A system for recovering and recycling gases is disclosed. The system is comprised of inlet and outlet flow lines, controllers, an inflatable enclosure, and inflatable rib stiffeners which are inflatable by the gas to be stored. The system does not present gas at an undesirable back pressure to the gas source. A filtering relief valve is employed which prevents environmental airborne contamination from flowing back into the system when the relief valve is closing. The system is for storing and re-using helium.

  14. Unconventional shallow biogenic gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurr, G.W.; Ridgley, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Unconventional shallow biogenic gas falls into two distinct systems that have different attributes. Early-generation systems have blanketlike geometries, and gas generation begins soon after deposition of reservoir and source rocks. Late-generation systems have ringlike geometries, and long time intervals separate deposition of reservoir and source rocks from gas generation. For both types of systems, the gas is dominantly methane and is associated with source rocks that are not thermally mature. Early-generation biogenic gas systems are typified by production from low-permeability Cretaceous rocks in the northern Great Plains of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Montana. The main area of production is on the southeastern margin of the Alberta basin and the northwestern margin of the Williston basin. The huge volume of Cretaceous rocks has a generalized regional pattern of thick, non-marine, coarse clastics to the west and thinner, finer grained marine lithologies to the east. Reservoir rocks in the lower part tend to be finer grained and have lower porosity and permeability than those in the upper part. Similarly, source beds in the units have higher values of total organic carbon. Patterns of erosion, deposition, deformation, and production in both the upper and lower units are related to the geometry of lineament-bounded basement blocks. Geochemical studies show that gas and coproduced water are in equilibrium and that the fluids are relatively old, namely, as much as 66 Ma. Other examples of early-generation systems include Cretaceous clastic reservoirs on the southwestern margin of Williston basin and chalks on the eastern margin of the Denver basin. Late-generation biogenic gas systems have as an archetype the Devonian Antrim Shale on the northern margin of the Michigan basin. Reservoir rocks are fractured, organic-rich black shales that also serve as source rocks. Although fractures are important for production, the relationships to specific geologic structures are

  15. Radioactive waste gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Kaoru; Minemoto, Masaki; Takezawa, Kazuaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively separate and remove only hydrogen from hydrogen gas-containing radioactive waste gases produced from nuclear power plants without using large scaled facilities. Constitution: From hydrogen gas-enriched waste gases which contain radioactive rare gases (Kr, Xe) sent from the volume control tank of a chemical volume control system, only the hydrogen is separated in a hydrogen separator using palladium alloy membrane and rare gases are concentrated, volume-decreased and then stored. In this case, an activated carbon adsorption device is connected at its inlet to the radioactive gas outlet of the hydrogen separator and opened at its outlet to external atmosphere. In this system, while only the hydrogen gas permeates through the palladium alloy membrane, other gases are introduced, without permeation, into the activated carbon adsorption device. Then, the radioactive rare gases are decayed by the adsorption on the activated carbon and then released to the external atmosphere. (Furukawa, Y.)

  16. The anaesthesia gas supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaesthesia gas supply system is designed to provide a safe, cost-effective and convenient system for the delivery of medical gases at the point of-use. The doctrine of the anaesthesia gas supply system is based on four essential principles: Identity, continuity, adequacy and quality. Knowledge about gas supply system is an integral component of safe anaesthetic practice. Mishaps involving the malfunction or misuse of medical gas supply to operating theatres have cost many lives. The medical gases used in anaesthesia and intensive care are oxygen, nitrous oxide, medical air, entonox, carbon dioxide and heliox. Oxygen is one of the most widely used gases for life-support and respiratory therapy besides anaesthetic procedures. In this article, an effort is made to describe the production, storage and delivery of anaesthetic gases. The design of anaesthesia equipment must take into account the local conditions such as climate, demand and power supply. The operational policy of the gas supply system should have a backup plan to cater to the emergency need of the hospital, in the event of the loss of the primary source of supply.

  17. Multi-channel gas-delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T.; Beese, Steven C.

    2016-09-13

    One embodiment of the present invention provides a gas-delivery system for delivering reaction gas to a reactor chamber. The gas-delivery system includes a main gas-inlet port for receiving reaction gases and a gas-delivery plate that includes a plurality of gas channels. A gas channel includes a plurality of gas holes for allowing the reaction gases to enter the reactor chamber from the gas channel. The gas-delivery system further includes a plurality of sub-gas lines coupling together the main gas-inlet port and the gas-delivery plate, and a respective sub-gas line is configured to deliver a portion of the received reaction gases to a corresponding gas channel.

  18. Identifying and Remediating High Water Production Problems in Basin-Centered Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Billingsley

    2005-12-01

    Through geochemical analyses of produced waters, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation we developed concepts and approaches for mitigating unwanted water production in tight gas reservoirs and for increasing recovery of gas resources presently considered noncommercial. Only new completion research (outside the scope of this study) will validate our hypothesis. The first task was assembling and interpreting a robust regional database of historical produced-water analyses to address the production of excessive water in basin-centered tight gas fields in the Greater Green (GGRB ) and Wind River basins (WRB), Wyoming. The database is supplemented with a sampling program in currently active areas. Interpretation of the regional water chemistry data indicates most produced waters reflect their original depositional environments and helps identify local anomalies related to basement faulting. After the assembly and evaluation phases of this project, we generated a working model of tight formation reservoir development, based on the regional nature and occurrence of the formation waters. Through an integrative approach to numerous existing reservoir concepts, we synthesized a generalized development scheme organized around reservoir confining stress cycles. This single overarching scheme accommodates a spectrum of outcomes from the GGRB and Wind River basins. Burial and tectonic processes destroy much of the depositional intergranular fabric of the reservoir, generate gas, and create a rock volume marked by extremely low permeabilities to gas and fluids. Stress release associated with uplift regenerates reservoir permeability through the development of a penetrative grain bounding natural fracture fabric. Reservoir mineral composition, magnitude of the stress cycle and local tectonics govern the degree, scale and exact mechanism of permeability development. We applied the reservoir working model to an area of perceived anomalous water production. Detailed water analyses

  19. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGRSR) program are described in the quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  20. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  1. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  2. Natural disasters and the gas pipeline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Episodic descriptions are provided of the effects of the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) on the gas pipeline systems of Pacific Gas & Electric Company and the Cit of Palo Alto and of the Northridge earthquake (1994) on Southern California Gas' pipeline...

  3. Solar-gas systems impact analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, C. P.; Hahn, E. F.; Loose, J. C.; Poe, T. E.; Hirshberg, A. S.; Haas, S.; Preble, B.; Halpin, J.

    1984-07-01

    The impacts of solar/gas technologies on gas consumers and on gas utilities were measured separately and compared against the impacts of competing gas and electric systems in four climatic regions of the U.S. A methodology was developed for measuring the benefits or penalties of solar/gas systems on a combined basis for consumers sand distribution companies. It is shown that the combined benefits associated with solar/gas systems are generally greatest when the systems are purchased by customers who would have otherwise chosen high-efficiency electric systems (were solar/gas systems not available in the market place). The role of gas utilities in encouraging consumer acceptance of solar/gas systems was also examined ion a qualitative fashion. A decision framework for analyzing the type and level of utility involvement in solar/gas technologies was developed.

  4. Gas fired advanced turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecren, R. T.; White, D. J.

    The basic concept thus derived from the Ericsson cycle is an intercooled, recuperated, and reheated gas turbine. Theoretical performance analyses, however, showed that reheat at high turbine rotor inlet temperatures (TRIT) did not provide significant efficiency gains and that the 50 percent efficiency goal could be met without reheat. Based upon these findings, the engine concept adopted as a starting point for the gas-fired advanced turbine system is an intercooled, recuperated (ICR) gas turbine. It was found that, at inlet temperatures greater than 2450 F, the thermal efficiency could be maintained above 50%, provided that the turbine cooling flows could be reduced to 7% of the main air flow or lower. This dual and conflicting requirement of increased temperatures and reduced cooling will probably force the abandonment of traditional air cooled turbine parts. Thus, the use of either ceramic materials or non-air cooling fluids has to be considered for the turbine nozzle guide vanes and turbine blades. The use of ceramic components for the proposed engine system is generally preferred because of the potential growth to higher temperatures that is available with such materials.

  5. Gas characterization system software acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    This document details the results of software acceptance testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases

  6. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector Gas System

    OpenAIRE

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M-C.; Heeger, K. M.; Kwok, M. W.; Shih, K.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experimen...

  7. Flammable Gas Detection for the D-Zero Gas System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spires, L.D.; Foglesong, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-11

    The use of flammable gas and high voltage in detector systems is common in many experiments at Fermilab. To mitigate the hazards associated with these systems, Fermilab Engineering Standard SD-45B (Ref. 1) was adopted. Since this note is meant to be a guide and not a mandatory standard, each experiment is reviewed for compliance with SD-45B by the flammable gas safety subcommittee. Currently, there are only two types of flammable gas in use, ethane (Appendix A) and methane (Appendix B). The worst flammable-gas case is C2H6 (ethane), which has an estimated flow rate that is 73% of the CH4 (methane) flow but a heat of combustion (in kcal/g-mole) that is 173% of that of methane. In the worst case, if ethane were to spew through its restricting orifice into its gas line at 0 psig and then through a catastrophic leak into Room 215 (TRD) or Room 511 (CDC/FDCNTX), the time that would be required to build up a greater than Class 1 inventory (0.4kg H2 equivalent) would be 5.2 hours (Ref. 2). Therefore a worst-case flammable gas leak would have to go undetected for over 5 hours in order to transform a either mixing room to an environment with a Risk Class greater than Class 1. The mixing systems, gas lines, and detectors themselves will be thoroughly leak checked prior to active service. All vessels that are part of the mixing systems will be protected from overpressure by safety valves vented outside the building. Both the input and output of all detector volumes are protected from overpressure in the same way. The volume immediately outside the central tracking detectors is continuously purged by nitrogen from boiloff from the main nitrogen dewar at the site. However, if flammable gas were to build up in the mixing rooms or particular detector areas, no matter how unlikely, flammable gas detectors that are part of the interlock chain of each gas mixing system will shut down the appropriate system. This includes shutting off the output of flammable gas manifolds within the

  8. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunder,; Edgar, B [Bethel Park, PA

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  9. 46 CFR 184.240 - Gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas systems. 184.240 Section 184.240 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.240 Gas systems. Cooking systems... 6-5.4. Note to § 184.240: The ABYC and NFPA standards referenced in this section require the posting...

  10. System and method for detecting gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Oscar Ken; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Miller, Jacob Andrew

    2010-03-16

    A system to detect a presence of a specific gas in a mixture of gaseous byproducts comprising moisture vapor is disclosed. The system includes an electrochemical cell, a transport to deliver the mixture of gaseous byproducts from the electrochemical cell, a gas sensor in fluid communication with the transport, the sensor responsive to a presence of the specific gas to generate a signal corresponding to a concentration of the specific gas, and a membrane to prevent transmission of liquid moisture, the membrane disposed between the transport and the gas sensor.

  11. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M.-C.; Heeger, K. M.; Kwok, M. W.; Shih, K.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experiment. This constant flush also prevents the infiltration of radon or other contaminants into these detecting liquids keeping the internal backgrounds low. Since the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors are immersed in the large water pools of the muon veto system, other gas volumes are needed to protect vital detector cables or gas lines. These volumes are also purged with dry gas. Return gas is monitored for oxygen content and humidity to provide early warning of potentially damaging leaks. The design and performance of the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is described.

  12. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, D.D.

    A chromatographic system is described that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a nontransparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extreme low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  13. Stakeholder Workshop Presentations: EPA Greenhouse Gas Data on Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    View the summary and presentations from the November 2015 stakeholder workshop on greenhouse gas data on petroleum and natural gas systems from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Emissions and Sinks.

  14. Brine and gas recovery from geopressured systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, S.K.; Riney, T.D.; Wallace, R.H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A series of parametric calculations was run with the geopressured - geothermal simulator MUSHRM to assess the effects of important formation, fluid and well parameters on brine and gas recovery from geopressured reservoir systems. The specific parameters considered are formation permeability, pore-fluid salinity, temperature and gas content, well radius and location with respect to reservoir boundaries, desired flow rate, and possible shale recharge. It was found that the total brine and gas recovered (as a fraction of the resource in situ) were most sensitive to formation permeability, pore-fluid gas content and shale recharge.

  15. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  16. General Atomic's radioactive gas recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.; Perry, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    General Atomic Company has developed a Radioactive Gas Recovery System for the HTGR which separates, for purposes of retention, the radioactive components from the non-radioactive reactor plant waste gases. This provides the capability for reducing to an insignificant level the amount of radioactivity released from the gas waste system to the atmosphere--a most significant improvement in reducing total activity release to the environment. (U.S.)

  17. Nuclear reactor coolant and cover gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.A.; Redding, A.H.; Tower, S.N.

    1976-01-01

    A core cooling system is disclosed for a nuclear reactor of the type utilizing a liquid coolant with a cover gas above free surfaces of the coolant. The disclosed system provides for a large inventory of reactor coolant and a balanced low pressure cover gas arrangement. A flow restricting device disposed within a reactor vessel achieves a pressure of the cover gas in the reactor vessel lower than the pressure of the reactor coolant in the vessel. The low gas pressure is maintained over all free surfaces of the coolant in the cooling system including a coolant reservoir tank. Reactor coolant stored in the reservoir tank allows for the large reactor coolant inventory provided by the invention

  18. Leviathan moving to expand Gulf gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Leviathan Gas Pipeline Co., Houston, has advanced plans for a large deepwater pipeline gathering system in the Gulf of Mexico. Under an agreement between Deep-Tech International Inc. and Transco Energy Co., Leviathan will pay $65 million for Transco interests in several gulf gas gathering pipelines and related facilities. Leviathan is a Deep Tech subsidiary. Gulf pipeline assets Leviathan acquired from Transco include Louisiana Offshore Pipeline Systems (LOPS), Green Canyon Pipeline Co., and companies owning at 40% interest in High Island Offshore System (HIOS) and a 33 1/1% interest in United Texas Offshore System (UTOS)

  19. Automated Hydrogen Gas Leak Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Gencorp Aerojet Automated Hydrogen Gas Leak Detection System was developed through the cooperation of industry, academia, and the Government. Although the original purpose of the system was to detect leaks in the main engine of the space shuttle while on the launch pad, it also has significant commercial potential in applications for which there are no existing commercial systems. With high sensitivity, the system can detect hydrogen leaks at low concentrations in inert environments. The sensors are integrated with hardware and software to form a complete system. Several of these systems have already been purchased for use on the Ford Motor Company assembly line for natural gas vehicles. This system to detect trace hydrogen gas leaks from pressurized systems consists of a microprocessor-based control unit that operates a network of sensors. The sensors can be deployed around pipes, connectors, flanges, and tanks of pressurized systems where leaks may occur. The control unit monitors the sensors and provides the operator with a visual representation of the magnitude and locations of the leak as a function of time. The system can be customized to fit the user's needs; for example, it can monitor and display the condition of the flanges and fittings associated with the tank of a natural gas vehicle.

  20. Diffusive gas transport through flooded rice systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bodegom, P. M.; Groot, T.; van den Hout, B.; Leffelaar, P. A.; Goudriaan, J.

    2001-09-01

    A fully mechanistic model based on diffusion equations for gas transport in a flooded rice system is presented. The model has transport descriptions for various compartments in the water-saturated soil and within the plant. Plant parameters were estimated from published data and experiments independent of the validation experiment. An independent experiment is described in which the diffusion coefficient of sulfurhexafluoride (SF6) in water-saturated soil was determined. The model was validated by experiments in which transport of SF6 through soil and plant was monitored continuously by photoacoustics. The independent default settings could reasonably predict gas release dynamics in the soil-plant system. Calculated transmissivities and concentration gradients at the default settings show that transport within the soil was the most limiting step in this system, which explains why most gases are released via plant-mediated transport. The root-shoot interface represents the major resistance for gas transport within the plant. A sensitivity analysis of the model showed that gas transport in such a system is highly sensitive to the estimation of the diffusion coefficient of SF6, which helps to understand diel patterns found for greenhouse gas emissions, and to the root distribution with depth. This can be understood from the calculated transmissivities. The model is less sensitive to changes in the resistance at the root-shoot interface and in the root fraction active in gas exchange. The model thus provides an understanding of limiting steps in gas transport, but quantitative predictions of in situ gas transport rates will be difficult given the plasticity of root distribution.

  1. A Gas Chromatographic System for the Detection of Ethylene Gas Using Ambient Air as a Carrier Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Nayyer Abbas; Tahir, Muhammad Waseem; Vellekoop, Michael J; Lang, Walter

    2017-10-07

    Ethylene gas is a naturally occurring gas that has an influence on the shelf life of fruit during their transportation in cargo ships. An unintentional exposure of ethylene gas during transportation results in a loss of fruit. A gas chromatographic system is presented here for the detection of ethylene gas. The gas chromatographic system was assembled using a preconcentrator, a printed 3D printed gas chromatographic column, a humidity sensor, solenoid valves, and an electrochemical ethylene gas sensor. Ambient air was used as a carrier gas in the gas chromatographic system. The flow rate was fixed to 10 sccm. It was generated through a mini-pump connected in series with a mass flow controller. The metal oxide gas sensor is discussed with its limitation in ambient air. The results show the chromatogram obtained from metal oxide gas sensor has low stability, drifts, and has uncertain peaks, while the chromatogram from the electrochemical sensor is stable and precise. Furthermore, ethylene gas measurements at higher ppb concentration and at lower ppb concentration were demonstrated with the electrochemical ethylene gas sensor. The system separates ethylene gas and humidity. The chromatograms obtained from the system are stable, and the results are 1.2% repeatable in five similar measurements. The statistical calculation of the gas chromatographic system shows that a concentration of 2.3 ppb of ethylene gas can be detected through this system.

  2. 46 CFR 154.904 - Inert gas system: Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inert gas system: Controls. 154.904 Section 154.904... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.904 Inert gas system: Controls. The inert gas system... the inert gas system, or another means specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522); (b) If the inert...

  3. Computer systems and software description for gas characterization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, C.V.

    1997-01-01

    The Gas Characterization System Project was commissioned by TWRS management with funding from TWRS Safety, on December 1, 1994. The project objective is to establish an instrumentation system to measure flammable gas concentrations in the vapor space of selected watch list tanks, starting with tank AN-105 and AW-101. Data collected by this system is meant to support first tank characterization, then tank safety. System design is premised upon Characterization rather than mitigation, therefore redundancy is not required

  4. Gas turbines: gas cleaning requirements for biomass-fired systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakey John

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in the development of renewable energy technologies has been hencouraged by the introduction of legislative measures in Europe to reduce CO2 emissions from power generation in response to the potential threat of global warming. Of these technologies, biomass-firing represents a high priority because of the modest risk involved and the availability of waste biomass in many countries. Options based on farmed biomass are also under development. This paper reviews the challenges facing these technologies if they are to be cost competitive while delivering the supposed environmental benefits. In particular, it focuses on the use of biomass in gasification-based systems using gas turbines to deliver increased efficiencies. Results from recent studies in a European programme are presented. For these technologies to be successful, an optimal balance has to be achieved between the high cost of cleaning fuel gases, the reliability of the gas turbine and the fuel flexibility of the overall system. Such optimisation is necessary on a case-by-case basis, as local considerations can play a significant part.

  5. Benchmarking European Gas Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Trinkner, Urs

    This is the final report for the pan-European efficiency benchmarking of gas transmission system operations commissioned by the Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM), Den Haag, on behalf of the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) under the supervision of the authors....

  6. Diffusive gas transport through flooded rice systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Groot, T.; Hout, van de B.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Goudriaan, J.

    2001-01-01

    A fully mechanistic model based on diffusion equations for gas transport in a flooded rice system is presented. The model has transport descriptions for various compartments in the water-saturated soil and within the plant. Plant parameters were estimated from published data and experiments

  7. Multitube coaxial closed cycle gas laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Walch, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    A gas laser design capable of long term reliable operation in a commercial environment is disclosed. Various construction details which insulate the laser optics from mechanical distortions and vibrations inevitably present in the environment are developed. Also, a versatile optical cavity made up of modular units which render the basic laser configuration adaptable to alternate designs with different output capabilities is shown in detail. The system built around a convection laser operated in a closed cycle and the working medium is a gas which is excited by direct current electric discharges. (auth)

  8. 49 CFR 192.11 - Petroleum gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum gas systems. 192.11 Section 192.11... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.11 Petroleum gas systems. (a) Each plant that supplies petroleum gas by pipeline to a natural gas distribution system must meet the requirements...

  9. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas

  10. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  11. Gas exchange measurements in natural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes 14 C, 222 Rn and 3 He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO 2 exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The 222 Rn to 226 Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess 3 He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with 226 Ra and 3 H in order to allow the use of the 222 Rn and 3 He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO 2 exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  12. Proper battery system design for GAS experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Stephen A.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the GAS experimenter to design a battery system that meets mission success requirements while at the same time reducing the hazards associated with the battery system. Lead-acid, silver-zinc and alkaline chemistry batteries will be discussed. Lithium batteries will be briefly discussed with emphasis on back-up power supply capabilities. The hazards associated with different battery configurations will be discussed along with the controls necessary to make the battery system two-fault tolerant.

  13. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  14. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1996-01-01

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol form corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large non-linearities in carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs

  15. Gas turbine exhaust system silencing design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgur, D.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are the preferred prime mover in many applications because of their high efficiency, fuel flexibility, and low environmental impact. A typical mid-size machine might have a power rating of 80 MW, a flow of about 1000 kg/hr, and an exhaust temperature of over 500C. The most powerful single source of noise is generally the exhaust, which may generate over a kilowatt of acoustic energy. This paper reports that there are two important ways in which exhaust systems can radiate noise. The first is through the discharge of the exhaust duct, with the exhaust gas. Because of the large quantity of hot gas, the duct exit is always oriented vertically; it may be fairly high in the air in order to promote dispersion of the exhaust plume. This source is almost always attenuated by means of a silencer located somewhere in the ductwork. The second source of noise is often called breakout; it is the radiation of exhaust noise through the walls of the ducting. Breakout is most important for those sections of the exhaust duct which lie upstream of the silencer, where sound levels inside the ducting are highest. Both exhaust duct exit noise and breakout noise can be calculated from the sound power level of the gas turbine exhaust and the sound transmission loss (TL) of the silencer and ducting

  16. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1994-01-01

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol from corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large nonlinearities in the carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues

  17. N2 gas station and gas distribution system for TLD personnel monitoring gas based semi-automatic badge readers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chourasiya, G.; Pradhan, S.M.; Kher, R.K.; Bhatt, B.C

    2003-01-01

    Full text: New improvised hot gas based Auto TLD badge reader has several advantages over the earlier contact heating based manual badge reader. It requires constant supply of N 2 gas for its operation; The gas supplied using replaceable individual gas cylinders may have some safety hazards in their handling. It was therefore considered worthwhile to setup a N 2 gas assembly/ station outside the lab area and to bring regulated gas supply through network of tubes with proper regulation to the individual readers. The paper presents detailed description of the gas station and distribution system. The system is quite useful and offers several practical advantages for readout of TLD badges on the semiautomatic badge readers based on gas heating. Important advantage from dosimetric point of view is avoidance of gas flow rate fluctuations and corresponding variations in TL readouts

  18. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  19. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for the...

  20. Power control system for a hot gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntell, John O.

    1986-01-01

    A power control system for a hot gas engine of the type in which the power output is controlled by varying the mean pressure of the working gas charge in the engine has according to the present invention been provided with two working gas reservoirs at substantially different pressure levels. At working gas pressures below the lower of said levels the high pressure gas reservoir is cut out from the control system, and at higher pressures the low pressure gas reservoir is cut out from the system, thereby enabling a single one-stage compressor to handle gas within a wide pressure range at a low compression ratio.

  1. Consistency Analysis and Data Consultation of Gas System of Gas-Electricity Network of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemite, L.; Kutjuns, A.; Bode, I.; Kunickis, M.; Zeltins, N.

    2018-02-01

    In the present research, the main critical points of gas transmission and storage system of Latvia have been determined to ensure secure and reliable gas supply among the Baltic States to fulfil the core objectives of the EU energy policies. Technical data of critical points of the gas transmission and storage system of Latvia have been collected and analysed with the SWOT method and solutions have been provided to increase the reliability of the regional natural gas system.

  2. Distributed gas detection system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, William Albert; Palit, Sabarni; Karp, Jason Harris; Kasten, Ansas Matthias; Choudhury, Niloy

    2017-11-21

    A distributed gas detection system includes one or more hollow core fibers disposed in different locations, one or more solid core fibers optically coupled with the one or more hollow core fibers and configured to receive light of one or more wavelengths from a light source, and an interrogator device configured to receive at least some of the light propagating through the one or more solid core fibers and the one or more hollow core fibers. The interrogator device is configured to identify a location of a presence of a gas-of-interest by examining absorption of at least one of the wavelengths of the light at least one of the hollow core fibers.

  3. Microbial Colonization of Laparoscopic Gas Delivery Systems: A Qualitative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Douglas E.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Laparoscopic procedures utilize a pneumoperitoneum to distend and separate the abdominal wall from the intra-abdominal structures. Carbon dioxide is commonly used for this purpose, although this study is inclusive of any gas used for abdominal distention. The gas is delivered from cylinders through a gas insufflation delivery system. The purpose of this study is to determine if laparoscopic gas delivery systems composed of gas cylinders and insufflators used for laparoscopy have mi...

  4. Gas Main Sensor and Communications Network System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen Schempf

    2006-05-31

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. This projected was completed in April 2006, and culminated in the installation of more than 2 dozen GasNet nodes in both low- and high-pressure cast-iron and steel mains owned by multiple utilities in the northeastern US. Utilities are currently logging data (off-line) and monitoring data in real time from single and multiple networked sensors over cellular networks and collecting data using wireless bluetooth PDA systems. The system was designed to be modular, using in-pipe sensor-wands capable of measuring, flow, pressure, temperature, water-content and vibration. Internal antennae allowed for the use of the pipe-internals as a waveguide for setting up a sensor network to collect data from multiple nodes simultaneously. Sensor nodes were designed to be installed with low- and no-blow techniques and tools. Using a multi-drop bus technique with a custom protocol, all electronics were designed to be buriable and allow for on-board data-collection (SD-card), wireless relaying and cellular network forwarding. Installation options afforded by the design included direct-burial and external polemounted variants. Power was provided by one or more batteries, direct AC-power (Class I Div.2) and solar-array. The utilities are currently in a data-collection phase and intend to use the collected (and processed) data to make capital improvement decisions, compare it to Stoner model predictions and evaluate the use of such a system for future expansion, technology-improvement and commercialization starting later in 2006.

  5. Gas system 2016: Press conference 17 January 2017 + Gas consumption by administrative regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents some key figures about GRTgaz activity in 2016: A first part presents the national data about gas consumption, production of gas-fired power plants, new gas uses (diesel-gas substitution, biomethane..) and their environmental impacts, and the development of the Internet open-data platform. A second part presents the regional gas consumptions with a focus on industrial clients

  6. Microfabricated Gas Phase Chemical Analysis Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; HELLER,EDWIN J.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.; KOTTENSTETTE,RICHARD; LEWIS,PATRICK R.; MANGINELL,RONALD P.; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.; WONG,CHUNGNIN C.

    1999-09-16

    A portable, autonomous, hand-held chemical laboratory ({micro}ChemLab{trademark}) is being developed for trace detection (ppb) of chemical warfare (CW) agents and explosives in real-world environments containing high concentrations of interfering compounds. Microfabrication is utilized to provide miniature, low-power components that are characterized by rapid, sensitive and selective response. Sensitivity and selectivity are enhanced using two parallel analysis channels, each containing the sequential connection of a front-end sample collector/concentrator, a gas chromatographic (GC) separator, and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector. Component design and fabrication and system performance are described.

  7. Safety of the medical gas pipeline system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Sarangi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical gases are nowadays being used for a number of diverse clinical applications and its piped delivery is a landmark achievement in the field of patient care. Patient safety is of paramount importance in the design, installation, commissioning, and operation of medical gas pipeline systems (MGPS. The system has to be operational round the clock, with practically zero downtime and its failure can be fatal if not restored at the earliest. There is a lack of awareness among the clinicians regarding the medico-legal aspect involved with the MGPS. It is a highly technical field; hence, an in-depth knowledge is a must to ensure safety with the system.

  8. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen Schempf

    2004-09-30

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. In Phase II of this three-phase program, an improved prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron and high-pressure steel (including a no-blow installation system) mains and tested in a serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The experiment was carried out in several open-hole excavations over a multi-day period. The prototype units (3 total) combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was verified that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling, data-storage and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and the system was demonstrated to run off in-ground battery- and above-ground solar power. The remote datalogger access and storage-card features were demonstrated and used to log and post-process system data. Real-time data-display on an updated Phase-I GUI was used for in-field demonstration and troubleshooting.

  9. Detection device for off-gas system accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Tsuruoka, Ryozo; Yamanari, Shozo.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly isolate the off-gas system by detecting the off-gas system failure accident in a short time. Constitution: Radiation monitors are disposed to ducts connecting an exhaust gas area and an air conditioning system as a portion of a turbine building. The ducts are disposed independently such that they ventilate only the atmosphere in the exhaust gas area and do not mix the atmosphere in the turbine building. Since radioactivity issued upon off-gas accidents to the exhaust gas area is sucked to the duct, it can be detected by radiation detection monitors in a short time after the accident. Further, since the operator judges it as the off-gas system accident, the off-gas system can be isolated in a short time after the accident. (Moriyama, K.)

  10. Automated metabolic gas analysis systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, D J

    2001-01-01

    The use of automated metabolic gas analysis systems or metabolic measurement carts (MMC) in exercise studies is common throughout the industrialised world. They have become essential tools for diagnosing many hospital patients, especially those with cardiorespiratory disease. Moreover, the measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is routine for many athletes in fitness laboratories and has become a defacto standard in spite of its limitations. The development of metabolic carts has also facilitated the noninvasive determination of the lactate threshold and cardiac output, respiratory gas exchange kinetics, as well as studies of outdoor activities via small portable systems that often use telemetry. Although the fundamental principles behind the measurement of oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) have not changed, the techniques used have, and indeed, some have almost turned through a full circle. Early scientists often employed a manual Douglas bag method together with separate chemical analyses, but the need for faster and more efficient techniques fuelled the development of semi- and full-automated systems by private and commercial institutions. Yet, recently some scientists are returning back to the traditional Douglas bag or Tissot-spirometer methods, or are using less complex automated systems to not only save capital costs, but also to have greater control over the measurement process. Over the last 40 years, a considerable number of automated systems have been developed, with over a dozen commercial manufacturers producing in excess of 20 different automated systems. The validity and reliability of all these different systems is not well known, with relatively few independent studies having been published in this area. For comparative studies to be possible and to facilitate greater consistency of measurements in test-retest or longitudinal studies of individuals, further knowledge about the performance characteristics of these

  11. New gas distribution system for the ATLAS RPCs

    OpenAIRE

    Pastori, E; Aielli, G

    2013-01-01

    A new gas distribution system for the ATLAS RPCs aimed at equalizing the flow with respect to the average counting rate per gas volume. The system takes into account the expected luminosity foreseen in superLHC (sLHC) and the consequent increase of gas flow necessary for the proper operation.

  12. 46 CFR 153.500 - Inert gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; (b) Has a pressure control system that: (1) Prevents the inert gas system from raising the cargo tank pressure to more than the relief valve setting; and (2) Maintains at least a 3.5 kPa gauge (approx. 0.5... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special...

  13. Hot gas path component cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  14. Vacuum/gas handling systems for ZTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The proposed ZTH vacuum system consists of three (potentially four or more) high-vacuum-pumping-stations (HVPSs), a gas handling system, a roughing system, and a vacuum control system. Each high vacuum line consists of a turbomolecular pump (TMP) pumping stack connected to the torus through a right-angle valve, a duct, and a 2 kV insulating break/bellows combination. The HVPSs are designed to be bakeable to at least 150 C. The gate seals on the high-vacuum valves are vision O-rings. Throughout the vacuum liner and high-vacuum pumping system, metal sealed joints are used where possible. Any O-ring seals, other than the gate seals, are a double-pumped configuration where a roughing vacuum is maintained between the O-rings. The insulating break eliminates ground loop currents, and the bellows mechanically decouples the pumping from the vacuum liner. This bellows section will accommodate the dimensional changes caused by heating the liner and/or the high-vacuum system

  15. Architectural design of flue gas continuous emission monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongfu; Jiang, Liangzhong; Tang, Yong; Yao, Xifan

    2008-10-01

    The paper presents the architectural design of flue gas continuous emission monitoring system, which uses computer, acquisition card and serial port communication card as hardware in the flue gas continuous emission monitoring system. In the CEMS, continuous emission monitoring system, it monitors dust in the flue gas, SO2, NOX, and some parameter on the flue gas emission, which includes mass flow, pressure, and temperature. For the software in the monitoring system, the research designs monitoring program in VC++, and realizes flue gas monitor with the architecture.

  16. Development of biomass gasification systems for gas turbine power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Svenningsson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are of interest for biomass applications because, unlike steam turbines, they have relatively high efficiencies and low unit capital costs in the small sizes appropriate for biomass installations. Gasification is a simple and efficient way to make biomass usable in gas turbines. The authors evaluate here the technical requirements for gas turbine power generation with biomass gas and the status of pressurized biomass gasification and hot gas cleanup systems. They also discuss the economics of gasifier-gas turbine cycles and make some comparisons with competing technologies. Their analysis indicates that biomass gasifiers fueling advanced gas turbines are promising for cost-competitive cogeneration and central station power generation. Gasifier-gas turbine systems are not available commercially, but could probably be developed in 3 to 5 years. Extensive past work related to coal gasification and pressurized combustion of solid fuels for gas turbines would be relevant in this effort, as would work on pressurized biomass gasification for methanol synthesis

  17. Handbook of gasifiers and gas-treatment systems. [39 gasification processes and 40 gas processing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, R.D.

    1982-09-01

    In February 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) published the Handbook of Gasifiers and Gas Treatment Systems. The intent of this handbook was to provide a ready reference to systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. That handbook was well received by users and was subsequently reprinted many times. The Department of Energy (successor agency to the ERDA) expands, revises and updates the Handbook in this volume. This new Handbook is not intended as a comparative evaluation, but rather as an impartial reference on recent and current technology. The Handbook now presents 39 gasification technologies and 40 gas processing systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. The information presented has been approved or supplied by the particular licensor/developer.

  18. Method and system for natural gas utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halmoe, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to an method on reducing the emission of carbon oxides during methanol production. (a) A first part of the natural feeding gas is to be converted to synthesis gas consisting of CO, H 2 , CO 2 , H 2 O and non-converted natural gas. (b) A second part of the natural feeding gas is to be combusted for the generation of heat used in the conversion process by means of which the volumes of CO 2 and H 2 O are formed. (c) The synthesis gas from (a) is to be converted to a product gas flow consisting of methanol and non-converted synthesis gas. (d) The product gas flow from (c) is to be cooled, and methanol is to be separated. (e) A first part of the non-converted gas from the separation step (d) is to be combined with the synthesis gas from (a). (f) A second part of the non-converted gas from the separation step (d) together with CO 2 and H 2 O from step (b) is to be led to a shift reactor for making the equilibrium of CO, H 2 , CO, and H 2 O. (g) CO from step (f) is to be converted with methanol from step (d) for production of acetic acid. 1 fig

  19. Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.; Haas, M.; Pepper, W.; Rose, J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent dramatic changes in natural gas markets have significant implications for the scope and direction of DOE's upstream as well as downstream natural gas R ampersand D. Open access transportation changes the way gas is bought and sold. The end of the gas deliverability surplus requires increased reserve development above recent levels. Increased gas demand for power generation and other new uses changes the overall demand picture in terms of volumes, locations and seasonality. DOE's Natural Gas Strategic Plan requires that its R ampersand D activities be evaluated for their ability to provide adequate supplies of reasonably priced gas. Potential R ampersand D projects are to be evaluated using a full fuel cycle, benefit-cost approach to estimate likely market impact as well as technical success. To assure R ampersand D projects are evaluated on a comparable basis, METC has undertaken the development of a comprehensive natural gas technology evaluation framework. Existing energy systems models lack the level of detail required to estimate the impact of specific upstream natural gas technologies across the known range of geological settings and likely market conditions. Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM) research during FY 1993 developed and implemented this comprehensive, consistent natural gas system evaluation framework. Rather than a isolated research activity, however, GSAM represents the integration of many prior and ongoing natural gas research efforts. When complete, it will incorporate the most current resource base description, reservoir modeling, technology characterization and other geologic and engineering aspects developed through recent METC and industry gas R ampersand D programs

  20. Design of a diesel exhaust-gas purification system for inert-gas drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, B.C.

    1982-01-01

    To combat the serious oxygen corrosion of drill pipe when a low density drilling fluid (air or mist) is used in geothermal drilling, a system has been designed that produces an inert gas (essentially nitrogen) to be substituted for air. The system fits on three flatbed trailers, is roadable and produces 2000 scfm of gas. The projected cost for gas is slightly less than $2.00 per thousand standard cubic feet.

  1. Maintenance management of gas turbine power plant systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the abundant availability of gas and the significant installed capacity of the electricity from Gas Turbine Power Systems; effective maintenance of Gas Turbine Power Plants in Nigeria could be the panacea for achieving regular power generation and supply. The study identified environmental impact on the machines, ...

  2. Instrumentation of dynamic gas pulse loading system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohaupt, H.

    1992-04-14

    The overall goal of this work is to further develop and field test a system of stimulating oil and gas wells, which increases the effective radius of the well bore so that more oil can flow into it, by recording pressure during the gas generation phase in real time so that fractures can be induced more predictably in the producing formation. Task 1: Complete the laboratory studies currently underway with the prototype model of the instrumentation currently being studied. Task 2: Perform field tests of the model in the Taft/Bakersfield area, utilizing operations closest to the engineers working on the project, and optimize the unit for various conditions encountered there. Task 3: Perform field test of the model in DGPL jobs which are scheduled in the mid-continent area, and optimize the unit for downhole conditions encountered there. Task 4: Analyze and summarize the results achieved during the complete test series, documenting the steps for usage of downhole instrumentation in the field, and compile data specifying use of the technology by others. Task 5: Prepare final report for DOE, and include also a report on the field tests completed. Describe and estimate the probability of the technology being commercialized and in what time span. The project has made substantial technical progress, though we are running about a month behind schedule. Expenditures are in line with the schedule. Increased widespread interest in the use of DGPL stimulation has kept us very busy. The computer modeling and test instrumentation developed under this program is already being applied to commercial operations.

  3. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Raymond [Avondale, AZ

    2012-08-07

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  4. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-05

    Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as

  5. Characterization and calibration of gas sensor systems at ppb level—a versatile test gas generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, Martin; Schultealbert, Caroline; Neu, Julian; Schütze, Andreas; Sauerwald, Tilman

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a test gas generation system designed to generate ppb level gas concentrations from gas cylinders. The focus is on permanent gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for applications like indoor and outdoor air quality monitoring or breath analysis. In the design and the setup of the system, several issues regarding handling of trace gas concentrations have been considered, addressed and tested. This concerns not only the active fluidic components (flow controllers, valves), which have been chosen specifically for the task, but also the design of the fluidic tubing regarding dead volumes and delay times, which have been simulated for the chosen setup. Different tubing materials have been tested for their adsorption/desorption characteristics regarding naphthalene, a highly relevant gas for indoor air quality monitoring, which has generated high gas exchange times in a previous gas mixing system due to long time adsorption/desorption effects. Residual gas contaminations of the system and the selected carrier air supply have been detected and quantified using both an analytical method (GC-MS analysis according to ISO 16000-6) and a metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor, which detected a maximum contamination equivalent to 28 ppb of carbon monoxide. A measurement strategy for suppressing even this contamination has been devised, which allows the system to be used for gas sensor and gas sensor system characterization and calibration in the low ppb concentration range.

  6. Thermal oxidation vitrification flue gas elimination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kephart, W.; Angelo, F.; Clemens, M.

    1995-01-01

    With minor modifications to a Best Demonstrated Available Technology hazardous waste incinerator, it is possible to obtain combustion without potentially toxic emissions by using technology currently employed in similar applications throughout industry. Further, these same modifications will reduce waste handling over an extended operating envelope while minimizing energy consumption. Three by-products are produced: industrial grade carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and a final waste form that will exceed Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedures requirements and satisfy nuclear waste product consistency tests. The proposed system utilizes oxygen rather than air as an oxidant to reduce the quantities of total emissions, improve the efficiency of the oxidation reactions, and minimize the generation of toxic NO x emissions. Not only will less potentially hazardous constituents be generated; all toxic substances can be contained and the primary emission, carbon dioxide -- the leading ''greenhouse gas'' contributing to global warming -- will be converted to an industrial by-product needed to enhance the extraction of energy feedstocks from maturing wells. Clearly, the proposed configuration conforms to the provisions for Most Achievable Control Technology as defined and mandated for the private sector by the Clear Air Act Amendments of 1990 to be implemented in 1997 and still lacking definition

  7. Nano-Optomechanical Systems for Gas Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Anandram; Sauer, Vincent T K; Roy, Swapan K; Xia, Mike; Wishart, David S; Hiebert, Wayne K

    2016-11-09

    Microgas chromatography (GC) is promising for portable chemical analysis. We demonstrate a nano-optomechanical system (NOMS) as an ultrasensitive mass detector in gas chromatography. Bare, native oxide, silicon surfaces are sensitive enough to monitor volatile organic compounds at ppm levels, while simultaneously demonstrating chemical selectivity. The NOMS is able to sense GC peaks from derivatized metabolites at physiological concentrations. This is an important milestone for small-molecule quantitation assays in next generation metabolite analyses for applications such as disease diagnosis and personalized medicine. The optical microring, which plays an important role in the nanomechanical signal transduction mechanism, can also be used as an analyte concentration sensor. Different adsorption kinetics regimes are realized at different temperatures allowing temporary condensation of the analyte onto the sensor surfaces. This effect amplifies the signal, resulting in a 1 ppb level limit of detection, without partition enhancement from absorbing media. This sensitivity bodes well for NOMS as universal, ultrasensitive detectors in micro-GC, breath analysis, and other chemical-sensing applications.

