WorldWideScience

Sample records for basin xinjiang province

  1. Biodiversity conservation and a conception for a national desert park in Dzungaria Basin, Xinjiang

    OpenAIRE

    Xinshi Zhang; Haiping Tang; Lijuan Yan

    2008-01-01

    Dzungaria Basin in Xinjiang possesses the most abundant biological resources of animals and plants among the temperate deserts in the world. It has been influenced negatively by the human disturbance such as overgrazing, farming, wood harvesting, digging herbs and illegal hunting as well as by the rapid industrial development for mineral and energy resources such as oil and coal. A plan for biodiversity conservation is so urgent for the basin that the contradiction between biodiversity protec...

  2. [Gender analysis on prenatal care in rural areas of Xinjiang and Anhui province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Lv, Meng-Tao; Cui, Ying; Deng, Li-na; Tian, Xiao-bo

    2009-10-01

    To introduce the gender-specific view to the prenatal care and analysing the health behavior and its influencing factors. Random sampling in cluster was used to select those study population and face to face interview was carried out at their residence in Xinjiang and Anhui province. The overall socioeconomic status of women in rural areas of Xinjiang and Anhui province was low and 93.2% of the women had education level on junior middle school or below. Politically women were less interested in these issues with only 63.1% of them ever participated in the election program or voting. In household daily life, women's status was almost equal to or even higher than men, but men always called the shots when something important in family happened. Men still held the power of decision making. In 47.3% of the families, the husband played a decisive role on decision making. In 37.7% of the families, husbands controlled the money. When getting into expensive expenditure, 35.2% of the families having men made the final approval. When there were different opinions between the couples, husband usually made the final decision in 44.2% of all the families compared to 6.3% of the families that wives made the final decision. 73.9% of women under survey had undergone prenatal examination and the rate on household deliveries reached 30.3%. Both gender consciousness and educational level had influenced the effect on prenatal care. It is important to better prenatal health service in rural areas and to improve socioeconomic status on gender consciousness of women.

  3. The role of scenario analysis in water resources management in Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Kinzelbach, W. K.; Li, W.; Dong, X.

    2011-12-01

    With the rapid increase of world population and food demand, the demand for water resources is also increasing. At the same time shifts in rain patterns due to global climate change make the water resources situation more uncertain. A global water crisis can therefore not be excluded. The socio-economic and environmental problems induced by such a water crisis are especially prominent in arid and semiarid regions. The Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang province is a typical case study in China's arid and semi-arid areas, where rainfall is scarce and evaporation is extremely high. Thus its water resources have been under great pressure to satisfy the increasing water demand of agriculture and urban and industrial expansion in the last decades. The development has been accompanied by a number of environmental problems. Yanqi Basin is an important cultivated area which is irrigated by water diverted from rivers. Because of the long-term flood irrigation and an inefficient drainage system, the groundwater level under the cultivated area rose, accelerating the phreatic evaporation and leading to increased soil salinization. Simultaneously, the water quantity and quality of Boston Lake have been impaired in past years because of the decreased river discharge and the increased salt flux contained in the drainage discharge. Thus the ecosystems depending on the inflow to and outflow from the lake suffered. The riverine forests in the downstream area were degraded due to declining groundwater levels, and aquatic life as well as downstream water users had to cope with deteriorating water quality. The big challenge for decision makers in the basin is how to balance the justified requirements of agriculture, industrial development and the ecosystem. In order to provide a scientific basis to the decision making process, a scenario analysis was adopted. Here several scenarios are proposed: the basic scenario, scenario 1, describes the status of the year 2008. A second scenario maximizes the

  4. Isolates of Liao ning virus from wild-caught mosquitoes in the Xinjiang province of China in 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjun Lv

    Full Text Available Liao ning virus (LNV is related to Banna virus, a known human-pathogen present in south-east Asia. Both viruses belong to the genus Seadornavirus, family Reoviridae. LNV causes lethal haemorrhage in experimentally infected mice. Twenty seven isolates of LNV were made from mosquitoes collected in different locations within the Xinjiang province of north-western China during 2005. These mosquitoes were caught in the accommodation of human patients with febrile manifestations, or in animal barns where sheep represent the main livestock species. The regions where LNV was isolated are affected by seasonal encephalitis, but are free of Japanese encephalitis (JE. Genome segment 10 (Seg-10 (encoding cell-attachment and serotype-determining protein VP10 and Seg-12 (encoding non-structural protein VP12 were sequenced for multiple LNV isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed a less homogenous Seg-10 gene pool, as compared to segment 12. However, all of these isolates appear to belong to LNV type-1. These data suggest a relatively recent introduction of LNV into Xinjiang province, with substitution rates for LNV Seg-10 and Seg-12, respectively, of 2.29×10(-4 and 1.57×10(-4 substitutions/nt/year. These substitution rates are similar to those estimated for other dsRNA viruses. Our data indicate that the history of LNV is characterized by a lack of demographic fluctuations. However, a decline in the LNV population in the late 1980s-early 1990s, was indicated by data for both Seg-10 and Seg-12. Data also suggest a beginning of an expansion in the late 1990s as inferred from Seg-12 skyline plot.

  5. Genetic diversity of Streptococcus uberis isolates from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis in Southern Xinjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Lili; Zhu, Yaxin

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is a common cause of dairy cow mastitis throughout the world. The failure to control bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis is largely attributed to the little known about the epidemiology of this bacteria, especially strain differences in the same area. To define the local epidemiology of S. uberis in the south of Xinjiang, China, we explored the genetic diversity of 28 bovine subclinical mastitis field isolates of S. uberis, collected from 3 Chinese farms during 2009 and 2010, which was examined by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for clustering of the isolates and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to assess the relationship between PFGE patterns and to identify genetic lineages. The 28 isolates were grouped into 13 pulsotypes (U1 to U13), and 1 PFGE type (U1) accounted for almost half of the isolates (13/28, 46.4%). This major type was herd specific, indicating either cow-to-cow transmission or infection with isolates from the same environmental reservoirs. The remaining 12 PFGE types of isolates were from different herds, strongly suggesting environmental sources of S. uberis infection. All 28 isolates were analyzed by MLST and clustered into 8 sequence types (STs), of which 7 STs were found to be novel, either with 5 new alleles of 6 housekeeping and virulence genes (ST158, ST159) or with different combinations of previously assigned alleles (ST153, ST154, ST155, ST156, ST157). To our knowledge, this is the first report that documents molecular typing studies of bovine isolates of S. uberis from southern Xinjiang Province, China, which were shown to represent novel genomic backgrounds of this pathogen.

  6. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  7. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  8. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids, #1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  9. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  10. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  11. Jurassic sedimentary evolution of southern Junggar Basin: Implication for palaeoclimate changes in northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Li Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Junggar Basin, located in northern Xinjiang, presents continuous and multikilometer-thick strata of the Jurassic deposits. The Jurassic was entirely terrestrial fluvial and lacustrine deltaic sedimentation. Eight outcrop sections across the Jurassic strata were measured at a resolution of meters in southern Junggar Basin. Controlling factors of sedimentary evolution and palaeoclimate changes in Junggar Basin during the Jurassic were discussed based on lithology, fossils and tectonic setting. In the Early to Middle Jurassic, the warm and wide Tethys Sea generated a strong monsoonal circulation over the central Asian continent, and provided adequate moisture for Junggar Basin. Coal-bearing strata of the Badaowan, Sangonghe, and Xishanyao Formations were developed under warm and humid palaeoclimate in Junggar Basin. In the late Middle Jurassic, Junggar Basin was in a semi-humid and semi-arid environment due to global warming event. Stratigraphy in the upper part of the Middle Jurassic with less plant fossils became multicolor or reddish from dark color sediments. During the Late Jurassic, collision of Lhasa and Qiangtang Block obstructed monsoon from the Tethys Sea. A major change in climate from semi-humid and semi-arid to arid conditions took place, and reddish strata of the Upper Jurassic were developed across Junggar Basin.

  12. [Contamination Assessment and Sources Analysis of Soil Heavy Metals in Opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yang, Jian-jun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Guo; Cao, Yue-e

    2016-05-15

    The opencast mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang is the largest self-contained coalfield in China, and the ecological environment of the opencast is very fragile because of its arid climate and poor soil. In this study, 50 soil samples (from 0 to 30 cm depth soil at intervals of 10 cm) in opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang were collected in order to explore the heavy metals contamination of the coal mining. The contents of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) were measured and the degree of pollution was assessed by Nemerow index, geo-accumulation (Igeo) index and potential ecological risk index. In addition, the layered comparison, dust fall and the distance between coal mine and samples location were used to analyze the source of heavy metals contamination. The results showed that value of As surpassed the Chinese soil quality standard class I (GB 15618-1995) mostly severely, followed by Cr, a relatively lower surpass was obtained by Hg and Cu, while Zn and Pb did not surpass the standard. According to the standard, the soil heavy metals content of research region was in light pollution status and the pollution index for each heavy metal followed the order of As (2.07) > Cr (0.95) > Cu (0.55) > Zn (0.48) > Hg (0.45) > Pb (0.38), which demonstrated a heavy pollution of As and clean status of others. Additionally, an Igeo value of 1.14 for Hg reflected a moderated pollution. The major contribution factor was Hg with a risk index of 251.40. The source analysis showed that the content of Pb in the surface soil (10-20 cm) was different from that in the deep layer (20-30 cm), which may be caused by coal combustion and other human activities. The sources of Hg and As were similar and may come from coal combustion. The distance to the mining area was not the major factor affecting the diffusion of heavy metals, other candidate factors included terrain, aspect and wind direction, etc.

  13. Regional prognosis criteria for the sandstone type uranium deposits in interlayer oxidation zone and their application in the east of Junggar basin, Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Deren; Bai Fengzhou; Lin Shuangxing

    1995-01-01

    Regional prognosis is of a very important role in the exploration work of the sandstone type uranium deposits of interlayer oxidation zone. This paper presents regional prognosis criteria on the basis of the authors' research in combination with the geological prediction in the east of Junggar Basin, Xinjiang (1:200000) which was jointly carried out with the Red Hill Geological Complex of the National Mineral Resources Commission of Uzbekistan Republic. It is advantageous to the exploration work of the sandstone type uranium deposits of interlayer oxidation zone in Meso-Cenozoic basins of China

  14. Metallogenic geologic conditions and prospecting direction of sandstone type uranium mineralizations in Yili basin of Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daisheng; Wang Ruiying; Li Shengxiang; Zhang Kefang

    1994-09-01

    Yili basin is a Mesozoic down-warped basin superimposed on the late Paleozoic volcanic taphrogenic basin. Uranium mineralizations are hosted in the Middle-Lower Jurassic coal-bearing series. The depositions environment in the basin is turbulent in the east and relatively stable in the west. It is characterized by coarse-grained sequence with thin thickness in the eastern part and fine-grained with thick thickness in the western part. On the analytical basis of sedimentary facies indices, it is the first time to present a sedimentary model of 'alluvial fan-braided stream-(narrow) lakeshore delta-lacustrine facies and marsh facies' for the coal-bearing series. The authors have summarized the basic geologic features of U-mineralizations in the interlayer oxidation zone, analyzed the difference and cause of U-mineralizations between the south and north, as well as the east and west. The genetic mechanism of U-mineralizations in the basin is discussed. Finally, seven items of geologic prerequisites for the formation of in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits have been suggested and the potential of sandstone type U-mineralizations in the basin has been evaluated. Four promising target areas are selected

  15. Synchronism of runoff response to climate change in Kaidu River Basin in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Xue; JiaQiang Lei; DongWei Gui; JianPing Zhao; DongLei Mao; Jie Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The runoff in alpine river basins where the runoff is formed in nearby mountainous areas is mainly affected by temperature and precipitation. Based on observed annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, and runoff time-series datasets during 1958–2012 within the Kaidu River Basin, the synchronism of runoff response to climate change was analyzed and iden-tified by applying several classic methods, including standardization methods, Kendall's W test, the sequential version of the Mann-Kendall test, wavelet power spectrum analysis, and the rescaled range (R/S) approach. The concordance of the nonlinear trend variations of the annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, and runoff was tested significantly at the 0.05 level by Kendall's W method. The sequential version of the Mann-Kendall test revealed that abrupt changes in annual runoff were synchronous with those of annual mean temperature. The periodic characteristics of annual runoff were mainly consistent with annual precipitation, having synchronous 3-year significant periods and the same 6-year, 10-year, and 38-year quasi-periodicities. While the periodic characteristics of annual runoff in the Kaidu River Basin tracked well with those of annual precipitation, the abrupt changes in annual runoff were synchronous with the annual mean temperature, which directly drives glacier- and snow-melt processes. R/S analysis indicated that the annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, and runoff will continue to increase and remain synchronously persistent in the future. This work can im-prove the understanding of runoff response to regional climate change to provide a viable reference in the management of water resources in the Kaidu River Basin, a regional sustainable socio-economic development.

  16. [Epidemics and risk factors of plague in Junggar Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, 2007-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y J; Wang, C; Luo, T; Guo, R; Meng, W W

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To explore the epidemic situation of animal plague in Junggar Basin natural plague foci. Methods: Data on epidemics of plague and on population involved, as well as results on antibodies and pathogens, were analyzed. Samples on animals and vectors were collected from 18 counties in Junggar Basin plague natural foci between 2007 and 2016. Results: The density of Rhombomys (R.) opimus was temporally fluctuant, from 2.1/hm(2) to 22.6/hm(2) respectively. However, the spatial distribution appeared asymmetrical, with the highest seen in Kelamayi and Wumuqi-midong counties, as 14.2/hm(2) and 13.0/hm(2) respectively. Rates of capture on nocturnal rodents were from 4.2 % to 10.1 % , with the highest rate as 10.1 % in 2014. Meriones meridianus appeared the dominant species in the nocturnal community of rodents, which accounted for 81.9 % . Regarding the spatial and temporal distributions, rates of R. opimus with fleas appeared fluctuant, with an average rate as 90.7 % and the average total flea index was 10.44. In flea community of R. opimus , Xenopsylla (X.) skrjabini was found the dominant species, popular in distribution and accounted for 47.8 % . The average rate of nocturnal rodents with flea was 20.2 % , with total flea index as 1.20 and the dominant fleas were X. conformis conformis and Nosopsyllus laeviceps . A total of 13 species with 9 087 serum samples from rodents were detected as having Y. pestis antibody by IHA, with 617 positive samples. Of them, the positive rate of having R. opimus appeared the highest (9.4 % ), followed by D. sagitta (1.1 % ). Spatially, two clustered areas were found, with one in the eastern Junggar Basin from Changji to Mulei county, with the antibody positive rates of R. opimus as 14.3 % . The other one was in the central area of Junggar Basin, including Kelamayi, Shawan and Wusu counties, with the antibody positive rate as 13.6 % . The prevalence of plague on R. opimus was fluctuant, with the lowest seen in 2008, with the

  17. Petroleum systems of the Malay Basin Province, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2002-01-01

    The offshore Malay Basin province is a Tertiary oil and gas province composed of a complex of half grabens that were filled by lacustrine shales and continental clastics.These deposits were overlain by clastics of a large delta system that covered the basin.Delta progradation was interupted by transgressions of the South China Sea to the southeast, which finally flooded the basin to form the Gulf of Thailand.Oil and gas from the Oligocene to Miocene lacustrine shales and Miocene deltaic coals is trapped primarily in anticlines formed by inversion of the half grabens during the late Miocene.Hydrocarbon reserves that have been discovered amount to 12 billion barrels of oil equivalent.The U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the estimated quantities of conventional oil, gas and condensate that have the potential to be added to reserves by the year 2025 for this province is 6.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) (U. S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000).

  18. The construction of the spatio-temporal database of the ancient Silk Road within Xinjiang province during the Han and Tang dynasties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Jiantao; Wang, Xingxing; Luo, Guilin; Zhu, Zuojia

    2014-01-01

    As the bridge over the Chinese and Western civilization, the ancient Silk Road has made a huge contribution to cultural, economic, political exchanges between China and western countries. In this paper, we treated the historical period of Western Han Dynasty, Eastern Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty as the research time domain, and the Western Regions' countries that were existed along the Silk Road at the mean time as the research spatial domain. Then we imported these data into the SQL Server database we constructed, from which we could either query the attribute information such as population, military force, the era of the Central Plains empire, the significant events taking place in the country and some related attribute information of these events like the happened calendar year in addition to some related spatial information such as the present location, the coordinates of the capital and the territory by inputting the name of the Western countries. At the same time we could query the significant events, government institution in Central Plains and the existent Western countries at the mean time by inputting the calendar year. Based on the database, associated with GIS, RS, Flex, C# and other related information technology and network technology, we could not only browsing, searching and editing the information of the ancient Silk Road in Xinjiang Province during the Han and Tang Dynasties, but preliminary analysing as well. This is the combination of archaeology and modern information technology, and the database could also be a reference to further study, research and practice in the related fields in the future

  19. The construction of the spatio-temporal database of the ancient Silk Road within Xinjiang province during the Han and Tang dynasties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jiantao; Luo, Guilin; Wang, Xingxing; Zhu, Zuojia

    2014-03-01

    As the bridge over the Chinese and Western civilization, the ancient Silk Road has made a huge contribution to cultural, economic, political exchanges between China and western countries. In this paper, we treated the historical period of Western Han Dynasty, Eastern Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty as the research time domain, and the Western Regions' countries that were existed along the Silk Road at the mean time as the research spatial domain. Then we imported these data into the SQL Server database we constructed, from which we could either query the attribute information such as population, military force, the era of the Central Plains empire, the significant events taking place in the country and some related attribute information of these events like the happened calendar year in addition to some related spatial information such as the present location, the coordinates of the capital and the territory by inputting the name of the Western countries. At the same time we could query the significant events, government institution in Central Plains and the existent Western countries at the mean time by inputting the calendar year. Based on the database, associated with GIS, RS, Flex, C# and other related information technology and network technology, we could not only browsing, searching and editing the information of the ancient Silk Road in Xinjiang Province during the Han and Tang Dynasties, but preliminary analysing as well. This is the combination of archaeology and modern information technology, and the database could also be a reference to further study, research and practice in the related fields in the future.

  20. Geology and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered petroleum resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province as part of its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. These two provinces are situated northeast of Scandinavia and the northwestern Russian Federation, on the Barents Sea Shelf between Novaya Zemlya to the east and the Barents Platform to the west. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined in the East Barents Basins Province for this study: the Kolguyev Terrace AU, the South Barents and Ludlov Saddle AU, and the North Barents Basin AU. A fourth AU, defined as the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch AU, coincides with the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province. These four AUs, all lying north of the Arctic Circle, were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources, resulting in total estimated mean volumes of ~7.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 318 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2017-05-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 4.2 billion barrels of oil and 3.1 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  2. Analysis of metallogenic conditions of sandstone type uranium deposits in interlayer oxidation zone in the northwest of Junggar basin, Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shuangxing

    1997-01-01

    From various aspects such as the basin structures, structure features of the sedimentary cover, lithofacies features of basin sediments, geochemical characteristics of sedimentary rocks, regional hydrogeologic conditions and epigenetic reworking of the sedimentary cover and so on, the author analyzes the metallogenic conditions of sandstone type uranium deposits in interlayer oxidation zone in the northwest of Junggar basin. The author proposes that the area has abundant uranium sources, and possesses favourable stratigraphic combinations for the development of interlayer oxidation zone. Secondarily oxidized sandstone bodies present universally at places from the source area to stream channel facies. Reducing beds and secondarily reducing barrier are developed at the front of the secondarily oxidized sandstone body. The tectonic features of the sedimentary cover indicate that the area belongs to a relatively-stable suborogenic region and possesses secondary mobilization and reworking conditions during the uplifting and contraction stage of the basin. Epigenetic metallization is evident in the sedimentary cover of the basin

  3. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 236 million barrels of oil and 112 billion cubic feet of associated gas in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources in Upper Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin Province, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Trippi, Michael H.; Higley, Debra K.; Rouse, William A.; Dulong, Frank T.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2018-04-19

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 10.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in Upper Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin Province.

  5. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Red Sea Basin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 5 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and 112 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Red Sea Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  6. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Perth Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 223 million barrels of oil and 14.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Perth Basin Province, Australia.

  7. Discussion on hydrogeological conditions of metallogenesis of the sandstone type uranium deposit in Burqin basin, Xinjiang autonomous region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qirong

    2000-01-01

    Based on a brief introduction to the occurrence and distribution of groundwater, the characteristics of the tectonic-hydrogeological layers of the basin are discussed. Then, the author expounds the groundwater hydrodynamic conditions including recharge, runoff and drainage, and hydrogeochemical characteristics. In the end, the hydrogeological conditions favorable for uranium metallogenesis are summarized

  8. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Zyryanka Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Zyryanka Basin Province as part of the 2008 USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated on the Omolon superterrane of the Kolyma block. The one assessment unit (AU) that was defined for this study, called the Zyryanka Basin AU, which coincides with the province, was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the Zyryanka Basin Province are ~72 million barrels of crude oil, 2,282 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 61 million barrels of natural-gas liquids. About 66 percent of the study area and undiscovered petroleum resources are north of the Arctic Circle.

  9. Cenozoic Deformation of the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang, China): a Record of the Deformation Propagation through the Asian Orogenic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, A.; Barrier, L.; Simoes, M.; Li, H.

    2016-12-01

    During the Cenozoic, the ongoing India-Eurasia collision resulted in the formation of the Himalayan-Tibetan plateau and reactivated the Tian Shan and Altai ranges located thousands of kilometers further north. Despite numerous studies carried out on the geology and tectonics of this large convergent orogenic system, several mechanisms remain controversial such as the stress propagation through the Asia Continent or the strain partitioning between crustal thickening and lateral extruding of its lithosphere. Located between the Tibetan Plateau and the Tian Shan Range, the Tarim Basin and its several kilometres thick Cenozoic sediments derived from the surrounding mountain belts are key recorders to reconstruct the evolution of the latters. Moreover, this basin is often considered as a relatively rigid block, which behaved as a secondary ``indenter'' transmitting collisional stresses to the Tian Shan. However, due to the size of the Tarim and its thick Cenozoic sedimentary series hiding most of its structures, the constraints on the spatial distribution and timing of the its Cenozoic deformation remain fragmentary. Therefore, the main objective of our study was to produce a synthetic view of this deformation at the scale of the whole basin. Based on numerous surface and subsurface data (satellite images, field surveys, seismic profiles, and well data), we established a tectonic map of the Cenozoic structures in the region and built balanced geological cross-sections across the basin. Our surface and subsurface observations confirm that, contrary to what had been proposed, the Tarim block has also undergone a major deformation during the Cenozoic. The quantification and history of this deformation provide useful insights into the modalities of the crustal shortening in the area and the problems of stress propagation and strain partitioning following the Indo-Asian collision.

  10. Determination of Cenozoic sedimentary structures using integrated geophysical surveys: A case study in the Barkol Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Chen, Chao; Du, Jinsong; Wang, Limin; Lei, Binhua

    2018-01-01

    Thickness estimation of sedimentary basin is a complex geological problem, especially in an orogenic environment. Intense and multiple tectonic movements and climate changes result in inhomogeneity of sedimentary layers and basement configurations, which making sedimentary structure modelling difficult. In this study, integrated geophysical methods, including gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) sounding and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), were used to estimate basement relief to understand the geological structure and evolution of the eastern Barkol Basin in China. This basin formed with the uplift of the eastern Tianshan during the Cenozoic. Gravity anomaly map revealed the framework of the entire area, and ERT as well as MT sections reflected the geoelectric features of the Cenozoic two-layer distribution. Therefore, gravity data, constrained by MT, ERT and boreholes, were utilized to estimate the spatial distribution of the Quaternary layer. The gravity effect of the Quaternary layer related to the Tertiary layer was later subtracted to obtain the residual anomaly for inversion. For the Tertiary layer, the study area was divided into several parts because of lateral difference of density contrasts. Gravity data were interpreted to determine the density contrast constrained by the MT results. The basement relief can be verified by geological investigation, including the uplift process and regional tectonic setting. The agreement between geophysical survey and prior information from geology emphasizes the importance of integrated geophysical survey as a complementary means of geological studies in this region.

  11. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xue

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth’s hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River.

  12. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei

    2015-01-01

    The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth's hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River.

  13. Evidences for a volcanic province in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.

    Based on various lines of evidence such as the widespread occurrence of basalts, pumice, volcanic glass shards and their transformational products (zeolites, palagonites, and smectite-rich sediments), we suggest the presence of a volcanic province...

  14. Hydrogeological assessment of Acid mine Drainage impacts in the West Rand Basin, Gauteng Province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, PJ

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available HYDROGEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE IMPACTS IN THE WEST RAND BASIN, GAUTENG PROVINCE Principal Author PJ Hobbs (Pr.Sci.Nat.) Co-author JE Cobbing (Pr.Sci.Nat.) August 2007 Report prepared for CSIR / THRIP Document... it is published. A Hydrogeological Assessment of Acid Mine Drainage Report No. Impacts in the West Rand Basin, Gauteng Province CSIR/NRE/WR/ER/2007/0097/C CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment (i) The “Lodge” spring rising...

  15. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 78 million barrels of oil and 8.9 trillion cubic feet of gas in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2018-02-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.0 billion barrels of oil and 20.3 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Canning Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-05-31

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 1.3 billion barrels of oil and 34.4 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Canning Basin Province of Australia.

  18. Neotectonics of the San Andreas Fault system, basin and range province juncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Crowell, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The development, active processes, and tectonic interplay of the southern San Andreas fault system and the basin and range province were studied. The study consist of data acquisition and evaluation, technique development, and image interpretation and mapping. Potentially significant geologic findings are discussed.

  19. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Hope Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-04

    The Hope Basin, an independent petroleum province that lies mostly offshore in the southern Chukchi Sea north of the Chukotka and Seward Peninsulas and south of Wrangel Island, the Herald Arch, and the Lisburne Peninsula, is the largest in a series of postorogenic (successor) basins in the East Siberian-Chukchi Sea region and the only one with exploratory-well control and extensive seismic coverage.In spite of the seismic coverage and well data, the petroleum potential of the Hope Basin Province is poorly known. The adequacy of hydrocarbon charge, in combination with uncertainties in source-rock potential and maturation, was the greatest risk in this assessment. A single assessment unit was defined and assessed, resulting in mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources that include ~3 million barrels of oil and 650 billion cubic feet of nonassociated gas.

  20. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin.

  1. Correlation between seismicity and geomorphology in Dingxi Basin, Gansu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A M6.6 earthquake occurred on July 22, 2013 at Dingxi Basin in Gansu Province within the tectonially expanding northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We analyzed the geomorphological features of the Dingxi Basin by using remote sensing technology and compared them with local seismic activity. We found that most of the river basins are at the robust stage of development and that the major local rivers and the development of some basins boundaries are controlled by the seismic faults. Among four zones identified to have significant tectonic activities, the northwestly-oriented one located in the south has the highest seismic activity, and it is where the M6. 6 earthquake occurrred.

  2. The Role of Geochemistry and Basin Modelling in the Exploration of Mature province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Petroleum geochemistry and basin modelling has been an important tool in the reduction of risks in poorly explored basins. Historically the role of geochemistry is usually reduced once production is established and often in mature province is nonexistent. However, attempts to add reserves in mature provinces require an expansion of exploration programs based on new play concepts. Consequently, there is a clear role for geochemistry and basin modelling as this revitalization occurs.These new basin modelling and geochemical programs are aimed at answering three questions: . Can the petroleum system be extended? . Is a change in hydrocarbon character to be expected? . How much hydrocarbon potential remains?Unlike frontier exploration a significant sample base is normally available that can be used to more effectively constrain interpretations. Such programs have clearly aided exploration in the Niger Delta. For example, the collection of an extensive piston core dataset in conjunction with a basin modelling program provided strong support for the Niger Delta's petroleum system extending into deep water areas. While the geochemical character of the oils established the presence of multiple effective generative systems, each of which has different source characteristics and often-different ages. This information constraints model construction and hydrocarbon volume estimates. Oil data also established the importance of phase segregation. The presence of fractionated oils and maturation modelling results provides evidence for deeper hydrocarbon potential within the geographic limits of established hydrocarbon pays

  3. The Constellation of Macrovascular Risk Factors in Early Onset T2DM: A Cross-Sectional Study in Xinjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchen Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite a rapid popular of early onset type 2 diabetes (defined as diagnosis at <40 years old recently, there is a lack of studies on this population in economically undeveloped area. We aimed to investigate the risk factors of macrovascular complications in the early onset T2DM patients in Xinjiang, China. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 1736 consecutive patients with T2DM was conducted. Macrovascular complications and risk factors were documented. Another nondiabetic population matched with age and sex was as a control group. Logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain odds ratios (OR for macrovascular complications in early and late onset T2DM, respectively. Results. The final analysis consisted of 1036 late onset and 219 early onset T2DM patients. The mean HbA1c in the early onset group was higher than that in the late onset group (9.1 ± 2.4% versus 8.3 ± 2.2%, P=0.039 despite a higher proportion of patients in the early onset group receiving insulin treatment (73.1% versus 58.7%, P<0.001. Compared to the control, early onset patients had higher blood pressure and worse lipid profiles (all P<0.01. More than half of the early onset T2DM patients already had macro- and microvascular complications, despite of their young age (39.5 ± 10.8 and short DM duration (6.6 ± 8.0. In the early onset group, women had a ~3-fold hazard of atherosclerotic plaques compared with men (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.53–6.78. Conclusions. Patients with early onset T2DM have worse glycemic control and higher burden of atherogenic risk factors. The prevalence of macro- and microvascular complications is astonishingly high in these young adults with T2DM. Moreover, young women with T2DM are more susceptible to cardiovascular complications than their male counterpart.

  4. The survey reasarch about groundwater in a mine making use of the sour method to immerse at originl place in Xinjiang province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yiqun; Yang Yihan

    2014-01-01

    Basing on a mine making use of a sour method to immerse at original place in Xiniang province, building up a monitor network of mine and its Surroundings groundwater, by the mispreads experiment at the spot and the Earth physical method to mointer Pollute scope and imitate the flow of groundwater and the movement of dissolve quality. Making use of the method speaking of to investigate groundwater in mineral layer completely. According to the investigating result, Comparing the original date of groundwater in mineral layer and the national Quality standard of groundwater to evaluate the present Pollute condition of groundwater existmg in the A # , B # mine ore aquifer. This studies Proves that Pollution mainly exists in the A # , B # mine ore aquifer and its surrounding limited area, groundwater upper or lower the ore aquifer is not affected by pollution. (authors)

  5. Genetic characterization and molecular survey of Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection in small ruminants and ixodid ticks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Gao, Shandian; Pan, Yuping; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Babesia sp. Xinjiang is a large ovine Babesia species that was recently isolated in China. Compared with other ovine Babesia species, it has different morphological features, pathogenicity and vector tick species. The known transmitting vector is Hyalomma anatolicum. In this study, the distribution and the presence of Babesia sp. Xinjiang in small ruminants and ixodid ticks in China were assessed by specific nested-PCR assay based on the rap-1a gene. A total of 978 blood samples from sheep or goats from 15 provinces and 797 tick specimens from vegetation from 10 provinces were collected and analysed for the presence of the Babesia sp. Xinjiang. Full-length and partial rap-1a of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were amplified from field samples. The PCR results were further confirmed by DNA sequencing. Overall, 38 (3.89%) blood samples and 51 (6.4%) tick samples were positive for Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection. The highest presence (26.92%) was found in blood samples from Yunnan province, while H. qinghaiensis ticks with the highest presence of infection (21.3%) were from Gansu province. This study identified for the first time Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection in H. longicornis tick species. The rap-1a sequences of Babesia sp. Xinjiang from field blood and tick samples indicated 100% identity. The presence of Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection may increase in China. Novel potential transmitting vectors might be more extensive than previously thought. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The Agost Basin (Betic Cordillera, Alicante province, Spain): a pull-apart basin involving salt tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martín, Manuel; Estévez, Antonio; Martín-Rojas, Ivan; Guerrera, Francesco; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Serrano, Francisco; Tramontana, Mario

    2018-03-01

    The Agost Basin is characterized by a Miocene-Quaternary shallow marine and continental infilling controlled by the evolution of several curvilinear faults involving salt tectonics derived from Triassic rocks. From the Serravallian on, the area experienced a horizontal maximum compression with a rotation of the maximum stress axis from E-W to N-S. The resulting deformation gave rise to a strike-slip fault whose evolution is characterized progressively by three stages: (1) stepover/releasing bend with a dextral motion of blocks; (2) very close to pure horizontal compression; and (3) restraining bend with a sinistral movement of blocks. In particular, after an incipient fracturing stage, faults generated a pull-apart basin with terraced sidewall fault and graben subzones developed in the context of a dextral stepover during the lower part of late Miocene p.p. The occurrence of Triassic shales and evaporites played a fundamental role in the tectonic evolution of the study area. The salty material flowed along faults during this stage generating salt walls in root zones and salt push-up structures at the surface. During the purely compressive stage (middle part of late Miocene p.p.) the salt walls were squeezed to form extrusive mushroom-like structures. The large amount of clayish and salty material that surfaced was rapidly eroded and deposited into the basin, generating prograding fan clinoforms. The occurrence of shales and evaporites (both in the margins of the basin and in the proper infilling) favored folding of basin deposits, faulting, and the formation of rising blocks. Later, in the last stage (upper part of late Miocene p.p.), the area was affected by sinistral restraining conditions and faults must have bent to their current shape. The progressive folding of the basin and deformation of margins changed the supply points and finally caused the end of deposition and the beginning of the current erosive systems. On the basis of the interdisciplinary results

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Ventura Basin Province, California, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Lillis, Paul G.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-10-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geology-based assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in the part of the Ventura Basin Province that lies onshore or within State waters (within 3 miles of the shoreline) of California (fig. 1). Conventional oil and gas resources are those that have migrated upward into structural or stratigraphic traps from deep zones where the oil and gas is generated; water is present below the oil or gas. Continuous accumulations, in contrast, are those in which oil or gas is pervasively present in essentially all wells that penetrate them, that may not be structurally or stratigraphically trapped, and that typically lack oil-water or gas-water contacts. They are commonly produced with well-stimulation technology, such as hydraulic fracturing, referred to as “unconventional.” The same stimulation technology, however, is also used in many conventionally trapped accumulations. We estimated both the likely range of oil and gas volumes remaining to be discovered in accumulations similar to existing conventional oil and gas fields in the Ventura Basin Province (previously assessed by Keller [1995] as 1,060 million barrels of oil [MMBO], 1,900 billion cubic feet of gas [BCFG], and 60 million barrels of natural gas liquids [MMBNGL]), and the potential for oil and gas that might be present in a continuous accumulation at extreme depth in the floor of the basin.

  8. Relationships between crustal structure and extension in the Basin and Range Province and East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G R [University of Oklahoma, School of Geology and Geophysics, Norman, Oklahoma, 73019 (United States)], E-mail: grkeller@ou.edu

    2008-07-01

    The Basin and Range Province of the western United States and northern Mexico is often cited as a classic example of a wide rift. It is also a region where metamorphic core complexes such as the ones observed in the Aegean region are observed. On the other hand, the eastern arm (Kenya rift) of the East African rift is considered to be the classic example of a continental rift, which is by some definitions narrow. In this paper, these two features are briefly compared in terms of crustal structure and associated manifestations of extension.

  9. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The Timan-Pechora Basin Province is a triangular area that represents the northeasternmost cratonic block of east European Russia. A 75-year history of petroleum exploration and production in the area there has led to the discovery of more than 16 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG). Three geologic assessment units (AUs) were defined for assessing the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources in the province: (1) the Northwest Izhma Depression AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed in the northwestern part of the Izhma-Pechora Depression, although this part of the basin contains only sparse source and reservoir rocks and so was not assessed quantitatively; (2) the Main Basin Platform AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed in the central part of the basin, where the tectonic and petroleum system evolution was complex; and (3) the Foredeep Basins AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed within the thick sedimentary section of the foredeep basins west of the Uralian fold and thrust belt during the Permian and Triassic Uralian orogeny.For the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 3.3 BBO, 17 TCFG, and 0.3 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids (BBNGL). For the AU areas north of the Arctic Circle in the province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 1.7 BBO, 9.0 TCFG, and 0.2 BBNGL. These assessment results indicate that exploration in the Timan-Pechora Basin Province is at a mature level.

  10. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province as part of the its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. This geologic province is north of western Siberia, Russian Federation, in the North Kara Sea between Novaya Zemlya to the west and Severnaya Zemlya to the east. One assessment unit (AU) was defined, the North Kara Basins and Platforms AU, which coincides with the geologic province. This AU was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The total estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum resources in the province are ~1.8 billion barrels of crude oil, ~15.0 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and ~0.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  11. The Red Sea Basin Province: Sudr-Nubia(!) and Maqna(!) Petroleum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Sudr-Nubia(!) oil-prone total petroleum system dominates the densely explored Gulf of Suez part of the rifted Red Sea Basin Province. Upper Cretaceous to Eocene source rocks, primarily the Senonian Sudr Formation, are organic-rich, areally uniform marine carbonates that have generated known ultimate recoverable reserves exceeding 11 BBOE. The name Nubia is used for sandstone reservoirs with a wide range of poorly constrained, pre-rift geologic ages ranging from Early Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous. Syn- and post-rift Tertiary reservoirs, especially the Kareem Formation, also contain significant reserves. Partly overlapping Sudr-Nubia(!) is the areally larger and geochemically distinct, oil-and-gas-prone Maqna(!) total petroleum system within the southern Gulf of Suez basin and the sparsely explored remaining Red Sea basin. Known ultimate recoverable reserves are 50-100 MMBOE and more than 900 MMBOE, respectively, in those areas. Both the source and reservoir rocks in this petroleum system are Tertiary, dominantly Miocene, in age. Maqna(!) has the greater potential for future resource development.

  12. The Aegean/Cycladic and the Basin and Range Extensional Provinces - A Tectonic and Geochronologic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockli, D. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Aegean/Cycladic region (AC) and the Basin and Range Province (B&R) are two of the most famous Cenozoic extensional provinces and have greatly influenced our thinking about syn-convergent back-arc extension, core complex formation, syn-extensional magmatism, and kinematic transitions. They share numerous tectonic and structural similarities, such as a syn-convergent setting, previous contractional deformation, and core complex formation, but fundamental geological ambiguities remain, mainly centering around timing. The B&R affected a previously contractional belt (Sevier) and voluminous continental magmatic arc that created a pre-extensional orogenic highland. Extension was long-lived and complex, driven by both gravitational collapse and temporally distinct kinematic boundary condition changes. The B&R was also affected by massive, largely pre-extensional regional magmatic flare-ups that modified both the thermal and crustal composition. As the B&R occupies an elevated interior plateau, syn-extensional basin deposits are exclusively continental in character. In contrast, the AC is a classic marine back-arc extensional province that affected an active subduction margin with numerous accreted oceanic and continental ribbons, exhuming an early Cenozoic HP-LT subduction complex. Exhumation of the HP-LT complex, however, was accommodated both by vertical extrusion and crustal extension. Late Cenozoic extensional faulting was contemporaneous with S-ward sweeping arc magmatism and affected by little to no kinematic changes. As both the AC and B&R experienced contractional deformation during K-Cz subduction and J-K shortening, respectively, it is critical to differentiate between contractional and extensional structures and fabrics. The lack of temporal constraints hampers the reconstructions of pre-extensional structural anatomies and extensional strain magnitudes or even the attribution of structures to specific geodynamic settings. Novel methodologies in

  13. An analysis of prominent prospect of in-situ sandstone type uranium deposits in Yanji basins group, Jilin province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhidong; Zhang Shuyi

    2003-01-01

    In Mesozoic-Cenozoic era, many medium-small-sized sedimentary basins had been formed in Yanbian draped-faulted region of Jilin Province. The basement of these basins is constituted of U-riched granite body produced during late Hercynian-early Yanshan period. Uranium-mineralization has been found in coal-bearing formation, oil-bearing formation and in tint layer of red formation. On the bases of analyzing of uranium source, geologic tectonic, paleoclimatology, paleogeography, hydrogeology and reconstruction, it is concluded that there is a prominent prospect to discover large in-situ sandstone-type uranium deposits in Yanji basins. (authors)

  14. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources in the Amu Darya Basin Province of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-08-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 35.1 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Amu Darya Basin Province of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, and Afghanistan.

  15. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, north of the Arctic Circle, as part of the Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated between the Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt and the Siberian craton. The one assessment unit (AU) defined for this study—the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep AU—was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep in the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province are ~400 million barrels of crude oil, 1.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 40 million barrels of natural-gas liquids, practically all (99.49 percent) of which is north of the Arctic Circle.

  16. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  17. Concept for a Wireless Sensor Network to support GIS based water and land resource management in the Aksu-Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doluschitz, Reiner; Feike, Til

    2013-04-01

    Farmers in the oases along the Aksu-Tarim River suffer from severe seasonal water shortage caused by high fluctuations of river run-off. The uncertainty of water availability makes the planning of crop production and related investments extremely difficult. As a consequence farm management is often sub-optimal, manifesting in low input efficiencies, and the value generated in the agricultural sector being way below its potential. The "Tarim Basin Water Resource Bureau" (TBWRB) was founded in the 1990s. Its major task is to implement a basin wide water resources management plan, which involves fair allocation of water resources among the farmers in the different administrative units along the river. Among others, the lack of reliable and timely information on water quantities and qualities within the major water bodies of the basin hinders the implementation of an effective water management plan. Therefore we introduce the concept of a wireless sensor network (WSN) that provides reliable instantaneous information on the status of all important water resources within the basin. In the first step a GIS including all vital geospatial data, like river courses, channel and reservoir network and capacities, soil and land use map, is built. In the second step a WSN that monitors all important parameters at essential positions throughout the basin needs to be established. Measured parameters comprise meteorological data, river run-off, water levels of reservoirs, groundwater levels, and salinity levels of water resources. All data is centrally collected and processed by the TBWRB. Apart from generating a prompt and complete picture of currently available water resources, the TBWRB can use the system to record actual water allocation, and develop an early warning system for upcoming droughts or floods. Finally an integrated water and land management scheme can be established that allocates resources maximizing the benefits at basin level. Financed by public funding, the data

  18. Wind tunnel experiments of air flow patterns over nabkhas modeled after those from the Hotan River basin,Xinjiang,China(Ⅱ):vegetated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhizhong LI; Rong MA; ShengLi WU; Janis DALE; Lin GE; Mudan HE; Xiaofeng WANG; Jianhui JIN; Jinwei LIU; Wanjuan LI

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the results of wind tunnel experiments on models of nabkha,based on those studied in the Hotan River basin.Semi-spherical and conical models of nabkhas were constructed at a ratio of 40:1 in light of the on-site observation.Artificial vegetation of simulated Tamarix spp.was put on top of each model.Parameters of the shape,including height,width,and diameter of vegetated semi-spherical and conical nabkha.were measured in the Hotan River basin.Wind tunnel experiments on the semi-spherical and conical nabkha used clean air devoid of additional sediments at five different wind speeds (6-14 m/s)to study the influence of vegetation on airflow patterns.Results of the experiments indicate that vegetation at the top of the nabkhas enhances the surface roughness of the sand mounds,retards airflow over the sand mounds,reduces airflow energy,eliminates erosional pits occurring on the top surface of non-vegetated sand mounds and enhances the range of influence of the vortex that forms on the leeward slope.Vegetation changes the airflow pattern upwind and downwind of the sand mound and reduces the transport of sand away from the nabkha.This entrapment of sediment by the vegetation plays an important role in sustaining the nabkha landscape of the study area.The existence of vegetation makes fine materials in wind-sand flow to possibly deposit,and promotes nabkha formation.The imitative flow patterns Of different morphological nabkhas have also been verified by on-site observation in the river basin.

  19. Executive Summary -- assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California, 2003: Chapter 1 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; French, Christopher D.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California (fig. 1.1). The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each Total Petroleum System defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock type and maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined five total petroleum systems and ten assessment units within these systems. Undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated for the ten assessment units (table 1.1). In addition, the potential was estimated for further growth of reserves in existing oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin.

  20. An Early Permian epithermal gold system in the Tulasu Basin in North Xinjiang, NW China: Constraints from in situ oxygen-sulfur isotopes and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Leilei; Wan, Bo; Deng, Chen; Cai, Keda; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    The Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand gold deposits, being the largest gold deposits in the Chinese North Tianshan, NW China, are located ca. l0 km apart in the Tulasu Basin, and are hosted by the Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation. In situ LA-ICP-MS titanium analyses on quartz from the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits are broadly identical. Accordingly, the calculated ore-forming temperatures by Ti-in-quartz thermometer give average temperatures of 279 °C and 294 °C, respectively. Results of in situ SIMS analyses of oxygen and sulfur isotopes on quartz and pyrite from these two deposits are similar. Temperature-corrected fluids of the Axi deposit have δ18O values of 2.6-8.1‰ and δ34S values of 0.8-2.4‰, whereas the fluids of the Jingxi-Yelmand deposit have δ18O of 6.4-8.9‰ and δ34S of -0.4 to 4.0‰. The oxygen and sulfur isotopes from the two deposits indicate a magmatic origin. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of Aqialehe Formation sandstone provided a lower limit for the mineralization timing of the Axi deposit (288 Ma). In situ SIMS U-Pb analyses on entrapped zircon (297 Ma) and newly recognized 284.5 Ma columnar rhyolite implies that the Jingxi-Yelmand deposit formed in the Early Permian. Based on the magmatic affinity of the ore fluids, similar age and ore-formation temperatures, we propose that the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits comprise an epithermal gold system, which was driven by the same Permian magma in the Tulasu Basin. The ore geological features together with our new results indicate that the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits are intermediate and high sulfidation type epithermal deposits, respectively.

  1. Xinjiang Studies: The Third Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Perdue

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kwangmin Kim. Borderland Capitalism: Turkestan Produce, Qing Silver, and the Birth of an Eastern Market. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2016. 312 pp. $65 (cloth. Rian Thum. The Sacred Routes of Uyghur History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014. 336 pp. $40 (cloth. David J. Brophy. Uyghur Nation: Reform and Revolution on the Russia-China Frontier. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016. 368 pp. $40 (cloth. Judd Kinzley. Production and Power in China’s Far West: Gold, Wool, and Oil in the Transformation of Xinjiang, 1893–1965. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, forthcoming. Justin M. Jacobs. Xinjiang and the Modern Chinese State. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2016. 320 pp. $50 (cloth. Tom Cliff. Oil and Water: Being Han in Xinjiang. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2016. 280 pp. $90 (cloth; $30 (paper/e-book.

  2. Multi–Model Ensemble Approaches to Assessment of Effects of Local Climate Change on Water Resources of the Hotan River Basin in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Luo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of global climate change threaten the availability of water resources worldwide and modify their tempo-spatial pattern. Properly quantifying the possible effects of climate change on water resources under different hydrological models is a great challenge in ungauged alpine regions. By using remote sensing data to support established models, this study aimed to reveal the effects of climate change using two models of hydrological processes including total water resources, peak flows, evapotranspiration, snowmelt and snow accumulation in the ungauged Hotan River Basin under future representative concentration pathway (RCP scenarios. The results revealed that stream flow was much more sensitive to temperature variation than precipitation change and increased by 0.9–10.0% according to MIKE SHE or 6.5–10.5% according to SWAT. Increased evapotranspiration was similar for both models with a range of 7.6–31.3%. The snow-covered area shrank from 32.5% to 11.9% between the elevations of 4200–6400 m, respectively, and snow accumulation increased when the elevation exceeded 6400 m above sea level (asl. The results also suggested that the fully distributed and semi-distributed structures of these two models strongly influenced the responses to climate change. The study proposes a practical approach to assess the climate change effect in ungauged regions.

  3. Previously Unrecognized Ornithuromorph Bird Diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K.; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history. PMID:24147058

  4. Geochemical conditions and the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater basins used for public drinking-water supply, Desert and Basin and Range hydrogeologic provinces, 2006-11: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The geochemical conditions, occurrence of selected trace elements, and processes controlling the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater were investigated in groundwater basins of the Desert and Basin and Range (DBR) hydrogeologic provinces in southeastern California as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP is designed to provide an assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the aquifer systems that are used for public drinking-water supply. The GAMA PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  5. A Vulnerability Evaluation of the Phreatic Water in the Plain Area of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang Based on the VDEAL Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiliang Jia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A VDEAL (V is the lithology of the vadose zone, D is the groundwater depth, E is the degree of groundwater exploitation, A is the aquifer characteristics and L is the land use pattern. model, which is suitable for a vulnerability evaluation of the groundwater in arid inland areas, and that is based on the GOD (G is the groundwater status, O is overburden feature and D is groundwater depth method and DRASTIC (D is the depth of water-table, R is the net recharge, A is the aquifer media, S is the soil media, T is the topography, I is the impact of the vadose and C is the conductivity of the aquifer. model is proposed in this paper. Five indicators were selected by reference to the DRAV (D is the depth of water-table, R is the net recharge, A is the aquifer media and V is the impact of the vadose. and VLDA (V is the lithology of the vadose zone , L is the land use pattern, D is the groundwater depth and A is the aquifer characteristics and. models, namely, the lithology of the vadose zone (V, the groundwater depth (D, the degree of groundwater exploitation (E, the aquifer characteristics (A and the land use pattern (L. According to monitoring data from 2003 and 2011, the variations of phreatic water quality in the plain area of the Junggar Basin were divided into three types: the water quality may have deteriorated, be unchanged or improved. Four groups of indicator weights were configured to calculate the vulnerability index using the VDEAL model. The changes of phreatic water quality were then compared against the vulnerability index. The normalized weights of V, D, E, A, and L were respectively 0.15, 0.25, 0.10, 0.10, and 0.40; this is according to the principle that the sampling sites of deteriorated water quality are generally distributed in a high-vulnerability region, and the sites of unchanged and improved water quality are distributed in middle vulnerability, low vulnerability and invulnerable regions. The evaluation results of phreatic

  6. Petroleum Systems and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Raton Basin - Sierra Grande Uplift Province, Colorado and New Mexico - USGS Province 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province of southeastern Colorado and northeastern New Mexico (USGS Province 41). The Cretaceous Vermejo Formation and Cretaceous-Tertiary Raton Formation have production and undiscovered resources of coalbed methane. Other formations in the province exhibit potential for gas resources and limited production. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define two total petroleum systems and five assessment units. All five assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered gas resources. Oil resources were not assessed because of the limited potential due to levels of thermal maturity of petroleum source rocks.