  8. Long life gas laser system and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochuli, E.E.

    1975-01-01

    A long life gas discharge laser having an improved self-repairing cathode system is described. In a specific embodiment, water vapor having a partial pressure below about 10 -5 torr incorporated in a molecular sieve is used to provide impurities (in this case water vapor) for repairing the cathode surface by regenerating the oxide surface and/or preventing same from deteriorating. Other impurities may be incorporated in the molecular sieve such as hydrogen, oxygen, for example. In some cases CO 2 may be used. This application includes material disclosed in a paper entitled ''Continuation of the Investigation into Material Properties Affecting the Frequency Stability and Reliability of He-Ne Laser Structures'' submitted to the Office of Naval Research dated June 1972 by the inventor hereof and also a paper entitled ''Investigations of the Long Term Frequency Stability of Stable Laser Structures'' Progress Report for ONR Contract N00014-67-A-D239-0016 July 1972 by the inventor hereof. A royalty free license is hereby granted to the United States for use of the invention for all government purposes. (auth)

  9. Design of Wireless Readout System for Resonant Gas Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mohamed Rabeek; Mi Kyoung Park; M. Annamalai Arasu

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a design of a wireless read out system for tracking the frequency shift of the polymer coated piezoelectric micro electromechanical resonator due to gas absorption. The measure of this frequency shift indicates the percentage of a particular gas the sensor is exposed to. It is measured using an oscillator and an FPGA based frequency counter by employing the resonator as a frequency determining element in the oscillator. This system consists of a Gas Sensing Wireless Readou...

  10. ATLAS RPCs gas system maintenance and improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Pastori, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS RPC trigger detector consists of 3592 gas volume containing 14 m3 of gas mixture flowed in 2080 line. The gas circulates in closed-loop currently operated at flow rate of about 0.3 gas changes per hour. The LHC operation in the 2015 foresees a centre-of-mass energy of 13-14 TeV with a luminosity up to the project value of 1034 cm-2 s-1 which will be increased up a factor two in 2019. For this reason, the ATLAS background rate is expected to increase up to almost one order of magnitude with respect to the present conditions. This requires a new gas distribution to increase the flow in the more irradiated zone and the increment of the total flow up to the project value of 1 volume change per hour. A systematic search and repair of the gas leaks is in course and for this purpose sophisticated methods have been developed which allows to operate on sites normally considered unreachable. Finally the implementation of an extend network of gas flow sensors is under development for early and precise leaks de...

  11. Phenomena and Detection of Gas Accumulation in Piping Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. Y.; Jeon, S. S.; Hong, S. J.; Song, Y. J.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 2008-01 which provides recommendation and guidance to nuclear power plants for managing gas intrusion and accumulation in safety systems such as Emergency Core Cooling (ECC), Decay Heat Removal (DHR) and Containment Spray (CS) systems. Following the GL2008-01, Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) reported NEI 09-10 that gives industry guidance for effective prevention and management of system gas accumulation. All of U.S. utilities responded to the GL2008-01 with evaluation results for gas accumulation in safety systems mentioned above. This paper summarizes key phenomena to be evaluated against gas accumulation in safety systems and detection methods for gas accumulation in subjected systems

  12. National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 offshore India; gas hydrate systems as revealed by hydrocarbon gas geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, Thomas; Collett, Timothy S.

    2018-01-01

    The National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-01) targeted gas hydrate accumulations offshore of the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. The primary objectives of coring were to understand the geologic and geochemical controls on the accumulation of methane hydrate and their linkages to underlying petroleum systems. Four areas were investigated: 1) the Kerala-Konkan Basin in the eastern Arabian Sea, 2) the Mahanadi and 3) Krishna-Godavari Basins in the western Bay of Bengal, and 4) the Andaman forearc Basin in the Andaman Sea.Upward flux of methane at three of the four of the sites cored during NGHP-01 is apparent from the presence of seafloor mounds, seismic evidence for upward gas migration, shallow sub-seafloor geochemical evidence of methane oxidation, and near-seafloor gas composition that resembles gas from depth.The Kerala-Konkan Basin well contained only CO2 with no detectable hydrocarbons suggesting there is no gas hydrate system here. Gas and gas hydrate from the Krishna-Godavari Basin is mainly microbial methane with δ13C values ranging from −58.9 to −78.9‰, with small contributions from microbial ethane (−52.1‰) and CO2. Gas from the Mahanadi Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of C2-C5 hydrocarbons (C1/C2 ratios typically >1000) and CO2. Carbon isotopic compositions that ranged from −70.7 to −86.6‰ for methane and −62.9 to −63.7‰ for ethane are consistent with a microbial gas source; however deeper cores contained higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases suggesting a small contribution from a thermogenic gas source. Gas composition in the Andaman Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of ethane to isopentane and CO2, C1/C2 ratios were mainly >1000 although deeper samples were exploration and occurs in a forearc basin. Each of these hydrate-bearing systems overlies and is likely supported by the presence and possible migration of gas from deeper gas-prone petroleum

  13. Natural gas markets and the creation of an export gas pipeline system in Eastern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saneev, B.G.; Sokolov, A.D.; Popov, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The world natural gas markets are analysed, with a special focus on the countries of Northeast Asia (NEA). The natural gas demands of China, Japan and South Korea, until the year 2020, is projected, considering a possible share of Russian gas. The resource potential of natural gas from the Siberian platform and the Sakhalin shelf is given as a sound basis for fuelling Russia's position in the natural gas market of NEA countries. Development of the powerful gas industry in the East of Russia faces some particular conditions that can decrease the effectiveness of investments. The eastern geopolitical direction is very important for Russia and the necessity to create a favourable political and economic environment for oil and gas export is of prime interest, as stressed in Energy Strategy for Russia till the Year 2020. In this context, the long-term market for natural gas in East Siberia and the Far East of Russia is investigated. Possible routes of natural gas export from Russia to NEA countries include three main directions: to the west of China with connection to the 'West-East gas pipeline', a route through and/or round Mongolia and, finally, a route along the Trans-Siberian or Baikal-Amur railroads to Russian ports in the Far East. As a result of complex studies, three stages in the creation of the unified gas pipeline system are suggested. Evaluation of the investments required for construction of such a natural gas pipeline system, expected gas volumes and prices on the markets show its high economic efficiency. In conclusion, the most valuable ideas are stressed. (author)

  14. New Commodity Services System increases gas bill for clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koevoet, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch company Gasunie Trade and Supply will replace the Commodity Services System (CDS, abbreviated in Dutch) January 1, 2004. This will result in a higher gas bill for almost all their clients that are expected to use more than 1 million m 3 natural gas per year. An overview is given of the principles of the old and the new pricing system [nl

  15. Simple gas chromatographic system for analysis of microbial respiratory gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    Dual column ambient temperature system, consisting of pair of capillary columns, microbead thermistor detector and micro gas-sampling valve, is used in remote life-detection equipment for space experiments. Performance outweighs advantage gained by utilizing single-column systems to reduce weight, conserve carrier gas and operate at lower power levels.

  16. A model of the gas analysis system operation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimenko, I. V.; Kanishchev, O. A.; Lyamets, L. L.; Volkova, I. V.

    2017-12-01

    The characteristic features of modeling the gas-analysis measurement system operation process on the basis of the semi-Markov process theory are discussed. The model of the measuring gas analysis system operation process is proposed, which makes it possible to take into account the influence of the replacement interval, the level of reliability and maintainability and to evaluate the product reliability.

  17. Benefit assessment of solar-augmented natural gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. S.; French, R. L.; Sohn, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Report details how solar-energy-augmented system can reduce natural gas consumption by 40% to 70%. Applications discussed include: domestic hot water system, solar-assisted gas heat pumps, direct heating from storage tank. Industrial uses, solar-assisted appliances, and economic factors are discussed.

  18. Development of a Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, A.B.; Pepper, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    Objective of developing this model (GSAM) is to create a comprehensive, nonproprietary, PC-based model of domestic gas industry activity. The system can assess impacts of various changes in the natural gas system in North America; individual and collective impacts due to changes in technology and economic conditions are explicitly modeled in GSAM. Major gas resources are all modeled, including conventional, tight, Devonian Shale, coalbed methane, and low-quality gas sources. The modeling system assesses all key components of the gas industry, including available resources, exploration, drilling, completion, production, and processing practices. Distribution, storage, and utilization of natural gas in a dynamic market-gased analytical structure is assessed. GSAM is designed to provide METC managers with a tool to project impacts of future research, development, and demonstration benefits

  19. Steelmaking gas prediction system; Sistema de predicao de gas de aciaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Pedro Henrique Boaventura; Sampaio, William Genelhu [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    The Usiminas, Steelmaking Plant located in Ipatinga - MG, has the necessity to complement its energy matrix with additional fuel (oil derived from petroleum presently). Despite the high cost of this fuel, 24,3% of the LDG gas was wasted due to inadequate size of the LDG gas holder and the inappropriate tool to manage the distribution of the fuel. This paper presents how the Steelmaking Gas Prediction System was developed aiming to improve its management and other actions to increase the gas usage minimizing the matrix complementation. (author)

  20. Gas system 2015: Press conference 21 January 2016 + Gas consumption by administrative regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents some key figures about GRTgaz activity in 2015: Gas consumption resumed despite warm conditions in 2015. Gas demand for power generation in gas-fired power plants has strongly increased, due to favourable economic conditions. 2015 was characterised by the lowest LNG imports to France ever, which entailed a still intensive use of the North-South link, despite transits to Spain and Italy back to 5 year average level. New gas uses and biomethane permitted to avoid 490,000 tonnes of CO 2 emissions in 2015. A second part presents the regional gas consumptions by administrative regions

  1. Development of KALIMER auxiliary sodium and cover gas management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Woon; Hwang, Sung Tae

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop and to describe the auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management systems of KALIMER. the system includes following system: (1) Auxiliary liquid metal system (2) Inert gas receiving and processing system (3) Impurity monitoring and analysis system. Auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management system of KALIMER was developed. Functions of each systems and design basis were describes. The auxiliary liquid metal system receives, transfers, and purifies all sodium used in the plant. The system furnishes the required sodium quantity at the pressure, temperature, flow rate, and purity specified by the interfacing system. The intermediated sodium processing subsystem (ISPS) provides continuous purification of IHTS sodium, as well as performs the initial fill operation for both the IHTS and reactor vessel. The primary sodium processing subsystem provides purification (cold trapping) for sodium used in the reactor vessel. The inert gas receiving and processing (IGRP) system provides liquefied and ambient gas storage, delivers inert gases of specified composition and purity at regulated flow rates and pressures to points of usage throughout the KALIMER, and accepts the contaminated gases through its vacuum facilities for storage and transfer to the gas radwaste system. Three gases are used in the KALIMER: helium, argon, and nitrogen. 11 tabs., 12 figs. (Author)

  2. System and method for treatment of a flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiry, Irina Pavlovna; Wood, Benjamin Rue; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Perry, Robert James; McDermott, John Brian

    2017-09-19

    A method for treatment of a flue gas involves feeding the flue gas and a lean solvent to an absorber. The method further involves reacting the flue gas with the lean solvent within the absorber to generate a clean flue gas and a rich solvent. The method also involves feeding the clean flue gas from the absorber and water from a source, to a wash tower to separate a stripped portion of the lean solvent from the clean flue gas to generate a washed clean flue gas and a mixture of the water and the stripped portion of the lean solvent. The method further involves treating at least a portion of the mixture of the water and the stripped portion of the lean solvent via a separation system to separate the water from the stripped portion of the lean solvent.

  3. Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reichl, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Greenhouse Gas (GhG) Measurement system is a combination of two systems in series: (1) the Tower Gas Processing (TGP) System, an instrument rack which pulls, pressurizes, and dries air streams from an atmospheric sampling tower through a series of control and monitoring components, and (2) the Picarro model G2301 cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS), which measures CO2, CH4, and H2O vapor; the primary measurements of the GhG system.

  4. Fuel cell/gas turbine system performance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, G.T.; Sudhoff, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    Because of the synergistic effects (higher efficiencies, lower emissions) of combining a fuel cell and a gas turbine into a power generation system, many potential system configurations were studied. This work is focused on novel power plant systems by combining gas turbines, solid oxide fuel cells, and a high-temperature heat exchanger; these systems are ideal for the distributed power and on- site markets in the 1-5 MW size range.

  5. System evaluation of offshore platforms with gas liquefaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; de Oliveira Júnior, Silvio

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Floating, production, storage and offloading plants are facilities used for offshore processing of hydrocarbons in remote locations. At present, the produced gas is injected back into the reservoir instead of being exported. The implementation of refrigeration processes offshore for liqu....... It is therefore essential to conduct a careful analysis of the trade-off between the capital costs and operating revenues for such options....... for liquefying natural gas provides the opportunity to monetize offshore gas resources. The present work analyzes the performance of offshore platforms, from the oil processing to the gas liquefaction system. Different feed compositions, system layouts and liquefaction processes are considered. Potential system...... improvements are discussed based on an energy and exergy analysis. Compared to a standard platform where gas is directly injected into the reservoir, the total power consumption increases by up to 50%, and the exergy destruction within the processing plant doubles when a liquefaction system is installed...

  6. Design Private Cloud of Oil and Gas SCADA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Miao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system is computer control system based on supervisory. SCADA system is very important to oil and gas pipeline engineering. Cloud computing is fundamentally altering the expectations for how and when computing, storage and networking resources should be allocated, managed and consumed. In order to increase resource utilization, reliability and availability of oil and gas pipeline SCADA system, the SCADA system based on cloud computing is proposed in the paper. This paper introduces the system framework of SCADA system based on cloud computing and the realization details about the private cloud platform of SCADA system.

  7. Performance study of an innovative natural gas CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Lin; Zhao, Xiling; Zhang, Shigang; Li, Yan; Jiang, Yi; Li, Hui; Sun, Zuoliang

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, technological innovation and changes in the economic and regulatory environment have resulted in increased attention to distributed energy systems (DES). Combined cooling heating and power (CHP) systems based on the gas-powered internal combustion engine (ICE) are increasingly used as small-scale distribution co-generators. This paper describes an innovative ICE-CHP system with an exhaust-gas-driven absorption heat pump (AHP) that has been set up at the energy-saving building in Beijing, China. The system is composed of an ICE, an exhaust-gas-driven AHP, and a flue gas condensation heat exchanger (CHE), which could recover both the sensible and latent heat of the flue gas. The steady performance and dynamic response of the innovative CHP system with different operation modes were tested. The results show that the system's energy utilization efficiency could reach above 90% based on lower heating value (LHV) of natural gas; that is, the innovative CHP system could increase the heat utilization efficiency 10% compared to conventional CHP systems, and the thermally activated components of the system have much more thermal inertia than the electricity generation component. The detailed test results provide important insight into CHP performance characteristics and could be valuable references for the control of CHP systems. The novel CHP system could take on a very important role in the CHP market. (author)

  8. Design of a Natural Gas Liquefaction System with Minimum Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergese, Franco

    2004-01-01

    In this work an economic method for liquefying natural gas by diminishing its temperature by means of the Joule-Thomson effect is presented.The pressures from and to which the gas must be expanded arose from a thermodynamic calculation optimizing the cost per unit mass of Liquefied Natural Gas LNG).It was determined that the gas should be expanded from 200 atm to 4 atm.This expansion ratio can be used in different scales.Large Scale: liquefaction of gas at well.It takes advantage of the fact that the gas inside the well is stored at high pressure.The gas is expanded in a valve / nozzle and then compressed to the pressure of the local pipeline system.The objective of this project is to export natural gas as LNG, which is transported by ships to the markets of consumption.Using this method of liquefaction, the LNG production levels are limited to a fraction of the production of the well, due to the injection of the un condensed gas into the local pipelines system.Medium Scale: A high pressure pipeline is the source of the gas.The expansion is performed and then the gas is again compressed to the pressure of a lower pressure pipeline into which the gas is injected.The pressure reductions of natural gas are performed nearby big cities.The aim of this project scale is the storage of fuel for gas thermal power plants during periods of low energy consumption for later burning when the resource is limited. Another possibility that offers this size of plant is the transportation of gas to regions where the resource is unavailable.This transportation would be carried out by means of cistern trucks, in the same way that conventional liquid fuels are transported.Small scale: the place of production would be a CNG refueling station. The source of gas is in this case a gas pipeline of urban distribution and the gas should be compressed with the compressor of the refueling station.Compressors have generally low loading factor and the periods of time when they are not producing

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  10. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211-94 Section 86.211-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust gas...

  11. Numerical modeling of underground storage system for natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas is an important type of base-load energy, and its supply needs to be adjusted according to different demands in different seasons. For example, since natural gas is increasingly used to replace coal for winter heating, the demand for natural gas in winter is much higher than that in other seasons. As storage systems are the essential tools for balancing seasonal supply and demand, the design and simulation of natural gas storage systems form an important research direction. In this study, a large-scale underground storage system for natural gas is simulated based on theoretical analysis and finite element modeling.It is proven that the problem of axi-symmetric Darcy porous flow of ideal gas is governed by the Boussinesq equation. In terms of the exact solution to the Boussinesq equation, the basic operating characteristics of the underground storage system is analyzed, and it is demonstrated that the propagation distance of the pore pressure is proportional to the 1/4 power of the mass flow rate and to the 1/2 power of the propagation time. This quantitative relationship can be used to guide the overall design of natural gas underground storage systems.In order to fully capture the two-way coupling between pore pressure and elastic matrix deformation, a poro-elastic finite element model for natural gas storage is developed. Based on the numerical model, the dynamic processes of gas injection, storage and extraction are simulated, and the corresponding time-dependent surface deformations are obtained. The modeling results not only provide a theoretical basis for real-time monitoring for the operating status of the underground storage system through surface deformation measurements, but also demonstrate that a year-round balance can be achieved through periodic gas injection and extraction.This work is supported by the CAS "100 talents" Program and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41371090).

  12. Brine and gas recovery from geopressured systems. I. Parametric calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, S.K.; Riney, T.D.

    1984-02-01

    A series of parametric calculations was run with the S-CUBED geopressured-geothermal simulator MUSHRM to assess the effects of important formation, fluid and well parameters on brine and gas recovery from geopressured reservoir systems. The specific parameters considered are formation permeability, pore-fluid salinity, temperature and gas content, well radius and location with respect to reservoir boundaries, desired flow rate, and possible shale recharge. It was found that the total brine and gas recovered (as a fraction of the resource in situ) were most sensitive to formation permeability, pore-fluid gas content, and shale recharge.

  13. Study on system for extracted type infrared gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ruirui; Yao, Jun; Li, Wei; Li, Wenzhong; Zhang, Shaohua; Liu, Zhe; Wen, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Based on the Beer-Lambert law and the characteristic IR absorption spectrum of CO, a system for extracted type infrared gas analysis has been designed and manufactured, which utilizes different absorptive degrees infrared light gain under different concentration degrees of the gas to be measured to the value of detect CO concentration, including optical path, electric circuit and gas path. A forward and backward gas detection chamber equipped with a micro flow sensor has been used in the optical path as well as a multistage high precision amplifier and filter circuit has been used in the electric circuit. The experimental results accord with the testing standard.

  14. Flow regimes in vertical gas-solid contact systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerushalmi, J.; Cankurt, N. T.; Geldart, D.; Liss, B.

    1976-01-01

    The flow characteristics in fluidized beds, i.e., gas-solid systems, was studied to determine the flow regimes, the interaction of gas and solid in the various flow regimes and the dependence of this interaction and of transition between flow regimes on the properties of the gas and solid, on the gas and solid flow rates, and on the containing vessel. Fluidized beds with both coarse and fine particles are considered. Test results using high speed photography to view the operation of a 2-dimensional bed are discussed. (LCL)

  15. Physical aspects of the US oil and gas systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Acierno, J.; Hermelee, A.

    1979-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the physical operations which take place within the petroleum and natural gas industries of the US. This information was the basis for the overall network design and the detailed data requirements for the Emergency Management Information System (EEMIS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Since EEMIS represents the entire oil and gas systems this report can be used to obtain a basic understanding of the entire energy system, from production to consumption, that is composed of the US oil and gas industries.

  16. Pressure regulation system for modern gas-filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    A gas pressure and flow regulation system has been designed and constructed to service a wide variety of gas-filled detectors which operate at pressures of ∼2 to 1000 Torr and flow rate of ∼5 to 200 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm). Pressure regulation is done at the detector input by a pressure transducer linked to a solenoid leak valve via an electronic control system. Gas flow is controlled via a mechanical leak valve at the detector output. Interchangeable transducers, flowmeters, and leak valves allow for different pressure and flow ranges. The differential pressure transducer and control system provide automatic let-up of vacuum chambers to atmospheric pressure while maintaining a controlled overpressure in the detector. The gas system is constructed on a standard 19'' rack-mounted panel from commercially available parts. Five of these systems have been built and are routinely used for both ionization chambers and position-sensitive avalanche detectors

  17. Development of compact tritium confinement system using gas separation membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takumi; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    In order to develop more compact and cost-effective tritium confinement system for fusion reactor, a new system using gas separation membranes has been studied at the Tritium Process Laboratory in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The preliminary result showed that the gas separation membrane system could reduce processing volume of tritium contaminated gas to more than one order of magnitude compared with the conventional system, and that most of tritiated water vapor (humidity) could be directly recovered by water condenser before passing through dryer such as molecular sieves. More detail investigations of gas separation characteristics of membrane were started to design ITER Atmospheric Detritiation System (ADS). Furthermore, a scaled polyimide membrane module (hollow-filament type) loop was just installed to investigate the actual tritium confinement performance under various ITER-ADS conditions. (author)

  18. Optimization of refrigeration system with gas-injected scroll compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Baolong; Shi, Wenxing; Han, Linjun; Li, Xianting [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Gas refrigerant injection has been proven as an effective method to improve the performance of the scroll compressor and its refrigeration system under high compression ratio working conditions. Much research on the injected scroll compressor and its system has been conducted, but the universal control and design method is still lacking. A model of the refrigeration system with a gas-injected scroll compressor is developed in this paper. With this model, the effects of gas injection on the system and component parameters are investigated. Based on the identified evaporator characteristics and thermodynamic analysis, a set of general principles for the design and operation of the refrigeration or heat pump system with a gas-injected scroll compressor is proposed. (author)

  19. Method for nonlinear optimization for gas tagging and other systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.

    1998-01-06

    A method and system are disclosed for providing nuclear fuel rods with a configuration of isotopic gas tags. The method includes selecting a true location of a first gas tag node, selecting initial locations for the remaining n-1 nodes using target gas tag compositions, generating a set of random gene pools with L nodes, applying a Hopfield network for computing on energy, or cost, for each of the L gene pools and using selected constraints to establish minimum energy states to identify optimal gas tag nodes with each energy compared to a convergence threshold and then upon identifying the gas tag node continuing this procedure until establishing the next gas tag node until all remaining n nodes have been established. 6 figs.

  20. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscovich, Paul W.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

  1. Functional design criteria for the retained gas sampler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A Retained Gas Sampler System (RGSS) is being developed to capture and analyze waste samples from Hanford Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks to determine both the quantity and composition of gases retained in the waste. The RGSS consists of three main components: the Sampler, Extractor, and Extruder. This report describes the functional criteria for the design of the RGSS components. The RGSS Sampler is based on the WHC Universal Sampler design with modifications to eliminate gas leakage. The primary function of the Sampler is to capture a representative waste sample from a tank and transport the sample with minimal loss of gas content from the tank to the laboratory. The function of the Extruder is to transfer the waste sample from the Sampler to the Extractor. The function of the Extractor is to separate the gases from the liquids and solids, measure the relative volume of gas to determine the void fraction, and remove and analyze the gas constituents

  2. Gas analysis modeling system forecast for the Energy Modeling Forum North American Natural Gas Market Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariner-Volpe, B.; Trapmann, W.

    1989-01-01

    The Gas Analysis Modeling System is a large computer-based model for analyzing the complex US natural gas industry, including production, transportation, and consumption activities. The model was developed and first used in 1982 after the passage of the NGPA, which initiated a phased decontrol of most natural gas prices at the wellhead. The categorization of gas under the NGPA and the contractual nature of the natural gas market, which existed at the time, were primary factors in the development of the basic structure of the model. As laws and regulations concerning the natural gas market have changed, the model has evolved accordingly. Recent increases in competition in the wellhead market have also led to changes in the model. GAMS produces forecasts of natural gas production, consumption, and prices annually through 2010. It is an engineering-economic model that incorporates several different mathematical structures in order to represent the interaction of the key groups involved in the natural gas market. GAMS has separate supply and demand components that are equilibrated for each year of the forecast by means of a detailed transaction network

  3. Gas Conversion Systems Reclaim Fuel for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A human trip to Mars will require astronauts to utilize resources on the Red Planet to generate oxygen and fuel for the ride home, among other things. Lakewood, Colorado-based Pioneer Energy has worked under SBIR agreements with Johnson Space Center to develop technology for those purposes, and now uses a commercialized version of the technology to recover oil and gas that would otherwise be wasted at drilling sites.

  4. Off-gas recirculation system for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppler, M.; Lade, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    According to the invention, it is suggested to provide a buffer vessel in the ring main of the off-gas recirculation system for off-gases of a nuclear reactor to which all chambers or vessels which may contain radioactively contaminated gases are connected, within the connection line to outside air. This is to prevent the immediate release of an appreciable amount of gas to the outside air due to pressure variations conditioned by the sequence of operations - e.g. on the filling of the coolant storage. After the improvement, the released gas may be reduced to the amount of gas corresponding to the leakage gas flow entering the ring mains system. (TK) [de

  5. Advanced On Board Inert Gas Generation System (OBBIGS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Valcor Engineering Corporation proposes to develop an advanced On Board Inert Gas Generation System, OBIGGS, for aircraft fuel tank inerting to prevent hazardous...

  6. Advanced On Board Inert Gas Generation System (OBBIGS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Valcor Engineering Corporation proposes to develop an advanced On Board Inert Gas Generation System, OBIGGS, for aircraft fuel tank inerting to prevent hazardous...

  7. The cleansing of Vivitron after the gas system accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleboid, J.M.; Mac Cordick, J.

    1992-03-01

    A major accident in the gas transfer system of the Vivitron occurred in the gas-drying towers following a reactivation process of the alumina charge. This resulted in severe damage to various parts of the system and serious pollution of the entire Vivitron from degradation products of SF 6 . In consequence, all tests were ceased and extensive repairs and cleaning of the Vivitron were undertaken. This work is in progress and will expectedly be terminated by end of January 1992

  8. Stratigraphic Framework and Depositional Sequences in the Lower Silurian Regional Oil and Gas Accumulation, Appalachian Basin: From Licking County, Ohio, to Fayette County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    wells drilled there since the late 1880s. However, new gas and local oil continues to be discovered in the deeper basin-center part (Zagorski, 1991; Pees, 1994; Petroleum Information Corporation, 1994). In general, only small quantities of gas have been produced from the Tuscarora Sandstone fields because of their generally poor reservoir quality and because of the low energy (Btu) content of the gas (Avary, 1996). Although fracture porosity is the dominant porosity type in the Tuscarora Sandstone gas reservoirs (Avary, 1996), there are several fields, such as Indian Creek, where intergranular porosity seems to be important (Bruner, 1983; Castle and Byrnes, 2005). In order to better understand the character and origin of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation and its component parts, six cross sections were drawn through the Lower Silurian strata in parts of New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. The locations of all six cross sections are shown on sheet 2 (figs. 1 and 2) of this report. Each cross section shows the stratigraphic framework, depositional setting, sequence stratigraphy, and hydrocarbon-producing intervals of the Lower Silurian sandstone reservoirs and adjoining strata. Cross section F-F' presented here is about 215 mi long and trends northwestward, approximately normal to the depositional strike of the Lower Silurian sandstone system, and extends through large stretches of the basin-center and hybrid-conventional parts of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation.

  9. Design validation and performance of closed loop gas recirculation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmani, S. D.; Joshi, A. V.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N. K.; Shinde, R. R.

    2016-11-01

    A pilot experimental set up of the India Based Neutrino Observatory's ICAL detector has been operational for the last 4 years at TIFR, Mumbai. Twelve glass RPC detectors of size 2 × 2 m2, with a gas gap of 2 mm are under test in a closed loop gas recirculation system. These RPCs are continuously purged individually, with a gas mixture of R134a (C2H2F4), isobutane (iC4H10) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) at a steady rate of 360 ml/h to maintain about one volume change a day. To economize gas mixture consumption and to reduce the effluents from being released into the atmosphere, a closed loop system has been designed, fabricated and installed at TIFR. The pressure and flow rate in the loop is controlled by mass flow controllers and pressure transmitters. The performance and integrity of RPCs in the pilot experimental set up is being monitored to assess the effect of periodic fluctuation and transients in atmospheric pressure and temperature, room pressure variation, flow pulsations, uniformity of gas distribution and power failures. The capability of closed loop gas recirculation system to respond to these changes is also studied. The conclusions from the above experiment are presented. The validations of the first design considerations and subsequent modifications have provided improved guidelines for the future design of the engineering module gas system.

  10. Design of Remote GPRS-based Gas Data Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiyue; Yang, Jianhua; Lu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of remote data transmission of gas flowmeter, and realize unattended operation on the spot, an unattended remote monitoring system based on GPRS for gas data is designed in this paper. The slave computer of this system adopts embedded microprocessor to read data of gas flowmeter through rs-232 bus and transfers it to the host computer through DTU. In the host computer, the VB program dynamically binds the Winsock control to receive and parse data. By using dynamic data exchange, the Kingview configuration software realizes history trend curve, real time trend curve, alarm, print, web browsing and other functions.

  11. Prognostic Enhancements to Gas Turbine Diagnostic Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byington, Carl S; Watson, Matthew; Roemer, Michael J; Galie, Thomas R; McGroarty, Jack J; Savage, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    .... Existing health monitoring systems, such as the Integrated Condition Assessment System (ICAS) for NAVSEA, enable the diagnosis of mission critical problems using fault detection and diagnostic technologies...

  12. Performance comparison of two combined SOFC-gas turbine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    A necessary step in the use of natural gas (methane) in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is its preliminary conversion to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. To perform methane conversion within fuel cells and avoid catalyst carbonization the molar ratio between methane and steam (or steam with carbon dioxide) should be 1:2 or higher at the SOFC inlet. In this article two possible technological approaches to provide this desirable ratio in a combined SOFC-gas turbine system are compared. The first approach involves generation of the required steam in the coupled gas turbine cycle. The second (which is more traditional) involves recycling some part of the exhaust gases around the anodes of the SOFC stack. Exergy and energy analyses for the two SOFC-gas turbine systems are conducted to determine their efficiencies and capabilities to generate power at different rates of oxygen conductivity through the SOFC electrolyte (ion conductive membrane), as well as various efficiencies for natural gas conversion to electricity in the SOFC stack. It is determined that with a fixed SOFC stack the scheme with recycling has higher exergy and energy efficiencies (requiring less natural gas for a fixed electricity output) and the scheme with steam generation is associated with a higher capability for power generation. The question of which scheme permits a higher reduction in natural gas consumption (per unit of time), in the case of its implementation instead of a contemporary combined gas turbine-steam power cycle is considered. The greater capability of power generation while retaining high efficiency of fuel consumption in the scheme with steam generation makes its implementation more favorable. This scheme provides a better relative reduction in natural gas consumption (relative to the scheme with exhaust gas recycling) calculated per unit of time which reaches values of about 20%. At higher values of oxygen conductivity and efficiency of natural gas conversion to electricity in the

  13. Acid-gas removal systems in coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, D.K.

    1979-01-01

    A large number of acid-gas removal systems exist or are under development for the removal of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ from process gas streams. A few systems have been applied to coal conversion processes; others will require extrapolation of presently-proved commercial operation. The feed to the acid-gas removal system for the generic coal-to-ammonia facility is not well-defined; particularly for minor and trace constituents. This is particularly true in the case of newer gasification processes that may have significant economic advantages in the overall process when evaluated on a total systems analysis approach. A number of species that could be present in the gas fed to the acid-gas removal system are discussed; the design of that subprocess should consider the fate of these species from both an environmental and an economic standpoint. In an overall evaluation, it appears that acid-gas removal systems can be successfully applied in coal conversion; no technical obstacle has yet been discovered to restrict their application.

  14. The Danish gas and electricity system; Det danske gas- og elsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-08-28

    The report presents intermediate results from the project 'A model for and analyses of an integrated gas and electricity system'. The project starts from deregulation of the energy markets and increased focus on the connection between various forms of supply. The report describes the two systems with a view to identify differences and similarities. (BA)

  15. On the stability of boundary layers in gas mantle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, D.

    1978-10-01

    In this thesis a systematic investigation of the stability properties of the partially ionized boundary regions of gas mantle systems for a large class of dissipative magneto-hydrodynamic modes is presented. In the partially ionized boundary regions of gas mantle systems several strong stabilizing mechanisms arise due to coupling between various dissipative effects in certain parameter regions. The presence of neutral gas strongly enhances the stabilizing effects in a dual fashion. First in an indirect way by cooling the edge region and second in a direct way by enhancing viscous and heat conduction effects. It has, however, to be pointed out that exceptions from this general picture may be found. The stabilizing influence of neutral gas on a large class of electrostatic as well as electromagnetic modes in the boundary regions of gas blanket systems is contrary to what has been found in low density weakly ionized plasmas. In these latter cases presence of neutral gas has even been found to be responsible for the onset of entirely new classes of instabilities. Thus there is no universal stabilizing or destabilizing effect associated with plasma-neutral gas interaction effects. (author)

  16. Virtual Pipeline System Testbed to Optimize the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Prakash Krishniswami; Virg Wallentine; Mohammed Abbaspour; Revathi Ranganathan; Ravi Addanki; Jeet Sengupta; Liubo Chen

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a Virtual Pipeline System Testbed (VPST) for natural gas transmission. This study uses a fully implicit finite difference method to analyze transient, nonisothermal compressible gas flow through a gas pipeline system. The inertia term of the momentum equation is included in the analysis. The testbed simulate compressor stations, the pipe that connects these compressor stations, the supply sources, and the end-user demand markets. The compressor station is described by identifying the make, model, and number of engines, gas turbines, and compressors. System operators and engineers can analyze the impact of system changes on the dynamic deliverability of gas and on the environment.

  17. Quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in managed wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M Ogle; Patrick Hunt; Carl Trettin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides methodologies and guidance for reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sinks at the entity scale for managed wetland systems. More specifically, it focuses on methods for managed palustrine wetlands.1 Section 4.1 provides an overview of wetland systems and resulting GHG emissions, system boundaries and temporal scale, a summary of the...

  18. Gas turbine control for islanding operation of distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Danish distribution systems are characterized by a significant penetration of small gas turbine generators (GTGs) and fixed speed wind turbine generators (WTGs). Island operation of these distribution systems are becoming a viable option for economical and technical reasons. However, stabilizing...... frequency in an islanded system is one of the major challenges. This paper presents three different gas turbine governors for possible operation of distribution systems in an islanding mode. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of these governors in grid connected and islanding mode....

  19. Local CHP Plants between the Natural Gas and Electricity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Lars; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    , and they contribute significantly to the electricity production. CHP is, together with the wind power, the almost exclusive distributed generation in Denmark. This paper deals with the CHP as intermediary between the natural gas system and the electricity system. In particular, the relationship between the peak hour......Local combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Denmark constitute an important part of the national energy conversion capacity. In particular they supply a large share of the district heating networks with heat. At the same time they are important consumers as seen from the gas network system...... characteristics of the electricity and gas systems will be investigated. The point is here that the two systems will tend to have peak demand during the same hours. This is the typical situation, since load is high during the same hours of the day and of the year. Moreover, the random variations in the load...

  20. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Lennart N.

    2004-06-29

    A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

  1. Gas management of measurement system; Sistema informatizado de programacao e controle integrado de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedersberg, Luis Carlos [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Coordenacao de Programacao e Controle Integrado; Gomes, Lea Visali [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia Executiva de Logistica de Operacoes

    2008-07-01

    This paper has for objective to present the software developed for control of measurement of natural gas in the Gas Company of the Rio Grande do Sul State - Sulgas. This paper will be presented the previous control system, developed as Microsoft Excel and the new system developed in Company's ERP. This software automated great part of the process, reducing possible mistakes, reducing the reverse-work index and improving the quality of the measurements considerably and of the revenue of the Company. (author)

  2. PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz(Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

    2000-02-01

    Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

  3. Engine with exhaust gas recirculation system and variable geometry turbocharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, an internal combustion engine defining a plurality of cylinders and configured to combust a fuel and produce exhaust gas, and an exhaust assembly in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders. Each of the plurality of cylinders are provided in fluid communication with the intake assembly. The exhaust assembly is provided in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders, and a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system in fluid communication with both a second subset of the plurality of cylinders and with the intake assembly. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the second subset of the plurality of cylinders to the intake assembly. Finally, the engine assembly includes a turbocharger having a variable geometry turbine in fluid communication with the exhaust assembly.

  4. 76 FR 22825 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems AGENCY..., 2010 EPA promulgated Subpart W: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule... outlined for calculating greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum and natural gas systems source category...

  5. Steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ian David; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Li, Ming Cheng; Hyde, Susan Marie; Mashey, Thomas Charles; Wesorick, Ronald Richard; Glynn, Christopher Charles; Hemsworth, Martin C.

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

  6. Minimizing Residual Pressure within a Windowless Gas Target System - JENSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Orlando; Browne, Justin; Kontos, Antonios; Montes, Fernando; Jensa Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear reactions between light gases and radioactive isotope beams are essential to address open questions in nuclear structure and astrophysics. Pure light gas targets are critical for the measurements of proton- and alpha-induced reactions. J _ et E _ xperiments in N _ uclear S _ tructure and A _ strophysics (JENSA) is the world's most dense (~ 1019 atoms/cm2) windowless gas target system. Most of the gas flow is localized; however, escaping gas creates a pressure gradient which degrades experimental measurements and contaminates the beam line. JENSA contains a differential pumping system to maintain a vacuum. The previous design configuration was not optimized for experiments (pressure measurements 70 cm downstream from the jet were ~ 10-3 torr; optimal is less than 10-4 torr). We have altered the current differential pumping system to minimize the residual pressure profile. Several configurations of two gas-receiving catchers were tested, and the most efficient ones identified using Enhanced Pirani and Cold Cathode gauges. We have determined the 30 mm outer and 20 mm inner gas-receiving cones minimize JENSA central chamber pressure to 200 millitorr at 16,000 torr of discharge pressure. Altering the tubing configuration has additionally lowered the pressure 70 cm downstream to 10-5 torr. The new residual pressure allows operation of JENSA with planned expansion of a recoil mass separator SECAR.

  7. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  8. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from integrated urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Butler, David; Benedetti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    As sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, integrated urban drainage systems (IUDSs) (i.e., sewer systems, wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies) contribute to climate change. This paper, produced by the International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA...

  10. Monolithic natural gas storage delivery system based on sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornbostel, Marc; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2016-09-27

    The invention provides methods for producing a strong, light, sorbent-based storage/dispenser system for gases and fuels. The system comprises a porous monolithic material with an adherent strong impervious skin that is capable of storing a gas under pressure in a safe and usable manner.

  11. Specialized Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectrometry Systems for Clinical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochman, Nathan; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A discussion of the basic design and characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems used in clinical chemistry. A comparison of three specific systems: the Vitek Olfax IIA, Hewlett-Packard HP5992, and Du Pont DP-102 are included. (BB)

  12. Compressive stress system for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin

    2015-03-24

    The present application provides a compressive stress system for a gas turbine engine. The compressive stress system may include a first bucket attached to a rotor, a second bucket attached to the rotor, the first and the second buckets defining a shank pocket therebetween, and a compressive stress spring positioned within the shank pocket.

  13. Fast reactor primary cover gas system proposals for CDFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, L.M.T.

    1987-01-01

    A primary sodium gas cover has been designed for CDFR, it comprises plant to maintain and control; cover gas pressure for all reactor operating at fault conditions, cover gas purity by both blowdown and by a special clean-up facility and the clean argon supply for the failed fuel detection system and the primary pump seal purge. The design philosophy is to devise a cover gas system that can be specified for any LMFBR where only features like vessel and pipework size need to be altered to suit different design and operating conditions. The choice of full power and shutdown operating pressures is derived and the method chosen to control these values is described. A part active/part passive system is proposed for this duty, a surge volume of 250 m 3 gives passive control between full power and hot shutdown. Pressure control operation criteria is presented for various reactor operating conditions. A design for a sodium aerosol filter, based on that used on PFR is presented, it is specifically designed so that it can be fitted with an etched disc type particulate filter and maintenance is minimised. Two methods that maintain cover gas purity are described. The first, used during normal reactor operation with a small impurities ingress, utilises the continuous blowdown associated with the inevitable clean argon purge through the various reactor component seals. The second method physically removes the impurities xenon and krypton from the cover gas by their adsorption, at cryogenic temperature, onto a bed of activated carbon. The equipment required for these two duties and their mode of operation is described with the aid of a system flow diagram. The primary pump seals requires a gas purge to suppress aerosol migration. A system where the argon used for this task is recirculated and partially purified is described. (author)

  14. Cool gas micropropulsion system for cubesats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukelen, E. van; Sanders, B.H.; Schuurbiers, C.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    CubeSats are becoming more mature and many capabilities previously associated with microsatellites and bigger platforms are coming to the CubeSat. Moreover, they are becoming available as commercial off the shelf systems with standardized interfaces. TNO Defence and Security of the Netherlands is in

  15. Feed gas contaminant control in ion transport membrane systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Minford, Eric [Laurys Station, PA; Waldron, William Emil [Whitehall, PA

    2009-07-07

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising an enclosure having an interior and an interior surface, inlet piping having an internal surface and adapted to introduce a heated feed gas into the interior of the enclosure, and outlet piping adapted to withdraw a product gas from the interior of the enclosure; one or more planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the enclosure, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide material; and a preheater adapted to heat a feed gas to provide the heated feed gas to the inlet piping, wherein the preheater comprises an interior surface. Any of the interior surfaces of the enclosure, the inlet piping, and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining. Alternatively, any of the interior surfaces of the inlet piping and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining and the enclosure may comprise copper.

  16. Thermodynamic Modeling of Natural Gas Systems Containing Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakatsani, Eirini K.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2013-01-01

    As the need for dew point specifications remains very urgent in the natural gas industry, the development of accurate thermodynamic models, which will match experimental data and will allow reliable extrapolations, is needed. Accurate predictions of the gas phase water content in equilibrium...... with a heavy phase were previously obtained using cubic plus association (CPA) coupled with a solid phase model in the case of hydrates, for the binary systems of water–methane and water–nitrogen and a few natural gas mixtures. In this work, CPA is being validated against new experimental data, both water...... content and phase equilibrium data, and solid model parameters are being estimated for four natural gas main components (methane, ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide). Different tests for the solid model parameters are reported, including vapor-hydrate-equilibria (VHE) and liquid-hydrate-equilibria (LHE...

  17. Kinetics of gas hydrate formation in a water-oil-gas system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talatori, S.; Barth, T. [Bergen Univ., Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry; Fotland, P. [StatoilHydro Research and Development Centre, Sandsli (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds consisting of polyhedral water cavities which enclathrate small gas molecules. They are formed at certain pressure-temperature conditions where gas and water are present. Gas hydrate formation is of significant importance for flow assurance in oil pipelines at high pressures and/or low temperatures. It is therefore necessary to understand the kinetics of gas hydrate formation for the kinetic inhibition of the hydrates. This paper presented a kinetic model for the growth of gas hydrates and tested it against experimental hydrate kinetic data. The model was based on the Kolmogorov Johnson Mehl Avrami (KJMA) formula employed for a polynuclear mechanism and was found to fit the experimental data. A method was developed in which the mass of formed hydrates was calculated at different stirring rates from the experimental pressure and temperature recorded during the hydrate formation. The gas compositions predicted by the method were verified by comparison with the real compositions as obtained by analysis using a Hewlett Packard HP 6890 Series GC Plus. The paper described the experimental materials, procedures, and methods. It was concluded that linearization of the model specified the type of the nucleation and growth for all the kinetic data at each stirring rate. The effect of stirring rate on the kinetics of hydrate formation for the three stirring rates in the system showed acceleration of the hydrate formation when increasing the stirring rate from 300 to 600 rpm. More hydrates nucleated as stirring rates increased. It was recommended that in order to reach more definite conclusions, it would be necessary to repeat the measurements as well as conduct testing of other oils. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  18. A review of gas tariff systems in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, L.; Swagerman, D.