  7. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Yukon Flats Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Stanley, Richard G.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-22

    The hydrocarbon potential of the Yukon Flats Basin Province in Central Alaska was assessed in 2004 as part of an update to the National Oil and Gas Assessment. Three assessment units (AUs) were identified and assessed using a methodology somewhat different than that of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA). An important difference in the methodology of the two assessments is that the 2004 assessment specified a minimum accumulation size of 0.5 million barrels of oil equivalent (MMBOE), whereas the 2008 CARA assessment specified a minimum size of 50 MMBOE. The 2004 assessment concluded that >95 percent of the estimated mean undiscovered oil and gas resources occur in a single AU, the Tertiary Sandstone AU. This is also the only AU of the three that extends north of the Arctic Circle.For the CARA project, the number of oil and gas accumulations in the 2004 assessment of the Tertiary Sandstone AU was re-evaluated in terms of the >50-MMBOE minimum accumulation size. By this analysis, and assuming the resource to be evenly distributed across the AU, 0.23 oil fields and 1.20 gas fields larger than 50 MMBOE are expected in the part of the AU north of the Arctic Circle. The geology suggests, however, that the area north of the Arctic Circle has a lower potential for oil and gas accumulations than the area to the south where the sedimentary section is thicker, larger volumes of hydrocarbons may have been generated, and potential structural traps are probably more abundant. Because of the low potential implied for the area of the AU north of the Arctic Circle, the Yukon Flats Tertiary Sandstone AU was not quantitatively assessed for the 2008 CARA.

  8. Habitation areas and funeral areas in the Neolithic of the inland Tagus basin: province of Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a reflection on the social, cultural and chronological implications of the funeral world of the inland Tagus basin. In particular the data of the province of Toledo, analysed from the site of the megaliths of Azutan and the burial mound of the Castillejo, allows us to propose the contemporaneity of several architectural types in the early Megalithic culture of Iberia and the association between habitats and graves. The economic niches, mainly cultivated meadows with areas for sowing grain and pasture for animals, suggest the existence of a mixed economy in a peasant society practised by groups who returned to the same places from the earliest moments of the Neolithic to the Bronze Age.

    Se plantea una reflexión sobre las implicaciones sociales, culturales y cronológicas del mundo funerario al interior del Tajo. Concretamente los datos de la provincia de Toledo; analizados desde los yacimientos del dolmen de Azután y del túmulo del Castillejo, plantean la contemporaneidad de distintas versiones arquitectónicas en el megalitismo antiguo peninsular y la asociación manifiesta entre hábitats y sepulturas. Los nichos económicos, fundamentalmente dehesas cultivadas con zonas aclaradas para la siembra de cereal y para los pastos de los animales, abogan por proponer una economía mixta en un modelo de explotación campesina protagonizado por grupos que acuden de modo recurrente a los mismos lugares desde los momentos más antiguos del Neolítico hasta la Edad del Bronce.

  9. The giant Carlin gold province: A protracted interplay of orogenic, basinal, and hydrothermal processes above a lithospheric boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsbo, P.; Groves, D.I.; Hofstra, A.H.; Bierlein, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    Northern Nevada hosts the only province that contains multiple world-class Carlin-type gold deposits. The first-order control on the uniqueness of this province is its anomalous far back-arc tectonic setting over the rifted North American paleocontinental margin that separates Precambrian from Phanerozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Globally, most other significant gold provinces form in volcanic arcs and accreted terranes proximal to convergent margins. In northern Nevada, periodic reactivation of basement faults along this margin focused and amplified subsequent geological events. Early basement faults localized Devonian synsedimentary extension and normal faulting. These controlled the geometry of the Devonian sedimentary basin architecture and focused the discharge of basinal brines that deposited syngenetic gold along the basin margins. Inversion of these basins and faults during subsequent contraction produced the complex elongate structural culminations that characterize the anomalous mineral deposit "trends." Subsequently, these features localized repeated episodes of shallow magmatic and hydrothermal activity that also deposited some gold. During a pulse of Eocene extension, these faults focused advection of Carlin-type fluids, which had the opportunity to leach gold from gold-enriched sequences and deposit it in reactive miogeoclinal host rocks below the hydrologic seal at the Roberts Mountain thrust contact. Hence, the vast endowment of the Carlin province resulted from the conjunction of spatially superposed events localized by long-lived basement structures in a highly anomalous tectonic setting, rather than by the sole operation of special magmatic or fluid-related processes. An important indicator of the longevity of this basement control is the superposition of different gold deposit types (e.g., Sedex, porphyry, Carlin-type, epithermal, and hot spring deposits) that formed repeatedly between the Devonian and Miocene time along the trends

  10. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  11. U.S. Geological Survey input-data forms for the assessment of the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.

    2017-10-24

    In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an updated assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin (Permian Basin Province) in southwestern Texas (Marra and others, 2017). The Spraberry Formation was assessed using both the standard continuous (unconventional) and conventional methodologies established by the USGS for three assessment units (AUs): (1) Lower Spraberry Continuous Oil Trend AU, (2) Middle Spraberry Continuous Oil Trend AU, and (3) Northern Spraberry Conventional Oil AU. The revised assessment resulted in total estimated mean resources of 4,245 million barrels of oil, 3,112 billion cubic feet of gas, and 311 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The purpose of this report is to provide supplemental documentation of the input parameters used in the USGS 2017 Spraberry Formation assessment.

  12. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  13. Archosauriform remains from the Late Triassic of San Luis province, Argentina, Quebrada del Barro Formation, Marayes-El Carrizal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianechini, Federico A.; Codorniú, Laura; Arcucci, Andrea B.; Castillo Elías, Gabriela; Rivarola, David

    2016-03-01

    Here we present archosauriform remains from 'Abra de los Colorados', a fossiliferous locality at Sierra de Guayaguas, NW San Luis Province. Two fossiliferous levels were identified in outcrops of the Quebrada del Barro Formation (Norian), which represent the southernmost outcrops of the Marayes-El Carrizal Basin. These levels are composed by massive muddy lithofacies, interpreted as floodplain deposits. The specimens consist of one incomplete maxilla (MIC-V718), one caudal vertebra (MIC-V719), one metatarsal (MIC-V720) and one indeterminate appendicular bone (MIC-V721). The materials can be assigned to Archosauriformes but the fragmentary nature and lack of unambiguous synapomorphies preclude a more precise taxomic assignment. The maxilla is remarkably large and robust and represents the posterior process. It preserved one partially erupted tooth with ziphodont morphology. This bone shows some anatomical traits and size match with 'rauisuchians' and theropods. MIC-V719 corresponds to a proximal caudal vertebra. It has a high centrum, a ventral longitudinal furrow, expanded articular processes for the chevrons, a posteriorly displaced diapophysis located below the level of the prezygapophyses, and short prezygapophyses. This vertebra would be from an indeterminate archosauriform. MIC-V720 presents a cylindrical diaphysis, with a well-developed distal trochlea, which present resemblances with metatarsals of theropods, pseudosuchians, and silesaurids, although the size matches better with theropods. MIC-V721 has a slender diaphysis and a convex triangular articular surface, and corresponds to an indeterminate archosauriform. Despite being fragmentary, these materials indicate the presence of a diverse archosauriforms association from Late Triassic beds of San Luis. Thus, they add to the faunal assemblage recently reported from this basin at San Juan Province, which is much rich and diverse than the coeval paleofauna well known from Los Colorados Formation in the

  14. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xian-zhi; Zhao, Jia-liang; Ellwein, Leon B; Wei, Bin; Chen, Jing; Ye, Ying; Tang, Xiao-dong; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5714 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to received visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands seven hundreds and fourteen individuals were enumerated and 5250 persons were examined, the response rate was 91.88%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 0.74% (39/5250) and 3.83% (201/5250) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.33% (70/5250) and 8.02% (421/5250) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 617.06, P = 0.000) , illiterate (trend χ(2) = 222.35, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract and was the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment, the retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, high myopic retinopathy, and diabetic retinopathy, were the

  15. Lithofacies palaeogeography of the Carboniferous and Permian in the Qinshui Basin, Shanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Yi Shao

    2015-10-01

    The Xiashihezi, Shangshihezi, and Shiqianfeng Formations consist mainly of red mudstones with thick-interbedded sandstones. During the deposition of these formations, most areas of the basin were occupied by a fluvial channel, resulting in palaeogeographic units that include fluvial channel zones and flood basins. The fluvial channel deposits consist mainly of relatively-thick sandstones, which could have potential for exploration of tight sandstone gas.

  16. Identification and control of a poliomyelitis outbreak in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui-Ming; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xin-Qi; Yu, Wen-Zhou; Wen, Ning; Yan, Dong-Mei; Wang, Hua-Qing; Wushouer, Fuerhati; Wang, Hai-Bo; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Zheng, Jing-Shan; Li, De-Xin; Cui, Hui; Wang, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Shuang-Li; Feng, Zi-Jian; Cui, Fu-Qiang; Ning, Jing; Hao, Li-Xin; Fan, Chun-Xiang; Ning, Gui-Jun; Yu, Hong-Jie; Wang, Shi-Wen; Liu, Da-Wei; Wang, Dong-Yan; Fu, Jian-Ping; Gou, Ai-li; Zhang, Guo-Min; Huang, Guo-Hong; Chen, Yuan-Sheng; Mi, Sha-Sha; Liu, Yan-Min; Yin, Da-Peng; Zhu, Hui; Fan, Xin-Chun; Li, Xin-Lan; Ji, Yi-Xin; Li, Ke-Li; Tang, Hai-Shu; Xu, Wen-Bo; Wang, Yu; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2013-11-21

    The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994, and China was certified as a poliomyelitis-free region in 2000. In 2011, an outbreak of infection with imported wild-type poliovirus occurred in the province of Xinjiang. We conducted an investigation to guide the response to the outbreak, performed sequence analysis of the poliovirus type 1 capsid protein VP1 to determine the source, and carried out serologic and coverage surveys to assess the risk of viral propagation. Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis was intensified to enhance case ascertainment. Between July 3 and October 9, 2011, investigators identified 21 cases of infection with wild-type poliovirus and 23 clinically compatible cases in southern Xinjiang. Wild-type poliovirus type 1 was isolated from 14 of 673 contacts of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (2.1%) and from 13 of 491 healthy persons who were not in contact with affected persons (2.6%). Sequence analysis implicated an imported wild-type poliovirus that originated in Pakistan as the cause of the outbreak. A public health emergency was declared in Xinjiang after the outbreak was confirmed. Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis was enhanced, with daily reporting from all public and private hospitals. Five rounds of vaccination with live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) were conducted among children and adults, and 43 million doses of OPV were administered. Trivalent OPV was used in three rounds, and monovalent OPV type 1 was used in two rounds. The outbreak was stopped 1.5 months after laboratory confirmation of the index case. The 2011 outbreak in China showed that poliomyelitis-free countries remain at risk for outbreaks while the poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world. Global eradication of poliomyelitis will benefit all countries, even those that are currently free of poliomyelitis.

  17. Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Wie Davis, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    .... Two justifications ethnic separatism and religious rhetoric are given. The Uyghurs, who reside throughout the immediate region, are the largest Turkic ethnic group living in Xinjiang as well as being overwhelmingly Muslim...

  18. The phytogeography and ecotourism potential of the eastern province of lower part of the "Köprü river" basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Bastürk; Akis, Ayhan

    2012-04-01

    Köprü River Basin is located in the western Taurus mountains in south-western Turkey. The area is in the Mediterranean phytogeographical region. The climate in the area is typically Mediterranean: mild and rainy in winter, hot and dry in summer. Xerophytic plants can easily grow in this climate. Pinus brutia forests are common in the study area. Maquis and garique elements with sclerophyll character also occur in the region. The study aims to determine the distribution of the vegetation in the eastern province of lower part of the "Köprü River" Basin. The factors which affect the distribution of vegetation are climate, landforms and soils. In order to determine the plant growth and climate relationship, the climatic data were analyzed. As well as the geological and geomorphological conditions, the soils were investigated and the effects of these factors on vegetation cover were analyzed. The region also has various attributes for the development of ecotourism, including canyons, forests and historical places. The region has a great potential for many different social, cultural, and scientific activities related to ecotourism. These are highland tourism, rafting, botanic tourism, trekking, and climbing. In order to make ecotourism available for local people to benefit, ecotourism should be developed and introduced to the world. Moreover, plans for the sustainability of the resources should be made. The study highlights the ecotourism potential of the area which is of social, economic, and ecological importance for the region.

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh Ethnicities in Xinjiang Rural Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Gao, Qi; Cai, Xia; La, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of current infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities in Xinjiang rural residents. Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, and Han populations represent > 90% of the total population of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and their customs, culture, and food consumption are different. The effect of ethnic differences on infertility risk factors is rarely studied. A cross-sectional study of 5,086 married and common-law couples, with a female partner aged 18-49, living in Hami, Kuche, or Xinyuan counties in Xinjiang, China. General information for the study subjects, including demographic characteristics, life customs, sexual history, history of contraception use, and history of disease, was collected by questionnaire. General health, gynecologic examinations, and sociodemographic characteristics were also carried out. A total of 5,086 females from Xinjiang Province were surveyed, including 493 with infertility. The standardized prevalence rate of infertility was 9.7% (95% CI 8.9-10.5), and the prevalence of infertility in Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities was 6.8% (95% CI 5.7-7.9), 10.9% (95% CI 8.0-13.8), and 10.1% (95% CI 7.4-12.8), respectively. The present study suggests that the prevalence of infertility was lower in the Han as compared to the Kazakh and Uygur ethnicities.

  20. Study of soil erosion deposition in Gorgak Basin Chahar Mahal-e Bakhtiary province using Cs-137 technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honarjoon, N.; Mahmoodi, Sh.; Charkhabi, A. H.; Ghafoorian, H.; Alimohammadi, A.

    2005-01-01

    In view of the many limitations associated with traditional approaches to documenting soil erosion and sedimentation rates, the potential for using fallout radionuclides as tracers in soil erosion investigations has been increasingly exploited. Most attention has been focused on cesium 137, and the successful use of this bomb-derived radionuclide in soil erosion studies has now been reported for many areas in the world. The main goal of this research was to study the Caesium 137 3-D distribution pattern within the key sites and to apply the obtained information for the assessment of soil redistribution. Hence, one transect on a hill slope in Gorgak basin of Chahar Mahal-e- Bakhtiary province was selected and studied. Soils were sampled along the transect and analyzed for Caesium 137. The estimated erosion rates was about 200 t/ha/yr for the top of the slope soil profile (the shoulder land form), and about 24.8 t/ha/yr for the middle of the slope soil profile (back slope land form). In the foot slope land form no erosion has been observed. Keywords: soil erosion, sedimentation, cesium-137, tracer, landforms, Chaharmahal-e-Bakhtiyari, fallout radionuclides

  1. Status of geohydrologic screening of the Basin and Range Province for isolation of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    Screening of the Basin and Range Province by the US Geological Survey for favorable environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste began in 1981. The study is concerned with geologic and hydrologic factors, emphasizing the identification of environments that can provide multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. The term multiple barriers includes man-made barriers and natural barriers in the form of specified hydrodynamic, geochemical, and geologic characteristics that would impede radionuclide transport. The natural barriers of most significance include: (1) a tectonic environment in which there is minimum hazard of increasing the mobility of the waste, increasing the rate of dissolution of waste, or increasing the rate of travel of waste from the repository; (2) a host medium of low permeability in the saturated zone or a host medium in an environment that limits accessibility of moisture to the waste in the unsaturated zone; (3) rocks with significant sorptive capacity for radionuclides; and (4) a flow system with long traveltime from the repository to the accessible environment

  2. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part I. Introduction and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Reed, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The US Geological Survey's program for geologic and hydrologic evaluation of physiographic provinces to identify areas potentially suitable for locating repository sites for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes was announced to the Governors of the eight states in the Basin and Range Province on May 5, 1981. Representatives of Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Utah, were invited to cooperate with the federal government in the evaluation process. Each governor was requested to nominate an earth scientist to represent the state in a province working group composed of state and US Geological Survey representatives. This report, Part I of a three-part report, provides the background, introduction and scope of the study. This part also includes a discussion of geologic and hydrologic guidelines that will be used in the evaluation process and illustrates geohydrologic environments and the effect of individual factors in providing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado. Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995. There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  4. Simulation of Groundwater Flow, Denpasar-Tabanan Groundwater Basin, Bali Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heryadi Tirtomihardjo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i3.123Due to the complex structure of the aquifer systems and its hydrogeological units related with the space in which groundwater occurs, groundwater flows were calculated in three-dimensional method (3D Calculation. The geometrical descritization and iteration procedures were based on an integrated finite difference method. In this paper, all figures and graphs represent the results of the calibrated model. Hence, the model results were simulated by using the actual input data which were calibrated during the simulation runs. Groundwater flow simulation of the model area of the Denpasar-Tabanan Groundwater Basin (Denpasar-Tabanan GB comprises steady state run, transient runs using groundwater abstraction in the period of 1989 (Qabs-1989 and period of 2009 (Qabs-2009, and prognosis run as well. Simulation results show, in general, the differences of calculated groundwater heads and observed groundwater heads at steady and transient states (Qabs-1989 and Qabs-2009 are relatively small. So, the groundwater heads situation simulated by the prognosis run (scenario Qabs-2012 are considerably valid and can properly be used for controlling the plan of groundwater utilization in Denpasar-Tabanan GB.

  5. Recent state of stress change in the Walker Lane zone, western Basin and Range province, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellier, Olivier; Zoback, Mary Lou

    1995-06-01

    The NW to north-trending Walker Lane zone (WLZ) is located along the western boundary of the northern Basin and Range province with the Sierra Nevada. This zone is distinguished from the surrounding Basin and Range province on the basis of irregular topography and evidence for both normal and strike-slip Holocene faulting. Inversion of slip vectors from active faults, historic fault offsets, and earthquake focal mechanisms indicate two distinct Quaternary stress regimes within the WLZ, both of which are characterized by a consistent WNW σ3 axis; these are a normal faulting regime with a mean σ3 axis of N85°±9°W and a mean stress ratio (R value) (R=(σ2-σ1)/(σ3-σ1)) of 0.63-0.74 and a younger strike-slip faulting regime with a similar mean σ3 axis (N65° - 70°W) and R values ranging between ˜ 0.1 and 0.2. This younger regime is compatible with historic fault offsets and earthquake focal mechanisms. Both the extensional and strike-slip stress regimes reactivated inherited Mesozoic and Cenozoic structures and also produced new faults. The present-day strike-slip stress regime has produced strike-slip, normal oblique-slip, and normal dip-slip historic faulting. Previous workers have explained the complex interaction of active strike-slip, oblique, and normal faulting in the WLZ as a simple consequence of a single stress state with a consistent WNW σ3 axis and transitional between strike-slip and normal faulting (maximum horizontal stress approximately equal to vertical stress, or R ≈ 0 in both regimes) with minor local fluctuations. The slip data reported here support previous results from Owens Valley that suggest deformation within temporally distinct normal and strike-slip faulting stress regimes with a roughly constant WNW trending σ3 axis (Zoback, 1989). A recent change from a normal faulting to a strike-slip faulting stress regime is indicated by the crosscutting striae on faults in basalts the dominantly strike-slip earthquake focal mechanisms and

  6. Winters-Domengine Total Petroleum System—Northern Nonassociated Gas Assessment Unit of the San Joaquin Basin Province: Chapter 21 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The Northern Nonassociated Gas Assessment Unit (AU) of the Winters-Domengine Total Petroleum System of the San Joaquin Basin Province consists of all nonassociated gas accumulations in Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sandstones located north of township 15 South in the San Joaquin Valley. The northern San Joaquin Valley forms a northwest-southeast trending asymmetrical trough. It is filled with an alternating sequence of Cretaceous-aged sands and shales deposited on Franciscan Complex, ophiolitic, and Sierran basement. Eocene-aged strata unconformably overlie the thick Cretaceous section, and in turn are overlain unconformably by nonmarine Pliocene-Miocene sediments. Nonassociated gas accumulations have been discovered in the sands of the Panoche, Moreno, Kreyenhagen, andDomengine Formations and in the nonmarine Zilch formation of Loken (1959) (hereafter referred to as Zilch formation). Most hydrocarbon accumulations occur in low-relief, northwest-southeast trending anticlines formed chiefly by differential compaction of sediment and by northeast southwest directed compression during the Paleogene (Bartow, 1991) and in stratigraphic traps formed by pinch out of submarine fan sands against slope shales. To date, 176 billion cubic feet (BCF) of nonassociated recoverable gas has been found in fields within the assessment unit (table 21.1). A small amount of biogenic gas forms near the surface of the AU. Map boundaries of the assessment unit are shown in figures 21.1 and 21.2; in plan view, this assessment unit is identical to the Northern Area Nonassociated Gas play 1007 considered by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in its 1995 National Assessment (Beyer, 1996). The AU is bounded on the east by the mapped limits of Cretaceous sandstone reservoir rocks and on the west by the east flank of the Diablo Range. The southern limit of the AU is the southernmost occurrence of nonassociated thermogenic-gas accumulations. The northern limit of the AU corresponds to the

  7. Carbon monoxide degassing from seismic fault zones in the Basin and Range province, west of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yutao; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Zheng, Guodong; Li, Jing; Shi, Hongyu; Guo, Zhengfu; Du, Jianguo

    2017-11-01

    Degassing of carbon monoxide (CO), which plays a significant role in the contribution of deep carbon to the atmosphere, commonly occurs within active fault zones. CO degassing from soil to the atmosphere in the Basin and Range province, west of Beijing (BRPB), China, was investigated by in-situ field measurements in the active fault zones. The measured concentrations of CO in soil gas in the BRPB ranged from 0.29 × 10-6 to 1.1 × 10-6 with a mean value of 0.6 × 10-6, which is approximately twice as large as that in the atmosphere. Net fluxes of CO degassing ranged from -48.6 mg m-2 d-1 to 12.03 mg m-2 d-1. The diffusion of CO from soil to the atmosphere in the BRPB was estimated to be at least 7.6 × 103 ton/a, which is comparable to the corresponding result of about 1.2 × 104 ton/a for CO2. CO concentrations were spatially heterogeneous with clearly higher concentrations along the NE-SW trending in the BRPB. These elevated values of CO concentrations were also coincident with the region with low-velocity and high conductivity in deep mantle, and high Poisson's ratio in the crust, thereby suggesting that CO degassing from the soil might be linked to upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle. Other sources of CO in the soil gas are suggested to be dominated by chemical reactions between deep fluids and carbonate minerals (e.g., dolomite, limestone, and siderite) in country rocks. Biogenic processes may also contribute to the CO in soil gas. The spatial distribution patterns of CO concentrations are coincident with the stress field, suggesting that the concentrations of CO could be a potential indicator for crustal stress field and, hence is potential useful for earthquake monitoring in the BRPB.

  8. Expression of sheep pathogen Babesia sp. Xinjiang rhoptry-associated protein 1 and evaluation of its diagnostic potential by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Yu, Peifa; Pan, Yuping; Zhai, Bintao; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Yin, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Ovine babesiosis is one of the most important tick-borne haemoparasitic diseases of small ruminants. The ovine parasite Babesia sp. Xinjiang is widespread in China. In this study, recombinant full-length XJrRAP-1aα2 (rhoptry-associated protein 1aα2) and C-terminal XJrRAP-1aα2 CT of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were expressed and used to evaluate their diagnostic potential for Babesia sp. Xinjiang infections by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Purified XJrRAP-1aα2 was tested for reactivity with sera from animals experimentally infected with Babesia sp. Xinjiang and other haemoparasites using Western blotting and ELISA. The results showed no cross-reactivities between XJrRAP-1aα2 CT and sera from animals infected by other pathogens. High level of antibodies against RAP-1a usually lasted 10 weeks post-infection (wpi). A total of 3690 serum samples from small ruminants in 23 provinces located in 59 different regions of China were tested by ELISA. The results indicated that the average positive rate was 30·43%, and the infections were found in all of the investigated provinces. This is the first report on the expression and potential use of a recombinant XJrRAP-1aα2 CT antigen for the development of serological assays for the diagnosis of ovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia sp. Xinjiang.

  9. Study on structuring the supervision system of coal mine associated with radionuclides in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Guangwen; Jia Xiahui

    2012-01-01

    Xinjiang is one of China's rich coal provinces (areas) and it accounts for about 40% national coal reserves. In the long-term radioactive scientific research, monitoring and environmental impact assessment works, we found parts of Yili and Hetian's coal was associated with higher radionuclide, and parts of coal seam even reached nuclear mining level. However the laws and regulations about associated radioactive coal mine supervision were not perfect, and the supervision system is still in the exploration. This article mainly started with the coal mine enterprises' geological prospecting reports, radiation environmental impact assessment and monitoring report preparation for environment acceptance checking and supervisory monitoring, controlled the coal radioactive pollution from the sources, and carried out the research of building Xinjiang associated radioactive coal mine supervision system. The establishment of supervision system will provide technical guidance for the enterprises' coal exploitation and cinders using on the one hand, and on the other hand will provide decision-making basis for strengthening the associated radioactive coal mine supervision for Xinjiang environmental regulators. (authors)

  10. Evidence and theory for the prediction of tectonic activity in the Basin and Range Province of Nevada and Utah for the next one million years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejoy, E.M.P.

    1979-01-01

    Major conclusions of the report are: Important seismic activity in the next one million years will be restricted to the Intermountain Seismic Belt. Minor seismic activity in the same period will be restricted to the Nevada Seismic Belt, Sierra Nevada front, and Reno-Yellowstone lineament. There will be seismic inactivity in the same period in the rest of the Basin and Range Province except locally along high mountain frontal fault zones. In these zones, isostatic unloading will produce slow, secular, mild seismic activity for many millions of years to come

  11. Assessment of water and proppant quantities associated with petroleum production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth; Varela, Brian A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Engle, Mark A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Kinney, Scott A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Martinez, Cericia D.

    2017-06-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of water and proppant requirements and water production associated with the possible future production of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Three Forks and Bakken Formations (Late Devonian to Early Mississippian) of the Williston Basin Province in Montana and North Dakota. This water and proppant assessment is directly linked to the geology-based assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous oil and gas resources that is described in USGS Fact Sheet 2013–3013.

  12. The Uyghur Insurgency in Xinjiang: The Success Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    franchise in Xinjiang. The TIP works under the global umbrella of AQ as envisioned by Abu Musab. The TIP, apart from utilizing the training and...from global terrorist organizations and the visible effects of this decision can be viewed in Xinjiang post 2008. This thesis evaluates the Uyghur...the situation in Xinjiang. The Uyghur insurgents sought support from global terrorist organizations and the visible effects of this decision can be

  13. Executive summary--2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 1 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province (5022), New Mexico and Colorado (fig. 1). Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  14. [Phylogeny and divergence time estimation of Schizothoracinae fishes in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelhan, Haysa; Guo, Yan; Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Ma, Yanwu

    2014-10-01

    Based on combined data of mitochondrial COI, ND4 and 16S RNA genes, molecular phylogeny of 4 genera, 10 species or subspecies of Schizothoracinae fishes distributed in Xinjiang were analyzed. The molecular clock was calibrated by divergence time of Cyprininae and geological segregation event between the upper Yellow River and Qinghai Lake. Divergence time of Schizothoracinae fishes was calculated, and its relationship with the major geological events and the climate changes in surrounding areas of Tarim Basin was discussed. The results showed that genus Aspiorhynchus did not form an independent clade, but clustered with Schizothorax biddulphi and S. irregularis. Kimura 2-parameter model was used to calculate the genetic distance of COI gene, the genetic distance between genus Aspiorhynchus and Schizothorax did not reach genus level, and Aspiorhynchus laticeps might be a specialized species of genus Schizothorax. Cluster analysis showed a different result with morphological classification method, and it did not support the subgenus division of Schizothorax fishes. Divergence of two groups of primitive Schizothoracinae (8.18Ma) and divergence of Gymnodiptychus dybowskii and Diptychus maculates (7.67Ma) occurred in late Miocene, which might be related with the separation of Kunlun Mountain and north Tianshan Mountain River system that was caused by the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Tianshan Mountain, and the aridification of Tarim Basin. The terrain of Tarim Basin that was affected by Quaternary Himalayan movement was high in west but low in east, as a result, Lop Nor became the center of surrounding mountain rivers in Tarim Basin, which shaped the distribution pattern of genus Schizothorax.

  15. Optimizing Irrigation Water Allocation under Multiple Sources of Uncertainty in an Arid River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Tang, D.; Gao, H.; Ding, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and climate change add additional pressures affecting water resources management strategies for meeting demands from different economic sectors. It is especially challenging in arid regions where fresh water is limited. For instance, in the Tailanhe River Basin (Xinjiang, China), a compromise must be made between water suppliers and users during drought years. This study presents a multi-objective irrigation water allocation model to cope with water scarcity in arid river basins. To deal with the uncertainties from multiple sources in the water allocation system (e.g., variations of available water amount, crop yield, crop prices, and water price), the model employs a interval linear programming approach. The multi-objective optimization model developed from this study is characterized by integrating eco-system service theory into water-saving measures. For evaluation purposes, the model is used to construct an optimal allocation system for irrigation areas fed by the Tailan River (Xinjiang Province, China). The objective functions to be optimized are formulated based on these irrigation areas' economic, social, and ecological benefits. The optimal irrigation water allocation plans are made under different hydroclimate conditions (wet year, normal year, and dry year), with multiple sources of uncertainty represented. The modeling tool and results are valuable for advising decision making by the local water authority—and the agricultural community—especially on measures for coping with water scarcity (by incorporating uncertain factors associated with crop production planning).

  16. Introduction to the 2002 geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks: Chapter 2 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) periodically conducts assessments of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the United States. The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The last major USGS assessment of oil and gas of the most important oil and gas provinces in the United States was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). Since then a number of individual assessment provinces have been reappraised using new methodology. This was done particularly for those provinces where new information has become available, where new methodology was expected to reveal more insight to provide a better estimate, where additional geologic investigation was needed, or where continuous accumulations were deemed important. The San Juan Basin was reevaluated because of industry exploitation of new hydrocarbon accumulations that were not previously assessed and because of a change in application of assessment methodology to potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations. Several changes have been made in this study. The methodology is different from that used in 1995 (Schmoker, 2003; Schmoker and Klett, 2003). In this study the total petroleum system (TPS) approach (Magoon and Dow, 1994) is used rather than the play approach. The Chama Basin is not included. The team of scientists studying the basin is different. The 1995 study focused on conventional accumulations, whereas in this 2002 assessment, it was a priority to assess continuous-type accumulations, including coal-bed gas. Consequently we are presenting here an entirely new study and results for the San Juan Basin Province. The results of this 2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province (5022) are presented in this report within the geologic context of individual TPSs and their assessment units (AU) (table 1). Results

  17. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Basis of characterization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, William H.; Sherman, Frank B.; Reed, J.E.; Brady, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    The geologic and hydrologic factors in selected regions of the Basin and Range province were examined to identify prospective areas for further study that may provide isolation of high-level radioactive waste from the accessible environment. The six regions selected for study were characterized with respect to the following guidelines: (1) Potential repository media; (2) Quaternary tectonic conditions; (3) climatic change and geomorphic processes; (4) ground-water conditions; (5) ground-water quality; and (6) mineral and energy resources.The repository medium will function as the first natural barrier to radionuclide travel by virtue of associated slow ground-water velocity. The principal rock types considered as host media include granitic, intermediate, and mafic intrusive rocks; argillaceous rocks; salt and anhydrite; volcanic mudflow (laharic) breccias; some intrusive rhyolitic plugs and stocks; partially zeolitized tuff; and metamorphic rocks. In the unsaturated zone, the permeability and hydrologic properties of the rocks and the hydrologic setting are more important than the rock type. Media ideally should be permeable to provide drainage and should have a minimal water fluxThe ground-water flow path from a repository to the accessible environment needs to present major barriers to the transport of radionuclides. Factors considered in evaluating the ground-water conditions include ground-water traveltimes and quality, confining beds, and earth materials favorable for retardation of radionuclides. Ground-water velocities in the regions were calculated from estimated hydraulic properties of the rocks and gradients. Because site-specific data on hydraulic properties are not available, data from the literature were assembled and synthesized to obtain values for use in estimating ground-water velocities. Hydraulic conductivities for many rock types having granular and fracture permeability follow a log-normal distribution. Porosity for granular and very weathered

  18. [Dynamic coupling and spatial disparity of economic development and water environmental quality in Songhua River Basin of Jilin Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Hua; Tong, Lian-Jun

    2013-02-01

    By using coupling model, this paper analyzed the relationships between the economic development and water environment quality in Songhua River Basin of Jilin Province from 1991 to 2010. During the study period, both the economic development index and the water environment index in the Basin showed an uptrend, basically in a coordination state. From the perspective of coupling coordination degree, the economic development and the water environment system were in interactive coupling, with the features of complexity, nonlinearity, and time-variation. As a whole, the coupling experienced three stages, i.e., low level stage, antagonistic stage, and breaking-in stage. As for the coupling degree, the coupling of the economic development and the water environment system was in the first quadrant, i.e., at a development stage of basic coordination. From the perspective of spatial disparity, the coupling degree of the economic development and the water environment system was higher in the upper reaches of the Songhua River Basin, including Changchun and Jilin, than in the lower reaches, including Songyuan and Baicheng. The coupling degree was not only significantly positively correlated with regional economic development, but also affected by the links between the regions as well as the industrial structure within the regions. The economic development of the cities in the upper reaches of the Songhua River Basin was obviously higher than that in the lower reaches, and, due to the adopting of more strict and effective measures for environmental protection and pollution emissions reduction, the water environment quality in the upper reaches of the Songhua River Basin was better.

  19. Mise en évidence de Provinces géochimiques dans les schistes bitumeux du Toarcien de l'est du bassin de Paris Geocheminical Provinces Revealed in Toarcien Oil Shales in the Eastern Paris Basin. Analysis of the Soluble Organic Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huc A. Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude de la matière organique soluble dans le chloroforme des schistes du Toarcien de la partie orientale du bassin de Paris met en évidence l'existence d'une province géochimique nord et d'une province géochimique sud dont la frontière commune se trouve dans la région de Fécocourt. La province septentrionale se caractérise par une influence du domaine continental (massif des Ardennes au niveau de l'apport organique. Alors que la province méridionale se révèle exempt d'apport terrestre. Ces résultats sont en accord avec les indications sédimentologiques fournies par la littérature et apportent une dimension géochimique à la paléogéographie de ce bassin. An anaalysis of soluble organic motter in the chloroform from Toarcian shales from the eastern part of the Paris Basin reveals the existence of a northern geochemical province and a southern geochemical province whose commun boundary lies in the Fecocourt region. The northern province is characterized by the influence of the continental domain (Ardennes range with regard to organic influx, whereas no terrestrial influx is found in the southern province. These findings agree with the sedimentological indications supplied by the literature and add a geochemical dimension to the paleogeography of this basin.

  20. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  1. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste: Part I, Introduction and guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, Kenneth A.; Reed, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's program for geologic and hydrologic evaluation of physiographic provinces to identify areas potentially suitable for locating repository sites for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes was announced to the Governors of the eight States in the Basin and Range Province on May 5, 1981. Representatives of Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Utah, were invited to cooperate with the Federal Government in the evaluation process. Each Governor was requested to nominate an Earth scientist to represent the State in a province working group composed of State and U.S. Geological Survey representatives. This report, Part I of a three-part report, provides the background, introduction and scope of the study. This part also includes a discussion of geologic and hydrologic guidelines that will be used in the evaluation process and illustrates geohydrologic environments and the effect of individual factors in providing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration.Part II is a reconnaissance characterization of the geologic and hydrologic factors to be used in the initial screening of the Basin and Range Province. Part III will be the initial evaluation of the Province and will identify regions that appear suitable for further study.The plan for study of the Province includes a stepwise screening process by which successively smaller land units are considered in increasing detail. Each step involves characterization of the geology and hydrology and selection of subunits for more intensive characterization. Selection of subunits for further study is by evaluation of geologic and hydrologic conditions following a set of guidelines. By representation on the Province Working Group, the States participate in a consultation and review role in: (1) Establishing geologic and hydrologic guidelines, and (2) characterizing and evaluating the Province. The States also participate in compilation of geologic and hydrologic data

  2. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 1: Kinematics of Basin-Range intraplate extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, P. K.; Smith, R. B.; Renggli, C.

    1986-01-01

    Strain rates assessed from brittle fracture and total brittle-ductile deformation measured from geodetic data were compared to estimates of paleo-strain from Quaternary geology for the intraplate Great Basin part of the Basin-Range, western United States. These data provide an assessment of the kinematics and mode of lithospheric extension that the western U.S. Cordillera has experienced from the past few million years to the present. Strain and deformation rates were determined by the seismic moment tensor method using historic seismicity and fault plane solutions for sub-regions of homogeneous strain. Contemporary deformation in the Great Basin occurs principally along the active seismic zones. The integrated opening rate across the entire Great Basin is accommodated by E-E extension at 8 to 10 mm/a in the north that diminishes to NW-SE extension of 3.5 mm/a in the south. Zones of maximum lithospheric extension correspond to belts of thin crust, high heat flow, and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, suggesting that these parameters are related through mechanism of extension such as a stress relaxation, allowing bouyant uplift and ascension of magmas.

  3. The thermal history of the Karoo Moatize-Minjova Basin, Tete Province, Mozambique: An integrated vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission track thermochronology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Cogné, Nathan; Chew, David M.; Rodrigues, Bruno; Jorge, Raul C. G. S.; Marques, João; Jamal, Daud; Vasconcelos, Lopo

    2015-12-01

    The Moatize-Minjova Basin is a Karoo-aged rift basin located in the Tete Province of central Mozambique along the present-day Zambezi River valley. In this basin the Permian Moatize and Matinde formations consist of interbedded carbonaceous mudstones and sandstones with coal seams. The thermal history has been determined using rock samples from two coal exploration boreholes (ca. 500 m depth) to constrain the burial and exhumation history of the basin. Organic maturation levels were determined using vitrinite reflectance and spore fluorescence/colour. Ages and rates of tectonic uplift and denudation have been assessed by apatite fission track analysis. The thermal history was modelled by inverse modelling of the fission track and vitrinite reflectance data. The Moatize Formation attained a coal rank of bituminous coals with low to medium volatiles (1.3-1.7%Rr). Organic maturation levels increase in a linear fashion downhole in the two boreholes, indicating that burial was the main process controlling peak temperature maturation. Calculated palaeogeothermal gradients range from 59 °C/km to 40 °C/km. According to the models, peak burial temperatures were attained shortly (3-10 Ma) after deposition. Apatite fission track ages [146 to 84 Ma (Cretaceous)] are younger than the stratigraphic age. Thermal modelling indicates two episodes of cooling and exhumation: a first period of rapid cooling between 240 and 230 Ma (Middle - Upper Triassic boundary) implying 2500-3000 m of denudation; and a second period, also of rapid cooling, from 6 Ma (late Miocene) onwards implying 1000-1500 m of denudation. The first episode is related to the main compressional deformation event within the Cape Fold Belt in South Africa, which transferred stress northwards on pre-existing transtensional fault systems within the Karoo rift basins, causing tectonic inversion and uplift. During the Mesozoic and most of the Cenozoic the basin is characterized by very slow cooling. The second period

  4. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the IM Province of the Columbia Basin, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielgus, Robert; Shipley, Lisa; Myers, Woodrow

    2003-09-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the sub basins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated 'press' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM sub basins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates

  5. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  6. Evaluation of the Cerro Solo nuclear ore, province of Chubut. Geological characteristics of the deposit and of the basin. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, A.F.; Fuente, A.; Maloberti, A.; Landi, V.A.; Bianchi, R.E.; Marveggio de Bianchi, N.; Gayone, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Cerro Solo uranium ore deposit, is located 420 km west from Trelew city, Chubut province, in the extra-andean. The geologic environment belongs to the northwest edge portion of the intracratonic San Jorge Gulf Basin. The uraniferous district is named Pichinanes Ridge district. The mineralization lies 25 to 130 m depth, and is hosted by Los Adobes formation aged Aptian-Albian, made up by conglomerates, sandstones, coarse-sandstones and less abundant siltstones and claystones. The Cerro Solo ore deposit that belongs to the sandstone type-uranium occurrences are lenticular or tabular shaped, associated with organic material and pyrite, generally roughly parallel to the bedding (Trend-Type). The uranium minerals are uraninite and coffinite associated with organic material and pyrite, and frequently hematite, goethite, calcite, siderite and barite are observed. (Author)

  7. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  8. On the origin of the Amerasia Basin and the High Arctic Large Igneous Province-Results of new aeromagnetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Arne; Jackson, H.R.; Matzka, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 2.5 million km2 Amerasia Basin (sensu lato) is in many ways the least known in the global tectonic system. Radically different hypotheses proposed to explain its origin are supported only by inconclusive and/or indirect observations and several outstanding issues on the origin...... and Lomonosov Ridges, enabling the tectonic origin of both the Amerasia Basin and the HALIP to be constrained. A landward Lower Cretaceous ( ~ 138 - 125(120) Ma) giant dyke swarm (minimum 350×800km2) and tentative oceanward Barremian (or alternatively lower Valanginian-Barremian) seafloor spreading anomalies...

  9. Regional Tectonic Control of Tertiary Mineralization and Recent Faulting in the Southern Basin-Range Province, an Application of ERTS-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, I. C.; Liggett, M. A.; Childs, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Research based on ERTS-1 MSS imagery and field work in the southern Basin-Range Province of California, Nevada and Arizona has shown regional tectonic control of volcanism, plutonism, mineralization and faulting. This paper covers an area centered on the Colorado River between 34 15' N and 36 45' N. During the mid-Tertiary, the area was the site of plutonism and genetically related volcanism fed by fissure systems now exposed as dike swarms. Dikes, elongate plutons, and coeval normal faults trend generally northward and are believed to have resulted from east-west crustal extension. In the extensional province, gold silver mineralization is closely related to Tertiary igneous activity. Similarities in ore, structural setting, and rock types define a metallogenic district of high potential for exploration. The ERTS imagery also provides a basis for regional inventory of small faults which cut alluvium. This capability for efficient regional surveys of Recent faulting should be considered in land use planning, geologic hazards study, civil engineering and hydrology.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Paradox Basin Province, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 560 million barrels of undiscovered oil, 12,701 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, and 490 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona.

  11. Vegetation greenness modelling in response to interannual precipitation and temperature changes between 2001 and 2012 in Liao River Basin in Jilin Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Sheng; Tang, Jie; Li, Zhao-Yang; Li, Hai-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Liao River basin in Jilin Province is the place of origin of the Dongliao River. This study gives a comprehensive analysis of the vegetation coverage in the region and provides a potential theoretical basis for ecological restoration. The seasonal variation of vegetation greenness and dynamics based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in major land cover types in the region was studied. Analyzing the relationship NDVI, temperature and rainfall, we derived a set of predictor variables from 2001 to 2012 using the MODIS Terra level 1 Product (MOD02QKM). The results showed a general increasing trend in NDVI value in the region, while 34.63 % of the region showed degradation. NDVI values begin to rise from April when plants are regreening and they drop in September when temperature are decreasing and the leaves are falling in the study area and temperature was found decreasing during the period of 2001-2012 while rainfall showed an increasing trend. This model could be used to observe the change in vegetation greenness and the dynamic effects of temperature and rainfall. This study provided important data for the environmental protection of the basin area. And we hope to provide scientific analysis for controlling water and soil erosion, maintaining the sustainable productivity of land resources, enhancing the treatment of water pollution and stimulating the virtuous cycle of the ecological system.

  12. Evaluation of geothermal potential of Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province, New Mexico. Final technical report, January 1, 1977-May 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callender, J.F.

    1985-04-01

    A study was made of the geological, geochemical and geophysical characteristics of potential geothermal areas in the Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province of New Mexico. Both regional and site-specific information is presented. Data was collected by: (1) reconnaissance and detailed geologic mapping, emphasizing Neogene stratigraphy and structure; (2) petrologic studies of Neogene igneous rocks; (3) radiometric age-dating; (4) geochemical surveying, including regional and site-specific water chemistry, stable isotopic analyses of thermal waters, whole-rock and mineral isotopic studies, and whole-rock chemical analyses; and (5) detailed geophysical surveys, using electrical, gravity and magnetic techniques, with electrical resistivity playing a major role. Regional geochemical water studies were conducted for the whole state. Integrated site-specific studies included the Animas Valley, Las Cruces area (Radium Springs and Las Alturas Estates), Truth or Consequences region, the Albuquerque basin, the San Ysidro area, and the Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente region. The Animas Valley and Las Cruces areas have the most significant geothermal potential of the areas studied. The Truth or Consequences and Albuquerque areas need further study. The San Ysidro and Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente regions have less significant geothermal potential. 78 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  14. Effects of changing climate on reference crop evapotranspiration over 1961-2013 in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ning; Li, Yi; Sun, Changfeng

    2018-01-01

    To know the importance of different climate variables on reference crop evapotranspiration ( ET o), a step-by-step sensitivity analysis of ET o to single, two, and multi-climate variables ( C) was conducted. ET o in north, south, and entire Xinjiang Province, China, over 1961-2013 was estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation. Trends in the involved six Cs (i.e., minimum temperature— T min, average temperature— T ave, maximum temperature— T max, wind speed at 2 m— U 2, sunshine hour— n, and relative humidity— RH) were detected by the modified Mann-Kendall test. Nineteen scenarios of changed Cs were preset to obtain recalculated ET o values considering the actual trend in each C and the Pearson's correlation relationship between ET o and Cs. The results showed that ET o was mostly sensitive to T max, U 2, and n. Sensitivity of ET o to the two overlapped changes of T min and T max caused larger increases in ET o than T max and T ave, T ave and T max, T max and (- n), T max and RH, T max and (- U 2), and T min and T ave, but the overlapped changes (- U 2) and (- n) caused larger decreases in ET o than the other two C scenarios. The simultaneously increased T max, T min, T ave, and RH plus decreased U 2 and n had caused the actual decreases in ET o in Xinjiang. In general, the effects of decreased U 2 and n on decreasing ET o compensated the effects of increased T max on decreasing ET o in Xinjiang.

  15. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age and its significances of volcanic rocks from banshi basin in south jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baofeng; Wu Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating is applied to geochronological study for tuff of original Jilongzhang formation and rhyolite of original Banshi formation in Banshi basin, located in the Sannan (Longnan, Dingnan, Quannan) -Xunwu volcanic rocks belts in the south of Jiangxi. The result shows that zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of the tuff is (142.5 ± 1.3) Ma and the age of the rhyolite is (131.4 ± 1.3) Ma. According to the latest international stratigraphic chart, the boundary between Jurassic and Cretaceous is (145.4 ± 4.0) Ma. So original Jilongzhang Formation and original Banshi Formation in Banshi basin were formed during early Early Cretaceous. The volcanic series in Banshi basin belongs to only one volcanic cycle. The features of the rock associations consistent with Wuyi group on the Xiajiang-Guangfeng volcanic rocks belts in the north of Jiangxi, so original Jilongzhang formation falls under E'huling formation and original Banshi formation falls under Shixi formation. (authors)

  16. Consideration of nuclear technology development on agricultural industrialization in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fang; Xie Yinghua; Lei Bin

    2010-01-01

    This review describes the application of nuclear technology in Xinjiang agriculture along with industrialization and economic benefit since 1970s. Current problems in this field were analyzed and corresponding advices were presented. (authors)

  17. Chapter 7. The GIS project for the geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak and Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2006-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) focusing on the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group and the Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the northern Gulf Coast region was developed as a visual-analysis tool for the U.S. Geological Survey's 2002 assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural gas resources in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces. The Central Energy Resources Team of the U.S. Geological Survey has also developed an Internet Map Service to deliver the GIS data to the public. This mapping tool utilizes information from a database about the oil and natural gas endowment of the United States-including physical locations of geologic and geographic data-and converts the data into visual layers. Portrayal and analysis of geologic features on an interactive map provide an excellent tool for understanding domestic oil and gas resources for strategic planning, formulating economic and energy policies, evaluating lands under the purview of the Federal Government, and developing sound environmental policies. Assessment results can be viewed and analyzed or downloaded from the internet web site, http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/oilgas/noga/ .