    1996-01-01

    This review of the gas tariff systems in Europe did not confirm the previously established opinion that there is a large difference between the situation in Western Europe and the Central and Eastern Europe. The differences are not as great as the differences inside Western Europe and inside the Central and Eastern Europe countries. This overview was done according to the UN Gas centre questionnaire that was sent to all the countries with economies in transition and the information Gasunie has about he tariff system in western Europe

  19. Multi-Megawatt Gas Turbine Power Systems for Lunar Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2006-01-01

    A concept for development of second generation 10 MWe prototype lunar power plant utilizing a gas cooled fission reactor supplying heated helium working fluid to two parallel 5 MWe closed cycle gas turbines is presented. Such a power system is expected to supply the energy needs for an initial lunar colony with a crew of up to 50 persons engaged in mining and manufacturing activities. System performance and mass details were generated by an author developed code (BRMAPS). The proposed pilot power plant can be a model for future plants of the same capacity that could be tied to an evolutionary lunar power grid.

  20. The Optimal Operation Criteria for a Gas Turbine Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the optimal operation criteria of a gas turbine cogeneration system based on the analytical solution of a linear programming model. The optimal operation criteria gave the combination of equipment to supply electricity and steam with the minimum energy cost using the energy prices and the performance of equipment. By the comparison with a detailed optimization result of an existing cogeneration plant, it was shown that the optimal operation criteria successfully provided a direction for the system operation under the condition where the electric power output of the gas turbine was less than the capacity

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from septic systems in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhlar, A. M.; Rahm, B. G.; Brooks, R. A.; Nadeau, S. A.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Onsite septic systems are a practical way to treat wastewater in rural or less-densely populated areas. Septic systems utilize microbial processes to eliminate organic wastes and nutrients such as nitrogen; these processes can contribute to air pollution through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). At each of nine septic systems, we measured fluxes of CH4, CO2, and N2O from the soil over the leach field and sand filter, and from the roof outlet vent. These are the most likely locations for gas emissions during normal operation of the septic system. The majority of all septic system gas emissions were released from the roof vent. However, our comparisons of the gas fluxes from these locations suggest that biological processes in the soil, especially the soil over the leach field, can influence the type and quantity of gas that is released from the system. The total vent, sand filter, and leach field GHG emissions were 0.12, 0.045, and 0.046 tonne CO2e capita-1 year-1, respectively. In total, this represents about 1.5% of the annual carbon footprint of an individual living in the US.

  2. Balance sheet for the gas system in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents some key figures about GRTgaz activity in 2014: 2014, France's warmest year ever observed (2014, warm / 2013, cold). Total Consumption 2014 vs 2013: -16.5% gross consumption, -5.4% climate adjusted. Public Distribution Consumption 2014 vs 2013: -19.2% gross consumption, -2.2% climate adjusted. Power Generation: -60% since 2011, 2014 vs 2013: -34%. Industrial Consumption has remained stable over the past 10 years. Stable industrial capacity subscriptions (excluding power generation). Transported Quantities by GRTgaz 2014 vs 2013 (-8.4%). Increasing flows from North to South. Imports fall connected to consumption fall, but soften by gas transit flows. Very low LNG imports but LNG was back at the end of 2014. Largely increasing gas transit 2014 vs 2013: +41%. Good level in the UGS at the beginning of the winter 2014/2015. Congestion on North-South link, Congested European North-South corridor. Price spread between North and South disappeared in November and December 2014. In 2014, Gas gross consumption fell by 16.5% in comparison with 2013, essentially because of exceptionally warm climatic conditions. Industrial consumption excluding power generation resists and has remained relatively stable over the past ten years. However gas consumption for power generation continued to fall since 2011. In 2014, GRTgaz's gas transmission network ran under unusual gas flow conditions, especially with a continuing decrease of

  3. The Energy Conversion Analysis of HTR Gas Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utaja

    2000-01-01

    The energy conversion analysis of HTR gas turbine system by hand calculation is tedious work and need much time. This difficulty comes from the repeated thermodynamic process calculation, both on compression or expansion of the cycle. To make the analysis faster and wider variable analyzed, HTR-1 programme is used. In this paper, the energy conversion analysis of HTR gas turbine system by HTR-1 will be described. The result is displayed as efficiency curve and block diagram with the input and output temperature of the component. This HTR-1 programme is developed by Basic language programming and be compiled by Visual Basic 5.0 . By this HTR-1 programme, the efficiency, specific power and effective compression of the amount of gas can be recognized fast. For example, for CO 2 gas between 40 o C and 700 o C, the compression on maximum efficiency is 4.6 and the energy specific is 18.9 kcal/kg, while the temperature changing on input and output of the component can be traced on monitor. This process take less than one second, while the manual calculation take more than one hour. It can be concluded, that the energy conversion analysis of the HTR gas turbine system by HTR-1 can be done faster and more variable analyzed. (author)

  4. Unstable Planetary Systems Emerging Out of Gas Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Soko; Thommes, Edward W.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2010-05-01

    The discovery of over 400 extrasolar planets allows us to statistically test our understanding of the formation and dynamics of planetary systems via numerical simulations. Traditional N-body simulations of multiple-planet systems without gas disks have successfully reproduced the eccentricity (e) distribution of the observed systems by assuming that the planetary systems are relatively closely packed when the gas disk dissipates, so that they become dynamically unstable within the stellar lifetime. However, such studies cannot explain the small semimajor axes a of extrasolar planetary systems, if planets are formed, as the standard planet formation theory suggests, beyond the ice line. In this paper, we numerically study the evolution of three-planet systems in dissipating gas disks, and constrain the initial conditions that reproduce the observed a and e distributions simultaneously. We adopt initial conditions that are motivated by the standard planet formation theory, and self-consistently simulate the disk evolution and planet migration, by using a hybrid N-body and one-dimensional gas disk code. We also take into account eccentricity damping, and investigate the effect of saturation of corotation resonances on the evolution of planetary systems. We find that the a distribution is largely determined in a gas disk, while the e distribution is determined after the disk dissipation. We also find that there may be an optimum disk mass which leads to the observed a-e distribution. Our simulations generate a larger fraction of planetary systems trapped in mean-motion resonances (MMRs) than the observations, indicating that the disk's perturbation to the planetary orbits may be important to explain the observed rate of MMRs. We also find a much lower occurrence of planets on retrograde orbits than the current observations of close-in planets suggest.

  5. System analysis and planning of a gas distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Edwin F.M.; Farias, Helio Monteiro [AUTOMIND, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Carla V.R. [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The increase in demand by gas consumers require that projects or improvements in gas distribution networks be made carefully and safely to ensure a continuous, efficient and economical supply. Gas distribution companies must ensure that the networks and equipment involved are defined and designed at the appropriate time to attend to the demands of the market. To do that a gas distribution network analysis and planning tool should use distribution networks and transmission models for the current situation and the future changes to be implemented. These models are used to evaluate project options and help in making appropriate decisions in order to minimize the capital investment in new components or simple changes in operational procedures. Gas demands are increasing and it is important that gas distribute design new distribution systems to ensure this growth, considering financial constraints of the company, as well as local legislation and regulation. In this study some steps of developing a flexible system that attends to those needs will be described. The analysis of distribution requires geographically referenced data for the models as well as an accurate connectivity and the attributes of the equipment. GIS systems are often used as a deposit center that holds the majority of this information. GIS systems are constantly updated as distribution network equipment is modified. The distribution network modeling gathered from this system ensures that the model represents the current network condition. The benefits of this architecture drastically reduce the creation and maintenance cost of the network models, because network components data are conveniently made available to populate the distribution network. This architecture ensures that the models are continually reflecting the reality of the distribution network. (author)

  6. Safety evaluation of BWR off-gas treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.J.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the results of a safety evaluation performed on current generic types of BWR off-gas treatment systems including cooled and ambient temperature adsorber beds and cryogenics are presented. The evaluation covered the four generic types of off-gas systems and the systems of five major vendors. This study was part of original work performed under AEC contract for the Directorate of Regulatory Standards. The analysis techniques employed for the safety evaluation of these systems include: Fault Tree Analysis; FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis); general system comparisons, contaminant, system control, and design adequacy evaluations; and resultant Off-Site Dose Calculations. The salient areas presented are some of the potential problem areas, the approach that industry has taken to mitigate or design against potential upset conditions, and areas where possible deficiencies still exist. Potential problem areas discussed include hydrogen detonation, hydrogen release to equipment areas, operator/automatic control interface, and needed engineering evaluation to insure safe system operation. Of the systems reviewed, most were in the category of advanced or improved over that commonly in use today, and a conclusion from the study was that these systems offer excellent potential for noble gas control for BWR power plants where more stringent controls may be specified -- now or in the future. (U.S.)

  7. Studies of Gas Disks in Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, Miguel

    There are over 300 exoplanets detected through radial velocity surveys and photometric studies showing a tremendous variety of masses, compositions and orbital parameters. Understanding the way these planets formed and evolved within the circumstellar disks they were initially embedded in is a crucial issue. In the first part of this thesis we study the physical interaction between a gaseous protoplanetary disk and an embedded planet using numerical simulations. In order to trust the results from simulations it is important to compare different methods. However, the standard test problems for hydrodynamic codes differ considerably from the case of a protoplanetary disk interacting with an embedded planet. We have carried out a code comparison in which the problem of a massive planet in a protoplanetary disk was studied with various numerical schemes. We compare the surface density, potential vorticity and azimuthally averaged density profiles at several times. There is overall good agreement between our codes for Neptune and Jupiter-sized planets. We performed simulations for each planet in an inviscid disk and including physical viscosity. The surface density profiles agree within about 5% for the grid-based schemes while the particle codes have less resolution in the low density regions and weaker spiral wakes. In Paper II, we study hydrodynamical instabilities in disks with planets. Vortices are generated close to the gap in our numerical models in agreement with the linear modal analysis. The vortices exert strong perturbations on the planet as they move along the gap and can change its migration rate. In addition, disk viscosity can be modified by the presence of vortices. The last part of this thesis studies the mass transfer in symbiotic binaries and close T Tauri binary systems. Our simulations of gravitationally focused wind accretion in binary systems show the formation of stream flows and enhanced accretion rates onto the compact component.

  8. Enhancement of mercury control in flue-gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, Hann S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, Jiann M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper summarizes research at Argonne National Laboratory which is focused on techniques to enhance the capture of elemental mercury and integrate its control into existing flue-gas cleanup (FGC) systems. Both laboratory and field tests have shown that very little elemental mercury is captured in a wet scrubber system due to the low solubility of that species. To enhance the ability of wet scrubbers to capture mercury, Argonne has studied improved mass transfer through both mechanical and chemical means, as well as the conversion of elemental mercury into a more soluble species that can be easily absorbed. Current research is investigating the roles of several halogen species either alone or in combination with typical flue-gas components such as sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide in the oxidation of mercury to form compounds that are easily scrubbed from the flue gas.

  9. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  10. Nature, origin, and production characteristics of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation, central Appalachian basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R.; Zagorski, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Low-permeability sandstones of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation cover about 45,000 mi2 (117,000 km2) of the Appalachian basin and may contain as much as 30 tcf of recoverable gas resources. Major reservoirs consist of the "Clinton" sandstone and Medina Group sandstones. The stratigraphically equivalent Tuscarora Sandstone increases the area of the Lower Silurian regional accumulation (LSRA) by another 30,000 mi2 (78,000 km2). Approximately 8.7 tcf of gas and 400 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Clinton/Medina reservoirs since 1880. The eastern predominantly gas-bearing part of the LSRA is a basin-center gas accumulation, whereas the western part is a conventional oil and gas accumulation with hybrid features of a basin-center accumulation. The basin-center accumulations have pervasive gas saturation, water near irreducible saturation, and generally low fluid pressures. In contrast, the hybrid-conventional accumulations have less-pervasive oil and gas saturation, higher mobile-water saturation, and both normal and abnormally low fluid pressures. High mobile-water saturation in the hybrid-conventional reservoirs form the updip trap for the basin-center gas creating a broad transition zone, tens of miles wide, that has characteristics of both end-member accumulation types. Although the Tuscarora Sandstone part of the basin-center gas accumulation is pervasively saturated with gas, most of its constituent sandstone beds have low porosity and permeability. Commercial gas fields in the Tuscarora Sandstone are trapped in naturally fractured, faulted anticlines. The origin of the LSRA includes (1) generation of oil and gas from Ordovician black shales, (2) vertical migration through an overlying 1000-ft (305-m)-thick Ordovician shale; (3) abnormally high fluid pressure created by oil-to-gas transformation; (4) updip displacement of mobile pore water by overpressured gas; (5) entrapment of pervasive gas in the basin center; (6) postorogenic

  11. El Paso natural gas nearing completion of system's largest expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    El Paso Natural Gas Co.'s largest expansion program in its 64-year history will be completed along its northern system this spring or early summer. According to the company, the three-tiered, $241.5 million expansion program will increase El Paso's gas-transport capacity by 835 MMcfd to 2.5 bcfd of conventional and coal-seam gas from the San Juan basin in northwestern New Mexico. That's enough natural gas, says the company, to supply the needs of a city of more than 800,000 residents. This paper reports that the expansion involves the San Juan Triangle system, the company's northern main line, and the Permian-San Juan crossover line. The company also filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in October 1991 to construct a new $15.2 million compressor station, Rio Vista, south of Bloomfield, N.M. The station would be used to move additional gas to the main line

  12. Global III - posedness of the isentropic system of gas dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chiodaroli, E.; DeLellis, C.; Kreml, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 7 (2015), s. 1157-1190 ISSN 0010-3640 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Euler system * gas dynamics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 3.617, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cpa.21537/abstract

  13. Thermogravimetry-evolved gas analysis–mass spectrometry system ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This system which gives complete information on weight change, heat change, nature and content of evolved gases is being used for. temperature programmed decomposition (TPD),; synthesis of nanocrystalline materials,; gas–solid interactions and; analysis of gas mixtures. The TPD of various inorganic oxyanion solids ...

  14. 33 CFR 157.164 - Use of inert gas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK... oxygen content of 8 percent or less by volume. (ii) A positive atmospheric pressure. (5) During COW... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of inert gas system. 157.164...

  15. Gas-solid coexistence of the Lennard-Jones system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoef, Martin Anton

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the absolute free energies of the Lennard-Jones system at solid–liquid and solid–gas coexistence were computed from Monte Carlo simulations [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 7145 (2002)]. In this note, we show that the values along the sublimation line are in good agreement with the results from an

  16. Feedback-controlled gas feed system for ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooker, J.F.; Burell, K.; Kamperschroer, J.

    1983-01-01

    The gas feed system, which supplies the gas to the ion sources used on the Doublet III neutral beam injectors was workable, as originally configured, but has a number of inconveniences and difficulties. A new gas system is being developed which is an adaptation of a system used in a variety of applications in tokamak experiments. For each ion source, the system is comprised of four valve assemblies and valve controllers, three for the ion source and one for the neutralizer. Each valve assembly consists of a length of submillimeter tubing, a pressure transducer, and a piezoelectric valve. A flow of 040 Torr-liter/s of hydrogen is achieved through a 400 cm length of 0.53 mm radius tubing. This tubing is plastic to provide the high voltage isolation between the high voltage of the ion source and the valve assemblies which are located at ground potential. The system is interfaced via one of the neutral beam computers and CAMAC to a console in the control room from where the flow is programmed. System description and adaptations will be presented. Performance of the system as operated and adjusted on the bench are presented

  17. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  18. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    1999-01-01

    A primary objective of the Institute for Energy Research (IER)-Santa Fe Snyder Corporation DOE Riverton Dome project is to test the validity of a new conceptual model and resultant exploration paradigm for so-called ''basin center'' gas accumulations. This paradigm and derivative exploration strategy suggest that the two most important elements crucial to the development of prospects in the deep, gas-saturated portions of Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) are (1) the determination and, if possible, three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes (i.e., this boundary is typically expressed as a significant inversion in both sonic and seismic velocity-depth profiles) , and (2) the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability ''sweet spots'' (i.e., areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability) in potential reservoir targets below this boundary. There are other critical aspects in searching for basin center gas accumulations, but completion of these two tasks is essential to the successful exploration for the unconventional gas resources present in anomalously pressured rock/fluid systems in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins. The southern Wind River Basin, in particular the Riverton Dome and Emigrant areas, is a neat location for testing this exploration paradigm. Preliminary work within the Wind River Basin has demonstrated that there is a regionally prominent pressure surface boundary that can be detected by inversions in sonic velocity depth gradients in individual well log profiles and that can be seen as a velocity inversion on seismic lines. Also, the Wind River Basin in general-and the Riverton Dome area specially-is characterized by a significant number of anomalously pressured gas accumulations. Most importantly, Santa Fe Snyder Corporation has provided the study with sonic logs, two 3-D seismic studies (40 mi(sup 2) and 30 mi(sup 2)) and a variety of other necessary geological and

  19. Design of a new terminal gas stripper system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Daniela E.; Amodei, Aldo J.; Bonino, Adrian G.; Bustos, Gustavo R.; Giannico, Matias A.; Serdeiro, Guillermo A.; Pomar, Cayetano

    2002-01-01

    A new terminal gas stripper, for the electrostatic FN tandem accelerator of the AMS system at the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina, is being designed at present. Most of the vacuum, electrical and electronic components are already available. The remote control of the system is being developed at LABI (Eng. Faculty, Buenos Aires University, Argentina). In order to construct the vacuum chamber, a collaboration with the LNLS (Campinas Univ, Sao Paulo, Brazil) is under consideration. The status of the project is presented. (author)

  20. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Waste Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems (i.e., waste transfer piping and waste transfer-associated structures) made at control decision meetings on November 30, 1999a and April 19, 2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996). Following the Contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval. The control decision meeting on November 30, 1999 to address flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems followed the control decision process and the criteria for control decisions described in Section 3.3.1.5 of the FSAR. The control decision meeting agenda, attendance list, and introductory and background presentations are included in Attachments 1 through 4. The control decision discussions on existing and other possible controls for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems and the basis for selecting or not selecting specific controls are summarized in this report

  1. Engineering considerations for corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, T.G.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Proper corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipelines requires a system review to determine the appropriate monitor locations and types of monitoring techniques. This paper develops and discusses a classification of conditions such as flow regime and gas composition. Also discussed are junction categories which, for corrosion monitoring, need to be considered from two points of view. The first is related to fluid flow in the line and the second is related corrosion inhibitor movement along the pipeline. The appropriate application of the various monitoring techniques such as coupons, hydrogen detectors, electrical resistance probe and linear polarization probes are discussed in relation to flow regime and gas composition. Problems caused by semi-conduction from iron sulfide are considered. Advantages and disadvantages of fluid gathering methods such as pots and flow-through drips are discussed in relation to their reliability as on-line monitoring locations.

  2. SiC flame sensors for gas turbine control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dale M.; Downey, Evan; Kretchmer, Jim; Michon, Gerald; Emily Shu; Schneider, Don

    1998-05-01

    The research and development activities carried out to develop a SiC flame sensor for gas turbines utilized for power generation are discussed. These activities included the fabrication and characterization of SiC UV photodiodes and small SiC signal diodes as well as the designing and testing of production flame detector assemblies. The characteristics that make this solid state flame detector particularly useful for dry low NO x (DLN) premixed oil and natural gas fuels will be described. Since this device provides both analog dc and ac output signals, turbine combustor mode tracking, combustion flame dynamics and flame intensity tracking have been demonstrated. Sensors designed for production have been built, qualified and field tested. These sensors are now being installed in gas turbine power plants and are a component part of the turbine control system. This development has resulted in the first commercialized turbine control application to use SiC electronic devices.

  3. Method and system to facilitate sealing in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Victor John; Foster, Gregory Thomas; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar

    2017-09-12

    A method and system for sealing between components within a gas turbine is provided. A first recess defined in a first component receives a seal member. A second recess defined in a second component adjacent the first component also receives the seal member. The first and second recesses are located proximate a hot gas path defined through the gas turbine, and define circumferential paths about the turbine axis. The seal member includes a sealing face that extends in a direction substantially parallel to the turbine axis. The seal member also includes a plurality of seal layers, wherein at least one of the seal layers includes at least one stress relief region for facilitating flexing of the first seal member.

  4. Methane Leaks from Natural Gas Systems Follow Extreme Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R; Heath, Garvin A; Cooley, Daniel

    2016-11-15

    Future energy systems may rely on natural gas as a low-cost fuel to support variable renewable power. However, leaking natural gas causes climate damage because methane (CH 4 ) has a high global warming potential. In this study, we use extreme-value theory to explore the distribution of natural gas leak sizes. By analyzing ∼15 000 measurements from 18 prior studies, we show that all available natural gas leakage data sets are statistically heavy-tailed, and that gas leaks are more extremely distributed than other natural and social phenomena. A unifying result is that the largest 5% of leaks typically contribute over 50% of the total leakage volume. While prior studies used log-normal model distributions, we show that log-normal functions poorly represent tail behavior. Our results suggest that published uncertainty ranges of CH 4 emissions are too narrow, and that larger sample sizes are required in future studies to achieve targeted confidence intervals. Additionally, we find that cross-study aggregation of data sets to increase sample size is not recommended due to apparent deviation between sampled populations. Understanding the nature of leak distributions can improve emission estimates, better illustrate their uncertainty, allow prioritization of source categories, and improve sampling design. Also, these data can be used for more effective design of leak detection technologies.

  5. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. The development of a gas transmission system in Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proudian, Serko; Rickaert, Stefan [Tractebel Engineering, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    Tractebel Engineering is undertaking for the Lebanese Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) advisory services for the launching and for the awarding of a DBOT (Design, Build, Operate and Transfer) contract for the development of a gas transmission system through Lebanon. The service embraces a global approach, integrating legal, market, technical and financial matters, to provide MEW with a clear strategy to its gas development program, aimed at attracting private investors willing to tender on this DBOT project.The Legal Framework Report examines the existing Lebanese legal system and analyzes its suitability to the regulatory framework required to operate gas networks; it also provides recommendations aimed at attracting potential DBOT developers, by facilitating bureaucratic procedures with possible enactment of new laws. The Gas Demand Due Diligence Report provides the market study for present and future demand of gas in Lebanon in the next 25 years (duration of the DBOT contract), with anticipated needs resulting from power generation, industrial sector, commercial and residential sectors. The Pipeline Alternative Solutions Report provides several alternative routing and configurations for the gas transmission pipeline, including surveys, in-land routing (through rough mountain and heavily populated areas), or off-shore routing (through rough marine canyons and sea water depth in excess of 1,500 meters). Basic technical economical study is elaborated for more than 30 options.The Pipeline Financial Optimization Report compares the economics and provides for each solution the expected postal tariff (the compensation that MEW would need to pay to the developer for the execution of the 25 year DBOT contract). The advisory services are completed with preparation of the Pre-Qualification Notice (aimed at selecting a short list of qualified Bidders), preparation of the Request For Proposal (bidding on the selected pipeline option), evaluation of proposal, selection of

  7. Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Efficiency and mass characteristics for four gas-cooled reactor power system configurations in the 2- to 20-MWe power range are modeled. The configurations use direct and indirect Brayton cycles with and without regeneration in the power conversion loop. The prismatic ceramic core of the reactor consists of several thousand pencil-shaped tubes made from a homogeneous mixture of moderator and fuel. The heat rejection system is found to be the major contributor to system mass, particularly at high power levels. A direct, regenerated Brayton cycle with helium working fluid permits high efficiency and low specific mass for a 10-MWe system

  8. The development of a natural gas transportation logistics management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira dos Santos, Sidney; Eugenio Leal, Jose; Oliveira, Fabricio

    2011-01-01

    Efficient management of the natural gas business chain - based on pipeline transmission networks and taking into consideration the interaction among the main players (e.g., shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies) - requires the use of decision-making support systems. These support systems maximise resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages and market demand shortfalls. This study presents a practical use for technologies, such as a thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, a Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies, an economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for the maximisation of income and the minimisation of contractual penalties. The proposed system allows the optimum availability level to be defined and maintained by the Transporter (by installing reserve capacity) to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. It also economically identifies, quantifies and justifies the installation of stand-by compressor units that can mitigate the Transporter's exposure to losses caused by capacity shortfalls as a consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. - Highlights: → We present a DSS to help the decision on investments on spare compressor units of pipelines systems. → The system may be applied to new or existing projects. → The system is able to estimate the revenue losses and the contractual penalties. → An economical evaluation shows the NPV for each configuration of spare units. → The method was applied to the case study of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline.

  9. Analysis of hollow fibre membrane systems for multicomponent gas separation

    KAUST Repository

    Khalilpour, Rajab

    2013-02-01

    This paper analysed the performance of a membrane system over key design/operation parameters. A computation methodology is developed to solve the model of hollow fibre membrane systems for multicomponent gas feeds. The model represented by a nonlinear differential algebraic equation system is solved via a combination of backward differentiation and Gauss-Seidel methods. Natural gas sweetening problem is investigated as a case study. Model parametric analyses of variables, namely feed gas quality, pressure, area, selectivity and permeance, resulted in better understanding of operating and design optima. Particularly, high selectivities and/or permeabilities are shown not to be necessary targets for optimal operation. Rather, a medium selectivity (<60 in the given example) combined with medium permeance (∼300-500×10-10mol/sm2Pa in the given case study) is more advantageous. This model-based membrane systems engineering approach is proposed for the synthesis of efficient and cost-effective multi-stage membrane networks. © 2012 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

  10. Cleanable sintered metal filters in hot off-gas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Filters with sintered metal elements, arranged as tube bundles with backflush air cleaning, are the equivalent of bag filters for high-temperature, harsh environments. They are virtually the only alternative for high-temperature off-gas systems where a renewable, highly efficient particle trap is required. Tests were conducted which show that the sintered metal elements installed in a filter system provide effective powder collection in high-temperature atmospheres over thousands of cleaning cycles. Such a sintered metal filter system is now installed on the experimental defense waste calciner at the Savannah River Laboratory. The experimental results included in this paper were used as the basis for its design

  11. A purification process for an inert gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, S.S.; Samanta, S.K.; Jain, N.G.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Ramaswamy, M.

    1984-01-01

    Special inert atmosphere is desired inside hot cells used for handling radioactive materials. In this report, details of experiments conducted to generate data required for the design of a system for maintaining very low levels of organic and acid vapours, oxygen and moisture in a nitrogen gas inert atmosphere, are described. Several grades of activated charcoals impregnated with 1% KOH were studied for the adsorption of acidic and organic vapours. A Pd/Al 2 O 3 catalyst was developed to remove oxygen with greater than 90% efficiency. For the removal of moisture, a regenerable molecular sieve 4A dual-bed was provided. Based on the performance data thus generated, an integrated purification system for nitrogen gas is proposed. (author)

  12. 40 CFR 1065.309 - Continuous gas analyzer system-response and updating-recording verification-for gas analyzers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). Measurement of Engine Parameters and Ambient Conditions ... for system response and updating-recording frequency for continuous gas analyzers that output a single... change the system response. (b) Measurement principles. This procedure verifies that the updating and...

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S.

    2004-01-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  14. Tracer gas evaluations of push-pull ventilation system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Jun

    2009-01-01

    A push-pull ventilation system is effective for hazardous material exhaustion. Although a push-pull ventilation system has advantages over a local exhaust hood, some laborious adjustments are required. The pertinence of the adjustments is uncertain because it is difficult to evaluate the performance of a push-pull ventilation system quantitatively. In this study, a measurement of the capture efficiency of a push-pull ventilation system was carried out by means of a tracer gas method. The capture efficiency decreased to 39.3-78.5% when blockage material, a dummy worker and a cross draft, were set in the ventilation zone, but the efficiency was 95.1-97.9% when the cross draft was stopped. The results suggest that the uniform flow of a push-pull ventilation system will detour a blockage and the performance of the system will not be reduced unless a cross draft disturbs the uniform flow.

  15. The evaluation study of high performance gas target system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Kim, Sang Wook

    2008-06-15

    The object of this study is a improvement of a gas target and targetry for increasing the radioisotope production yields. The main results are as follows 1. Improvement of beam entrance of the gas target : In this work, deep hole grid was designed for improvement of beam entrance. Using FEM(Finite Elements Method) analysis, it was verified that this design is more effective than the old one. 2. Improvement of target gas loading and withdrawing system : For the targetry, Helium gas and vacuum lines was installed for evaluating the production yields. Using these lines, it was proved that the recovery yields was improved and the residual impurity was reduced. 3. Improvement of target cooling efficiency : In case of the cylindrical target, it is more effective to use short length of target cavity for the high production yields. For improving the cooling efficiency, cooling fin was suggested to the target design. It is more effective to put the cooling fins inside the target cavity for the suppressed target pressure and density reduction effect during the proton beam irradiation. In conclusion, the target with fins inside the target cavity was better for high current irradiation and mass RI production.

  16. Nitrogen Gas Heating and Supply System for SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Pathan, Firozkhan; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; George, Siju; Ramesh, Gattu; Bindu, Hima; Raval, Dilip C.; Thankey, Prashant; Dhanani, Kalpesh; Pradhan, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Steady State Tokamak (SST-1) vacuum vessel baking as well as baking of the first wall components of SST-1 are essential to plasma physics experiments. Under a refurbishment spectrum of SST-1, the nitrogen gas heating and supply system has been fully refurbished. The SST-1 vacuum vessel consists of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible eight modules and eight sectors. Rectangular baking channels are embedded on each of them. Similarly, the SST-1 plasma facing components (PFC) are comprised of modular graphite diverters and movable graphite based limiters. The nitrogen gas heating and supply system would bake the plasma facing components at 350°C and the SST-1 vacuum vessel at 150°C over an extended duration so as to remove water vapour and other absorbed gases. An efficient PLC based baking facility has been developed and implemented for monitoring and control purposes. This paper presents functional and operational aspects of a SST-1 nitrogen gas heating and supply system. Some of the experimental results obtained during the baking of SST-1 vacuum modules and sectors are also presented here. (fusion engineering)

  17. A new gas stripper system for BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator facility: installation and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.C.; Ninawe, N.G.; Yadav, M.L.; Ekambaram, M.; Ramjilal; Matkar, U.V.; Ansari, Q.N.; Lokare, R.N.; Ramlal; Gupta, A.K.; Bhagwat, P.V.; Pillay, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    The gas-stripper plays a key role in stripping the heavy and molecular ion beams in a tandem accelerator. Efficiency of gas stripper depends on its supporting vacuum pumps. A new recirculating turbo molecular pump-based gas stripper has been installed in the high voltage terminal of Pelletron Accelerator. Re-circulating the stripper gas reduces the flow of gas into the accelerating tubes reducing the transmission losses. Preliminary results obtained using the new gas stripper system are discussed. (author)

  18. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  19. Onboard Inert Gas Generation System/Onboard Oxygen Gas Generation System (OBIGGS/OBOGS) Study. Part 2; Gas Separation Technology--State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Thomas L.; Eklund, Thor I.; Haack, Gregory A.

    2001-01-01

    This purpose of this contract study task was to investigate the State of the Art in Gas Separation Technologies utilized for separating air into both nitrogen and oxygen gases for potential applications on commercial aircraft. The intended applications included: nitrogen gas for fuel tank inerting, cargo compartment fire protection, and emergency oxygen for passenger and crew use in the event of loss of cabin pressure. The approach was to investigate three principle methods of gas separation: Hollow Fiber Membrane (HFM), Ceramic Membrane (CM), and liquefaction: Total Atmospheric Liquefaction of Oxygen and Nitrogen (TALON). Additional data on the performance of molecular sieve pressure swing adsorption (PSA) systems was also collected and discussed. Performance comparisons of these technologies are contained in the body of the report.

  20. Design layout for gas monitoring system II, GMS-2, computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, V.; Philipp, B.L.; Manke, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a general overview of the computer systems software that perform the data acquisition and control for the 241-SY-101 Gas Monitoring System II (GMS-2). It outlines the system layout, and contains descriptions of components and the functions they perform. The GMS-2 system was designed and implemented by Los Alamos National Laboratory and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company

  1. GeoCEGAS: natural gas distribution management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Lorena C.J. [Companhia de Gas do Ceara (CEGAS), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Targa, Fernando O. [Gestao Empresarial e Informatica Ltda. (GEMPI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This Technical Paper approach the conception, architecture, design, construction, and implementation of GeoCEGAS, a spatially enabled corporate management information system, oriented to store and provide Web access, to information associated with the natural gas distribution network, owned by CEGAS. This paper reports business processes, business entities and business intelligence approached on the project, as well as an overview of system architecture, applications, and technology used on the implementation of GeoCEGAS. Finally, is presented an introduction to the work methodology used, as well a synopsis of benefits achievements. (author)

  2. Vision for an Open, Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Butler, J. H.; Rotman, D.; Ciais, P.; Greenhouse Gas Information System Team

    2010-12-01

    Over the next few years, an increasing number of entities ranging from international, national, and regional governments, to businesses and private land-owners, are likely to become more involved in efforts to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. In such a world, geospatially resolved information about the location, amount, and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be needed, as well as the stocks and flows of all forms of carbon through the earth system. The ability to implement policies that limit GHG concentrations would be enhanced by a global, open, and transparent greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS). An operational and scientifically robust GHGIS would combine ground-based and space-based observations, carbon-cycle modeling, GHG inventories, synthesis analysis, and an extensive data integration and distribution system, to provide information about anthropogenic and natural sources, sinks, and fluxes of greenhouse gases at temporal and spatial scales relevant to decision making. The GHGIS effort was initiated in 2008 as a grassroots inter-agency collaboration intended to identify the needs for such a system, assess the capabilities of current assets, and suggest priorities for future research and development. We will present a vision for an open, global GHGIS including latest analysis of system requirements, critical gaps, and relationship to related efforts at various agencies, the Group on Earth Observations, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  3. GAS FLOW CONTROL SYSTEM IN REACTIVE MAGNETRON SPUTTERING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Klimovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  It is known that the discharge parameters and the chemical composition of the particles flux impinging onto the substrate during a reactive magnetron sputtering are unstable. As a result spontaneous transitions between the «metal» mode of the target surface and the «poisoned» mode of the target surface have been observed. This leads to nonrepeatability of the coating compositions from process to process. The aim of this work is to design a gas flow control system for reactive sputtering processes. The control system allows to maintain a steady nonequilibrium state of the magnetron discharge in transition mode where the chemical state of the target surface is unstable. The intensities of spectral lines of the discharge spectrum are proposed as control parameters. Photodiode detectors were used for registration of intensities of spectral lines. A gas flow control system regulates argon and reactive gas flow automatically, using feedback signals from photodiode detectors on the intensities of the spectral lines, vacuum gauge, ion current sensor, sensors of discharge current and voltage. As an example, the process of reactive magnetron Ti-Al-N deposition is considered. The following discharge parameters are controlled during sputtering a composite target based on Ti with Al cylindrical inserts: current, voltage, total pressure of a gas mixture, substrate temperature, bias voltage and current of the substrate. Nitrogen flow was controlled by the spectral line intensity of titanium TiI 506,5 nm. The value of the line intensity is connected with the value of reactivity. Elemental composition and structure of the Ti-Al-N coatings were studied using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was found, that stoichiometric Ti-Al-N coatings have a globular structure, enhanced hardness and low friction coefficient in contrast to Ti-Al-N coatings with nonstoichiometric composition, which have a

  4. Application of Hastelloy X in Gas-Cooled Reactor Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkman, C. R.; Rittenhouse, P. L.; Corwin, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    Hastelloy X, an Ni--Cr--Fe--Mo alloy, may be an important structural alloy for components of gas-cooled reactor systems. Expected applications of this alloy in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) are discussed, and the development of interim mechanical properties and supporting data...... are reported. Properties of concern include tensile, creep, creep-rupture, fatigue, creep-fatigue interaction, subcritical crack growth, thermal stability, and the influence of helium environments with controlled amounts of impurities on these properties. In order to develop these properties in helium...... extensive amount of information has been generated on this material at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and elsewhere concerning behavior in air, which is reviewed. However, only limited data are available from tests conducted in helium. Comparisons of the fatigue and subcritical growth behavior in air between...

  5. Analytical modeling of wet compression of gas turbine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Ko, Hyung-Jong; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    2011-01-01

    Evaporative gas turbine cycles (EvGT) are of importance to the power generation industry because of the potential of enhanced cycle efficiencies with moderate incremental cost. Humidification of the working fluid to result in evaporative cooling during compression is a key operation in these cycles. Previous simulations of this operation were carried out via numerical integration. The present work is aimed at modeling the wet-compression process with approximate analytical solutions instead. A thermodynamic analysis of the simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes that occur during evaporation is presented. The transient behavior of important variables in wet compression such as droplet diameter, droplet mass, gas and droplet temperature, and evaporation rate is investigated. The effects of system parameters on variables such as droplet evaporation time, compressor outlet temperature and input work are also considered. Results from this work exhibit good agreement with those of previous numerical work.

  6. PERFORMANCE OF GAS GAIN MONITORING SYSTEM OF THE CMS RPC SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The RPC muon system of experiment CMS at the LHC (CERN, Geneva Switzerland) is equipped with a Gas Gain Monitoring (GGM) system. The GGM is composed of twelve square single-gap RPC chambers in a cosmic ray hodoscope. Each chambers working point is continuously monitored to detect changes among fresh, before purifiers, after purifiers gas mixtures. The GGM has been in operation for the whole duration of 2011-2012 data taking period. Weekly efficiency scans were performed and gas problems were detected. A report of both performance and experience gained is given.

  7. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System upgrade process control system structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.B.; Staffon, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) control system was upgraded in 1991 to improve control and provide a graphical operator interface. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper briefly describes the Cover Gas Cleanup System and the overall control system; describes the main control computer hardware and system software features in more detail; and, then, describes the real-time control tasks, and how they interact with each other, and how they interact with the operator interface task

  8. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System upgrade distributed control and front end computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) control system was upgraded in 1991 to improve control and provide a graphical operator interface. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper briefly describes the Cover Gas Cleanup System and the overall control system; gives reasons behind the computer system structure; and then gives a detailed description of the distributed control computer, the front end computer, and how these computers interact with the main control computer. The descriptions cover both hardware and software

  9. Interdependency Assessment of Coupled Natural Gas and Power Systems in Energy Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongzhao; Qiu, Jing; Zhang, Sanhua; Lai, Mingyong; Dong, Zhao Yang

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the technological development of natural gas exploration and the increasing penetration of gas-fired power generation, gas and power systems inevitably interact with each other from both physical and economic points of view. In order to effectively assess the two systems' interdependency, this paper proposes a systematic modeling framework and constructs simulation platforms for coupled gas and power systems in an energy market environment. By applying the proposed approach to the Australian national electricity market (NEM) and gas market, the impacts of six types of market and system factors are quantitatively analyzed, including power transmission limits, gas pipeline contingencies, gas pipeline flow constraints, carbon emission constraints, power load variations, and non-electric gas load variations. The important interdependency and infrastructure weakness for the two systems are well studied and identified. Our work provides a quantitative basis for grid operators and policy makers to support and guide operation and investment decisions for electric power and natural gas industries.

  10. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  11. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  12. Microbiological community in biogas systems and evaluation of microbial risks from gas usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinneraas, B.; Nordin, A. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Biometry and Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Schoenning, C. [Swedish Inst. for Infectious Disease Control, Dept. of Parasitology, Mycology, Environmental Mirobiology and Water, Solna (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    The plans for introducing biogas produced from organic waste to the pipe system for natural gas have raised concerns about the risk of transmitting disease via the gas. To assess this risk, condensate water from gas pipes and gas from different parts of biogas upgrading systems were sampled and cultured for microbial content. The number of microorganisms found in the biogas correspond to the densities in sampled natural gas. Since no pathogens were identified and since the exposure to gas from e. g. cookers and refueling of cars may only result in the inhalation of small volumes of gas, the risk of spreading disease via biogas was judged to be very low. (orig.)

  13. Towards a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, Riley; Butler, James; Rotman, Doug; Miller, Charles; Decola, Phil; Sheffner, Edwin; Tucker, Compton; Mitchiner, John; Jonietz, Karl; Dimotakis, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Over the next few years, an increasing number of entities ranging from international, national, and regional governments, to businesses and private land-owners, are likely to become more involved in efforts to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. In such a world, geospatially resolved information about the location, amount, and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be needed, as well as the stocks and flows of all forms of carbon through terrestrial ecosystems and in the oceans. The ability to implement policies that limit GHG concentrations would be enhanced by a global, open, and transparent greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS). An operational and scientifically robust GHGIS would combine ground-based and space-based observations, carbon-cycle modeling, GHG inventories, meta-analysis, and an extensive data integration and distribution system, to provide information about sources, sinks, and fluxes of greenhouse gases at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. The GHGIS effort was initiated in 2008 as a grassroots inter-agency collaboration intended to rigorously identify the needs for such a system, assess the capabilities of current assets, and suggest priorities for future research and development. We will present a status of the GHGIS effort including our latest analysis and ideas for potential near-term pilot projects with potential relevance to European initiatives including the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS).

  14. Indoor air quality inspection and analysis system based on gas sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Mingjiang; Fan, Binwen

    2017-08-01

    A detection and analysis system capable of measuring the concentration of four major gases in indoor air is designed. It uses four gas sensors constitute a gas sensor array, to achieve four indoor gas concentration detection, while the detection of data for further processing to reduce the cross-sensitivity between the gas sensor to improve the accuracy of detection.

  15. Assessment of corrosion in the flue gas cleaning system using on-line monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vendelbo Nielsen, Lars; Berggreen Petersen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Amager unit 1 is a 350 MW multifuel suspension-fired plant commissioned in 2009 to fire biomass (straw and wood pellets). Increasing corrosion problems in the flue gas cleaning system were observed in the gas-gas preheater (GAFO), the booster fan and flue gas ducts. Chlorine containing corrosion ...

  16. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to separate one or more drugs or compounds from a...