  18. Uyghurs in Xinjiang: United or Divided Against the PRC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    them). Uyghurs have responded in stressing even more so their distinction from the Han Chinese people and culture. However, despite this improved...UyghurLanguageUnderAttack.pdf. 10 Justin Rudelson and William Jankowiak. “ Acculturation and Resistance: Xinjiang Identities in Flux,” in Xinjiang: China’s Muslim...the Uyghur people. Rudelson and Jankowiak argue that the responses of the Uyghurs are varied and divided—ranging from acculturation , to non-violent

  19. Genetic History of Xinjiang's Uyghurs Suggests Bronze Age Multiple-Way Contacts in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qidi; Lu, Yan; Ni, Xumin; Yuan, Kai; Yang, Yajun; Yang, Xiong; Liu, Chang; Lou, Haiyi; Ning, Zhilin; Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Ying; Shi, Meng; Tian, Lei; Wang, Xiaoji; Zhang, Xi; Li, Jing; Khan, Asifullah; Guan, Yaqun; Tang, Kun; Wang, Sijia; Xu, Shuhua

    2017-10-01

    The Uyghur people residing in Xinjiang, a territory located in the far west of China and crossed by the Silk Road, are a key ethnic group for understanding the history of human dispersion in Eurasia. Here we assessed the genetic structure and ancestry of 951 Xinjiang's Uyghurs (XJU) representing 14 geographical subpopulations. We observed a southwest and northeast differentiation within XJU, which was likely shaped jointly by the Tianshan Mountains, which traverses from east to west as a natural barrier, and gene flow from both east and west directions. In XJU, we identified four major ancestral components that were potentially derived from two earlier admixed groups: one from the West, harboring European (25-37%) and South Asian ancestries (12-20%), and the other from the East, with Siberian (15-17%) and East Asian (29-47%) ancestries. By using a newly developed method, MultiWaver, the complex admixture history of XJU was modeled as a two-wave admixture. An ancient wave was dated back to ∼3,750 years ago (ya), which is much earlier than that estimated by previous studies, but fits within the range of dating of mummies that exhibited European features that were discovered in the Tarim basin, which is situated in southern Xinjiang (4,000-2,000 ya); a more recent wave occurred around 750 ya, which is in agreement with the estimate from a recent study using other methods. We unveiled a more complex scenario of ancestral origins and admixture history in XJU than previously reported, which further suggests Bronze Age massive migrations in Eurasia and East-West contacts across the Silk Road. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Confirmation and Sequence analysis of N gene of PPRV in South Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YongHong Liu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In China, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR was officially first reported in 2007. From 2010 until the outbreak of 2013, PPRV infection was not reported. In November 2013, PPRV re-emerged in Xinjiang and rapidly spread to 22 P/A/M (provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities of China. In the study, suspected PPRV-infected sheep in a breeding farm of South Xinjiang in 2014 were diagnosed and the characteristics of complete sequence of N protein gene of PPRV was analyzed. The sheep showed PPRV-infected signs, such as fever, orinasal secretions increase, dyspnea and diarrhea, with 60% of morbidity and 21.1% of fatality rate. The macroscopic lesions after autopsy and histopathological changes were observed under light microscope including stomatitis, broncho-interstitial pneumonia, catarrhal hemorrhagic enteritis and intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions in multinucleated giantcell in lung. The formalin-fixed mixed tissues samples were positive by nucleic acid extraction and RT-PCR detection. The nucleotide of N protein gene of China/XJNJ/2014 strain was extremely high homology with the China/XJYL/2013 strain, and the highest with PRADESH_95 strain from India in exotic strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete sequence of N protein gene of PPRV showed that the China/XJNJ/2014 strain, other strain of 2013-2014 in this study and Tibetan strains all belonged to lineage Ⅳ, but the PPRV strains of 2013-2014 in this study and Tibetan strains were in different sub-branches.

  1. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the Intermountain Province of the Columbia Basin, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielgus, Robert B.; Shipley, Lisa

    2002-07-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the subbasins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are not ranked as target species and are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated ''press'' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM subbasins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend

  2. Genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus strains currently circulating in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming-Jun; Di, Dong-Dong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Yan, Hao; Tian, Li-Li; Jing, Zhi-Gang; Li, Jin-Ping; Jiang, Hai; Fan, Wei-Xing

    2016-10-01

    Brucellosis is a well-known zoonotic disease that can cause severe economic and healthcare losses. Xinjiang, one of the biggest livestock husbandry sectors in China, has gone through increasing incidence of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants recently. In this paper, 50 B. melitensis strains and 9 B. abortus strains collected from across Xinjiang area (from 2010 to 2015) were genotyped using multiple locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Based on 8 loci (MLVA-8), 50 B. melitensis strains were classified into three genotypes. Genotypes 42 (n=38, 76%) and 63 (n=11, 22%) were part of the East Mediterranean group, and one genotype with pattern of 1-5-3-13-2-4-3-2 represents a single-locus variant from genotype 63. MLVA-16 resolved 50 B. melitensis strains into 28 genotypes, of which 15 are unique to Xinjiang and 10 are in common with those in adjacent country Kazakhstan and neighboring provinces of China. Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) analysis implies that B. melitensis strains collected from across Kazakhstan, Xinjiang and China areas may share a common origin. Nine B. abortus strains were sorted into three genotypes by MLVA-8, genotypes 36 (n=7, 77.8%), 86 (n=1, 11.1%) and a new genotype with pattern of 4-5-3-13-2-2-3-1. Each B. abortus strain showed distinct MLVA-16 genotypes, suggesting that B. abortus species may possess more genetic diversity than B. melitensis. Using MLST, most B. melitensis strains (n=49) were identified as sequence type ST8, and most B. abortus strains (n=8) were recognized as ST2. Two new sequence types, ST37 and ST38, represented by single strain from B. melitensis and B. abortus species respectively, were also detected in this study. These results could facilitate the pathogen surveillance in the forthcoming eradication programs and serve as a guide in source tracking in case of new outbreaks occur. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution of Selected Heavy Metals in Sediment of the River Basin of Coastal Area of Chanthaburi Province, Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkapan Potipat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sediment samples from 24 stations in coastal area of Chanthaburi Province were collected during March 2012 to March 2013 and analyzed for heavy metal contents (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Cu and Zn, pH, organic matters and grain sizes. The correlation analyses showed that heavy metal concentrations were affected by the content of organic matter and the size of clay particles. The evaluation of the quality of sediment was carried out using the geoaccumulation index (Igeo and the enrichment factor (EF as well as the comparison with those in the Thailand's sediment quality guideline (SQG values. The results of the geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor values of the heavy metals content in the sediments revealed that the study area was unpolluted and not enriched, respectively. The relationship between the heavy metals concentration and the organic matter, and the clay particle was proposed by using the multiple regression equations.

  4. Preliminary simulation model to determine ground-water flow and ages within the Palo Duro Basin hydrogeologic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, H.; Picking, L.

    1986-01-01

    Ground-water flow through the Palo Duro and Tucumcari Basins is simulated by developing a hydrogeolgic profile and applying a cross-sectional, finite-element, numerical model to the profile. The profile is 350 miles long and 2 miles deep and extends from east-central New Mexico to the Texas-Oklahoma border. It is comprised of hydrogeologic units that are identified from geophysical well logs, sample logs, and core descriptions. A hydrogeologic unit as used in this profile is a physically continuous rock sequence with hydrologic properties that are relatively consistent throughout and distinct from surrounding units. The resulting hydrogeologic profile, with the exception of the Ogallala Formation and the Dockum Group, is discretized into a 6000-element mesh and a 22,000-element mesh. Permeability values assigned to hydrogeologic units were, in part, calculated from drill stem tests conducted throughout the Palo Duro Basin. Ground-water age and travel paths are determined by applying Darcy's equation to selected flow lines. The 170 million-year age determined from ground-water at points within the Wolfcamp Series compares favorably with the geochemical data for this region. An age of 188 million years is determined for the Pennsylvanian granite wash

  5. The Composition Analysis of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) from Xinjiang and Its Antifatigue Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jieying; Chen, Longfei; Li, Jinwei; Duan, Zhenhua; Zhu, Song; Fan, Liuping

    2017-01-01

    Environment would affect the nutritional composition of maca, especially its secondary metabolite. The chemical compositions and function of Xinjiang maca were not very clear. The chemical compositions and bioactivity of Xinjiang maca were determined. A mouse model was also used to evaluate the antifatigue activity of Xinjiang maca as a forced swimming test was performed and certain biochemical parameters related were estimated. The results show that the Xinjiang maca is rich in protein conte...

  6. Some peculiarities of basin petroleum potential, mediterranean belt, in connection with estimating oil potential of large depths, south Caspian province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belonin, M.D.; Sobolev, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Some peculiarities of occuring and forming oil pools in the richest south Caspian province are considered in connection with the problems concerning the estimation of oil potential of large depths. On the data of A.A. Ali-zade (1981, 1985) and other researchers, in the direction of regional subsidence of sedimentary beds, gas saturation of fluids increases and oil pools change progressively into gas-oil and gas-condensate ones. The continental margins of a transitional stage between the synoceanic and final phases of developing a continent-ocean system are present in the Mediterranean belt including its west component in the Mexico-Caribbean region. Some new results of a chromatographic analysis of nonfractional oils were received. The indices of individual hydrocarbon composition are indicative of the presence of wide vertical hydrocarbon migration during forming multibedded offshore hydrocarbon fields in south Caspian. In the south Caspian offshore, the composition of oils found in the range between 4-6 km is in agreement with the composition of fluids of the main zone of oil generation. It suggests the generation of liquid hydrocarbons at depths exceeding 6.5 km.

  7. Characterizing the Relationship Between Lithospheric Deformation and Seismic Anisotropy in the Basin and Range Province and San Andreas Fault System using Ps Receiver Function Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, H. A.; Schnorr, E.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of complex and spatially variable anisotropy in many parts of the western U.S. has been tied to regional tectonic and dynamic processes that go beyond the (frequently) assumed plate motion oriented shear. In the Basin and Range, a well-imaged "swirl" of shear wave splitting observations has been explained via a number of different dynamic processes, including a lithospheric drip and toroidal flow. In central California, rapid variations in splitting direction across the plate boundary have been attributed to a relatively narrow, well-defined shear zone. Ambient noise tomography has further complicated the picture, indicating that some of the observed complexity can be explained by incorporating multiple layers of anisotropy. The goal of this study is to place firm constraints on vertical variations in anisotropy over two tectonically distinct, yet related, regions- the Basin and Range province and the San Andreas fault system, in order to better understand how deformation of the lithosphere is accommodated. To do this, radial and transverse component Ps receiver functions have been calculated for 14 stations within the two regions. Within both study areas, variability exists between most stations at crust and lithospheric mantle depths. This is particularly true for stations located near the San Andreas Fault system. These differences may be attributed to variations in the provenance of the lithospheric "packages" in some areas, however several stations are located near or within the plate boundary system and may be sampling multiple regions with varying deformation fabrics. To account for this, future work will include binning as a function of piercing point. One notable exception to the generally observed variability is along the western margin of the Basin and Range, where several stations show similarities in back azimuthal variations at lower crust and uppermost mantle depths. Preliminary forwarding modeling of two of these stations indicates that

  8. Procedure for calculating estimated ultimate recoveries of wells in the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of north-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-11-28

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey published an assessment of technically recoverable continuous oil and gas resources of the Mississippian Barnett Shale in the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of north-central Texas. Of the two assessment units involved in the overall assessment, one included a roughly equal number of oil wells and gas wells as classified by the U.S. Geological Survey’s standard of gas wells having production greater than or equal to 20,000 cubic feet of gas per barrel of oil and oil wells having production less than 20,000 cubic feet of gas per barrel of oil. As a result, estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) were calculated for both oil wells and gas wells in one of the assessment units. Generally, only gas EURs or only oil EURs are calculated for an assessment unit. These EURs were calculated with data from IHS MarkitTM using DeclinePlus software in the Harmony interface and were a major component of the quantitative resource assessment. The calculated mean EURs ranged from 235 to 2,078 million cubic feet of gas and 21 to 39 thousand barrels of oil for various subsets of wells.

  9. Analysis of the flooding event of October 22-23, 2005 in a small basin in the province of Bari (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Bisantino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the province of Bari the hydrographic network consists of ephemeral streams called lame. In these watercourses the absence of runoff for long periods contributed to unfounded beliefs concerning the hydraulic safety of the landscape and therefore uncontrolled changes in streambeds and floodplains. In these streams high water discharges can occur during heavy rainfalls, as demonstrated by the floods that hit the city of Bari in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The flooding event of October 22-23, 2005 can be considered catastrophic as it resulted in six deaths, numerous injuries and substantial damage sustained by road and railway infrastructures at the intersection with the hydrographic network. This study aims to analyse the severity of the event in terms of the response of the landscape with reference to the case of the lama Scappagrano basin, where a Eurostar train derailed due to the collapse of the railway embankment. Coupled hydrological and two-dimensional hydraulic modelling was performed to reconstruct the flood hydrograph and water depths on the upstream side of the embankment. The results were used to set the boundary conditions to analyse the internal stability of the embankment using a finite element method.

  10. Exposure risk of young population to lead: A case study in Le'an River Basin in Jiangxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanxin; Li, Qi; Wang, Hui; Wang, Bin; Lu, Qun; Yan, Zhenghong; Ding, Aizhong

    2016-01-01

    Blood lead (Pb) level of children has widely been attracting public concern in China, particularly in the sites near mining or industrial areas. However, the policies about how to efficiently reduce the Pb intake of children are still under discussion. We collected six food types based on the local dietary habits and soils from Dexing, Leping, and Poyang Counties situated along the Le'an River Basin from upstream to downstream, and their Pb contents were analyzed. A Monte Carlo model was used to simulate the dietary chronic daily intake of Pb (CDI_P_b) from various foods and ingested soil by hand-to-mouth activities and its non-carcinogenic risk to children indicated by hazard quotient (HQ). Only in the rural area of Dexing, its soil and vegetables both had higher Pb content than the national tolerance limits of China, resulting its the highest CDI_P_b among all the areas. The Pb contents of the six food types and soils in other sites were overall below the limits. Vegetables and rice accounted for from 63% (Leping, urban) to 85% (Dexing, rural) of the total CDI_P_b and ingested soil overall took up ∼6%. In the rural area, Dexing had the highest proportion (82.8%) of children with HQ > 1, followed by Leping (36.1%) and Poyang (27.7%). Different order was found in the urban areas, i.e. Dexing (46.7%) > Poyang (41.0%) > Leping (26.4%). Vegetables and rice were overall the two major contributors to the total CDI of Pb, which should be focused on to control the Pb intake by the local children, especially for those living in the rural area of Dexing County. - Highlights: • Lead (Pb) contents of the local foods and soils in the Le'an River Basin were analyzed. • The exposure risk of children to Pb was estimated by a Monte Carlo simulation. • Ingested soil by hand-to-mouth activities took up ∼5.9% to their total chronic Pb intake. • Vegetables and rice were the two major contributors to the total intake of Pb. • Children in the rural area near the

  11. Preliminary study of the favorability for uranium in selected areas in the Basin and Range Province, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupp, G.M.; Leedom, S.H.; Mitchell, T.P.; Kiloh, K.D.; Horton, R.C.

    1977-10-01

    Six uranium areas in Nevada were examined in a reconnaissance fashion to determine their favorability for uranium deposits. The favorable areas are: Virgin Valley, Humboldt County; northern Reese River Valley, Lander County; East Walker River, Lyon County; and Coaldale, Esmeralda County. Areas judged to be unfavorable are: Carol ''R'' prospect, Garfield Hills, Mineral County; and Meadow Valley (Panaca), Lincoln County. In the Virgin Valley area, the Canyon Rhyolite Formation contains as much as 27 ppM U 3 O 8 and is an excellent source rock. Uranium deposits in the underlying Virgin Valley Formation are small, but larger deposits may exist. The northern portion of the Reese River Valley contains several small uranium deposits but none of mineable grade or size. Rhyolitic volcanic rocks in the area contain above-average amounts of uranium, and larger deposits may lie beneath these potential source rocks. The East Walker River area may be part of a larger uranium province. Intrusive and extrusive rocks in the area contain above-average amounts of uranium, and low-grade supergene deposits were found. Large areas of potential source rocks and host rocks, and two small uranium deposits, were found in the Coaldale area. Many rhyolite plugs were also found. The Carol ''R'' prospect is an isolated uranium occurrence in Tertiary lacustrine rocks. Uranium deposits in Meadow Valley are in the Panaca Formation, a Pliocene lacustrine formation of varied lithology. The uranium deposits are small and low grade. It is unlikely that large-grade deposits will be found in this area

  12. Suitability Analysis of Office Building Design against Maintenance Cost (Case Study of Serayu Opak River Basin Organization, Yogyakarta Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Puji Hersanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of building design's inaccuracy against the cost of maintenance, by taking the research in Serayu Opak River Basin Organization, Water Resources Field and Water Resources Management Center in Yogyakarta Special Region. The first step is to analyze the inaccuracy of building design based on the result of interview and observation during field survey. The second step is to analyze the cost of building maintenance. The third step is to analyze the maintenance costs used to minimize the effects of the inaccurate design of the building. The result shows the inaccuracy of building design in the form of the use of clear glass without coated glass film and the absence of heat insulator on the roof of the building cause the room to become hot. The installation of rain gutters without vertical pipes, toilet facilities in the entire building is not yet complete, inadequate accessibility for persons with disabilities, and inadequate corridor design. There is a small portion of the maintenance budget used for reducing the impact of building design's inaccuracy, so it can be concluded that the design of the building is less meet the requirements of the Government regulations.

  13. Boundaries, Discrimination, and Interethnic Conflict in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enze Han

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region has been afflicted by Uighur political activism and ethnic violence for the past few decades. Interethnic relations between the Uighurs and Han Chinese have been extremely tense. Why is Xinjiang so vulnerable to interethnic violence? Why are intergroup
    dynamics between the Uighurs and Han Chinese so volatile? This paper examines Uighur–Han Chinese relations in contemporary Xinjiang and probes conditions that facilitate interethnic violence. Utilizing Fredrik Barth’s approach to ethnicity that emphasizes boundaries, this paper examines in detail how the rigid interethnic boundary between the Uighurs and Han Chinese has been constructed and strengthened in Xinjiang. Perceived differences have generated mutual distrust and discrimination between the two groups that make intergroup communication and understanding difficult and therefore very limited. In situations such as that in Xinjiang, where a rigid intergroup boundary is in place and civic engagements across groups are lacking, intergroup conflict is
    extremely hard to avoid.

  14. Paleozoic–early Mesozoic gold deposits of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Zongyao; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Qiu, Yumin; Zhou, T.; Chen, R.; Pirajno, Franco; Yun, Grace

    2002-01-01

    The late Paleozoic–early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China provided a favorable geological setting for the formation of lode gold deposits along the sutures between a number of the major Eastern Asia cratonic blocks. These sutures are now represented by the Altay Shan, Tian Shan, and Kunlun Shan ranges, with the former two separated by the Junggar basin and the latter two by the immense Tarim basin. In northernmost Xinjiang, final growth of the Altaid orogen, southward from the Angara craton, is now recorded in the remote mid- to late Paleozoic Altay Shan. Accreted Early to Middle Devonian oceanic rock sequences contain typically small, precious-metal bearing Fe–Cu–Zn VMS deposits (e.g. Ashele). Orogenic gold deposits are widespread along the major Irtysh (e.g. Duyolanasayi, Saidi, Taerde, Kabenbulake, Akexike, Shaerbulake) and Tuergen–Hongshanzui (e.g. Hongshanzui) fault systems, as well as in structurally displaced terrane slivers of the western Junggar (e.g. Hatu) and eastern Junggar areas. Geological and geochronological constraints indicate a generally Late Carboniferous to Early Permian episode of gold deposition, which was coeval with the final stages of Altaid magmatism and large-scale, right-lateral translation along older terrane-bounding faults. The Tian Shan, an exceptionally gold-rich mountain range to the west in the Central Asian republics, is only beginning to be recognized for its gold potential in Xinjiang. In this easternmost part to the range, northerly- and southerly-directed subduction/accretion of early to mid-Paleozoic and mid- to late Paleozoic oceanic terranes, respectively, to the Precambrian Yili block (central Tian Shan) was associated with 400 to 250 Ma arc magmatism and Carboniferous through Early Permian gold-forming hydrothermal events. The more significant resulting deposits in the terranes of the southern Tian Shan include the Sawayaerdun orogenic deposit along the Kyrgyzstan

  15. A new xinjiangchelyid turtle from the Middle Jurassic of Xinjiang, China and the evolution of the basipterygoid process in Mesozoic turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Most turtles from the Middle and Late Jurassic of Asia are referred to the newly defined clade Xinjiangchelyidae, a group of mostly shell-based, generalized, small to mid-sized aquatic froms that are widely considered to represent the stem lineage of Cryptodira. Xinjiangchelyids provide us with great insights into the plesiomorphic anatomy of crown-cryptodires, the most diverse group of living turtles, and they are particularly relevant for understanding the origin and early divergence of the primary clades of extant turtles. Results Exceptionally complete new xinjiangchelyid material from the ?Qigu Formation of the Turpan Basin (Xinjiang Autonomous Province, China) provides new insights into the anatomy of this group and is assigned to Xinjiangchelys wusu n. sp. A phylogenetic analysis places Xinjiangchelys wusu n. sp. in a monophyletic polytomy with other xinjiangchelyids, including Xinjiangchelys junggarensis, X. radiplicatoides, X. levensis and X. latiens. However, the analysis supports the unorthodox, though tentative placement of xinjiangchelyids and sinemydids outside of crown-group Testudines. A particularly interesting new observation is that the skull of this xinjiangchelyid retains such primitive features as a reduced interpterygoid vacuity and basipterygoid processes. Conclusions The homology of basipterygoid processes is confidently demonstrated based on a comprehensive review of the basicranial anatomy of Mesozoic turtles and a new nomenclatural system is introduced for the carotid canal system of turtles. The loss of the basipterygoid process and the bony enclosure of the carotid circulation system occurred a number of times independently during turtle evolution suggesting that the reinforcement of the basicranial region was essential for developing a rigid skull, thus paralleling the evolution of other amniote groups with massive skulls. PMID:24053145

  16. A new xinjiangchelyid turtle from the Middle Jurassic of Xinjiang, China and the evolution of the basipterygoid process in Mesozoic turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, Márton; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Wings, Oliver; Ge, Sun; Joyce, Walter G

    2013-09-22

    Most turtles from the Middle and Late Jurassic of Asia are referred to the newly defined clade Xinjiangchelyidae, a group of mostly shell-based, generalized, small to mid-sized aquatic froms that are widely considered to represent the stem lineage of Cryptodira. Xinjiangchelyids provide us with great insights into the plesiomorphic anatomy of crown-cryptodires, the most diverse group of living turtles, and they are particularly relevant for understanding the origin and early divergence of the primary clades of extant turtles. Exceptionally complete new xinjiangchelyid material from the ?Qigu Formation of the Turpan Basin (Xinjiang Autonomous Province, China) provides new insights into the anatomy of this group and is assigned to Xinjiangchelys wusu n. sp. A phylogenetic analysis places Xinjiangchelys wusu n. sp. in a monophyletic polytomy with other xinjiangchelyids, including Xinjiangchelys junggarensis, X. radiplicatoides, X. levensis and X. latiens. However, the analysis supports the unorthodox, though tentative placement of xinjiangchelyids and sinemydids outside of crown-group Testudines. A particularly interesting new observation is that the skull of this xinjiangchelyid retains such primitive features as a reduced interpterygoid vacuity and basipterygoid processes. The homology of basipterygoid processes is confidently demonstrated based on a comprehensive review of the basicranial anatomy of Mesozoic turtles and a new nomenclatural system is introduced for the carotid canal system of turtles. The loss of the basipterygoid process and the bony enclosure of the carotid circulation system occurred a number of times independently during turtle evolution suggesting that the reinforcement of the basicranial region was essential for developing a rigid skull, thus paralleling the evolution of other amniote groups with massive skulls.

  17. Development of the Cerro solo deposit and uranium favorability of the San Jorge Gulf Basin, province of Chubut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarra, P.R.; Benitez, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    In the future the uranium exploration activities of CNEA would tend to improve the knowledge of geology and uranium favorability; to perform prospection tasks, and research and development in exploration technologies, to contribute to be in a position to meet the requirements of the country in the long term. On the other hand, a strong growth of nuclear capacity is expected in the first two decades of the next century. Based on its promising grade, the Cerro Solo uranium ore deposit was selected in 1990 by the CNEA to carry out an assessment project. The intensive exploration level was accomplished, as follows: definition of general characteristics of the main orebodies; detailed geologic studies; estimation of resources with adequate data; and preliminary selection of mining-milling methods to estimate the potential profitability of the project. The deposit belongs to the sandstone type. The mineralized layers are distributed into the fluvial sandstones and conglomerates of the cretaceous Chubut Group, lying 50 to 130 m deep Resources of the deposit, with an average grade of 0.3% U, in tonnes of recoverable uranium at costs of up to $80/kg U, are: Reasonable Assured Resources (RAR): 800 t U, Estimated Additional Resources, Category I (EAR-I): 2100 t U. Follow-up drilling programmes are being performed at present in some of the target sites defined in the paleochannel that hosts the Cerro Solo deposit, in order to establish the hypothetical resources of the area. The sites were determined as a result of the exploration that CNEA conducted in the Pichinan uranium district. Recently a regional research project was formulated, for the detailed exploration in the San Jorge Gulf Basin, where the Chubut Group is distributed. 17 refs, 4 figs

  18. Flood Hazard Zonation by Combining Mod-Clark and HEC-RAS Models in Bustan Dam Basin, Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Parisay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Flood is one of the devastating phenomena which every year incurs casualties and property damages. Flood zonation is an efficient technique for flood management. The main goal of this research is flood hazard and risk zonation along a 21 km reach of the Gorganrud river in Bustan dam watershed considering two conditions: present landuse condition and scenario planning. To this end a combination of a hydrologic model (the distributed HEC-HMS with the Mod-Clark transform option and a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS were used. The required inputs to run the Mod-Clarck module of HEC-HMS are gridded files of river basin, curve number and rainfall with the SHG coordinate system and DSS format. In this research the input files were prepared using the Watershed Modeling System (WMS at cell size of 200 m. Since the Mod-Clark method requires rainfall data as radar format (NEXRAD, the distributed rainfall mapseries with time intervals of 15 minutes prepared within the PCRaster GIS system were converted to the DSS format using the asc2dss package. also the curve number map was converted to the DSS format using HEC-GeoHMS. Then, these DSS files were substituted with rainfall and curve number maps within the WMS. After calibration and validation, model was run for return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 years, in two conditions of current landuse and scenario planning. The simulated peak discharge data, geometric parameters of river and cross section (at 316 locations data prepared by the HEC-GeoRAS software and roughness coefficients data, were used by the HEC-RAS software to simulate the hydraulic behavior of the river and flood inundation area maps were produced using GIS. The results of the evaluation showed that in addition to the percent error in peak flow, less than 3.2%, the model has a good performance in peak flow simulation, but is not successful in volume estimation. The results of flood zones revealed that from the total area in floodplain with

  19. Paleomagnetism and Magnetostratigraphy of Upper Permian to Lower Triassic (?) Beaufort Group Strata at Bethulie, Karoo Basin, Free State Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissman, J. W.; Gastaldo, R. A.; Neveling, J.; Makubalo, S.

    2017-12-01

    A multifaceted approach to understand the timing of interpreted environmental changes during the Late Permian to possibly Early Triassic (?) time in the Beaufort Group strata of the Karoo Basin includes work to establish robust magnetic polarity records for sections previously interpreted to encompass end-Permian extinction events. Demonstrating the preservation of an early-acquired remanence (RM) in Karoo strata is required for a robust magnetostratigraphy. Yet, this is challenging due to thermochemical effects related to the Early Jurassic (ca. 183 Ma) Karoo Large Igneous Province (LIP), and the NE to SW increase in burial diagenesis attending Cape Fold Belt tectonism. Documentation of a primary RM in these strata, which appears to be preserved in some areas, requires careful laboratory- and field-based assessment. We report data from 53 sites collected at the well-studied Bethulie section, Free State Province, in which several samples per individual horizon to assess ChRM uniformity. Strata well-removed from dikes yield both normal and reverse polarity ChRM. It is always the case that the first-removed RM is a NNW seeking, moderate to steep negative-inclination ChRM (normal polarity); NRM intensities are typically 1 to 5 mA/m. Sites BT15 and BT21, which are located in strata lying some 4 m below the often-cited "event bed" interval inferred to be the terrestrial expression of the Permian/Triassic boundary, is dominated by a well-defined reverse RM with a normal overprint RM unblocked below 400oC, implying elevated temperatures (i.e., 100 to 250oC+) for ca. 1 Ma (+/-). Contact tests are positive but complicated. Host strata collected in distances equal to or less than 1-2 dike widths from the intrusions have been thermally remagnetized and demonstrate high NRM intensities (> 50 mA/m). Collectively, we interpret these data to indicate that any ChRM, with the exception of those from host strata in baked contacts, that persists above Tlub of 425oC is pre-Karoo LIP

  20. Plate flexure and volcanism: Late Cenozoic tectonics of the Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni alkalic province, New Ireland Basin, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, I. D.

    2016-05-01

    Late Cenozoic Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni (TLTF) alkaline volcanism, New Ireland Basin, PNG, is associated with extensional cracks along the crests of flexed ridges developed on the New Ireland Microplate (New name). The tectonic alignment of the TLTF volcanic arc is essentially perpendicular to the flexed ridges, suggesting that fractures parallel to the direction of maximum horizontal compression facilitated the rapid ascent of alkaline magmas from the mantle region, perhaps 60-70 km depth. The mainly Pliocene to Pleistocene volcanoes were localized at the intersection of ridge-parallel Kabang structures and arc-parallel Niffin structures, suggesting that the Kabang-Niffin structural intersections underlying each of the TLTF island groups provided a well developed, clustered network of open conduits which tapped the mantle source region. Periodic post-Miocene locking and unlocking along the strike-slip Kilinailau Fault (New name) are thought to have functioned as a valve, turning on (Pliocene) and then turning off (Pleistocene) volcanic activity, respectively. Partial locking of the Kilinailau Fault during the Pliocene resulted in the accumulation of intraplate stresses within the New Ireland Microplate, and caused plate flexure and ridge development, plate-cracking along ridge crests and the development of arc-parallel regional fractures parallel to the direction of maximum compression. Unlocking of the Kilinailau Fault in the Pleistocene resulted in the release of intraplate stresses in the New Ireland Microplate and a cessation of volcanic activity across most of the TLTF arc. The style and scale of plate flexure and cracking, accompanied by within-plate alkaline volcanism from equally spaced ridge-top eruptive centers confined to a narrow, linear volcanic arc are unknown from any other tectonic province.

  1. China’s Counterinsurgency Strategy in Tibet and Xinjiang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte; Nielsen, Thomas Galasz

    2011-01-01

    Hvordan håndteres Kinas oprørsbekæmpelsesstrategi i Tibet og Xinjiang? Der er en fungerende vertikal koordination, men udfordringer på de horisontale områder mellem ligestillede myndigheder. Derfor vælges militær tilgang til problemstilingerne ofte, da de giver resultat her og nu....

  2. Risk assessment of precipitation extremes in northern Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Pei, Ying; Zhang, Yanwei; Ge, Quansheng

    2018-05-01

    This study was conducted using daily precipitation records gathered at 37 meteorological stations in northern Xinjiang, China, from 1961 to 2010. We used the extreme value theory model, generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), statistical distribution function to fit outputs of precipitation extremes with different return periods to estimate risks of precipitation extremes and diagnose aridity-humidity environmental variation and corresponding spatial patterns in northern Xinjiang. Spatiotemporal patterns of daily maximum precipitation showed that aridity-humidity conditions of northern Xinjiang could be well represented by the return periods of the precipitation data. Indices of daily maximum precipitation were effective in the prediction of floods in the study area. By analyzing future projections of daily maximum precipitation (2, 5, 10, 30, 50, and 100 years), we conclude that the flood risk will gradually increase in northern Xinjiang. GEV extreme value modeling yielded the best results, proving to be extremely valuable. Through example analysis for extreme precipitation models, the GEV statistical model was superior in terms of favorable analog extreme precipitation. The GPD model calculation results reflect annual precipitation. For most of the estimated sites' 2 and 5-year T for precipitation levels, GPD results were slightly greater than GEV results. The study found that extreme precipitation reaching a certain limit value level will cause a flood disaster. Therefore, predicting future extreme precipitation may aid warnings of flood disaster. A suitable policy concerning effective water resource management is thus urgently required.

  3. Chapter 2. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley group, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System is defined for this assessment to include (1) Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation carbonates and calcareous shales and (2) Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group organic-rich shales. The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System includes four conventional Cotton Valley assessment units: Cotton Valley Blanket Sandstone Gas (AU 50490201), Cotton Valley Massive Sandstone Gas (AU 50490202), Cotton Valley Updip Oil and Gas (AU 50490203), and Cotton Valley Hypothetical Updip Oil (AU 50490204). Together, these four assessment units are estimated to contain a mean undiscovered conventional resource of 29.81 million barrels of oil, 605.03 billion cubic feet of gas, and 19.00 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The Cotton Valley Group represents the first major influx of clastic sediment into the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Major depocenters were located in south-central Mississippi, along the Louisiana-Mississippi border, and in northeast Texas. Reservoir properties and production characteristics were used to identify two Cotton Valley Group sandstone trends across northern Louisiana and east Texas: a high-permeability blanket-sandstone trend and a downdip, low-permeability massive-sandstone trend. Pressure gradients throughout most of both trends are normal, which is characteristic of conventional rather than continuous basin-center gas accumulations. Indications that accumulations in this trend are conventional rather than continuous include (1) gas-water contacts in at least seven fields across the blanket-sandstone trend, (2) relatively high reservoir permeabilities, and (3) high gas-production rates without fracture stimulation. Permeability is sufficiently low in the massive-sandstone trend that gas-water transition zones are vertically extensive and gas-water contacts are poorly defined. The interpreted presence of gas-water contacts within the Cotton Valley

  4. Chapter 5. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources-Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston formations, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak Formation of east Texas and southern Arkansas (and the correlative Hosston Formation of Louisiana and Mississippi) is a basinward-thickening wedge of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks that underlies the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin from east Texas across northern Louisiana to southern Mississippi. Clastic detritus was derived from two main fluvial-deltaic depocenters, one in northeastern Texas and the other extending from southeastern Mississippi northwestward into northeastern Louisiana. Across the main hydrocarbon-productive trend in east Texas and northern Louisiana, the Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are about 2,000 ft thick.

  5. Ground-water quality and its relation to hydrogeology, land use, and surface-water quality in the Red Clay Creek basin, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    The Red Clay Creek Basin in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Pennsylvania and Delaware is a 54-square-mile area underlain by a structurally complex assemblage of fractured metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks that form a water-table aquifer. Ground-water-flow systems generally are local, and ground water discharges to streams. Both ground water and surface water in the basin are used for drinking-water supply.Ground-water quality and the relation between ground-water quality and hydrogeologic and land-use factors were assessed in 1993 in bedrock aquifers of the basin. A total of 82 wells were sampled from July to November 1993 using a stratified random sampling scheme that included 8 hydrogeologic and 4 land-use categories to distribute the samples evenly over the area of the basin. The eight hydrogeologic units were determined by formation or lithology. The land-use categories were (1) forested, open, and undeveloped; (2) agricultural; (3) residential; and (4) industrial and commercial. Well-water samples were analyzed for major and minor ions, nutrients, volatile organic compounds (VOC's), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCB's), and radon-222.Concentrations of some constituents exceeded maximum contaminant levels (MCL) or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Concentrations of nitrate were greater than the MCL of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen (N) in water from 11 (13 percent) of 82 wells sampled; the maximum concentration was 38 mg/L as N. Water from only 1 of 82 wells sampled contained VOC's or pesticides that exceeded a MCL; water from that well contained 3 mg/L chlordane and 1 mg/L of PCB's. Constituents or properties of well-water samples that exceeded SMCL's included iron, manganese, dissolved solids, pH, and corrosivity. Water from 70 (85 percent) of the 82 wells sampled contained radon-222 activities greater than the proposed MCL of

  6. First report of Anaplasma ovis in pupal and adult Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected in South Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; He, Bo; Li, Kai-Rui; Li, Fei; Zhang, Lu-Yao; Li, Xian-Qiang; Liu, Yong-Hong

    2018-04-19

    Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is a blood-feeding ectoparasite that belongs to the family Hippoboscidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) and mainly parasitizes sheep. The life-cycle of M. ovinus consists of three stages: larva, pupa and adult. It has a worldwide distribution and has been found in four provinces of China, especially South Xinjiang. In addition to causing direct damage to animal hosts, M. ovinus serves as a vector for disease transmission. In this study, our aim was to investigate the presence of Anaplasma spp. in pupal and adult M. ovinus. A total of 93 specimens (including eight pupal specimens) of M. ovinus collected in South Xinjiang were selected for isolation of genomic DNA, followed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the msp4 gene of Anaplasma spp. The sequences were analyzed in MEGA 7.0 software and via online BLAST. PCR and sequencing results showed that all the specimens collected in 2013 were free of Anaplasma spp., whereas three and 25 specimens (including five pupal specimens) collected in 2016 and 2017, respectively, tested positive for Anaplasma spp. The analysis of 24 msp4 gene sequences (from four pupal specimens) confirmed the presence of A. ovis in M. ovinus specimens collected in South Xinjiang, China. The detected A. ovis isolates belong to Genotypes II and III. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection of A. ovis DNA in pupal M. ovinus, confirming the vertical transmission of A. ovis in M. ovinus and the potential of M. ovinus to serve as a vector for A. ovis.

  7. Near-surface air temperature lapse rates in Xinjiang, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingxia; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Zhu, Xiaofan; Che, Yanjun

    2018-02-01

    Lapse rates of near-surface (2 m) air temperature are important parameters in hydrologic and climate simulations, especially for the mountainous areas without enough in-situ observations. In Xinjiang, northwestern China, the elevations range from higher than 7000 m to lower than sea level, but the existing long-term meteorological measurements are limited and distributed unevenly. To calculate lapse rates in Xinjiang, the daily data of near-surface air temperature ( T min, T ave, and T max) were measured by automatic weather stations from 2012 to 2014. All the in situ observation stations were gridded into a network of 1.5° (latitude) by 1.5° (longitude), and the spatial distribution and the daily, monthly, seasonal variations of lapse rates for T min, T ave, and T max in Xinjiang are analyzed. The Urumqi River Basin has been considered as a case to study the influence of elevation, aspect, and the wet and dry air conditions to the T min, T ave, and T max lapse rates. Results show that (1) the lapse rates for T min, T ave, and T max vary spatially during the observation period. The spatial diversity of T min lapse rates is larger than that of T ave, and that of T max is the smallest. For each season, T max lapse rates have more negative values than T ave lapse rates which are steeper than T min lapse rates. The weakest spatial diversity usually appears in July throughout a year. (2) The comparison for the three subregions (North, Middle, and South region) exhibits that lapse rates have similar day-to-day and month-to-month characteristics which present shallower values in winter months and steeper values in summer months. The T ave lapse rates in North region are shallower than those in Middle and South region, and the steepest T ave lapse rates of the three regions all appear in April. T min lapse rates are shallower than T max lapse rates. The maximum medians of T min and T max lapse rates for each grid in the three regions all appear in January, whereas the

  8. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  9. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants. PMID:27391239

  10. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Li

    Full Text Available With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM, the Uygur Medicine (UM, and the Kazak Medicine (KM for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1 medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2 medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3 CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1, in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2, for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  11. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  12. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste-characterization of the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Death Valley region, Nevada and California, in the Basin and Range province, is an area of about 80,200 sq km located in southern Nevada and southeastern California. Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive basement rocks are overlain by a thick section of Paleozoic clastic and evaporitic sedimentary rocks. Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks include extrusive and intrusive rocks and clastic sedimentary rocks. Structural features within the Death Valley indicate a long and complex tectonic evolution from late Precambrian to the present. Potential repository host media in the region include granite and other coarse-grained plutonic rocks, ashflow tuff, basaltic and andesitic lava flows, and basin fill. The Death Valley region is composed largely of closed topographic basins that are apparently coincident with closed groundwater flow systems. In these systems, recharge occurs sparingly at higher altitudes by infiltration of precipitation or by infiltration of ephemeral runoff. Discharge occurs largely by spring flow and by evaporation and transpiration in the playas. Death Valley proper, for which the region was named, is the ultimate discharge area for a large, complex system of groundwater aquifers that occupy the northeastern part of the region. The deepest part of the system consists of carbonate aquifers that connect closed topographic basins at depth. The discharge from the system occurs in several intermediate areas that are geomorphically, stratigraphically, and structurally controlled. Ultimately, most groundwater flow terminates by discharge to Death Valley; groundwater is discharged to the Colorado River from a small part of the region

  13. Attribute Analysis of Aridity Variability in North Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the dominant meteorological factors affecting aridity variability can improve our understanding of climate change and its future trend in arid and semiarid regions. This study investigated the spatiotemporal aridity variability in North Xinjiang, China, from 1961 to 2013, based on the UNESCO aridity index (precipitation/potential evapotranspiration, and analyzed its association with meteorological factors. The results suggest that North Xinjiang is becoming more humid with an increasing trend in aridity index. Precipitation, temperature, and relative humidity have positive correlation with aridity, and evapotranspiration, sunshine hours, and wind speed have negative correlation with aridity. Wind speed and sunshine hours have a higher sensitivity and more contribution to aridity. This study provides an understanding of the effect of recent climate change on drought in northwest China.

  14. Chromian spinels in highly altered ultramafic rocks from the Sartohay ophiolitic mélange, Xinjiang, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Zhu, Yongfeng

    2018-06-01

    The Sartohay ophiolitic mélange is located in western Junggar (Xinjiang province, NW China), which is a major component of the core part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Chromian spinels in serpentinite, talc schist, carbonate-talc schist and listwaenite in Sartohay ophiolitic mélange retain primary compositions with Cr# of 0.39-0.65, Mg# = 0.48-0.67, and Fe3+# evolution of chromian spinels in highly altered ultramafic rocks from the Sartohay ophiolitic mélange. Chromian spinels in serpentinite and talc schist were rimmed by Cr-magnetite, which was dissolved completely during transformation from serpentinite/talc schist to listwaenite. Chromian spinels were then transformed into Fe2+-rich chromite in shear zones, which characterized by high fluid/rock ratios. This Fe2+-rich chromite and/or chromian spinels could then be transformed into Fe3+-rich chromite in oxidizing conditions at shallow levels.

  15. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of mini-basins and salt provinces of Espirito Santo Basin-Brazil; Analise da evolucao tectono sedimentar de mini-bacias e provincias de sal da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias; Fernandes, Flavio Luis [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mohriak, Webster [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Espirito Santo Basin integrates the group of basins along the eastern Brazilian continental margin. It is located between 18 deg and 21 deg S, encompassing an area of approximately 220,000 km{sup 2}, onshore and offshore the Espirito Santo State. Its geological limit with the Campos Basin to the south is defined by a Precambrian basement high (Vitoria Arch), and its northern limit with the Mucuri Basin is defined by a geopolitical limit. The study of salt tectonics processes in the Espirito Santo Basin allowed the deformational analysis and interpretation of the chronological evolution of the mini-basins developed between salt diapirs. We observe an intrinsic relationship between halokinesis and creation of subsidence troughs that may be important for trapping hydrocarbon reservoirs, and consequently form oil and gas accumulations in this portion of the basin. This geodynamics evolution of these structures is marked by a strong linkage between salt movement and coeval sedimentation in the interdomal basins, forming structures and stratigraphic traps that may constitute important aspects for the petroleum geology. (author)

  16. Modeling Precipitating Tub (Settling Basin) For Reduction Sedimentation Effect in Irrigation Channel at Micro Hydro Power (Case Study At Gorontalo Province Irrigation Channel)

    OpenAIRE

    Arifin Matoka; Nadjamuddin H; Salama M; M. Arsyad T

    2016-01-01

    Potential irrigation channels widely in Indonesia and suitable for turbine type Plopeler Open Flume. From observation this sedimentation processes was effect on turbin and quality electric power generated. This study was determine the relationship effect of sedimentation on parameter MHP and modeling sedimentation basin to reduce its influence. The settling basin modeling into 3 design models and 2 codition,. MHP conditions in the rain without modeling with the data voltage dev...

  17. Wood Usage and Fire Veneration in the Pamir, Xinjiang, 2500 yr BP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shen

    Full Text Available Located on the Pamir Plateau in Xinjiang Province, China, the Ji'erzankale Necropolis dates back to 2500 yr BP. Many materials that have been unearthed in this cemetery, including shoo konghou (musical instrument, bronze mirrors and glass beads, suggest cultural transference between East and West. Furthermore, small-sized and rounded fire altars made from sweet-scented Sabina were found for the first time and regarded as implements for fire veneration. We identified 70 wooden objects from 25 tombs within the Necropolis, and found that each object had been made from one of seven tree species. Analysis revealed that the inhabitants of the region mainly used the most widely available types of wood, namely Betula and Populus. People also specifically chose inflammable Populus wood to make hearth boards and hand drills (both are used for making fire by drilling, rigid Betula wood to craft wooden plates. Salix was used for fashioning wooden sticks, while sweet-scented Sabina was the preferred choice for making fire altars. Lonicera was selected for arrow shaft manufacture and Fraxinus syriaca, which has a beautiful grain, was chosen for making musical instruments. Conscious selection of different types of wood indicates that people of the Pamir Plateau were aware of the properties of various types of timbers, and were able to exploit these properties to the full. In turn, this demonstrates their wisdom and their ability to survive in, and adapt to, their local environment.

  18. Study on new energy development planning and absorptive capability of Xinjiang in China considering resource characteristics and demand prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hai; Miao, Xujuan; Liu, Jinpeng; Wu, Meng; Zhao, Xuehua

    2018-02-01

    Xinjiang, as the area where wind energy and solar energy resources are extremely rich, with good resource development characteristics, can provide a support for regional power development and supply protection. This paper systematically analyzes the new energy resource and development characteristics of Xinjiang and carries out the demand prediction and excavation of load characteristics of Xinjiang power market. Combing the development plan of new energy of Xinjiang and considering the construction of transmission channel, it analyzes the absorptive capability of new energy. It provides certain reference for the comprehensive planning of new energy development in Xinjiang and the improvement of absorptive capacity of new energy.

  19. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste: characterization of the Sonoran region, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, Kenneth A.; Langer, William H.

    1989-01-01

    The Sonoran region of California lies west of the Colorado River and adjoins the Mojave Desert on the west, Death Valley on the northwest, and the Salton trough on the south. The region is arid with annual precipitation ranging from less than 80 millimeters to as great as 250 millimeters in one mountain range; annual free-surface evaporation is as great as 2,500 millimeters. The characteristic basin and range topography of the region was caused by a mid-Tertiary period of intense crustal extension, accompanied by volcanic eruptions, clastic sedimentation, faulting, and tilting. Potential host media for isolation of high-level radioactive waste include granite and other coarsegrained plutonic rocks, ash-flow tuff, and basalt and basaltic andesite lava flows. Thick sections of the unsaturated zone in basin fill, intrusive, and volcanic rocks appear to have potential as host media. The region is bordered on the west by areas of relatively greater Quaternary faulting, vertical crustal uplift, and seismicity. The region has a few areas of Quaternary volcanic activity. Geothermal heat flows of 2.5 heat-flow units or greater and one earthquake of magnitude 6-7 have been recorded. The region includes topographically closed basins as well as basins that drain to the Colorado River. Dry lakes and playas occupy the closed basins. Ground-water recharge and surface runoff are small because of the small amount of precipitation and great potential evaporation. Natural ground-water discharge is by evaporation in the basin playas and by underflow to the Colorado River. Dissolved-solids concentration of ground water generally is less than 500 milligrams per liter, and much of it is of the sodium bicarbonate type. Ground water is saline in many of the playas, and chloride or sulfate is the predominant anion. Small tonnages of ore have been produced from numerous precious and fewer base-metal deposits. (author)

  20. Discussion on the genesis and mineralization of sandstone type uranium deposit in the southern-central Longchuanjiang basin, western Yunnan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yuqi; Li Mangen

    2002-01-01

    The author mainly discusses the character of the depositional systems, geological structures and ore-bearing series in the south-central Longchuanjiang basin, and points out that the uranium mineralization is closely related to the two depositional discontinuities caused by the tectonic evolution. Based on the characteristics of uranium mineralization in the area, pitchblende, uranium blacks and phosphuranylite are discovered in No. 382 uranium deposit and radiometric super-micro-minerals in No. 381 deposit. The research on the uranium mineralization age in No. 382 deposit shows that the mineralization in the south-central part of the basin has genetically multi-staged

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Central Burma Basin and the Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geologic Provinces, Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    The Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geologic Provinces were recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.3 billion barrels of oil, 79.6 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 2.1 billion barrels of natrual gas liquids.

  2. Structure of the Karoo-age Ellisras Basin in Limpopo Province, South Africa in the light of new airborne geophysical data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Waterberg Coalfield is destined to become the major source of energy for South Africa in the future. In 2008, Coaltech Research Organisation funded an airborne magnetic and radiometric survey over the Karoo-age Ellisras Basin in which...

  3. Pyrosequencing Reveals Fungal Communities in the Rhizosphere of Xinjiang Jujube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are important soil components as both decomposers and plant symbionts and play a major role in ecological and biogeochemical processes. However, little is known about the richness and structure of fungal communities. DNA sequencing technologies allow for the direct estimation of microbial community diversity, avoiding culture-based biases. We therefore used 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the fungal communities in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube. We obtained no less than 40,488 internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA reads, the number of each sample was 6943, 6647, 6584, 6550, 6860, and 6904, and we used bioinformatics and multivariate statistics to analyze the results. The index of diversity showed greater richness in the rhizosphere fungal community of a 3-year-old jujube than in that of an 8-year-old jujube. Most operational taxonomic units belonged to Ascomycota, and taxonomic analyses identified Hypocreales as the dominant fungal order. Our results demonstrated that the fungal orders are present in different proportions in different sampling areas. Redundancy analysis (RDA revealed a significant correlation between soil properties and the abundance of fungal phyla. Our results indicated lower fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube than that reported in other studies, and we hope our findings provide a reference for future research.