  17. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  18. Evaluation of an active humidification system for inspired gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Nicolás G; Plotnikow, Gustavo A; Villalba, Darío S; Gogniat, Emiliano; Feld, Vivivana; Ribero Vairo, Noelia; Sartore, Marisa; Bosso, Mauro; Scapellato, José L; Intile, Dante; Planells, Fernando; Noval, Diego; Buñirigo, Pablo; Jofré, Ricardo; Díaz Nielsen, Ernesto

    2015-03-01

    The effectiveness of the active humidification systems (AHS) in patients already weaned from mechanical ventilation and with an artificial airway has not been very well described. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of an AHS in chronically tracheostomized and spontaneously breathing patients. Measurements were quantified at three levels of temperature (T°) of the AHS: level I, low; level II, middle; and level III, high and at different flow levels (20 to 60 L/minute). Statistical analysis of repeated measurements was performed using analysis of variance and significance was set at a P<0.05. While the lowest temperature setting (level I) did not condition gas to the minimum recommended values for any of the flows that were used, the medium temperature setting (level II) only conditioned gas with flows of 20 and 30 L/minute. Finally, at the highest temperature setting (level III), every flow reached the minimum absolute humidity (AH) recommended of 30 mg/L. According to our results, to obtain appropiate relative humidity, AH and T° of gas one should have a device that maintains water T° at least at 53℃ for flows between 20 and 30 L/m, or at T° of 61℃ at any flow rate.

  19. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to produce gas. Often, relatively simple changes in eating habits can lessen bothersome gas. Certain digestive system disorders, ... such as soda and beer, increase stomach gas. Eating habits, such as eating too quickly, drinking through a ...

  20. Atmospheric Dispersion about a Heavy Gas Vapor Detention System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seong-Hee

    Dispersion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the event of an accidental spill is a major concern in LNG storage and transport safety planning, hazard response, and facility siting. Falcon Series large scale LNG spill experiments were planned by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) as part of a joint government/industry study in 1987 to evaluate the effectiveness of vapor fences as a mitigating technique for accidental release of LNG and to assist in validating wind tunnel and numerical methods for vapor dispersion simulation. Post-field-spill wind-tunnel experiments were performed in Environmental Wind Tunnel (EWT) (1988, 1989) to augment the LNG Vapor Fence Program data obtained during the Falcon Test Series. The program included four different model length scales and two different simulant gases. The purpose of this program is to provide a basis for the analysis of the simulation of physical modeling tests using proper physical modeling techniques and to assist in the development and verification of analytical models. Field data and model data were compared and analyzed by surface pattern comparisons and statistical methods. A layer-averaged slab model developed by Meroney et al. (1988) (FENC23) was expanded to evaluate an enhanced entrainment model proposed for dense gas dispersion including the effect of vapor barriers, and the numerical model was simulated for Falcon tests without the fence and with the vapor fence to examine the effectiveness of vapor detention system on heavy gas dispersion. Model data and the field data were compared with the numerical model data, and degree of similarity between data were assessed.

  1. Status of the INL gas reactor test system experiment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Theron; Bennet, Brion; Tschaggeny, Charles; Reyes, Jose; Groome, John

    2007-01-01

    The Gas Reactor Test System (GRTS) is an experiment facility for examining the thermal hydraulic performance of the Generation IV, Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) during a Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LB-LOCA). The LB-LOCA is defined as the double guillotine break of the VHTR coaxial inlet and outlet cross duct. Two system safety codes, MELCOR and RELAP5-3D were used to calculate core temperatures and flow rates during the LB-LOCA transient. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of the transient produced flow vectors and gas species distribution. The most important phenomenon during the transient is the lock-exchange process, which suppresses the onset of natural circulation until considerable molecular diffusion has occurred. The GRTS was designed based upon a hierarchical two tier scaling analysis whose primary objective was replicating the lock-exchange and natural circulation characteristics of the VHTR. The GRTS uses a scaled graphite core to represent the VHTR's graphite core. An in-depth scaling analysis was performed for the GRTS in order to ensure that it accurately simulated the VHTR thermal responses. RELAP5-3D thermal analyses, ProEngineer stress analyses, and combined FLUENT-STARCD CFD analyses have provided a system design that fulfills the GRTS mission statement. This paper discusses the design analyses and their implications on the GRTS capabilities. A discussion is also presented on the preliminary instrumentation plan. The GRTS will provide an extensive temperature map of the VHTR core outlet plenum and its core support, oxygen transport rates during the lock-exchange phenomenon, and thermal conduction rates from the core to the vessel. As a result of the GRTS using helium coolant at 950 C, the resulting experiment data is expected to considerably extend the U.S. database for high-temperature gas reactor operations. Finally, the discussion will present conclusions from the GRTS manufacturing and quality control processes that may

  2. Modeling the transient security constraints of natural gas network in day-ahead power system scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingwei; Zhang, Ning; Kang, Chongqing

    2017-01-01

    accurately, they are hard to be embedded into the power system scheduling model, which consists of algebraic equations and inequations. This paper addresses this dilemma by proposing an algebraic transient model of natural gas network which is similar to the branch-node model of power network. Based......The rapid deployment of gas-fired generating units makes the power system more vulnerable to failures in the natural gas system. To reduce the risk of gas system failure and to guarantee the security of power system operation, it is necessary to take the security constraints of natural gas...... pipelines into account in the day-ahead power generation scheduling model. However, the minute- and hour-level dynamic characteristics of gas systems prevents an accurate decision-making simply with the steady-state gas flow model. Although the partial differential equations depict the dynamics of gas flow...

  3. Increasing draft capability for retrofit flue gas desulfurization systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, R.D.; Basel, B.E.; Mosier, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The retrofit installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems results in significantly higher draft losses for existing generating stations. Consequently, the means for increasing draft capability must be included in many FGD retrofit projects. Consideration is given to several alternatives for increasing draft capability. Alternatives are developed for new induced draft (ID) fans to replace the existing ID fans and for new booster fans to supplement the existing ID fans. Both centrifugal and axial fans are evaluated, as are different means of fan volume control. Each alternative is evaluated on the basis of technical merit and economics. Presented are the development of fan alternatives and results of the technical and economic evaluations

  4. Gas geochemistry of the Cordon Caulle geothermal system, Southern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda, Fabian [SGGES, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Lahsen, Alfredo [Department of Geology, University of Chile, P.O. Box 13518 (21), Santiago (Chile); Powell, Thomas [Mighty River Power, P.O. Box 445, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2007-10-15

    The Cordon Caulle geothermal system is located in a NW-trending volcano-tectonic depression of the Southern Andean Volcanic Zone of Chile. Outflows of low chloride water were previously interpreted as the surface expression of a shallow steam-heated aquifer, with subsurface temperatures of 150-170 C. Gas data from fumaroles and hot springs have been used to assess the nature and temperature of the deeper, underlying geothermal reservoir. Fumaroles at the northeastern border of Cordon Caulle have {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios typical of subduction margins (6-7 R{sub A}) and N{sub 2}/Ar ratios of about 40, indicating deep convection of air-saturated groundwater. Fumaroles at the southwestern border have N{sub 2}/Ar ratios >300, suggesting the presence of a deep volcanic component. Gas ratios of fumarole discharges yield equilibration temperatures >300 C, whereas those of hot spring waters suggest temperatures of about 160 C. Based on these data, and comparisons with well documented liquid and vapor-dominated geothermal systems, a model is proposed of a boiling liquid-dominated geothermal system overlain by a secondary steam-heated aquifer. (author)

  5. ASTRID power conversion system: Assessment on steam and gas options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffont, Guy; Cachon, Lionel; Jourdain, Vincent; Fauque, Jean Marie

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: ◆ Two power conversion systems have been investigated for the ASTRID prototype. ◆ Steam PCS: • Most mature system based on a well-developed turbomachinery technology. • High plant efficiency. • Studies on steam generators designs and leak detection systems in progress with the aim of reducing the risk of large SWRs and of limiting its consequences. • Design and licensing safety assessment of a SFR must deal with the Sodium Water Air reaction (SWAR). ◆ Gas PCS: • Strong advantage as it inherently eliminates the SWR and SWAR risks. • Very innovative option: major breakthroughs but feasibility and viability not yet demonstrated. • Remaining technological challenges but no showstopper indentified. • General architecture: investigations in progress to improve performances, operability and maintainability

  6. CELSS experiment model and design concept of gas recycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, K.; Oguchi, M.; Kanda, S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to prolong the duration of manned missions around the Earth and to expand the human existing region from the Earth to other planets such as a Lunar Base or a manned Mars flight mission, the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) becomes an essential factor of the future technology to be developed through utilization of space station. The preliminary system engineering and integration efforts regarding CELSS have been carried out by the Japanese CELSS concept study group for clarifying the feasibility of hardware development for Space station experiments and for getting the time phased mission sets after FY 1992. The results of these studies are briefly summarized and the design and utilization methods of a Gas Recycle System for CELSS experiments are discussed.

  7. Summary report on the design of the retained gas sampler system (retained gas sampler, extruder and extractor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.W.; Bolden, R.C.; Bridges, A.E.; Cannon, N.S.; Chastain, S.A.; Hey, B.E.; Knight, R.C.; Linschooten, C.G.; Pitner, A.L.; Webb, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document summarizes work performs in Fiscal Year 1994 to develop the three main components of Retained Gas Sampler System (RGSS). These primary components are the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), the Retained Gas Extruder (RGE), and the Retained Gas Extractor (RGEx). The RGS is based on the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Universal Sampler design, and includes modifications to reduce gas leakage. The primary data priorities for the RGSS are to measure the void fraction and the flammable gas concentration in the waste sample. Significant progress has been made in developing the RGSS. The RGSS is being developed by WHC to extract a representative waste sample from a Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks and to measure both the amount and composition of free and open-quotes boundclose quotes gases. Sudden releases of flammable gas mixtures are a safety concern for normal waste storage operations and eventual waste retrieval. Flow visualization testing was used to identify important fluid dynamic issues related to the sampling process. The primary data priorities for the RGSS are to measure the void fraction and the flammable gas concentration in the waste sample. The safety analysis for the RGSS is being performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and is more than sixty percent (60%) complete

  8. Radio-controlled automatic gas meter-reading system; Releve automatique de compteur par radio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, M. [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd (Japan); Ishikawa, K.; Fujiwara, J. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ichihashi, T. [Toho Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In Japan, an automatic gas meter-reading system is in operation, also incorporating the functions of monitoring for abnormalities in gas use and remote-controlled emergency gas supply shutoff. This system has been realized by linking microcomputer-controlled gas meters(It's called 'Intelligent gas mater') equipped with automatic shutoff mechanism to the gas utility company operation center via communication lines. While the present system uses cable communication lines, we of Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. and Toho Gas Co., Ltd., have jointly developed a new system based on radio communication. This paper introduces this new system. While radio-controlled meter-reading systems are used in many countries around the world solely for automatic meter reading, our recently developed system is also capable of monitoring for abnormalities in gas use and remote-controlled emergency gas supply shutoff, thanks to its almost real-time two-way communication function. The new system can serve for a period of ten years without recharging. It is also characterized by its applicability as different systems according to purposes: 1) conventional automatic meter-reading system (terminal network control unit or T-NCU), 2) large-scale radio-controlled meter-reading system, and 3) portable terminal-type radio-controlled meter-reading system. (authors)

  9. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  10. A gas-cooled reactor surface power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, R.J.; Wright, S.A.; Lenard, R.X.; Harms, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  11. A gas-cooled reactor surface power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wright, Steven A.; Lenard, Roger X.; Harms, Gary A.

    1999-01-01

    A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars

  12. A Gas-Cooled Reactor Surface Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, G.A.; Lenard, R.X.; Lipinski, R.J.; Wright, S.A.

    1998-11-09

    A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life- cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitide clad in Nb 1 %Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-I 00 program The fiel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fbel and stabilizing the geometty against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality cannot occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

  13. Logistical management system for natural gas distribution; Sistema de gestao logistica para a distribuicao de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Joao Bosco F.; Nobre Junior, Ernesto F.; Praca, Eduardo R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Logistica, Transportes e Desenvolvimento

    2004-07-01

    The Brazilian Federal Government has the very purpose of increasing the participation of the Natural Gas in the primary energy internal supply from 7,5% nowadays to about 12% till 2010. However, for that, it is necessary to eliminate the great impedance represented by the restricted accessibility to the product, due to the high distribution costs involved. So, there is an urgent need for availability of technologies to help natural gas distribution systems. This paper proposes an innovative logistics-based approach on the subject of the natural gas distribution, through a computational tool (GASLOG System) to be applied in the North and Northeastern urban and country areas of Brazil, with initial case study in the city of Fortaleza. In its conception, the GASLOG System focuses on the point-of-view of everyone of the actors involved with the natural gas distribution process trying to respond their particular necessities in the sector. (author)

  14. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eSauer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed one MPa at in-situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in-situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well.We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120° C and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. The system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g. fluid-gas-rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration.As an application of the system we extracted organic acids from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O-CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C and pressure (5 MPa. Subsamples were taken during the incubation and analysed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulphate reduction rate upon the addition of

  15. Case report: portal and systemic venous gas in a patient with perforated duodenal ulcer: CT findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fam, Maged Nassef Abdalla; Attia, Khaled Mostafa Elgharib; Khalil, Safaa Maged Fathelbab

    2014-07-01

    Gas within the portal circulation has been known to be associated with a number of conditions most commonly mesenteric ischemia and necrosis. Systemic venous gas is described with few conditions and is mostly iatrogenic in nature. We describe a case of combined portal and systemic venous gas detected by computed tomography in a patient with perforated duodenal ulcer.

  16. Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess of fuel control requirements back to aircraft fuel tank, thereby increasing the fuel pump heat sink and decreasing the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than that normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. Fluid circuitry is provided to route hot engine oil through a plurality of heat exchangers disposed within the system to provide for selective cooling of the oil.

  17. Development of failure detection system for gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feirreira, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    This work presents several kinds of Failure Detection Systems for Fuel Elements, stressing their functional principles and major applications. A comparative study indicates that the method of electrostatic precipitation of the fission gases Kr and Xe is the most efficient for fuel failure detection in gas-cooled reactors. A detailed study of the physical phenomena involved in electrostatic precipitation led to the derivation of an equation for the measured counting rate. The emission of fission products from the fuel and the ion recombination inside the chamber are evaluated. A computer program, developed to simulate the complete operation of the system, relates the counting rate to the concentration of Kr and Xe isotopes. The project of a mock-up is then presented. Finally, the program calculations are compared to experimental data, available from the literature, yielding a close agreement. (author)

  18. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P. Brown

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and –independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems.

  19. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bryan P.; Brown, Shannon R.; Senko, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems. PMID:23226147

  20. A study of gas contaminants and interaction with materials in RPC closed loop systems

    CERN Document Server

    Colafranceschi, S.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Passamonti, L.; Piccolo, D.; Pierluigi, D.; Russo, A.; Ferrini, M.; Greci, T.; Saviano, G.; Vendittozzi, C.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Verwilligen, P.; Sharma, A.

    2012-01-01

    Resistive Plate Counters (RPC) detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments use gas recirculation systems to cope with large gas mixture volumes and costs. In this paper a long-term systematic study about gas purifiers, gas contaminants and detector performance is discussed. The study aims at measuring the lifetime of purifiers with unused and used cartridge material along with contaminants release in the gas system. During the data-taking the response of several RPC double-gap detectors was monitored in order to characterize the correlation between dark currents, filter status and gas contaminants.

  1. Development of residential PEFC cogeneration systems at Osaka Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Osamu; Echigo, Mitsuaki; Shinke, Norihisa; Tabata, Takeshi [Osaka Gas Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The outline of residential PEFC cogeneration system development at Osaka Gas is described in this presentation. The developments of CO preferential oxidation catalyst, fuel processor, and the evaluation study of MEA are explained in detail. Osaka Gas has developed CO preferential oxidation catalyst, which can reduce the concentration of CO in the reformed gas below 1 ppm at the O{sub 2}/CO of 1.5. The durability of the catalyst for more than 10,000 hours has also been confirmed. A fuel processor in which desulfurization, steam reforming, CO shift conversion and CO removal reactors are integrated has also been developed. Catalysts, the durability of which have been verified for more than 50,000 hours, were employed in the reactors for desulfurization, steam reforming and CO shift conversion, and newly developed catalyst mentioned above was employed for the CO preferential oxidation reactor. The initial performance of the fuel processor has been established. The thermal efficiency of 77% has been accomplished under the condition of S/C: 2.5, O{sub 2}/CO: 1.5 and the utilization rate of fuel at the cell stack (Uf): 80%. And further, the durability for more than 1000 hours was confirmed. Durability of MEAs manufactured by Japan Gore-Tex and 3M have been evaluated. Small degradation rate of ca. 2 mV 11,000 h was found at the current density of 300 mAcm{sup -2}, Uf of 60% and the temperature of 70 {sup o}C. The tolerance of anode for CO has also been investigated, and had confirmed that the decline of cell performance could be negligible when the concentration of CO was less than 10 ppm. (author)

  2. Maintenance of the JET active gas handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, P.D.; Bell, A.C.; Brown, K.; Cole, C.; Cooper, B.; Gibbons, C.; Harris, M.; Jones, G.; Knipe, S.; Lewis, J.; Manning, C.; Miller, A.; Perevezentsev, A.; Skinner, N.; Stagg, R.; Stead, M.; Thomas, R.; Yorkshades, J.

    2003-01-01

    The JET active gas handling system (AGHS) has been in operation in conjunction with the JET machine since Spring 1997. The tritium levels within the vessel have remained sufficiently high, 6.2 g at the end of the DTE1 experiment and currently 1.5 g, such that the AGHS has been required to operate continuously to detritiate gases liberated during D-D operations and to maintain discharges to the environment to ALARP. Maintaining the system to ensure continued operation has been a key factor in guaranteeing the continued availability of the essential sub-systems. The operational history of the JET AGHS has been previously documented in a number of papers [R. Laesser, et al. Proc. of the 19th SOFT Conf. 1 (1996) 227; R. Laesser, et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 46 (1999) 307; P.D. Brennan, et al., 18th Symp. on Fusion Eng., 1999]. Operational downtime is minimised through well-engineered sub-systems that use high integrity components. Outage, contamination and operator dosage are minimised through pre-planned and prepared maintenance operations. The reliability of sub-system critical condition fault detection is demonstrated through routine testing of hard-wired alarms and interlocks

  3. Maintenance of the JET active gas handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, P.D. E-mail: damian.brennan@jet.uk; Bell, A.C.; Brown, K.; Cole, C.; Cooper, B.; Gibbons, C.; Harris, M.; Jones, G.; Knipe, S.; Lewis, J.; Manning, C.; Miller, A.; Perevezentsev, A.; Skinner, N.; Stagg, R.; Stead, M.; Thomas, R.; Yorkshades, J

    2003-09-01

    The JET active gas handling system (AGHS) has been in operation in conjunction with the JET machine since Spring 1997. The tritium levels within the vessel have remained sufficiently high, 6.2 g at the end of the DTE1 experiment and currently 1.5 g, such that the AGHS has been required to operate continuously to detritiate gases liberated during D-D operations and to maintain discharges to the environment to ALARP. Maintaining the system to ensure continued operation has been a key factor in guaranteeing the continued availability of the essential sub-systems. The operational history of the JET AGHS has been previously documented in a number of papers [R. Laesser, et al. Proc. of the 19th SOFT Conf. 1 (1996) 227; R. Laesser, et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 46 (1999) 307; P.D. Brennan, et al., 18th Symp. on Fusion Eng., 1999]. Operational downtime is minimised through well-engineered sub-systems that use high integrity components. Outage, contamination and operator dosage are minimised through pre-planned and prepared maintenance operations. The reliability of sub-system critical condition fault detection is demonstrated through routine testing of hard-wired alarms and interlocks.

  4. Effect of ambient pressure variation on closed loop gas system for India based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, B.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N. K.; Kalmani, S. D.; Shinde, R. R.; Joshi, A.

    2014-10-01

    Pilot unit of a closed loop gas mixing and distribution system for the INO project was designed and is being operated with 1.8meters × 1.9meters RPCs for about two years. A number of studies on controlling the flow and optimisation of the gas mixture through the RPC stack were carried out during this period. The gas system essentially measures and attempts to maintain absolute pressure inside the RPC gas volume. During typical Mumbai monsoon seasons, the barometric pressure changes rather rapidly, due to which the gas system fails to maintain the set differential pressure between the ambience and the RPC gas volume. As the safety bubblers on the RPC gas input lines are set to work on fixed pressure differentials, the ambient pressure changes lead to either venting out and thus wasting gas through safety bubblers or over pressuring the RPCs gas volume and thus degrading its performance. The above problem also leads to gas mixture contamination through minute leaks in gas gap. The problem stated above was solved by including the ambient barometric pressure as an input parameter in the closed loop. Using this, it is now possible to maintain any set differential pressure between the ambience and RPC gas volumes between 0 to 20mm of water column, thus always ensuring a positive pressure inside the RPC gas volume with respect to the ambience. This has resulted in improved performance of the gas system by maintaining the constant gas flow and reducing the gas toping up frequency. In this paper, we will highlight the design features and improvements of the closed loop gas system. We will present some of the performance studies and considerations for scaling up the system to be used with the engineering module and then followed by Iron Calorimeter detector (ICAL), which is designed to deploy about 30,000 RPCs of 1.8meters × 1.9 meters in area.

  5. Dynamic behavior of multirobot systems using lattice gas automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantz, Keith M.; Cameron, Stewart M.; Robinett, Rush D., III; Trahan, Michael W.; Wagner, John S.

    1999-07-01

    Recent attention has been given to the deployment of an adaptable sensor array realized by multi-robotic systems (or swarms). Our group has been studying the collective, autonomous behavior of these such systems and their applications in the area of remote-sensing and emerging threats. To accomplish such tasks, an interdisciplinary research effort at Sandia National Laboratories are conducting tests in the fields of sensor technology, robotics, and multi- agents architectures. Our goal is to coordinate a constellation of point sensors using unmanned robotic vehicles (e.g., RATLERs, Robotic All-Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover- class vehicles) that optimizes spatial coverage and multivariate signal analysis. An overall design methodology evolves complex collective behaviors realized through local interaction (kinetic) physics and artificial intelligence. Learning objectives incorporate real-time operational responses to environmental changes. This paper focuses on our recent work understanding the dynamics of many-body systems according to the physics-based hydrodynamic model of lattice gas automata. Three design features are investigated. One, for single-speed robots, a hexagonal nearest-neighbor interaction topology is necessary to preserve standard hydrodynamic flow. Two, adaptability, defined by the swarm's rate of deformation, can be controlled through the hydrodynamic viscosity term, which, in turn, is defined by the local robotic interaction rules. Three, due to the inherent nonlinearity of the dynamical equations describing large ensembles, stability criteria ensuring convergence to equilibrium states is developed by scaling information flow rates relative to a swarm's hydrodynamic flow rate. An initial test case simulates a swarm of twenty-five robots maneuvering past an obstacle while following a moving target. A genetic algorithm optimizes applied nearest-neighbor forces in each of five spatial regions distributed over the simulation domain. Armed with

  6. Filter system for purifying gas or air streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlmeyer, M.; Wilhelm, J.

    1981-01-01

    A filter system is provided for purifying a gas stream by means of flowable or tricklable contact filter material, wherein the stream flows through the filter material and the filter material forms a movable bed. The system contains a filter chamber through which the filter material can flow and which is provided with an inlet opening and an outlet opening for the filter material between which the filter material is conveyed by gravity. The filter system includes deflection means for deflecting the stream , after a first passage of the stream through the filter bed to charge the filter bed for a first time, to a position above where the stream first passed through the filter bed and for conducting the stream at least once again transversely through the filter bed above the first charge so that the filter bed is charged a second time. The filter chamber contains a first opening where the stream enters the filter bed for the first time and is aligned with the deflection means, and a second opening aligned with the deflection means and above the first opening. The second opening is located where the stream leaves the filter bed for the second time, with a partial quantity of the gas stream being able to pass directly through the filter bed from the first opening to the second opening without going through the deflection means. The distance between the upper edge of the first opening and the lower edge of the second opening is at least twice the thickness of the filter chamber

  7. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  8. Cycle analysis of MCFC/gas turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Abdullatif; Alaktiwi, Abdulsalam; Talbi, Mosbah

    2017-11-01

    High temperature fuel cells such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) are considered extremely suitable for electrical power plant application. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) performances is evaluated using validated model for the internally reformed (IR) fuel cell. This model is integrated in Aspen Plus™. Therefore, several MCFC/Gas Turbine systems are introduced and investigated. One of this a new cycle is called a heat recovery (HR) cycle. In the HR cycle, a regenerator is used to preheat water by outlet air compressor. So the waste heat of the outlet air compressor and the exhaust gases of turbine are recovered and used to produce steam. This steam is injected in the gas turbine, resulting in a high specific power and a high thermal efficiency. The cycles are simulated in order to evaluate and compare their performances. Moreover, the effects of an important parameters such as the ambient air temperature on the cycle performance are evaluated. The simulation results show that the HR cycle has high efficiency.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Three Cage Layer Housing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Feddes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture accounts for 10 to 12% of the World’s total greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Manure management alone is responsible for 13% of GHG emissions from the agricultural sector. During the last decade, Québec’s egg production systems have shifted from deep-pit housing systems to manure belt housing systems. The objective of this study was to measure and compare carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from three different cage layer housing systems: a deep liquid manure pit and a manure belt with natural or forced air drying. Deep liquid manure pit housing systems consist of “A” frame layer cages located over a closed pit containing the hens’ droppings to which water is added to facilitate removal by pumping. Manure belt techniques imply that manure drops on a belt beneath each row of battery cages where it is either dried naturally or by forced air until it is removed. The experiment was replicated with 360 hens reared into twelve independent bench-scale rooms during eight weeks (19–27 weeks of age. The natural and forced air manure belt systems reduced CO2 (28.2 and 28.7 kg yr−1 hen−1, respectively, CH4 (25.3 and 27.7 g yr−1 hen−1, respectively and N2O (2.60 and 2.48 g yr−1 hen−1, respectively emissions by about 21, 16 and 9% in comparison with the deep-pit technique (36.0 kg CO2 yr−1 hen−1, 31.6 g CH4 yr−1 hen−1 and 2.78 g N2O yr−1 hen−1. The shift to manure belt systems needs to be encouraged since this housing system significantly decreases the production of GHG.

  10. Flue gas recovery system for natural gas combined heat and power plant with distributed peak-shaving heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiling; Fu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoyin; Sun, Tao; Wang, Jingyi; Zhang, Shigang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A flue gas recovery system with distributed peak-shaving heat pumps is proposed. • The system can improve network transmission and distribution capacity. • The system is advantageous in energy saving, emission reduction and economic benefits. - Abstract: District heating systems use distributed heat pump peak-shaving technology to adjust heat in secondary networks of substations. This technology simultaneously adjusts the heat of the secondary network and reduces the return-water temperature of the primary network by using the heat pump principle. When optimized, low temperature return-water is able to recycle more waste heat, thereby further improving the heating efficiency of the system. This paper introduces a flue gas recovery system for a natural gas combined heat and power plant with distributed peak-shaving heat pumps. A pilot system comprising a set of two 9F gas-steam combined cycle-back pressure heating units was used to analyse the system configuration and key parameters. The proposed system improved the network transmission and distribution capacity, increased heating capacity, and reduced heating energy consumption without compromising heating safety issues. As such, the proposed system is advantageous in terms of energy saving, emission reduction, and economic benefits.

  11. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through April 1998.

  12. Optimization of gas lift system in Varg field

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Abu Taher Md.

    2007-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering The objective of this thesis work is to obtain the optimum gas injection rate which yields the maximum oil production. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection rate reduces oil production rate and increases operation cost. To obtain the optimum gas injection rate for achieving the maximum oil production, all wells had been modelled by Prosper program and network solver calculation had been performed by...

  13. Dynamic Optimal Energy Flow in the Integrated Natural Gas and Electrical Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Zeng, Qing; Ai, Xiaomeng

    2018-01-01

    . Simulation on the test case illustrates the success of the modelling and the beneficial roles of the power-to-gas are analyzed. The proposed model can be used in the decision support for both planning and operation of the coordinated natural gas and electrical power systems.......This work focuses on the optimal operation of the integrated gas and electrical power system with bi-directional energy conversion. Considering the different response times of the gas and power systems, the transient gas flow and steady- state power flow are combined to formulate the dynamic...... optimal energy flow in the integrated gas and power systems. With proper assumptions and simplifications, the problem is transformed into a single stage linear programming. And only a single stage linear programming is needed to obtain the optimal operation strategy for both gas and power systems...

  14. Development of bremsstrahlung detection type tritium gas monitoring system, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingo, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Makoto; Chida, Tohru; Kawasaki, Katsuya

    1982-11-01

    A tritium monitoring system by means of bremsstrahlung detecting was developed. A prototype system consisted of a sampling cylinder, a gas circulating apparatus, an NaI(T1) detector, an amplifier and a multichannel analyzer. The sizes of sampling cylinders used 208 mm phi x 290; 170; 70 mmH, 133 mm phi x 292; 172; 72 mmH and 55 mm phi x 294; 174; 74 mmH, respectively. The sensitivity of prototype system was from 12 to 57 cps/μCi.cm - 3 , depending on the size of sampling cylinder and an efficiency of NaI(T1) detector. When pulses due to breamsstrahlungs with energy from 4 to 17 keV were counted, the minimum detectable concentration of the prototype tritium monitoring system was obtained to be 5.2 x 10 - 3 μCi/cm 3 . It was evaluated that the detectable range of concentration was from 1 x 10 - 2 to 1 x 10 3 μCi/cm 3 . (author)

  15. Detail Design of the hydrogen system and the gas blanketing system for the HANARO-CNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Hark Rho; Kim, Young Ki; Wu, Sang Ik; Kim, Bong Su; Lee, Yong Seop

    2007-04-15

    The cold neutron source (CNS), which will be installed in the vertical CN hole of the reflector tank at HANARO, makes thermal neutrons to moderate into the cold neutrons with the ranges of 0.1 {approx} 10 meV passing through a moderator at about 22K. A moderator to produce cold neutrons is liquid hydrogen, which liquefies by the heat transfer with cryogenic helium flowing from the helium refrigeration system (HRS). Because of its installed location, the hydrogen system is designed to be surrounded by the gas blanketing system to notify the leakage on the system and to prevent hydrogen leakage out of the CNS. The hydrogen system, consisted of hydrogen charging unit, hydrogen storage unit, hydrogen buffer tank, and hydrogen piping, is designed to smoothly and safely supply hydrogen to and to draw back hydrogen from the IPA of the CNS under the HRS operation mode. Described is that calculation for total required hydrogen amount in the CNS as well as operation schemes of the hydrogen system. The gas blanketing system (GBS) is designed for the supply of the compressed nitrogen gas into the air pressurized valves for the CNS, to isolate the hydrogen system from the air and the water, and to prevent air or water intrusion into the vacuum system as well as the hydrogen system. All detail descriptions are shown inhere as well as the operation scheme for the GBS.

  16. System definition and analysis gas-fired industrial advanced turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, G.M.

    1997-05-01

    The objective is to define and analyze an engine system based on the gas fuel Advanced Turbine from Task 3. Using the cycle results of Task 3, a technical effort was started for Task 6 which would establish the definition of the engine flowpath and the key engine component systems. The key engine systems are: gas turbine engine overall flowpath; booster (low pressure compressor); intercooler; high pressure compressor; combustor; high pressure turbine; low pressure turbine and materials; engine system packaging; and power plant configurations. The design objective is to use the GE90 engine as the platform for the GE Industrial Advanced Turbine System. This objective sets the bounds for the engine flowpath and component systems.

  17. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120°C, and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. To keep costs low, the system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible......High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial...... and inert PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow...

  18. Online gas composition estimation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with anode off-gas recycle configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, B.; Vrečko, D.; Juričić, Ð.; Pohjoranta, A.; Pianese, C.

    2017-03-01

    Degradation and poisoning of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks are continuously shortening the lifespan of SOFC systems. Poisoning mechanisms, such as carbon deposition, form a coating layer, hence rapidly decreasing the efficiency of the fuel cells. Gas composition of inlet gases is known to have great impact on the rate of coke formation. Therefore, monitoring of these variables can be of great benefit for overall management of SOFCs. Although measuring the gas composition of the gas stream is feasible, it is too costly for commercial applications. This paper proposes three distinct approaches for the design of gas composition estimators of an SOFC system in anode off-gas recycle configuration which are (i.) accurate, and (ii.) easy to implement on a programmable logic controller. Firstly, a classical approach is briefly revisited and problems related to implementation complexity are discussed. Secondly, the model is simplified and adapted for easy implementation. Further, an alternative data-driven approach for gas composition estimation is developed. Finally, a hybrid estimator employing experimental data and 1st-principles is proposed. Despite the structural simplicity of the estimators, the experimental validation shows a high precision for all of the approaches. Experimental validation is performed on a 10 kW SOFC system.

  19. Evaluation of system codes for analyzing naturally circulating gas loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ik; No, Hee Cheon; Hejzlar, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Steady-state natural circulation data obtained in a 7 m-tall experimental loop with carbon dioxide and nitrogen are presented in this paper. The loop was originally designed to encompass operating range of a prototype gas-cooled fast reactor passive decay heat removal system, but the results and conclusions are applicable to any natural circulation loop operating in regimes having buoyancy and acceleration parameters within the ranges validated in this loop. Natural circulation steady-state data are compared to numerical predictions by two system analysis codes: GAMMA and RELAP5-3D. GAMMA is a computational tool for predicting various transients which can potentially occur in a gas-cooled reactor. The code has a capability of analyzing multi-dimensional multi-component mixtures and includes models for friction, heat transfer, chemical reaction, and multi-component molecular diffusion. Natural circulation data with two gases show that the loop operates in the deteriorated turbulent heat transfer (DTHT) regime which exhibits substantially reduced heat transfer coefficients compared to the forced turbulent flow. The GAMMA code with an original heat transfer package predicted conservative results in terms of peak wall temperature. However, the estimated peak location did not successfully match the data. Even though GAMMA's original heat transfer package included mixed-convection regime, which is a part of the DTHT regime, the results showed that the original heat transfer package could not reproduce the data with sufficient accuracy. After implementing a recently developed correlation and corresponding heat transfer regime map into GAMMA to cover the whole range of the DTHT regime, we obtained better agreement with the data. RELAP5-3D results are discussed in parallel.

  20. Modeling of ITER related vacuum gas pumping distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misdanitis, Serafeim [University of Thessaly, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pedion Areos, 38334 Volos (Greece); Association EURATOM - Hellenic Republic (Greece); Valougeorgis, Dimitris, E-mail: diva@mie.uth.gr [University of Thessaly, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pedion Areos, 38334 Volos (Greece); Association EURATOM - Hellenic Republic (Greece)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • An algorithm to simulate vacuum gas flows through pipe networks consisting of long channels and channels of moderate length has been developed. • Analysis and results are based on kinetic theory as described by the BGK kinetic model equation. • The algorithm is capable of computing the mass flow rates (or the conductance) through the pipes and the pressure at the nodes of the network. • Since a kinetic approach is implemented, the algorithm is valid in the whole range of the Knudsen number. • The developed algorithm will be useful for simulating the vacuum distribution systems of ITER and future fusion reactors. -- Abstract: A novel algorithm recently developed to solve steady-state isothermal vacuum gas dynamics flows through pipe networks consisting of long tubes is extended to include, in addition to long channels, channels of moderate length 10 < L/D < 50. This is achieved by implementing the so-called end effect treatment/correction. Analysis and results are based on kinetic theory as described by the Boltzmann equation or associated reliable kinetic model equations. For a pipe network of known geometry the algorithm is capable of computing the mass flow rates (or the conductance) through the pipes as well as the pressure heads at the nodes of the network. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by simulating two ITER related vacuum distribution systems, one in the viscous regime and a second one in a wide range of Knudsen numbers. Since a kinetic approach is implemented, the algorithm is valid and the results are accurate in the whole range of the Knudsen number, while the involved computational effort remains small.

  1. Thermodynamic modeling of a gas micro turbine power system; Modelagem termodinamica de uma microturbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venson, Giuliano Gardolinski [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: venson@ufmg.br; Barros, Jose Eduardo Mautone; Pereira, Josemar Figueiredo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: mautone@des.cefetmg.br, e-mail: josemar_cefet@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    This work presents the modeling of a gas microturbine power generator. The microturbine consists in a small thermo-electrical power unit, design for combined heat and power generation. The unit has an electric generator, coaxially connected with a turbocharger, which one is driven by a fuel burner. The system also incorporates an air regenerator, used for pre-heat the combustion air, and a heat exchanger, used for water heating. The objective of the modeling is the attainment of the electrical performance and the operational limits for the microturbine in function of the subsystems operational conditions. The modeling is based on the first law of the thermodynamic, using specific models for each component. In the combustion chamber is used a model that takes the fuel injection properties, as absolute pressure and temperature. A semi-empirical model, based in the modified Euler equation, is used in the turbocharger. In the air regenerator and heat exchanger, the method of mean logarithmic temperature difference is used. Through the modeling of a commercial microturbine, reference values obtained were used in some subsystems of a new microturbine. The results for this new microturbine in development, based in automotive turbochargers, indicate a nominal electrical power of 38 kW with electrical efficiency of 33% and global efficiency of 73%. (author)

  2. MILP formulation for the optimal operation of the integrated gas and power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Chen, Zhe; Ai, Xiaomeng

    2017-01-01

    -to-gas technology is also modeled together with gas-fired generators to enable bi directional energy conversion between the gas and power systems. The major advance of the proposed model is that the linepack storage in every pipe can be assessed and optimally utilized. Simulation results show the unit commitment......This work proposes a mixed-integer linear programming formulation to optimize the day-ahead operation of the integrated gas and power system. The quasi-steady-state gas flow is combined with the power flow so that the compressible feature of natural gas can be considered. The power...... and economic dispatch from the power system perspective. The transient flow in the gas system is also illustrated....

  3. A Controlled Environment System For Measuring Plant-Atmosphere Gas Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Brown

    1975-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, efficient system for measuring plant-atmosphere gas exchange. Designed to measure transpiration from potted tree seedlings, it is readily adaptable for measuring other gas exchanges or gas exchange by plant parts. Light level, air and root temperature can be precisely controlled at minimum cost.

  4. Utilization of on-line corrosion monitoring in the flue gas cleaning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Nielsen, Lars V.; Petersen, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    The power plant unit 1 at Amager, Denmark is a 350 MWth multifuel suspension-fired plant commissioned in 2009 which uses biomass. Increasing corrosion problems in the flue gas cleaning system have been observed since 2011 in both the gas-gas preheater and the booster fan and booster fan duct. A r...

  5. Results of cleaning dissolver off-gas in the PASSAT prototype dissolver off-gas filter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furrer, J.; Kaempffer, R.; Linek, A.; Merz, A.

    1981-01-01

    For demonstration of an advanced dissolver off-gas cleaning system the new PASSAT filter system has been developed, set up under licensing conditions pertinent to industrial scale reprocessing facilities and commissioned for trial operation. Major components of the PASSAT off-gas cleaning system are the packed fiber mist eliminator with flushing capability (Brink filter) for initial removal of droplet and solid aerosols, which has been installed to extend the service life of HEPA filters, and the series connected iodine adsorption filters for optimum utilization of the iodine adsorption material, AC 6120. The tests performed so far and the experience accumulated in testing these remotely operated filter components under simulated dissolver off-gas conditions, are described and discussed

  6. High Altitude Aerial Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard T. Wainner; Mickey B. Frish; B. David Green; Matthew C. Laderer; Mark G. Allen; Joseph R. Morency

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective and power-efficient advanced standoff sensing technology able to detect and quantify, from a high-altitude (> 10,000 ft) aircraft, natural gas leaking from a high-pressure pipeline. The advanced technology is based on an enhanced version of the Remote Methane Leak Detector (RMLD) platform developed previously by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI). The RMLD combines a telecommunications-style diode laser, fiber-optic components, and low-cost DSP electronics with the well-understood principles of Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS), to indicate the presence of natural gas located between the operator and a topographic target. The transceiver transmits a laser beam onto a topographic target and receives some of the laser light reflected by the target. The controller processes the received light signal to deduce the amount of methane in the laser's path. For use in the airborne platform, we modified three aspects of the RMLD, by: (1) inserting an Erbium-doped optical fiber laser amplifier to increase the transmitted laser power from 10 mW to 5W; (2) increasing the optical receiver diameter from 10 cm to 25 cm; and (3) altering the laser wavelength from 1653 nm to 1618 nm. The modified RMLD system provides a path-integrated methane concentration sensitivity {approx}5000 ppm-m, sufficient to detect the presence of a leak from a high capacity transmission line while discriminating against attenuation by ambient methane. In ground-based simulations of the aerial leak detection scenario, we demonstrated the ability to measure methane leaks within the laser beam path when it illuminates a topographic target 2000 m away. We also demonstrated simulated leak detection from ranges of 200 m using the 25 cm optical receiver without the fiber amplifier.

  7. Development of Novel Gas Brand Anti-Piracy System based on BP Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Zhang, Y Y; Ding, L

    2006-01-01

    The Wireless-net Close-loop gas brand anti-piracy system introduced in this paper is a new type of brand piracy technical product based on BP neural network. It is composed by gas brand piracy label possessing gas exhalation resource, ARM embedded gas-detector, GPRS wireless module and data base of merchandise information. First, the system obtains the information on the special label through gas sensor array ,then the attained signals are transferred into ARM Embedded board and identified by artificial neural network, and finally turns back the outcome of data collection and identification to the manufactures with the help of GPRS module

  8. Development of Novel Gas Brand Anti-Piracy System based on BP Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Y Y [Chinese-German School of Postgraduate Studies, Tongji University (China); Ding, L [Chinese-German School of Postgraduate Studies, Tongji University (China)

    2006-10-15

    The Wireless-net Close-loop gas brand anti-piracy system introduced in this paper is a new type of brand piracy technical product based on BP neural network. It is composed by gas brand piracy label possessing gas exhalation resource, ARM embedded gas-detector, GPRS wireless module and data base of merchandise information. First, the system obtains the information on the special label through gas sensor array ,then the attained signals are transferred into ARM Embedded board and identified by artificial neural network, and finally turns back the outcome of data collection and identification to the manufactures with the help of GPRS module.

  9. Development of Novel Gas Brand Anti-Piracy System based on BP Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Ding, L.

    2006-10-01

    The Wireless-net Close-loop gas brand anti-piracy system introduced in this paper is a new type of brand piracy technical product based on BP neural network. It is composed by gas brand piracy label possessing gas exhalation resource, ARM embedded gas-detector, GPRS wireless module and data base of merchandise information. First, the system obtains the information on the special label through gas sensor array ,then the attained signals are transferred into ARM Embedded board and identified by artificial neural network, and finally turns back the outcome of data collection and identification to the manufactures with the help of GPRS module.

  10. Parameter optimization CCPP and coolant system gas turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Клер, Александр Матвеевич; Захаров, Юрий Борисович; Потанина, Юлия Михайловна

    2013-01-01

    Today most researchers optimize the parameters of cycles in combined cycle power plants without detailed calculations of the gas turbine flow path, which often involves separate optimization of the steam cycle and the gas turbine parameters, including the parameters of the gas turbine flow path that are usually known beforehand. This paper is the first to suggest a technique for coordinated optimization of combined cycle power plants, where both the parameters of the steam cycle in the combin...