  4. The Triassic-Liassic volcanic sequence and rift evolution in the Saharan Atlas basins (Algeria). Eastward vanishing of the Central Atlantic magmatic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meddah, A.; Bertrand, H.; Seddiki, A.; Tabeliouna, M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the Triassic-Liassic sequence in ten diapirs from the Saharan Atlas (Algeria). Based on detailed mapping, two episodes are identified. The first one consists of a volcano-sedimentary sequence in which three volcanic units were identified (lower, intermediate and upper units). They are interlayered and sometimes imbricated with siliciclastic to evaporitic levels which record syn-sedimentary tectonics. This sequence was deposited in a lagoonal-continental environment and is assigned to the Triassic magmatic rifting stage. The second episode, lacking lava flows (post magmatic rifting stage), consists of carbonate levels deposited in a lagoonal to marine environment during the Rhaetian-Hettangian. The volcanic units consist of several thin basaltic flows, each 0.5 to 1m thick, with a total thickness of 10–15m. The basalts are low-Ti continental tholeiites, displaying enrichment in large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements [(La/Yb)n= 2.5-6] with a negative Nb anomaly. Upwards decrease of light-rare-earth-elements enrichment (e.g. La/Yb) is modelled through increasing melting rate of a spinel-bearing lherzolite source from the lower (6–10wt.%) to the upper (15–20wt.%) unit. The lava flows from the Saharan Atlas share the same geochemical characteristics and evolution as those from the Moroccan Atlas assigned to the Central Atlantic magmatic province. They represent the easternmost witness of this large igneous province so far known.

  5. The Triassic-Liassic volcanic sequence and rift evolution in the Saharan Atlas basins (Algeria). Eastward vanishing of the Central Atlantic magmatic province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meddah, A.; Bertrand, H.; Seddiki, A.; Tabeliouna, M.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the Triassic-Liassic sequence in ten diapirs from the Saharan Atlas (Algeria). Based on detailed mapping, two episodes are identified. The first one consists of a volcano-sedimentary sequence in which three volcanic units were identified (lower, intermediate and upper units). They are interlayered and sometimes imbricated with siliciclastic to evaporitic levels which record syn-sedimentary tectonics. This sequence was deposited in a lagoonal-continental environment and is assigned to the Triassic magmatic rifting stage. The second episode, lacking lava flows (post magmatic rifting stage), consists of carbonate levels deposited in a lagoonal to marine environment during the Rhaetian-Hettangian. The volcanic units consist of several thin basaltic flows, each 0.5 to 1m thick, with a total thickness of 10–15m. The basalts are low-Ti continental tholeiites, displaying enrichment in large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements [(La/Yb)n= 2.5-6] with a negative Nb anomaly. Upwards decrease of light-rare-earth-elements enrichment (e.g. La/Yb) is modelled through increasing melting rate of a spinel-bearing lherzolite source from the lower (6–10wt.%) to the upper (15–20wt.%) unit. The lava flows from the Saharan Atlas share the same geochemical characteristics and evolution as those from the Moroccan Atlas assigned to the Central Atlantic magmatic province. They represent the easternmost witness of this large igneous province so far known.

  6. The Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan and the Formation of Modern Uyghur Identity in Xinjiang

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Joy R

    2006-01-01

    .... Founders of this republic, influenced by Pan-Islamism and Pan-Turkism used it to promote a Turkic-Muslim identity independent from Chinese and Soviet control and unique to the sedentary, oasis-dwellers of Xinjiang...

  7. The Fracturing of China? Ethnic Separatism and Political Violence in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitchcock, Bradley D

    2007-01-01

    .... Throughout the 1990s sporadic political violence occurred in Xinjiang, and as the geopolitical situation in Central Asia changed, Beijing's claim that Muslims were a threat to its national security...

  8. The Composition Analysis of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from Xinjiang and Its Antifatigue Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieying Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment would affect the nutritional composition of maca, especially its secondary metabolite. The chemical compositions and function of Xinjiang maca were not very clear. The chemical compositions and bioactivity of Xinjiang maca were determined. A mouse model was also used to evaluate the antifatigue activity of Xinjiang maca as a forced swimming test was performed and certain biochemical parameters related were estimated. The results show that the Xinjiang maca is rich in protein content and amino acids, especially branched chain amino acids such as Valine and Isoleucine related to the effect of antifatigue. It also has considerable minerals ions such as Ca and Mg. Besides, bioactive ingredients such as maca amide, glucosinolate, and alkaloid of Xinjiang maca are similar to those of maca from other areas, which qualify the biological value of Xinjiang maca. The results of mice model suggest that maca has a dose-dependent antifatigue activity by decreasing blood lactic acid, as well as increasing liver glycogen content and the forced swimming time.

  9. Preface to the Special Issue on Geodynamic and Climate-Change Processes over Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheinway Hwang; Benjamin Fong Chao; Jeffrey T. Freymueller; Wenbin Shen; C. K. Shum

    2011-01-01

    Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia (TibXS) are regions with active plate tectonics. Evidence from satellite gravimetry and altimetry shows the hydrological evolutions over these regions are sensitive to global climate change. For example, inter-annual lake level changes over Tibet and Xinjiang from satellite altimetry are found to be connected to the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Lakes in central Asia, Xinjiang and Siberia show sharp changes in lake levels that can be explained by climate cha...

  10. Decadal Variation in Surface Characteristics over Xinjiang, Western China, from T/P Altimetry Backscatter Coefficients: Evidence of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyun Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The backscatter coefficient, known as sigma0, is an important measurement of satellite radar altimetry and a key parameter for land altimetry because of its close relationship with the physical properties and geometric features of land coverage under global/regional climate change effects. Using the TOPEX/Poseidon GDR-M dataset from January 1993 to December 2004, we study the spatial and temporal distribution of sigma0 at bands Ku and C over Xinjiang, western China. The results show that the sigma0 is influenced by the water distribution over land and the time evolution of sigma0 has clear seasonal changes. River basins or deserts are classified over the spatial distribution based on different sigma0 values. For example, high sigma0 values are found in the Tarim River Basin and low values are found in the Taklimakan Desert. The periodic components of sigma0 time series are determined using the fast Fourier transformation method. The annual variation is the dominating cycle and the semi-annual variation is the secondary signal. The amplitudes of sigma0 time series at bands Ku and C are also given and most areas have quite low amplitudes except for the Tarim River Basin. Several areas including the Tarim River Basin, Tianshan Mountain and Taklimakan Desert are selected for sigma0 time series spacial analysis to discuss the reasons for variations in sigma0. The main factors are precipitation and vegetation growth, which are affected by the global/regional climate change. The correlation between the brightness temperature, which is related to the water-vapor content in the atmosphere measured by TMR at the 21 GHz channel and sigma0 at two bands, is analyzed.

  11. A lacustrine record from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, China: Implications for paleoclimate change during Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, L.; Zicheng, P.; Dong, Y.; Weiguo, L.; Zhaofeng, Z.; Jianfeng, H.; Chenlin, C.

    2009-01-01

    Climate variability during the Late Pleistocene is studied from the proxies in core CK-2 drilled from the Luobei Depression (91??03???E, 40??47???N), Lop Nur in the eastern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China. Geophysical and geochemical properties, including magnetic susceptibility, granularity, chroma, carbonate content, loss on ignition and trace elements, have been determined to reconstruct the environmental evolution of the area during 32-9 ka BP. The chronology is established by uranium-thorium disequilibrium dating techniques. Our data suggest four paleoclimate stages, indicating glacial variations between cold-humid and warm-arid environments. A period of extreme humidity occurred during 31,900-19,200 yr BP is attributed the last glacial maximum (LGM). The period was followed by a warm-arid episode during 19,200-13,500 yr BP. Then a cold-humid interval during 13,500-12,700 yr BP may correspond to another cooling phases at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The last stage from 12,700 to 9000 yr BP has a trend that the climate turned warm and arid. The Lop Nur region is characterized by particularly humid stadials and arid interstadials. The climate variability in Lop Nur was constrained by global climate change because it is correlated with Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, which were observed at the northern high latitudes. The synchroneity of the palaeoclimatic events suggested that cold air activity at the northern high latitudes was the most important factor that influenced the climate evolution in the Lop Nur region. A probable mechanism that involves the migration of westerly winds is proposed to interpret this synchroneity. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. 基于GIS的新疆气温数据栅格化方法研究%GIS-based spatial interpolation of air temperature in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏翔; 毛炜峰

    2012-01-01

    temperature grid dala (regular part) of the each observations station use the digital elevation model (DEM) , the latitude grid data and longitude grid data by the regression equation, and then the residuals grid data (irregular part) to be rasterized with a spatial interpolation method (Three methods including IDW, Kriging and Spline); Finally, the two parts of the data grid computing has been to estimate the actual temperature. The authors used this method to rasterization the air temperature grid data of the Xinjiang region for many years (the average temperature data for 40 years, most recently 2010, the hottest years 2007 and the coldest years 1984). Comparative and analysis of residual data interpolation with inverse distance weighting method (IDW), ordinary kriging (Kriging) and Spline (Spline) method, overall, the result of mean absolute errors (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Interpolation Error (RMSIE) from cross-validation tests is IDW gives lowest errors. The other question is, even if we use the best method (IDW) to create raster data of the air temperature in Xinjiang, the rasterized grid of error is significantly larger than the must other provinces in China, mainly due to Xinjiang's unique geospatial and sparse distribution of meteorological observation site, so how to improve the accuracy of simulation grid is the key of the future raslerized grid in Xinjiang.

  13. The oxidation state of Fe in glasses from the Kerguelen Large Igneous Province: Evidence for the changing oxidation state of the Indian Ocean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M. E.; Stolper, E.; Brounce, M. N.; Eiler, J. M.; Wallace, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) is a thermodynamic property of silicate magmas that can be influenced by volcanic processes such as melting, crystal fractionation, and degassing. Lavas erupted as part of large igneous provinces (LIPs) may reflect the impingement of mantle plumes on the lithosphere, and thus could provide constraints on the ƒO2 of plumes responsible for generation of LIPs. The Kerguelen plateau was emplaced during the break up of Gondwana and the initial opening of the Indian Ocean. Elevated 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios at low 206Pb/204Pb suggests that continental lithosphere from Gondwana is present in the asthenosphere of this region. The Sr-Nd-Pb-He isotopic compositions of the Kerguelen lavas are variable and have been used to infer that the mantle sources of these lavas reflect contributions from the depleted upper mantle, a common plume component, and the EM1 mantle component (perhaps recycled lower continental crust; e.g. Frey et al., 2002). The ƒO2 of the lavas of the Kerguelen LIP may thus reflect mixing of the upper mantle (i.e., near QFM), the plume component, and continental crust. We present new μ-XANES measurements of Fe3+/ΣFe ratios in a suite of 21 submarine glasses from Kerguelen. Over a narrow range in MgO (6.5-7.5 wt%), these glasses have Fe3+/ΣFe ratios of 0.16-0.18, corresponding to an ƒO2 of QFM+0.23 to +0.38 (at 1 atm, 1200°C). The H2O/Ce and Cl/K ratios of these glasses suggest that they did not assimilate significant amounts of altered oceanic crust. Also, S-FeOT variations indicate that the magmas are near sulfide saturation. These lavas were erupted in 1000 m of water, precluding significant loss of S to a vapor phase. At a given MgO content, samples from Kerguelen have similar to higher Fe3+/ΣFe ratios than the average values found in samples from along the Indian mid-ocean ridge, which could indicate a more oxidized mantle source. In addition, increases in Fe3+/ΣFe ratios of the Kerguelen samples, over a narrow

  14. The three-dimensional geologic model used for the 2003 National Oil and Gas Assessment of the San Joaquin Basin Province, California: Chapter 7 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra

    2013-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional geologic model of the San Joaquin Basin (SJB) that may be the first compilation of subsurface data spanning the entire basin. The model volume spans 200 × 90 miles, oriented along the basin axis, and extends to ~11 miles depth, for a total of more than 1 million grid nodes. This model supported the 2003 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of future additions to reserves of oil and gas in the SJB. Data sources include well-top picks from more than 3,200 wildcat and production wells, published cross sections, regional seismic grids, and fault maps. The model consists of 15 chronostratigraphic horizons ranging from the Mesozoic crystalline basement to the topographic surface. Many of the model units are hydrocarbon reservoir rocks and three—the Cretaceous Moreno Formation, the Eocene Kreyenhagen Formation, and the Miocene Monterey Formation—are hydrocarbon source rocks. The White Wolf Fault near the southern end of the basin divides the map volume into 2 separate fault blocks. The construction of a three-dimensional model of the entire SJB encountered many challenges, including complex and inconsistent stratigraphic nomenclature, significant facies changes across and along the basin axis, time-transgressive formation tops, uncertain correlation of outcrops with their subsurface equivalents, and contradictory formation top data. Although some areas of the model are better resolved than others, the model facilitated the 2003 resource assessment in several ways, including forming the basis of a petroleum system model and allowing a precise definition of assessment unit volumes.

  15. Assessing Dryland Ecosystem Services in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, T. F.; Brauman, K. A.; Zuo, L.; Doll, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dryland ecosystems, including grassland, forest, and irrigated cropland, cover about 41% of earth's land area and are inhabited by over two billion people. In drylands, particularly arid and semiarid areas, the production of ecosystem services is primarily constrained by freshwater availability. Often, water allocated to production by one ecosystem or of one ecosystem service negatively impacts other ecosystems or ecosystem services (ESS). The challenge is to determine how much water should be allocated to which ecosystems (natural and manmade) such that multiple ESS are maximized, thus improving overall well-being. This strategic management decision must be supported by knowledge about spatial and temporal availability of water and its relationship to production (location and scale) of ESS that people receive. We assess the spatial and temporal relationships between water availability and ESS production in Xinjiang, Northwest China. We address four questions: (1) What services are produced by which ecosystems with water available? (2) Where are these services produced? (3) Who uses the services produced? (4) How the production of services changes with variability of water available? Using existing global, national, and regional spatial and statistical data, we assess food, fiber, livestock, and wood production as well as unique forest landscapes (as a proxy for aesthetic appreciation and habitats for unique animals and plants) and protection from dust storms. Irrigation is necessary for crop production in Xinjiang. The production of about 4.2 million tons of wheat and 500,000 tons of cotton requires more than 2 km3 of water each year. This is an important source of food and income for local residents, but the diverted water has negative and potentially costly impacts on downstream forests that potentially provide aesthetic services and protection from dust. Our analyses also show that cropland had increased by about 1.6 million ha from 1987 to 2010, while

  16. The diversity and abundance of bacteria and oxygenic phototrophs in saline biological desert crusts in Xinjiang, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Liu, Ruyin; Zhang, Hongxun; Yun, Juanli

    2013-07-01

    Although microorganisms, particularly oxygenic phototrophs, are known as the major players in the biogeochemical cycles of elements in desert soil ecosystems and have received extensive attention, still little is known about the effects of salinity on the composition and abundances of microbial community in desert soils. In this study, the diversity and abundance of bacteria and oxygenic phototrophs in biological desert crusts from Xinjiang province, which were under different salinity conditions, were investigated by using clone library and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis showed that cyanobacteria, mainly Microcoleus vagnitus of the order Oscillatoriales, were predominant in the low saline crusts, while other phototrophs, such as diatom, were the main microorganism group responsible for the oxygenic photosynthesis in the high saline crusts. Furthermore, the higher salt content in crusts may stimulate the growth of other bacteria, including Deinococcus-Thermus, Bacteroidetes, and some subdivisions of Proteobacteria (β-, γ-, and δ-Proteobacteria). The cpcBA-IGS gene analysis revealed the existence of novel M. vagnitus strains in this area. The qPCR results showed that the abundance of oxygenic phototrophs was significantly higher under lower saline condition than that in the higher saline crusts, suggesting that the higher salinity in desert crusts could suppress the numbers of total bacteria and phototrophic bacteria but did highly improve the diversity of salt-tolerant bacteria.

  17. Generation and Characterization of HIV-1 Transmitted and Founder Virus Consensus Sequence from Intravenous Drug Users in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Ma, Liying; Feng, Yi; Hu, Jing; Ni, Na; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming

    2017-06-01

    HIV-1 transmission in intravenous drug users (IDUs) has been characterized by high genetic multiplicity and suggests a greater challenge for HIV-1 infection blocking. We investigated a total of 749 sequences of full-length gp160 gene obtained by single genome sequencing (SGS) from 22 HIV-1 early infected IDUs in Xinjiang province, northwest China, and generated a transmitted and founder virus (T/F virus) consensus sequence (IDU.CON). The T/F virus was classified as subtype CRF07_BC and predicted to be CCR5-tropic virus. The variable region (V1, V2, and V4 loop) of IDU.CON showed length variation compared with the heterosexual T/F virus consensus sequence (HSX.CON) and homosexual T/F virus consensus sequence (MSM.CON). A total of 26 N-linked glycosylation sites were discovered in the IDU.CON sequence, which is less than that of MSM.CON and HSX.CON. Characterization of T/F virus from IDUs highlights the genetic make-up and complexity of virus near the moment of transmission or in early infection preceding systemic dissemination and is important toward the development of an effective HIV-1 preventive methods, including vaccines.

  18. [Biodiversity and enzymes of culturable facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria in saline-alkaline soil in Fukang, Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongguang; Liu, Qing; Wang, Hongfei; Zhang, Daofeng; Chen, Jiyue; Zhang, Yuanming; Li, Wenjun

    2014-02-04

    In order to analyze the biodiversity of cultivable facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria and the enzymes they produced. Total 10 soil samples were collected from saline-alkaline environments of Fukang, Xinjiang province. Facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria strains were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Enzymes including amylase, proteinase, xylanase, and cellulase were detected. Total 116 facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacterial strains and 4 alkali-tolerant actinobacterial strains were isolated from the samples, and those strains were distributed within 22 genera in 13 families and 8 orders of actinobacteria based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The ratio of non-predominant Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis strains were 53.3%. The positive rates of amylase, proteinase, xylanase and cellulase were 35.8, 37.6, 28.3 and 17.5%, respectively. Diverse facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria were discovered from saline-alkaline environments of Fukang. Facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria are a potential source for enzymes. The study would facilitate the knowledge of the diversity of facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria, and provide the technical basis for exploration of facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria resources.

  19. Spatiotemporal Variations of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration in Northern Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To set up a reasonable crop irrigation system in the context of global climate change in Northern Xinjiang, China, reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0 was analyzed by means of spatiotemporal variations. The ET0 values from 1962 to 2010 were calculated by Penman-Monteith formula, based on meteorological data of 22 meteorological observation stations in the study area. The spatiotemporal variations of ET0 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test, Morlet wavelet analysis, and ArcGIS spatial analysis. The results showed that regional average ET0 had a decreasing trend and there was an abrupt change around 1983. The trend of regional average ET0 had a primary period about 28 years, in which there were five alternating stages (high-low-high-low-high. From the standpoint of spatial scale, ET0 gradually increased from the northeast and southwest toward the middle; the southeast and west had slightly greater variation, with significant regional differences. From April to October, the ET0 distribution significantly influenced the distribution characteristic of annual ET0. Among them sunshine hours and wind speed were two of principal climate factors affecting ET0.

  20. Basin-scale hydrogeological, geophysical, geochemical and isotopic characterization: an essential tool for building a Decision Support System for the sustainable management of alluvial aquifer systems within the provinces of Milan and Monza-Brianza (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Gorla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CAP Group is a public company, supplying the municipalities within the provinces of Milan and Monza/Brianza (Northern Italy with the integrated water service: 197 municipalities and more than 2 million users served, 887 wells, 154 wall-mounted tanks and hubs, a water supply network of over 7500 km, from which approximately 250 million cubic metres of water per year are withdrawn. The drinking water supply comes exclusively from groundwater resources, circulating in several overlapping aquifer systems. Basin-scale water resource management, as required by the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, is an extremely complex task. In view of this backdrop, CAP is currently developing a project called Infrastructural Aqueduct Plan that relies on a Decision Support System approach. The paper describes the preliminary steps concerning the design of a prototype Decision Support System aiming at the management of groundwater resources on a basin scale (Ticino and Adda rivers area. CAP Group Decision Support System is intended to be a package allowing for water resource assessment, identification of boundary conditions, climatic driving forces and demographic pressures, simulation and investigation of future forecasts and comparison of alternative policy measures. The project has been designed in steps including Geodatabase building, geographic information system (GIS analysis (including multilayer analysis and numerical modelling. The data collected in the geodatabase were analyzed to design GIS quantitative and qualitative thematic maps in order to perform the multilayer analysis of current and future state and impacts, for providing the decision maker with a comprehensive picture of the water system. The multilayer analysis relies on specific indicators based on some quantitative and qualitative data: hydrogeological, chemical, isotopic, soil use and hazards, climatic and demographic. Each parameter belonging to these macro areas were

  1. Numerical assessment of water-saving irrigation on the water cycle at the oasis of the Manas River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    he

    2018-01-01

    As the birthplace of water-saving technology under mulch drip irrigation in China, the Manas River Basin (MRB) has developed into the largest oasis farming area in Xinjiang and the fourth largest irrigated agricultural area in China. This study presents systematic evaluation the effect of water-saving technologies on precipitation, runoff, infiltration and evapotranspiration in this basin. A model of the regional water cycle was developed for quantitatively assessing groundwater balance and g...

  2. Horse-mounted invaders from the Russo-Kazakh steppe or agricultural colonists from western Central Asia? A craniometric investigation of the Bronze Age settlement of Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Brian E; Mallory, J P

    2004-07-01

    Numerous Bronze Age cemeteries in the oases surrounding the Täklamakan Desert of the Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, western China, have yielded both mummified and skeletal human remains. A dearth of local antecedents, coupled with woolen textiles and the apparent Western physical appearance of the population, raised questions as to where these people came from. Two hypotheses have been offered by archaeologists to account for the origins of Bronze Age populations of the Tarim Basin. These are the "steppe hypothesis" and the "Bactrian oasis hypothesis." Eight craniometric variables from 25 Aeneolithic and Bronze Age samples, comprising 1,353 adults from the Tarim Basin, the Russo-Kazakh steppe, southern China, Central Asia, Iran, and the Indus Valley, are compared to test which, if either, of these hypotheses are supported by the pattern of phenetic affinities possessed by Bronze Age inhabitants of the Tarim Basin. Craniometric differences between samples are compared with Mahalanobis generalized distance (d2), and patterns of phenetic affinity are assessed with two types of cluster analysis (the weighted pair average linkage method and the neighbor-joining method), multidimensional scaling, and principal coordinates analysis. Results obtained by this analysis provide little support for either the steppe hypothesis or the Bactrian oasis hypothesis. Rather, the pattern of phenetic affinities manifested by Bronze Age inhabitants of the Tarim Basin suggests the presence of a population of unknown origin within the Tarim Basin during the early Bronze Age. After 1200 B.C., this population experienced significant gene flow from highland populations of the Pamirs and Ferghana Valley. These highland populations may include those who later became known as the Saka and who may have served as "middlemen" facilitating contacts between East (Tarim Basin, China) and West (Bactria, Uzbekistan) along what later became known as the Great Silk Road. Copyright

  3. The computerized semi-quantitative comprehensive identification-evaluation model for the large-sized in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits in Northern Xinjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengbang, Wang; Mingkuan, Qin; Ruiquan, Zhao; Shenghuang, Tang [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, CNNC (China); Baoqun, Wang; Shuangxing, Lin [Geo-prospecting Team No. 216, CNNC (China)

    2001-08-01

    The process of establishment of the model includes following steps: (1) Systematically studying a known typical in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposit--Deposit No. 512 in Yili basin, analyzing its controlling factors and establishing its metallogenetic model; (2) Establishing the metallogenetic models of this type of uranium deposit and uranium-bearing area on the basis of comparison study on the deposit No. 512 with the same type uranium deposits in the world; (3) Creating the computerized semi-quantitative comprehensive identification-evaluation model for the large-sized in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits in northern Xinjiang; (4) Determining the standards of giving a evaluation-mark for each controlling factor of in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposit and uranium-bearing area; (5) Evaluating uranium potential and prospect of the unknown objective target.

  4. The computerized semi-quantitative comprehensive identification-evaluation model for the large-sized in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits in Northern Xinjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengbang; Qin Mingkuan; Zhao Ruiquan; Tang Shenghuang; Wang Baoqun; Lin Shuangxing

    2001-01-01

    The process of establishment of the model includes following steps: (1) Systematically studying a known typical in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposit--Deposit No. 512 in Yili basin, analyzing its controlling factors and establishing its metallogenetic model; (2) Establishing the metallogenetic models of this type of uranium deposit and uranium-bearing area on the basis of comparison study on the deposit No. 512 with the same type uranium deposits in the world; (3) Creating the computerized semi-quantitative comprehensive identification-evaluation model for the large-sized in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits in northern Xinjiang; (4) Determining the standards of giving a evaluation-mark for each controlling factor of in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposit and uranium-bearing area; (5) Evaluating uranium potential and prospect of the unknown objective target

  5. Rupture of the Pitáycachi Fault in the 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora, Mexico earthquake (southern Basin-and-Range Province): Rupture kinematics and epicenter inferred from rupture branching patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Max

    2015-01-01

    During the 3 May 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora earthquake (surface rupture end-to-end length: 101.8 km), an array of three north-south striking Basin-and-Range Province faults (from north to south Pitáycachi, Teras, and Otates) slipped sequentially along the western margin of the Sierra Madre Occidental Plateau. This detailed field survey of the 1887 earthquake rupture zone along the Pitáycachi fault includes mapping the rupture scarp and measurements of surface deformation. The surface rupture has an endpoint-to-endpoint length of ≥41.0 km, dips 70°W, and is characterized by normal left-lateral extension. The maximum surface offset is 487 cm and the mean offset 260 cm. The rupture trace shows a complex pattern of second-order segmentation. However, this segmentation is not expressed in the 1887 along-rupture surface offset profile, which indicates that the secondary segments are linked at depth into a single coherent fault surface. The Pitáycachi surface rupture shows a well-developed bipolar branching pattern suggesting that the rupture originated in its central part, where the polarity of the rupture bifurcations changes. Most likely the rupture first propagated bilaterally along the Pitáycachi fault. The southern rupture front likely jumped across a step over to the Teras fault and from there across a major relay zone to the Otates fault. Branching probably resulted from the lateral propagation of the rupture after breaching the seismogenic part of the crust, given that the much shorter ruptures of the Otates and Teras segments did not develop branches.

  6. Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly Basin Activities Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H

    1979-01-31

    This report is a summation of 3 months' drilling and testing activities in the four primary WGSP study areas: Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin. The monitoring of basin activities is part of resource assessment. (DLC)

  7. Isostatic model for the Tharsis province, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep, N.H.; Phillips, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A crust-upper mantle configuration is proposed for the Tharsis province of Mars which is isostatic and satisfies the observed gravity data. The model is that of a low density upper mantle compensating loads at both the surface and crust-mantle boundary. Solutions are found for lithospheric thickness greater than about 300 km, for which the stress differences are less than 750 bars. This model for Tharsis is similar to the compensation mechanism under the Basin and Range province of the western United States. These provinces also compare favorably in the sense that they are both elevated regions of extensional tectonics and extensive volcanism

  8. The Reasons for Activisation of Separatism Movements in Xinjiang Later in XX and XXI Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Сергеевна Мавлонова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article includes analysis of the main reasons for activization of separatism movements in Xinjiang later in XX and earlier in XXI centuries. The author comes into conclusion that the following reasons caused the process of active politicization of ethnicity in Central Asian region and wide territories of Xinjiang: changes in the territory of former Soviet Union countries; economic recession in former Soviet Union countries which led to activization of radical movements; economic reforms in China leading to liberalization of social and political spheres; influence of external global factors. The mentioned changes resulted in serious activization of separatist tendencies which was not the case in earlier periods.

  9. Spatial distribution and ecological environment analysis of great gerbil in Xinjiang Plague epidemic foci based on remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Mengxu; Wang, Juanle; Li, Qun; Cao, Chunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pestis (Plague bacterium) from great gerbil was isolated in 2005 in Xinjiang Dzungarian Basin, which confirmed the presence of the plague epidemic foci. This study analysed the spatial distribution and suitable habitat of great gerbil based on the monitoring data of great gerbil from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the ecological environment elements obtained from remote sensing products. The results showed that: (1) 88.5% (277/313) of great gerbil distributed in the area of elevation between 200 and 600 meters. (2) All the positive points located in the area with a slope of 0–3 degree, and the sunny tendency on aspect was not obvious. (3) All 313 positive points of great gerbil distributed in the area with an average annual temperature from 5 to 11 °C, and 165 points with an average annual temperature from 7 to 9 °C. (4) 72.8% (228/313) of great gerbil survived in the area with an annual precipitation of 120–200mm. (5) The positive points of great gerbil increased correspondingly with the increasing of NDVI value, but there is no positive point when NDVI is higher than 0.521, indicating the suitability of vegetation for great gerbil. This study explored a broad and important application for the monitoring and prevention of plague using remote sensing and geographic information system

  10. The Empirical Analysis of the Dynamic Prices Relationship between Cotton Spot Market and Futures Market in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The thesis analyzes the causal relationship between the cotton spot,and the tendency and impact of prices of futures markets in Xinjiang by using ADF test,co-integration analysis,Granger causality test and other econometric methods in order to discuss the interacted relationship between futures market prices of cotton and spot market prices since the futures of cotton in Xinjiang go public.The results of empirical analysis show that the spot market prices of cotton and the futures market prices in Xinjiang fluctuate prominently in the short run and tend to counterpoise in the long run;the futures market of cotton plays the role of leading the spot market prices of cotton in Xinjiang,while the spot market prices of cotton in Xinjiang impacts little on the futures market prices.The corresponding countermeasures are put forward.The government should continuously perfect the construction of the futures market of cotton in Xinjiang,so as to exert the function of price discovery and the function of hedging,and promote the development of cotton industry in Xinjiang.

  11. Land cover of oases and forest in XinJiang, China retrieved from ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhe, Aosier; Tsuchiya, K.; Kaneko, M.; Ohtaishi, N.; Halik, Mahmut

    ASTER aboard NASA’s satellite Terra is a high-resolution multispectral radiometer of 14 bands. The spatial resolution is 15 m in VNIR, 30 m in SWIR and 90 m in TIR spectra, respectively. With the data observed with ASTER, the land cover classification is produced for the Tarim Diversifolious Poplar Protection Area along the Tarim River in the northern Tarim Basin (Taklamakan Desert) in XinJiang, China. The classification of the vegetation (plants) in the arid and semiarid regions using remote-sensing technology is very difficult. Because the cause has low vegetable cover density and the influence of reflection from background soil is large. ASTER data are effective in studying the spectrum characteristics of land cover in arid and semiarid regions. The sensor has several bands in the shortwave infrared wavelength region that is designed for exploration of earth resources and study of the arid and semiarid region natural environment. However, we are not clear combination of which band is the most effective in research of the arid region like the Taklamakan desert in the data of 14 bands of ASTER. The optimum index factor (OIF), based on total variance within bands and correlation coefficient between bands, is a statistical approach to rank all possible three-band combinations. In the process of analyzing the data, the pixel sizes of all the data are converted (layer stacking and re-sampling) into consistent same size of 15 m. The three-band composite with the largest OIF value will have most information (as measured by variance) with the least amount of duplication (as measured by correlation). We used the OIF technique to rank all three-band combinations of ASTER original 14-band data over Tarim River Poplar Protection Area. Our study indicates that RGB color overlay using atmospheric corrected ASTER original bands 2, 3 (VNIR), and 6 (SWIR) has the highest OIF. When NDVI is considered as one ASTER band, highest OIF will have by carrying out bands 3 (VNIR), 4

  12. Geology, sequence stratigraphy, and oil and gas assessment of the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 5 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the San Juan Basin Province contains a continuous gas accumulation in three distinct stratigraphic units deposited in genetically related depositional environments: offshore-marine shales, mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones of the Lewis Shale, and marginal-marine shoreface sandstones and siltstones of both the La Ventana Tongue and the Chacra Tongue of the Cliff House Sandstone. The Lewis Shale was not a completion target in the San Juan Basin (SJB) in early drilling from about the 1950s through 1990. During that time, only 16 wells were completed in the Lewis from natural fracture systems encountered while drilling for deeper reservoir objectives. In 1991, existing wells that penetrated the Lewis Shale were re-entered by petroleum industry operators in order to fracture-stimulate the Lewis and to add Lewis gas production onto preexisting, and presumably often declining, Mesaverde Group production stratigraphically lower in the section. By 1997, approximately 101 Lewis completions had been made, both as re-entries into existing wells and as add-ons to Mesaverde production in new wells. Based on recent industry drilling and completion practices leading to successful gas production from the Lewis and because new geologic models indicate that the Lewis Shale contains both source rocks and reservoir rocks, the Lewis Shale TPS was defined and evaluated as part of this U.S. Geological Survey oil and gas assessment of the San Juan Basin. Gas in the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System is produced from shoreface sandstones and siltstones in the La Ventana and Chacra Tongues and from distal facies of these prograding clastic units that extend into marine rocks of the Lewis Shale in the central part of the San Juan Basin. Reservoirs are in shoreface sandstone parasequences of the La Ventana and Chacra and their correlative distal parasequences in the Lewis Shale where both natural and artificially enhanced fractures produce

  13. Relationships between the West Asian subtropical westerly jet and summer precipitation in northern Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, MinZhong; Huang, AnNing; Li, HongJun; Huo, Wen; Yang, Qing

    2014-05-01

    The relation between the spatial and temporal variations of the West Asian subtropical westerly jet (WASWJ) and the summer precipitation in northern Xinjiang has been explored using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and the summer precipitation data at 43 stations in northern Xinjiang during 1961 to 2007. Results show that the position of the WASWJ is more important than its strength in influencing the summer precipitation in northern Xinjiang. When the jet position is further south, the anomalous southwesterly flow crossing the Indian subcontinent along the southern foothill of the Tibetan Plateau is favorable for the southwestward warm and wet air penetrating from low latitudes into Central Asia and northern Xinjiang and more rainfall formation. Further analysis shows that the interannual variations of the jet position are well correlated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO). In the weak AO years, the middle to upper troposphere becomes colder than normal and results in an anomalous cyclonic circulation at 200 hPa over Western and Central Asia, which enhances the westerly wind over middle and low latitudes and leads to the WASWJ located further south.

  14. Xinjiang Keji Rencai dui Chuangxin Huanjin de Neiyin Pingjia Moxing Goujian yu Shizheng Yanjiu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Chunping; Tang, ChaoYing; Jiannong, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Innovation environment is the key factor to give full play to the dynamic role of the scientific talents. The article has investigated and analyzed the environmental factors and the degree of satisfaction of Xinjiang scientific talents in innovation activities by implicit theory, and structured...

  15. Independent evaluation of a canine Echinococcosis Control Programme in Hobukesar County, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Freya; Qi, Xinwei; Tao, Jiang; Feng, Xiaohui; Mastin, Alexander; Craig, Philip S; Vuitton, Dominique A; Duan, Xinyu; Chu, Xiangdong; Zhu, Jinlong; Wen, Hao

    2015-05-01

    The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwest China is one of the world's most important foci for cystic echinococcosis. Domestic dogs are the main source for human infection, and previous studies in Xinjiang have found a canine Echinococcus spp. coproELISA prevalence of between 36% and 41%. In 2010 the Chinese National Echinococcosis Control Programme was implemented in Xinjiang, and includes regular dosing of domestic dogs with praziquantel. Six communities in Hobukesar County, northwest Xinjiang were assessed in relation to the impact of this control programme through dog necropsies, dog Echinococcus spp. coproantigen surveys based on Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) and dog owner questionnaires. We found that 42.1% of necropsied dogs were infected with Echinococcus granulosus, and coproELISA prevalences were between 15% and 70% in the communities. Although approximately half of all dog owners reported dosing their dogs within the 12 months prior to sampling, coproELISA prevalence remained high. Regular praziquantel dosing of owned dogs in remote and semi-nomadic communities such as those in Hobukesar County is logistically very difficult and additional measures should be considered to reduce canine echinococcosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEPARATISM IN XINJIANG OF PRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А С Мавлонова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the important geostrategic position of Xinjiang, located at the in-tersection of foci of instability, at least having a common border with Afghanistan and Pakistan. The large-scale military conflict in the Middle East has definitely influenced the geostrategic posi-tion of Xinjiang. The analysis shows that the peculiarity of this conflict lies in the fact that it affects not only the political, but also the economic situation of Xinjiang. The aim of the study is to identify and analyze the main external factors that influence the activation of separatism in Xinjiang. As for the political aspect, the emergence of a new active force in the Middle East represented by ISIS creates certain risks for China, given the presence of radical young people, and the possibility of religious extremists from penetrating into its territory through Afghanistan and the Central Asian republics. China does not benefit from the prolonged destabilization of the political situation in Syria, the disintegration of the state or the victory of religious extremists. The author also comes to the conclusion that the military conflict in the Middle East can negatively affect the implementation of the project of the new Silk Road. Its starting point is Xinjiang. Successful implementation of the project will stimulate trade, economic and energy exchanges with the Central Asian republics and positively influence the stabilization of the situation in Xinjiang. But the problem lies in the fact that the road itself lies close to the Middle Eastern regions, where conflicts with the ISIS occur in the acute phase. The article also examines the US influence on the situation in Xinjiang and support for the Uyghur separatist movement. In the future, the Uyghur issue is more likely to be used by the Americans to weaken and gain concessions from China on various issues. This research is based on the principles of general scientific system and structural approaches, as

  17. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Todilto Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 3 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic-rich, shaly limestone beds, which contain hydrocarbon source beds in the lower part of the Jurassic Todilto Limestone Member of the Wanakah Formation, and sandstone reservoirs in the overlying Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, compose the Todilto Total Petroleum System (TPS). Source rock facies of the Todilto Limestone were deposited in a combined marine-lacustrine depositional setting. Sandstone reservoirs in the Entrada Sandstone were deposited in eolian depositional environments. Oil in Todilto source beds was generated beginning in the middle Paleocene, about 63 million years ago, and maximum generation of oil occurred in the middle Eocene. In the northern part of the San Juan Basin, possible gas and condensate were generated in Todilto Limestone Member source beds until the middle Miocene. The migration distance of oil from the Todilto source beds into the underlying Entrada Sandstone reservoirs was short, probably within the dimensions of a single dune crest. Traps in the Entrada are mainly stratigraphic and diagenetic. Regional tilt of the strata to the northeast has influenced structural trapping of oil, but also allowed for later introduction of water. Subsequent hydrodynamic forces have influenced the repositioning of the oil in some reservoirs and flushing in others. Seals are mostly the anhydrite and limestone facies of the Todilto, which thin to as little as 10 ft over the crests of the dunes. The TPS contains only one assessment unit, the Entrada Sandstone Conventional Oil Assessment Unit (AU) (50220401). Only four of the eight oil fields producing from the Entrada met the 0.5 million barrels of oil minimum size used for this assessment. The AU was estimated at the mean to have potential additions to reserves of 2.32 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 5.56 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 0.22 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).

  18. Temporal and spatial variation of maximum wind speed days during the past 20 years in major cities of Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidourela, Aliya; Jing, Zhen; Zhayimu, Kahaer; Abulaiti, Adili; Ubuli, Hakezi

    2018-04-01

    Wind erosion and sandstorms occur in the neighborhood of exposed dust sources. Wind erosion and desertification increase the frequency of dust storms, deteriorate air quality, and damage the ecological environment and agricultural production. The Xinjiang region has a relatively fragile ecological environment. Therefore, the study of the characteristics of maximum wind speed and wind direction in this region is of great significance to disaster prevention and mitigation, the management of activated dunes, and the sustainable development of the region. Based on the latest data of 71 sites in Xinjiang, this study explores the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of maximum wind speed in Xinjiang from 1993 to 2013, and highlights the distribution of annual and monthly maximum wind speed and the characteristics of wind direction in Xinjiang. Between 1993 and 2013, Ulugchat County exhibited the highest number of days with the maximum wind speed (> 17 m/s), while Wutian exhibited the lowest number. In Xinjiang, 1999 showed the highest number of maximum wind speed days (257 days), while 2013 showed the lowest number (69 days). Spring and summer wind speeds were greater than those in autumn and winter. There were obvious differences in the direction of maximum wind speed in major cities and counties of Xinjiang. East of the Tianshan Mountains, maximum wind speeds are mainly directed southeast and northeast. North and south of the Tianshan Mountains, they are mainly directed northwest and northeast, while west of the Tianshan Mountains, they are mainly directed southeast and northwest.

  19. Architecture of buried reverse fault zone in the sedimentary basin: A case study from the Hong-Che Fault Zone of the Junggar Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Wu, Kongyou; Wang, Xi; Liu, Bo; Guo, Jianxun; Du, Yannan

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the faults can act as the conduits or the barrier for oil and gas migration. Years of studies suggested that the internal architecture of a fault zone is complicated and composed of distinct components with different physical features, which can highly influence the migration of oil and gas along the fault. The field observation is the most useful methods of observing the fault zone architecture, however, in the petroleum exploration, what should be concerned is the buried faults in the sedimentary basin. Meanwhile, most of the studies put more attention on the strike-slip or normal faults, but the architecture of the reverse faults attracts less attention. In order to solve these questions, the Hong-Che Fault Zone in the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang Province, is chosen for an example. Combining with the seismic data, well logs and drill core data, we put forward a comprehensive method to recognize the internal architectures of buried faults. High-precision seismic data reflect that the fault zone shows up as a disturbed seismic reflection belt. Four types of well logs, which are sensitive to the fractures, and a comprehensive discriminated parameter, named fault zone index are used in identifying the fault zone architecture. Drill core provides a direct way to identify different components of the fault zone, the fault core is composed of breccia, gouge, and serpentinized or foliated fault rocks and the damage zone develops multiphase of fractures, which are usually cemented. Based on the recognition results, we found that there is an obvious positive relationship between the width of the fault zone and the displacement, and the power-law relationship also exists between the width of the fault core and damage zone. The width of the damage zone in the hanging wall is not apparently larger than that in the footwall in the reverse fault, showing different characteristics with the normal fault. This study provides a

  20. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Bin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Feng; Chen, Chuanfa; Liu, Kangli

    2016-01-01

    Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960–2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ense...

  1. Serological and molecular survey of sheep infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Jun, Qiao; Qingling, Meng; Zhengxiang, Hu; Yu, Ma; Xuepeng, Cai; Zibing, Cheng; Jinsheng, Zhang; Zaichao, Zhang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases that threaten sheep production. In order to investigate the epidemic status of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in sheep, indirect hemagglutination assay was used to analyze 1679 serum samples collected from four different breeds of sheep (Kazak sheep, Hu sheep, Merino sheep, and Duolang sheep) in six regions in Xinjiang between 2012 and 2014. One thousand one hundred sixty-nine sheep nasal swabs and 180 lungs were PCR analyzed. The results showed that the average positive rates of the serum samples were 17.75 %. The positive rates were between 9.76 and 30.61 % in the four breeds. Among them, the Hu sheep had a significantly higher rate than other breeds (P sheep imported from inland, and effective immunization should be implemented in sheep susceptible to M. ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

  2. Determination of aquifer roof extending under the sea from variable-density flow modelling of groundwater response to tidal loading: case study of the Jahe River Basin, Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianmei; Chen, Chongxi; Ji, Menrui

    The main task of studies on salt-water intrusion into coastal confined aquifers is to predict the position of the fresh- salt-water interface, which can be determined from the length of the aquifer roof extending under the sea. Records of groundwater level affected by tides can be used to infer hydrological conditions and determine hydraulic parameters of an aquifer extending under the sea. In this paper, a three-dimensional, variable-density groundwater flow model has been developed to determine the equivalent roof length of an aquifer extending under the sea from the tidal-effected data of groundwater level in the Jahe River Basin, Shandong Province, China. The seaward boundary is obtained by converging hydraulic head fluctuations observed in drill holes with calculated values, and the aquifer parameters in the extending zone are estimated. The impacts of aquifer roof length and aquifer parameters on the fluctuation of tidal groundwater are studied. It is concluded that the length of the aquifer roof extending under the sea should correspond with certain aquifer parameters in the extrapolation zone. Therefore, the seaward boundary determined from tidal-effect information is the equivalent boundary in hydrodynamic characteristics rather than the true boundary of the confined aquifer Les sujets principaux des études d'instrusion saline dans les aquifères confinés en zone côtière sont la prédiction de la position de l'interface entre l'eau salée et l'eau fraîche, qui peut être déterminée à partir de l'extention du toit de l'aquifère sous la mer. Les enregistrements des niveaux des eaux souterraines influencés par les marées peuvent être utilisés pour préciser les conditions hydrologiques et déterminer les paramètres hydrauliques d'un aquifère possédant une extension sous la mer. Dans cet article, un modèle tridimensionnel comprenant des eaux souterraines de densité variable a été développé pour déterminer la longueur équivalente du toit

  3. Haladaptatus pallidirubidus sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon isolated from saline soil samples in Yunnan and Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Bing; Zhao, Wan-Yu; Chu, Xiao; Hozzein, Wael N; Prabhu, Deene Manik; Wadaan, Mohammed A M; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Li-Li; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Two extremely halophilic archaea, designated YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T), were isolated from saline soils in Yunnan province and Lup nur region in Xinjiang province, western China, respectively. Colonies of the two strains were observed to be pink-pigmented. The cells were found to be Gram-stain negative, coccoid and non-motile. The organisms were found to be aerobic and could grow in an NaCl range of 6-35 % (optimum 18 %), temperatures ranging from 25 to 50 °C (optimum 37-42 °C), pH range from 6.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5) and Mg(2+) range from 0 to 1.5 M (optimum 0.5-1.0 M); Mg(2+) was not necessary for growth. Cells were not observed to lyse in distilled water. Strains YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Haladaptatus cibarius JCM 15962(T) (97.6 and 97.9 %, respectively). In addition, the DNA-DNA hybridizations of strains YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T) with type strains H. cibarius JCM 15962(T), Haladaptatus litoreus JCM 15771(T) and Haladaptatus paucihalophilus JCM 13897(T) were 37.2 and 38.2 %, 36.6 and 39.0 % and 27.9 and 27.7 %, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T) were determined to be 56.0 and 57.4 mol%. The major polar lipids of the two strains were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and other four unidentified glycolipids. On the basis of physiological, chemotaxonomic data and phylogenetic analysis, the strains YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T) can be classified as a novel species of the genus Haladaptatus, for which the name Haladaptatus pallidirubidus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 93656(T) (=JCM 17504(T) = CCTCC AB2010454(T)).

  4. Genetics analysis of 38 STR loci in Uygur population from Southern Xinjiang of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Liu, Haibo; Liao, Qinxiang; Xu, Xu; Chen, Wen; Hao, Shicheng

    2016-05-01

    The allele frequencies and statistical parameters of 38 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analyzed in the Uygur population from Southern Xinjiang of China with 290 unrelated individuals. The results show these 38 STR loci have high or medium power of discrimination and probabilities of exclusion. All loci are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The genetic distances between the Uygur population and other Chinese populations were also estimated.

  5. Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Bleeding Sap from Various Xinjiang Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lv; Umar, Anwar; Iburaim, Arkin; Moore, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Wine grape sap or bleeding sap of grapes (GBS) is commonly used in Xinjiang (China) for therapeutic aims. Do variations in composition related to region and variety affect its properties? GBS samples originating in various parts of Xinjiang (Turpan, Hotan, Kashgar, and Atush) were tested for phenols and polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponin, proteins, individual amino acids, and minerals. Their antioxidant activity was measured using ascorbic acid as reference. Polyphenol content varied from 2.6 to 6.6 mg/L, polysaccharides 18.3-816 mg/L, saponin 6.25-106 mg/L, and protein 3.0-22.4 mg/L. Mineral elements and amino acids ranged from 6.20 to 201.2 mg/L and 0.06-118.7 mg/L, respectively. ·OH scavenging ability varied from 70% to over 90%, higher than Vitamin C. Grapes from Turpan had lower antioxidant activity than other grapes even though the polyphenol content was generally higher. Bleeding sap of Xinjiang grape is rich in amino acids, polysaccharides, polyphenols, and protein. The contents are different according to the origin, related possibly to species, climate, and environment. Antioxidant effects were not correlated with polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity of plants or plant extracts is often associated with polyphenolsBleeding sap of grapes has strong antioxidant propertiesBleeding sap from different grape varieties from different parts of Xinjiang (China) had different polyphenol concentrationsThere was no correlation of polyphenol concentrations with antioxidant activity. Abbreviations used: GBS: Bleeding sap of grapes; PITC: phenyl isothiocyanate.

  6. Signal of Acceleration and Physical Mechanism of Water Cycle in Xinjiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Guo-Lin; Wu, Yong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Global warming accelerates water cycle with features of regional difference. However, little is known about the physical mechanism behind the phenomenon. To reveal the links between water cycle and climatic environment, we analyzed the changes of water cycle elements and their relationships with climatic and environmental factors. We found that when global warming was significant during the period of 1986-2003, the precipitation in Tarim mountains as well as Xinjiang increased rapidly except ...

  7. Seed plant features, distribution patterns, diversity hotspots, and conservation gaps in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Huang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The flora in Xinjiang is unique. Decisions about biodiversity conservation and management based on seed plant diversity hotspots and conservation gaps in Xinjiang are essential to maintain this unique flora. Based on a species distribution dataset of seed plants, we measured seed plant diversity using species richness and phylogenetic diversity indices. Five percent of Xinjiang’s total land area with the highest biodiversity was used to identify hotspots for each index. In total, eight hotspots were identified. Most hotspots were located in mountainous areas, mainly in the Tianshan Mountains and Altai Mountains. Furthermore, we detected conservation gaps for Xinjiang’s seed flora hotspots by overlaying nature reserve maps on to maps of identified hotspots and we designated priority conservation gaps for hotspots by overlaying global biodiversity hotspot maps on to hotspot conservation gaps maps. Most of Xinjiang’s seed plant hotspots are poorly protected; only 10.45% of these hotspots were covered by nature reserves. We suggest that it is essential to promote network function of nature reserves within these hotspots in Xinjiang to conserve this unique flora.

  8. Cerebral activation during Chinese semantic associative task in Xinjiang' Uyghurs: a functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lixia; Jia Wenxiao; Tang Weijun; Wang Hong; Ding Shuang; Wang Hao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the cerebral activation in Xinjiang' Uyghurs when performing a Chinese word tasks by the functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI). Methods: Twenty-one healthy Xinjiang' Uyghurs and 11 healthy Hans were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on a 1.5 T MRI scanner with a single run. Different Chinese words were displayed in each block to avoid any practice effect. SPM5.0 software was used for image data processing. To evaluate the inter subject consistency of brain activations associated with Chinese character and word reading, we created penetrance maps by combining binary individual functional maps. Results: For Uyghur-Chinese bilingual subjects, activations related to generated a word that was semantically related to each stimulus. The results indicated that reading Chinese is characterized by extensive activity of the neural systems. Peak activations occurred in the left middle frontal cortex at Brodmann Areas (BA9 and BA47). The left temporal (BA37) cortices were also strongly activated. Other important activated areas included bilateral visual systems (BA17-19) and cerebellum. The location of peak activation in the left frontal regions was similar in Native Uyghurs and Hans. But the active areas in Uyghurs are more extensive than that of Hans. Conclusions: The location of peak activation in the left frontal regions was similar in Native Uyghurs and Hans. More brain areas were needed for Xinjiang' Uyghur speakers during processing Chinese words. (authors)

  9. Feasibility analysis and policy recommendations for the development of the coal based SNG industry in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Jinwei; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Tang, Hong; Zhang, Wenbiao

    2013-01-01

    Based on China's basic national energy conditions of “abundant coal and scarce gas reserve”, the development of the coal based SNG industry is considered to be an effective way to solve the conflict between the supply and demand of natural gas and an important direction in the clean use of coal. Xinjiang is rich in coal resources and is listed by the central government as one of the main bases of the coal based SNG industry. Nearly 70% of the coal based SNG projects are being conducted in Xinjiang, with the goal to take advantage of the lower coal price in Xinjiang to promote the development of the coal based SNG industry. However, the coal based SNG industry is subject to the constraints of pollution, immature technology, poor economic returns, water resources and many other factors. Therefore, the development of the coal based SNG industry should be limited to industrial demonstration. Taking into account China's energy security and environmental governance, once the technology matures, the development prospect of the coal based SNG industry is broad. - Highlights: • Booming in the coal based SNG is not oriented to market, but investment-driven. • Coal based SNG is restricted by pollution, technology, economic and water resources. • The positioning of coal based SNG industry should be industrial demonstration. • The immature technique is the biggest obstacle

  10. A review of mineral systems and associated tectonic settings of northern Xinjiang, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pirajno

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a review of mineral systems in northern Xinjiang, NW China, focussing on the Tianshan, West and East Junggar and Altay orogenic belts, all of which are part of the greater Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB. The CAOB is a complex collage of ancient microcontinents, island arcs, oceanic plateaux and oceanic plates, which were amalgamated and accreted in Early Palaeozoic to Early Permian times. The establishment of the CAOB collage was followed by strike-slip movements and affected by intraplate magmatism, linked to mantle plume activity, best exemplified by the 250 Ma Siberian Traps and the 280 Ma Tarim event. In northern Xinjiang, there are numerous and economically important mineral systems. In this contribution we describe a selection of representative mineral deposits, including subduction-related porphyry and epithermal deposits, volcanogenic massive sulphides and skarn systems. Shear zone-hosted Au lodes may have first formed as intrusion-related and subsequently re-worked during strike-slip deformation. Intraplate magmatism led to the emplacement of concentrically zoned (Alaskan-style mafic–ultramafic intrusions, many of which host orthomagmatic sulphide deposits. A huge belt of pegmatites in the Altay orogen, locally hosts world-class rare metal deposits. Roll-front, sandstone-hosted U mineralisation completes the rich mineral endowment of the northern Xinjiang terranes.

  11. The study on facial soft tissue thickness using Han population in Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jierui; Zhao, Xi; Mi, Congbo; Raza, Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Facial profile is an important aspect in physical anthropology, forensic science, and cosmetic research. Thus, facial soft tissue measurement technology plays a significant role in facial restoration. A considerable amount of work has investigated facial soft tissue thickness, which significantly varies according to gender, age, and race. However, only few studies have considered the nutritional status of the investigated individuals. Moreover, no sufficient research among Chinese ethnic groups, particularly Xinjiang population in China, is currently available. Hence, the current study investigated the adaptability of facial soft tissue to the underlying hard tissue among young adults of Han population in Xinjiang, China; the analysis was performed on the basis of gender, skeletal class, and body mass index (BMI). Measurements were obtained from the lateral cephalometric radiographs of 256 adults aged 18-26 years old. Differences in soft tissue thickness were observed between genders and among skeletal classes. With regard to gender, significant differences in soft tissue thickness were found at rhinion, glabella, subnasale, stomion, labrale superius, pogonion, and gnathion among different BMI groups. Thus, nutritional status should be considered when reconstructing an individual's facial profile. Results showed that the thinnest and thickest craniofacial soft tissues existed in rhinion and lip regions, respectively. Overall, this research provides valuable data for forensic facial reconstruction and identification of young adults in Xinjiang, China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An investigation into psychological stress and its determinants in Xinjiang desert oil workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Liu, Jiwen

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The present study aims to investigate psychological stress and its determinants in Xinjiang field oil workers. Specifically, we aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying psychological stress by comprehensively and quantitatively evaluating the processes involved in psychological stress, the factors which influence it, and their relationship. The participants were 1200 field oil workers in Xinjiang who had been in service for at least 1 year. A structural equation model based on data from the symptom checklist, social support research scale, personality questionnaire, occupational burnout questionnaire, and occupational stress questionnaire was constructed to investigate the social (environmental) factors that influence physiological stress and the interplay among these factors. The positive incidence of psychological stress in the field oil workers in Xinjiang was 12.54%. The structural equation model indicated that the main factors that influenced psychological stress in these workers included social support (0.077), occupational role (0.165), personal strain response (0.139), personality (0.189), and occupational burnout (0.380). Among these factors, occupational role, personality, and occupational burnout had a relatively strong predictive power for psychological stress reactions. The cortisol level in workers with positive psychological stress was significantly higher than that in workers with negative psychological stress. Occupational stress, personality, and occupational burnout exert an impact on psychological stress in field oil workers. Therefore, interventions to address these factors should be taken to reduce the incidence of psychological stress. PMID:29642166

  13. Luminescence dating of the Zeketai loess section in the Ili Basin, northwestern China: Methodological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jintang; Zhou, Liping

    2018-04-01

    Loess deposits in Xinjiang, northwestern China are ideal archives for past environmental changes in the Westerlies-dominated central Asia. Among previous luminescence dating studies of loess in Xinjiang, few have attempted to systematically investigate the methodological aspects. In this study, we report results of a multiple-procedure luminescence dating of the Zeketai loess section in the Ili Basin, central Xinjiang. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIRIR) signals were used for quartz and polymineral grains of different sizes. The pIRIR ages obtained with two protocols agree well with each other and constrain the loess deposition between 50 ka and 88 ka. The OSL ages of fine-grained quartz are in stratigraphic order and range from 37 ka to 61 ka, but are ∼30% younger than the pIRIR295 ages of both fine and medium grained polyminerals. Although the causes of the discrepancy between the ages derived from different luminescence dating protocols are still to be understood, we stress that the quartz OSL ages of loess in this region are likely to be underestimated, especially for samples older than 40 ka. The polymineral or potassium feldspar pIRIR signal is recommended for dating loess in the Ili Basin, at least as an internal check.

  14. Effect of heating rate on thermal cracking characteristics and kinetics of Xinjiang oil sand bitumen by TG-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Junhui; Zhang, Jinhong; Qiao, Yingyun; Tian, Yuanyu

    2017-08-01

    This work was aimed to investigate effects of heating rate on thermal cracking behaviors, distribution of gaseous products and activation energy of the thermal cracking process of Xinjiang oil sand bitumen (OSB). The thermal cracking experiments of Xinjiang OSB were performed by using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at various heating rates of 10, 20, 50, 80 and 120 K/min. The evolving characteristic of gaseous products produced from the thermal cracking process was evaluated by the Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) connected with TG. The kinetic parameters of the thermal cracking process of Xinjiang OSB at each of heating rate were determined by the Coats-Redfern model. The result show that the temperature intervals of DE volatilization stage and main reaction stage, the ((dw/dt) max and Tmax in thermal cracking process of Xinjiang OSB all increased with the increasing heating rate. While the heating rate has not obvious effect on the coke yield of Xinjiang OSB. Furthermore, the maximum absorbance of gaseous products and corresponding temperature became larger as the heating rate increases. The activation energy of this two stage both presented increasing trend with the rising heating rate, while the increasing content of that of DE volatilization stage was weaker compared to that of main reaction stage.

  15. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  16. Differences of prevalence of dyslipidemia and risk factors related to LDL-c in the patients with abnormal fasting glucose between Uygur and Han in Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Li; Hu, Lin; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of dyslipidemia among Uygur and Han patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). To investigate the influence factors on LDL-c in this population. This cross-sectional study included a total of 4709 participants, consisting of Uygurs patients (n=2053) and Han patients (n=2656) from Xinjiang province, who were screened for diabetes mellitus. A stratified multistage sampling design was used to collect the participants. The influence factors on LDL-c were analyzed by Logistic regression analysis. Among the IFG patients (n=1757), Uighur IFG group had a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia than that of Han IFG group, 99.8% vs. 63.7%, Pdifference in the Han groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that risk factors associated with LDL-c were age, total cholesterol and 2 h postprandial blood glucose for the Uighur IFG patients. However, gender and total cholesterol were risk factors for Han IFG patients. Uighur IFG patients had higher incidence of dyslipidemia than that of Han IFG patients. For Uyghur IFG patients, closing follow-up of total cholesterol and 2 h postprandial blood glucose were necessary. As to the Han IFG patients, we should pay more attention to male and total cholesterol in order to lower LDL-c levels. So, appropriately preventive and therapeutic measures should be chosen based on the characteristics of abnormal lipid profiles in different nationality.

  17. Rapid determination of volatile constituents in safflower from Xinjiang and Henan by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction and GC–MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Han Jia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The total volatile components were extracted from safflower by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction (USE and their chemical constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS to provide scientific basis for the quality control of safflower. Five different solvents (diethyl ether, ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetone were used and compared in terms of number of volatile components extracted and the peak areas of these components in TIC. The results showed that USE could be used as an efficient and rapid method for extracting the volatile components from safflower. It also could be found that the number of components in the TIC of ethyl acetate extract was more than that in the TIC of other solvent ones. Meanwhile, the volatile components of safflower from Xinjiang Autonomous Region and Henan Province of China were different in chemical components and relative contents. It could be concluded that both the extraction solvents and geographical origin of safflower are responsible for these differences. The experimental results also indicated that USE/GC–MS is a simple, rapid and effective method to analyze the volatile oil components of safflower. Keywords: Safflower, Ultrasonic solvent extraction, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS

  18. Preface to the Special Issue on Geodynamic and Climate-Change Processes over Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia (TibXS are regions with active plate tectonics. Evidence from satellite gravimetry and altimetry shows the hydrological evolutions over these regions are sensitive to global climate change. For example, inter-annual lake level changes over Tibet and Xinjiang from satellite altimetry are found to be connected to the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Lakes in central Asia, Xinjiang and Siberia show sharp changes in lake levels that can be explained by climate change. Recent terrestrial gravity, GRACE and GPS observations suggest that the crust over the Tibetan plateau is thickening, and the Himalayan glaciers appear to be thinning. Satellite altimetry is a potential tool to study vertical displacement and permafrost thawing and changes in the active layers in Siberia and Tibet.

  19. Violence resistance in Xinjiang (China: tracking militancy, ethnic riots and “knife-wielding” terrorist (1978-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Adriano Rodríguez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda la evolución de la resistencia violenta al régimen chino en la Región Autónoma Uigur de Xinjiang mediante una revisión y análisis de la naturaleza de los principales episodios violentos, en su mayoría con connotaciones separatistas, que han tenido lugar allí desde el comienzo de la era de reforma y apertura chinas (1978-2012. En este sentido, sostiene que la resistencia violenta, no necesariamente con motivaciones político-separatistas, ha estado presente en Xinjiang en la forma de insurgencia de baja escala, revueltas étnicas y terrorismo, y probablemente continúe en el futuro teniendo en cuenta las fricciones existentes entre la minoría étnica Uigur y las políticas llevadas a cabo por el gobierno chino.Palabras Clave: China, Xinjiang, Uyghur, violencia politica, separatismo, terrorismo._______________Abstract:This article aims to track the evolution of violent resistance to Chinese rule in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR. It does so by reviewing and analyzing the nature of the main episodes of violence which have taken place there since the reform and opening era began in the People’s Republic (1978-2012. It finds that violence resistance, not necessarily with political-separatist motivations, has been present in Xinjiang in the form of low-scale insurgency, ethnic riots and terrorism and it will probably stay in the future considering the frictions between the Uyghur ethnic minority and the policies of the Chinese government. Keywords: China, Xinjiang, Uyghur, political violence, separatism, terrorism.

  20. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Ecological Security in Arid Region Based on GIS: A Case Study in Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Song, W.; Yang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Ecological security is close related to the people's survival and development. In the context of the global warming, with the increasingly frequent human activities, ecological and environmental problems have become increasingly prominent. Ecological security has aroused widespread concern, especially in the arid region. It has an important role in national security as well as political security, military security, economic security, social security. Taken Xinjiang as the research area, which is a typical arid region in China, this study establishes an ecological safety assessment indicator system from perspective of the generic process and the formation mechanism of the ecosystem. The framework is based on natural resources dimensions, natural environment dimensions and human disturbance dimensions. Water is the restrictive factor for the development of arid region, so the water resources carrying capacity is the main natural resource of the study area. The natural environment includes SPI(standardized precipitation index), dryness index, landscape vulnerability, NDVI. Human disturbance includes urbanization rate, population density, afforestation area, per capita GDP, water-saving irrigation area, fertilizer and pesticide application, agriculture Mechanical power, energy consumption. The expert scoring method and the coefficient of variation method are used to determine the weight of each indicator, and finally a comprehensive index is constructed to evaluate the ecological security of Xinjiang, that is, the ecological security index. The results indicate that the ecological security of Xinjiang is 0.43, which is in the critical area. The ecological security of Hami, Turpan and Karamay is the lowest, and the ecological security of the Arabian and Yili is the highest. The ecological security of the south in the Xinjiang is higher than that in the north. In short, ecological environment of Xinjiang is in a sensitive period. Effective ecological protection policy

  1. Terrestrial water storage changes over Xinjiang extracted by combining Gaussian filter and multichannel singular spectrum analysis from GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinyun; Li, Wudong; Chang, Xiaotao; Zhu, Guangbin; Liu, Xin; Guo, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Water resource management is crucial for the economic and social development of Xinjiang, an arid area located in the Northwest China. In this paper, the time variations of gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE)-derived monthly gravity field models from 2003 January to 2013 December are analysed to study the terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes in Xinjiang using the multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA) with a Gaussian smoothing radius of 400 km. As an extended singular spectrum analysis (SSA), MSSA is more flexible to deal with multivariate time-series in terms of estimating periodic components and trend, reducing noise and identifying patterns of similar spatiotemporal behaviour thanks to the data-adaptive nature of the base functions. Combining MSSA and Gaussian filter can not only obviously remove the north-south striping errors in the GRACE solutions but also reduce the leakage errors, which can increase the signal-to-noise ratio by comparing with the traditional procedure, that is, empirical decorrelation method followed with the Gaussian filtering. The spatiotemporal characteristics of TWS changes in Xinjiang were validated against the Global Land Dynamics Assimilation System, the Climate Prediction Center and in-situ precipitation data. The water storage in Xinjiang shows the relatively large fluctuation from 2003 January to 2013 December, with a drop from 2006 January to 2008 December due to the drought event and an obvious rise from 2009 January to 2010 December because of the high precipitation. Spatially, the TWS has been increasing in the south Xinjiang, but decreasing in the north Xinjiang. The minimum rate of water storage change is -4.4 mm yr-1 occurring in the central Tianshan Mountain.

  2. Association between Anthropometric Measures and Indicators for Hypertension Control among Kazakh-Chinese Hypertension Patients in Xinjiang, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Zhang

    Full Text Available Among Kazakh-Chinese population in Xinjiang province of China, prevalence of obesity and hypertension were 40.1% and 50.3% respectively, the highest across all ethnic groups residing in this pastureland. Despite this, there remained a dearth of information regarding the association between the anthropometric measures [body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR etc.] and indicators for hypertension control [achieved levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP, pulse pressure index (PPI, ankle-brachial index (ABI etc.] among them.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Xinjiang to determine the distribution and inter-relationships of the anthropometric measures and indicators for achieved BP control as well as their predictors among hypertension patients of Kazakh-Chinese ethnicity. Out of 550 randomly selected patients, 516 completed the interview, anthropometry and BP assessments.In the sample population, average SBP, DBP and PP were 156.26±24.40mmHg, 87.55±14.73mmHg and 68.71±19.39mmHg respectively. Bivariate analysis identified age, gender, education, duration of hypertension, WC and BMI being factors influencing the achieved levels of BP. Adjusted multiple linear regression models elicited positive associations of age (βa = 0.152, p = 0.001 and duration of hypertension (βa = 0.132, p = 0.003 with achieved level of SBP as well as BMI (βa = 0.135, p = 0.002 with DBP. Age (βa = 0.207, p<0.001 and WHtR (βa = 0.304, p = 0.005 were positively and WC (βa = -0.406, p<0.001 was negatively associated with PPI. Increasing age (βa = -0.125, p = 0.005, female gender (βa = -0.122, p = 0.005 and 5years' duration of hypertension (βa = -0.091, p<0.039 were negatively associated with ABI. After adjustment for socio-demographic variables, hypertensive patients with (reference = without abdominal obesity had 93% (p = 0.013 higher odds of missing the target BP control

  3. [Investigation on the Outbreak of Visceral Leishmaniasis in 2014 in Jiashi County of Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    OSMAN, Yisilayin; SIMAYI, Adili; KEYUMU, Kaisuer; ABLIMIT, Maimaitiaili; JI, Fang; HOU, Yan-yan; ZHANG, Song; MAIMAITIYIMIN, Yalikun; JUMAHUN, Ruziguli

    2015-10-01

    To understand the epidemiological characteristics of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) outbreak in Jiashi County of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in 2014, and provide basis for VL prevention and control strategies. Data on VL epidemic situation in Xinjiang from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2015 were collected from Chinese CDC Infectious Disease Reporting Information Management System (reporting system). On-site epidemiological investigation was conducted in October, 2014, among children under 3 years in 23 villages in Gholtoghrak Township and Koxawat Township in Jiashi County, regions that had dramatically increased reports of VL cases from July 1. For suspected cases who showed symptoms such as fever and hepato-splenomegaly, blood (20 μl) was collected through fingerstick (with parental guardian consent) for rk39 immunochromatographic strip testing. Chil- dren with positive results were given sodium stibogluconate treatment (6x200 mg/kg, intravenously). A total of 637 VL cases were reported in Xinjiang from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2015. Among the 192 cases reported from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015 in Xinjiang, cases from Jiashi County occupied 86.46% (166/192) of the cases. The number of VL cases in Jiashi County showed a trend of increase since the first report in August, with a total number of 114 in October, November and December. The 166 cases in Jiashi County had an age range of 23 days-8 years, with those under one year accounting for 95.18%(158/166). The 113 cases in Gholtoghrak Township of the County had an age range of 23 days-3 years, with those under one year accounting for 96.46% (109/113). The age--distribution of VL casess in the County accorded with the characteristic of the desert type. On-site investigation of 833 children in the 23 villiages revealed 11 children with positive results of rk39 immunochromatographic strip testing out of 14 suspected cases, all recovered after one course of sodium stibogluconate treatment. In 2014, VL outbreak occurs in

  4. The application of entropy weight TOPSIS method to optimal points in monitoring the Xinjiang radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Guangwen; Hu Youhua; Liu Qian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the application of the entropy weight TOPSIS method to optimal layout points in monitoring the Xinjiang radiation environment has been indroduced. With the help of SAS software, It has been found that the method is more ideal and feasible. The method can provide a reference for us to monitor radiation environment in the same regions further. As the method could bring great convenience and greatly reduce the inspecting work, it is very simple, flexible and effective for a comprehensive evaluation. (authors)

  5. [Analysis of essential oil extracted from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Haji, Akber Aisa

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang. The components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 62 components were identified from 71 separated peaks,amounting to total mass fraction 95.07%. The dominant compounds were n-Hexanol (36.31%), n-Hexanal (13.71%), trans-2-Octen-l-ol (8.09%) and 2-n-Pentylfuran (4.41%). The research provides a theoretical basis for the exploitation and use of Lactuca sativa seeds resource.

  6. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 2: Lithospheric structure, seismicity, and contemporary deformation of the United States Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    The structural evolution of the U.S. Cordillera has been influenced by a variety of tectonic mechanisms including passive margin rifting and sedimentation; arc volcanism; accretion of exotic terranes; intraplate magmatism; and folding and faulting associated with compression and extension processes that have profoundly influenced the lithospheric structure. As a result the Cordilleran crust is laterally inhomogeneous across its 2000 km east-west breadth. It is thin along the West Coast where it has close oceanic affinities. The crust thickens eastward beneath the Sierra Nevada, then thins beneath the Basin-Range. Crustal thickening continues eastward beneath the Colorado Plateau, the Rocky Mountains, and the Great Plains. The total lithospheric thickness attains 65 km in the Basin-Range and increases eastward beneath the Colorado Plateau. The upper-crust, including the crystalline basement of the Cordillera, has P sub G velocities of 6 km/s in the Basin-Range and Rio Grande Rift. Lower P sub G velocities of 5.4 to 5.7 km/s are associated with the youthful Yellowstone, Valles and Long Valley calderas and the Franciscan assemblage of the western coastal margin. Averaged crustal velocity reflects integrated tectonic evolution of the crust-thick silicic bodies, velocity reversals, and a thin crust produce low averaged velocities that are characteristic of a highly attenuated and thermally deformed crust.

  7. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Guo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960–2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD. Obvious non-linear upward trends in precipitation were found in the north, south, east and the entire Xinjiang. Changes in precipitation in Xinjiang exhibited significant inter-annual scale (quasi-2 and quasi-6 years and inter-decadal scale (quasi-12 and quasi-23 years. Moreover, the 2–3-year quasi-periodic fluctuation was dominant in regional precipitation and the inter-annual variation had a considerable effect on the regional-scale precipitation variation in Xinjiang. We also found that there were distinctive spatial differences in variation trends and turning points of precipitation in Xinjiang. The results of this study indicated that compared to traditional decomposition methods, the EEMD method, without using any a priori determined basis functions, could effectively extract the reliable multi-scale fluctuations and reveal the intrinsic oscillation properties of climate elements.

  8. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Feng; Chen, Chuanfa; Liu, Kangli

    2016-03-21

    Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960-2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). Obvious non-linear upward trends in precipitation were found in the north, south, east and the entire Xinjiang. Changes in precipitation in Xinjiang exhibited significant inter-annual scale (quasi-2 and quasi-6 years) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-12 and quasi-23 years). Moreover, the 2-3-year quasi-periodic fluctuation was dominant in regional precipitation and the inter-annual variation had a considerable effect on the regional-scale precipitation variation in Xinjiang. We also found that there were distinctive spatial differences in variation trends and turning points of precipitation in Xinjiang. The results of this study indicated that compared to traditional decomposition methods, the EEMD method, without using any a priori determined basis functions, could effectively extract the reliable multi-scale fluctuations and reveal the intrinsic oscillation properties of climate elements.

  9. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste: characterization of the Rio Grande Region, New Mexico, and Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, Kenneth A.; Langer, William H.

    1989-01-01

    The Rio Grande region, New Mexico and Texas, includes most of the area east of the Rio Grande to the Sacramento Mountains. The region encompasses two large basins, the Jornada del Muerto and Tularosa basins, and the intervening San Andres Mountains. The valley surfaces generally have altitudes from 600 to 1,500 meters, and the mountain ranges generally have altitudes from 1,500 to 2,400 meters. About one-half the area is underlain by basin fill. Sedimentary rocks that crop out in the Rio Grande region range in age from Precambrian to Holocene. The oldest Precambrian rocks are metamorphosed and intruded by plutons. Paleozoic rocks are primarily carbonates, with argillaceous beds in the older Paleozoic units. Clastic and gypsum are in greater abundance in younger Paleozoic units of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. The Mesozoic rocks primarily are clastic rocks with some limestone. Cenozoic rocks consist of sequences of conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, and siltstone, derived from adjacent mountain masses, interbedded with basalt and andesite flows and silicic tuffs. Early to middle Tertiary volcanic and tectonic processes resulted in the implacement of plutonic bodies; volcanic activity continued into the Quaternary. Media considered to have potential for isolation of high-level radioactive waste include intrusive rocks, ash-flow tuff, and basaltic lava flows. Laharic and mudflow breccia and argillaceous beds also may be potential host rocks. These and other rocks may be potential media in areas where the unsaturated zone is thick. Quaternary faults are more common in the southern one-half of the region than in the northern one-half. Range-bounding faults with evidence of Quaternary movement extend northward into the central part of the region. Volcanic activity in the northern part of the region includes basalt flows of Quaternary age. Historical crustal uplift and seismicity have occurred in the vicinity of Socorro, New Mexico. The region is bordered on the west by

  10. Detailed measured sections, cross sections, and paleogeographic reconstructions of the upper cretaceous and lower tertiary nonmarine interval, Wind River Basin, Wyoming: Chapter 10 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed measured sections and regional stratigraphic cross sections are used to reconstruct facies maps and interpret paleogeographic settings for the interval from the base of Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation to top of lower member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. The Mesaverde Formation spans the time during which the Upper Cretaceous seaway retreated eastward out of central Wyoming in Campanian time and the initial stages of the Lewis transgression in earliest Maastrichtian time. This retreat stalled for a considerable period of time during deposition of the lower part of the Mesaverde, creating a thick buildup of marginal marine sandstones and coaly coastal plain deposits across the western part of the basin. The Lewis sea transgressed into the northeast part of Wind River Basin, beginning in early Maastrichtian time during deposition of the Teapot Sandstone Member of the Mesaverde Formation. The Meeteetse Formation, which overlies the Teapot, was deposited in a poorly-drained coastal plain setting southwest of the Lewis seaway. The Lewis seaway, at maximum transgression, covered much of the northeast half of the Wind River Basin area but was clearly deflected around the present site of the Wind River Range, southwest of the basin, providing the first direct evidence of Laramide uplift on that range. Uplift of the Wind River Range continued during deposition of the overlying Maastrichtian Lance Formation. The Granite Mountains south of the basin also became a positive feature during this time. A rapidly subsiding trough during the Maastrichtian time formed near the presentday trough of the Wind River Basin in which more than 6,000 feet of Lance was deposited. The development of this trough appears to have begun before the adjacent Owl Creek Mountains to the north started to rise; however, a muddy facies in the upper part of Lance in the deep subsurface, just to the south, might be interpreted to indicate that the

  11. Copy number variations and genetic admixtures in three Xinjiang ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Haiyi; Li, Shilin; Jin, Wenfei; Fu, Ruiqing; Lu, Dongsheng; Pan, Xinwei; Zhou, Huaigu; Ping, Yuan; Jin, Li; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-04-01

    Xinjiang is geographically located in central Asia, and it has played an important historical role in connecting eastern Eurasian (EEA) and western Eurasian (WEA) people. However, human population genomic studies in this region have been largely underrepresented, especially with respect to studies of copy number variations (CNVs). Here we constructed the first CNV map of the three major ethnic minority groups, the Uyghur, Kazakh and Kirgiz, using Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0. We systematically compared the properties of CNVs we identified in the three groups with the data from representatives of EEA and WEA. The analyses indicated a typical genetic admixture pattern in all three groups with ancestries from both EEA and WEA. We also identified several CNV regions showing significant deviation of allele frequency from the expected genome-wide distribution, which might be associated with population-specific phenotypes. Our study provides the first genome-wide perspective on the CNVs of three major Xinjiang ethnic minority groups and has implications for both evolutionary and medical studies.

  12. Impact of comprehensive psychological training on mental health of recruits in Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shi-ying; Zhang, Lan

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effect of comprehensive psychological training on the mental health of recruits and to provide basis for promoting mental health among recruits in Xinjiang. From September to December, 2013, a convenience sampling was used to select 613 recruits from Xinjiang. These recruits were assigned to the training group (n=306) and the control group (n=307). The Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire,the Questionnaire of Armymen's Emotion Regulation Types and the Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scale were used to evaluate the levels of mental health at the baseline and at the end of comprehensive psychological training. After comprehensive psychological training, the negative coping style score of the training group were significantly lower than the control group (P=0.000), and there were difference in cognitive focus (P=0.000) and behavior restrain (P=0.005); also, there was significant difference in social support scale (Pemotion regulation and all factors (Pappeal and self comfort (Pappeal, behavior restrain, and self comfort (all P<0.05). Comprehensive psychological training is useful in improving the mental health of recruits.

  13. [Analysis of master degree thesis of otolaryngology head and neck surgery in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiheng, Qukuerhan; Niliapaer, Alimu; Yalikun, Yasheng

    2010-12-01

    To understand the basic situation and development of knowledge structure and ability of master degree of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery in Xinjiang region in order to provide reference to further improve the quality of postgraduate students. Fourty-six papers of Otolaryngology master degree thesis were reviewed at randomly in terms of types, subject selection ranges as well as statistical methods during 1998-2009 in Xinjiang region in order to analyze and explore its advantages and characteristics and suggest a solution for its disadvantages. In 46 degree thesis, nine of them are scientific dissertations accounting for 19.57%, 37 are clinical professional degree thesis, accounting for 80.43%. Five are Experimental research papers, 30 are clinical research papers, 10 are clinical and experimental research papers, 1 of them is experimental epidemiology research paper; in this study, the kinds of diseases including every subject of ENT, various statistical methods are involved; references are 37.46 in average, 19.55 of them are foreign literatures references in nearly 5 years are 13.57; four ethnic groups are exist in postgraduate students with high teaching professional level of tutors. The clinical research should be focused in order to further research on ENT common diseases, the application of advanced research methods, the full application of the latest literature, tutors with high-level, training of students of various nationalities, basic research needs to be innovative and should be focus the subject characteristics, to avoid excessive duplication of research.

  14. Study on the Relationship between Land Transport and Economic Growth in Xinjiang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Xinjiang’s land transport network is mainly comprised of highways and railways. Using statistical data from 1985 to 2015, this study applies the Lotka-Volterra model to investigate the competitive interactions among highway transport, railway transport, and the regional economy of Xinjiang. We can draw the following conclusions: First, highway mileage, highway passenger transportation, and railway freight transportation have played a significant role in promoting the development of the national economy in Xinjiang, while the latter has weakened highway passenger transportation and promoted the growth of the added value of transportation industry (AVTI, railway mileage, and railway passenger transportation. Second, highway passenger transportation enhances the development of railway passenger transportation, while railway freight transportation has played the same role in the development of highway freight transportation. Third, the increase in AVTI will increase total population, but both may have a negative impact on the national economy in the short term. Fourth, there is no significant relationship between the economy and transportation investment.

  15. The Role of the Uighur Diaspora in the Struggle for Independence of Xinjiang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Mavlonova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contains analysis of the activities of the Uighur diaspora abroad and its role in struggle for independence of Xinjiang. The author comes into conclusion that the role of the Uighur organizations located and incorporated in the western countries in activization of separatist in Xinjiang is huge. Such organizations are financed by the governments of the western countries, mainly by the United States. The most popular organization among them is “The World Uyghur Congress”, headed by Rebiya Kadeer. Despite the various internal disagreements, Uigur organizations located on the territory of western countries, pay special attention to the issue of self-determination and respecting of the rights of Uigurs in China. As a result of stabilization and improving of relations between Central Asian countries and China and formation of joint security system of countries within The Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the governments of the countries follow the policy based on the principle of sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity. Additionally, according to the author the fact that China has obtained support from the Central Asian countries in avoiding of separatism helps to keep Uighur organizations under strict control of the officials. Currently the Uigur diaspora is divided into many organizations established during the last several decades. The attempts to establish the single powerful organization that would support interests of the Uighur people and would be able to influence the world community were not successful.

  16. An ethnopharmacological study of aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Tian, Shuge; Wen, E; Upur, Halmuart

    2017-12-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was completed in a remote village and surrounding country of Xinjiang, where most Uyghur medicinal plants could be collected. This work clarifies and increases ethnobotanical data. We surveyed and organized aromatic medicinal plants that are commonly used in clinical settings to provide a significant reference for studying new medical activities. In the survey, informants who have traditional knowledge on aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants were interviewed between March 2014 and September 2014. Aromatic medicinal plant species and pertinent information were collected. Some therapeutic methods and modes of preparation of traditional aromatic medicinal plants were found. A total of 86 aromatic medicinal plant species belonging to 36 families were included in our study. We identified 34 plant species introduced from different regions such as Europe, India and Mediterranean areas. Fruits and whole plants were the most commonly used parts of plant, and most aromatic medicinal plants could be applied as medicine and food. We assigned the medicinal plants a use value (UV). Knowing the UV of species is useful in determining the use reliability and pharmacological features of related plants. Xinjiang is an area in which indigenous aromatic medicinal plants are diversely used and has therefore established a sound dimensional medical healthcare treatment system. Some aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants are on the verge of extinction. Hence, further strategies for the conservation of these aromatic medicinal plants should be prioritized.

  17. Influence of the sea surface temperature anomaly over the Indian Ocean in March on the summer rainfall in Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Huang, Anning; Zhao, Yong; Yang, Qing; Jiang, Jing; La, Mengke

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the relationship between the sea surface temperature over the Indian Ocean (IOSST) in March and the summer rainfall in Xinjiang. In the observations, the IOSST in March significantly correlates with the summer rainfall in Xinjiang with a correlation coefficient of about 0.49 during 1961-2007. This relationship is independent from the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with a partial correlation coefficient of about 0.40-0.48 controlling for the ENSO indices from December to March. In addition to the observations, three sets of numerical sensitivity experiments are conducted with a regional climate model (RegCM4.3). The model results show that warm IOSST can excite a negative anomaly of geopotential height at 500 hPa over the Indian Ocean in March. This anomaly stays over the tropical Indian Ocean, and then propagates north to central Asia in June. Consequently, the anomalous wind associated with this geopotential height anomaly transports moisture from the Persian Gulf and the coast of Iran to Xinjiang, passing over Pakistan and the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, the warm (cold) IOSST in March tends to cause the increase (decrease) of the summer rainfall over Xinjiang, especially in the Tian Shan and Kunlun Mountains.

  18. Decreased expression of the ATM gene linked to poor prognosis for gastric cancer of different nationalities in Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mei; Ma, Lanying; Qu, Yanli; Tang, Yong

    2017-08-01

    To explore the clinicopathological significance of ATM gene in the occurrence and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) from different nationalities in Xinjiang. The expression of ATM in 385 patients with GC (including 98 Uygurs, 231 Hans and 56 Kazaks) and its corresponding adjacent tissues were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry assay to, analyze its correlations with clinicopathological features and prognosis of GC. The ATM expression in GC tissues was significantly decreased when compared to that in adjacent normal tissues of Uygur, Han and Kazak patients in Xinjiang, while Uygurs and Kazaks were much lower than Hans in the ATM expression of GC tissues (all PATM-negative tumors had a markedly lower survival rate than patients in Hans (P=0.028), and GC patients with ATM negative expression presented more unfavorable overall survival rate than those with positive expression among the three different nationalities (all PATM expression, TNM staging, depth of invasion, and lymph node metastasis were independent factors affecting the prognosis of GC patients in Xinjiang (all PATM was downregulated in GC patients in Xinjiang, especially for Uygurs and Kazaks, which suggested ATM to be an independent indicator of prognosis for GC therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Discovery Function of Cotton Future Price among Different Regions——A Case Study of Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through comparative analysis, We research the relationship between cotton future price and cotton spot price in different regions, in order to formulate corresponding strategies in different regions under the new situation. We use ADF unit root test, E-G two-step cointegration test, Granger causality test, and other research methods in Eviews 5.0 statistical software, to empirically study the relationship between the cotton future price and cotton spot price in Xinjiang, the relationship between the cotton future price and cotton spot price in China. The results show that there is a long-term relationship between the cotton future price and cotton spot price in Xinjiang, between the cotton future price and cotton spot price in China; the cotton future price plays unidirectional role in guiding cotton spot price in Xinjiang and cotton spot price in China. The discovery function of cotton future price plays much greater role in the cotton market of China than in the cotton market of Xinjiang.

  20. Fish faunal provinces of the conterminous United States of America reflect historical geography and familial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Although the conterminous USA has a long history of ichthyological exploration, the description of biogeographical provinces has been ad hoc. In this study we quantitatively determined fish faunal provinces and interpreted them in the context of the geological history of North America. We also evaluated influences of major river basin occupancy and contemporary environmental factors on provincial patterns. Our data set comprised 794 native fishes, which we used to generate a presence and absence matrix for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) four-digit hydrologic units. Three nested data sets were analysed separately: primary freshwater families, continental freshwater families (including primary and secondary families) and all freshwater families (including primary, secondary and peripheral families). We used clustering analysis to delimit faunal breaks and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) to determine significance among clusters (i.e. provinces). We used an indicator-species analysis to identify species that contributed most to province delineations and a similarity-percentage (SIMPER) analysis to describe the relative influence of representatives from each category (i.e. primary, secondary, peripheral) on provincial boundaries. Lastly, we used a parsimony redundancy analysis to determine the roles of historical (i.e. major river basin) and contemporary environmental factors in shaping provinces. Analysis of the nested data sets revealed lessening provincial structure with inclusion of more families. There were 10 primary freshwater provinces, 9 continental freshwater provinces and 7 all freshwater provinces. Major basin occupancy, but not contemporary environmental factors, explained substantial variance in faunal similarities among provinces. However, provincial boundaries did not conform strictly to modern river basins, but reflected river-drainage connections of the Quaternary. Provinces represent broad-scale patterns of endemism and provide a starting point

  1. Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO Study of the Provincial Ecological Footprints and Domestic Embodied Footprints Traded among China’s 30 Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decun Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development in China has led to imbalances and inequities of ecological resources among the provinces and regions. In this study, an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output (MRIO model was used to analyze the imbalances, inequities and pressures of the ecological footprints (EF of China’s 30 provinces in 2007. In addition, by decomposing the total product consumption coefficients, we calculated the net embodied EF of the flows among the provinces by the total amount, land type and sector. The results showed that most provinces presented EF deficits. Significant differences were observed between the ecological pressure in consumption (EPC and ecological pressure in production (EPP for each province because of the net embodied EF trade; the EPCs of Shanghai (15.16, Beijing (7.81 and Tianjin (7.81 were the largest and presented descending EPPs, whereas the EPCs of Heilongjiang (0.98, Hebei (0.98, Xinjiang (0.98 and Guangxi (0.98 were under the threshold value (1 and presented ascending EPPs. The carbon footprint in the secondary sector was the main embodied EF of the flows among the provinces responsible for inequities. Finally, based on the various conditions of the provinces in different geographical regions, we have provided suggestions for regionally balanced development that can maintain the EPP and EPC values under the threshold for each province.

  2. [Main Components of Xinjiang Lavender Essential Oil Determined by Partial Least Squares and Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiang; Wang, Qing; Fu, Ji-hong; Tang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This work was undertaken to establish a quantitative analysis model which can rapid determinate the content of linalool, linalyl acetate of Xinjiang lavender essential oil. Totally 165 lavender essential oil samples were measured by using near infrared absorption spectrum (NIR), after analyzing the near infrared spectral absorption peaks of all samples, lavender essential oil have abundant chemical information and the interference of random noise may be relatively low on the spectral intervals of 7100~4500 cm(-1). Thus, the PLS models was constructed by using this interval for further analysis. 8 abnormal samples were eliminated. Through the clustering method, 157 lavender essential oil samples were divided into 105 calibration set samples and 52 validation set samples. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as a tool to determine the content of linalool and linalyl acetate in lavender essential oil. Then the matrix was established with the GC-MS raw data of two compounds in combination with the original NIR data. In order to optimize the model, different pretreatment methods were used to preprocess the raw NIR spectral to contrast the spectral filtering effect, after analysizing the quantitative model results of linalool and linalyl acetate, the root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) of orthogonal signal transformation (OSC) was 0.226, 0.558, spectrally, it was the optimum pretreatment method. In addition, forward interval partial least squares (FiPLS) method was used to exclude the wavelength points which has nothing to do with determination composition or present nonlinear correlation, finally 8 spectral intervals totally 160 wavelength points were obtained as the dataset. Combining the data sets which have optimized by OSC-FiPLS with partial least squares (PLS) to establish a rapid quantitative analysis model for determining the content of linalool and linalyl acetate in Xinjiang lavender essential oil, numbers of hidden variables of two

  3. MNS, Duffy, and Kell blood groups among the Uygur population of Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, G Y; Du, X L; Shan, J J; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y Q; Wang, Q H

    2017-03-15

    Human blood groups are a significant resource for patients, leading to a fierce international competition in the screening of rare blood groups. Some rare blood group screening programs have been implemented in western countries and Japan, but not particularly in China. Recently, the genetic background of ABO and Rh blood groups for different ethnic groups or regions in China has been focused on increasingly. However, rare blood groups such as MN, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, and Diego are largely unexplored. No systematic reports exist concerning the polymorphisms and allele frequencies of rare blood groups in China's ethnic minorities such as Uygur and Kazak populations of Xinjiang, unlike those on the Han population. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the allele frequencies of rare blood groups, namely, MNS, Duffy, Kell, Dombrock, Diego, Kidd, Scianna, Colton, and Lutheran in the Uygur population of Xinjiang Single specific primer-polymerase chain reaction was performed for genotyping and statistical analysis of 9 rare blood groups in 158 Uygur individuals. Allele frequencies were compared with distribution among other ethnic groups. Observed and expected values of genotype frequencies were compared using the chi-square test. Genotype frequencies obeyed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.5) and allele frequencies were stable. Of all subjects detected, 4 cases carried the rare phenotype S - s - of MNS blood group (frequency of 0.0253), and 1 case carried the phenotype Jk a-b- (frequency of 0.0063). Frequencies of the four groups, MNS, Duffy, Dombrock, and Diego, in the Uygur population differed from those in other ethnic groups. Gene distribution of the Kell, Kidd, and Colton was similar to that in Tibetan and Han populations, though there were some discrepancies. Gene distribution of Scianna and Lutheran groups showed monomorphism similar to that in Tibetan and Han populations. These findings could contribute to the investigation of the origin, evolution, and

  4. Moving Low-Carbon Transportation in Xinjiang: Evidence from STIRPAT and Rigid Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefang Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid economic development of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the area’s transport sector has witnessed significant growth, which in turn has led to a large increase in carbon dioxide emissions. As such, calculating of the carbon footprint of Xinjiang’s transportation sector and probing the driving factors of carbon dioxide emissions are of great significance to the region’s energy conservation and environmental protection. This paper provides an account of the growth in the carbon emissions of Xinjiang’s transportation sector during the period from 1989 to 2012. We also analyze the transportation sector’s trends and historical evolution. Combined with the STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology model and ridge regression, this study further quantitatively analyzes the factors that influence the carbon emissions of Xinjiang’s transportation sector. The results indicate the following: (1 the total carbon emissions and per capita carbon emissions of Xinjiang’s transportation sector both continued to rise rapidly during this period; their average annual growth rates were 10.8% and 9.1%, respectively; (2 the carbon emissions of the transportation sector come mainly from the consumption of diesel and gasoline, which accounted for an average of 36.2% and 2.6% of carbon emissions, respectively; in addition, the overall carbon emission intensity of the transportation sector showed an “S”-pattern trend within the study period; (3 population density plays a dominant role in increasing carbon dioxide emissions. Population is then followed by per capita GDP and, finally, energy intensity. Cargo turnover has a more significant potential impact on and role in emission reduction than do private vehicles. This is because road freight is the primary form of transportation used across Xinjiang, and this form of transportation has low energy efficiency. These findings have important

  5. The Brazil-Angola alkaline - carbonatite province and its main economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, F.E.V.L.; Di Valderano, M.H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The principal characteristics of the Brazil-Angola Alkaline Carbonatite Province are defined and described with specific reference to tectonic setting and economic aspects. The economic aspects of the Brazilian uranium deposits are emphasised. The Brazil-Angola Alkaline-Carbonatite Province can be divided into six Brazilian sub-provinces and two Angolan sub-provinces. Correlation between the sub-provinces of Brazil and Angola remains speculative due to the lack of detailed information, especially age determinations on the Angolan rocks. However, an analysis of the tectonic and petrochemical aspects suggests that the two Brazilian sub-provinces situated along the littoral of Rio de Janeiro/ Sao Paulo and around the periphery of the Parana Basin may be more easily comparable to the two Angolan sub-provinces than the remaining four. (Author) [pt

  6. Biotransformation of As (III to As (V and their stabilization in soil with Bacillus sp. XS2 isolated from gold mine tailing of Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Karn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Xinjiang province is one of the most polluted region in China, this region affected by multi-metal problem, especially arsenic (As affect very badly. Two major forms of As present in the environment As (III and As (V as compared to As (V, As (III is much more toxic. Our aim is to remediate As (III contaminated soil by using As (III resistant microbe, having the high transforming ability for As (III to As (V. An As (III oxidizing bacterium Bacillus sp. XS2, isolated and selected from gold mine tailing which have shown high resistance up to 6400 mg L−1 and efficiently transformed up to 4000 mg L−1 in sucrose low phosphate medium (SLP, higher than any of the previous reported Bacillus sp.. In soil, we found that XS2 successfully transformed up to 81% of soluble exchangeable fraction within 10 d in contaminated soil (with 500 mg kg−1, which makes it potential microbe for the removal of contaminated site with arsenic in the environment. Further XS2 was characterized for their molecular basis of resistance and we establish that XS2 having arsenic oxidase enzyme activity which is accountable for the detoxification of arsenic at high concentration and provide resistance to the bacterium. Gene encoding arsenic oxidase (aioA-gene was also amplified from this bacterium using polymerase chain reaction (PCR with degenerate primer. The aioA-gene is specific for the arsenite-oxidizing bacteria. The deduced amino acid sequence had shown 42% similarity with pseudomonas sp. arsenic oxidase. Further, the strain was characterized by 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis and shown maximum similarity with Bacillus sp.

  7. Analysis on hydrological condition for uranium ore formation in Wuerhe district, Junggar Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Quanqing; Zhang Xinke; Ren Manchuan

    2009-01-01

    Wuerhe district is located in the northwestern part of Junggar Basin, Xinjiang. It belongs to a relative quiet area without the obvious tectonic activities and obvious subsequent tectonic activization. Through the regional uranium resources evaluation on this area, the inter-bedded oxidation zone and uranium mineralization are discovered in Cretaceous. The wall rock, the recharge-runoff-discharge mechanism of groundwater, palaeo-hydrological condition, hydrological and hydrogeochemical features of groundwater are introduced briefly, the favorable uranium ore-forming segment is summarized to be located in the fore-mountain area to the west of Ke-Xia fault terrace zone. (authors)

  8. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  9. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd to 9(th centuries is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  10. Buried in sands: environmental analysis at the archaeological site of Xiaohe cemetery, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Feng Li

    Full Text Available Palynomorphs extracted from the mud coffins and plant remains preserved at the archaeological site of Xiaohe Cemetery (Cal. 3980 to 3540 years BP in Lop Nur Desert of Xinjiang, China were investigated for the reconstruction of the ancient environments at the site. The results demonstrate that the Xiaohe People lived at a well-developed oasis, which was surrounded by extensive desert. The vegetation in the oasis consisted of Populus, Phragmites, Typha and probably of Gramineae, while the desert surrounding the oasis had some common drought-resistant plants dominated by Ephedra, Tamarix, Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae. This present work provides the first data of the environmental background at this site for further archaeological investigation.