  11. Optimal Pretreatment System of Flowback Water from Shale Gas Production

    OpenAIRE

    Carrero-Parreño, Alba; Onishi, Viviani C.; Salcedo Díaz, Raquel; Ruiz-Femenia, Rubén; Fraga, Eric S.; Caballero, José A.; Reyes-Labarta, Juan A.

    2017-01-01

    Shale gas has emerged as a potential resource to transform the global energy market. Nevertheless, gas extraction from tight shale formations is only possible after horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, which generally demand large amounts of water. Part of the ejected fracturing fluid returns to the surface as flowback water, containing a variety of pollutants. For this reason, water reuse and water recycling technologies have received further interest for enhancing overall shale gas...

  12. Laser Doppler detection systems for gas velocity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, R M

    1970-05-01

    The velocity of gas flow has been remotely measured using a technique which involves the coherent detection of scattered laser radiation from small particles suspended in the fluid utilizing the doppler effect. Suitable instrumentation for the study of wind tunnel type and atmospheric flows are described. Mainly for reasons of spatial resolution, a function of the laser wavelength, the wind tunnel system utilizes an argon laser operating at 0.5 micro. The relaxed spatial resolution requirement of atmospheric applications allows the use of a carbon dioxide laser, which has superior performance at a wavelength of 10.6 micro, a deduction made from signal-to-noise ratio considerations. Theoretical design considerations are given which consider Mie scattering predictions, two-phase flow effects, photomixing fundamentals, laser selection, spatial resolution, and spectral broadening effects. Preliminary experimental investigations using the instrumentation are detailed. The velocity profile of the flow field generated by a 1.27-cm diam subsonic jet was investigated, and the result compared favorably with a hot wire investigation conducted in the same jet. Measurements of wind velocity at a range of 50 m have also shown the considerable promise of the atmospheric system.

  13. Review on Recent Development Micro Gas Turbine -Trigeneration System and Photovoltaic Based Hybrid Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chand MRR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on distributed power generation as an alternative method to the conventional power generation system continue to be developed to improve its commercialization capabilities. The cogeneration system and trigeneration system are technological improved alternatives in distributed generation where they offer enhancement and reliability in term of efficiency, emission performances and economic benefits. However, it is more feasible to implement the trigeneration system for most commercial and domestic distributed generations as the cooling demand is deliberately high compared to heating demand especially in hot and humid climate locations. Moreover, micro gas turbine is observed to be a beneficial prime mover in cogeneration and trigeneration system based on several criteria such as ability on acquiring high heat to power ratio characteristic as well as lower greenhouse gas emission. On the other hand, the role photovoltaic in building integrated system provides opportunities for renewable energy system engagement in trigeneration based distributed generation systems. This paper emphasize on summarizing the research work perform on cogeneration system or trigeneration system in hybrid mode with photovoltaic. There are also preceding sections on overviewing the state of art of cogeneration system and the trigeneration system as well as photovoltaic technologies in power generation.

  14. Impact of transition to a low carbon power system on the GB gas network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadrdan, Meysam; Chaudry, Modassar; Jenkins, Nick; Baruah, Pranab; Eyre, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Availability and cost of gas are crucial factors in power system planning. • CGEN+ was developed to analyse expansion of combined gas and electricity systems. • Performance of various low carbon strategies were assessed. • Electrification of heat and transport requires large investment in power sector. • Despite declining demand for gas, peak gas demand will almost remain unchanged. - Abstract: The reliance of Great Britain power generation on the gas network makes it critical to consider the future availability and cost of gas in planning the expansion of the power system. A combined gas and electricity network planning model was used to investigate impacts of various low carbon strategies on regional expansion of the Great Britain gas network out to the 2050s. A number of long term energy supply and demand strategies covering a range of plausible investment policies for Great Britain gas and electricity systems were explored. Reliance of Great Britain on gas imports was projected to vary from 84%, in an energy system with significant electrification of heat and transport sectors and large capacity of nuclear generation, to 94% in a business as usual case. Extensive investment in Liquefied Natural Gas import facilities at Milford Haven and the Isle of Grain was shown to compensate for reduction of indigenous gas supplies. Exploitation of shale gas in north England was shown to reduce the gas dependency of Great Britain in the business as usual case to 74%. Electrification of the heat and transport sectors combined with exploitation of shale gas in Great Britain could reduce import dependency to below 10% by 2050

  15. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as to how they could serve multiple applications

  16. [Functional analysis of the smart vent compensation system and the fresh gas decoupling system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kappei

    2008-07-01

    In MIPPV mode, an anesthetic machine supplies a fixed amount of tidal volume (TV) corresponding to changes of fresh gas flow (FGF) in a certain period of time. In this research, we examined discrepancy of delivered TV and preset TV, after a change of FGF in both fresh gas decoupling system (FGDS) and smart vent compensation system(SVCS). FGF value was changed from 0.1 l x min(-1) to 12 l min(-1), and after 10 times of ventilation, we measured TV and peak pressure of inspiratory circuit pressure(PIP). Following a gradual FGF increase, PIP dramatically increased in FGDS. TV and PIP; however, remained unchanged in SVCS. FDGS has a valve for closing FGF in the inspiratory phase and it makes the gas circuit over volume, but SVCS changes the volume of gas delivery to the ventilator by CPU according to FGF changes. Therefore it is assumed that the safety system of SVCS is superior to FDGS in high and low FGF.

  17. Absorbing Gas around the WASP-12 Planetary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Ayres, T. R.; Haswell, C. A.; Bohlender, D.; Kochukhov, O.; Flöer, L.

    2013-04-01

    Near-UV observations of the planet host star WASP-12 uncovered the apparent absence of the normally conspicuous core emission of the Mg II h and k resonance lines. This anomaly could be due either to (1) a lack of stellar activity, which would be unprecedented for a solar-like star of the imputed age of WASP-12 or (2) extrinsic absorption, from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM) or from material within the WASP-12 system itself, presumably ablated from the extreme hot Jupiter WASP-12 b. HIRES archival spectra of the Ca II H and K lines of WASP-12 show broad depressions in the line cores, deeper than those of other inactive and similarly distant stars and similar to WASP-12's Mg II h and k line profiles. We took high-resolution ESPaDOnS and FIES spectra of three early-type stars within 20' of WASP-12 and at similar distances, which show the ISM column is insufficient to produce the broad Ca II depression observed in WASP-12. The EBHIS H I column density map supports and strengthens this conclusion. Extrinsic absorption by material local to the WASP-12 system is therefore the most likely cause of the line core anomalies. Gas escaping from the heavily irradiated planet could form a stable and thick circumstellar disk/cloud. The anomalously low stellar activity index (log R^{{\\prime }}_{HK}) of WASP-12 is evidently a direct consequence of the extra core absorption, so similar HK index deficiencies might signal the presence of translucent circumstellar gas around other stars hosting evaporating planets. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Rechereche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del

  18. A simple microfluidic chlorine gas sensor based on gas-liquid chemiluminescence of luminol-chlorine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhao-Xin; Li, Hai-Fang; Liu, Jiangjiang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2008-08-01

    In this work, a microfluidic chlorine gas sensor based on gas-liquid interface absorption and chemiluminescence detection was described. The liquid chemiluminescence reagent-alkaline luminol solution can be stably sandwiched between two convex halves of a microchannel by surface tension. When chlorine gas was introduced into the micro device, it was dissolved into the interfacial luminol solution and transferred to ClO(-), and simultaneously luminol was excited and chemiluminescence emitted. The emitted chemiluminescence light was perpendicularly detected by a photomultiplier tube on a certain detection region. The remarkable advantage of the detection system is that both adsorption and detection were carried out at the gas-liquid interface, which avoids the appearance of bubbles. The whole analytical cycle including filling CL reagent, sample injection, CL detection and emptying the device was as short as 30 s. The linear concentration range of chlorine gas detection with direct introduction of sample method is from 0.5 to 478 ppm. The detection limit of this method is 0.2 ppm for standard chlorine gas and the relative standard deviation of five determinations of 3.19 ppm spiked chlorine sample was 5.2%.

  19. Dongsha Area Gas-hydrate Petroleum System in northern Slope of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pibo, Su; Zhibin, Sha

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made in addressing key issues on the formation, occurrence,and stability of gas hydrate in nature. The concept of a gas-hydrate petroleum system, similar to the system that guides current conventional oil and gas exploration,is gaining acceptance.A gas-hydrate petroleum systems model is a digital data model of a gas-hydrate petroleum system in which the interrelated processes and their results can be simulated by numerical modeling.A new module of gas-hydrate petroleum system simulating can predict the thickness of the gas hydrate stability field, the generation and migration of biogenic and thermogenic methane gas,and its accumulation as gas hydrates in gas hydrate stability field. Dongsha area is located to eastern part of the Pearl River Mouth basin, and is one of the key hydrate-exploration areas in China. However, the gas hydrate petroleum system and basin modeling in Dongsha area haven't been paid enough attention. In the paper,geological conditions for gas hydrate formation have been naturally prepared on the Dong sha area.The paper first analyzed the geological-tectonic conditions of gas hydrate formation in Dongsha area,and selected the typical sections in Dong sha uplift area and southwest taiwan basin.The geological models of gas hydrate reservoir in the two study area were constructed through the typical seismic image.The typical seismic lines are obtained from the two study area by Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey.In combination with physical,thermal and geochemical data,the match condition of gas hydrate formation was studied.by sedimentary basin simulation technique.The research results is as followed:1.In southwest taiwan basin Basin, thermal developing history is low in deep department stratum,Source of gas of hydrate come from shallower biogenic gas;2.In Dongsha uplift areas,the thickness of Cenozoic is thin and the Sediment is limited,so biogenic gas was scarce,Source of gas of hydrate come from a

  20. Modeling and designing a new gas injection diffusion system for metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C. C.; Hsiau, S. S.; Chuang, T. C.

    2018-01-01

    Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is a critical process and is widely used for the epitaxial growth of light-emitting diode (LED) wafers. The key component, a gas injection system, delivers the gas into the reactor by using a nozzle or showerhead. In this paper, the numerical simulation method was applied to investigate the thermal fluid field and to design a new gas injection system for MOCVD. In this study, we developed a new gas injection system with inlet barriers. The inlet barriers can separate the various reactive gases, reduce the prereaction, and prevent adducted particles from forming and blocking the inlet gas system. The barrier geometry, including the barrier length, the barrier inclination angle, and the V/III precursor ratio was systematically studied to determine the optimal design conditions. Higher growth rate and improved uniformity were demonstrated using the new optimal gas inlet barrier design.

  1. Computer-Aided System of Virtual Testing of Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Viktor N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concept of a virtual lab that includes subsystem of gas turbine engine simulation, subsystem of experiment planning, subsystem of measurement errors simulation, subsystem of simulator identification and others. The basis for virtual lab development is the computer-aided system of thermogasdynamic research and analysis “ASTRA”. The features of gas turbine engine transient modes simulator are described. The principal difference between the simulators of transient and stationary modes of gas turbine engines is that the energy balance of the compressor and turbine becomes not applicable. The computer-aided system of virtual gas turbine engine testing was created using the developed transient modes simulator. This system solves the tasks of operational (throttling, speed, climatic, altitude characteristics calculation, analysis of transient dynamics and selection of optimal control laws. Besides, the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is a clear demonstration of gas turbine engine working process and the regularities of engine elements collaboration. The interface of the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is described in the article and some screenshots of the interface elements are provided. The developed system of virtual gas turbine engine testing provides means for reducing the laboriousness of gas turbine engines testing. Besides, the implementation of this system in the learning process allows the diversification of lab works and therefore improve the quality of training.

  2. Natural gas hydrate formation and inhibition in gas/crude oil/aqueous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Pachitsas, Stylianos; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate formation in multi phase mixtures containing an aqueous phase (with dissolved salts), reservoir fluid (crude oil) and natural gas phase was investigated by using a standard rocking cell (RC-5) apparatus. The hydrate formation temperature was reduced in the presence of crude oils...... of the biodegradable commercial kinetic inhibitor (Luvicap-Bio) on natural gas hydrate formation with and without crude oil (30%) was investigated. The strength of kinetic inhibitor was not affected by salts, but decreased significantly in the presence of crude oil. Data for hydrate formation at practical conditions...... inhibition mechanisms and potentially a competition among inhibition-promotion mechanisms. Moreover, the hydrate formation time has been determined at different water cuts in each crude oil and it was found that the inhibition capability increases with an increase in the oil content. The effect...

  3. Control systems for condensing flue-gas coolers related to natural-gas-fired heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krighaar, M.; Paulsen, O.

    1992-01-01

    A theoretical study is made of the enthalpy-efficiency for a water-cooled heat exchanger added to a natural gas-fired boiler. Under varying conditions of both water flow and temperature and flue-gas flow and temperature, both in condensing and non-condensing mode, the efficiency seems to be constant. The result is very useful for comparison between two different working conditions. The efficiency is used to calculate the savings achieved for a district heating plant by using a heat exchanger. The energy economic calculations are also helpful for estimating the most appropriate size of heat exchanger. The annual savings are calculated by means of data regarding heat production, flue gas temperature and water return temperature. The savings achieved by using different connection principles such as bypass, reheating and controlled water temperature are also calculated. (author)

  4. Systematic study of RPC performances in polluted or varying gas mixtures compositions: an online monitor system for the RPC gas mixture at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Capeans, M; Mandelli, B

    2012-01-01

    The importance of the correct gas mixture for the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detector systems is fundamental for their correct and safe operation. A small change in the percentages of the gas mixture components can alter the RPC performance and this will rebound on the data quality in the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN. A constant monitoring of the gas mixture injected in the RPCs would avoid such kind of problems. A systematic study has been performed to understand RPC performances with several gas mixture compositions and in the presence of common gas impurities. The systematic analysis of several RPC performance parameters in different gas mixtures allows the rapid identification of any variation in the RPC gas mixture. A set-up for the online monitoring of the RPC gas mixture in the LHC gas systems is also proposed.

  5. Proposal and Evaluation of a Gas Engine and Gas Turbine Hybrid Cogeneration System in which Cascaded Heat is Highly Utilized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Pyong Sik

    A high efficiency cogeneration system (CGS) is proposed for utilizing high temperature exhaust gas (HTEG) from a gas engine (GE). In the proposed system, for making use of heat energy of HTEG, H2O turbine (HTb) is incorporated and steam produced by utilizing HTEG is used as working fluid of HTb. HTb exhaust gas is also utilized for increasing power output and for satisfying heat demand in the proposed system. Both of the thermodynamic characteristics of the proposed system and a gas engine CGS (GE-CGS) constructed by using the original GE are estimated. Energy saving characteristics and CO2 reduction effects of the proposed CGS and the GE-CGS are also investigated. It was estimated that the net generated power of the proposed CGS has been increasd 25.5% and net power generation efficiency 6.7%, compared with the the original GE-CGS. It was also shown that the proposed CGS could save 27.0% of energy comsumption and reduce 1137 t-CO2/y, 1.41 times larger than those of GE-CGS, when a case syudy was set and investigated. Improvements of performance by increasing turbine inlet temperature were also investigated.

  6. Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

  7. Temperature Control of Gas Chromatograph Based on Switched Delayed System Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Liang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the temperature control problem of the gas chromatograph. We model the temperature control system of the gas chromatograph into a switched delayed system and analyze the stability by common Lyapunov functional technique. The PI controller parameters can be given based on the proposed linear matrix inequalities (LMIs condition and the designed controller can make the temperature of gas chromatograph track the reference signal asymptotically. An experiment is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the stability criterion.

  8. Changes to the oil and natural gas royalty system: Technical detail and financial impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the changes to the oil and natural gas royalty system and the structure of the new royalty formulas for new and old gas, third-tier oil, new and old oil, reactivated, low productivity and horizontal re-entry oil wells, and experimental oilsands. A summary of the future oil and gas royalty system, and its financial impact on government and producers are also included. Background information is also included.

  9. Miniaturized multi channel infrared optical gas sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Eberhardt, Andre; Rademacher, Sven; Schmitt, Katrin

    2011-06-01

    Infrared spectroscopy uses the characteristic absorption of the molecules in the mid infrared and allows the determination of the gases and their concentration. Especially by the absorption at longer wavelengths between 8 μm and 12 μm, the so called "fingerprint" region, the molecules can be measured with highest selectivity. We present an infrared optical filter photometer for the analytical determination of trace gases in the air. The challenge in developing the filter photometer was the construction of a multi-channel system using a novel filter wheel concept - which acts as a chopper too- in order to measure simultaneously four gases: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. The system consists of a broadband infrared emitter, a long path cell with 1.7m optical path length, a filter wheel and analogue and digital signal processing. Multi channel filter photometers normally need one filter and one detector per target gas. There are small detection units with one, two or more detectors with integrated filters available on the market. One filter is normally used as reference at a wavelength without any cross-sensitivities to possible interfering gases (e.g. at 3.95 μm is an "atmospheric window" - a small spectral band without absorbing gases in the atmosphere). The advantage of a filter-wheel set-up is that a single IR-detector can be used, which reduces the signal drift enormously. Pyroelectric and thermopile detectors are often integrated in these kinds of spectrometers. For both detector types a modulation of the light is required and can be done - without an additional chopper - with the filter wheel.

  10. Gas turbine system simulation: An object-oriented approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Colin K.; Follen, Gregory J.; Putt, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype gas turbine engine simulation has been developed that offers a generalized framework for the simulation of engines subject to steady-state and transient operating conditions. The prototype is in preliminary form, but it successfully demonstrates the viability of an object-oriented approach for generalized simulation applications. Although object oriented programming languages are-relative to FORTRAN-somewhat austere, it is proposed that gas turbine simulations of an interdisciplinary nature will benefit significantly in terms of code reliability, maintainability, and manageability. This report elucidates specific gas turbine simulation obstacles that an object-oriented framework can overcome and describes the opportunity for interdisciplinary simulation that the approach offers.

  11. Sensitivity and environmental response of the CMS RPC gas gain monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, L.; Colafranceschi, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Giardoni, M.; Ortenzi, B.; Paolozzi, A.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Ponzio, B.; Russo, A.; Colaleo, A.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Ranieri, A.; Abbrescia, M.; Iaselli, G.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Romano, F.; Roselli, G.; Trentadue, R.; Tupputi, S.; Guida, R.; Polese, G.; Sharma, A.; Cimmino, A.; Lomidze, D.; Paolucci, D.; Piccolo, P.; Baesso, P.; Necchi, M.; Pagano, D.; Ratti, S.P.; Vitulo, P.; Viviani, C.

    Results from the gas gain monitoring (GGM) system for the muon detector using RPC in the CMS experiment at the LHC is presented. The system is designed to provide fast and accurate determination of any shift in the working point of the chambers due to gas mixture changes.

  12. Automatic gas-levitation system for vacuum deposition of laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.W.; Cameron, G.R.; Krenik, R.M.; Crane, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    An improved simple system has been developed to gas-levitate microspheres during vacuum-deposition processes. The automatic operation relies on two effects: a lateral stabilizing force provided by a centering-ring; and an automatically incremented gas metering system to offset weight increases during coating

  13. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  14. Development of lab scale fast gas injection system for SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, F.S.; Banaudha, Moni; Khristi, Yohan; Khan, M.S.; Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, D.C.; Khirwadkar, Samir

    2017-01-01

    The plasma density control plays an important role in Tokamak operation. The factors that influence plasma density in a Tokamak device are working gas injection, pumping, ionization rate and the recycle coefficient representing the wall conditions. Among these factors, gas injection is relatively convenient to be controlled. Hence, the most frequently adopted method to control the plasma density is to control the fast gas injection. This paper describes the design and experimental work carried out towards the development of Fast Gas Injection System for SST-1 Tokamak. Laboratory based test setup was successfully established for Fast Gas Injection System that can feed predefined quantity of gas in a controlled manner into vacuum chamber. Further, this FGIS system will be implemented in SST-1 Tokamak environment with online density feedback signal

  15. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... between the doors of an air lock under § 154.345. (b) The sampling points under paragraph (a) of this... automatic valve that prevents cross-communication between sampling points. (p) Each flammable gas detection...

  16. Highly Efficient Electrochemical Cryogenic Purge Gas Recovery System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ongoing rocket test operations at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) result in substantial quantities of hydrogen gas that is flared from the facility in addition to...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.705 - Gas piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following information using letters no smaller than 1/4 inch high: Do Not Use Tools To Separate the “Quick... liquefied petroleum gas, and shall be applied to the male threads only. (h) Concealed tubing. Tubing shall...

  18. Natural disasters and the gas pipeline system. Topical report, August 1994-June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atallah, S.; Saxena, S.; Martin, S.B.; Willowby, A.B.; Alger, R.

    1996-11-15

    Episodic descriptions are provided of the effect of the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) on the gas pipeline systems of Pacific Gas & Electric Company and the City of Palo Alto and of the Northridge earthquake (1994) on Southern California Gas` pipeline system. The emergency response plans and activities of South Carolina Electric & Gas Company during hurricane Hugo (1989) and of City Gas Company of Florida and other small gas companies during hurricane Andrew (1992) are also reviewed. Descriptions of the great Flood of 1993 and its effects on the operations of Iowa-Illinois Gas & Electric Company and Laclede Gas Company and of the San Jacinto River Floods on the transmission lines of Valero Gas Co. are also provided. Local and federal regulatory requirements, and the current practices by the gas industry for dealing with natural disasters, such as through preventive measures (e.g., strapping of water heaters, excess flow valves), and the tracking of weather-related events are described. The important role that preplanning and coordination with the local emergency response bodies and other gas utilities plays during a natural disaster is examined.

  19. Upgradation in N2 gas station for TLD personnel monitoring using gas based semi-automatic badge readers- installation and integration of N2 gas generator plant to the system and its performance appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently Personnel Monitoring against external radiation is being carried out using CaSO 4 :Dy phosphor based TLD badge and hot N 2 gas based semiautomatic TLD Badge Reader (TLDBR-7B). This system requires the supply of high purity N 2 gas for the operation of the reader. This gas is normally obtained from N 2 gas cylinders use of which is a cumbersome, tedious, cost intensive and involves safety hazards. To minimize the dependence on conventional gas cylinders, a medium sized plant for generation of N 2 gas directly from air has been installed and coupled to gas station and distribution system. The paper describes the comparative study of performance of TLD reading system using gas from the generator with that using gas cylinders, which has been found to be quite comparable. This upgradation has helped in drastic reduction in cost, labour and improved safety in TLD Laboratory working. (author)

  20. Gas composition modeling in a reformed Methanol Fuel Cell system using adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a method for modeling the gas composition in a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell system. The method is based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy-Inference-Systems which are trained on experimental data. The developed models are of the H2, CO2, CO and CH3OH mass flows of the reformed gas. The ANFIS...

  1. Zero-power autonomous buoyancy system controlled by microbial gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peter K.; Fitzgerald, Lisa A.; Biffinger, Justin C.; Spargo, Barry J.; Houston, Brian H.; Bucaro, Joseph A.; Ringeisen, Bradley R.

    2011-05-01

    A zero-power ballast control system that could be used to float and submerge a device solely using a gas source was built and tested. This system could be used to convey sensors, data loggers, and communication devices necessary for water quality monitoring and other applications by periodically maneuvering up and down a water column. Operational parameters for the system such as duration of the submerged and buoyant states can be varied according to its design. The gas source can be of any origin, e.g., compressed air, underwater gas vent, gas produced by microbes, etc. The zero-power ballast system was initially tested using a gas pump and further tested using gas produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Using microbial gas production as the only source of gas and no electrical power during operation, the system successfully floated and submerged periodically with a period of 30 min for at least 24 h. Together with microbial fuel cells, this system opens up possibilities for underwater monitoring systems that could function indefinitely.

  2. Mass transfer and chemical reaction in gas-liquid-liquid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    1998-01-01

    Gas-liquid-liquid reaction systems may be encountered in several important fields of application as e.g. hydroformylation, alkylation, carboxylation, polymerisation, hydrometallurgy, biochemical processes and fine chemicals manufacturing. However, the reaction engineering aspects of these systems

  3. MRGC performance evaluation model of gas leak infrared imaging detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiakun; Jin, Weiqi; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Xu

    2014-12-15

    Gas leak infrared imaging detection technology has become one of the most effective means to detect gas leaks. We propose a novel MRGC (minimum resolvable gas concentration) model that is suitable for evaluating the performance of passive GLIIDSs (gas leak infrared imaging detection systems). An MRGC equivalent calculation method and a direct MRGC measurement method based on the MRTD (minimum resolvable temperature difference) model are also proposed. The MRGC measurement system is designed and built. The measured and calculated results are in good agreement, which verifies the MRGC model's correctness and demonstrates the effectiveness of the MRGC performance evaluation method.

  4. Expert System for support of natural gas network management; Sistema especialista para gerenciamento de redes de gas natural: SEGRED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jonny Carlos da [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Hirano, Eduardo Wulff [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica e Pneumatica (LASHIP); Moura, Newton Reis de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, Luiz Gustavo de Melo [PETROBRAS S.A., Pojuca, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Gas Natural (UNGN)

    2004-07-01

    This work reports on the SEGRED project, which aims to develop an expert system for management of natural gas transportation networks. The system is currently being developed by LASHIP-UFSC in partnership with PETROBRAS/CENPES and TBG. The SEGRED system consists of an environment designed to support natural gas pipeline management by means of remote supervision of process parameters and analysis of the mutual interactions of those parameters by an expert system integrated to a dynamic simulator. The system is deployed through a process that contributes to making available for use the knowledge about functions such as line packing analysis and line break detection, thus enhancing the quality of execution of these tasks, which are related to the management of natural gas transportation network. The main benefits consist of promoting efforts to acquire and organize expert knowledge. This process contributes to the generation of a knowledge base with corporate technical memory, which can be made available in a permanent, expansible and useful way for decision-making. (author)

  5. Modelling and analysis of offshore energy systems on North Sea oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Offshore processes are associated with significant energy consumption and large CO2 emissions. Conventional North Sea oil and gas facilities include the following operations: crude oil separation, gas compression and purification, wastewater treatment, gas lifting, seawater injection, oil and gas...... export, and power generation. In this paper, a generic model of a North Sea oil and gas platform is described and the most thermodynamically inefficient processes are identified by performing an exergy analysis. Models and simulations are built and run with the tools Aspen Plus R, DNA and Aspen HYSYS R....... Results reveal that the total exergy destruction of the system is particularly sensitive to the gas-to-oil ratio and amounts to 55-65 MW, while the total exergy losses amount to 15-20 MW. The gas compression train and the production manifold module are the most exergy-destructive operations of the oil...

  6. Atmosphere Behavior in Gas-Closed Mouse-Algal Systems: An Experimental and Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.

    1985-01-01

    A dual approach of mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere was initiated. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is examined. A mathematical model simulating the atmospheric behavior in these systems was developed and an experimental gas closed system was constructed. These systems are described and preliminary results are presented.

  7. Degradation of TBC Systems in Environments Relevant to Advanced Gas Turbines for IGCC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, Brian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Air plasma sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to provide thermal insulation for the hottest components in gas turbines. Zirconia stabilized with 7wt% yttria (7YSZ) is the most common ceramic top coat used for turbine blades. The 7YSZ coating can be degraded from the buildup of fly-ash deposits created in the power-generation process. Fly ash from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system can result from coal-based syngas. TBCs are also exposed to harsh gas environments containing CO2, SO2, and steam. Degradation from the combined effects of fly ash and harsh gas atmospheres has the potential to severely limit TBC lifetimes. The main objective of this study was to use lab-scale testing to systematically elucidate the interplay between prototypical deposit chemistries (i.e., ash and its constituents, K2SO4, and FeS) and environmental oxidants (i.e., O2, H2O and CO2) on the degradation behavior of advanced TBC systems. Several mechanisms of early TBC failure were identified, as were the specific fly-ash constituents responsible for degradation. The reactivity of MCrAlY bondcoats used in TBC systems was also investigated. The specific roles of oxide and sulfate components were assessed, together with the complex interplay between gas composition, deposit chemistry and alloy reactivity. Bondcoat composition design strategies to mitigate corrosion were established, particularly with regard to controlling phase constitution and the amount of reactive elements the bondcoat contains in order to achieve optimal corrosion resistance.

  8. HOT CELL SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING FISSION GAS RETENTION IN METALLIC FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, D. A.; Baily, C. E.; Malewitz, T. J.; Medvedev, P. G.; Porter, D. L.; Hilton, B. A.

    2016-09-01

    A system has been developed to perform measurements on irradiated, sodium bonded-metallic fuel elements to determine the amount of fission gas retained in the fuel material after release of the gas to the element plenum. During irradiation of metallic fuel elements, most of the fission gas developed is released from the fuel and captured in the gas plenums of the fuel elements. A significant amount of fission gas, however, remains captured in closed porosities which develop in the fuel during irradiation. Additionally, some gas is trapped in open porosity but sealed off from the plenum by frozen bond sodium after the element has cooled in the hot cell. The Retained fission Gas (RFG) system has been designed, tested and implemented to capture and measure the quantity of retained fission gas in characterized cut pieces of sodium bonded metallic fuel. Fuel pieces are loaded into the apparatus along with a prescribed amount of iron powder, which is used to create a relatively low melting, eutectic composition as the iron diffuses into the fuel. The apparatus is sealed, evacuated, and then heated to temperatures in excess of the eutectic melting point. Retained fission gas release is monitored by pressure transducers during the heating phase, thus monitoring for release of fission gas as first the bond sodium melts and then the fuel. A separate hot cell system is used to sample the gas in the apparatus and also characterize the volume of the apparatus thus permitting the calculation of the total fission gas release from the fuel element samples along with analysis of the gas composition.

  9. Operating experiences of gas purification system of Heavy Water Plant Talcher (Paper No. 1.11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Mohanty, P.R.; Pandey, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    The operating experiences with the purification system installed at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher for purification of feed synthesis gas from fertilizer plant is described. The purification system has performed satisfactorily even with levels of impurities as much as 15 to 20 ppm of oxygen and carbon monoxide. The system could not however be tested at designed gas throughput and on a sustained basis. However, increase in gas throughput upto the design value is not expected to pose any problem on the performance of the purification system. (author). 5 figs

  10. Permafrost-associated gas hydrate: is it really approximately 1% of the global system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Permafrost-associated gas hydrates are often assumed to contain ∼1 % of the global gas-in-place in gas hydrates based on a study26 published over three decades ago. As knowledge of permafrost-associated gas hydrates has grown, it has become clear that many permafrost-associated gas hydrates are inextricably linked to an associated conventional petroleum system, and that their formation history (trapping of migrated gas in situ during Pleistocene cooling) is consistent with having been sourced at least partially in nearby thermogenic gas deposits. Using modern data sets that constrain the distribution of continuous permafrost onshore5 and subsea permafrost on circum-Arctic Ocean continental shelves offshore and that estimate undiscovered conventional gas within arctic assessment units,16 the done here reveals where permafrost-associated gas hydrates are most likely to occur, concluding that Arctic Alaska and the West Siberian Basin are the best prospects. A conservative estimate is that 20 Gt C (2.7·1013 kg CH4) may be sequestered in permafrost-associated gas hydrates if methane were the only hydrate-former. This value is slightly more than 1 % of modern estimates (corresponding to 1600 Gt C to 1800 Gt C2,22) for global gas-in-place in methane hydrates and about double the absolute estimate (11.2 Gt C) made in 1981.26

  11. The Ukrainian energetic system under the light of the crisis: beyond gas transit, a governance challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Quentin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this report is to address and describe the problematic of the Ukrainian gas transit within a wider inner context and under the light of the current gas crisis. Beyond the European security of supply, maintaining the gas transit is a major domestic issue for Ukraine, from an economic as well as political point of view. This means that, in order to avoid a new gas crisis, Ukraine must significantly reform its energy sector in order to reduce its dependency and to re-balance its energy mix. In a first part, the author discusses gas price and transit network management as the main stakes of the gas crisis: recall of traditional dispute about gas between Russia and Ukraine, ageing and corruption as characteristics of a collapsing gas corridor, the Ukrainian law of September 2014 as a first step for a reform of energy governance. In a second part, the author discusses the future of the Ukrainian gas sector and the issue of stability of the national energy system. This should be based on short term options to strengthen the resilience of the gas sector in front of Russian supply disruption, a priority for a gas independence, and necessary review of the energy mix

  12. Design study on evaluation for power conversion system concepts in high temperature gas cooled reactor with gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minatsuki, Isao; Mizokami, Yorikata

    2007-01-01

    The design studies on High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor with Gas Turbine (HTGR-GT) have been performed, which were mainly promoted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and supported by fabricators in Japan. HTGR-GT plant feature is almost determined by selection of power conversion system concepts. Therefore, plant design philosophy is observed characteristically in selection of them. This paper describes the evaluation and analysis of the essential concepts of the HTGR-GT power conversion system through the investigations based on our experiences and engineering knowledge as a fabricator. As a result, the following concepts were evaluated that have advantages against other competitive one, such as the horizontal turbo machine rotor, the turbo machine in an individual vessel, the turbo machine with single shaft, the generator inside the power conversion vessel, and the power conversion system cycle with an intercooler. The results of the study can contribute as reference data when the concepts will be selected. Furthermore, we addressed reasonableness about the concept selection of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor GTHTR300 power conversion system, which has been promoted by JAEA. As a conclusion, we recognized the GTHTR300 would be one of the most promising concepts for commercialization in near future. (author)

  13. A novel Kr-83m tracer method for characterizing xenon gas and cryogenic distillation systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosendahl, S.; Bokeloh, K.; Brown, E.; Cristescu, R.; Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Levy, C.; Murra, M.; Schneider, S.; Vénos, Drahoslav; Weinheimer, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, OCT (2014), p10010 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP203/12/1896; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : photon detectors for UV * visible and IR photons (gas) * gas systems and purification * scintillators, scintillation and light emission processes (solid, gas and liquid scintillators) * very low-energy charged particle detectors Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.399, year: 2014

  14. Estimation of Uncertainles in Gas-Condensate Systems Reserves by Monte Carlo Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy Stanislaw; Siemek Jakub

    2004-01-01

    In the paper, an impact of improper condensate sampling on calculation of gas and condensate reserves of gas-condensate system is presented. The paper discusses probabilistic methods in reserves estimation (proven, possible, probable). The Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) has been used to calculations of phase properties. Sensitivity of CGR during recombination of stream process on liquid and gas reserves has been shown. The large error in estimation of condensate reserve has been obtain...

  15. Radiation and gas conduction heat transport across a helium dewar multilayer insulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes a method for calculating mixed heat transfer through the multilayer insulation used to insulate a 4 K liquid helium cryostat. The method described here permits one to estimate the insulation potential for a multilayer insulation system from first principles. The heat transfer regimes included are: radiation, conduction by free molecule gas conduction, and conduction through continuum gas conduction. Heat transfer in the transition region between the two gas conduction regimes is also included

  16. Design and Development of Gas Leakage Monitoring System Using Arduino and ZigBee

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Huan Hui; Rahayu, Yusnita

    2014-01-01

    Gas leakage in industrial area causes many health issues. Thus, to prevent such disasters happen, the atmosphere of a workplace should be regularly monitored and controlled, in order to maintain the clean air environment. However, efforts in industrial air quality control have been impeded by the lack of science-based approaches to identify and assess atmosphere air quality and level of dangerous gas. Therefore, a monitoring system for gas leakage detection needs to be developed. For the deve...

  17. Dose distribution effect on optimal geometry for industrial flue gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Dobrowolski, A.; Tyminski, B.

    1998-01-01

    Dose distribution in a flue gas irradiation vessel is not uniform due to the absorption of electron energy in the gas phase. This phenomenon influences the overall NO x removal efficiency. The remarkable increase in the NO x removal efficiency can be achieved by a multistage gas irradiation system and location of accelerators which enables improvement of dose distribution uniformity in the process vessel. These problems are analysed in this report. (author)

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water: heat pumps compared to most commonly used systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Bongghi; Howarth, Robert

    2017-01-01

    We estimate the emissions of the two most important greenhouse gasses (GHG), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), from the use of modern high-efficiency heat pump water heaters compared to the most commonly used domestic hot water systems: natural gas storage tanks, tankless natural gas demand heaters, electric resistance storage tanks, and tankless electric resistance heaters. We considered both natural gas-powered electric plants and coal-powered plants as the source of the electricity f...

  19. Identifying Liquid-Gas System Misconceptions and Addressing Them Using a Laboratory Exercise on Pressure-Temperature Diagrams of a Mixed Gas Involving Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on students' understandings of a liquid-gas system with liquid-vapor equilibrium in a closed system using a pressure-temperature ("P-T") diagram. By administrating three assessment questions concerning the "P-T" diagrams of liquid-gas systems to students at the beginning of undergraduate general chemistry…

  20. Hydrate Formation/Dissociation in (Natural Gas + Water + Diesel Oil Emulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yu Sun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrate formation/dissociation of natural gas in (diesel oil + water emulsion systems containing 3 wt% anti-agglomerant were performed for five water cuts: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 vol%. The natural gas solubilities in the emulsion systems were also examined. The experimental results showed that the solubility of natural gas in emulsion systems increases almost linearly with the increase of pressure, and decreases with the increase of water cut. There exists an initial slow hydrate formation stage for systems with lower water cut, while rapid hydrate formation takes place and the process of the gas-liquid dissolution equilibrium at higher water cut does not appear in the pressure curve. The gas consumption amount due to hydrate formation at high water cut is significantly higher than that at low water cut. Fractional distillation for natural gas components also exists during the hydrate formation process. The experiments on hydrate dissociation showed that the dissociation rate and the amount of dissociated gas increase with the increase of water cut. The variations of temperature in the process of natural gas hydrate formation and dissociation in emulsion systems were also examined.

  1. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Closed Vent Systems, Control Devices, Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to...

  2. Development of membrane moisture separator for BWR off-gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, H.; Kawamura, S.; Kumasaka, M.; Nishikubo, M.

    2001-01-01

    In BWR plant off-gas treatment systems, dehumidifiers are used to maintain noble gas adsorption efficiency in the first half of the charcoal hold-up units. From the perspective of simplifying and reducing the cost of such a dehumidification system, Japanese BWR utilities and plant fabricators have been developing a dehumidification system employing moisture separation membrane of the type already proven in fields such as medical instrumentation and precision measuring apparatus. The first part of this development involved laboratory testing to simulate the conditions found in an actual off-gas system, the results of which demonstrated satisfactory results in terms of moisture separation capability and membrane durability, and suggested favorable prospects for application in actual off-gas systems. Further, in-plant testing to verify moisture separation capability and membrane durability in the presence of actual gases is currently underway, with results so far suggesting that the system is capable of obtaining good moisture separation capability. (author)

  3. Thermogravimetry-evolved gas analysis–mass spectrometry system ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ried out to optimize the interface conditions and to obtain ideal operating parameters to achieve best possible results with minimum time delay, better resolution and sensiti- vity (Kaisersberger and Post 1997). The operating para- meters like heating rate, sample mass and carrier flow gas were systematically varied to study ...

  4. Productivity gains and greenhouse gas emissions intensity in dairy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Opio, C.; Steinfeld, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between productivity of dairy production and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a global scale. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess GHG emissions from dairy production and processing chains. Milk yield expressed as kg fat and protein

  5. Thermogravimetry-evolved gas analysis–mass spectrometry system ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, India. MS received 13 May 2002. Abstract. ... This paper essentially describes design features involved in coupling the existing .... pressure and (iv) for qualitative and quantitative analysis of unknown gas mixture (Dash et al ...

  6. Artificial intelligence system for the monitoring of natural gas production systems; Intelligente Ueberwachung von Erdgasfoerderanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschaetsch, H.U.

    2001-02-01

    The article explains a novel, artificial intelligence-based system called HISS (Human Interface Supervision System) which has been installed as a prototype for the monitoring of a natural gas production site at Thoense near Hannover/Germany. The system is capable to perform audio-visual and smelling functions, analogous to the human sensory perception. (orig./CB) [German] Die Aufrechterhaltung eines einwandfreien Betriebszustandes von technischen Anlagen durch staendige Kontrollen und regelmaessige Wartungsarbeiten ist haeufig eine aufwendige und kostspielige Angelegenheit. Gleichwohl ist sie - sowohl was die Frage der Sicherheit als auch des Umweltschutzes anbelangt - unentbehrlich. Die Erdgasfoerderanlage Thoense bei Hannover wird von einem intelligenten Ueberwachungssystem, HISS - Human Interface Supervision System, kontrolliert, das die menschlichen Eigenschaften sehen, hoeren und riechen beherrscht. (orig.)

  7. Secure and economic operational of a gas transportation system; Operacion economica y segura de un sistema de transporte de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardi, Oscar Jose; Trichilo, Claudia; Valpreda, Carlos [Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A. (Argentina)

    2003-07-01

    Since 1992, Transportadora de Gas del Sur (TGS) has been operating the longest gas pipeline system in South America. Prior to that date, the system was managed by GE, a state-owned company. Early on in the administration of the company, some improvement opportunities were identified in the technical, commercial, management and personnel fields. An integrated transformation process was developed which involved major investments, acquisition of new technology, re-design of the work force, and new work methodologies. The course of action followed by the company was based on an attempt to achieve permanent improvement on business results. This paper is the result of the improvements applied to our gas transportation system. Due to the time and cost assessment required by scheduled turbine compressor maintenance works (83 - 538.220 hp), a Contingency Plan for turbine compressor breakdowns was established as well as an Economic Dispatch, which can determine low-cost operations in specific periods of time (during the year). This work details the actions taken. (author)

  8. Ion transport membrane reactor systems and methods for producing synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the present invention provide cost-effective systems and methods for producing a synthesis gas product using a steam reformer system and an ion transport membrane (ITM) reactor having multiple stages, without requiring inter-stage reactant injections. Embodiments of the present invention also provide techniques for compensating for membrane performance degradation and other changes in system operating conditions that negatively affect synthesis gas production.

  9. Construction of intelligent decision support system in control of gas compression process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Леонид Михайлович Замиховский

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to construct the intelligent decision support systems (IDSS in the control of the gas compression process with inclusion in structure of the training module is substantiated. А block diagram of human-computer interaction in the system "Dispatcher - IDSS - ASC GCU - CS" is shown, and the functions of the separate blocks of the intellectual decision support system in the control of the gas compression process are defined

  10. Autonomous gas chromatograph system for Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) proof of concept demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, F.J.; Laguna, G.R.

    1996-09-01

    An autonomous gas chromatograph system was designed and built to support the Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) demonstration. TEVES is a remediation demonstration that seeks to enhance an existing technology (vacuum extraction) by adding a new technology (soil heating). A pilot scale unit was set up at one of the organic waste disposal pits at the Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) in Tech Area 3. The responsibility for engineering a major part of the process instrumentation for TEVES belonged to the Manufacturing Control Subsystems Department. The primary mission of the one-of-a-kind hardware/software system is to perform on-site gas sampling and analysis to quantify a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from various sources during TEVES operations. The secondary mission is to monitor a variety of TEVES process physical parameters such as extraction manifold temperature, pressure, humidity, and flow rate, and various subsurface pressures. The system began operation in September 1994 and was still in use on follow-on projects when this report was published

  11. Study of gas gain uniformity of the LHCb Muon System MWPCs using cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    De Capua, S; Brusa, S; Carboni, G; Franconieri, A; Graziani, G; Lenzi, M; Messi, R; Pennazzi, S; Sabatino, G; Santovetti, E; Savrié, M

    2006-01-01

    We present here a measurement of the gas gain uniformity of the M2R3 and M5R4 chambers and we discuss the comparison with the values obtained via the source. The method could also be used to monitor the gas gain uniformity of the Muon System during data taking.