  11. The indentification of Jueluotage V-type structure in Xinjiang and its orderness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Maolong; Sun Wenpeng; Cai Wenbo; Xu Daoyi

    2005-01-01

    Based on the interpretation of satellite image and field checking in Jueluotage area, Xinjiang, it is thought that the sublatitudinal arc fault zones have been formed since Mesozoic through the evolution of the NWW-trending and NEE-trending faults occurring in pre-Mesozoic time. These three sets of faults comprise the Jueluotage 'V-type structure' formed by the NW-trending structural stress field and drastically activated since Neocene. The Jueluotage V-type structure is expressed in time as an ordered process, and in space as an ordered arrangement and an ordered evolution direction, and characterizes the Information Ordered Series (IOS) of the evolution process of fault structure. (authors)

  12. Inittial survey of natural radioactivity level in granite resource in hami and tuoli of Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qiwen; Liu E; Di Shaobin; Zhang Zhanjiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the measurement methods and results of natural radioactivity level in large-sized granite stone factories in Hami and Tuoli in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, such as mine pit, materials, finished productions and waste pile. Surface gamma exposure rate of materials and products, radon concentration, as well as specific activity of natural radionuclides in solid samples and process wastewater are detected, and for part of building materials, gamma radiation dose rate in buildings is also measured. It is concluded that the results of measurement fall in the range of the local background except for 20%-25% granite samples in excess of the level specified by National Environmental Protection Agency with respect to gamma radiation dose rate. (authors)

  13. Time Budget and Diet of the Booted Eagles in the Breeding Season in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoning Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the breeding seasons of 2010-2016, we have found seven nests of the Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus in Xinjiang, the west of China. We used a method of focal sampling and infrared cameras to continually observe behaviors and nestlings’ growth. Nestling behaviors were different between nestling period and post-nestling period. Attendance at the nests by both adults decreased as the nestling aged. The female brooded significantly more than the male did during daylight hours (P=0.016, F= 8.38, df =1. The daily mean number of food items delivered to the nests by adults was 3.2 times/day in nestling period, and 0.96/day in post-nestling period. Seven orders of wild birds, three orders of mammals and domestic poultry were documented as prey.

  14. Understanding the Complexity of Temperature Dynamics in Xinjiang, China, from Multitemporal Scale and Spatial Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the observed data from 51 meteorological stations during the period from 1958 to 2012 in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the complexity of temperature dynamics from the temporal and spatial perspectives by using a comprehensive approach including the correlation dimension (CD, classical statistics, and geostatistics. The main conclusions are as follows (1 The integer CD values indicate that the temperature dynamics are a complex and chaotic system, which is sensitive to the initial conditions. (2 The complexity of temperature dynamics decreases along with the increase of temporal scale. To describe the temperature dynamics, at least 3 independent variables are needed at daily scale, whereas at least 2 independent variables are needed at monthly, seasonal, and annual scales. (3 The spatial patterns of CD values at different temporal scales indicate that the complex temperature dynamics are derived from the complex landform.

  15. A method for estimation of hydrological sensibility applied in Golfo San Jorge basin. Province of Chubut. Argentina; Un metodo para estimar la sensibilidad hidrologica aplicado en la cuenca del Golfo San Jorge. Provincia de Chubut. Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M. A.; Scatizza, C.; Rojo, M.; Preiato, S. A.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-07-01

    A method developed and used in an area of Chubut Province is described. The object of the method is to determine the underground and surficial hydrological sensitivity in order to select the site of petroleum facilities with the least possible environmental hydric risk. It is based on the conjunction of the GOD method used to assess the intrinsic aquifer vulnerability (original version) and the proposed La Plata Method (MLP) for the surficial hydrological sensitivity. The latter method assigns numerical values based on landforms (positive and negative), slope percent and seasonality of the water regime, using a complexive range scale from zero to one. The Surficial Sensitivity factor results from the average of the three indicators and includes five categories, from low to extreme values. For a global coverage in the underground and surficial terrestrial arches (geo environmental map) it is proposed to compare the GOD values with those of the MLP method using a GIS, through the mathematical overlapping of two raster layers (map algebra) in each map pixel. In addition to the cartographic display, attribute tables can be used to estimate the environmental pollution in soils and waters, existing infrastructure and location of new facilities and drillings. The Arc Map 9.1 program was used due to its capacity for a permanent and quasi-automatic updating of thematic mapping. The map corresponding to Cerro for the initial position 2007 is presented as an example. (Author) 6 refs.

  16. Prevalence of Diabetes and Associated Factors in the Uyghur and Han Population in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Haiying; Pa, Lize; Wang, Ke; Mu, Hebuli; Dong, Fen; Ya, Shengjiang; Xu, Guodong; Tao, Ning; Pan, Li; Wang, Bin; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-10-14

    To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and identify risk factors in the Uyghur and Han population in Xinjiang, China. A cross-sectional study in urban and rural areas in Xinjiang, including 2863 members of the Uyghur population and 3060 of the Han population aged 20 to 80 years, was conducted from June 2013 to August 2013. Data on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and personal history of diabetes were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and lipid profiles were collected to identify risks factors using the multivariate logistic regression model. In urban areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 8.21%, and the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Uyghur population (10.47%) than in the Han population (7.36%). In rural areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.08%, and it did not differ significantly between the Uyghur population (5.71%) and the Han population (6.59%). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age, obesity, high triglycerides (TG), and hypertension were all associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur and Han population. Urban residence and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur population. Being an ex-drinker was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heavy physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in the Han population. Our study indicates that diabetes is more prevalent in the Uyghur population compared with the Han population in urban areas. Strategies aimed at the prevention of diabetes require ethnic targeting.

  17. A Novel Recombinant Enterovirus Type EV-A89 with Low Epidemic Strength in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Lan; Sun, Qiang; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Sikandaner, Huerxidan; Tang, Haishu; Wang, Dongyan; Zhu, Zhen; Zhu, Shuangli; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-12-21

    Enterovirus A89 (EV-A89) is a novel member of the EV-A species. To date, only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) has been published. Here, we report the molecular identification and genomic characterization of a Chinese EV-A89 strain, KSYPH-TRMH22F/XJ/CHN/2011, isolated in 2011 from a contact of an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patient during AFP case surveillance in Xinjiang China. This was the first report of EV-A89 in China. The VP1 coding sequence of this strain demonstrated 93.2% nucleotide and 99.3% amino acid identity with the EV-A89 prototype strain. In the P2 and P3 regions, the Chinese EV-A89 strain demonstrated markedly higher identity than the prototype strains of EV-A76, EV-A90, and EV-A91, indicating that one or more recombination events between EV-A89 and these EV-A types might have occurred. Long-term evolution of these EV types originated from the same ancestor provides the spatial and temporal circumstances for recombination to occur. An antibody sero-prevalence survey against EV-A89 in two Xinjiang prefectures demonstrated low positive rates and low titres of EV-A89 neutralization antibody, suggesting limited range of transmission and exposure to the population. This study provides a solid foundation for further studies on the biological and pathogenic properties of EV-A89.

  18. Prevalence of Diabetes and Associated Factors in the Uyghur and Han Population in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Gong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and identify risk factors in the Uyghur and Han population in Xinjiang, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study in urban and rural areas in Xinjiang, including 2863 members of the Uyghur population and 3060 of the Han population aged 20 to 80 years, was conducted from June 2013 to August 2013. Data on fasting plasma glucose (FPG and personal history of diabetes were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and lipid profiles were collected to identify risks factors using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results: In urban areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 8.21%, and the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Uyghur population (10.47% than in the Han population (7.36%. In rural areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.08%, and it did not differ significantly between the Uyghur population (5.71% and the Han population (6.59%. The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age, obesity, high triglycerides (TG, and hypertension were all associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur and Han population. Urban residence and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur population. Being an ex-drinker was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heavy physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in the Han population. Conclusions: Our study indicates that diabetes is more prevalent in the Uyghur population compared with the Han population in urban areas. Strategies aimed at the prevention of diabetes require ethnic targeting.

  19. Cooling effect of agricultural irrigation over Xinjiang, Northwest China from 1959 to 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Songjun; Yang Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    The influences of agricultural irrigation on trends in surface air temperature from 1959 to 2006 over Xinjiang, Northwest China are evaluated using data from 90 meteorological stations. The 90 stations are located in landscapes with markedly different cultivated land uses. The increasing trends in daily average temperature (T a ), maximum temperature (T max ), and minimum temperature (T min ) for May–September (the main growing season) are negatively correlated with cultivated land proportions within 4 km of the meteorological stations, as indicated by year 2000 land use data. The correlations between the trends in T max and cultivated land proportions are the most significant. The trends in T a , T max , and T min for May–September are expected to decrease by −0.018, −0.014, and −0.016 ° C per decade, respectively, along with a 10% increase in cultivated land proportion. As irrigated cultivated land occupies over 90% of total cultivated land, the dependence of temperature trends on cultivated area is attributed to irrigation. The cooling effects on stations with cultivated land proportion larger than 50% are compared to temperature trends in a reference group with cultivated land proportion smaller than 10%. The irrigation expansion from 1959 to 2006 over Xinjiang is found to be associated with cooling of May–September T a , T max , and T min by around −0.15 ° C to −0.10 ° C/decade in the station group with extensive irrigation. Short periods of rapid irrigation expansion co-occurred with the significant cooling of the May–September temperature. (letter)

  20. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth in the Arid or Semiarid Region of Northern Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinpeng Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing has been widely used to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD, which is an indicator of air quality as well as radiative forcing. The dark target (DT algorithm is applied to low reflectance areas, such as dense vegetation, and the deep blue (DB algorithm is adopted for bright-reflecting regions. However, both DT and DB algorithms ignore the effect of surface bidirectional reflectance. This paper provides a method for AOD retrieval in arid or semiarid areas, in which the key points are the accurate estimation of surface reflectance and reasonable assumptions of the aerosol model. To reduce the uncertainty in surface reflectance, a minimum land surface reflectance database at the spatial resolution of 500 m for each month was constructed based on the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS surface reflectance product. Furthermore, a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF correction model was adopted to compensate for the effect of surface reflectance anisotropy. The aerosol parameters, including AOD, single scattering albedo, asymmetric factor, Ångström exponent and complex refractive index, are determined based on the observation of two sunphotometers installed in northern Xinjiang from July to August 2014. The AOD retrieved from the MODIS images was validated with ground-based measurements and the Terra-MODIS aerosol product (MOD04. The 500 m AOD retrieved from the MODIS showed high consistency with ground-based AOD measurements, with an average correlation coefficient of ~0.928, root mean square error (RMSE of ~0.042, mean absolute error (MAE of ~0.032, and the percentage falling within the expected error (EE of the collocations is higher than that for the MOD04 DB product. The results demonstrate that the new AOD algorithm is more suitable to represent aerosol conditions over Xinjiang than the DB standard product.

  1. Identifying and assessing human activity impacts on groundwater quality through hydrogeochemical anomalies and NO3-, NH4+, and COD contamination: a case study of the Liujiang River Basin, Hebei Province, P.R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cong; He, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Man-Li; Zhang, Zhen-Guo; Wang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    In the face of rapid economic development and increasing human activity, the deterioration of groundwater quality has seriously affected the safety of the groundwater supply in eastern China. Identifying and assessing the impact of human activities is key to finding solutions to this problem. This study is an effort to scientifically and systematically identify and assess the influence of human activities on groundwater based on irregularities in hydrochemical properties and water contamination, which are considered to directly result from anthropogenic activity. The combination of the hydrochemical anomaly identification (HAI) and the contaminant identification (CI) was proposed to identify the influence of human activities on groundwater quality. And the degree of abnormality was quantified by the background threshold value. The principal component analysis (PCA) and land use map were used to verify the reliability of the identification result. The final result show that the strong influence areas mainly distributed in the south of the basin and the affected indicators contained the major elements and NO 3 - , NH 4 + , COD. Impacts from anthropogenic activities can be divided into two types: mine drainage that disrupts natural water-rock interaction processes, agricultural cultivation, and sewage emissions that contribute to nitrate pollution.

  2. White rice consumption and risk of esophageal cancer in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Li; Xu, Fenglian; Zhang, Taotao; Lei, Jun; Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association between white rice consumption and the risk of esophageal cancer in remote northwest China, where the cancer incidence is known to be high. A case-control study was conducted during 2008?2009 in Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. Participants were 359 incident esophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. Information on habitual white rice consumption was obtained by personal interview using a validated semi-qu...

  3. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 3: Kinematics of Great Basin intraplate extension from earthquake, geodetic and geologic information. Final Technical Report, 15 Apr. 1981 - 31 Jan. 1986 M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    Strain rates assessed from brittle fracture, associated with earthquakes, and total brittle-ductile deformation measured from geodetic data were compared to paleostrain from Quaternary geology for the intraplate Great Basin of the western United States. These data provide an assessment of the kinematics and mode of lithospheric extension that the western U.S. Cordillera has experienced in the last 5 to 10 million years. Strain and deformation rates were determined by the seismic moment tensor method using historic seismicity and fault plane solutions. Contemporary deformation of the Great Basin occurs principally along the active seismic zones. The earthquake related strain shows that the Great Basin is characterized by regional E-W extension at 8.4 mm/a in the north that diminishes to NW-SE extension of 3.5 mm/a in the south. Zones of maximum extension correspond to belts of shallow crust, high heat flow, and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, suggesting that these parameters are related through an effect such as a stress relaxation allowing bouyant uplift and ascension of magmas.

  4. The Mexican mesozoic uranium province: its distribution and metallogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan B, S.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of uranium scattered in sedimentary terrains of the continental jurassic such as those found in the Tlaxiaco-Guerrero Basin encourage the outlook for uncovering extensive new deposits of strato-bound uranium belonging to the Mexican mesozoic in other structurally similar intercratonic basins. Stratographic and paleographic structural references define the simultaneous evolution of five sedimentary basins during the Mexican geotechtonic cycle: 1. the Tlaxiaco-Guerrero basin, 2. the Huayacocotla basin, 3. the Gulf of Sabinas basin, 4. the Chihuahua basin and 5. the Sonora basin. From the various lithostratographic formations in them we favourably infer the presence of intermountainous mesozoic concentrations of uranium sediments leached from crystalline precambric packets and from nevadian plutonites and volcanic rocks. During the metallogeny process described under the techtonic evolution of the Mexican structural belt, the presence is established of extensive terciary hydrothermal uranium deposits in the districts of Aldama, Chihuahua; Coneto-El Rodeo, Durango; Vizarron de Montes, Queretaro; Tlaucingo, Puebla; Los Amoles, Sonora; El Picacho, Sonora; Amalia Margarita, Coahuila; etc., scattered in sandstones and sinters of the continental mesozoic and shifted during the postorogenic phase of the Mexican geotectonic cycle. The extensive mesozoic province defined within the Mexican territory favourable to large deposits of uranium, scattered and strato-bound in triassic, jurassic and cretaceous sandstone and sinters, could resolve future demands for energetics within a modified philosophy and resourceful policy of regional mining. (author)

  5. 面向生态的陕西省渭河流域水资源合理配置%Ecology-Oriented Rational Allocation of Water Resources of Weihe River Basin in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙甜; 董增川; 苏明珍

    2015-01-01

    结合陕西省渭河流域的水资源开发利用现状,对其水资源优化管理进行研究。通过分析流域社会经济发展的特点及生态环境形势,以定额法为基础对2020年流域的生活、生产和生态需水进行了预测。根据系统概化图和配水目标,综合考虑水资源配置中的生态指标、社会指标和经济指标,建立了面向生态的水资源合理配置模型。将混沌优化算法与遗传算法相结合对模型进行求解,结果表明:陕西省渭河流域2020年75%保证率下的缺水率为18.1%。%Combining with the development and utilization of water resources in the Weihe River in Shaanxi Province,this paper discussed the optimal management of water resources. After analyzing the characteristics of socio-economic development and ecological environment, it adopted the quota method as the essential method to forecast the life water demand,production water demand and ecological water demand in 2020. Ecological targets,social and economic targets were the main water distribution objectives. According to the network outline map of the water resources system,considering the demand of ecosystem,it established the reasonable water resources deployment model. Chaos op-timization algorithm and genetic algorithm were combined to solve the model. The results show that the water shortage rate under the condi-tiors of 75% guarantee rate in 2020 is 18. 1% and the gap is still large.

  6. The dominant role of climate change in determining changes in evapotranspiration in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiuliang; Bai, Jie; Li, Longhui; Kurban, Alishir; De Maeyer, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China has experienced significant land cover and climate change since the beginning of the 21st century. However, a reasonable simulation of evapotranspiration (ET) and its response to environmental factors are still unclear. For this study, to simulate ET and its response to climate and land cover change in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012, we used the Common Land Model (CoLM) by adding irrigation effects for cropland and modifying root distributions and the root water uptake process for shrubland. Our results indicate that mean annual ET from 2001 to 2012 was 131.22 (±21.78) mm/year and demonstrated no significant trend (p = 0.12). The model simulation also indicates that climate change was capable of explaining 99% of inter-annual ET variability; land cover change only explained 1%. Land cover change caused by the expansion of croplands increased annual ET by 1.11 mm while climate change, mainly resulting from both decreased temperature and precipitation, reduced ET by 21.90 mm. Our results imply that climate change plays a dominant role in determining changes in ET, and also highlight the need for appropriate land-use strategies for managing water sources in dryland ecosystems within Xinjiang.

  7. The dominant role of climate change in determining changes in evapotranspiration in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuliang Yuan

    Full Text Available The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China has experienced significant land cover and climate change since the beginning of the 21st century. However, a reasonable simulation of evapotranspiration (ET and its response to environmental factors are still unclear. For this study, to simulate ET and its response to climate and land cover change in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012, we used the Common Land Model (CoLM by adding irrigation effects for cropland and modifying root distributions and the root water uptake process for shrubland. Our results indicate that mean annual ET from 2001 to 2012 was 131.22 (±21.78 mm/year and demonstrated no significant trend (p = 0.12. The model simulation also indicates that climate change was capable of explaining 99% of inter-annual ET variability; land cover change only explained 1%. Land cover change caused by the expansion of croplands increased annual ET by 1.11 mm while climate change, mainly resulting from both decreased temperature and precipitation, reduced ET by 21.90 mm. Our results imply that climate change plays a dominant role in determining changes in ET, and also highlight the need for appropriate land-use strategies for managing water sources in dryland ecosystems within Xinjiang.

  8. 新疆森林资源动态分析%Dynamic analysis and evaluation of Xinjiang forest resources: based on RS and GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虎; 王晓峰; 陈蜀疆

    2005-01-01

    The forest resources in Xinjiang were surveyed and analyzed based on RS and GIS. Satellite data interpretation was adopted to obtain the general situation of Xinjiang forest resources in assistance with the sampling method and on-the-spot investigations. Based on GIS, related data obtained from satellite remote sensing in 1996 and 2001 were studied through contrastive analysis. Moreover, the dynamic variation of Xinjiang forest resources was studied in an all-around way. In the past five years,the areas of the forestland, woodland, sparse woodland, nursery garden and the land usable for forestry in Xinjiang kept growing, moreover, the forest cover rate and the total standing stock volume increased correspondingly, showing that the wooded area and the amount of growing stock in Xinjiang were increasing. The forestland area in Xinjiang went up to 17,837 km2 from 17,331 km2, with an annual average increase of 101 km2. Accordingly, the forest vegetation came to 1.08% from 1.05%, up 0.03percentage point; the total standing stock volume went up to 289,985,200 m3 from 262,416,000 m3, a total increase of 27,569,200 m3, an annual average increase of 5,514,000 m3 and an annual average net growth rate of 2.00%. The analysis results showed that the forest resources in Xinjiang were increasing on the whole, however, there remained some problems, such as the sparse natural forests, low forest cover rate, imbalanced wood age structure, and mono tree species composition, etc.

  9. Prevalence of Hypertension among Adults in Remote Rural Areas of Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to estimate prevalence of hypertension among adults in rural remote areas of Xinjiang, China and evaluate the associated factors of hypertension. Methods: The survey was based on questionnaire interviews and clinical measurements of 11,340 individuals (≥18 years old, and was conducted during 2009–2010 via a stratified cluster random sampling method in the remote rural areas of Xinjiang, about 4407 km away from the capital Beijing. Hypertension was defined according to WHO/ISH criteria. Results: Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of the population were (126.3 ± 21.4 and (80.9 ± 13.4 mmHg. Compared with Han nationality subjects, SBP and DBP of Kazakh nationality subjects were significantly high (p < 0.05, while the SBP and DBP of Uyghur subjects were significantly low (Kazakh: (128.7 ± 23.9 and (83.0 ± 14.6 mmHg, Uyghur: (123.6 ± 19.3 and (77.4 ± 12.7 mmHg, Han: (126.5 ± 20.5 and (82.6 ± 11.9 mmHg, p < 0.05. Prevalence of hypertension of the population was 32.1%, and was greater among Kazakhs and lower among Uyghur than Han (Kazakh: 36.9%, Uyghur: 26.1%, Han: 33.7%, p < 0.05. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 30.2%, and was greater among Kazakhs while lower among Uyghurs than Han subjects (Kazakh: 37.0%, Uyghur: 26.0%, Han: 33.8%, p < 0.05, p < 0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed Gender (OR = 1.324, age (OR = 2.098, 3.681, 6.794, 9.473, 14.646, nationality (OR = 1.541, occupation (OR = 1.659, 1.576, education (OR = 1.260, BMI (OR = 1.842, WC (OR = 1.585, WHR (OR = 1.188, WHR (OR = 1.188, diabetes (OR = 1.879, hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.361, hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.131 and high blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (OR = 1.956 were all positively correlated with hypertension, while low blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (OR = 0.765 was negatively correlated with hypertension. Conclusions: Prevalence of

  10. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection among the general Uygur population from south and north region of Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hui

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kaposi sarcoma (KS is a complex multifocal neoplasm and is the major cause of death for about 50% of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is an oncogenic virus with a causal role in the development of all types of KS. KS is prevalent among the Uygur people in Xinjiang, especially in south area. Here we carried out a cross-sectional study among 1534 general Uygur individuals from south and north region of Xinjiang to assess the seroprevalence of KSHV and to identify the potential correlation between KSHV seroprevalence and KS incidence. Results Seroprevalence of KSHV in South and North Xinjiang was 23.1% and 25.9%, respectively. Older age was independently associated with higher KSHV seroprevalence. In subjects from South Xinjiang, lower educational level and reported drinking were each independently associated with higher KSHV seroprevalence. Furthermore, the antibody titer was significantly lower in both south and north KSHV seropositive individuals compared with KS patients, as analyzed by gradient dilution (P Conclusion KSHV is highly prevalent in the general Uygur population in both South and North Xinjiang. Interestingly, the infection rate of KSHV in these two geographical areas did not correlate well with KS incidence. Perhaps unknown factors exist that promote the progression of KSHV infection to KS development in the local minority groups.

  11. Renewable energy markets in China: An analysis of renewable energy markets in Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan provinces, with updated information from Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaupen, S.B.

    1999-12-13

    The People's Republic of China has undergone many changes over the past decade that have led to new growth and created opportunities for many industries, including the renewable energy industry. China has consistently had one of the fastest-growing economies in Asia. This report is a continuation of a market assessment done in 1997, which analyzed six provinces (Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Shandong, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Zhejiang) in China. The information contained in this report comes mainly from interviews conducted with central and local government officials, state and local power bureau officials, and various company executives. The report provides valuable market information necessary for any company interested in entering China's renewable energy market. It also details the legal, competitive, sociocultural, technological, geographic, and economic environments of four provinces in China: Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan. In addition, it outlines the major central government policies and contacts important to renewable energy development within China.

  12. The study of remote sensing dynamic monitoring for coalfield fire area in Shuixigou, Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Jun; Tashpolat-Tiyip

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic monitoring of fire area is particularly important in the controlling of underground coalfield fire. This paper took the Xinjiang Shuixigou coalfield fire area as an example, through the normalized processing of the multi-temporal thermal infrared images a generalized single-channel algorithm was used to retrieval the surface temperature. Combined with the method of single band optimal density split Sec-segmentation followed by dividing the fire area into the background region, serious combust region and more serious combust region. Thermal anomaly information in the coalfield fire area and analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics change of underground coalfield were calculated as follows:(1)fire area increased 2.03 times between 1990 and 2011, the annual average degree of dynamic changes was 1.28 in the first ten years and increased to 4.57 in the last ten years;(2)the gravity of the little serious area of the coalfield fire integrally moved north to northwest from 1990 to 2001, then northeast from 2001 to 2011;(3)there were three original independent child fire area A, B and C, but A and B merged between 1990 to 2001, C also trended close A and B until 2011. Remote sensing technology provides a feasible method for the dynamic monitoring of coalfield fire area and provides theory basis and scientific guidance for the prevention of coalfield fire disaster and implementation of coalfield fires fighting engineering

  13. Stratigraphy and facies development of the marine Late Devonian near the Boulongour Reservoir, northwest Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttner, Thomas J.; Kido, Erika; Chen, Xiuqin; Mawson, Ruth; Waters, Johnny A.; Frýda, Jiří; Mathieson, David; Molloy, Peter D.; Pickett, John; Webster, Gary D.; Frýdová, Barbora

    2014-02-01

    Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous stratigraphic units within the 'Zhulumute' Formation, Hongguleleng Formation (stratotype), 'Hebukehe' Formation and the Heishantou Formation near the Boulongour Reservoir in northwestern Xinjiang are fossil-rich. The Hongguleleng and 'Hebukehe' formations are biostratigraphically well constrained by microfossils from the latest Frasnian linguiformis to mid-Famennian trachytera conodont biozones. The Hongguleleng Formation (96.8 m) is characterized by bioclastic argillaceous limestones and marls (the dominant facies) intercalated with green spiculitic calcareous shales. It yields abundant and highly diverse faunas of bryozoans, brachiopods and crinoids with subordinate solitary rugose corals, ostracods, trilobites, conodonts and other fish teeth. The succeeding 'Hebukehe' Formation (95.7 m) consists of siltstones, mudstones, arenites and intervals of bioclastic limestone (e.g. 'Blastoid Hill') and cherts with radiolarians. A diverse ichnofauna, phacopid trilobites, echinoderms (crinoids and blastoids) together with brachiopods, ostracods, bryozoans and rare cephalopods have been collected from this interval. Analysis of geochemical data, microfacies and especially the distribution of marine organisms, which are not described in detail here, but used for facies analysis, indicate a deepening of the depositional environment at the Boulongour Reservoir section. Results presented here concern mainly the sedimentological and stratigraphical context of the investigated section. Additionally, one Late Devonian palaeo-oceanic and biotic event, the Upper Kellwasser Event is recognized near the section base.

  14. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengwei Lou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920–18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R0=2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129–2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic.

  15. Antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antitumor activities of essential oil of Agastache rugosa from Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Haiyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study, we evaluated chemical composition and antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antitumor activities of essential oils from dried leaf essential oil of leaf and flower of Agastache rugosa for the first time. Essential oil of leaf and flower was evaluated with GC and GC–MS methods, and the essential oil of flower revealed the presence of 21 components, whose major compounds were pulegone (34.1%, estragole (29.5%, and p-Menthan-3-one (19.2%. 26 components from essential oil of leaf were identified, the major compounds were p-Menthan-3-one (48.8% and estragole (20.8%. At the same time, essential oil of leaf, there is a very effective antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 9.4 to 42 μg ml−1 and potential antibiofilm, antitumor activities for essential oils of flower and leaf essential oil of leaf. The study highlighted the diversity in two different parts of A. rugosa grown in Xinjiang region and other places, which have different active constituents. Our results showed that this native plant may be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  16. Dynamics of the population quantity of Juglans mandshurica Maxim. in different habitats in Xinjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Li, J.; Zhang, W.

    2015-01-01

    Transects were arranged on the shady and sunny slopes, as well as at different elevations of the main, eastern, central, and western gullies in the Wild Walnut Nature Reserve in Xinjiang, China to survey a large sample of Juglans mandshurica. The structures of height class and diameter at breast height (DBH) class were used to represent age structure to compare and analyze the dynamics of the population quantity of J. mandshurica in different habitats. Results showed that J. mandshurica population comprises numerous young seedlings, which develop into young plants with a high death rate. The number of adult plants is stable. J. mandshurica population is r-strategists in the young stage, and k-strategists supplemented by r-strategists in the juvenile and subsequent stages. The structures of height class and DBH class fluctuate at different slope aspects and elevations. The growth of young seedlings into adult plants is discontinuous. Tree height and DBH are relatively uniform in the same age class, and the coefficient of variation is independent of slope aspect and elevation. The maximum numbers of age classes in J. mandshurica population with different height and DBH classes differ at three elevations. Low- and medium-age classes are dominant in all situations. That is, population is mainly composed of juvenile and adult trees, and age structure is classified as a growth type. Without strong external interference, J. mandshurica population will maintain its superior position in the community. (author)

  17. Feature Extraction and Classification on Esophageal X-Ray Images of Xinjiang Kazak Nationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is one of the fastest rising types of cancers in China. The Kazak nationality is the highest-risk group in Xinjiang. In this work, an effective computer-aided diagnostic system is developed to assist physicians in interpreting digital X-ray image features and improving the quality of diagnosis. The modules of the proposed system include image preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, image classification, and performance evaluation. 300 original esophageal X-ray images were resized to a region of interest and then enhanced by the median filter and histogram equalization method. 37 features from textural, frequency, and complexity domains were extracted. Both sequential forward selection and principal component analysis methods were employed to select the discriminative features for classification. Then, support vector machine and K-nearest neighbors were applied to classify the esophageal cancer images with respect to their specific types. The classification performance was evaluated in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, accuracy, precision, and recall, respectively. Experimental results show that the classification performance of the proposed system outperforms the conventional visual inspection approaches in terms of diagnostic quality and processing time. Therefore, the proposed computer-aided diagnostic system is promising for the diagnostics of esophageal cancer.

  18. Russian Сonsuls in Xinjiang: Legislative Initiatives at the Turn of XIX–XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar K. Mukanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an interesting chapter in the history of international relations in Central Asia, namely, the role of the consular service in tracing ethno-demographic processes in the area of Russian-Chinese border. Observation Russian consuls and analysis of the situation at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries are reflected in the sources that allowed the author to explore the details of the development of the law in 1903 to regulate the uncontrolled immigration. The author studied the array of documents from the archival funds and memoir literature, periodical press materials specified period. Activities of Russian consuls for many years has not been studied as a subject of study, since the coming to power of the Bolsheviks in 1917 and the abdication of Nicholas Romanov 2 put them out of politics. The fate of Russian consuls abroad after 1917 constitutes a separate dramatic page of history. China has actively cooperated with the consuls in Xinjiang, which is understandable position of the state on the eve of the First World War. This is an example of the interested cooperation of Russia and China in solving the problem of spontaneous cross-border migration in Central Asia.

  19. Oxygen isotope exchange kinetics between coexistent minerals and water in the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 李志安; 赵志忠

    1996-01-01

    Coexistent minerals quartz, feldspar and biotite vary widely in δ18O value and display remarkable 18O/16O disequilibrium relations in the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang. The 18O/16O exchange reaction definitely occurred between granite and water. Initial δ18O values of the granite and exotic water are evaluated by the mass balance consideration. The results show that the 18O/16O exchange reaction is not necessarily accompanied by what geologists describe as petrological and mineralogiesl alteration effects, indicating that the exchange reaction occurs at a comparatively high temperature during subsolidus cooling of magmas. Exchange mechanism is mainly controlled by diffusion. It is demonstrated through quantitative modelling that the hydrothermal system associated with the Ertaibei pluton lived for 0.8-3 Ma, with a fluid flow rate of 3 × 10-14 mol · s-1 and water/rock (W/R) ratio of 0.79 - 3.08. Flow path and initial heterogeneity of the exotic metamorphic fluid are modelled with the δ1

  20. Three-dimensional thermoluminescence spectra of different origin quartz from Altay Orogenic belt, Xinjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Kaixuan; Liu Zehua; Zeng Sheng; Liu Yan; Xie Yanshi; Rieser, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional thermoluminescence spectra are measured for different types of geological origin quartz from the Altay orogenic belt, northern Xinjiang, China. The results show striking differences which appear to be characteristic of their geological origin. Granitic quartz is dominated by emission bands at 420-430 nm, 550-560 nm, at a temperature of 170 deg. C. Pegmatite quartz is characterized by an intense 480 nm emission band at 170 deg. C. Volcanic quartz has exclusive UV (340-360 nm) and violet (410-430 nm) emission bands. Hydrothermal quartz exhibits very different TL spectral characteristics because of different hydrothermal activity and mineralization. Only one TL peaks at 485 nm/170 deg. C was observed in sedimentary quartz. An intense 730 nm emission band observed at 170 deg. C considered generally to be characteristics of feldspar was observed in quartz from granite and hydrothermal Au-bearing quartz. This TL peak is probably related to the centre of [FeO 4 ] 0 on an Si site. All samples show an intense 990-1000 nm emission band at 330 deg. C. Identical types of quartz formed in different regions or different geological and tectonic settings can also exhibit striking differences in TL spectra.

  1. Species identification refined by molecular scatology in a community of sympatric carnivores in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguardia, Alice; Wang, Jun; Shi, Fang-Lei; Shi, Kun; Riordan, Philip

    2015-03-18

    Many ecological studies and conservation management plans employ noninvasive scat sampling based on the assumption that species' scats can be correctly identified in the field. However, in habitats with sympatric similarly sized carnivores, misidentification of scats is frequent and can lead to bias in research results. To address the scat identification dilemma, molecular scatology techniques have been developed to extract DNA from the donor cells present on the outer lining of the scat samples. A total of 100 samples were collected in the winter of 2009 and 2011 in Taxkorgan region of Xinjiang, China. DNA was extracted successfully from 88% of samples and genetic species identification showed that more than half the scats identified in the field as snow leopard (Panthera uncia) actually belonged to fox (Vulpes vulpes). Correlation between scat characteristics and species were investigated, showing that diameter and dry weight of the scat were significantly different between the species. However it was not possible to define a precise range of values for each species because of extensive overlap between the morphological values. This preliminary study confirms that identification of snow leopard feces in the field is misleading. Research that relies upon scat samples to assess distribution or diet of the snow leopard should therefore employ molecular scatology techniques. These methods are financially accessible and employ relatively simple laboratory procedures that can give an indisputable response to species identification from scats.

  2. Monitoring of Land-Surface Deformation in the Karamay Oilfield, Xinjiang, China, Using SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusupujiang Aimaiti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR interferometry is a technique that provides high-resolution measurements of the ground displacement associated with various geophysical processes. To investigate the land-surface deformation in Karamay, a typical oil-producing city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR data were acquired for the period from 2007 to 2009, and a two-pass differential SAR interferometry (D-InSAR process was applied. The experimental results showed that two sites in the north-eastern part of the city exhibit a clear indication of land deformation. For a further evaluation of the D-InSAR result, the Persistent Scatterer (PS and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS-InSAR techniques were applied for 21 time series Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT C-band Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR data from 2003 to 2010. The comparison between the D-InSAR and SBAS-InSAR measurements had better agreement than that from the PS-InSAR measurement. The maximum deformation rate attributed to subsurface water injection for the period from 2003 to 2010 was up to approximately 33 mm/year in the line of sight (LOS direction. The interferometric phase change from November 2007 to June 2010 showed a clear deformation pattern, and the rebound center has been expanding in scale and increasing in quantity.

  3. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-28

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  4. [Growth analysis on modules of Cynodon dactylon clones in Yili River Valley Plain of Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Janar; Li, Hai-Yan; Liu, Ying; Yang, Yun-Fei

    2009-04-01

    By the method of randomly digging up whole ramet tuft while maintaining natural integrity, large samples of Cynodon dactylon clones were collected from a grape orchard abandoned for 2 years without any management in the Yili River Valley Plain of Xinjiang, aimed to quantitatively analyze the growth patterns of their modules. The results showed that the average ramet number of test 30 clones reached 272.6 +/- 186. 6, among which, vegetative ramets occupied 82.3%, being 4.3 times higher than reproductive ones. The total biomass of the clones was 45.4 +/- 40.0 g, in which, rhizomes accounted for 54.4%, while the vegetative ramets, stolons, and reproductive ramets occupied 21.0%, 14.8%, and 9.4% of the total, respectively. The accumulative length of rhizomes and stolons reached 5.1 + 4.7 m and 3.3 +/- 3.4 m, while the bud number on stolons and rhizomes was 291.5 +/- 246.8 and 78.8 +/- 87.4, respectively. The bud number on stolons and rhizomes was positively correlated to the quantitative characters of vegetative ramets, reproductive ramets, stolons, and rhizomes (P < 0.01), indicating that in Yili River Valley Plain, C. dactylon clone could achieve and maintain its continuous renovation via rhizome buds.

  5. Assessment of Grassland Health Based on Spatial Information Technology in Changji Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M. J.; Zheng, J. H.; Mu, C.

    2018-04-01

    Based on the "pressure-state-response" (PSR) model, comprehensively applied GIS and RS techniques, 20 evaluation indicators were selected based on pressure, state and response, the entropy weight method was used to determine the weight of each index and build a grassland health evaluation system in Changji Prefecture, Xinjiang. Based on this, evaluation and dynamic analysis of grassland health in Changji Prefecture from 2000 to 2016, using GIS/RS technology, the trend of grassland health status in Changji is analyzed and studied. The results show that: 1) Grassland with low health leveld, lower health level, sub-health level, health level and high health level accounts for 1.46 %,27.67 %,38.35 %,29.21 % and 3.31 % of the total area of Changji. Qitai County, Hutubi County, and Manas County are lower health levels, Jimsar County, Changji City, and Mulei County are at a relatively high level, and Fukang City has a healthy level of health. 2) The level of grassland health in Changji County decreased slightly during the 17 years, accounting for 38.42 % of the total area. The area of 23,87 % showed a stable trend, and the improved area accounted for 37.31 % of the vertical surface area.

  6. PIXE and ICP-AES analysis of early glass unearthed from Xinjiang (China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B. [Department of Technical Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Ma, B. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Q.H. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang, P. [Xinjiang Institute of Archaeology, Urumchi 830011 (China); Gan, F.X. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yang, F.J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2005-10-15

    Early glasses (about 1066 BC-220 AD) unearthed from Xinjiang of China were chemically characterized by using PIXE and ICP-AES. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO{sub 2} system, K{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} system, Na{sub 2}O-CaO-SiO{sub 2} system and Na{sub 2}O-CaO-PbO-SiO{sub 2} system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had basically similar recipe and technology. The PbO-BaO-SiO{sub 2} glass and the K{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} glass were thought to come from the central area and the south of ancient China, respectively. The part of the Na{sub 2}O-CaO-SiO{sub 2} glass (including the Na{sub 2}O-CaO-PbO-SiO{sub 2} glass) might be imported from Mesopotamia, while the other part might be locally produced.

  7. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920–18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R 0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129–2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R 0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic. PMID:27872852

  8. Rapid Quantification and Quantitation of Alkaloids in Xinjiang Fritillaria by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Mohammat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Fritillaria genus, including different kinds of medicinal and edible plants belonging to the Liliaceae family which have the function of treating and relieving a cough and eliminating phlegm, is widely planted in Xinjiang (China. There are few comprehensive studies reporting on the characterization of the chemical constituents of Fritillaria from Xinjiang, and to date, no work describing the quantitative differences between the components in Fritillaria from Xinjiang and related species. The purpose of this study was to develop qualitative and quantitative analytical methods by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS for the rapid quantification and quantitation of alkaloids in wild and cultivated Xinjiang Fritillaria, which could be used in the quality control of medicine based on this natural herb. Using the UPLC-QTOF-MS method, the chemical constituents of Xinjiang Fritillaria were identified by fragmentation information and retention behavior, and were compared to reference standards. Furthermore, a quantitative comparision of four major alkaloids in wild and cultivated Xinjiang Fritillaria was conducted by determining the content of Sipeimine-3β-d-glucoside, Sipeimine, Peimisine, and Yibeinoside A, respectively. A total of 89 characteristic peaks, including more than 40 alkaloids, were identified in the chromatographic results of Fritillaria. Four main alkaloids were quantified by using a validated method based on UPLC-QTOF-MS. The relative contents of Sipeimine-3β-d-glucoside, Sipeimine, Peimisine, and Yibeinoside A varied from 0.0013%~0.1357%, 0.0066%~0.1218%, 0.0033%~0.0437%, and 0.0019%~0.1398%, respectively. A rough separation of wild and cultivated Fritillaria could be achieved by the cluster analysis method.

  9. [Detection rates of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with different ethnicities in Xinjiang Uigur areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixia; Li, Xiaomei; Tao, Jing; Ma, Yitong; Yang, Yining; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bangdang; Xie, Xiang; Yang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the detection rates of overweight and obesity among Han,Uygur and Kazakh Children and adolescents in Xinjiang. Random samples were used to analyze the detection rates on overweight and obesity based on data from Han,Uygur and Kazakh Children and adolescents aged 7-14 years from 3 regions-Hetian, Kashi and Fuhai prefectures in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Anthropometric data including weight and height was collected. Overweight and obesity were defined according to body mass index [BMI, weight (kg)/height (m²)] cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Working Group on Obesity for Children (WGOC)aged 7-14 years. The present study was performed in 11 894 Han, Uygur and Kazakh Children and adolescents aged 7-14 years. The overall prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 5.6% and 2.9% respectively, which the difference between male and female was significant (χ² = 39.765, P overweight and obesity rate showed differences, with detection rate of overweight among Kazakh students was 12.0% , higher than the other ethnic groups. The obesity detection rate was 7.2% among Han students, which was the highest of the three ethnic groups, with differences statistically significant(χ² = 363.885, P overweight and obesity decreased with increasing age in various ethnic groups, showing a clear downward trend, with the peak at 7-9 year-olds and the difference was statistically significant(χ² = 101.479, P overweight and obesity among children and adolescents were significantly lower in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region than the national average level, with differences also seen in different ethnic, gender and age groups.

  10. Validation of a Process-Based Agro-Ecosystem Model (Agro-IBIS for Maize in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tureniguli Amuti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural oasis expansion and intensive management practices have occurred in arid and semiarid regions of China during the last few decades. Accordingly, regional carbon and water budgets have been profoundly impacted by agroecosystems in these regions. Therefore, study on the methods used to accurately estimate energy, water, and carbon exchanges is becoming increasingly important. Process-based models can represent the complex processes between land and atmosphere among agricultural ecosystems. However, before the models can be applied they must be validated under different environmental and climatic conditions. In this study, a process-based agricultural ecosystem model (Agro-IBIS was validated for maize crops using 3 years of soil and biometric measurements at Wulanwusu agrometeorological site (WAS located in the Shihezi oasis in Xinjiang, northwest China. The model satisfactorily represented leaf area index (LAI during the growing season, simulating its peak values within the magnitude of 0–10%. The total biomass carbon was overestimated by 15%, 8%, and 16% in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. The model satisfactorily simulated the soil temperature (0–10 cm and volumetric water content (VWC (0–25 cm of farmland during the growing season. However, it overestimated soil temperature approximately by 4 °C and VWC by 15–30% during the winter, coinciding with the period of no vegetation cover in Xinjiang. Overall, the results indicate that the model could represent crop growth, and seems to be applicable in multiple sites in arid oases agroecosystems of Xinjiang. Future application of the model will impose more comprehensive validation using eddy covariance flux data, and consider including dynamics of crop residue and improving characterization of the final stage of leaf development.

  11. Association analysis between genetic variants in interleukin genes among different populations with hyperuricemia in Xinjiang Autonomous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bei; Sun, Yuping; Li, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jiahui; Wang, Tingting; Xia, He; Li, Changgui; Liu, Shiguo; Yao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether functional variants of five interleukin genes (IL-1β, IL-10, IL-8, IL-18 and IL-18RAP) are associated with susceptibility to hyperuricemia among different nationalities (including Uygur, Kazak and Han populations) in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. A total of 884 hyperuricemia patients and 1316 matched controls were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University in Urumqi. After genotyping of rs4073 in IL-8, rs16944 in IL-1, rs187238 in IL-18, rs1800871 in IL-10 and rs13015714 in IL-18RAP by TaqMan allele discrimination assays, an association analysis was performed using the χ2 test as well as a genotype-phenotype analysis. For the Uygur population, IL-8 rs4073, IL-18 rs187238 and IL-18RAP rs130154 polymorphisms were all associated with hyperuricemia (P<0.001 by genotype and P=0.008, OR 0.802 by allele for IL-8; P=0.01 by genotype and P=0.006, OR 1.332 by allele for IL-18 rs187238; P=0.007 by genotype and P=0.005, OR 1.27 by allele for IL-18RAP rs130154). For the Kazak population, only IL-18 rs187238 showed statistical significance with hyperuricemia (P=0.002 by genotype and P=0.007, OR 1.823 by allele). However, no differences were found between the five SNPs and hyperuricemia among the Han population. This study demonstrated genetic polymorphisms of different interleukin genes related to hyperuricemia vary in different nationalities in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region because of different geographical environments. IL-8, IL-1RL1 and IL-18 might be involved in the development of hyperuricemia in the Uygur population, whereas only IL-18 might be involved in the Kazak population. PMID:26722554

  12. Total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya; the Tanezzuft-Oued Mya, Tanezzuft-Melrhir, and Tanezzuft-Ghadames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province (2054) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Trias/Ghadames Province is in eastern Algeria, southern Tunisia, and westernmost Libya. The province and its total petroleum systems generally coincide with the Triassic Basin. The province includes the Oued Mya Basin, Melrhir Basin, and Ghadames (Berkine) Basin. Although several total petroleum systems may exist within each of these basins, only three “composite” total petroleum systems were identified. Each total petroleum system occurs in a separate basin, and each comprises a single assessment unit.The main source rocks are the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation (or lateral equivalents) and Middle to Upper Devonian mudstone. Maturation history and the major migration pathways from source to reservoir are unique to each basin. The total petroleum systems were named after the oldest major source rock and the basin in which it resides.The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province are as follows [MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas; MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids]:Tanezzuft-Oued Mya 830 MMBO 2,341 BCFG 110 MMBNGLTanezzuft-Melrhir 1,875 MMBO 4,887 BCFG 269 MMBNGLTanezzuft-Ghadames 4,461 MMBO 12,035 BCFG 908 MMBNGL

  13. Transmission of measles among healthcare Workers in Hospital W, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haimei; Ma, Chao; Lu, Mengting; Fu, Jianping; Rodewald, Lance E; Su, Qiru; Wang, Huaqin; Hao, Lixin

    2018-01-12

    As China approaches the elimination of measles, outbreaks of measles continue to occur. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are known to be at high risk of infection and transmission of measles virus. A measles outbreak occurred in a hospital in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. We report an investigation of this outbreak and its implications for measles elimination and outbreak preparedness. We conducted a retrospective search for measles cases using hospital records. Information on cases was collected by interview, and was used to determine epidemiological linkages. We surveyed HCWs to determine their demographic characteristics, disease history and vaccination status, and knowledge about measles. We identified 19 cases, ages 18 to 45 years, in Hospital W between December 2015 and January 2016; 14 were laboratory-confirmed, and 5 were epidemiologically linked. The primary case was a 25-year-old neurology department nurse who developed a rash on 22 December 2015 that was reported on 11 January 2016. She continued working and living with her workmates in a dormitory during her measles transmission period. Among the 19 infected HCWs, 2 had received a dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) before the outbreak, and 16 had unknown vaccination status. Outbreak response immunization activities were started on 8 January in a non-selective manner by offering vaccine regardless of vaccination history; 605(68%) of 890 HCWs were vaccinated. The HCW survey had a 73% response rate (646/890); 41% of HCWs reported that they had received MCV before outbreak, and 56% exhibited good knowledge of measles symptoms, transmission, complications, and vaccination. Low MCV coverage, low measles knowledge among HCWs, delayed reporting of measles cases, and absence of proper case management were associated with this outbreak. Training and vaccinating HCWs against measles are essential activities to prevent measles virus transmission among HCWs.

  14. Chapter 48: Geology and petroleum potential of the Eurasia Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2011-01-01

    The Eurasia Basin petroleum province comprises the younger, eastern half of the Arctic Ocean, including the Cenozoic Eurasia Basin and the outboard part of the continental margin of northern Europe. For the USGS petroleum assessment (CARA), it was divided into four assessment units (AUs): the Lena Prodelta AU, consisting of the deep-marine part of the Lena Delta; the Nansen Basin Margin AU, comprising the passive margin sequence of the Eurasian plate; and the Amundsen Basin and Nansen Basin AUs which encompass the abyssal plains north and south of the Gakkel Ridge spreading centre, respectively. The primary petroleum system thought to be present is sourced in c. 50–44 Ma (Early to Middle Eocene) condensed pelagic deposits that could be widespread in the province. Mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable petroleum resources include <1 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and about 1.4 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of nonassociated gas in Lena Prodelta AU, and <0.4 BBO and 3.4 TCF nonassociated gas in the Nansen Basin Margin AU. The Nansen Basin and Amundsen Basin AUs were not quantitatively assessed because they have less than 10% probability of containing at least one accumulation of 50 MMBOE (million barrels of oil equivalent).

  15. Analysis of HBV genotype distribution and its association with liver cirrhosis in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xiaozhong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV genotypes among patients in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, and to explore its association with liver cirrhosis. MethodsHBV genotypes of 1018 hepatitis B patients were determined by PCR analysis. The relationship of HBV genotype with clinical outcomes and relevant chronic liver diseases was assessed by contingency chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis. ResultsAmong the 828 patients whose HBV genotyping was completed in this study, type C was the major genotype and the percentage was 54.11% (448/828, 25.15% (200/828 had type B, and 16.18% (134/828 had type D. Among the 116 patients with liver cirrhosis, 20.84% had type C, which was significantly more frequent than other genotypes (P<0.00. The multivariate unconditional logistic regression model identified several risk factors for liver cirrhosis, including duration of hepatitis B≥10 years, C genotype, high HBV DNA viral load, and impaired liver function characterized by abnormal alanine aminotransferase test. Among all these factors, genotype C had the highest relevance to liver cirrhosis (OR=2819. ConclusionThe leading genotype of HBV in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is type C, followed by type B and type D. Genotype C is an independent risk factor for HBV-related liver cirrhosis.