  12. 75 FR 18607 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... complex as climate change (e.g. indirect emissions from electricity use). In that sense, one could view... vented carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions from petroleum and natural gas systems... 2 emissions in the petroleum and gas industry, while significantly reducing industry burden. Under...

  13. Optimal Energy Management for the Integrated Power and Gas Systems via Real-time Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, KangAn; Ai, Xiaomeng; Wen, Jinyu

    2018-01-01

    This work proposed a bi-level formulation for energy management in the integrated power and natural gas system via real-time price signals. The upper-level problem minimizes the operational cost, in which dynamic electricity price and dynamic gas tariff are proposed. The lower level problem...

  14. Controls on evolution of gas-hydrate system in the Krishna-Godavari basin, offshore India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Badesab, F.K.; Dewangan, P.; Usapkar, A.; Kocherla, M.; Peketi, A.; Mohite, K.; Sangode, S.J.; Deenadayalan, K.

    to constrain the evolution of gas hydrate system in marine environments.  2    1. Introduction Methane hydrate is the most common and natural form of gas hydrates, and is distributed worldwide along the oceanic and permafrost environments [Kvenvolden, 1993...

  15. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael Jerome; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2010-02-09

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  16. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Harvey, Karen [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  17. New integrated monitoring and control system for disaster gas application in coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Deng-yu; Lai, Xing-ping; Ji, Chang-fa; Xi, Hong-jun; Bo, Zhang; Liu, Chen

    2017-04-01

    This paper introduces the composition, working principle and characteristics of the new gas monitoring system, which are used to monitor the gas in the gob area and working face of the mine in real time. According to the oxygen concentration, the spontaneous combustion of gob area “three zones” was determined and divided. In order to carry out disaster early warning, the methane and carbon monoxide super gas concentration changes were studied and analyzed. And the variation law of gas concentration in gob area and coal face in coal mining was obtained. This study provides reference for the follow-up fire prevention and production.

  18. Atmosphere behavior in gas-closed mouse-algal systems - An experimental and modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.

    1984-01-01

    A NASA-sponsored research program initiated using mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas-exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere is studied. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is considered. A mathematical model simulating the behavior of a gas-closed mouse-algal system under varying environmental conditions is described. To verify and validate the model simulations, an analytical system with which algal growth and gas exchange characteristics can be manipulated and measured is designed, fabricated, and tested. The preliminary results are presented.

  19. Operation of the JET active gas handling system during and after DTE1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laesser, R.; Bell, A.C.; Bainbridge, N.; Brennan, D.; Grieveson, B.; Hemmerich, J.L.; Jones, G.; Kennedy, D.; Knipe, S.; Lupo, J.; Mart, J.; Perevezentsev, A.; Skinner, N.; Stagg, R.; Yorkshades, J.; Atkins, G.V. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Doerr, L. [FZ Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021, Karlsruhe (Germany); Green, N.; Stead, M.; Wilson, K. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1999-11-01

    During and after the deuterium-tritium experiment (DTE1) the JET active gas handling system fulfilled all expectations and requirements: it pumped, processed and purified the gases from the torus and connected systems, isotopically separated hydrogen and supplied 100 g tritium to the machine with only 20 g on JET site which means that the tritium was recycled five times. In addition, it supplied ventilation air detritiation services during interventions inside and outside the active gas handling building. This demonstrated for the first time that high tritium quantities can be recycled safely in connection with a large fusion facility. The paper describes the operation of the active gas handling system. (orig.)

  20. Implementation of gas district cooling and cogeneration systems in Malaysia; Mise en oeuvre de systemes de gas district cooling et de cogeneration en Malaisie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haron, S. [Gas District Cooling, M, Sdn Bhd (Malaysia)

    2000-07-01

    With its energy demand in the early 1990's growing at a high rate due to the country's strong economic growth, Malaysia studied various options to improve the efficiency of its energy use. Since its natural gas reserves are almost four times that of its crude oil reserves, efforts were therefore centered on seeking ways to boost the use of natural gas to mitigate the growing domestic energy need. PETRONAS, the national oil company, subsequently studied and chose the District Cooling System using natural gas as the primary source of fuel. The Kuala Lumpur City Center development, which houses the PETRONAS Twin Towers, was subsequently chosen as the first project to use the Gas District Cooling (GDC) System. To acquire the technology and implement this project, PETRONAS created a new subsidiary, Gas District Cooling (Malaysia) Sendirian Berhad (GDC(M)). In the process of improving the plant's efficiency, GDC(M) discovered that the GDC system's efficiency and project economics would be significantly enhanced if its is coupled to a Cogeneration system. Having proven the success of the GDC/Cogeneration system, GDC(M) embarked on a campaign to aggressively promote and seek new opportunities to implement the system, both in Malaysia-and abroad. Apart from enhancing efficiency of energy use, and providing better project economics, the GDC/Cogeneration system also is environment friendly. Today, the GDC/Cogeneration systems is the system of choice for several important developments in Malaysia, which also includes the country's prestigious projects such as the Kuala Lumpur International Airport and the New Federal Government Administrative Center in Putrajaya. (author)

  1. Thinking on Sichuan-Chongqing gas pipeline transportation system reform under market-oriented conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanzhi

    2017-01-01

    The gas pipeline networks in Sichuan and Chongqing (Sichuan-Chongqing) region have formed a fully-fledged gas pipeline transportation system in China, which supports and promotes the rapid development of gas market in Sichuan-Chongqing region. In the circumstances of further developed market-oriented economy, it is necessary to carry out further the pipeline system reform in the areas of investment/financing system, operation system and pricing system to lay a solid foundation for improving future gas production and marketing capability and adapting itself to the national gas system reform, and to achieve the objectives of multiparty participated pipeline construction, improved pipeline transportation efficiency and fair and rational pipeline transportation prices. In this article, main thinking on reform in the three areas and major deployment are addressed, and corresponding measures on developing shared pipeline economy, providing financial support to pipeline construction, setting up independent regulatory agency to enhance the industrial supervision for gas pipeline transportation, and promoting the construction of regional gas trade market are recommended.

  2. Optimal design of a gas transmission network: A case study of the Turkish natural gas pipeline network system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Ersin Fatih

    Turkey is located between Europe, which has increasing demand for natural gas and the geographies of Middle East, Asia and Russia, which have rich and strong natural gas supply. Because of the geographical location, Turkey has strategic importance according to energy sources. To supply this demand, a pipeline network configuration with the optimal and efficient lengths, pressures, diameters and number of compressor stations is extremely needed. Because, Turkey has a currently working and constructed network topology, obtaining an optimal configuration of the pipelines, including an optimal number of compressor stations with optimal locations, is the focus of this study. Identifying a network design with lowest costs is important because of the high maintenance and set-up costs. The quantity of compressor stations, the pipeline segments' lengths, the diameter sizes and pressures at compressor stations, are considered to be decision variables in this study. Two existing optimization models were selected and applied to the case study of Turkey. Because of the fixed cost of investment, both models are formulated as mixed integer nonlinear programs, which require branch and bound combined with the nonlinear programming solution methods. The differences between these two models are related to some factors that can affect the network system of natural gas such as wall thickness, material balance compressor isentropic head and amount of gas to be delivered. The results obtained by these two techniques are compared with each other and with the current system. Major differences between results are costs, pressures and flow rates. These solution techniques are able to find a solution with minimum cost for each model both of which are less than the current cost of the system while satisfying all the constraints on diameter, length, flow rate and pressure. These results give the big picture of an ideal configuration for the future state network for the country of Turkey.

  3. Multi objective optimization of line pack management of gas pipeline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebouba, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the Line Pack Management of the ''GZ1 Hassi R'mell-Arzew'' gas pipeline. For a gas pipeline system, the decision-making on the gas line pack management scenarios usually involves a delicate balance between minimization of the fuel consumption in the compression stations and maximizing gas line pack. In order to select an acceptable Line Pack Management of Gas Pipeline scenario from these two angles for ''GZ1 Hassi R'mell- Arzew'' gas pipeline, the idea of multi-objective decision-making has been introduced. The first step in developing this approach is the derivation of a numerical method to analyze the flow through the pipeline under transient isothermal conditions. In this paper, the solver NSGA-II of the modeFRONTIER, coupled with a matlab program was used for solving the multi-objective problem

  4. A System Dynamics Analysis of Investment, Technology and Policy that Affect Natural Gas Exploration and Exploitation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jianzhong; Cheng, Jinhua; Shen, Jun; Wang, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Natural gas has an increasing role in Chinese energy transformation. We present a system dynamics model of the natural gas industry in China. A new system dynamics model for natural gas companies based on reserve exploration and well construction as well as investment dynamics is proposed. The contribution of the paper is to analyze the influence of technology, investment and policy factors on the natural gas industry. We found that the dynamics of the main variables, including gas policy, co...

  5. The regulatory regime for gas: a system in danger of coming off the rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nangle, B.

    2000-01-01

    The Australian Gas Association (AGA) and its members are getting restless as it becomes more apparent the promised benefits of deregulation are imposing more costs and controls on an industry that owns and operates infrastructure valued at $15bn in heavily regulated markets. AGA Chief Executive Bill Nable used the Northern Territory Electricity and Gas Review in Darwin to examine the state of the gas regulatory regime. The pure reform model envisaged: 1. Multiple producers dealing often directly with large customers and retailers; 2. Open and transparent third party access to transmission (high pressure pipelines) and distribution (local low pressure pipeline networks) systems; and 3. A greater number of energy retailers competing for customers who are free to choose who they purchase their gas from. Energy sector reforms were generally pursued in a coordinated fashion through Commonwealth and State leaders forum - COAG. For gas, as with electricity, this meant separating out (unbundling) previously integrated gas utilities to engender competition and to lower prices - initially for major export and import competing sectors and eventually residential and small business customers. Although the reforms are laudable and have industry support, senior gas industry executives spoke about their concerns and caution about the negative impact the 'Third Party Access Code for Natural Gas and Pipeline Systems' may have for the gas supply industry

  6. Flight Testing of an Advanced Airborne Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawn Lenz; Raymond T. Lines; Darryl Murdock; Jeffrey Owen; Steven Stearns; Michael Stoogenke

    2005-10-01

    ITT Industries Space Systems Division (Space Systems) has developed an airborne natural gas leak detection system designed to detect, image, quantify, and precisely locate leaks from natural gas transmission pipelines. This system is called the Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ANGEL) system. The ANGEL system uses a highly sensitive differential absorption Lidar technology to remotely detect pipeline leaks. The ANGEL System is operated from a fixed wing aircraft and includes automatic scanning, pointing system, and pilot guidance systems. During a pipeline inspection, the ANGEL system aircraft flies at an elevation of 1000 feet above the ground at speeds of between 100 and 150 mph. Under this contract with DOE/NETL, Space Systems was funded to integrate the ANGEL sensor into a test aircraft and conduct a series of flight tests over a variety of test targets including simulated natural gas pipeline leaks. Following early tests in upstate New York in the summer of 2004, the ANGEL system was deployed to Casper, Wyoming to participate in a set of DOE-sponsored field tests at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). At RMOTC the Space Systems team completed integration of the system and flew an operational system for the first time. The ANGEL system flew 2 missions/day for the duration for the 5-day test. Over the course of the week the ANGEL System detected leaks ranging from 100 to 5,000 scfh.

  7. Acoustic transducer in system for gas temperature measurement in gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSilva, Upul P.; Claussen, Heiko

    2017-07-04

    An apparatus for controlling operation of a gas turbine engine including at least one acoustic transmitter/receiver device located on a flow path boundary structure. The acoustic transmitter/receiver device includes an elongated sound passage defined by a surface of revolution having opposing first and second ends and a central axis extending between the first and second ends, an acoustic sound source located at the first end, and an acoustic receiver located within the sound passage between the first and second ends. The boundary structure includes an opening extending from outside the boundary structure to the flow path, and the second end of the surface of revolution is affixed to the boundary structure at the opening for passage of acoustic signals between the sound passage and the flow path.

  8. Performance optimization of a gas turbine-based cogeneration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Tamer

    2006-06-01

    In this paper an exergy optimization has been carried out for a cogeneration plant consisting of a gas turbine, which is operated in a Brayton cycle, and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). In the analysis, objective functions of the total produced exergy and exergy efficiency have been defined as functions of the design parameters of the gas turbine and the HRSG. An equivalent temperature is defined as a new approach to model the exergy rate of heat transfer from the HRSG. The optimum design parameters of the cogeneration cycle at maximum exergy are determined and the effects of these parameters on exergetic performance are investigated. Some practical mathematical relations are also derived to find the optimum values of the adiabatic temperature ratio for given extreme temperatures and consumer temperature.

  9. Hydrogen Rich Natural Gas as a Fuel for SOFC Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Leucht, Florian; Henke, Moritz; Willich, Caroline; Westner, Christina; Kallo, Josef; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in installed renewable power in Europe and especially in Germany, the need for energy storage becomes urgent. One interesting option due to its high energy density is the generation of hydrogen from renewable electricity using electrolysis. Produced hydrogen can either be sold as fuel for mobile applications or it can be stored in existing infrastructure. One major storage capability is the natural gas pipeline network in which a huge amount of energy can be stored and distr...

  10. Logistic management system for natural gas transportation by pipelines; Sistema de gestao de logistica de transporte de gas por gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney Pereira dos; Castro, Antonio Orestes de Salvo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leal, Jose Eugenio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    An efficient management of the natural gas business chain, based on pipeline transmission network and taking into consideration the interaction between the main players such as shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies, requires the use of decision-making support systems to maximize resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages as well as market demand shortfalls. This work presents a practical utilization of technologies such as thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies and economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for maximization and minimization objective function. The proposed system allows the definition of the optimum availability level to be maintained by the Transporter, by means of installing redundancy, to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. Identifies, quantifies and justifies economically the installation of stand-by compressor units, mitigating Transporter exposure to losses due to capacity shortfalls as consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. (author)

  11. Influences of additives on the gas hydrate cool storage process in a new gas hydrate cool storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Yuehong; Guo Tingwei; Zhu Tingying; Zhang Liang; Chen Lingen

    2006-01-01

    Experimental research on the crystallization process of the gas hydrate HCFC141b is performed for this paper. The influences of different proportions of calcium hypochlorite or benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt on the crystallization process are studied. The results show that the degree of subcooling of formation is obviously decreased, and the formation rate of the gas hydrate is greatly accelerated by adding reasonable proportions of the additives. The degree of subcooling of formation decreases 0.78 deg. C by adding benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt of 0.03%, and the formation rate of the gas hydrate increases 0.2 g/s by adding calcium hypochlorite of 0.08%. In the cool storage system, clathrate hydrates can be formed effectively, and thermal energy can be stored efficiently. When adding benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt of 0.03%, the cold energy stored is 4.74 MJ, and the cool storage density is 206.07 MJ/m 3 . The performance of this cool storage system can meet the needs of practical air conditioning engineering

  12. Thermodynamic simulation of biomass gas steam reforming for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sordi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to simulate a small-scale fuel cell system for power generation using biomass gas as fuel. The methodology encompasses the thermodynamic and electrochemical aspects of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, as well as solves the problem of chemical equilibrium in complex systems. In this case the complex system is the internal reforming of biomass gas to produce hydrogen. The fuel cell input variables are: operational voltage, cell power output, composition of the biomass gas reforming, thermodynamic efficiency, electrochemical efficiency, practical efficiency, the First and Second law efficiencies for the whole system. The chemical compositions, molar flows and temperatures are presented to each point of the system as well as the exergetic efficiency. For a molar water/carbon ratio of 2, the thermodynamic simulation of the biomass gas reforming indicates the maximum hydrogen production at a temperature of 1070 K, which can vary as a function of the biomass gas composition. The comparison with the efficiency of simple gas turbine cycle and regenerative gas turbine cycle shows the superiority of SOFC for the considered electrical power range.

  13. Identification of the microbiological community in biogas systems and evaluation of microbial risks from gas usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinneraas, Bjoern [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Biometry and Engineering, Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Schoenning, Caroline [Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Department of Parasitology, Mycology, Environmental Mirobiology and Water, SE-171 82 Solna (Sweden); Nordin, Annika [National Veterinary Institute, Department of Wild Life, Fish and Environment, SE-751 89 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-08-31

    The plans for introducing biogas produced from organic waste to the pipe system for natural gas has raised concerns about the risk of transmitting disease via the gas. To assess this risk, condensate water from gas pipes and gas from different parts of a biogas upgrading system were sampled and cultured for microbial content. On average, 10{sup 5} cfu ml{sup -1} were found in the condensate water throughout the system, while in the gas between 10 and 100 cfu m{sup -3} were found. The microorganisms were subjected to further identification and found to represent a wide variety, e.g. fungi and spore-forming and non-spore-forming bacteria, including species such as Enterobacteriaceae. The number of microorganisms found in the biogas corresponded to the densities in sampled natural gas, which also held 10-100 cfu m{sup -3}. Since no pathogens were identified and since the exposure to gas from e.g. cookers and refuelling of cars may only result in the inhalation of small volumes of gas, the risk of spreading disease via biogas was judged to be very low. (author)

  14. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A

  15. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-17

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.

  16. A Review on Innovative Procedures for the Analysis of Data from Gas Sensor Systems and Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Seifert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic online and in-situ field analyses applications like discriminated alarming of smoldering fire or toxic gas leakages, monitoring of volatile components in chemical and biochemical processes, quality monitoring in food processing etc., wait for reliable and economic analytical solutions by sensor systems. This paper presents various innovative mathematical procedures to analyze data from gas sensor systems and gas sensor nets: ProSens - an efficient mathematical procedure for calibration and evaluation of tin oxide gas sensor data, SimSens – a mathematical program for simultaneous analysis of gases, ProCal - a program for batch-wise calibration of multi gas sensors and ProSource - a procedure for source localization. Applications to real data demonstrate the performance of the procedures.

  17. 77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Systems to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ...: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Systems to Applications Other Than Single-Family... Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves (EFVs) in Gas Distribution Systems to Applications Other... the use of EFVs in gas distribution systems. On January 10, 2012, PHMSA received a request to extend...

  18. Analysis of Energy Storage System with Distributed Hydrogen Production and Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the concept of energy storage system based on power-to-gas-to-power (P2G2P technology. The system consists of a gas turbine co-firing hydrogen, which is supplied from a distributed electrolysis installations, powered by the wind farms located a short distance from the potential construction site of the gas turbine. In the paper the location of this type of investment was selected. As part of the analyses, the area of wind farms covered by the storage system and the share of the electricity production which is subjected storage has been changed. The dependence of the changed quantities on the potential of the hydrogen production and the operating time of the gas turbine was analyzed. Additionally, preliminary economic analyses of the proposed energy storage system were carried out.

  19. Analysis of Energy Storage System with Distributed Hydrogen Production and Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Dubiel-Jurgaś, Klaudia

    2017-12-01

    Paper presents the concept of energy storage system based on power-to-gas-to-power (P2G2P) technology. The system consists of a gas turbine co-firing hydrogen, which is supplied from a distributed electrolysis installations, powered by the wind farms located a short distance from the potential construction site of the gas turbine. In the paper the location of this type of investment was selected. As part of the analyses, the area of wind farms covered by the storage system and the share of the electricity production which is subjected storage has been changed. The dependence of the changed quantities on the potential of the hydrogen production and the operating time of the gas turbine was analyzed. Additionally, preliminary economic analyses of the proposed energy storage system were carried out.

  20. Gas chambers for identification of charged particles in 4π systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barczyk, T.; Brzychczyk, J.; Burzynski, P.

    1995-01-01

    Gas ionization chambers of a special shape adapted for 4π detector systems are presented. Different anode wire configurations are discussed for three working gases: Ar + methane(10%), isobutane, and tetrafluoromethane. (orig.)

  1. SRD Exhibits ONR Funded Chemical Detector Technology & Supporting Gas Delivery Systems (GDS) AT PITTCON 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmon, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    SRD attended PITTCON 2005 in Orlando, Florida with an exhibitor booth to showcase their chemical detector technology being developed for The Office of Naval Research as well as gas delivery systems (GDS...

  2. G-gas : from Groningen gas to Green gas? An assessment of the Dutch green gas potential and its delivery to the natural gas system based on Groningen gas quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas plays a major role in the energy supply of the Netherlands. The use of fossil fuels is scien-tifically linked to climate change. Therefore, ‘green gas’ could have potential for the future in the Netherlands as a renewable energy source. Green

  3. Impact of sustained low oil prices on China's oil & gas industry system and coping strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jianjun; Wang, Nan; Tang, Hongjun; Li, Jun; Xiong, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The global sustained low oil prices have a significant impact on China's oil and gas industry system and the national energy security. This paper aims to find solutions in order to guarantee the smooth development of China's oil and gas industry system and its survival in such a severe environment. First, the origins of sustained low oil prices were analyzed. Then, based on those published data from IEA, government and some other authorities, this study focused on the development status, ener...

  4. Theoretical test of Jarzynski's equality for reversible volume-switching processes of an ideal gas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jaeyoung

    2007-07-01

    We present an exact theoretical test of Jarzynski's equality (JE) for reversible volume-switching processes of an ideal gas system. The exact analysis shows that the prediction of JE for the free energy difference is the same as the work done on the gas system during the reversible process that is dependent on the shape of path of the reversible volume-switching process.

  5. Noble gas removal system for post-accident decontamination of power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, M.J.; Kanak, B.E.; Little, D.K.; Merriman, J.R.; Riepe, R.C.

    1980-05-01

    Oak Ridge has developed a noble gas removal system, as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, that could be used to help decontaminate the containment vessel of a power reactor following core release of fission gas in the event that containment venting is judged to be unacceptable. The system is based on a fluorocarbon selective absorption process, which has been well demonstrated on an engineering scale with over 10 years of pilot plant operation

  6. Analysis Proton Conducting Electrolyte IT-SOFC Hybrid System Exhaust Gas With External Reforming of Biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Amir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis, a hybrid system containing proton SOFC (P-SOFC combine with micro gas turbine (MGT with biofuel external reforming is investigation to decrease the greenhouse gases problem facing in electrical power plant. The hybrid system consist of a proton solid oxide fuel cell stack, a micro gas turbine, a combustor, compressors, heat exchangers and external reformer. The main operating parameter such as, fuel utilization and steam - carbon ratio is determined in this analysis.

  7. Suggestions to leak prevention in Fortaleza's natural gas piping system; Sugestoes para a prevencao de vazamentos de gas natural canalizado na regiao metropolitana de Fortaleza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Marcus de Barros [Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara (ARCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Leaks are the bigger problem in health, safety and environmental when the subject is gas distribution piping systems. Specially in high density human regions, like in the majority districts of Fortaleza, safety have to be the higher priority to the gas company responsible for the gas distribution piping systems. Leaks are able to cause accidents or incidents, depending on the circumstances which they happen. In order to be control the situation and overcome the luck factor, leaks must be previously avoided by the application of some security requirements. This paper present some suggestions to natural gas leak prevention in the Fortaleza's metropolitan region pipeline systems. First, the piping systems are analysed, observing the risk regions. Then, safety actions and basic requirements to avoid pipe corrosion are presented in order to improve safety in the gas distribution piping systems of Fortaleza's metropolitan region. (author)

  8. An analytical approach of thermodynamic behavior in a gas target system on a medical cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Pouyan; Zacchia, Nicholas A; Buckley, Ken; Bénard, François; Schaffer, Paul; Martinez, D Mark; Hoehr, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to study the thermo-mechanical behavior of gas targets used to produce medical isotopes, assuming that the system reaches steady-state. It is based on an integral analysis of the mass and energy balance of the gas-target system, the ideal gas law, and the deformation of the foil. The heat transfer coefficients for different target bodies and gases have been calculated. Excellent agreement is observed between experiments performed at TRIUMF's 13 MeV cyclotron and the model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fabrication of ATALANTE Dissolver Off-Gas Sorbent-Based Capture System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Jr., Joseph Franklin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-30

    A small sorbent-based capture system was designed that could be placed in the off-gas line from the fuel dissolver in the ATALANTE hot cells with minimal modifications to the ATALANTE dissolver off-gas system. Discussions with personnel from the ATALANTE facility provided guidance that was used for the design. All components for this system have been specified, procured, and received on site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), meeting the April 30, 2015, milestone for completing the fabrication of the ATALANTE dissolver off-gas capture system. This system will be tested at ORNL to verify operation and to ensure that all design requirements for ATALANTE are met. Modifications to the system will be made, as indicated by the testing, before the system is shipped to ATALANTE for installation in the hot cell facility.

  10. Mitigation of methane emissions in a pilot-scale biocover system at the AV Miljø Landfill, Denmark: 1. System design and gas distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassini, Filippo; Scheutz, Charlotte; Skov, Bent Henning

    2017-01-01

    -passive biocover system was constructed at the AV Miljø Landfill, Denmark. The biocover system was fed by landfill gas pumped out of three leachate collection wells. An innovative gas distribution system was used to overcome the commonly observed surface emission hot spot areas resulting from an uGreenhouse gas...... was constructed at the AV Miljø Landfill, Denmark. The biocover system was fed by landfill gas pumped out of three leachate collection wells. An innovative gas distribution system was used to overcome the commonly observed surface emission hot spot areas resulting from an uneven gas distribution to the active...

  11. Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einfeld, Wayne; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Moorman, Matthew Wallace

    2005-11-01

    The natural gas industry seeks inexpensive sensors and instrumentation to rapidly measure gas heating value in widely distributed locations. For gas pipelines, this will improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and will expedite accurate financial accounting. Industrial endusers will benefit through continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use. To meet this need, Sandia has developed a natural gas heating value monitoring instrument using existing and modified microfabricated components. The instrument consists of a silicon micro-fabricated gas chromatography column in conjunction with a catalytic micro-calorimeter sensor. A reference thermal conductivity sensor provides diagnostics and surety. This combination allows for continuous calorimetric determination with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This system will find application at remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. Microfabrication techniques will allow the analytical components to be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost.

  12. Simulation of Water Level Fluctuations in a Hydraulic System Using a Coupled Liquid-Gas Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A model for simulating vertical water level fluctuations with coupled liquid and gas phases is presented. The Preissmann implicit scheme is used to linearize the governing equations for one-dimensional transient flow for both liquid and gas phases, and the linear system is solved using the chasing method. Some classical cases for single liquid and gas phase transients in pipelines and networks are studied to verify that the proposed methods are accurate and reliable. The implicit scheme is extended using a dynamic mesh to simulate the water level fluctuations in a U-tube and an open surge tank without consideration of the gas phase. Methods of coupling liquid and gas phases are presented and used for studying the transient process and interaction between the phases, for gas phase limited in a chamber and gas phase transported in a pipeline. In particular, two other simplified models, one neglecting the effect of the gas phase on the liquid phase and the other one coupling the liquid and gas phases asynchronously, are proposed. The numerical results indicate that the asynchronous model performs better, and are finally applied to a hydropower station with surge tanks and air shafts to simulate the water level fluctuations and air speed.

  13. Expert System for natural gas transportation network management; Sistema especialista para gerenciamento de redes de transporte de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jonny Carlos da; Porciuncula, Gilson Simoes [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica Lab. de Sistemas Hidraulicos e Pneumaticos

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a project to integrate expert system and dynamic simulation of natural gas transportation network applying the concept of agents. Natural gas pipeline operation requires the intermittent analysis of hundreds interrelated operational parameters, which represent the network state. The combination of expert system and dynamic simulation is a synergic solution for this kind of problem. With expert system techniques, it is possible to implement rules that describe the relationship between current operational parameters and the network normal operational conditions based on heuristic knowledge. By applying such rules, the system aims to evaluate the real network state and to predict abnormal conditions via dynamic simulation, allowing time analysis of operational situation in advance. At the current stage, the project presents a well defined model. The process of knowledge acquisition and representation has taken place following an incremental approach, considered as development paradigm. The project objectives are to reduce costs, increase the reliability and organize pipeline operation and maintenance information. This work is part of SEGRED project established as partnership among LASHIP/UFSC, SCGAS, TBG and PETROBRAS. The project also received support from FINEP. (author)

  14. Natural gas pricing reform in China: Getting closer to a market system?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltsev, Sergey; Zhang, Danwei

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy in China targets an increase in the contribution of natural gas to the nation's energy supply. Historically, China's natural gas prices have been highly regulated with a goal to protect consumers. The old pricing regime failed to provide enough incentives for natural gas suppliers, which often resulted in natural gas shortage. A new gas pricing reform was tested in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces in 2011, and introduced nationwide in 2013. The reform is aimed at creating a more market-based pricing mechanism. We show that a substantial progress toward a better predictability and transparency of prices has been made. The prices are now more connected with the international fuel oil and liquid petroleum gas prices. The government's approach for a temporary two-tier pricing when some volumes are still traded at old prices reduced a potential opposition during the new regime implementation. Some limitations of the natural gas pricing remain as it created biased incentives for producers and favors large natural gas suppliers. The pricing reform at its current stage falls short of establishing a complete market mechanism driven by an interaction of supply and demand of natural gas in China. - Highlights: • China's reform of natural gas pricing is in effect nationwide from 2013. • Prices are now connected to international fuel oil and liquid petroleum gas prices. • The reform benefits domestic producers and importers of natural gas. • There are still price distortions between industrial and residential sector. • The reform needs to create a system where both supply and demand are considered.

  15. Conventional oil and gas, gathering and processing systems and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Accounting for 13 per cent of natural gas production in Canada, British Columbia is the second largest producing province in the country. The northeastern region of the province is where the bulk of petroleum activity takes place. The expenditures in the sector in 2001 totalled $4.3 billion and 850 wells were drilled over the same period. The document presents an overview of the industry and a discussion of the following topics: land resource requirements and sensitivities; investment requirements; infrastructure; the market; the labour force; capacity; the regulatory regime; government revenues; and, regional cost variations. An input-output table was also included. 15 refs., 5 tabs

  16. Flow measurement in two-phase (gas-liquid) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, G.F.; Whalley, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The main methods of measuring mass flow and quality in gas-liquid flows in industrial situations are reviewed. These include gamma densitometry coupled with differential pressure devices such as crifice plates, turbine flow meters and drag screens. For each method the principle of operation, and the advantages and disadvantages, are given. Some further techniques which are currently being investigated and developed for routine use are also described briefly. Finally the detailed flow measurements possible on a particular flow pattern - annular flow - is examined. (author)

  17. Study of compressor systems for a gas-generator engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Bernard I; Tauschek, Max J

    1950-01-01

    Various methods of providing compressor-capacity and pressure-ratio control in the gas-generator type of compound engine over a range of altitudes from sea level to 50,000 feet are presented. The analytical results indicate that the best method of control is that in which the first stage of compression is carried out in a variable-speed supercharger driven by a hydraulic slip coupling. The constant-speed second stage could be either a mixed-flow rotary compressor or a piston-type compressor. A variable-area turbine nozzle is shown to be unnecessary for cruising operation of the engine.

  18. Operating experience review of an INL gas monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); DeWall, K. G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Herring, J. S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-12

    This article describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored in the lab room are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and both actual and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. In addition, some simple calculations are given to estimate the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  19. The gas system of the drift tube detector of the neutrino experiment OPERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, T.; Bick, D.; Ebert, J.; Hagner, C.; Hierholzer, M.; Göllnitz, C.; Janutta, B.; Lenkeit, J.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Wonsak, B.; Zimmermann, R.

    2008-07-01

    The gas system of the drift tube detector of the neutrino experiment OPERA is presented. The drift tube detector, called precision tracker (PT), consists of 10 000 thinwalled aluminum tubes of 38 mm diameter and 8 m length filled with an 80% Ar 20% CO2 gas mixture. The total gas volume amounts to 80 m3. During stable operation the gas is exchanged once per 80 h and not recycled. Thus about 1 m 3 per hour is consumed. Argon and CO2 are stored and supplied in liquid form. Subsequently they are mixed and the composition ratio is regulated with a precision better than 1% per component. Inside the drift tubes the gas is kept at a constant absolute pressure within ±0.5%. Since the experiment is operated in the low activity environment of the Gran Sasso underground laboratory, monitoring of the gas quality with a radioactive source is prohibited. Instead the oxygen content of the used gas is measured. We report on the first experience with the performance of the gas system.

  20. The main cooling system of the RSG-GAS: a study of dissabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyono

    1999-01-01

    The RSG-GAS has been operating since August 1987 until now. During that period it has been many papers explain the performance and the safety features of the system. Those papers does not mean any think to the system, but the wickednesses of the system. Is still remain stick on it. This paper describes the wickednesses of the RSG-GAS main cooling system with an objective that their will be a corrective action of the management to improve the system so that such wickednesses can be minimized or even be avoided

  1. Fuel flexibility via real-time Raman fuel-gas analysis for turbine system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buric, M.; Woodruff, S.; Chorpening, B.; Tucker, D.

    2015-06-01

    The modern energy production base in the U.S. is increasingly incorporating opportunity fuels such as biogas, coalbed methane, coal syngas, solar-derived hydrogen, and others. In many cases, suppliers operate turbine-based generation systems to efficiently utilize these diverse fuels. Unfortunately, turbine engines are difficult to control given the varying energy content of these fuels, combined with the need for a backup natural gas supply to provide continuous operation. Here, we study the use of a specially designed Raman Gas Analyzer based on capillary waveguide technology with sub-second response time for turbine control applications. The NETL Raman Gas Analyzer utilizes a low-power visible pump laser, and a capillary waveguide gas-cell to integrate large spontaneous Raman signals, and fast gas-transfer piping to facilitate quick measurements of fuel-gas components. A U.S. Department of Energy turbine facility known as HYPER (hybrid performance system) serves as a platform for apriori fuel composition measurements for turbine speed or power control. A fuel-dilution system is used to simulate a compositional upset while simultaneously measuring the resultant fuel composition and turbine response functions in real-time. The feasibility and efficacy of system control using the spontaneous Raman-based measurement system is then explored with the goal of illustrating the ability to control a turbine system using available fuel composition as an input process variable.

  2. Hybrid lean premixing catalytic combustion system for gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Ian L.

    2003-12-09

    A system and method of combusting a hydrocarbon fuel is disclosed. The system combines the accuracy and controllability of an air staging system with the ultra-low emissions achieved by catalytic combustion systems without the need for a pre-heater. The result is a system and method that is mechanically simple and offers ultra-low emissions over a wide range of power levels, fuel properties and ambient operating conditions.

  3. Degradation of TBC Systems in Environments Relevant to Advanced Gas Turbines for IGCC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohna, Nathaniel Allan

    Plasma sprayed (PS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to provide thermal insulation for the hottest components in gas turbines. Zirconia stabilized with 7wt% yttria (7YSZ) is the most common ceramic top coat used for turbine blades. The 7YSZ coating can be degraded by the buildup of fly-ash deposits which can arise from the fuel source (coal/biomass) used in the combustion process in gas turbines. Fly-ash from the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process can result from coal-based syngas and also from ambient air which passes through the system. TBCs are also exposed to harsh gas environments containing CO2, SO2, and steam. As presented in this thesis, degradation from the combined effects of fly-ash and harsh gas atmosphere can severely limit TBC lifetimes. It is well established that degradation at very high temperatures (≥1250°C) from deposits consisting of the oxides CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO 2 results from extensive liquid silicate infiltration into the porous top coat of the YSZ. This infiltration causes early failure resulting from chemical and/or mechanical damage to the ceramic layer. Damage resulting from liquid infiltration, however, is not typically considered at relatively lower temperatures around 1100°C because liquid silicates would not be expected to form from the oxides in the deposit. A key focus of this study is to assess the mode and extent of TBC degradation at 1100°C in cases when some amount of liquid forms owing to the presence of K2SO4 as a minor ash constituent. Two types of liquid infiltrations are observed depending on the principal oxide (i.e., CaO or SiO2) in the deposit. The degradation is primarily the result of mechanical damage, which results from infiltration caused by the interaction of liquid K2SO4 with either the CaO or SiO2. The TBCs used in this work are representative of commonly used coatings used in the hottest sections of land-based gas turbines. The specimens consist of 7YSZ top coats deposited on

  4. Upgrade to the Cryogenic Hydrogen Gas Target Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael; Tribble, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The cryogenic hydrogen gas target at Texas A&M is a vital component for creating a secondary radioactive beam that is then used in experiments in the Momentum Achromat Recoil Spectrometer (MARS). A stable beam from the K500 superconducting cyclotron enters the gas cell and some incident particles are transmuted by a nuclear reaction into a radioactive beam, which are separated from the primary beam and used in MARS experiments. The pressure in the target chamber is monitored so that a predictable isotope production rate can be assured. A ``black box'' received the analog pressure data and sent RS232 serial data through an outdated serial connection to an outdated Visual Basic 6 (VB6) program, which plotted the chamber pressure continuously. The black box has been upgraded to an Arduino UNO microcontroller [Atmel Inc.], which can receive the pressure data and output via USB to a computer. It has been programmed to also accept temperature data for future upgrade. A new computer program, with updated capabilities, has been written in Python. The software can send email alerts, create audible alarms through the Arduino, and plot pressure and temperature. The program has been designed to better fit the needs of the users. Funded by DOE and NSF-REU Program.

  5. Development of solid-gas equilibrium propulsion system for small spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Toshihiro; Mori, Osamu; Kubo, Yuki

    2017-11-01

    A phase equilibrium propulsion system is a kind of cold-gas jet in which the phase equilibrium state of the fuel is maintained in a tank and its vapor is ejected when a valve is opened. One such example is a gas-liquid equilibrium propulsion system that uses liquefied gas as fuel. This system was mounted on the IKAROS solar sail and has been demonstrated in orbit. The system has a higher storage efficiency and a lighter configuration than a high-pressure cold-gas jet because the vapor pressure is lower, and is suitable for small spacecraft. However, the system requires a gas-liquid separation device in order to avoid leakage of the liquid, which makes the system complex. As another example of a phase equilibrium propulsion system, we introduce a solid-gas equilibrium propulsion system, which uses a sublimable substance as fuel and ejects its vapor. This system has an even lower vapor pressure and does not require such a separation device, instead requiring only a filter to keep the solid inside the tank. Moreover, the system is much simpler and lighter, making it more suitable for small spacecraft, especially CubeSat-class spacecraft, and the low thrust of the system allows spacecraft motion to be controlled precisely. In addition, the thrust level can be controlled by controlling the temperature of the fuel, which changes the vapor pressure. The present paper introduces the concept of the proposed system, and describes ejection experiments and its evaluation. The basic function of the proposed system is demonstrated in order to verify its usefulness.

  6. Undiscovered oil and gas resources of Lower Silurian Qusaiba-Paleozoic total petroleum systems, Arabian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Pollastro, R.M.; Schenk, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas potential of 128 of the world’s petroleum provinces (U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000). In each province, the USGS defined Total Petroleum Systems, and Assessment Units in each Total Petroleum System, and then quantitatively estimated the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources. Of the eight global regions studied by the USGS, the Arabian Peninsula portion of the Middle East region was estimated to contain the greatest volumes of undiscovered oil and gas. The Lower Silurian Qusaiba Member of the Qalibah Formation is the source rock for some of the most important Total Petroleum Systems of the Middle East region. For example, the sources of the gas in the supergiant North field of Qatar and Iran and recent giant light oil discoveries in central Saudi Arabia were largely organic-rich, Qusaiba marine mudstones.

  7. Heating and cooling system for an on-board gas adsorbent storage vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamburello, David A.; Anton, Donald L.; Hardy, Bruce J.; Corgnale, Claudio

    2017-06-20

    In one aspect, a system for controlling the temperature within a gas adsorbent storage vessel of a vehicle may include an air conditioning system forming a continuous flow loop of heat exchange fluid that is cycled between a heated flow and a cooled flow. The system may also include at least one fluid by-pass line extending at least partially within the gas adsorbent storage vessel. The fluid by-pass line(s) may be configured to receive a by-pass flow including at least a portion of the heated flow or the cooled flow of the heat exchange fluid at one or more input locations and expel the by-pass flow back into the continuous flow loop at one or more output locations, wherein the by-pass flow is directed through the gas adsorbent storage vessel via the by-pass line(s) so as to adjust an internal temperature within the gas adsorbent storage vessel.

  8. Modeling and parametric analysis of hollow fiber membrane system for carbon capture from multicomponent flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Khalilpour, Rajab

    2011-08-12

    The modeling and optimal design/operation of gas membranes for postcombustion carbon capture (PCC) is presented. A systematic methodology is presented for analysis of membrane systems considering multicomponent flue gas with CO 2 as target component. Simplifying assumptions is avoided by namely multicomponent flue gas represented by CO 2/N 2 binary mixture or considering the co/countercurrent flow pattern of hollow-fiber membrane system as mixed flow. Optimal regions of flue gas pressures and membrane area were found within which a technoeconomical process system design could be carried out. High selectivity was found to not necessarily have notable impact on PCC membrane performance, rather, a medium selectivity combined with medium or high permeance could be more advantageous. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  9. Coordinated Operation of the Electricity and Natural Gas Systems with Bi-directional Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Zhang, Baohua; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    A coordinated operation of the natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables. This work focuses on the unified optimal operation of the integrated natural gas and electricity system considering the network...... constraints in both systems. An iterative method is proposed to deal with the nonlinearity in the proposed model. The models of the natural gas and power system are linearized in every iterative step. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. Applicability of the proposed method...... is tested in the sample case. Finally, the effect of Power to Gas (P2G) on the daily economic dispatch is also investigated....

  10. FMECA about pre-treatment system for purge gas of test blanket module in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Wanfa; Luo Deli; Tang Tao

    2012-01-01

    The pre-treatment system for purge gas of TBM will be installed in Port Cell for installing TBM in ITER, the function of which includes filtering purge gas, removing HTO, cooling, and adjusting flow rate, etc. The purge gas treated will be conveyed into TES (Tritium Extraction System). The technological process and system components in pre-treatment system were introduced. Tritium releasing risk was regarded as failure criterion; failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) were carried out and several weaknesses or failure mode in the system were found. Besides, risk priority number (RPN) and failure mode criticality were calculated. Finally, some design improvement measures and usage compensation measures were given. At last, four important potential failure modes were found out. The analysis will provide the design basis for reducing risk of excessive tritium releasing, which is also a useful assist for safety analysis about other tritium system. (authors)

  11. Remediation on off-gas system deposits in a radioactive waste glass melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Choi, A.S.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-12-31

    Since the early 1980`s, research glass melters have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to develop the reference vitrification process for immobilization of high level radioactive waste. One of the operating concerns for these melters has been the pluggage of the off-gas system with solid deposits. Samples of these deposits were analyzed to be mixture of alkali-rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit particles. The spatial distribution of these deposits throughout the off-gas system indicates that they form by vapor-phase transport and subsequently condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements entrained particulates causing the off-gas line to plug. It is concluded that off-gas system pluggage can be effectively controlled by maintaining the off-gas velocity above 16 m/s, while maintaining the off-gas temperature as high as practical below the glass softening point. This paper summarizes the results of chemical and physical analyses of off-gas deposit samples from various melters at SRL. Recent design changes made to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to alleviate the pluggage problem are also discussed.