  16. [Sequence of the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA(nrDNA) in Xinjiang wild Dianthus and its phylogenetic relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Cai, You-Ming; Zhuge, Qiang; Zou, Hui-Yu; Huang, Min-Ren

    2002-06-01

    Xinjiang is a center of distribution and differentiation of genus Dianthus in China, and has a great deal of species resources. The sequences of ITS region (including ITS-1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA from 8 species of genus Dianthus wildly distributed in Xinjiang were determined by direct sequencing of PCR products. The result showed that the size of the ITS of Dianthus is from 617 to 621 bp, and the length variation is only 4 bp. There are very high homogeneous (97.6%-99.8%) sequences between species, and about 80% homogeneous sequences between genus Dianthus and outgroup. The sequences of ITS in genus Dianthus are relatively conservative. In general, there are more conversion than transition in the variation sites among genus Dianthus. The conversion rates are relatively high, and the ratios of conversion/transition are 1.0-3.0. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences the species of Dianthus in China would be divided into three sections. There is a distant relationship between sect. Barbulatum Williams and sect. Dianthus and between sect. Barbulatum Williams and sect. Fimbriatum Williams, and there is a close relationship between sect. Dianthus and sect. Fimbriatum Williams. From the phylogenetic tree of ITS it was found that the origin of sect. Dianthusis is earlier than that of sect. Fimbriatum Williams and sect. Barbulatum Williams.

  17. Exploring Polymer-Modified Concrete and Cementitious Coating with High-Durability for Roadside Structures in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinchuan Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concrete roadside structures in Xinjiang, China, such as roadside barriers, bridge rails, and drainage holes, are severely damaged by the coupled effect of seasonal freeze-thaw cycles and deicer salts. To solve the corrosion problems of roadside structures, polymer-modified concrete was recommended for the future construction of roadside structures and polymer-modified cementitious coating was suggested for the protection of the current corroded ones. In this study, air-entraining agent and carboxylated styrene-butadiene latex were added for concrete modification and the corresponding performance tests were conducted. In addition, the performances of six types of readily available coating materials, including the acrylic latex modified cementitious coating designed in this study, were tested in freeze-thaw condition with the presence of chloride ions. The results show that 0.013% of the air-entraining agent and 10% of the carboxylated styrene-butadiene latex were appropriate dosage rates for the modification of Portland cement concrete, in terms of the improvement of the freeze-thaw resistance, compressive strength, and chloride impermeability. For the protection of the current corroded roadside structures, the acrylic-modified cementitious coating material demonstrated a good performance and the field monitoring confirmed that the coating is suitable for the protection of the roadside structures in Xinjiang.

  18. Response of vegetation NDVI to climatic extremes in the arid region of Central Asia: a case study in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junqiang; Chen, Yaning; Zhao, Yong; Mao, Weiyi; Xu, Xinbing; Liu, Yang; Yang, Qing

    2018-02-01

    Observed data showed the climatic transition from warm-dry to warm-wet in Xinjiang during the past 30 years and will probably affect vegetation dynamics. Here, we analyze the interannual change of vegetation index based on the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with temperature and precipitation extreme over the Xinjiang, using the 8-km NDVI third-generation (NDVI3g) from the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) from 1982 to 2010. Few previous studies analyzed the link between climate extremes and vegetation response. From the satellite-based results, annual NDVI significantly increased in the first two decades (1981-1998) and then decreased after 1998. We show that the NDVI decrease over the past decade may conjointly be triggered by the increases of temperature and precipitation extremes. The correlation analyses demonstrated that the trends of NDVI was close to the trend of extreme precipitation; that is, consecutive dry days (CDD) and torrential rainfall days (R24) positively correlated with NDVI during 1998-2010. For the temperature extreme, while the decreases of NDVI correlate positively with warmer mean minimum temperature ( Tnav), it correlates negatively with the number of warmest night days ( Rwn). The results suggest that the climatic extremes have possible negative effects on the ecosystem.

  19. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-10

    Xinjiang's agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991-2014. The agriculture belonged to the "low emissions and high efficiency" agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  20. Physicochemical Characteristics and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contaminated Soils in Copper Mining of Nulasai, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina·Tursenjan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking the mining areas, tailings and surrounding farmland soil of the Nulasai copper mine in Xinjiang as the research object, the characteristics of soil physical and characteristics of heavy metal contents in this area were studied, and their ecological and environmental risks were preliminarily evaluated. The results showed that due to the long-term impact of mining wastewater, soil pH in the Nulasai mining area was relatively low. Soil conductivity and salt content were higher than those in the surrounding farmland, while soil organic matter, available nitrogen, available potassium and available phosphorus were lower than those in the surrounding farmland. The contents of heavy metals Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn in the mining area, tailing area and farmland soil were all lower than those in Xinjiang except for Cu. Overall, the heavy metal content of the soil manifested the area > tailing area > farmland. Single factor(Pi, Nemerow comprehensive pollution index(I and potential ecological risk index(RI indicated that the ecological risk of heavy metals in the soil around the mining area was manifested tailings > mining area > farmland. The potential ecological risk index of heavy metals in 0~30 cm topsoil was higher than that in 30~70 cm deep soil, but the overall ecological risk was lower in different land use types.

  1. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  2. El conflicto de Xinjiang: la minoría uigur y la política de Pekín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás de Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la situación actual en Xinjiang y el creciente malestar y alienación de la población uigur. Para ello, se examinan los tres ejes de la política china en Xinjiang y sus consecuencias. En los últimos años, Pekín ha combinado la represión sistemática de toda actividad uigur (con vulneraciones masivas de los derechos humanos, con la promoción de la asimilación forzosa y la implementación de grandes proyectos de desarrollo. Pekín ha consolidado su dominio sobre Xinjiang, pero a costa de un creciente malestar y alienación de buena parte de la población uigur. A pesar de la calma de los últimos años, el conflicto dista mucho de estar resuelto y no es posible descartar por completo un nuevo ciclo de desórdenes y violencia como el que sacudió Xinjiang en los años 90.

  3. Analysis on Cu and Zn Concentrations in Agricultural Soils of Ili District, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jing-na

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is mainly to investigate the contents of copper(Cuand zinc(Znin agricultural soils to provide basic infor-mation for the establishment of green and organic production base in Ili District, Xinjiang Autonomous Region. 600 topsoil samples of the a-gricultural land were collected from eight counties of Ili District, and the contents of Cu and Zn were determined by AAS after microwave di-gestion. The statistics analysis showed that the mean contents of Cu and Zn in the agricultural soils of Ili District were 28.68 mg·kg-1 and 83.17 mg·kg-1, respectively. The concentrations of Cu in the agricultural soils of Ili District ranged from 11.07 mg·kg-1 to 59.90 mg·kg-1, 85% of which ranged from 20 mg·kg-1 to 40 mg·kg-1; and the concentrations of Zn in the agricultural soils of Ili District ranged from 39.58 mg·kg-1 to 160.40 mg·kg-1, 90%of which ranged from 60 mg·kg-1 to 110 mg·kg-1. Furthermore, compared the Cu and Zn contents of the tested soils among the eight counties, Cu contents in Tekes County were higher than other counties, while Zn contents showed little difference. The con-tents of Cu and Zn in the tested soils were all below the threshold values that were established in the national environmental quality standard for soils(secondary standards, GB 15618-1995, but about 7% and 21% were higher than the Cu and Zn background values of soil in Ili District, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of Cu and Zn in soils of Ili District accord with the environmental requirements for or-ganic and green production base regulated by national standard of organic products(GB/T 19630-2011and industrial standard of green food(NY/T 391-2013.

  4. The early-stage structural evolution of the Barmer Basin rift, Rajasthan, northwest India

    OpenAIRE

    Bladon, Andrew John

    2015-01-01

    The structural evolution of the Barmer Basin and the context of the rift within the northwest Indian region are poorly understood, despite being a prolific hydrocarbon province. In this work an integrated basin analysis is presented covering the outcrop-, seismic-, and lithosphere-scales. The early-stage structural evolution and the origin of poorly understood structural complications in the Barmer Basin subsurface are assessed. Subsequently, the findings are placed within the wider context o...

  5. Analysis on ore-controlling factors of Zhajistan uranium deposit, Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Zhongming

    2000-01-01

    The geologic-structural background where the Zhajistan uranium deposit is located, and sedimentary features of the basin, as well as ore-controlling factors such as the uranium source, the reductant, hydrogeologic conditions and development features of interlayer oxidation zone in Zhajistan, are analysed. Then the author proposes the most favourable sedimentary cycle for uranium metallogenesis and the most favourable prospecting areas

  6. Effect of Construction Land Expansion on Energy-Related Carbon Emissions: Empirical Analysis of China and Its Provinces from 2001 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuankai Deng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction land expansion significantly affects energy-related carbon emissions. This paper analyzed the effect of construction land expansion on energy-related carbon emissions in China and its provinces from 2001 to 2011 by using the logarithmic mean Divisia index method. We divided the study into two intervals (2001–2006 and 2006–2011 and categorized the 30 provinces of China into eight zones. Results indicated that construction land expansion exerted the second largest positive effect on carbon emission growth in China and in the 30 provinces from 2001 to 2011. The north, east, and south coastal regions as well as the middle Yellow River region, were the highly affected regions in the same period. Between the two study intervals, the effect of construction land expansion on carbon emissions decreased in China and in the coastal regions, but increased in inland regions. The Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Yunnan, Chongqing, Ningxia, and Xinjiang provinces, which are concentrated in the north, east, and south coastal regions, were selected for the reduction of carbon emissions by controlling construction land expansion.

  7. The analysis of a Game or'Go" on the Instability of Strategic Alliance in Xinjiang Tourism Hotel Industry%新疆旅游饭店业战略聪明不稳定性博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖武平; 海米提·依米提

    2011-01-01

    As tourism nmrket competition in the international is fierce day by day, how to strengthen the strategic alliance of Xinjiang tourism industry is a great problem of the future development of Xinjiang tourism relationship. This article analyzes the present development of the Xinjiang hotel industry, studies the uncertainty outlook of the situation of strategic alliance in Xinjiang hotel industry, and discusses the relevant strategic alliance stability preventive measures.%新疆旅游饭店业战略联盟存在产权关系不清晰,驱动性不足,资本行政导向型扩张等问题。应选择合适的联盟伙伴,为联盟关系增加情感因素,理性对待利益分配。

  8. The Characteristics of TB Epidemic and TB/HIV Co-Infection Epidemic: A 2007-2013 Retrospective Study in Urumqi, Xinjiang Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to find out epidemiologic characteristic of tuberculosis (TB cases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive cases among TB patients (TB/HIV co-infection through demographic, temporal, and spatial study in Urumqi.Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied to identify the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic. All addresses of each TB case, TB/HIV co-infection case, and administrative street were transformed into geographical coordinate. Subsequently, the geocoded address for 82 streets was transformed into a dot map used as the basis of spatial datasets. In addition, the paper also used quantile map and the spatial scan statistic in order to identify the spatial distribution and spatial clusters of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic.There was a declining trend of the notification rates of TB epidemic from 2007 to 2009, as well as a rising trend from 2010 to 2013. However, the notification rates of TB/HIV co-infection epidemic showed a rising trend from 2007 to 2010, and a declining trend from 2011 to 2013. Moreover, a significant share of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic happened between the age of 15 to 45 years old, indicating an increase in risk of TB and TB/HIV infection. It is worth noting that the risk of HIV infection for male TB patients was 2.947 times (95% CI [2.178, 3.988] than that of female patients. Han ethnicity and Uygur ethnicity in urban region accounted for a large proportion of total TB and TB/HIV co-infection cases. Most of the TB cases of minorities in Urumqi showed a statistically significant increase in risk of HIV infection than Han ethnicity in Urumqi. In addition, the spatial distribution of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic was highly skewed. Most of the local clusters were located in urban area and rural-urban continuum where showed an increase in risk of TB and TB/HIV infection.The epidemiologic and spatial-temporal analysis of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic demonstrates a potential connection between TB and HIV in Urumqi. Demographic, temporal, geographic factors are the reasons of causing TB and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic.

  9. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-03

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  10. [Textual research on relationship between traditional Chinese medicine and medical prescriptions in the Sanskrit formulary Bower Manuscript excavated in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingyi

    2015-05-01

    This paper introduces the Bower Manuscript in Sanskrit written on birch bark excavated in Xinjiang, which was bought in Kuqa by a British India army lieutenant Bower, hence its title. Then, it was researched, annotated, and published in 7 volumes by a German British lieutenant and orientalist Honer. The first three volumes are devoted to medical prescriptions. It is first verified that its "Dazi Xiangye San" is the "Dujuan Dachen San" in Tibetan medicine. By comparing it with other traditional medical systems, such as Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian, and Uyghur medical systems, we found that Bower Manuscript is closer to Tibetan medicine and Mongolian medicine, while it has less relation with Chinese medicine and Uyghur medicine. However, it also exerts some influence on TCM.

  11. Enrichment and assessment of the health risks posed by heavy metals in PM1 in Changji, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu Y; Shen, Ya X; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Hao F

    2017-04-16

    The present study aims to investigate the influence of human activity on heavy metals in a typical arid urban area of China and assess human health risks posed by heavy metals in PM 1 (particles <1.0 μm in diameter) for different people. In this paper, Changji (Xinjiang, China) was selected as the study area, and samples were collected from March 2014 to March 2015. A total 14 elements in PM 1 were quantified using ICP-MS. An enrichment factor (EF) was used to assess the influence of human activity on the contamination of these metals. The results indicated that Mn was not enriched; Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Tl, and V were slightly enriched; Mo, Pb, and Sb were moderately enriched; and Ag, As, and Cd were strongly enriched. To assess the health risks associated with inhaling PM 1 , the risk assessment code and loss in life expectancy based on the individual metals were calculated. The results showed that the elements Ag, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Tl, and V in PM 1 posed low levels of non-carcinogenic risks, but these metals may still pose risks to certain susceptible populations. In addition, the results also showed that As, Co, and Cr posed an appreciable carcinogenic risk, while Cd and Ni posed low levels of carcinogenic risk. The total predicted loss of life expectancy caused by the three metals As, Co, and Ni was 63.67 d for the elderly, 30.95 d for adult males, 26.62 d for adult females, and 48.22 d for children. Therefore, the safety of the elderly and children exposed to PM 1 should be given more attention than the safety of adults. The results from this study demonstrate that the health risks posed by heavy metals in PM 1 in Changji, Xinjiang, China should be examined.

  12. Prevalence and causes of blindness, visual impairment among different ethnical minority groups in Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Huang, Wenyong; Qiqige, Aoyun; Zhang, Hongwei; Jin, Ling; Ti, Pula; Yip, Jennifer; Xiao, Baixiang

    2018-02-13

    The aim of this cross-sectional study is to ascertain the prevalence and causes of blindness, visual impairment, uptake of cataract surgery among different ethnic groups in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Four thousand one hundred fifty people at 50 years and above from different minority ethnic groups were randomly selected for an eye examination. The four trained eye teams collected data using tumbling E visual chart, torch, portable slit lamp and direct ophthalmoscope in 2015. The World Health Organization's definition of blindness and visual impairment (VI) was used to classify patients in each ethnic group. Data were analyzed by different minority groups and were compared with Han Chinese. 3977 (95.8%) out of 4150 people were examined. The prevalence of blindness from the study population was 1.7% (95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.2%).There was no significant difference in prevalence of blindness between Han Chinese and people of Khazak and other minority ethnic groups, nor, between male and female. Cataract was the leading course (65.5%) of blindness and uncorrected refractive error was the most common cause of VI (36.3%) followed by myopic retinopathy. The most common barrier to cataract surgery was lack of awareness of service availability. This study documented a low blindness prevalence among people aged 50 years and over comparing to prevalence identified through studies of other regions in China. It still indicates blindness and un-operated cataract as the significant public health issue, with no evidence of eye health inequalities, but some inequities in accessing to cataract surgery amongst ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang.

  13. Association Study of Klotho Gene Polymorphism With Calcium Oxalate Stones in The Uyghur Population of Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abdusamat; Tursun, Halmurat; Talat, Alim; Abla, Akpar; Muhtar, Erpan; Zhang, Tao; Mahmut, Murat

    2017-01-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between Klotho gene polymorphisms andcalcium oxalate stones in Xinjiang Uyghur people. We compared 128 patients with calcium oxalate stones (case group) and 94 healthypeople (control group), detected the genotype and allele distributions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)of the Klotho gene (rs3752472, rs650439, and rs1207568) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The distributions of the genotype and allele frequencies of the SNPs were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the two groups. There were statistically significant differences between the genotype andallele distributions of rs3752472 between the case and control groups; the allele frequencies in the case/controlgroups were C = 240 (93.7%)/151 (80.3%) and T = 16 (6.3%)/37 (19.7%). There was no statistically significantdifference in the genotype distribution of rs650439 between the case and control groups, but there was a differencein the allele distribution; the allele frequencies in the case/control groups were A = 202 (78.9%)/143 (57.2%) andT = 54 (21.1%)/107 (42.8%). There were no statistically significant differences in genotype and allele distributionsbetween the case and control groups of rs1207568; the allele frequencies in the case/control groups were C = 194(71.3%)/145 (77.1%) and T = 78 (28.7%)/43 (22.9%). In rs3752472, the risk for patients with the C and A allelesincreased by 3.675 and 2.799 times, respectively. The rs3752472 and rs650439 SNPs are related to the risk of calcium oxalate stones in Xinjiang Uyghurpeople, and might be one of the risk factors.

  14. Association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailamuguli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China. MethodsA total of 1271 postmenopausal Uyghur women who underwent physical examination in the physical examination centers of hospitals in Urumqi and Kashi, Xinjiang, were enrolled as study subjects, and according to the presence or absence of NAFLD, they were divided into NAFLD group (682 women and control group (589 women. Demographic data were recorded in detail, and the hepatic enzyme parameters, parameters for glucose and lipid metabolism, and parameters including uric acid and non-HDL-C were measured. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and non-conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ResultsCompared with the control group, the NAFLD group had significantly higher uric acid, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and non-HDL-C level (all P<0.05, and a significantly lower HDL-C level (P<0.05. Compared with the group with a non-HDL-C level of ≥3.58 mmol/L, the group with a non-HDL-C level of <3.58 mmol/L had significantly lower levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, TG, AST, ALT, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that non-HDL-C, serum uric acid, and BMI were risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ConclusionNon-HDL-C, along with central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia, is a major risk factor for NAFLD in postmenopausal women.

  15. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  16. [Comparison of antioxidant activity between two species of chamomiles produced in Xinjiang by TLC-bioautography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-Lin; Li, Xin-Xia; Mian, Qiang-Hui; Lan, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    To compare the antioxidant active components from two species of chamomile-matricaria and Roman chamomile produced in Xinjiang. The TLC-bioautography was used, with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical as the experimental model. The peak areas of various antioxidant components were obtained by TLC-scanning for analyzing antioxidant active components contained in volatile oil extracts and flavone extracts from the two species of chamomiles. The total peak area was taken as the indicator for comparing the antioxidant capacities of the two types of extracts, and comparing them with the total antioxidant activity of flavone extracts of the two species of chamomiles. According to the result of TLC-bioautography in volatile oil extracts from the two species of chamomiles, volatile oil extracts from chamomile showed four white antioxidant spots, including en-yne-dicycloether, and volatile oil extracts from Roman chamomile showed only one white antioxidant spot. The TLC-scanning result showed that the peak area of antioxidant spots of volatile oil extracts from chamomile was significantly larger than that of volatile oil extracts from Roman chamomile. According to the test on the antioxidant activity of the two species of chamomiles with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, the concentration of chamomile after scavenging 50% of DPPH radicals was 0.66 g x L(-1), whereas the figure for Roman chamomile was 0.33 g x L(-1). According to the result of TLC-bioautography in flavone extracts from the two species of chamomiles, flavone extracts from chamomile showed seven yellowish antioxidant spots, including apigenin and apigenin-7-glucoside, and flavone extracts of Roman chamomile showed eight yellowish antioxidant spots, including apigenin and apigenin-7-glucoside. The TLC-scanning results showed that the peak area of antioxidant spots of flavone extracts from Roman chamomile was significantly larger than that of flavone extracts from chamomile. Volatile oil extracts

  17. Environmental setting and its relations to water quality in the Kanawha River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Terence; Hughes, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Kanawha River and its major tributary, the New River, drain 12,233 mi2 in West Virginia, Virginia, and North Carolina. Altitude ranges from about 550 ft to more than 4,700 ft. The Kanawha River Basin is mountainous, and includes parts of three physiographic provinces, the Blue Ridge (17 percent), Valley and Ridge (23 percent), and Appalachian Plateaus (60 percent). In the Appalachian Plateaus Province, little of the land is flat, and most of the flat land is in the flood plains and terraces of streams; this has caused most development in this part of the basin to be near streams. The Blue Ridge Province is composed of crystalline rocks, and the Valley and Ridge and Appalachian Plateaus Provinces contain both carbonate and clastic rocks. Annual precipitation ranges from about 36 in. to more than 60 in., and is orographically affected, both locally and regionally. Average annual air temperature ranges from about 43?F to about 55?F, and varies with altitude but not physiographic province. Precipitation is greatest in the summer and least in the winter, and has the least seasonal variation in the Blue Ridge Province. In 1990, the population of the basin was about 870,000, of whom about 25 percent lived in the Charleston, W. Va. metropolitan area. About 75 million tons of coal were mined in the Kanawha River Basin in 1998. This figure represents about 45 percent of the coal mined in West Virginia, and about seven percent of the coal mined in the United States. Dominant forest types in the basin are Northern Hardwood, Oak-Pine, and Mixed Mesophytic. Agricultural land use is more common in the Valley and Ridge and Blue Ridge Provinces than in the Appalachian Plateaus Province. Cattle are the principal agricultural products of the basin. Streams in the Blue Ridge Province and Allegheny Highlands have the most runoff in the basin, and streams in the Valley and Ridge Province and the southwestern Appalachian Plateaus have the least runoff. Streamflow is greatest in the

  18. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  19. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Gulf of Guinea province of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea Province as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, and the western part of the coast of Nigeria, from the Liberian border east to the west edge of the Niger Delta. The province includes the Ivory Coast, Tano, Central, Saltpond, Keta, and Benin Basins and the Dahomey Embayment. The area has had relatively little hydrocarbon exploration since 1968, with only 33 small to moderate-sized oil and gas fields having been discovered prior to the USGS assessment. Most discoveries to 1995 have been located in water depths less than 500 m. Since 1995, only eight new offshore discoveries have been made, with four of the discoveries in the deep-water area of the province. Although as many as five total petroleum systems exist in the Gulf of Guinea Province, only one, the Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System, and its assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, had sufficient data to allow assessment. The province shows two important differences compared to the passive-margin basins south of the Niger Delta: (1) the influence of transform tectonics, and (2) the absence of evaporites and salt deformation. The province also lacks long-lived, large deltaic systems that typically result in rapid source rock burial and abundant high-quality hydrocarbon reservoirs. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Gulf of Guinea Province as part of its World Petroleum Assessment 2000, estimating a mean of 1,004 million barrels of conventional undiscovered oil, 10,071 billion cubic feet of gas, and 282 million barrels of natural gas liquids. Most of the hydrocarbon potential is postulated to be in the offshore, deeper waters of the province. Gas resources may be large, as well as accessible, in areas where the zone of hydrocarbon generation is relatively shallow.

  20. [Population genetic differentiation of Phrynocephalus axillaris in east of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region based on sequence variation of mitochondrial ND4-tRNALeu gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Guo, Xian-Guang; Wang, Yue-Zhao

    2010-08-01

    A 838 bp fragment of mtDNA ND4-tRNALeu gene was sequenced for 66 individuals from five populations (DB: Dabancheng, TU: Turpan, SS: Shanshan, HL: Liushuquan, HD: East district of Hami) of Phrynocephalus axillaris distributed in east of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Seventeen haplotypes were identified from 29 nucleotide polymorphic sites in the aligned 838 bp sequence. Excluding DB, there were relatively high haplotype diversity [(0.600+/-0.113)oscillation since Pleistocene and genetic drift.

  1. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabos, S.

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabos, S. [Alberta Health, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Health Surveillance

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Sedimentary environments and hydrocarbon potential of cretaceous rocks of indus basin, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.A.; Naseem, S.

    1999-01-01

    Cretaceous rocks of Indus Basin of Pakistan are dominated by clastics with subordinate limestone towards the top. These rocks represent shelf facies and were deposited in deltaic to reducing marine conditions at variable depths. Indications of a silled basin with restricted circulation are also present. Cretaceous fine clastics/carbonates have good source and reservoir qualities. Variable geothermal gradients in different parts of basin have placed these rocks at different maturity levels; i.e. from oil to condensate and to gas. The potential of these rocks has been proved by several oil and gas discoveries particularly in the Central and Southern provinces of Indus Basin. (author)

  4. Human activities and its Responses to Glacier Melt Water Over Tarim River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hai; Zhou, Shenbei; Bai, Minghao

    2017-04-01

    Tarim River Basin lies in the south area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the north-west area of China. It is the longest inland river of China. Being far away from ocean and embraced by high mountains, Tarim River Basin is the typical arid region in the world. The intensity of human activities increased rapidly in Tarim River Basin since 1980's and water resources lacking is the major issue restricting the development of social economy. The glacier melt water plays an important role for the regional social and economic development, and it accounts for 40% of mountain-pass runoff. It is a fragile mutual-dependent relationship between local sustainable development and runoff. Under the background of global change glacier melt water process has also changed especially in the arid and semi-arid region. Due to climate change, glacier in Tarim River Basin has melted in an observed way since 1980s, together with increasing trend of annual rainfall and virgin flow in mountain basins. Correspondingly, human activity gets more frequent since 1970s, resulting into the obvious fragile mutual-dependent relationship between basin runoff and water use amount. Through an analysis of meteorological, hydrological and geographical observation data from 1985 to 2015, this thesis make a multi-factor variance analysis of population, cultivation area, industrial development and runoff in upstream and mid-stream of Tarim River under changing conditions. Furthermore, the regulation function of natural factors and water demand management factors on relationship between runoff and water using amount are discussed, including temperature, rainfall, and evaporation, water conservation technology and soil-water exploitation administrative institutions. It concludes that: first, increase in glacier runoff, rainfall amount, and virgin flow haven't notably relieved ecological issue in Tarim River Basin, and even has promoted water use behaviour in different flowing areas and noticeably reduced

  5. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Physiographic Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This dataset represents the area of each physiographic province (Fenneman and Johnson, 1946) in square meters, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data are from Fenneman and Johnson's Physiographic Provinces of the United States, which is based on 8 major divisions, 25 provinces, and 86 sections representing distinctive areas having common topography, rock type and structure, and geologic and geomorphic history (Fenneman and Johnson, 1946). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins

  6. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  7. Reconstruction and analysis of the past five centuries of streamflow on northern slopes on Tianshan Mountains in Northern Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuhui; Chen, Yaning; Wang, Minzhong; Sun, Huilan

    2017-07-01

    We examined the changes in streamflow on the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains in northern Xinjiang, China, over two time scales: the past 500 years, based on dendrochronology data; and the past 50 years, based on streamflow data from hydrological stations. The method of artificial neural networks built from the data of the 50-year period was used to reconstruct the streamflow of the 500-year period. The results indicate that streamflow has undergone seven high-flow periods and four low-flow periods during the past 500 years. To identify possible transition points in the streamflow, we applied the Mann-Kendall and running T tests to the 50- and 500-year periods, respectively. During the past 500 years, streamflow has changed significantly from low to high flow about three to four times, and from high to low flow about three to five times. Over the recent 50 years, there have been three phases of variation in river runoff, and the most distinct transition of streamflow occurred in 1996.

  8. Assessing the Effect of a Crop-Tree Intercropping Program on Smallholders’ Incomes in Rural Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Dai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Governments in developing counties often promote intercropping (crops intercropped with fruit trees on cultivated land schemes in order to improve smallholders’ income. However, the implementation of such schemes is often hindered by inappropriate institutional environments and inefficient project management. It is important to assess the impacts of such intercropping programs, especially since such a cultivation strategy can often align closely with smallholders’ livelihood strategies, particularly in poor and remote rural regions. This paper attempts to assess the impact of an intercropping program on participants’ incomes in rural Xinjiang (China, and to explore the possible shortcomings in the program’s design and implementation. We apply a propensity score matching method, based on a survey dataset of 352 households, supplemented with descriptive analysis based on our anecdotal field observations. The findings demonstrate that the intercropping program had negative effects on the incomes that participants derived from farming, their off-farm income and their gross income. Overall, participants experienced significant losses of income. Anecdotal observations show that land tenure insecurity played a crucial role in negating the anticipated income improvement effect of this program. Farmer’s perceptions that they have limited security of tenure made them reluctant to invest the necessary time and resources to make the new cropping systems a success, while the available subsidies only partially covered the costs involved. In addition, the program led to a significant drop in yields of field crops as the trees were competing for a limiting and fixed supply of irrigation water.

  9. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-01-01

    Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991–2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas. PMID:27830739

  10. Environmental reconstruction of Tuyoq in the Fifth Century and its bearing on Buddhism in Turpan, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ye-Na; Li, Xiao; Yao, Yi-Feng; Ferguson, David Kay; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The Thousand Buddha Grottoes of Tuyoq, Turpan, Xinjiang, China were once a famous Buddhist temple along the ancient Silk Road which was first constructed in the Fifth Century (A.D.). Although archaeological researches about the Grottoes have been undertaken for over a century, the ancient environment has remained enigmatic. Based on seven clay samples from the Grottoes' adobes, pollen and leaf epidermis were analyzed to decipher the vegetation and climate of Fifth Century Turpan, and the environmental landscape was reconstructed in three dimensions. The results suggest that temperate steppe vegetation dominated the Tuyoq region under a warmer and wetter environment with more moderate seasonality than today, as the ancient mean annual temperature was 15.3°C, the mean annual precipitation was approximately 1000 mm and the temperature difference between coldest and warmest months was 24°C using Co-existence Approach. Taken in the context of wheat and grape cultivation as shown by pollen of Vitis and leaf epidermis of Triticum, we infer that the Tuyoq region was an oasis with booming Buddhism in the Fifth Century, which was probably encouraged by a 1°C warmer temperature with an abundant water supply compared to the coeval world that experienced the 1.4 k BP cooling event.

  11. Hydrology of area 52, Rocky Mountain coal province Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowham, H.W.; Peterson, D.A.; Larson, L.R.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Ringen, B.H.; Mora, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report is one of a series designed to characterize the hydrology of drainage basins within coal provinces, nationwide. Area 52 (in the Rocky Mountain Coal Province) includes the Green River Basin upstream from the Yampa River, and the Bear River upstream from the Bear Lake - a total of 23,870 sq mi. Area 52 contains over 3 billion tons of strippable coal, most of which is located in the arid and semiarid plains. The report represents a summary of results of the water resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, carried out in cooperation with State and other Federal agencies. More than 40 individual topics are discussed in a brief text that is accompanied by maps, graphs, photographs, and other illustrations. Primary topics in the report are: general features, resources and economy, surface-water quantity and quality, and groundwater. (USGS)

  12. The Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province: petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Fernandez, Victor

    1996-01-01

    The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10 ' to 23 deg 25 ' of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10 ' to 58 deg 00 ' , having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author)

  13. Charts of episodes and chronometric duration have implications for provinces such as the Kaapvaal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. de la R. Winter

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available An accurate basin analysis and knowledge of its evolutionary development being a prerequisite framework for metallogenic model­ling, a procedure was developed for the Kaapvaal Province to maximise quantitative observational data and constrain assumptions and interpretations. Employing an episodes chart to display various events interactively and its conversion to a geochronometric chart as the geological model, the method was applied to existing stratigraphic studies.

  14. [Ecology-economy harmonious development based on the ecological services value change in Yanqi Basin, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Zulpiya; Halik, Umut; Aji, Rouzi; Nurmemet, Ilyas; Anwar, Mirigul; Keyimu, Maierdang

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we used land use/cover ecosystem service value estimation model and ecological economic coordination degree model to analyze the changes of the ecosystem service value by the land use/cover changes during 1985, 1990, 1996, 2000, 2005 and 2011 in Yanqi Basin, Xin-jiang. Then we evaluated the ecology-economy harmony and the regional differences. The results showed that during 1985-2011, there was an increasing trend in the areas of waters, wetland, sand, cultivated land and construction land in Yanqi Basin. In contrast, that of the saline-alkali land, grassland and woodland areas exhibited a decreasing trend. The ecosystem service value in Yanqi Basin during this period presented an increasing trend, among which the waters and cultivated land contributed most to the total value of ecosystem services, while the grassland and the woodland had obviously declined contribution to the total value of ecosystem services. The research showed that the development of ecological economy in the study area was at a low conflict and low coordination level. So, taking reasonable and effective use of the regional waters and soil resources is the key element to maintain the ecosystem service function and sustainable and harmonious development of economy in Yanqi Basin.

  15. Leukemia in children and youths of the Azuay province, Ecuador: 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Mariagrazia; Ugalde, Jorge; Arteaga, Francisco Salgado; Biggio, Giuseppe; Flore, Valeria; Nonne, Tinucia; Satta, Giannina; Blangiardo, Marta; Cocco, Pierluigi; Ennas, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    We mapped leukemia risk among children and youths in the Azuay province, Rio Paute river basin, Ecuador, in 2000-2010, using a Bayesian disease mapping model. We assessed the comprehensiveness of the list of leukemia cases from the Sociedad de Lucha contra el Càncer en el Ecuador (SOLCA) Hospital in Cuenca, the only referral center for oncology in the whole Rio Paute area, by comparison to the Quito cancer registry. Risk of leukemia did not vary significantly by canton within the Azuay province. However, a moderate increase in risk of borderline statistical significance was observed in the city of Cuenca and particularly among males in a heavily industrialized parish, who had an almost eight-fold excess (95% CI 3.03, 20.39, p = 0.01) of AML. Analytical studies are warranted to properly address specific etiological factor of leukemia among children and youths of the Azuay province of Ecuador.

  16. Analysis on the relationship between economic development and water environment pollution in Shandong province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Zhengxian

    2018-02-01

    With the continuous development of the economy of the Shandong Province watershed, a large number of pollutant emission, resulting in water quality of the basin has undergone significant changes. To study the Shandong Province watershed economic development and the relationship between the discharge of pollutants, in this paper, the relationship between economic growth and pollutant emissions in the Shandong Province watershed was established by Shandong Province watershed in 2002-2015 per capita GDP and wastewater, COD, ammonia nitrogen(AN) pollutant emissions. The data were analyzed by software such as SPSS, and the cubic equation model between various pollutants and economic indexes was fitted. To further make the relationship between pollutants and economic development map to study the conventional pollutant emissions and economic development trends. It is found that only the relationship between industrial wastewater discharge and per capita GDP is most coordinated, that is, industrial wastewater emissions with the continuous development of the basin economy, showing a tendency to rise first and then fall. Finally, ultimately based on the results of the study of the water environment and economic development proposals were proposed.

  17. Bulk division of metallogenetic region and uranium metallogenetic regularities in Heilongjiang basin and its adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hua; Zhao Fengmin; Hu Shaokang; Chen Zuyi

    2002-01-01

    On the base of the study in the working area, a conclusion is made that there are 36 combined types of tectonic-material and 6 basic tectonic units. According to radioactive geochemical quantitative and qualitative factors, which are relevant to rock composition and geological formation, 5 radioactive geochemical provinces and 8 radioactive geochemical differentiation regions could be marked out. The working area contains three hydrogeological fold belts and two hydrogeological artesian basins. It could also be divided into 9 metallogenetic provinces or 30 metallogenetic regions, or 206 ore districts. On the other hand, the area could be divided into 2 uranium metallogenetic provinces, 2 potential uranium metallogenetic provinces and 3 uraniferous provinces, which contain uranium properties or potential uranium properties or uraniferous properties. The authors systematically summary the geological environment and indicators of prospecting and predicting of fluorine-molybdenum-uranium formation, hydromorphic uranium deposit formation and poly-genetic uranium deposit formation which contains uranium-coal model, uranium-asphalt model, uranium-sulfuret model, etc. The metallogenetic potential among Aerdan uranium province, Aoliaokema uranium province, Bulieya-Jiamusi-Xingkai potential uranium province and Xihuote-Alin uranium province are assessed. On this base, the authors delineate 23 uranium metallogenetic prospective areas needing further exploration efforts. 8 uranium metallogenetic prospective areas in China are marked out, which are areas of interest for searching for exogenetic and epigenetic sandstone uranium deposits

  18. Hydro-climatic changes since 13.000 years B.P. in eastern Tibet and north of Xinjiang (China). Approach using the study of some lacustrine records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaraj, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study is to build the chronology of the medium and short term climatic changes that took place during the last glacial and Holocene periods using sedimentological and isotopic data obtained on cores from the Aibi lake (north of Xinjiang, China) and from the Madoi and Donxi lakes (eastern part of the Tibetan plateau). At Aibi, after the chemical, isotopic and physico-chemical characterization of the lake waters, and the sedimentological study of the laminae (granulometry and mineralogy) have been done, the measurements of 18 O and 13 C of the authigenous carbonates and of the thickness variations of laminae have evidenced the seasonal character of the laminae. The spectral analyses of the thickness variations indicate periodicities linked with the quasi-biennial oscillations (2 or 3 years) and with the solar cycles (10-11 years). East of the Tibetan plateau, the sedimentological and isotopic study of the cores from the Madoi and Donxi lakes show more humid and hot climate conditions during the lower and middle Holocene. The sedimentary record of lake Madoi show one or several lacustrine or fluvio-lacustrine phases after 13000-12000 years B.P. A high dryness period took place within the Younger Dryas chrono-zone. Since 10000 year B.P. the 3 lakes are filled with isotopically diluted waters. The last glacial-Holocene transition seems to be very sharp and located around 10000 years B.P. both in northern Xinjiang and eastern Tibet and confirm the results previously obtained in Qinghai and northern-Xinjiang. After the optimum hydrologic phase of the lower and middle Holocene, the come back of dryer conditions started at about 6000 or 5000 years B.P. and hydrological conditions became close to the present day ones since 3000 years B.P. (J.S.)

  19. Book review: Large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  20. Neotectonics in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs

  1. Preface to the Special Issue on "Geophysical and Climate Change Studies in Tibet, Xinjiang, and Siberia (TibXS from Satellite Geodesy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue publishes papers on recent results in geophysical and climate change studies over Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia (TibXS based upon some of the key sensors used in satellite geodesy, including satellite gravimetric sensors (GRACE and GOCE, satellite altimeters (TOPEX, Jason-1 and -2, and ENVISAT, and Global Positioning System satellites. Results from ground- and airborne-based geodetic observations, notably those based on airborne gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter (SG and seismometers are also included in the special issue. In all, 22 papers were submitted for this special issue; 17 papers were accepted.

  2. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and

  3. Kinematics of active deformation across the Western Kunlun mountain range (Xinjiang, China), and potential seismic hazards within the southern Tarim Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guilbaud, Christelle; Simoes, Martine; Barrier, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    remains seismic. To quantify the rate of active deformation and the potential for major earthquakes in this region, we combine a structural and quantitative morphological analysis of the Yecheng-Pishan fold, along the topographic mountain front in the epicentral area. Using a seismic profile, we derive...

  4. Kinematics of active deformation across the Western Kunlun mountain range (Xinjiang, China), and potential seismic hazards within the southern Tarim Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guilbaud, Christelle; Simoes, Martine; Barrier, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    remains seismic. To quantify the rate of active deformation and the potential for major earthquakes in this region, we combine a structural and quantitative morphological analysis of the Yecheng-Pishan fold, along the topographic mountain front in the epicentral area. Using a seismic profile, we derive......The Western Kunlun mountain range is a slowly converging intra-continental orogen where deformation rates are too low to be properly quantified from geodetic techniques. This region has recorded little seismicity, but the recent July 2015 (Mw 6.4) Pishan earthquake shows that this mountain range...... a structural cross-section in which we identify the fault that broke during the Pishan earthquake, an 8-12 km deep blind ramp beneath the Yecheng-Pishan fold. Combining satellite images and DEMs, we achieve a detailed morphological analysis of the Yecheng-Pishan fold, where we find nine levels of incised...

  5. Characteristics of sandstone-type uranium mineralization and ore-controlling factors in Wukurqi ore district at southern margin of Yili basin, Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xigen

    2002-01-01

    With the theories of hydrogenic uranium deposit in the nineties, Wukurqi ore district as a new area was found by the regional prediction and prospecting. Specially, through uranium ore prospecting of about three years, certain prospective reserves are generally controlled in the area. These reserves are hosted in V cyclothem of Middle-Lower Jurassic series, and some prospective reserves are hosted in II and VII cyclothems. By analyzing and summarizing characteristics of sandstone-type uranium mineralization and its ore-controlling factors in Wukurqi ore district, the author provides a foundation for developing further prospecting in this area

  6. The Brazilian marginal basins: current state of knowledge; As bacias marginais brasileiras: estagio atual de conhecimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Francisco Celso; Asmus, Haroldo Erwin

    2004-11-01

    Based on distinctive stratigraphic and/or structural characteristics, the brazilian continental margin can be divided into two main provinces : (1)The southeastern-eastern province, extending from the Pelotas to the Recife - Joao Pessoa Basin, presents a tensional tectonic style of Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous age, paralleling the structural alignments of the Precambrian basement, except in the northeastern segment where the Mesozoic faults of the Recife - Joao Pessoa Basin cut across the east west basement directions. The basin-fill, Upper Jurassic through Recent, consists, where complete, of three stratigraphic sequences, each of a distinct depositional environment: (a) a lower clastic non-marine sequence; (b) a middle evaporitic sequence, and (c) an upper clastic paralic and open marine sequence. (2)The northern province, extending from the Potiguar Basin to the Amazon Submarine Basin, displays both tensional and compressional tectonic styles of Upper Jurassic (?) to Upper Cretaceous age either paralleling or cutting transversally the basement alignments. The stratigraphic column differs from the southeastern - eastern province in lacking the Lower Cretaceous evaporitic rocks. The integration of the stratigraphic and structural data allows one to determine in the eastern Brazilian marginal basins the main evolutionary stages of a typical pull-apart continental margin: a continental pre-rift and rift stage, an evaporitic proto-ocean stage, and a normal open ocean stage. In the northern province it is possible to infer a continental rift valley stage, a marine transform - movement stage and an open ocean stage. The relationship between the rift valley and transform movement stages is not clear. (author)

  7. Multi-scale response of runoff to climate fluctuation in the headwater region of Kaidu River in Xinjiang of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ling; Chen, Zhongsheng; Xu, Jianhua; Li, Weihong

    2016-08-01

    Based on the hydrological and meteorological data in the headwater region of the Kaidu River during 1960-2009, the multi-scale characteristics of runoff variability were analyzed using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (EEMD), and the aim is to investigate the oscillation mode structure characteristics of runoff change and its response to climate fluctuation at different time scales. Results indicated that in the past 50 years, the overall runoff of Kaidu River in Xinjiang has showed a significant nonlinear upward trend, and its changes have obviously exhibited an inter-annual scale (quasi-3 and quasi-6-year) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-10 and quasi-25-year). Variance contribution rates of each component manifested that the inter-decadal change had been playing a more important role in the overall runoff change for Kaidu River, and the reconstructed inter-annual variation trend could describe the fluctuation state of the original runoff anomaly during the study period. The reconstructed inter-decadal variability effectively revealed that the runoff for Kaidu River changed over the years, namely the states of abundance and low water period appear alternately. In addition, we found that runoff has a positive correlation to precipitation and temperature at different time scales, but they are most significant and relevant at inter-decadal scale, indicating the inter-decadal scale is most suitable for investigating the responses of runoff dynamics to climate fluctuation. At the same time, the results also suggested that EEMD is an effective method to analyze the multi-scale characteristics of nonlinear and non-stationary signal.

  8. [Effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial community structure and function of continuous cropping cotton rhizosphere soil in Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mei-ying; Tang, Guang-mu; Liu, Hong-liang; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Xiao-wei; Xu, Wan-li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, field trials were conducted to examine the effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial population, function and structural diversity of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil of continuous cotton cropping field in Xinjiang by plate count, Biolog and DGGE methods. The experiment was a factorial design with four treatments: 1) normal fertilization with cotton stalk removed (NPK); 2) normal fertilization with cotton stalk powdered and returned to field (NPKS); 3) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 22.50 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₁); and 4) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 45.00 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₂). The results showed that cotton stalk biochar application obviously increased the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizospheric soil. Compared with NPK treatment, the number of fungi was significantly increased in the NPKB₁treatment, but not in the NPKB₂ treatment. However, the number of fungi was generally lower in the biochar amended (NPKB₁, NPKB₂) than in the cotton stalk applied plots (NPKS). Application of cotton stalk biochar increased values of AWCD, and significantly improved microbial richness index, suggesting that the microbial ability of utilizing carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids, especially phenolic acids was enhanced. The number of DGGE bands of NPKB₂ treatment was the greatest, with some species of Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being enriched. UPGMC Cluster analysis pointed out that bacterial communities in the rhizospheric soil of NPKB₂ treatment were different from those in the NPK, NPKS and NPKB₁treatments, which belonged to the same cluster. These results indicated that application of cotton stalk biochar could significantly increase microbial diversity and change soil bacterial community structure in the cotton rhizosphere soil, thus improving the health of soil ecosystem.

  9. The ordered network structure and prediction summary for M ≥ 7 earthquakes in Xinjiang region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men, Ke-Pei; Zhao, Kai

    2014-01-01

    M ≥ 7 earthquakes have showed an obvious commensurability and orderliness in Xinjiang of China and its adjacent region since 1800. The main orderly values are 30 a x k (k = 1, 2, 3), 11 ∝ 12 a, 41 ∝ 43 a, 18 ∝ 19 a, and 5 ∝ 6 a. In the guidance of the information forecasting theory of Wen-Bo Weng, based on previous research results, combining ordered network structure analysis with complex network technology, we focus on the prediction summary of M ≥ 7 earthquakes by using the ordered network structure, and add new information to further optimize network, hence construct the 2D- and 3D-ordered network structure of M ≥ 7 earthquakes. In this paper, the network structure revealed fully the regularity of seismic activity of M ≥ 7 earthquakes in the study region during the past 210 years. Based on this, the Karakorum M7.1 earthquake in 1996, the M7.9 earthquake on the frontier of Russia, Mongol, and China in 2003, and two Yutian M7.3 earthquakes in 2008 and 2014 were predicted successfully. At the same time, a new prediction opinion is presented that the future two M ≥ 7 earthquakes will probably occur around 2019-2020 and 2025-2026 in this region. The results show that large earthquake occurred in defined region can be predicted. The method of ordered network structure analysis produces satisfactory results for the mid-and-long term prediction of M ≥ 7 earthquakes.

  10. ACE and platelet aggregation inhibitors from Tamarix hohenackeri Bunge (host plant of Herba Cistanches) growing in Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yachao; Liao, Jing; Tang, Yingzhan; Zhang, Peng; Tan, Chengyu; Ni, Hui; Wu, Xueqin; Li, Ning; Jia, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tamarix hohenackeri Bunge is a salt cedar that grows widespread in the desert mountains in Xinjiang. T. hohenackeri has not been investigated earlier, although there are many reports of phytochemical work on other Tamarix species. Materials and Methods: To find out natural angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and platelet aggregation inhibitors, the bioactive extract (ethyl acetate [EtOAc] fraction) from the dried aerial parts of T. hohenackeri were investigated. The active fraction was purified by repeated column chromatography, including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column, medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) (polyamide column) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The isolated major constituents were tested for their anti-platelet aggregation activity. Results: Bioassay-directed separation of the EtOAc fraction of the 70% ethanol extract from the air-dried aerial parts of T. hohenackeri led to the isolation of a new triterpenoid lactone (1), together with 13 known compounds (2-14). It was the first time to focus on screening bioactive constituents for this plant. The chemical structures were established on the basis of spectral data (ESI-MS and NMR). The results showed that the flavonoid compounds (7 and 8) and phenolic compounds (9, 10, 11, and 14) were potential ACE inhibitors. And the flavonoid compounds (5 and 7) showed significant anti-platelet aggregation activities. Conclusion: On the basis of the chemical and biological data, the material basis of ACE inhibitory activity for the active part was the phenolic constituents. However, the flavonoid compounds were responsible for the anti-platelet aggregation. The primary structure and activity relationship were also discussed respectively. PMID:24914275

  11. Multiple and prolonged porphyry Cu–Au mineralization and alteration events in the Halasu deposit, Chinese Altai, Xinjiang, northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunji Xue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Halasu area is located in the southeastern margin of the Chinese Altai in Xinjiang, China. It is part of the Altaid orogenic collage where a number of porphyry-type Cu–Mo–Au deposits have been discovered in recent years. Geological mapping and drilling indicate the presence of various mineralized porphyritic intrusions in the Halasu Cu–Au deposit, which is currently under exploration. U–Pb dating of zircon crystals from four different mineralized porphyries reveals three significantly different ages of magmatic intrusion, i.e., ca. 372–382 Ma granodioritic porphyry and porphyritic granite, ca. 266 Ma quartz monzonitic porphyry, and ca. 216 Ma quartz dioritic porphyry. Re–Os dating of molybdenite from veinlet-dissemination ores in the granodioritic porphyry yields an age of mineralization of ca. 377 Ma, and Ar–Ar dating of K-feldspar from K-feldspar–quartz–chalcopyrite veins produces ages of ca. 269 and ca. 198 Ma. The mineralization (and alteration ages correspond broadly to the three episodes of magmatic intrusion, suggesting three overprinting porphyry mineralization events that are significantly separated in time. The first episode of porphyry intrusion and mineralization may be related to the magmatic arc being above a plate subduction zone, and the second was formed in a late-collisional environment during the closing of the Junggar Ocean, whereas the third episode of mineralization took place in the post-collisional stage. This case study suggests that in orogens where major porphyry deposits have been found in magmatic arc environments, the potential of discovering late- to post-collisional porphyry deposits cannot be neglected; conversely, in orogens where most porphyry deposits have late- to post-collisional ages, more attention should be paid to porphyries that were formed earlier in magmatic arc environments.