  12. Remediation on off-gas system deposits in a radioactive waste glass melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Choi, A.S.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    Since the early 1980's, research glass melters have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to develop the reference vitrification process for immobilization of high level radioactive waste. One of the operating concerns for these melters has been the pluggage of the off-gas system with solid deposits. Samples of these deposits were analyzed to be mixture of alkali-rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit particles. The spatial distribution of these deposits throughout the off-gas system indicates that they form by vapor-phase transport and subsequently condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements entrained particulates causing the off-gas line to plug. It is concluded that off-gas system pluggage can be effectively controlled by maintaining the off-gas velocity above 16 m/s, while maintaining the off-gas temperature as high as practical below the glass softening point. This paper summarizes the results of chemical and physical analyses of off-gas deposit samples from various melters at SRL. Recent design changes made to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to alleviate the pluggage problem are also discussed.

  13. Transition of Future Energy System Infrastructure; through Power-to-Gas Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Maroufmashat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Power-to-gas is a promising option for storing interment renewables, nuclear baseload power, and distributed energy and it is a novel concept for the transition to increased renewable content of current fuels with an ultimate goal of transition to a sustainable low-carbon future energy system that interconnects power, transportation sectors and thermal energy demand all together. The aim of this paper is to introduce different Power-to-gas “pathways”, including Power to Hydrogen, Power to Natural Gas End-users, Power to Renewable Content in Petroleum Fuel, Power to Power, Seasonal Energy Storage to Electricity, Power to Zero Emission Transportation, Power to Seasonal Storage for Transportation, Power to Micro grid, Power to Renewable Natural Gas (RNG to Pipeline (“Methanation”, and Power to Renewable Natural Gas (RNG to Seasonal Storage. In order to compare the different pathways, the review of key technologies of Power-to-gas systems are studied and the qualitative efficiency and benefits of each pathway is investigated from the technical points of view. Moreover, different Power-to-gas pathways are discussed as an energy policy option that can be implemented to transition towards a lower carbon economy for Ontario’s energy systems.

  14. Small gas leakage rate measuring and monitoring system for spent fuel transport/storage cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Ryoji [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Aritomi, Masanori; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo; Kawa, Tsunemichi

    1997-12-01

    A containment function of transport and/or storage casks of radioactive materials is essential to prevent the materials from being released excessively into the environment. It is not practical for containment tests to measure directly the radioactivity release so that gas volumetric leakage rates are usually assessed and gas pressure decrease or increase method is usually applied. As gas flow model for evaluation, the ISO standards has deleted the concept of choked flow which is adopted by ANSI N14.5. Provided that the choked flow is not adopted to the leakage rate evaluation, the criteria of the test should be severe, and a new leakage rate measuring system with high accuracy and reasonable measuring time is required. Transport casks are often inspected in a temporary cask-storage facility where simultaneous measurement of many casks is required. In a storage cask system, multiple casks are monitored on their containment function during a storage period, and the method for simultaneous monitoring at many points for long term is required. In this study, two kinds of small gas leakage rate measuring systems are developed. One is to measure gas leakage rates directly and is called `flow measuring system`, which can measure gas leakage rate of 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -2} cm{sup 3}/s with high accuracy and short measuring time. The other is to measure the pressure decreasing rate and is called `pressure decreasing rate measuring system`, which can monitor the pressure change at many points simultaneously. (author)

  15. Noble gas signatures in the Island of Maui, Hawaii: Characterizing groundwater sources in fractured systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yi; Castro, M. Clara; Hall, Chris M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Scholl, Martha A.; Warrier, Rohit B.

    2017-05-01

    Uneven distribution of rainfall and freshwater scarcity in populated areas in the Island of Maui, Hawaii, renders water resources management a challenge in this complex and ill-defined hydrological system. A previous study in the Galapagos Islands suggests that noble gas temperatures (NGTs) record seasonality in that fractured, rapid infiltration groundwater system rather than the commonly observed mean annual air temperature (MAAT) in sedimentary systems where infiltration is slower thus, providing information on recharge sources and potential flow paths. Here we report noble gas results from the basal aquifer, springs, and rainwater in Maui to explore the potential for noble gases in characterizing this type of complex fractured hydrologic systems. Most samples display a mass-dependent depletion pattern with respect to surface conditions consistent with previous observations both in the Galapagos Islands and Michigan rainwater. Basal aquifer and rainwater noble gas patterns are similar and suggest direct, fast recharge from precipitation to the basal aquifer. In contrast, multiple springs, representative of perched aquifers, display highly variable noble gas concentrations suggesting recharge from a variety of sources. The distinct noble gas patterns for the basal aquifer and springs suggest that basal and perched aquifers are separate entities. Maui rainwater displays high apparent NGTs, incompatible with surface conditions, pointing either to an origin at high altitudes with the presence of ice or an ice-like source of undetermined origin. Overall, noble gas signatures in Maui reflect the source of recharge rather than the expected altitude/temperature relationship commonly observed in sedimentary systems.

  16. Noble gas signatures in the Island of Maui, Hawaii: Characterizing groundwater sources in fractured systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yi; Castro, M. Clara; Hall, Chris M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Scholl, Martha A.; Warrier, Rohit B.

    2017-01-01

    Uneven distribution of rainfall and freshwater scarcity in populated areas in the Island of Maui, Hawaii, renders water resources management a challenge in this complex and ill-defined hydrological system. A previous study in the Galapagos Islands suggests that noble gas temperatures (NGTs) record seasonality in that fractured, rapid infiltration groundwater system rather than the commonly observed mean annual air temperature (MAAT) in sedimentary systems where infiltration is slower thus, providing information on recharge sources and potential flow paths. Here we report noble gas results from the basal aquifer, springs, and rainwater in Maui to explore the potential for noble gases in characterizing this type of complex fractured hydrologic systems. Most samples display a mass-dependent depletion pattern with respect to surface conditions consistent with previous observations both in the Galapagos Islands and Michigan rainwater. Basal aquifer and rainwater noble gas patterns are similar and suggest direct, fast recharge from precipitation to the basal aquifer. In contrast, multiple springs, representative of perched aquifers, display highly variable noble gas concentrations suggesting recharge from a variety of sources. The distinct noble gas patterns for the basal aquifer and springs suggest that basal and perched aquifers are separate entities. Maui rainwater displays high apparent NGTs, incompatible with surface conditions, pointing either to an origin at high altitudes with the presence of ice or an ice-like source of undetermined origin. Overall, noble gas signatures in Maui reflect the source of recharge rather than the expected altitude/temperature relationship commonly observed in sedimentary systems.

  17. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information and coordinate the functions of the component systems. Other components such as snubbers, which... good engineering judgment. (b) Major component description. The analytical system, Figure 4 in Appendix... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS...

  18. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cooling system fails. (c) The final exhaust-gas temperature at discharge from the cooling system, and... test in paragraph (e) of this section, the temperature of the control point shall be allowed to fall to 170 °F. At this temperature and with the water replenished in the cooling system, it shall be possible...

  19. Simulation of rarefied gas flows in atmospheric pressure interfaces for mass spectrometry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garimella, Sandilya; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Zheng

    2013-12-01

    The understanding of the gas dynamics of the atmospheric pressure interface is very important for the development of mass spectrometry systems with high sensitivity. While the gas flows at high pressure (>1 Torr) and low pressure (pressure stage (1 to 10(-3) Torr) remains challenging. In this study, we used the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DMSC) method to develop the gas dynamic simulations for the continuous and discontinuous atmospheric pressure interfaces (API), with different focuses on the ion transfer by gas flows through a skimmer or directly from the atmospheric pressure to a vacuum stage, respectively. The impacts by the skimmer location in the continuous API and the temporal evolvement of the gas flow with a discontinuous API were characterized, which provide a solid base for the instrument design and performance improvement.

  20. Historical analysis of oil and gas well plugging in New York: is the regulatory system working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Ronald E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate New York State's regulatory program for plugging inactive oil and gas wells. Analysis of reports from the Division of Mineral Resources, Department of Environmental Conservation, reveals that three-fourths of the state's abandoned oil and gas wells were never plugged. Inadequate enforcement efforts have resulted in steady increases of unplugged oil and gas wells abandoned since 1992. Further, no program exists or is proposed to monitor abandoned wells which were plugged. These results strongly suggest that comprehensive reform and increased agency resources would be required to effectively regulate conventional oil and gas development in New York. Industrial expansion into shale oil and gas development should be postponed to avoid adding stress to an already compromised regulatory system.

  1. Developing of the System Safety Documentation for RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariatmo; Korua, Johny A.

    2004-01-01

    P2TRR performs periodical evaluations on SAR documents to assess their conformance to the current field conditions. In case of non-conformance between the field conditions and SAR directly associated with the reactor safety, SAR documents will he immediately amended. Any changes in SAR documents will cause all documents associated with the reactor safety and operation be revised. Besides evaluation of field conditions, BAPETEN and IAEA also perform inspection. The results of BAPETEN and IAEA's inspection need to be seriously followed up because it is related to the reactor operation permit covered in the BAPETEN's authority. The RSG-GAS's SAR document needs to be revised based on the above considerations in addition to the inputs and suggestions from the issuer of reactor operation permit and other parties. (author)

  2. Systems approach used in the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooks, W.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A requirement exists for effective and efficient transfer of technical knowledge from the design engineering team to the production work force. Performance-Based Training (PBT) is a systematic approach to the design, development, and implementation of technical training. This approach has been successfully used by the US Armed Forces, industry, and other organizations. The advantages of the PBT approach are: cost-effectiveness (lowest life-cycle training cost), learning effectiveness, reduced implementation time, and ease of administration. The PBT process comprises five distinctive and rigorous phases: Analysis of Job Performance, Design of Instructional Strategy, Development of Training Materials and Instructional Media, Validation of Materials and Media, and Implementation of the Instructional Program. Examples from the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) are used to illustrate the application of PBT

  3. Proposal for data acquisition system of gas chromatograph and natural gas transfer custody via web; Proposta para um sistema de aquisicao de dados de cromatografia e medicao fiscal de gas natural via web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Jose Paulo C.; Guimaraes, Marcelo F.; Zeitoune, Rafael J. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, is presented a proposal of a Chromatograph and Transfer Custody Measurement Data Acquisition System through Web, complementary to the SCADA System, responsible for control and monitoring PETROBRAS Gas Pipelines, intended to comply with the requirements of the Gerencias de Qualidade e Medicao (MQD) and Planejamento Integrado da Logistica (PCL) from PETROBRAS Gas e Energia, regarding the evaluation of the quality of the natural gas that is being commercialized, as well as its billing. (author)

  4. Applications of ZigBee Technology in the Safety Monitoring System of Low Gas Pipeline Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing safety monitoring system of low gas pipeline transportation establishes a wired communication network monitoring system mainly on the basis of industrial bus. It has problems such as large transmission signal attenuation, complex wiring, high-labor intensity, inconvenient installation and maintenance, high maintenance cost, and so on. Featuring low cost, power-saving, reliability, stability and flexibility, the wireless sensor network established by ZigBee wireless communication technology can realize the real-time all-dimensional dynamic monitoring on parameters of low gas pipeline transportation system and overcome the shortcomings and deficiencies of wired network system.

  5. Development of Quality Insurance Information System of the RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pranto Busono; Thantawi Nurhapy; Rofei, A.; Rohadi; Warsono; Endang Karmana

    2004-01-01

    To support operation of the RSG-GAS reactor safety, trade on high utilizable, an information system is needed which is easy to accessed, complete and information maintained. For above necessity, data base system for procedure in UJM using MS Access program has been made. MS Access has fields: title, identification number, revision, division, target of and procedure situation. System data base has been test drive successfully properly. It is easy to be accessed the needed information of RSG-GAS with data base system available. (author)

  6. Method and system for a gas tube switch-based voltage source high voltage direct current transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xu; Chokhawala, Rahul Shantilal; Zhou, Rui; Zhang, Di; Sommerer, Timothy John; Bray, James William

    2016-12-13

    A voltage source converter based high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) transmission system includes a voltage source converter (VSC)-based power converter channel. The VSC-based power converter channel includes an AC-DC converter and a DC-AC inverter electrically coupled to the AC-DC converter. The AC-DC converter and a DC-AC inverter include at least one gas tube switching device coupled in electrical anti-parallel with a respective gas tube diode. The VSC-based power converter channel includes a commutating circuit communicatively coupled to one or more of the at least one gas tube switching devices. The commutating circuit is configured to "switch on" a respective one of the one or more gas tube switching devices during a first portion of an operational cycle and "switch off" the respective one of the one or more gas tube switching devices during a second portion of the operational cycle.

  7. 78 FR 42889 - Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Bulletin to remind owners and operators of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and utility liquefied petroleum... natural gas distribution system must meet the requirements of Part 192 and ANSI/NFPA 58 and 59 (2004) (192...

  8. A technical evaluation of the EDA radon gas continuous monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1979-04-01

    Extensive laboratory and underground tests were conducted with a radon gas continuous monitoring system built by EDA Instruments Inc. The system consists of several remote radon gas sensors linked via signal cables to a central control unit that fully controls the operation of the radon monitors. The system enables four operations to be performed: sampling, background, flush and bypass. The sequence and duration of these functions is programmable. Up to 20 functions in any desired pattern each lasting from 1 min to 23 hr 59 min can be programmed. Several programs were used during the experiments in order to obtain radon and thoron gas levels. The performance of the EDA system was quite satisfactory. It is suggested that ruggedization as well as some other modifications be introdouced into the system to: a) better withstand the harsh underground environment; and b) improve its performance

  9. Engineering task plan for flammable gas atmosphere mobile color video camera systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlman, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of the mobile video camera systems. The color video camera systems will be used to observe and record the activities within the vapor space of a tank on a limited exposure basis. The units will be fully mobile and designed for operation in the single-shell flammable gas producing tanks. The objective of this tank is to provide two mobile camera systems for use in flammable gas producing single-shell tanks (SSTs) for the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program. The camera systems will provide observation, video recording, and monitoring of the activities that occur in the vapor space of applied tanks. The camera systems will be designed to be totally mobile, capable of deployment up to 6.1 meters into a 4 inch (minimum) riser

  10. Impact of sustained low oil prices on China's oil & gas industry system and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global sustained low oil prices have a significant impact on China's oil and gas industry system and the national energy security. This paper aims to find solutions in order to guarantee the smooth development of China's oil and gas industry system and its survival in such a severe environment. First, the origins of sustained low oil prices were analyzed. Then, based on those published data from IEA, government and some other authorities, this study focused on the development status, energy policies and the future developing trend of those main oil & gas producing countries. Investigations show that the low-price running is primarily contributed to the so-called oil and gas policies in the USA. It is predicted that national petroleum consumption will reach up to 6.0 × 108 t (oil & 3300 × 108 m3 (gas in 2020 and 6.8 × 108 t (oil & 5200 × 108 m3 (gas in 2030. For reducing the dependence on foreign oil and gas, the investment in the upstream of oil and gas industry should be maintained and scientific research should be intensified to ensure the smooth operation of the oil and gas production system. Considering China's national energy security strategy, the following suggestions were proposed herein. First, ensure that in China the yearly oil output reaches 2 × 108 t, while natural gas yield will be expected to be up to 2700 × 108 m3 in 2030, both of which should become the “bottom line” in the long term. Second, focus on the planning of upstream business with insistence on risk exploration investment, scientific and technological innovation and pilot area construction especially for low-permeability tight oil & gas, shale oil & gas reservoir development techniques. Third, encourage the in-depth reform and further growth especially in the three major state-owned oil & gas companies under adverse situations, and create more companies competent to offer overseas technical services by taking the opportunity of the

  11. Demand-type gas supply system for rocket borne thin-window proportional counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, L. W.; Caravalho, R.; Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    A simple closed loop control system has been developed to maintain the gas pressure in thin-window proportional counters during rocket flights. This system permits convenient external control of detector pressure and system flushing rate. The control system is activated at launch with the sealing of a reference volume at the existing system pressure. Inflight control to plus or minus 2 torr at a working pressure of 760 torr has been achieved on six rocket flights.

  12. Effects of Natural Gas Compositions on CNG Fast Filling Process for Buffer Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh-Gord M.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The accurate modeling of the fast-fill process occurring in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG fuelled vehicle storage cylinders is a complex process and should be thoroughly studied. Final in-cylinder conditions should meet appropriate cylinder safety standards. The composition of natural gas plays an important role on its thermodynamic properties and consequently, on the fast-fill process and the final conditions. Here, a theoretical analysis has been developed to study the effects of the natural gas composition on the filling process of an onboard Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV cylinder. The cylinder is assumed as a lumped system. The analysis is based on laws of thermodynamics and mass balance. Based on AGA8 Equation of State (EOS and thermodynamics relationships, the required properties of natural gas mixtures have been calculated. The results are presented for an adiabatic system. The results show that the compositions of natural gas have great effects on the filling process and final in-cylinder conditions. Furthermore, the gas with less methane percentage in its composition is more suitable for the filling process.

  13. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. Subsequent chapters of this report provide: an overview of NGTDM; a description of the interface between the NEMS and NGTDM; an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM; the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module; the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module; the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module; the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module; and a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs.

  14. Waste heat recovery system including a mechanism for collection, detection and removal of non-condensable gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2017-06-20

    The disclosure describes a non-condensable gas collection, detection, and removal system for a WHR system that helps to maintain cycle efficiency of the WHR system across the life of an engine system associated with the WHR system. A storage volume is configured to collect non-condensable gas received from the working fluid circuit, and a release valve is configured to selectively release non-condensable gas contained within the storage volume.

  15. Evaluation of systems for purification of fuel gas from anaerobic digestion. Engineering report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Augenstein, D. C.; Yeung, J. C.; Hossan, R. J.; Duret, G. L.

    1978-07-30

    Fuel gas obtained from the anaerobic digestion of waste materials usually needs to be treated before being transmitted in existing pipeline systems. The purification scheme involves the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and moisture from the digester gas to meet pipeline specifications. Gas treatment systems for the handling of 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 MM Scfd of raw feed gas and product delivery pressures of 125 and 1000 psia were considered in this study. From the results of an economic and technical analysis of these systems, physical absorption systems, particularly water scrubbing, were found to be the most economical system for the treatment of digester gas with the flow streams considered. The Fluor Solvent process was economically comparable with the water scrubbing process for high pressure applications, but the value presented had a large uncertainty. The commercial chemical absorption systems were less economical due to high heat requirements for solvent regeneration. Among the chemical absorption processes, the hot potassium systems were found to be more economical than the amine system. The molecular sieve adsorption process was economically similar to the chemical absorption process. The GE membrane separation process was economically comparable for both high and low pressure apllications, but this system has not been evaluated in real-life conditions. Since no kinetic and equilibrium data were available for the phosphate buffer system, estimates had to be assumed. Using what were believed to be very conservative estimates, this chemical absorption process was found to be economically competitive with the water scrubbing process for treating gas with a delivery pressure of 125 psia.The cost analyses in this study were based on the assumption of no recovery of the CO/sub 2/ by-product. It was found that credits for the recovery of the CO/sub 2/ could be significant.

  16. Support and control system of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant gas generation experiment glovebox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, W.W.; Knight, C.J.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Rosenberg, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    A glovebox was designed and fabricated to house test containers loaded with contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. The test containers were designed to simulate the environmental characteristics of the caverns at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The support and control systems used to operate and maintain the Gas Generation Experiment (GGE) include the following: glovebox atmosphere and pressure control, test container support, glovebox operation support, and gas supply and exhaust systems. The glovebox atmosphere and pressure control systems consist of various components used to control both the pressure and quality of the argon atmosphere inside the glovebox. The glovebox pressure is maintained by three separate pressure control systems. The primary pressure control system is designed to maintain the glovebox at a negative pressure with the other two control systems serving as redundant safety backups. The quality of the argon atmosphere is controlled using a purifying bed system that removes oxygen and moisture. Glovebox atmosphere contaminants that are monitored on a continuous or periodic basis include moisture, oxygen, and nitrogen. The gas generation experiment requires the test containers to be filled with brine, leak tested, maintained at a constant temperature, and the gas head space of the test container sampled on a periodic basis. Test container support systems consisting of a brine addition system, leak test system, heating system, and gas sampling system were designed and implemented. A rupture disk system was constructed to provide pressure relief to the test containers. Operational requirements stipulated that test container temperature and pressure be monitored and collected on a continuous basis. A data acquisition system (DAS) was specifically designed to meet these requirements

  17. Estimation of Uncertainles in Gas-Condensate Systems Reserves by Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Stanislaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, an impact of improper condensate sampling on calculation of gas and condensate reserves of gas-condensate system is presented. The paper discusses probabilistic methods in reserves estimation (proven, possible, probable. The Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS has been used to calculations of phase properties. Sensitivity of CGR during recombination of stream process on liquid and gas reserves has been shown. The large error in estimation of condensate reserve has been obtained. The impact of CGR error on the vapor phase reserve is small.

  18. Anomalous pancreatic ductal system allowing distal bowel gas with duodenal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Sevak

    2017-11-01

    Bypass of the atretic duodenal segment through an anomalous pancreatic ductal system is a rare anomaly described in the literature in only a handful of cases. This case report highlights the importance of considering duodenal atresia and pancreaticobiliary enteric bypass in the differential diagnosis of neonates presenting with partial duodenal obstruction. On ultrasound, the presence of gas in the biliary tree or pancreatic duct should alert the physician to the possibility of duodenal atresia with congenital pancreaticobiliary duct anomalies that allow for bypass of enteric contents, including air, into more distal bowel, thereby creating a gas pattern aptly described as double bubble with distal gas.

  19. Corrosion in the Flue Gas Cleaning System of a Biomass-Fired Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Olesen, R. E.; Gensmann, P.

    2017-01-01

    bolts were under stress and this together with the presenceof accumulated chlorine between the sealing strips andbolts resulted in stress corrosion cracking and rupture. Inaddition, Zn-K-Cl deposits were agglomerated in the ductafter the DeNOx unit. Zn was also a constituent of corrosionproducts......After only a few years operation, corrosiondamage was observed in the flue gas cleaning system of abiomass power plant. The corrosion was on the lower partof the gas/gas heat exchanger fabricated from A242weathering steel, where UNS S31600 bolts were used toattach sealing strips to the rotor. Thick...

  20. Fast Sampling Gas Chromatography (GC) System for Speciation in a Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-31

    has four analytical columns, which allow for the precise measurement of permanent gases (e.g. O2, N2, CO, CO2, CH4), clear separation (and therefore...Unlimited UU UU UU UU 10-11-2016 1-Aug-2015 31-Jul-2016 Final Report: Fast-Sampling Gas Chromatography (GC) System for Speciation in a Shock Tube The...Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Gas sampling, shock tube, jet fuel, gas chromatography REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  1. Cascading biomethane energy systems for sustainable green gas production in a circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, David M; McDonagh, Shane; Murphy, Jerry D

    2017-11-01

    Biomethane is a flexible energy vector that can be used as a renewable fuel for both the heat and transport sectors. Recent EU legislation encourages the production and use of advanced, third generation biofuels with improved sustainability for future energy systems. The integration of technologies such as anaerobic digestion, gasification, and power to gas, along with advanced feedstocks such as algae will be at the forefront in meeting future sustainability criteria and achieving a green gas supply for the gas grid. This paper explores the relevant pathways in which an integrated biomethane industry could potentially materialise and identifies and discusses the latest biotechnological advances in the production of renewable gas. Three scenarios of cascading biomethane systems are developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gas permeability of bentonite barriers: development, construction and testing of a measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo Nunes Pitanga

    Full Text Available Abstract This article proposes a testing device to quickly and reliably estimate the gas permeability of bentonite-based clay barriers used in landfill cover systems. The testing methodology is based on a transient gas flow regime that passes through the barrier, therefore not requiring the use of sophisticated equipment that aim to maintain constant differential pressure and measure the gas flow, common requirements for testing methods under a permanent flow regime. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed technique, tests were performed on a pure hydrated bentonite layer, which subsequently encompassed samples of geosynthetic clay liner (GCL at different moisture contents. Geosynthetic clay liners are often selected as a part of the barrier layer for cover systems in solid waste landfills to prevent infiltration of rainfall and migration of biogas into the atmosphere. The results confirmed the equipment reliability and differentiate the different responses of the gas flow barriers studied, considering their different compositions and different moistures.

  3. Assessment of the effect of nitrogen gas on passive containment cooling system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Huiun; Suh, Jungsoo

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of Innovative PWR development project, we have been investigating the effect of the nitrogen gas released from safety injection tank (SIT) on PCCS performance. With the design characteristics of APR1400 and conceptual design of PCCS, we developed a GOTHIC model of the APR1400 containment with PCCS. The calculation model is described herein, and representative results from the calculation are presented as well. The results of the present work will be used for the design of PCCS. APR1400 GOTHIC model was developed for assessment on the effect of SIT nitrogen gas on passive containment cooling system performance. Calculation results confirmed that influence of nitrogen gas release is negligible; however, further studies should be performed to confirm effect of non-condensable gas on the final performance of PCCS. These insights are important for developing the PCCS of Innovative PWR

  4. Assessment of the effect of nitrogen gas on passive containment cooling system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Huiun; Suh, Jungsoo [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    As a part of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of Innovative PWR development project, we have been investigating the effect of the nitrogen gas released from safety injection tank (SIT) on PCCS performance. With the design characteristics of APR1400 and conceptual design of PCCS, we developed a GOTHIC model of the APR1400 containment with PCCS. The calculation model is described herein, and representative results from the calculation are presented as well. The results of the present work will be used for the design of PCCS. APR1400 GOTHIC model was developed for assessment on the effect of SIT nitrogen gas on passive containment cooling system performance. Calculation results confirmed that influence of nitrogen gas release is negligible; however, further studies should be performed to confirm effect of non-condensable gas on the final performance of PCCS. These insights are important for developing the PCCS of Innovative PWR.

  5. Analysis of a system modelling the motion of a piston in a viscous gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Debayan; Takahashi, Takéo; Tucsnak, Marius

    2017-09-01

    We study a free boundary problem modelling the motion of a piston in a viscous gas. The gas-piston system fills a cylinder with fixed extremities, which possibly allow gas from the exterior to penetrate inside the cylinder. The gas is modeled by the 1D compressible Navier-Stokes system and the piston motion is described by the second Newton's law. We prove the existence and uniqueness of global in time strong solutions. The main novelty brought in by our results is that they include the case of nonhomogeneous boundary conditions which, as far as we know, have not been studied in this context. Moreover, even for homogeneous boundary conditions, our results require less regularity of the initial data than those obtained in previous works.

  6. Linking genes to ecosystem trace gas fluxes in a large-scale model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, L. K.; Cueva, A.; Volkmann, T. H. M.; Sengupta, A.; Troch, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Soil microorganisms mediate biogeochemical cycles through biosphere-atmosphere gas exchange with significant impact on atmospheric trace gas composition. Improving process-based understanding of these microbial populations and linking their genomic potential to the ecosystem-scale is a challenge, particularly in soil systems, which are heterogeneous in biodiversity, chemistry, and structure. In oligotrophic systems, such as the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) at Biosphere 2, atmospheric trace gas scavenging may supply critical metabolic needs to microbial communities, thereby promoting tight linkages between microbial genomics and trace gas utilization. This large-scale model system of three initially homogenous and highly instrumented hillslopes facilitates high temporal resolution characterization of subsurface trace gas fluxes at hundreds of sampling points, making LEO an ideal location to study microbe-mediated trace gas fluxes from the gene to ecosystem scales. Specifically, we focus on the metabolism of ubiquitous atmospheric reduced trace gases hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), and methane (CH4), which may have wide-reaching impacts on microbial community establishment, survival, and function. Additionally, microbial activity on LEO may facilitate weathering of the basalt matrix, which can be studied with trace gas measurements of carbonyl sulfide (COS/OCS) and carbon dioxide (O-isotopes in CO2), and presents an additional opportunity for gene to ecosystem study. This work will present initial measurements of this suite of trace gases to characterize soil microbial metabolic activity, as well as links between spatial and temporal variability of microbe-mediated trace gas fluxes in LEO and their relation to genomic-based characterization of microbial community structure (phylogenetic amplicons) and genetic potential (metagenomics). Results from the LEO model system will help build understanding of the importance of atmospheric inputs to

  7. Cosmological Evolution of the Universe Neutral Gas Mass Measured by Quasar Absorption Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Peroux, Celine; McMahon, Richard G.; Irwin, Mike; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.

    2001-01-01

    The cosmological evolution of neutral hydrogen is an efficient way of tracing structure formation with redshift. It indicates the rate of evolution of gas into stars and hence the gas consumption and rate star formation history of the Universe. In measuring HI, quasar absorbers have proven to be an ideal tool and we use observations from a recent survey for high-redshift quasar absorption systems together with data gathered from the literature to measure the cosmological comoving mass density...

  8. CCS on Offshore Oil and Gas Installation - Design of Post Combustion Capture System and Steam Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Lars O.; Anantharaman, Rahul; Chikukwa, Actor; Mejdell, Thor

    2017-01-01

    Most of the released CO2 on offshore oil and gas installation originates from the gas turbines that power the installations. For certain offshore installations, CO2 capture and storage (CCS) could be an alternative to decrease the CO2 emissions. When opting for a chemical absorption CO2 capture system, a heat source for the stripper reboiler is needed. Since most offshore installations are powered by simple cycle GTs, there is typically no steam available that could be used for stripper reboi...

  9. Enhancing SOEC system lifetime by controlling inlet gas composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In a method for enhancing the lifetime of a solid oxide electrolysis cell system by counteracting nitridation of the threads of the in-line electrical heaters of the system, the start-up, shut-down and trip operations are done in a humidified nitrogen atmosphere on the fuel side to achieve a dew...

  10. Development of cooling and cleaning systems for enhanced gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Energy from biomass based gasifier-engine integrated systems are becoming more popular for power generation applications in rural and urban driven societies. ... waste land, it will be able to fulfil the demand to some extent. As conventional biomass .... and cleaning system is made of. 1 inch flexible heat resistant pipe.

  11. Design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems at high level liquid waste conditioning facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The immobilization of high level liquid wastes from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels is of great interest and serious efforts are being undertaken to find a satisfactory technical solution. Volatilization of fission product elements during immobilization poses the potential for the release of radioactive substances to the environment and necessitates effective off-gas cleaning systems. This report describes typical off-gas cleaning systems used in the most advanced high level liquid waste immobilization plants and considers most of the equipment and components which can be used for the efficient retention of the aerosols and volatile contaminants. In the case of a nuclear facility consisting of several different facilities, release limits are generally prescribed for the nuclear facility as a whole. Since high level liquid waste conditioning (calcination, vitrification, etc.) facilities are usually located at fuel reprocessing sites (where the majority of the high level liquid wastes originates), the off-gas cleaning system should be designed so that the airborne radioactivity discharge of the whole site, including the emission of the waste conditioning facility, can be kept below the permitted limits. This report deals with the sources and composition of different kinds of high level liquid wastes and describes briefly the main high level liquid waste solidification processes examining the sources and characteristics of the off-gas contaminants to be retained by the off-gas cleaning system. The equipment and components of typical off-gas systems used in the most advanced (large pilot or industrial scale) high level liquid waste solidification plants are described. Safety considerations for the design and safe operation of the off-gas systems are discussed. 60 refs, 31 figs, 17 tabs

  12. Shared technologies in the development of the Titan 250 gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knodle, M.S.; Novaresi, M.A. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Titan Gas Turbine Systems Division

    2009-07-01

    Development of the Titan 250 industrial gas turbine system began in 2005 in response to demands from the petroleum industry and electricity producers for higher performance industrial gas turbine products in the 15-30 MW (25,000-45,000 hp) power range. The Titan 250 is Solar Turbine's most powerful package and its evolutionary hybrid-type design approach was based on shared aerodynamic, thermal, mechanical, and combustion technologies borrowed from the Taurus 65TM, Titan 130TM, and Mercury 50TM gas turbine systems. It produces 50 per cent more power than the Titan 130, while providing 40 per cent shaft efficiency with significantly fewer emissions. Thorough combustion system testing, use of proven materials, and hot section cooling provided a solid design basis. The engine is a two-shaft design that includes a 16-stage axial-flow compressor, a dry low emissions combustor for low NOx and CO output, a two-stage gas producer turbine operating at a turbine rotor inlet temperature of 1204 degrees C, and a three-stage, all-shrouded blade power turbine for maximum efficiency. The design also minimizes maintenance intervals to increase equipment availability. The gas turbine and gas compressor have been tested in component, subsystem, and full-scale development, and will be starting field operation in late 2009 to verify performance and mechanical integrity under all operating conditions. 3 refs., 1 tab., 26 figs.

  13. Using natural gas generation to improve power system efficiency in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Junfeng; Kwok, Gabe; Xuan, Wang; Williams, James H.; Kahrl, Fredrich

    2013-01-01

    China's electricity sector faces the challenge of managing cost increases, improving reliability, and reducing its environmental footprint even as operating conditions become more complex due to increasing renewable penetration, growing peak demand, and falling system load factors. Addressing these challenges will require changes in how power generation is planned, priced, and dispatched in China. This is especially true for natural gas generation, which is likely to play an important role in power systems worldwide as a flexible generation resource. Although natural gas is commonly perceived to be economically uncompetitive with coal in China, these perceptions are based on analysis that fails to account for the different roles that natural gas generation plays in power systems—baseload, load following, and peaking generation. Our analysis shows that natural gas generation is already cost-effective for meeting peak demand in China, resulting in improved capacity factors and heat rates for coal-fired generators and lower system costs. We find that the largest barrier to using natural gas for peaking generation in China is generation pricing, which could be addressed through modest reforms to support low capacity factor generation. - Highlights: • Using gas generation as a “capacity resource” in China could have multiple benefits. • Benefits include lower total costs, improved efficiency for coal generators. • Price reforms needed to support low capacity factor generation in China

  14. Long-term study of optimal gas purifiers for the RPC systems at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Altuntas, E; Glushkov, I; Guida, R; Hahn, F; Haider, S; Mandelli, B; Rouwette, S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the impurities produced in the gas of heavily irradiated RPC chambers and the properties of possible purifiers for the closed-loop gas systems used in the LHC experiments. The goal is finding the operational conditions that will keep the RPC gas purity near the level of the fresh gas quality to ensure proper operation of the large RPC systems at high luminosity. The properties and performance of a large number of purifiers have been understood. On that basis, an optimal combination of different filters consisting of MS (MS) 5Å and 4Å, and a CuO catalyst R11 has been chosen and validated irradiating a set of RPCs at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) for several years. An important feature of this new filters configuration is the increase of the cycle duration for each purifier, which results in better stability and reduced downtime of the gas systems. If needed, it permits to comfortably increase the gas flow in the detectors during the high luminosity running at LHC.

  15. Connecting the Interstellar Gas and Dust Properties in Distant Galaxies Using Quasar Absorption Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Monique C.; Dwek, Eliahu; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam; Lackey, Kyle; Dwek, Eli; Beiranvand, Nassim; hide

    2016-01-01

    Gas and dust grains are fundamental components of the interstellar medium and significantly impact many of the physical processes driving galaxy evolution, such as star-formation, and the heating, cooling, and ionization of the interstellar material. Quasar absorption systems (QASs), which trace intervening galaxies along the sightlines to luminous quasars, provide a valuable tool to directly study the properties of the interstellar gas and dust in distant, normal galaxies. We have established the presence of silicate dust grains in at least some gas-rich QASs, and find that they exist at higher optical depths than expected for diffuse gas in the Milky Way. Differences in the absorption feature shapes additionally suggest variations in the silicate dust grain properties, such as in the level of grain crystallinity, from system-to-system. We present results from a study of the gas and dust properties of QASs with adequate archival IR data to probe the silicate dust grain properties. We discuss our measurements of the strengths of the 10 and 18 micron silicate dust absorption features in the QASs, and constraints on the grain properties (e.g., composition, shape, crystallinity) based on fitted silicate profile templates. We investigate correlations between silicate dust abundance, reddening, and gas metallicity, which will yield valuable insights into the history of star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies.

  16. Implementation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Double Stage Waste Heat Recovery System on Large Container Vessel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Marissal, Matthieu; Sørensen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    to reach the highest possible combination of pressure and temperature, and adapted to Tier III by introducing two alternative superheaters. The system design is optimized and found capable of producing from 400 to 1900 kW, with a weighted average power of 958 kW. The consumption profile is found...... of recovering some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas. This heat is converted into electrical energy used on-board instead of using auxiliary engines. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems, are recirculating a part of the exhaust gas through the engine combustion chamber to reduce emissions. WHRS combined...... with EGR is a potential way to improve system efficiency while reducing emissions. This paper investigates the feasibility of combining the two systems. EGR dilutes the fuel, lowering the combustion temperature and thereby the formation of NOx, to reach Tier III limitation. A double stage WHRS is set up...

  17. Engineering design and exergy analyses for combustion gas turbine based power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue, D.-C.; Chuang, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering design and theoretical exergetic analyses of the plant for combustion gas turbine based power generation systems. Exergy analysis is performed based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for power generation systems. The results show the exergy analyses for a steam cycle system predict the plant efficiency more precisely. The plant efficiency for partial load operation is lower than full load operation. Increasing the pinch points will decrease the combined cycle plant efficiency. The engineering design is based on inlet air-cooling and natural gas preheating for increasing the net power output and efficiency. To evaluate the energy utilization, one combined cycle unit and one cogeneration system, consisting of gas turbine generators, heat recovery steam generators, one steam turbine generator with steam extracted for process have been analyzed. The analytical results are used for engineering design and component selection

  18. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  19. Fiber-Optic Based Compact Gas Leak Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroot, Wim A.

    1995-01-01

    A propellant leak detection system based on Raman scattering principles is introduced. The proposed system is flexible and versatile as the result of the use of optical fibers. It is shown that multiple species can be monitored simultaneously. In this paper oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen are detected and monitored. The current detection sensitivity for both hydrogen and carbon monoxide is 1% partial pressure at ambient conditions. The sensitivity for oxygen and nitrogen is 0.5% partial pressure. The response time to changes in species concentration is three minutes. This system can be used to monitor multiple species at several locations.

  20. Simulation of the fuzzy-smith control system for the high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Deheng; Xu Xiaolin; Zheng Jie; Guo Renjun; Zhang Guifen

    1997-01-01

    The Fuzzy-Smith pre-estimate controller to solve the control of the big delay system is developed, accompanied with the development of the mathematical model of the 10 MW high temperature gas cooled test reactor (HTR-10) and the design of its control system. The simulation results show the Fuzzy-Smith pre-estimate controller has the advantages of both fuzzy control and Smith pre-estimate controller; it has better compensation to the delay and better adaptability to the parameter change of the control object. So it is applicable to the design of the control system for the high temperature gas cooled reactor

  1. Cryomechanical preconcentration system for trace gas analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced cryogenic cooling systems are required to enable high-precision measurements of trace atmospheric gases and isotopes present at very low concentrations in...

  2. Scenarios for a Nordic Power System without Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Nilsson, Måns; Wu, Qiuwei

    2014-01-01

    good. The main target group of the scenario results is the Transmission System Operators (TSOs), but the results will also be relevant for the Nordic politicians and investment decision makers in the power industry. The scenarios will among other be used for the following purposes: - Identify...... profitable investments in transmission grids with particular focus on the interconnections between the Nordic region and Continental Europe - Technical simulations of the power system with focus on balancing of large shares of non-dispatchable renewable resources in a future system. - Assess impacts...... on the power system with large-scale deployment of electric vehicles. - Discuss necessary governance transformation related to the transmission grid developmentThe paper presents a scenario methodology where each scenario consists of a possible future and a strategy for how the decision maker (TSOs) can act...

  3. Continued Development of Compact Multi-gas Monitor for Life Support Systems Control in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Alonso, Jesús; Phillips, Straun; Chullen, Cinda; Quinn, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Miniature optic gas sensors (MOGS) based on luminescent materials have shown great potential as alternatives to Near-Infrared-based gas sensor systems for the advanced space suit portable life support system (PLSS). The unique capability of MOGS for carbon dioxide and oxygen monitoring under wet conditions has been reported, as has the fast recovery of MOGS humidity sensors after long periods of being wet. Lower volume and power requirements are also potential advantages of MOGS over both traditional and advanced Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) gas sensors, which have shown so far longer life than luminescent sensors. This paper presents the most recent results in the development and analytical validation of a compact multi-gas sensor unit based on luminescent sensors for the PLSS. Results of extensive testing are presented, including studies conducted at Intelligent Optical Systems laboratories, a United Technology Corporation Aerospace Systems (UTAS) laboratory, and a Johnson Space Center laboratory. The potential of this sensor technology for gas monitoring in PLSSs and other life support systems and the advantages and limitations found through detailed sensor validation are discussed.

  4. Earthquake loss estimation for a gas lifeline transportation system in Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamin, L.E.; Arambula, S.; Reyes, J.C. [Universidad de los Andes, Bogota (Colombia). Centro de Innovacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico; Belage, S.; Vega, A.; Gil, W. [TransGas de Occidente S.A., Bogota (Colombia)

    2004-07-01

    Methodologies are needed to estimate the seismic risk facing natural gas distribution systems in Colombia in order to establish insurance strategies, risk assessments and emergency plans. This study estimated the maximum probable losses associated with Colombia's 770 km long gas transportation system which stretches from Mariquita to Cali. The pipeline is vulnerable to seismic events, volcanic eruptions, extreme hydrological conditions, and their associated effects such as landslides, liquefaction and avalanches. A geographic information system (GIS) which includes seismic, volcanic, landslide and liquefaction hazards was used to estimate earthquake loss estimates for the natural gas distribution system. Elastic and inelastic finite element methods were used to evaluate the vulnerability of pipelines, bridges, underground crossings and valves. The results were incorporated into the GIS and were used to quantify the probable maximum losses for the system, the most critical associated event, the system's critical zones and the probable damage scenarios. The information was used to define insurance strategies, emergency and contingency plans. It was concluded that due to natural hazards, the natural gas distribution system is at moderate risk despite the low vulnerability of its components. Volcanic eruptions and large earthquakes could produce indirect phenomena such as landslides and liquefaction which could greatly influence the system and which would require adequate risk management. 14 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  5. Multi-Area Predictive Control for Combined Electricity and Natural Gas Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; Andersson, G.; De Schutter, B.

    2009-01-01

    The optimal operation of an integrated electricity and natural gas system is investigated. The couplings between these two systems are modeled by energy hubs, which serve as interface between the loads and the transmission infrastructures. Previously, we have applied a distributed control scheme to

  6. Development of a pilot-scale acid gas removal system for coal syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.J.; Kim, S.H.; Kang, K.H.; Yoo, Y.D.; Yun, Y. [Inst. of Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Republic of Korea)

    2007-11-15

    The Korean pilot-scale gasification facility consists of a coal gasifier, hot gas filtering system, and acid gas removal (AGR) system. The syngas stream from the coal gasification at the rate of 100-120 Nm{sup 3}hr included pollutants such as fly ash, H{sub 2}S, COS, etc. The acid gas, such as H{sub 2}S and COS, is removed in the AGR system before generating electricity by gas engine and producing chemicals like Di-methyl Ether (DME) in the catalytic reactor. A hydrolysis system was installed to hydrolyze COS into H{sub 2}S. The designed operation temperature and pressure of the COS hydrolysis system are 150{sup o}C and 8 kg/cm{sup 2}. After the hydrolysis system, COS was reduced below 1 ppm at the normal operating condition. The normal designed operation temperature and pressure of the AGR system are below 40 {sup o}C and 8 kg/cm{sup 2}. Fe-chelate was used as an absorbent. H{sub 2}S was removed below 0.5 ppm in the AGR system when the maximum concentration of H{sub 2}S was 900 ppm. A small scale COS adsorber was also installed and tested to remove COS below 0.5 ppm. COS was removed below 0.1 ppm after the COS adsorbents such as the activated carbon and ion exchange resin.

  7. Method and system for the purification of exhaust gas with an electrochemical cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for electrochemical reduction of nitrogen oxides and concomitant oxidation of soot, as well as systems useful therefor. Such methods and systems in particular are useful in the context of exhaust gas purification, in particular for diesel engines....

  8. Pirate, the development of an autonomous gas distribution system inspection robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, C.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; van de Pol, H.J.; Nispeling, R.

    2008-01-01

    A consortium of four companies is developing an autonomous inspection system for small diameter, low pressure gas distribution mains. Such a system could eventually replace the current practice of leak survey and improve the assessment of the quality of the mains, being able to investigate the mains

  9. Greenhouse gas fluxes from integrated crop-livestock systems in central North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated crop-livestock (ICL) systems have shown potential to achieve environmentally sustainable production of crop and livestock products with regards to improved soil health. Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to crop and/or livestock only production systems would increase sus...

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions and management practices that impact them in US rice systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous reviews have quantified factors affecting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Asian rice systems but not for US systems, which are different, particularly in practices that affect emissions (i.e. water and carbon management). Using meta-analytic and regression approaches, we analyzed existi...

  11. Fully integrated microfluidic measurement system for real-time determination of gas and liquid mixtures composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Groenesteijn, Jarno; van der Wouden, E.J.; Sparreboom, Wouter; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and realised a fully integrated microfluidic measurement system for real-time determination of both flow rate and composition of gas- and liquid mixtures. The system comprises relative permittivity sensors, pressure sensors, a Coriolis flow and density sensor, a thermal flow sensor

  12. 30 CFR 250.1629 - Additional production and fuel gas system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must be an approved type, designed and installed according to API RP 14C, API RP 14G, and either API RP... contained in § 250.1628 of this part). (b) Design, installation, and operation of additional production systems, including fuel gas handling safety systems. (1) Pressure and fired vessels must be designed...

  13. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from beef production systems in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef production is recognized as a source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emission from production systems. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate whole-farm GHG emissions from representa...

  14. Integrated operation of a pressurized fixed-bed gasifier, hot gas desulfurization system, and turbine simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, S.; Ayala, R.E.; Feitelberg, A.; Furman, A.

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of the General Electric Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) Program is to develop a commercially viable technology to remove sulfur, particulates, and halogens from a high-temperature fuel gas stream using a moving bed, regenerable mixed metal oxide sorbent based process. The HGCU Program is based on the design and demonstration of the HGCU system in a test facility made up of a pilot-scale fixed bed gasifier, a HGCU system, and a turbine simulator in Schenectady, NY, at the General Electric Research and Development Center. The objectives of the turbine simulator testing are (1) to demonstrate the suitability of fuel gas processed by the HGCU system for use in state-of-the-art gas turbines firing at 2,350 F rotor inlet temperature and (2) to quantify the combustion characteristics and emissions on low-Btu fuel gas. The turbine simulator program also includes the development and operation of experimental combustors based on the rich-quench-lean concept (RQL) to minimize the conversion of ammonia and other fuel-bound nitrogen species to NO{sub x} during combustion. The HGCU system and turbine simulator have been designed to process approximately 8,000 lb/hr of low heating value fuel gas produced by the GE fixed bed gasifier. The HGCU system has utilized several mixed metal oxide sorbents, including zinc ferrite, zinc titanate, and Z-Sorb, with the objective of demonstrating good sulfur removal and mechanical attrition resistance as well as economic cost characteristics. Demonstration of halogen removal and the characterization of alkali and trace metal concentrations in the fuel gas are subordinate objectives of the overall program. This report describes the results of several long-duration pilot tests.

  15. [A review of mixed gas detection system based on infrared spectroscopic technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jing-Min; Fu, Li; Yan, Zi-Hui; Zheng, Chuan-Tao; Chang, Yu-Chun; Chen, Chen; Wang, Yi-Din

    2014-10-01

    In order to provide the experiences and references to the researchers who are working on infrared (IR) mixed gas detection field. The proposed manuscript reviews two sections of the aforementioned field, including optical multiplexing structure and detection method. At present, the coherent light sources whose representative are quantum cascade laser (QCL) and inter-band cascade laser(ICL) become the mainstream light source in IR mixed gas detection, which replace the traditional non-coherent light source, such as IR radiation source and IR light emitting diode. In addition, the photon detector which has a super high detectivity and very short response time is gradually beyond thermal infrared detector, dominant in the field of infrared detector. The optical multiplexing structure is the key factor of IR mixed gas detection system, which consists of single light source multi-plexing detection structure and multi light source multiplexing detection structure. Particularly, single light source multiplexing detection structure is advantages of small volume and high integration, which make it a plausible candidate for the portable mixed gas detection system; Meanwhile, multi light source multiplexing detection structure is embodiment of time division multiplex, frequency division multiplexing and wavelength division multiplexing, and become the leading structure of the mixed gas detection system because of its wider spectral range, higher spectral resolution, etc. The detection method applied to IR mixed gas detection includes non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy, wavelength and frequency-modulation spectroscopy, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy, etc. The IR mixed gas detection system designed by researchers after recognizing the whole sections of the proposed system, which play a significant role in industrial and agricultural production, environmental monitoring, and life science, etc.

  16. Categorization of hydrogen storage with reference to natural gas storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, R. D.; Selim, M. A. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    This poster session presentation proposes a categorization scheme of hydrogen storage systems based on energy content of the stored hydrogen. The presentation is based on data about various liquid and gaseous hydrogen storage installations and analogous data on storage systems for natural gas. The proposed system would serve to define and differentiate terms such as bulk storage, industrial storage and small storage systems, and would enable the comparison of existing and developing infrastructure requirements in the emerging context of hydrogen storage.

  17. An analysis on social cost benefit of city gas safety supervision system - concentrated on estimating the intended amount paid about gas safety of households using city gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Sung [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    With the increase of convenient and clean gas fuel consumption, the danger of gas safety accident is also increasing. Therefore, now is the time for requiring many thoughtful concerns and cares for the prevention of gas accident. In this study, the perception of city gas end users on use of city gas was studied and the economic value of improving gas safety was estimated by examining the intended amount paid for improving safety of city gas use. Although most of city gas end-users perceive that gas use is generally safe, they are concerned about a possibility of dander of accidents happened without any notice. On the other hand, about 97% of households using city gas know checking gas safety at a minimum, but only 60% among them are implementing self-checkup. The economic benefit of improving gas safety of city gas end-users in Korea is estimated from the lowest of 121.47 billion to the highest of 317.97 billion annually. (author). 38 refs., 5 figs., 45 tabs.

  18. Unconventional shale-gas systems: The Mississippian Barnett Shale of north-central Texas as one model for thermogenic shale-gas assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, D.M.; Hill, R.J.; Ruble, T.E.; Pollastro, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Shale-gas resource plays can be distinguished by gas type and system characteristics. The Newark East gas field, located in the Fort Worth Basin, Texas, is defined by thermogenic gas production from low-porosity and low-permeability Barnett Shale. The Barnett Shale gas system, a self-contained source-reservoir system, has generated large amounts of gas in the key productive areas because of various characteristics and processes, including (1) excellent original organic richness and generation potential; (2) primary and secondary cracking of kerogen and retained oil, respectively; (3) retention of oil for cracking to gas by adsorption; (4) porosity resulting from organic matter decomposition; and (5) brittle mineralogical composition. The calculated total gas in place (GIP) based on estimated ultimate recovery that is based on production profiles and operator estimates is about 204 bcf/section (5.78 ?? 109 m3/1.73 ?? 104 m3). We estimate that the Barnett Shale has a total generation potential of about 609 bbl of oil equivalent/ac-ft or the equivalent of 3657 mcf/ac-ft (84.0 m3/m3). Assuming a thickness of 350 ft (107 m) and only sufficient hydrogen for partial cracking of retained oil to gas, a total generation potential of 820 bcf/section is estimated. Of this potential, approximately 60% was expelled, and the balance was retained for secondary cracking of oil to gas, if sufficient thermal maturity was reached. Gas storage capacity of the Barnett Shale at typical reservoir pressure, volume, and temperature conditions and 6% porosity shows a maximum storage capacity of 540 mcf/ac-ft or 159 scf/ton. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of the Next Generation Gas Trap for the Space Station Internal Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Spelbring, Chris; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2003-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gases (NCG) from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Design goals are to meet or exceed the current requirements to (1) include greater operating ranges and conditions, (2) eliminate reliance on the current hydrophilic tube fabrication process, and (3) increase operational life and tolerance to particulate and microbial growth fouling. In addition, the next generation gas trap will essentially be a 'dropin" design such that no modifications to the ITCS pump package assembly (PPA) will be required, and the implementation of the new design will not affect changes to the ITCS operational conditions, interfaces, or software. This paper will present the initial membrane module design and development work which has included (1) a trade study among several conceptual designs, (2) performance modeling of a hydrophobic-only design, and (3) small-scale development test data for the hydrophobic-only design. Testing has shown that the hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal.

  20. Development of an engine control system using city gas and biogas fuel mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Yudai; Kanno, Masanobu; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Kaneko, Shigehiko

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The gas engine control system was developed using both city gas and biogas flexibly. ► The developed control system corporates with an original controller. ► The target value of O 2 emission is decided by Wobbe index of mixture fuel and load. ► The controller achieved stable operation for fuel mix ratio and load changing. -- Abstract: In this paper, a gas engine system capable of stable operation at any mix ratio of city gas 13A and biogas was developed. The gas engine system consists of a spark-ignition gas engine, an additional electric throttle valve for fuel and our own control algorithm. The engine is a 3-cylinder 1.6-l engine that was originally used for co-generation, and the fuel throttle valve was added to respond to different fuel compositions. The control algorithm was also designed to adjust the fuel and air ratio to attain a higher generation efficiency and lower NOx emission with different mix ratios of city gas 13A, biogas and load. Before developing the controller, the effect of the mix ratio on generation efficiency and NOx emission was investigated under various load conditions. The following summarizes the experimental results: a control algorithm using the Wobbe index for mixed fuels was formulated; this index determines the target fuel-to-air ratio. Next, operation tests were performed under varying fuel mix ratios and loads by applying the control algorithm to the gas engine. The target engine rotational speed and exhaust O 2 concentration was realized in 5 s when the biogas fraction varied from 20% to 40% and from 70% to 40%. When the load was also varied from 9.4 kW to 0.5 kW and from 0.5 kW to 9.4 kW at a constant rate, the rotational speed and exhaust O 2 concentration achieved the target values in 20 s. Under both transient operation conditions, the engine system met the NOx emission requirement, and the results indicate that the simple hardware modification to a conventional gas engine and our original control

  1. Mitigation of methane emissions in a pilot-scale biocover system at the av miljø landfill, denmark: system design and gas distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Skov, B.; Cassini, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    -passive biocover system was constructed at the AV Miljø landfill. The biocover is fed by landfill gas pumped out of three leachate wells. An innovative gas distribution system was used to overcome the often observed overloaded hot spot areas resulting from uneven gas distribution to the active methane oxidation...

  2. Well-Being Analysis of Power Systems Considering Increasing Deployment of Gas Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomiao Liang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the significant decrease in natural gas prices in many parts of the world, the employment of gas turbine (GT units has increased steadily in recent years. The ever-increasing deployment of GT units is strengthening the interconnections between electric power and natural gas systems, which could provide a higher level of operational flexibility and reliability. As a result, the planning and operation issues in the interconnected electric power and natural gas systems have aroused concern. In these circumstances, the impacts of increasing deployment of GT units in power system operation are studied and evaluated through well-being analysis (WBA. The fast responsive characteristics of GT units are analyzed first, and the definition and adaption of WBA in a power system with increasing deployment of GT units are addressed. Then the equivalent reserve capacity of GT units is estimated, taking demand fluctuations, commitment plans, and operational risks of GT units into account. The WBA of a power system with increasing deployment of GT units is conducted considering the uncertainties of system operation states and renewable energy sources. Finally, the proposed methods are validated through an integrated version of the IEEE 118-bus power system and a 10-bus natural gas system, and the impacts of GT units on power system security under various penetration levels are examined. Simulation results demonstrate that the role of a GT unit as a low-cost electricity producer may conflict with its role as a reserve provider, but through maintaining a proper proportion of idle GT capacities for reserve, the well-being performance of the power system concerned can be significantly improved.

  3. High pressure rheology of gas hydrate formed from multiphase systems using modified Couette rheometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav; Linga, Praveen; Sangwai, Jitendra S.

    2017-02-01

    Conventional rheometers with concentric cylinder geometries do not enhance mixing in situ and thus are not suitable for rheological studies of multiphase systems under high pressure such as gas hydrates. In this study, we demonstrate the use of modified Couette concentric cylinder geometries for high pressure rheological studies during the formation and dissociation of methane hydrate formed from pure water and water-decane systems. Conventional concentric cylinder Couette geometry did not produce any hydrates in situ and thus failed to measure rheological properties during hydrate formation. The modified Couette geometries proposed in this work observed to provide enhanced mixing in situ, thus forming gas hydrate from the gas-water-decane system. This study also nullifies the use of separate external high pressure cell for such measurements. The modified geometry was observed to measure gas hydrate viscosity from an initial condition of 0.001 Pa s to about 25 Pa s. The proposed geometries also possess the capability to measure dynamic viscoelastic properties of hydrate slurries at the end of experiments. The modified geometries could also capture and mimic the viscosity profile during the hydrate dissociation as reported in the literature. The present study acts as a precursor for enhancing our understanding on the rheology of gas hydrate formed from various systems containing promoters and inhibitors in the context of flow assurance.

  4. Design of an Infrared Imaging System for Robotic Inspection of Gas Leaks in Industrial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Barber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas detection can become a critical task in dangerous environments that involve hazardous or contaminant gases, and the use of imaging sensors provides an important tool for leakage location. This paper presents a new design for remote sensing of gas leaks based on infrared (IR imaging techniques. The inspection system uses an uncooled microbolometer detector, operating over a wide spectral bandwidth, that features both low size and low power consumption. This equipment is boarded on a robotic platform, so that wide objects or areas can be scanned. The detection principle is based on the use of active imaging techniques, where the use of external IR illumination enhances the detection limit and allows the proposed system to operate in most cases independently from environmental conditions, unlike passive commercial approaches. To illustrate this concept, a fully radiometric description of the detection problem has been developed; CO2 detection has been demonstrated; and simulations of typical gas detection scenarios have been performed, showing that typical industrial leaks of CH4 are well within the detection limits. The mobile platform where the gas sensing system is going to be implemented is a robot called TurtleBot. The control of the mobile base and of the inspection device is integrated in ROS architecture. The exploration system is based on the technique of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM that makes it possible to locate the gas leak in the map.

  5. Optimization of gas mixing system of premixed burner based on CFD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tian-Hu; Liu, Feng-Guo; You, Xue-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New multi-ejectors gas mixing system for premixed combustion burner is provided. • Two measures are proposed to improve the flow uniformity at the outlet of GMS. • Small improvement of uniformity induces significant decrease of pollutant emission. • Uniformity of velocity and fuel–gas mixing of ejector increases 234.2% and 2.9%. • Uniformity of flow rate and fuel–gas mixing of ejectors increases 1.9% and 2.2%. - Abstract: The optimization of gas mixing system (GMS) of premixed burner is presented by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the uniformity at the outlet of GMS is proved experimentally to have strong influence on pollutant emission. To improve the uniformity at the outlet of GMS, the eleven distribution orifice plates and a diversion plate are introduced. The quantified analysis shows that the uniformity at the outlet of GMS is improved significantly. With applying the distribution orifice plates, the uniformity of velocity and fuel–gas mixing of single ejector is increased by 234.2% and 2.9%, respectively. With applying the diversion plate, the uniformity of flow rate and fuel–gas mixing of different ejectors is increased by 1.9% and 2.2%, respectively. The optimal measures and geometrical parameters provide an applicable guidance for the design of commercial premixed burner

  6. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA`s modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes.

  7. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA's modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes

  8. Geographical information system for radon gas from soil measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, P.; Amici, M.; Altieri, A.; Massari, P.; Miccadei, E.; Onofri, A.; Orlando, C.; Paolelli, C.; Paron, P.; Perticaroli, P.; Piacentini, T.; Silvestri, C.; Minach, L.; Verdi, L.; Bertolo, A.; Trotti, F.

    2000-03-01

    The working program foresees the realization of an geographical information system for the check in field of the geological parameters and determination of uranium and radium contents in various type of rocks. It is here also pointed out a measuring method for radon concentration in soil [it

  9. Modeling electromigration as a fluid–gas system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, Wim; Petrescu, V.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper two problems in modeling electromigration are addressed. The first problem is an issue of principle concerning counting the number of variables and the number of equations for formulating a well-posed mathematical problem. The second problem deals with setting up a system of equations

  10. Development of cooling and cleaning systems for enhanced gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to address these tar related problems a cleaning and cooling system has been developed in house that facilitates tar removal to acceptable levels tolerated by the internal combustion (IC) engine and meets emission standards as well. The main objective of the present work is to reduce tar level and develop control ...

  11. Design of the ATLAS New Small Wheel Gas Distribution System for the Micromegas Detector Modules

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00084094; The ATLAS collaboration; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Maltezos, Stavros; Vlachos, Sotirios; Karentzos, Efstathios; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Moschovakos, Paris; Koutelieris, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present and describe the methodology, the particular calculations and simulations accordingly to achieve the appropriate gas flow rates ensuring a uniform gas distribution among the same type of NSW Micromegas modules. The majority of the components used are in large multiplicity so space saving criteria is taking into account and simplicity on the performance with respect to the total cost as well. An appropriate simulation program has been developed for studying the overall gas system determining the gauge pressure, flow rate in the crucial points and branches, respectively. Moreover, an overall prototype configuration, implemented at the NTUA laboratory and based on the Lock-in Amplifier technique to be used in conjunction with the gas leak test via the FRL method is presented. The obtained performances, by means of sensitivity and S/N ratio improvement, are also discussed.

  12. Methods and systems for detecting gas flow by photoacoustic signal generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Niloy; Challener, William Albert

    2018-03-06

    A method for the detection of a gas flowing from a location in a structure is described. A hollow-core optical fiber is placed in a position adjacent the structure. The fiber includes a sound-conductive cladding layer; and further includes at least one aperture extending into its cross-sectional diameter. A beam of pulsed, optical is transmitted into the fiber with a tunable laser. The optical energy is characterized by a wavelength that can be absorbed by the gas that flows into the fiber through the aperture. This causes a temperature fluctuation in the region of gas absorption, which in turn generates an acoustic wave in the absorption region. The acoustic wave travels through the cladding layer, and can be detected with a microphone, so as to provide the location of gas flow, based on the recorded position and movement of the acoustic wave. A related system is also described.

  13. Development and Creating of Gas-Sensor System Based on Low Dimensional Metal Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovhyra, R.V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of photoluminescent properties of metal oxide nanopowders (ZnO, TiO2, SnO2, WO3 including laser-modified and surface doped by impurities (Au, Ag, Pt, Ni, Cu, Sn, in gases (О2, N2, H2, CO, CO2 were studied. Nature of sensor properties of the metal oxide nanopowders (adsorption capacity, speed, sensitivity, selectivity were established; the best structure and materials for the development of a multicomponent recording matrix were selected. The efficiency of the constructed sensor system for the gases’ and their mixtures detection and analysis was found. The developed gas sensor system allows detecting not only separate gas components, but their mixture with high sensitivity and selectivity, providing the possibility to reach the modern level of the formation of gas sensor systems with improved performance.

  14. Performance and Operational Characteristics for a Dual Brayton Space Power System With Common Gas Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul K.; Mason, Lee S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analytical evaluation on the operation and performance of a dual Brayton common gas system. The NASA Glenn Research Center in-house computer program Closed Cycle System Simulation (CCSS) was used to construct a model of two identical 50 kWe-class recuperated closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) power conversion units that share a common gas inventory and single heat source. As operating conditions for each CBC change, the total gas inventory is redistributed between the two units and overall system performance is affected. Several steady-state off-design operating points were analyzed by varying turbine inlet temperature and turbo-alternator shaft rotational speed to investigate the interaction of the two units.

  15. Design, Fabrication, and Shakeout Testing of ATALANTE Dissolver Off-Gas Sorbent-Based Capture System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Jr, Joseph Franklin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jordan, Jacob A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-07-31

    A sorbent-based capture system designed for integration into the existing dissolver off-gas (DOG) treatment system at the ATelier Alpha et Laboratoires pour ANalyses, Transuraniens et Etudes de retraitement (ATALANTE) facility has been successfully designed and fabricated and has undergone shakeout testing. Discussions with personnel from the ATALANTE facility provided guidance that was used for the design. All components for this system were specified, procured, and received on site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system was then fabricated and tested at ORNL to verify operation. Shakeout testing resulted in a simplified system. This system should be easily installed into the existing facility and should be straightforward to operate during future experimental testing. All parts were selected to be compatible with ATALANTE power supplies, space requirements, and the existing DOG treatment system. Additionally, the system was demonstrated to meet all of four design requirements. These include (1) a dissolver off-gas flow rate of ≤100 L/h (1.67 L/min), (2) an external temperature of ≤50°C for all system components placed in the hot cell, (3) a sorbent bed temperature of ~150°C, and (4) a gas temperature of ~150°C upon entry into the sorbent bed. The system will be ready for shipment and installation in the existing DOG treatment system at ATALANTE in FY 2016.

  16. Development of a Simulation Framework for Analyzing Security of Supply in Integrated Gas and Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Addo Pambour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas and power networks are tightly coupled and interact with each other due to physically interconnected facilities. In an integrated gas and power network, a contingency observed in one system may cause iterative cascading failures, resulting in network wide disruptions. Therefore, understanding the impacts of the interactions in both systems is crucial for governments, system operators, regulators and operational planners, particularly, to ensure security of supply for the overall energy system. Although simulation has been widely used in the assessment of gas systems as well as power systems, there is a significant gap in simulation models that are able to address the coupling of both systems. In this paper, a simulation framework that models and simulates the gas and power network in an integrated manner is proposed. The framework consists of a transient model for the gas system and a steady state model for the power system based on AC-Optimal Power Flow. The gas and power system model are coupled through an interface which uses the coupling equations to establish the data exchange and coordination between the individual models. The bidirectional interlink between both systems considered in this studies are the fuel gas offtake of gas fired power plants for power generation and the power supply to liquefied natural gas (LNG terminals and electric drivers installed in gas compressor stations and underground gas storage facilities. The simulation framework is implemented into an innovative simulation tool named SAInt (Scenario Analysis Interface for Energy Systems and the capabilities of the tool are demonstrated by performing a contingency analysis for a real world example. Results indicate how a disruption triggered in one system propagates to the other system and affects the operation of critical facilities. In addition, the studies show the importance of using transient gas models for security of supply studies instead of successions of

  17. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  18. Gas dynamic reaction process and system for laser chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbuny, M.

    1979-01-01

    A reaction system is disclosed wherein a moving, unidirectional stream of an activatable gaseous species is produced, the individual members of which have the forward components of their velocities at least 10 times greater than the lateral components of their velocities. The stream is irradiated with substantially monochromatic light having a frequency which activates at least some of the individual members of the species. The activated members can then be reacted with another stream or otherwise utilized

  19. System for injecting fuel in a gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2016-10-25

    A combustion system uses a fuel nozzle with an inner wall having a fuel inlet in fluid communication with a fuel outlet in a fuel cartridge. The inner wall defines a mounting location for inserting the fuel cartridge. A pair of annular lip seals around the cartridge outer wall on both sides of the fuel outlet seals the fuel passage between the fuel inlet and the fuel outlet.

  20. Thermodynamic comparison of three small-scale gas liquefaction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    to be more efficient (1000-2000 kJ/kgLNG) than expander-based ones (2500-5000 kJ/kgLNG) over larger ranges of operating conditions, at the expense of a greater system complexity and higher thermal conductance (250-500kW/K against 80-160 kW/K). The results show that the use of different thermodynamic models...

  1. Operational analysis of a small-capacity cogeneration system with a gas hydrate battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Shin'ya; Kikuchi, Yoshinobu; Ishikawa, Kyosuke; Kawai, Masahito; Kashiwaya, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    In a cold region during winter, energy demand for residential heating is high and energy saving, the discharge of greenhouse gases, and air pollution are all of significant concern. We investigated the fundamental characteristics of an energy storage system with a GHB (gas hydrate battery) in which heat cycle by a unique change in state of gas hydrate operates using the low-temperature ambient air of a cold region. The proposed system with the GHB can respond to a high heat to power ratio caused by a small-scale CGS (cogeneration system) that is powered by a gas engine, a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, or a solid oxide fuel cell. In this paper, we explain how the relation between fossil fuel consumption and heat to power ratio of the different types of systems differ. We investigated the proposed system by laboratory experiments and analysis of the characteristics of power load and heat load of such a system in operation in Kitami, a cold district in Japan. If a hydrate formation space of 2 m 3 is introduced into the proposed system, 48%–52% (namely, power rate by green energy) of total electric power consumption is supplied by the GHB. - Highlights: • Heat cycle by unique change in state of gas hydrate was developed. • Characteristics of energy storage equipment using CO 2 hydrate were investigated. • Hybrid system of small-scale cogeneration and gas hydrate heat cycle was examined. • Proposed system can reduce fuel consumption during winter in a cold region

  2. Preparation and analysis of helium purge gas mixture to be used in Tritium Extraction System of LLCB TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayathri Devi, V; Yadav, Deepak; Sircar, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopes are extracted from the Ceramic Breeder (CB) and liquid Lead Lithium (Pb-Li) breeder of Lead Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) with Helium purge gas. 1000 ppm of hydrogen gas is mixed with the purge helium gas to facilitate improved extraction of hydrogen isotopes from the breeder zones by hydrogen swamping reactions [1]. An experimental set up is developed for making up the purge gas mixture with a composition similar to the purge gas composition to be used for extraction of hydrogen isotopes from CB and Pb-Li of LLCB TBM. This is achieved by introducing different ppm levels (1000 - 5000 ppm) of hydrogen in helium gas by flow control mechanism. The analysis of the purge gas mixture is performed using a highly sensitive Gas Chromatography (GC) system. This paper describes the detailed design of the experimental set-up and results for the analysis of different concentrations of hydrogen in helium purge gas. (paper)

  3. Modeling and performance analysis of CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system based on co-firing of natural gas and biomass gasification gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangjiang; Mao, Tianzhi; Sui, Jun; Jin, Hongguang

    2015-01-01

    Co-firing biomass and fossil energy is a cost-effective and reliable way to use renewable energy and offer advantages in flexibility, conversion efficiency and commercial possibility. This study proposes a co-fired CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system based on natural gas and biomass gasification gas that contains a down-draft gasifier, ICE (internal combustion engine), absorption chiller and heat exchangers. Thermodynamic models are constructed based on a modifying gasification thermochemical equilibrium model and co-fired ICE model for electricity and heat recovery. The performance analysis for the volumetric mixture ratio of natural gas and product gas indicates that the energy and exergy efficiencies are improved by 9.5% and 13.7%, respectively, for an increasing mixture ratio of 0–1.0. Furthermore, the costs of multi-products, including electricity, chilled water and hot water, based on exergoeconomic analysis are analyzed and discussed based on the influences of the mixture ratio of the two gas fuels, investment cost and biomass cost. - Highlights: • Propose a co-fired CCHP system by natural gas and biomass gasification gas. • Modify biomass gasification and co-fired ICE models. • Present the thermodynamic analysis of the volumetric mixture ratios of two gas fuels. • Energy and exergy efficiencies are improved 9.5% and 13.7%. • Discuss multi-products’ costs influenced by investment and fuel costs.

  4. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in... gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or methanol-fueled engines. In the CVS...

  5. Studies in the dissolver off-gas system for a spent FBR fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, E.; Huefner, R.; Weirich, F.

    1982-01-01

    Investigations of possible modifications of the process steps of a dissolver off-gas (DOG) system for a spent FBR fuel reprocessing plant are reported. The following operations are discussed: iodine removal from the fuel solution; behaviour of NOsub(x) and iodine in nitric acid off-gas scrubbers at different temperatures and nitric acid concentrations; iodine desorption from the scrub acid; selective absorption of noble gases in refrigerant-12; cold traps. The combination of suitable procedures to produce a total DOG system is described. (U.K.)

  6. Exergetic assessment of energy systems on North Sea oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Pierobon, Leonardo; Elmegaard, Brian

    2013-01-01

    destruction of an offshore platform is attributable to the power generation and waste heat recovery system, and 35 e38% to the oil and gas processing. The variability of the feed composition has little effect on the split of the thermodynamic irreversibilities between both plants. The rejection of high......-temperature gases from the utility and flaring systems is the major contributor to the exergy losses. These findings suggest to focus efforts on a better use of the waste heat contained in the exhaust gases and on the ways in which the gas compression performance can be improved. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  7. Carbon Formation and Metal Dusting in Hot-Gas Cleanup Systems of Coal Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, Peter F.; Judkins, Roddie R.; DeVan, Jackson H.; Wright, Ian G.

    1995-12-31

    There are several possible materials/systems degradation modes that result from gasification environments with appreciable carbon activities. These processes, which are not necessarily mutually exclusive, include carbon deposition, carburization, metal dusting, and CO disintegration of refractories. Carbon formation on solid surfaces occurs by deposition from gases in which the carbon activity (a sub C) exceeds unity. The presence of a carbon layer CO can directly affect gasifier performance by restricting gas flow, particularly in the hot gas filter, creating debris (that may be deposited elsewhere in the system or that may cause erosive damage of downstream components), and/or changing the catalytic activity of surfaces.

  8. Health risk assessment linked with purified biogas injection in a natural gas distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, Carole; Modelon, Hugues; Rousselle, Christophe; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Evanno, Sebastien

    2009-06-01

    This document provides for the opinion of the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (Afsset) expressed after the collective expertise carried out for the evaluation of the health risk linked with biogas injection in the natural gas distribution system. Following the recommendations issued by the Afsset, works have been started in order to collect the sludge-derived biogas and to analyse its composition. These data will be used to assess accidental risks (resulting from biogas valorisation, pipeline transport, industrial and domestic energy valorisation) as well as health risks for users (resulting from the injection in the natural gas distribution system)

  9. System-Level Value of a Gas Engine Power Plant in Electricity and Reserve Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Alahäivälä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Power systems require a certain amount of flexibility to meet varying demand and to be able to cope with unexpected events, and this requirement is expected to increase with the emergence of variable power generation. In this paper, we focus on gas engine power plant technology and the beneficial influence its flexible operation can have on a power system. The study introduces the concept of a combined-cycle gas engine power plant (CCGE, which comprises a combination of several gas-fired combustion engines and a steam turbine. The operation of CCGE is then comprehensively analyzed in electricity and reserve production in the South African power system and compared with combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT technology. Even though CCGE is a form of technology that has already been commercialized, it is rarely considered as a source of flexibility in the academic research. That is the notion providing the motivation for this study. Our core contribution is to show that the flexibility of CCGE can be valuable in power systems. The methodology is based on the unit-level model of the studied system and the solving of a day-ahead unit commitment problem for each day of the simulated 11-year period. The simulation studies reveal how a CCGE is able to offer system flexibility to follow hourly load variations and capacity to provide reserve power effectively.

  10. System for measurement and automatic regulation of gas flow within an oil aging test device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system within an oil aging test device that serves for measurement and automatic regulation of gas flow. Following an already realized system that continuously monitors, logs, and regulates transformer oil temperature during the aging process and maintains temperature consistency within strict limits, a model of a flow meter and regulator of air or oxygen through transformer oil samples is developed. A special feature of the implemented system is the measurement of very small gas flows. A short technical description of the realized system is given with a functional block diagram. The basic technical characteristics of the system are specified, and the operating principles and application of the system are described. The paper also gives performance test results in a real exploitation environment.

  11. Technical description of the Swedish natural gas distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ronny [KM Miljoeteknik AB (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    This description of the Swedish distribution network has been produced to provide information for distribution companies, trade organisations, etc., who have an interest in getting a clear understanding of the technical design and standards, technical directives, etc., which have served as guidance in the development. The technical description covers the piping system from a measuring and regulating station (MR station) up to the consumer`s substation, however, only sections with a maximum operating pressure of 4 bar. By way of introduction, the description contains introductory information on supply channels, consumption patterns and the principal design of the high pressure network in Sweden 10 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  12. Comparative study of gas-analyzing systems designed for continuous monitoring of TPP emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, O. E.; Roslyakov, P. V.

    2017-06-01

    Determining the composition of combustion products is important in terms of both control of emissions into the atmosphere from thermal power plants and optimization of fuel combustion processes in electric power plants. For this purpose, the concentration of oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and sulfur oxides in flue gases is monitored; in case of solid fuel combustion, fly ash concentration is monitored as well. According to the new nature conservation law in Russia, all large TPPs shall be equipped with continuous emission monitoring and measurement systems (CEMMS) into the atmosphere. In order to ensure the continuous monitoring of pollutant emissions, direct round-the-clock measurements are conducted with the use of either domestically produced or imported gas analyzers and analysis systems, the operation of which is based on various physicochemical methods and which can be generally used when introducing CEMMS. Depending on the type and purposes of measurement, various kinds of instruments having different features may be used. This article represents a comparative study of gas-analysis systems for measuring the content of polluting substances in exhaust gases based on various physical and physicochemical analysis methods. It lists basic characteristics of the methods commonly applied in the area of gas analysis. It is proven that, considering the necessity of the long-term, continuous operation of gas analyzers for monitoring and measurement of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere, as well as the requirements for reliability and independence from aggressive components and temperature of the gas flow, it is preferable to use optical gas analyzers for the aforementioned purposes. In order to reduce the costs of equipment comprising a CEMMS at a TPP and optimize the combustion processes, electrochemical and thermomagnetic gas analyzers may also be used.

  13. Application of CFRP with High Hydrogen Gas Barrier Characteristics to Fuel Tanks of Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Koichi; Yamamoto, Yuta; Okuyama, Keiichi; Ebina, Takeo

    In the future, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) with high hydrogen gas barrier performance will find wide applications in all industrial hydrogen tanks that aim at weight reduction; the use of such materials will be preferred to the use of conventional metallic materials such as stainless steel or aluminum. The hydrogen gas barrier performance of CFRP will become an important issue with the introduction of hydrogen-fuel aircraft. It will also play an important role in realizing fully reusable space transportation system that will have high specific tensile CFRP structures. Such materials are also required for the manufacture of high-pressure hydrogen gas vessels for use in the fuel cell systems of automobiles. This paper introduces a new composite concept that can be used to realize CFRPs with high hydrogen gas barrier performance for applications in the cryogenic tanks of fully reusable space transportation system by the incorporation of a nonmetallic crystal layer, which is actually a dense and highly oriented clay crystal laminate. The preliminary test results show that the hydrogen gas barrier characteristics of this material after cryogenic heat shocks and cyclic loads are still better than those of other polymer materials by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  14. Statistics of Long Period Gas Giant Planets in Known Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Marta

    2017-06-01

    The presence of a substantial population of volatile-rich planets on orbits interior to 1AU poses a challenge to models of planet formation and migration. There is currently an ongoing debate as to whether these planets could have formed in situ or instead migrated inward from a more distant formation location. While it has generally been assumed that gas giant planets formed out beyond the ice line and migrated inwards, more recent work has suggested that even these relatively massive planets may be able to form in situ. To constrain possible formation and migration scenarios, we searched for massive, long-period gas giant companions in known exoplanet systems by looking for long-term trends in the RV data. In addition to estimating the total occurrence rate of long-period gas giant companions in known exoplanet systems, we found that hot gas giants inside 1 AU are more likely to have an outer companion than cold gas giants. We also found that planets with an outer companion have higher than average eccentricities than their single counterparts, suggesting that dynamical interactions between planets may play an important role in these systems.

  15. Test results from the GA Technologies engineering-scale off-gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.D.; Olguin, L.J.; Wilbourn, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Test results are available from the GA Technologies (GA) off-gas treatment facilities using gas streams from both the graphite fuel element burner system and from the spent fuel dissolver. The off-gas system is part of a pilot plant for development of processes for treating spent fuel from high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). One method for reducing the volume of HTGR fuel prior to reprocessing or spent fuel storage is to crush and burn the graphite fuel elements. The burner off-gas (BOG) contains radioactive components, principally H-3, C-14, Kr-85, I-129, and Rn-220, as well as chemical forms such as CO 2 , CO, O 2 , and SO 2 . The BOG system employs components designed to remove these constituents. Test results are reported for the iodine and SO 2 adsorbers and the CO/HT oxidizer. Integrated testing of major BOG system components confirmed the performance of units evaluated in individual tests. Design decontamination and conversion factors were maintained for up to 72 h. In a reprocessing flowsheet, the solid product from the burners is dissolved in nitric or Thorex acid. The dissolver off-gas (DOG) contains radioactive components H-3, Kr-85, I-129, Rn-220 plus chemical forms such as nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/). In the pilot-scale system iodine is removed from the DOG by adsorption. Tests of iodine removal have been conducted using either silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) or AgNO 3 -impregnated silica gel (AC-6120). Although each sorbent performed well in the presence of NO/sub x/, the silica gel adsorbent proved more efficient in silver utilization and, thus, more cost effective

  16. Assessment of thermodynamic models for the design, analysis and optimisation of gas liquefaction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Six thermodynamic models used for evaluating gas liquefaction systems are compared. • Three gas liquefaction systems are modelled, assessed and optimised for each equation of state. • The predictions of thermophysical properties and energy flows are significantly different. • The GERG-2008 model is the only consistent one, while cubic, virial and statistical equations are unsatisfying. - Abstract: Natural gas liquefaction systems are based on refrigeration cycles – they consist of the same operations such as heat exchange, compression and expansion, but they have different layouts, components and working fluids. The design of these systems requires a preliminary simulation and evaluation of their performance. However, the thermodynamic models used for this purpose are characterised by different mathematical formulations, ranges of application and levels of accuracy. This may lead to inconsistent results when estimating hydrocarbon properties and assessing the efficiency of a given process. This paper presents a thorough comparison of six equations of state widely used in the academia and industry, including the GERG-2008 model, which has recently been adopted as an ISO standard for natural gases. These models are used to (i) estimate the thermophysical properties of a Danish natural gas, (ii) simulate, and (iii) optimise liquefaction systems. Three case studies are considered: a cascade layout with three pure refrigerants, a single mixed-refrigerant unit, and an expander-based configuration. Significant deviations are found between all property models, and in all case studies. The main discrepancies are related to the prediction of the energy flows (up to 7%) and to the heat exchanger conductances (up to 11%), and they are not systematic errors. The results illustrate the superiority of using the GERG-2008 model for designing gas processes in real applications, with the aim of reducing their energy use. They demonstrate as well that

  17. [Carbon monoxide gas detection system based on mid-infrared spectral absorption technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Lin; Dong, Ming; Song, Nan; Song, Fang; Zheng, Chuan-Tao; Wang, Yi-Ding

    2014-10-01

    Based on infrared spectral absorption technique, a carbon monoxide (CO) detection system was developed using the fundamental absorption band at the wavelength of 4.6 μm of CO molecule and adopting pulse-modulated wideband incandescence and dual-channel detector. The detection system consists of pulse-modulated wideband incandescence, open ellipsoid light-collec- tor gas-cell, dual-channel detector, main-control and signal-processing module. By optimizing open ellipsoid light-collector gas- cell, the optical path of the gas absorption reaches 40 cm, and the amplitude of the electrical signal from the detector is 2 to 3 times larger than the original signal. Therefore, by using the ellipsoidal condenser, the signal-to-noise ratio of the system will be to some extent increased to improve performance of the system. With the prepared standard CO gas sample, sensing characteris- tics on CO gas were investigated. Experimental results reveal that, the limit of detection (LOD) is about 10 ppm; the relative er- ror at the LOD point is less than 14%, and that is less than 7. 8% within the low concentration range of 20~180 ppm; the maxi- mum absolute error of 50 min long-term measurement concentration on the 0 ppm gas sample is about 3 ppm, and the standard deviation is as small as 0. 18 ppm. Compared with the CO detection systems utilizing quantum cascaded lasers (QCLs) and dis- tributed feedback lasers (DFBLs), the proposed sensor shows potential applications in CO detection under the circumstances of coal-mine and environmental protection, by virtue of high performance-cost ratio, simple optical-path structure, etc.

  18. Trends in the design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    Trends in the design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems in nuclear facilities reflect the normal development by manufacturers of new and improved equipment and the demand for more safety, greater reliability, and higher collection efficiency as an aftermath of the well publicized accident at Three Mile Island. The latter event has to be viewed as a watershed in the history of off-gas treatment requirements for nuclear facilities. It is too soon to predict what these will be with any degree of assurance but it seems reasonable to expect greatly increased interest in containment venting systems for light water and LMFBR nuclear power reactors and more stringent regulatory requirements for auxiliary off-gas cleaning systems. Although chemical and waste handling plants share few characteristics with reactors other than the presence of radioactive materials, often in large amounts, tighter requirements for handling reactor off-gases will surely be transferred to other kinds of nuclear facilities without delay. Currently employed nuclear off-gas cleaning technology was largely developed and applied during the decade of the 1950s. It is regrettable that the most efficient and most economical off-gas treatment systems do not always yield the best waste forms for storage or disposal. It is even more regrettable that waste management has ceased to be solely a technical matter but has been transformed instead into a highly charged political posture of major importance in many western nations. Little reinforcement has been provided by detailed studies of off-gas treatment equipment failures that show that approximately 13% of over 9000 licensee event reports to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission pertained to failures in ventilating and cleaning systems and their monitoring instruments

  19. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, au...

  20. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US Massive Gas Injection Disruption Mitigation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a candidate design for the ITER Disruption Mitigation System. This candidate is the Massive Gas Injection System that provides machine protection in a plasma disruption event. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data as well as some data calculated from operating facilities, and the failure events were ranked for their criticality to system operation.