  12. Petrogenesis of Karamaili alkaline A-type granites from East Junggar, Xinjiang (NW China) and their relationship with tin mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yuping; Tang Hongfeng; Liu Congqiang; Hou Guangshun; Cong Feng; Sylvester, Paul J.; Qu Wenjun

    2007-01-01

    Several types of granites including alkaline granites and alkali feldspar granites are distributed in the Karamaili tectonic belt of East Junggar, Xinjiang, China. Some medium-small tin deposits are located within or near the contact zones of the granitic intrusions. The alkaline granites share all the features commonly observed in peralkaline A-type granites. They contain alkalic mafic minerals such as riebeckite and aegirine; have high contents of SiO 2 , alkalis, Rb, Th, Zr, Hf, REE (except Eu), and high ratios of FeO/MgO and Ga/Al; and show strong depletions in Ba, Sr, Eu in the spidergrams. Laser ablation-ICPMS U-Pb zircon geochronology indicates a crystallization age of ca. 305 Ma for the granites; TIMS analyses of the granites found high ε Nd (T) values of +5.9 to +6.5. Considering their geochemical features, alkaline granites most likely formed by fractional crystallization of graodioritic magmas, which were probably produced by partial melting of lower crustal basaltic to andesitic rocks formed from oceanic crustal materials that were deeply buried during late Palezoic subduction and accretion. Six molybdenite samples from the Sareshike tin deposit in East Junggar yielded an isochron age of 307±11 Ma (2σ) and a weighted mean model age of 306.5±3.4 Ma, consistent with zircon U-Pb ages of the alkaline granites. Low Re contents (0.323-0.961 ppm) in the molybdenite suggest that they originated from crustal sources related to the alkaline granites. Considering their identical ages, close spatial distribution, and similar sources, we argue that the A-type granites have a genetic relationship with the tin mineralization, and that the same association may be important elsewhere. (author)

  13. The Analysis of Burrows Recognition Accuracy in XINJIANG'S Pasture Area Based on Uav Visible Images with Different Spatial Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D.; Zheng, J. H.; Ma, T.; Chen, J. J.; Li, X.

    2018-04-01

    The rodent disaster is one of the main biological disasters in grassland in northern Xinjiang. The eating and digging behaviors will cause the destruction of ground vegetation, which seriously affected the development of animal husbandry and grassland ecological security. UAV low altitude remote sensing, as an emerging technique with high spatial resolution, can effectively recognize the burrows. However, how to select the appropriate spatial resolution to monitor the calamity of the rodent disaster is the first problem we need to pay attention to. The purpose of this study is to explore the optimal spatial scale on identification of the burrows by evaluating the impact of different spatial resolution for the burrows identification accuracy. In this study, we shoot burrows from different flight heights to obtain visible images of different spatial resolution. Then an object-oriented method is used to identify the caves, and we also evaluate the accuracy of the classification. We found that the highest classification accuracy of holes, the average has reached more than 80 %. At the altitude of 24 m and the spatial resolution of 1cm, the accuracy of the classification is the highest We have created a unique and effective way to identify burrows by using UAVs visible images. We draw the following conclusion: the best spatial resolution of burrows recognition is 1 cm using DJI PHANTOM-3 UAV, and the improvement of spatial resolution does not necessarily lead to the improvement of classification accuracy. This study lays the foundation for future research and can be extended to similar studies elsewhere.

  14. [Prevalence of dyslipidemia and normal blood lipids level in Uygur population in Kashgar area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z B; Xue, Z X; Wu, X J; Wang, T M; Li, Y H; Song, X L; Chao, X F; Wang, G; Nazibam, Nurmamat; Ayxamgul, Bawudun; Gulbahar, Elyas; Zhou, Z Y; Sun, B S; Wang, Y Z; Wang, M

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To understand the prevalence of dyslipidemia and normal blood lipids level in Uygur diabetes patients in Kashgar prefecture in southern area of Xinjiang. Methods: A total of 5 078 local residents aged ≥18 years (42.56 % were men) selected through cluster random sampling in Kashgar were surveyed by means of questionnaire survey, physical examination and laboratory test, and 521 diabetes patients were screened. Results: The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia in diabetes patients was 59.50 % (310/521) with adjusted rate as 49.39 % . Age ≥65 years, overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity increased the risk for dyslipidemia by 0.771 times (95 % CI : 1.015-3.088), 1.132 times (95 % CI : 1.290-3.523), 1.688 times (95 % CI : 1.573-4.592) and 0.801 times (95 % CI : 1.028-3.155) respectively. Compared with males, female was a protective factor for dyslipidemia ( OR =0.507, 95 %CI : 0.334-0.769). The overall normal rate of blood lipids level including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) for type 2 diabetes patients was 11.13 % . Female, higher BMI and abdominal obesity were the factors influencing the overall normal blood lipids level. The normal rate of LDL-C level decreased with increase of age, BMI and waist circumferences (trend test χ (2)=18.049, P dyslipidemia in Uygur diabetes patients in Kashgar was high, however, the overall normal rate of blood lipid level was relatively low. Obesity was the most important risk factor for dyslipidemia in this area. More attention should be paid to dyslipidemia prevention in women.

  15. Genetic Structure and Eco-Geographical Differentiation of Wild Sheep Fescue (Festuca ovina L. in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglin Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glaciation and mountain orogeny have generated new ecologic opportunities for plants, favoring an increase in the speciation rate. Moreover, they also act as corridors or barriers for plant lineages and populations. High genetic diversity ensures that species are able to survive and adapt. Gene flow is one of the most important determinants of the genetic diversity and structure of out-crossed species, and it is easily affected by biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity and structure of an alpine species, Festuca ovina L., in Xinjiang, China. A total of 100 individuals from 10 populations were analyzed using six amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP primer pairs. A total of 583 clear bands were generated, of which 392 were polymorphic; thus, the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB was 67.24%. The total and average genetic diversities were 0.2722 and 0.2006 (0.1686–0.2225, respectively. The unweighted group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA tree, principal coordinates analysis (PCoA and Structure analyses revealed that these populations or individuals could be clustered into two groups. The analysis of molecular variance analysis (AMOVA suggested that most of the genetic variance existed within a population, and the genetic differentiation (Fst among populations was 20.71%. The Shannon differentiation coefficient (G’st among populations was 0.2350. Limited gene flow (Nm = 0.9571 was detected across all sampling sites. The Fst and Nm presented at different levels under the genetic barriers due to fragmentation. The population genetic diversity was significant relative to environmental factors such as temperature, altitude and precipitation.

  16. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, Arthur; Hart, Patrick E.

    2012-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a >700,000 sq. km. remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed across the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-83.5 Ma. Canada Basin was filled by Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Beaufort-Mackenzie Deltaic System, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. The basin contains roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. Three fourths or more of this volume generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemipelagic deposits, which contain lenses to extensive interbeds of moderate amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits.Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin is correlative with stratigraphic sequences in these areas that contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks. In addition, worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas windows. Structural, stratigraphic and combined structural and stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin, and at least one of these contains bright spots. However, deep water (to almost 4000 m), remoteness from harbors and markets, and thick accumulations of seasonal to permanent sea ice (until its possible removal by global warming later this century) will require the discovery of very large deposits for commercial success in most parts of Canada Basin. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The East Irish Sea Basin - from caterpillar to butterfly, a thirty-year metamorphosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colter, V.S.

    1997-12-31

    In the thirty years since the award of the first licenses, the East Irish Sea Basin has emerged as a significant hydrocarbon province. This paper first lists some of the occasionally almost arbitrary events that led to the first success in the basin, the discovery of the Morecambe Field, in 1974. An attempt is made to review progress over those thirty years in certain topics, namely (1) stratigraphy, (2) structure, (3) sedimentology, (4) diagenesis `The `Platy Illite problem`; and others, (5) uplift and inversion, (6) hydrocarbon sources and types, (7) East Irish Sea Basin analogues. The paper concludes by summarizing the current state of knowledge. (author)

  18. Natural radiation level and doses to population in Anhui province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The absorbed dose rates in air 1 m above the ground from natural radiation and terrestrial gamma radiation in Anhui Province were surveyed. One measurement was made in every area of 90 km 2 . The absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial radiation range from 54 to 90 nGy.h -1 with an average of 70 nGy.h -1 . The ratios of indoors-to-outdoors and of roads-to-outdoors are 1.5 and 0.9 respectively. The annual effective dose equivalent from external radiation is 0.68-1.05 mSv. The population-weighted average values for mountain area, plain, hilly land, and the Changjiang River basin as well as the annual collective effective dose equivalent were calculated

  19. The ;Sardinian cold-water coral province; in the context of the Mediterranean coral ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Canese, S.; Cannas, R.; Cardone, F.; Cau, A.; Cau, A. B.; Follesa, M. C.; Marchese, F.; Montagna, P.; Tessarolo, C.

    2017-11-01

    A new cold-water coral (CWC) province has been identified in the Mediterranean Sea in the Capo Spartivento canyon system offshore the southern coast of Sardinia. The 'Sardinia cold-water coral province' is characterized in the Nora canyon by a spectacular coral growth dominated by the branching scleractinian Madrepora oculata at a depth of 380-460 m. The general biohermal frame is strengthened by the common occurrence of the solitary scleractinian Desmophyllum dianthus and the occasional presence of Lophelia pertusa. As documented by Remotely Operated Vehicle survey, this area is a hotspot of megafaunal diversity hosting among other also live specimens of the deep oyster Neopycnodonte zibrowii. The new coral province is located between the central Mediterranean CWC provinces (Bari Canyon, Santa Maria di Leuca, South Malta) and the western and northern ones (Melilla, Catalan-Provençal-Ligurian canyons). As for all the best developed CWC situations in the present Mediterranean Sea, the new Sardinian province is clearly influenced by Levantine Intermediate Water which appears to be a main driver for CWC distribution and viability in this basin.

  20. HPV Infection and Prognostic Factors of Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Different Ethnic Groups from Geographically Closed Cohort in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The effect of HPV infection status and ethnic differences on the prognosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma in Xinjiang presents an interesting set of conditions that has yet to be studied. Methods. A comprehensive analysis of clinical data was undertaken for a cohort consisting of 63 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma recruited from three ethnic groups in Xinjiang. PCR was used for the detection of HPV16 and HPV18 infections. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used for analyzing survival outcome in addition to the assessment of other prognostic factors. Results. The overall infection rate for HPV was 28.6% (18/63; the 5-year survival rate among the HPV-positive patients was 47.8% and 30.3% for HPV-negative patients. The survival rate for HPV-positive patients who received radiotherapy and chemotherapy was better than for those who did not receive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. N staging and HPV infection were found to be two independent and significant prognostic factors. Conclusion. HPV-positive patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma are more sensitive to chemotherapy. Higher N staging indicates poor prognosis.

  1. Rhoptry-associated protein (rap-1) genes in the sheep pathogen Babesia sp. Xinjiang: Multiple transcribed copies differing by 3' end repeated sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Marchand, Jordan; Yang, Congshan; Bonsergent, Claire; Guan, Guiquan; Yin, Hong; Malandrin, Laurence

    2015-07-30

    Sheep babesiosis occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. The sheep parasite Babesia sp. Xinjiang is widespread in China, and our goal is to characterize rap-1 (rhoptry-associated protein 1) gene diversity and expression as a first step of a long term goal aiming at developing a recombinant subunit vaccine. Seven different rap-1a genes were amplified in Babesia sp. Xinjiang, using degenerate primers designed from conserved motifs. Rap-1b and rap-1c gene types could not be identified. In all seven rap-1a genes, the 5' regions exhibited identical sequences over 936 nt, and the 3' regions differed at 28 positions over 147 nt, defining two types of genes designated α and β. The remaining 3' part varied from 72 to 360 nt in length, depending on the gene. This region consists of a succession of two to ten 36 nt repeats, which explains the size differences. Even if the nucleotide sequences varied, 6 repeats encoded the same stretch of amino acids. Transcription of at least four α and two β genes was demonstrated by standard RT-PCR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  3. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Mancos-Menefee Composite Total Petroleum System: Chapter 4 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Condon, S.M.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Mancos-Menefee Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) includes all genetically related hydrocarbons generated from organic-rich shales in the Cretaceous Mancos Shale and from carbonaceous shale, coal beds, and humate in the Cretaceous Menefee Formation of the Mesaverde Group. The system is called a composite total petroleum system because the exact source of the hydrocarbons in some of the reservoirs is not known. Reservoir rocks that contain hydrocarbons generated in Mancos and Menefee source beds are found in the Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, at the base of the composite TPS, through the lower part of the Cliff House Sandstone of the Mesaverde Group, at the top. Source rocks in both the Mancos Shale and Menefee Formation entered the oil generation window in the late Eocene and continued to generate oil or gas into the late Miocene. Near the end of the Miocene in the San Juan Basin, subsidence ceased, hydrocarbon generation ceased, and the basin was uplifted and differentially eroded. Reservoirs are now underpressured.

  4. Transamazonic foundation from Borborema Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackpacher, P.C.; Dantas, E.L.; Van Schums, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author)

  5. Low Flow Regimes of the Tarim River Basin, China: Probabilistic Behavior, Causes and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are a frequent occurrence in Xinjiang, China, and therefore fundamental to determining their hydrologic characteristics is low flow analysis. To that end, 11 probability distribution functions and 26 copulas functions were employed to analyze the changing characteristics of low flow regime (defined as seven-day low flow of the Tarim River Basin. Results indicated that: (1 The Wakeby distribution satisfactorily described the probabilistic behavior of the low flow regime. According to Akaike Information Criterion (AIC, Bayesian Information Criterions (BIC, maximum likelihood, and other residual-based metrics, Tawn copula, Farlie–Gumbel–Morgenstern copula and Frank copula were the best choice and used in this current study. (2 After 1987, hydrological droughts of longer return periods were prone to higher occurrence frequency. (3 The low flow volume has been increasing in recent years due to the temperature-induced increase of snowmelt and increasing precipitation. However, hydrological droughts can be expected to occur due to the massive increase in water demand from the development of irrigated agriculture, increasing arable land and livestock farming. As a result, the water shortage in the lower Tarim River Basin will be increasingly severe under the influence of climate change and human activities. To alleviate the shortage would call for the development of water-saving agricultural irrigation, water-saving technology, conservation of eco-environment and sustainable development of local socio-economy.

  6. Basalt stratigraphy - Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Myers, C.W.; Brown, D.J.; Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1979-10-01

    The geologic history of the Pasco Basin is sketched. Study of the stratigraphy of the area involved a number of techniques including major-element chemistry, paleomagnetic investigations, borehole logging, and other geophysical survey methods. Grande Ronde basalt accumulation in the Pasco Basin is described. An illustrative log response is shown. 1 figure

  7. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossdarf, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  8. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  9. The Development Training Activity on Local Vegetable Songkhram Watershed Conservation for Student Second Primary Education in Srisongkhram District Nakhonphanom Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiattisak Charoensook

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Encouraging youth or locality is a preserver, and training is an approach to give an importance to conserve local vegetables in an area. The development of the training activity to promote the conservation of local vegetables at Songkharam Basin for the Second Grade Students, Srisongkhram District, Nakhon Phanom Province has the purposes to study kinds of local vegetable varieties at Songkhram Basin for the second grade students, Srisongkhram District, Nakhon Phanom Province, to develop the efficiently training activity which requires the performance-based criteria 80/80, to find the effectiveness index of the training activity to promote the conservation of local vegetables at Songkhram Basin, to study and compare knowledge about local vegetables at Songkharam Basin at not only pre-training and post-training, which are categorized by different gender and class levels, and to study and compare knowledge and attitudes to the conservation of local vegetable at Songkharam Basin for the second grade students, Srisongkhram District, Nakhon Phanom Province. Sample of the study were the second thirty grade students, Nong Um Phai School, Srisongkhram District, Nakhon Phanom Province through a purposive sampling approach. Tools for research were a training activity, a knowledge test, and an attitude test, Data were analyzed by the mean and standard deviation so as to measure the effectiveness of a training course in company with the performance - based criteria, 80/80. Similarly, Hypotheses were tested by paired t – test, F – test (Two – way Manova , and Two – way Anova. The result of this study showed that the training activity on local vegetable Songkhram watershed conservation for second primary education in Srisongkhram district Nakhonphanom province showed the efficiency of 83.23/86.55 and had a effectiveness index of 0.6795. Student second primary education in Srisongkhram district Nakhonphanom province showed gains in attitude for training

  10. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  11. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T. H.; Yin, Z.; Song, Y. Z.

    2012-11-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  12. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T h; Yin, Z; Song, Y Z

    2012-01-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  13. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in Uygur population in Kashgar area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z B; Xue, Z X; Wang, H; Wang, T M; Li, Y H; Song, X L; Chao, X F; Wang, G; Wu, X J; Nazibam, Nurmamat; Ayxamgul, Bawudun; Gulbahar, Elyas; Zhou, Z Y; Sun, B S; Wang, Y Z; Wang, M

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Uygur residents in Kashgar of Xinjiang. Methods: The survey was conducted among the Uygur residents aged ≥18 years selected through stratified cluster sampling in Kashgar by means of questionnaire survey, physical examination and basic laboratory test. The prevalence of different groups were calculated and risk factors of DM was analyzed by logistic vegression model. Results: A total of 4 608 adults were surveyed. The prevalence of DM was 11.31 % (standardized prevalence: 10.59 % ) and the prevalence was 13.65 % (standardized prevalence: 12.34 % ) in males and 10.04 % (standardized prevalence: 9.83 % ) in females. The prevalence increased with age. The prevalence of DM was higher than the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in people aged >60 years, especially in females. The rates of awareness, treatment and control of DM were 28.02 % , 21.31 % and 5.57 % , respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that people aged 45-55, 55-65 and >65 years had higher risk of DM and the odds ratio were 2.08 (95 %CI : 1.24-3.48), 2.73 (95 %CI : 1.63-4.56) and 3.90 (95 %CI : 2.24-6.78) for men and 2.63 (95 % CI : 1.71-4.02), 3.14 (95 %CI : 2.00-4.94) and 5.56 (95 %CI : 3.47-8.92) for woman, respectively. Family history of DM ( OR =2.88 for men, 95 % CI : 1.45-5.72; OR =2.52 for women, 95 % CI : 1.49-4.26) and BMI≥28.0 kg/m(2) ( OR =1.77 for men, 95 % CI : 1.19-2.64, OR =1.80 for women, 95 % CI : 1.30-2.50) were also risk factors for DM. Conclusion: The prevalence of DM was high in Uygur residents in Kashgar, but the rate of awareness, treatment and control of DM were low. It is necessary to improve the detection rate of DM and conduct targeted prevention and control of DM.

  14. Random Forest Classification of Wetland Landcovers from Multi-Sensor Data in the Arid Region of Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohong Tian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The wetland classification from remotely sensed data is usually difficult due to the extensive seasonal vegetation dynamics and hydrological fluctuation. This study presents a random forest classification approach for the retrieval of the wetland landcover in the arid regions by fusing the Pléiade-1B data with multi-date Landsat-8 data. The segmentation of the Pléiade-1B multispectral image data was performed based on an object-oriented approach, and the geometric and spectral features were extracted for the segmented image objects. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI series data were also calculated from the multi-date Landsat-8 data, reflecting vegetation phenological changes in its growth cycle. The feature set extracted from the two sensors data was optimized and employed to create the random forest model for the classification of the wetland landcovers in the Ertix River in northern Xinjiang, China. Comparison with other classification methods such as support vector machine and artificial neural network classifiers indicates that the random forest classifier can achieve accurate classification with an overall accuracy of 93% and the Kappa coefficient of 0.92. The classification accuracy of the farming lands and water bodies that have distinct boundaries with the surrounding land covers was improved 5%–10% by making use of the property of geometric shapes. To remove the difficulty in the classification that was caused by the similar spectral features of the vegetation covers, the phenological difference and the textural information of co-occurrence gray matrix were incorporated into the classification, and the main wetland vegetation covers in the study area were derived from the two sensors data. The inclusion of phenological information in the classification enables the classification errors being reduced down, and the overall accuracy was improved approximately 10%. The results show that the proposed random forest

  15. Major uranium provinces: Yilgarn block and Gascoyne Province, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Archaean Yilgarn Block and the adjacent Proterozoic Gascoyne Province, Western Australia, form the basement and source rocks for numerous occurrences of surficial uranium mineralization, the largest being the Yeelirrie deposit (35 million tonnes at 0.15% U 3 O 8 ). The mineralization, almost exclusively in the form of carnotite, has been deposited in the regolith and appears to be less than 1 Ma old, with some deposits still forming. The nature and distribution of the mineralization are controlled by basement and surface geology, geomorphology, hydrology and climate, being restricted to deeply weathered, semi-arid terrain with granitoid source rocks. A few small occurrences in the Gascoyne Province may be pedogenic in origin but the majority, in the north of Yilgarn Block, occur in unrejuvenated palaeodrainage channels now choked by colluvial, alluvial and chemical sediments. These sediments, which are aquifers for the present, predominantly sub-surface, drainage, can exceed 10-15 m. Uranium released from the weathering granitoids has been transported in groundwaters in uranyl carbonate complexes and precipitated as carnotite where, (i) concentrations of uranium and potassium have been elevated by evaporation and, (ii) dissolved vanadium has been oxidized to the 5-valent state. Precipitation is in calcretes and associated sediments in the drainage axes, in 'chemical deltas' where the drainages enter playas and in the playas themselves. This style of mineralization was first recognized in 1969-1970 as the result of investigations into the source of radiometric anomalies delineated by airborne surveys. The majority of discoveries have similarly been by radiometric surveys but hydrogeochemical surveys have promise and may become important in future search for blind mineralization and/or young deposits not in radioactive equilibrium. (author). 61 refs, 6 figs

  16. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  17. The Ogaden Basin, Ethiopia: an underexplored sedimentary basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitz, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    A brief article examines the Ogaden Basin in Ethiopia in terms of basin origin, basin fill and the hydrocarbon exploration history and results. The natural gas find in pre-Jurassic sandstones, which appears to contain substantial reserves, justifies continuing investigations in this largely underexplored basin. (UK).

  18. Tectonic-sedimentary evolution of foreland basins: U-Pb dating of the discharge that would have originated the piggy-back basin of Rodeo-Iglesias, San Juan-Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Romulo Duarte Moreira dos; Hauser, Natalia; Matteini, Massimo; Pimentel, Marcio Martins

    2015-01-01

    Between the 28 ° and 31 ° LS parallels of the Argentinean west, in the province of San Juan, foreland basins originated by the subhorizontal subduction of oceanic crust as a result of the Andean orogeny in the late Oligocene emerges. The Bermejo basin and Rodeo-Iglesias piggy-back basin would be associated with the progressive development of landslides, backscatter and minor faults, and basin fragmentation. Two samples of volcanic rocks, R-1 (rhyolitic dome) and R-3 (fall deposit) of the Rodeo-Iglesias basin, had ages of 8.2 ± 0.11 Ma and 8.7 ± 0.24 Ma. At the same time, the age of the (R-1) made it possible to infer quantitatively the age of the first cavalcade that occurred approximately 8.2 ± 0.11 Ma. From the data obtained in the Rodeo-Iglesias basin both volcanism and the first cavalcade could have been synchronous

  19. Potential Climatic Zoning of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrough Sadat Baniaghil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Crop selection based on land capabilities has been used in several studies to assess the suitability of land for specific crops in order to determine the optimal cropping system. Maize, rice, wheat, barley, cotton, soybean and canola are the major crops found in the agricultural production systems of Golestan province, Iran. Soybean (Glycine max L.; Fabaceae is grown world-wide as an important staple and commercial crop. Kamkar et al., (2014 on assessment review of land suitability for cultivation of rapeseed and soybean in four basins over Golestan province, using GIS reported that only 11.82% of the total lands very suitable to rotate soybean after canola, used raster layers for them study were included climatic (precipitation, temperature, topographic (aspects and slope and soil-related (texture, pH, EC. The Geographical Information System (GIS offers a flexible and powerful tool as it can combine large volumes of different kinds of data into new datasets and display these new datasets in the form of informative and accessible thematic maps. The aim of this study was to perform land suitability assessments for wheat cultivation Golestan province, and to investigate the possibility of wheat cultivation. In this way, we used GIS and a comprehensive data set on wheat crop ecological requirements, agro climatological, topographic and soil data. Material and Methods Geographical Location of the Region The province of Golestan with an area of 21,500 square kilometers, is in the southeast of the Caspian Sea. This area extends from 36_440 N to 38_50 N and from 51_530 E to 56_140 E. In general, Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as "the moderate Caspian climate. arid and semiarid areas has occupied more than 35% of Golestan province. The study area of the research, include agricultural lands and rangelands of Golestan province is present. Using 1: 50,000 maps of the national cartographic center of Iran, we created a 20 m

  20. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  1. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (phomicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Source characteristics and tectonic setting of mafic-ultramafic intrusions in North Xinjiang, NW China: Insights from the petrology and geochemistry of the Lubei mafic-ultramafic intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-Yun; Yu, Jin-Jie; Liu, Shuai-Jie

    2018-05-01

    The newly discovered Lubei sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusion forms the western extension of the Huangshan-Jin'erquan mafic-ultramafic intrusion belt in East Tianshan, NW China. The Lubei intrusion comprises hornblende peridotite, lherzolite, and harzburgite in its southern portion, gabbro in its middle portion, and hornblende gabbro in its northern portion. Intrusive relationships indicate that three magma pulses were involved in the formation of the intrusion, and that they were likely evolved from a common primitive magma. Estimated compositions of the Lubei primitive magma are similar to those of island arc calc-alkaline basalt except for the low Na2O and CaO contents of the Lubei primitive magma. This paper reports on the mineral compositions, whole-rock major and trace element contents, and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of the Lubei intrusion, and a zircon LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb age for hornblende gabbro. The Lubei intrusion is characterized by enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements, depletion in high-field-strength elements, and marked negative Nb and Ta anomalies, with enrichment in chondrite-normalized light rare earth elements. It exhibits low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.70333-0.70636 and low (143Nd/144Nd)i ratios of 0.51214-0.51260, with positive εNd values of +4.01 to +6.33. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages yielded a weighted-mean age of 287.9 ± 1.6 Ma for the Lubei intrusion. Contemporaneous mafic-ultramafic intrusions in different tectonic domains in North Xinjiang show similar geological and geochemical signatures to the Lubei intrusion, suggesting a source region of metasomatized mantle previously modified by hydrous fluids from the slab subducted beneath the North Xinjiang region in the early Permian. Metasomatism of the mantle was dominated by hydrous fluids and was related to subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic lithosphere during the Paleozoic. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest that the mantle source was a mixture of depleted mid

  3. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Triglycerides/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Were the Optimal Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome in Uighur Men and Women in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bang-Dang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Yi-Tong; Pan, Shuo; He, Chun-Hui; Liu, Fen; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Ying-Ying

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the best single predictor of metabolic syndrome by comparing the predictive ability of various anthropometric and atherogenic parameters among a Uighur population in Xinjiang, northwest China. A total of 4767 Uighur participants were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS), which was carried out from October, 2007, to March, 2010. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, serum concentration of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and fasting glucose were documented. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components were confirmed according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of each variable for the presence of metabolic syndrome was compared. The sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Spe), distance in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and cutoffs of each variable for the presence of metabolic syndrome were calculated. In all, 23.7% of men had the metabolic syndrome, whereas 40.1% of women had the metabolic syndrome in a Uighur population in Xinjiang; the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women was significantly higher than that in men (PAUC value (AUC=0.838); it was followed by TGs/HDL-C (AUC=0.826), body mass index (BMI) (AUC=0.812), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (AUC=0.781), and body adiposity index (BAI) (AUC=0.709). In women, the TGs/HDL-C had the highest AUC value (AUC=0.815); it was followed by WHtR (AUC=0.780), WHR (AUC=0.730), BMI (AUC=0.719), and BAI (AUC=0.699). Similarly, among all five anthropometric and atherogenic parameters, the WHtR had the shortest ROC distance of 0.32 (Sen=85.40%, Spe=71.6%), and the optimal cutoff for WHtR was 0.55 in men. In women, TGs/HDL-C had the shortest ROC distance of 0.35 (Sen=75.29%, Spe=75.18%), and the optimal cutoff of TGs/HDL-C was 1.22. WHtR was the best predictor of metabolic

  4. Multimedia fate modeling and risk assessment of a commonly used azole fungicide climbazole at the river basin scale in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ying, Guang-Guo; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Liu, You-Sheng; Liu, Wang-Rong; Zhao, Jian-Liang

    2015-07-01

    Climbazole is an antidandruff active ingredient commonly used in personal care products, but little is known about its environmental fate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of climbazole in water, sediment, soil and air compartments of the whole China by using a level III multimedia fugacity model. The usage of climbazole was calculated to be 345 t in the whole China according to the market research data, and after wastewater treatment a total emission of 245 t was discharged into the receiving environment with approximately 93% into the water compartment and 7% into the soil compartment. The developed fugacity model was successfully applied to estimate the contamination levels and mass inventories of climbazole in various environmental compartments of the river basins in China. The predicted environmental concentration ranges of climbazole were: 0.20-367 ng/L in water, and 0.009-25.2 ng/g dry weight in sediment. The highest concentration was mainly found in Haihe River basin and the lowest was in basins of Tibet and Xinjiang regions. The mass inventory of climbazole in the whole China was estimated to be 294 t, with 6.79% in water, 83.7% in sediment, 9.49% in soil, and 0.002% in air. Preliminary risk assessment showed high risks in sediment posed by climbazole in 2 out of 58 basins in China. The medium risks in water and sediment were mostly concentrated in north China. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report on the emissions and multimedia fate of climbazole in the river basins of the whole China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Profiles of Reservoir Properties of Oil-Bearing Plays for Selected Petroleum Provinces in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, P.A.; Attanasi, E.D.

    2015-11-05

    Profiles of reservoir properties of oil-bearing plays for selected petroleum provinces in the United States were developed to characterize the database to be used for a potential assessment by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of oil that would be technically recoverable by the application of enhanced oil recovery methods using injection of carbon dioxide (CO2-EOR). The USGS assessment methodology may require reservoir-level data for the purposes of screening conventional oil reservoirs and projecting CO2-EOR performance in terms of the incremental recoverable oil. The information used in this report is based on reservoir properties from the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012). As described by Nehring Associates, Inc., the database “covers all producing provinces (basins) in the United States except the Appalachian Basin and the Cincinnati Arch.”

  6. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  7. BASINS Framework and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  8. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  9. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  10. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  11. Evaluation of input output efficiency of oil field considering undesirable output —A case study of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuying; Wu, Xuquan; Li, Deshan; Xu, Yadong; Song, Shulin

    2017-06-01

    Based on the input and output data of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield, the SBM-Undesirable model is used to study the technical efficiency of each block. Results show that: the model of SBM-undesirable to evaluate its efficiency and to avoid defects caused by traditional DEA model radial angle, improve the accuracy of the efficiency evaluation. by analyzing the projection of the oil blocks, we find that each block is in the negative external effects of input redundancy and output deficiency benefit and undesirable output, and there are greater differences in the production efficiency of each block; the way to improve the input-output efficiency of oilfield is to optimize the allocation of resources, reduce the undesirable output and increase the expected output.

  12. Pollen and phytoliths from fired ancient potsherds as potential indicators for deciphering past vegetation and climate in Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Hong-En; Ferguson, David K; Hueber, Francis; Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that palynomorphs can occur in fired ancient potsherds when the firing temperature was under 350°C. Pollen and phytoliths recovered from incompletely fired and fully fired potsherds (ca. 2700 yrs BP) from the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China can be used as potential indicators for reconstructing past vegetation and corresponding climate in the area. The results show a higher rate of recovery of pollen and phytoliths from incompletely fired potsherds than from fully fired ones. Charred phytoliths recovered from both fully fired and incompletely fired potsherds prove that degree and condition of firing result in a permanent change in phytolith color. The palynological data, together with previous data of macrobotanical remains from the Yanghai Tombs, suggest that temperate vegetation and arid climatic conditions dominated in the area ca. 2700 yrs BP.

  13. Population genetic analysis of the GlobalFiler STR loci in 748 individuals from the Kazakh population of Xinjiang in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghua; Yang, Shuping; Guo, Wei; Ren, Bo; Pu, Liwen; Ma, Teng; Xia, Mingying; Jin, Li; Li, Liming; Li, Shilin

    2016-09-01

    The six-dye GlobalFiler™ Express PCR amplification kit incorporates 21 commonly used autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci and three gender determination loci. In this study, we analyzed the GlobalFiler STR loci on 748 unrelated individuals from a Chinese Kazakh population of Xinjiang, China. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium were observed within and between 21 autosomal STR loci. SE33 showed the greatest power of discrimination in Kazakh population. The combined power of discrimination of Kazakh was 99.999999999999999999999996797 %. No significant differences of allele frequencies were observed between Kazakh and Uyghur at all 15 tested STR loci, as well as Mongolian. Significant differences were only observed between Kazakh and the other Chinese populations at TH01. Multiple STR loci showed significant differences between Kazakh and Arab, as well as South Portuguese. The multidimensional scaling plot (MDS) plot and neighbor-joining tree also showed Kazakh is genetically close to Uyghur.

  14. [Association of the tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in transforming growth factor beta-1 gene with hypertension in the Han nationality population in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-feng; Shi, Xiao-peng; Zhao, Dan; Deng, Feng-mei; Zhong, Hua; Wang, Gang; Wang, Zhen-huan; Chen, Xiong-ying; He, Fang

    2010-06-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) was a complex disease resulted from the interaction of cumulative effect of multiple genetic and environment factors. The relationship between the genetic polymorphisms in the transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), the blood levels and EH have been investigated, but the conclusions were different. Therefore, we investigate the relationship between the tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) (rs1800469, rs2241716, rs11466345, rs2241715, rs4803455) in TGF-beta1 gene, blood levels and EH in the Han nationality population in Xinjiang, to clarity the pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the feature of the structure of haplotype. Based on the case-control study,we selected 732 (365 EH patients,367 controls) Han Chinese population from the Boertonggu countryside of Shawan region in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China by random cluster sampling. After questionnaire and physical examination, we collected blood samples, and the blood levels of TGF-beta1 were quantified using sandwich ELISA. The polymorphisms of TGF-beta1 gene in the study groups were detected with SNaPshot system. The case-control study in a large group was carried out separately for each of the tSNP and followed up by haplotypes analyses to determine the relation between tSNPs of TGF-beta1 gene and EH in the Han population. (1) The frequencies of alleles A, G of rs11466345 of TGF-beta1 gene in EH group and control group were as follows: 69.7%, 30.3%, 74.4%, 25.6%, respectively. It was demonstrated that the G allele of the rs11466345 polymorphism occurred at a significantly higher frequency in EH patients than in healthy controls (30.3% vs. 25.6%, P 0.05). (2)Except the site of rs11466345, the other tSNPs were in strong LD, and no statistical differences were observed in haplotypes distribution in the followup study between case-control groups (P > 0.05). (3) There were no difference of TGF-beta1 levels between the different genotypes and alleles in

  15. Development of urbanization in arid and semi arid regions based on the water resource carrying capacity -- a case study of Changji, Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H.; Zhang, L.; Chai, Z.

    2017-07-01

    The arid and semiarid region in China where have a relatively weak economic foundation, independent development capacity, and the low-level of urbanization. The new urbanization within these regions is facing severe challenges brought by the constraints of resources. In this paper, we selected the Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region as study area. We found that agricultural planting structure is the key water consumption index based on the research about the main water demands of domestic, agriculture and industry. Finally, we suggest that more attentions should be paid to the rational utilization of water resources, population carrying capacity, and adjust and upgrade the industrial structure, with the purpose of coordination with the Silk Road Economic Belt.

  16. An optimized Nash nonlinear grey Bernoulli model based on particle swarm optimization and its application in prediction for the incidence of Hepatitis B in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Zheng, Yanling; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xueliang; Zheng, Yujian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, by using a particle swarm optimization algorithm to solve the optimal parameter estimation problem, an improved Nash nonlinear grey Bernoulli model termed PSO-NNGBM(1,1) is proposed. To test the forecasting performance, the optimized model is applied for forecasting the incidence of hepatitis B in Xinjiang, China. Four models, traditional GM(1,1), grey Verhulst model (GVM), original nonlinear grey Bernoulli model (NGBM(1,1)) and Holt-Winters exponential smoothing method, are also established for comparison with the proposed model under the criteria of mean absolute percentage error and root mean square percent error. The prediction results show that the optimized NNGBM(1,1) model is more accurate and performs better than the traditional GM(1,1), GVM, NGBM(1,1) and Holt-Winters exponential smoothing method. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. EVALUASI RENCANA KINERJA KOLAM RETENSI (RETARDING BASIN DALAM UPAYA PENGENDALIAN BANJIR TUKAD MATI DI KOTA DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G. Suryadinata P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tukad Mati is one of the rivers in the province of Bali that unfolds and flows in Badung regency and Denpasar. Inundation due to flooding is a problem that often occurs in this region during the rainy season. In an effort to overcome problems of flooding have been many studies carried out so as to produce flood control alternatives such as normalization, diversion channels and retarding basins. Retarding basin is one of flood control alternative that has not been much studied. In this study conducted a simulation of flood prevention alternative with retarding basin at Tukad Mati, by the hydrology approach method and hydraulics using HEC-RAS 4.0 program applications. Simulations performed on the current river flow conditions (existing condition and to the existing conditions with the retarding basin, according to the detail design of retarding basin in the city of Denpasar and evaluate the effectiveness of the retarding basin in the river basin flood control of Tukad Mati. Flood control by retarding basin based on simulations with the 2 (two years flood return period, resulting in a reduction of water level by an average of 0.42 meters or an average of 12% of the maximum water level in the conditions without retarding basin, which occurred in along the grooves on the lower reaches of the retarding basin and inundation waters still occur in some places, particularly in the downstream of Umadui Dam. Economic analysis of both the analysis of Benefits/Cost produces a parameter of BCR, NPV and IRR are not meet the feasibility requirements. The effective retention of retarding basin based on simulation results are 282,630.00 m3 with the ability to flood accommodate for 3-4 hours. In terms of economic development retarding basin is not feasible in terms of comparative costs and benefits

  18. EVALUASI RENCANA KINERJA KOLAM RETENSI (RETARDING BASIN DALAM UPAYA PENGENDALIAN BANJIR TUKAD MATI DI KOTA DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G. Suryadinata P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tukad Mati is one of the rivers in the province of Bali that unfolds and flows in Badung regency and Denpasar. Inundation due to flooding is a problem that often occurs in this region during the rainy season. In an effort to overcome problems of flooding have been many studies carried out so as to produce flood control alternatives such as normalization, diversion channels and retarding basins. Retarding basin is one of flood control alternative that has not been much studied. In this study conducted a simulation of flood prevention alternative with retarding basin at Tukad Mati, by the hydrology approach method and hydraulics using HEC-RAS 4.0 program applications. Simulations performed on the current river flow conditions (existing condition and to the existing conditions with the retarding basin, according to the detail design of retarding basin in the city of Denpasar and evaluate the effectiveness of the retarding basin in the river basin flood control of Tukad Mati. Flood control by retarding basin based on simulations with the 2 (two years flood return period, resulting in a reduction of water level by an average of 0.42 meters or an average of 12% of the maximum water level in the conditions without retarding basin, which occurred in along the grooves on the lower reaches of the retarding basin and inundation waters still occur in some places, particularly in the downstream of Umadui Dam. Economic analysis of both the analysis of Benefits/Cost produces a parameter of BCR, NPV and IRR are not meet the feasibility requirements. The effective retention of retarding basin based on simulation results are 282,630.00 m3 with the ability to flood accommodate for 3-4 hours. In terms of economic development retarding basin is not feasible in terms of comparative costs and benefits

  19. [Association between the types of obesity and the 10-year-coronary heart disease risk, in Tibet Autonomous Region and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C Y; Wang, Z W; Chen, Z; Zhang, L F; Wang, X; Dong, Y; Nie, J Y; Wang, J L; Shao, L; Tian, Y

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To investigate the association between types of obesity and the 10-year-coronary heart disease risk in Tibet and Xinjiang of China. Methods: Using the multi-stage random sampling method, 7 631 participants aged 35 or older were examined under the International Standardized Examination process but with only 5 802 were eligible for analysis, in the 2015-2016 season. Results: The prevalence rates of general obesity, central obesity, visceral obesity and compound obesity were 0.53 % , 12.62 % , 10.08 % and 42.35 % , respectively. Out of all the compound obesity cases, 58.65 % (1 441/2 457) of them appeared as having all types of obesity in our study. Risk related to the 10-year-coronary heart disease was higher in men than in women [(3.05±4.14) % vs. (1.42±2.37) % , P obesity (30.16 % ) showed the highest proportion on the risk of 10-year-coronary heart disease than central obesity (28.01 % ), visceral obesity (18.46 % ) or the general obesity (19.35 % ). After adjustment for confounding factors, results from the multivariate analysis showed the risk in compound obesity was higher than central obesity, visceral obesity or general obesity and was associated with the highest risk on the 10-year-coronary heart disease ( OR =2.889, 95 %CI : 2.525-3.305). People with anomalous BMI and WC seemed to have had the higher risk ( OR =3.168, 95 %CI : 2.730-3.677). Conclusions: Obesity was popular in the residents of Tibet and Xinjiang areas of China. Men and people with compound obesity (especially both BMI and WC were abnormal) seemed to carry greater risk on the 10-year-coronary heart disease.

  20. Correlation between the development of calcium oxalate stones and polymorphisms in the fibronectin gene in the Uighur population of the Xinjiang region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, M; Aekeper, A; Yuan, L Y; Alim, T; Du, G J; Abdusamat, A; Wu, G W; Aniwer, Y

    2015-10-29

    Here, we have investigated the correlation between calcium oxalate stone formation and Fn gene polymorphisms in urinary calculi patients among the Uighur population (Xinjiang region). In this case control study, genomic DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of 129 patients with calcium oxalate stones (patient group) and 94 normal people (control group) was used to genotype polymorphisms in the rs6725958, rs10202709, and rs35343655 sites of the Fn gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subsequently, the association between different genotypes and susceptibility to calcium oxalate stone formation was compared among the patient and control groups. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the rs6725958, rs10202709, and rs35343655 sites of the Fn gene among the patient and control groups. The genotype distributions of the three loci complied with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The results of allele frequencies of the patient/control group for polymorphisms in the rs6725958 site of the Fn gene were C = 179 (69.92%)/119 (63.30%) and A = 77 (30.08%)/69 (36.70%), in the rs10202709 site were C = 245 (95.70%)/176 (93.63%) and T = 11 (4.30%)/12 (6.38%), and in the rs35343655 site of the Fn gene were A = 139 (54.30%)/87 (46.28%) and G = 117 (45.70%)/101 (53.72%). We observed no significant differences between the three SNPs and development of calcium oxalate stones. Polymorphisms in rs6725958, rs10202709, and rs35343655 of the Fn gene had no obvious effect on the susceptibility to the development of calcium oxalate stones in the Uighur population, residing in the Xinjiang region of China.

  1. Factors affecting medication adherence in community-managed patients with hypertension based on the principal component analysis: evidence from Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang YJ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Yuji Zhang,* Xiaoju Li,* Lu Mao, Mei Zhang, Ke Li, Yinxia Zheng, Wangfei Cui, Hongpo Yin, Yanli He, Mingxia Jing Department of Public Health, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The analysis of factors affecting the nonadherence to antihypertensive medications is important in the control of blood pressure among patients with hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between factors and medication adherence in Xinjiang community-managed patients with hypertension based on the principal component analysis.Patients and methods: A total of 1,916 community-managed patients with hypertension, selected randomly through a multi-stage sampling, participated in the survey. Self-designed questionnaires were used to classify the participants as either adherent or nonadherent to their medication regimen. A principal component analysis was used in order to eliminate the correlation between factors. Factors related to nonadherence were analyzed by using a χ2-test and a binary logistic regression model.Results: This study extracted nine common factors, with a cumulative variance contribution rate of 63.6%. Further analysis revealed that the following variables were significantly related to nonadherence: severity of disease, community management, diabetes, and taking traditional medications.Conclusion: Community management plays an important role in improving the patients’ medication-taking behavior. Regular medication regimen instruction and better community management services through community-level have the potential to reduce nonadherence. Mild hypertensive patients should be monitored by community health care providers. Keywords: hypertension, medication adherence, factors, principal component analysis, community management, China

  2. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A A [Nuclear materials authority, El Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

  3. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  4. Seismic stratigraphy and regional unconformity analysis of Chukchi Sea Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasheva, Mariia; Karpov, Yury; Stoupakova, Antonina; Suslova, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Russian Chukchi Sea Shelf one of petroleum potential province and still one of the most uninvestigated area. North and Sough Chukchi Trough that separated by Wrangel-Hearld Arch have different origin. The main challenge is stratigraphic sequences determination that filled North and South Chukchi basins. The joint tectonic evolution of the territory as Canada basin opening and Brooks Range-Wrangel Herald orogenic events enable to expect the analogous stratigraphy sequences in Russian Part. Analysis of 2D seismic data of Russian and American Chukchi Sea represent the major seismic reflectance that traced throughout the basins. Referring to this data North Chukchi basin includes four seismic stratigraphic sequences - Franklian (pre-Mississippian), Ellesmirian (Upper Devonian-Jurassic), Beaufortian (Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) and Brookian (Lower Cretaceous-Cenozoic), as it is in North Slope Alaska [1]. South Chukchi basin has different tectonic nature, representing only Franclian basement and Brookian sequences. Sedimentary cover of North Chukchi basins starts with Ellesmirian sequence it is marked by bright reflector that separates from chaotic folded Franklian sequence. Lower Ellesmirian sequence fills of grabens that formed during upper Devonian rifting. Devonian extension event was initiated as a result of Post-Caledonian orogenic collapse, terminating with the opening of Arctic oceans. Beaufortian sequence is distinguished in Colville basin and Hanna Trough by seismically defined clinoforms. Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata are eroded by regional Lower Cretaceous Unconformity (LCU) linked with Canada basin opening. LCU is defined at seismic by angular unconformity, tracing at most arctic basins. Lower Cretaceous erosion and uplift event are of Hauterivian to Aptian age in Brooks Range and the Loppa High uplift refer to the early Barremian. The Lower Cretaceous clinoform complex downlaps to LCU horizon and filling North Chukchi basin (as in Colville basin Alska

  5. Groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    More than 40 percent of California's drinking water is from groundwater. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter referred to as San Diego) is one of the study units being evaluated. The San Diego study unit is approximately 3,900 square miles and consists of the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and 12 other alluvial basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The study unit also consists of all areas outside defined groundwater basins that are within 3 kilometers of a public-supply well. The study unit was separated, based primarily on hydrogeologic settings, into four study areas: Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, Alluvial Basins, and Hard Rock (Wright and others, 2005). The sampling density for the Hard Rock study area, which consists of areas outside of groundwater basins, was much lower than for the other study areas. Consequently, aquifer proportions for the Hard Rock study area are not used to calculate the aquifer proportions shown by the pie charts. An assessment of groundwater quality for the Hard Rock study area can be found in Wright and Belitz, 2011. The temperatures in the coastal part of the study unit are mild with dry summers, moist winters, and an average annual rainfall of about 10 inches. The temperatures in the mountainous eastern part of the study unit are cooler than in the coastal part, with an annual precipitation of about 45 inches that occurs mostly in the winter. The primary aquifers consist of Quaternary-age alluvium and weathered bedrock in the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and Alluvial Basins study areas, whereas in the Hard Rock study area the primary aquifers consist mainly of fractured and

  6. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of, and including, part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU ) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study—the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU— encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West GreenlandEast Canada Province are 10.7 billion barrels of oil, 75 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 billion barrels of oil, 52 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  7. Field survey focused on Opisthorchis viverrini infection in five provinces of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kazuko; Kirinoki, Masashi; Matsuda, Hajime; Hayashi, Naoko; Chigusa, Yuichi; Sinuon, Muth; Chuor, Char Meng; Kitikoon, Viroj

    2014-04-01

    Opisthorchiasis is endemic in Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic and constitutes a major public health problem throughout the Mekong Basin. Although Cambodia is located in the Mekong Basin, the status of O. viverrini infection in that country was not previously clarified. This research was conducted to document the extent and distribution of O. viverrini infection in Cambodia. Surveillance was conducted in 55 villages in five Cambodian provinces. Research tools included stool examination using the Kato-Katz thick-smear technique, identification of intermediate hosts, and interviews covering factors related to O. viverrini infection. Some larvae and egg-positive stool samples were examined using PCR to detect O. viverrini DNA. A total of 16,082 stool samples from the 55 villages were examined, of which 1232 were egg positive. In 15 villages with egg-positive rates of greater than 10%, eggs were found in 998 of 3585 stool samples, for an egg-positive rate of 27.8%. PCR analysis showed that 30 of 33 samples were positive for O. viverrini DNA from five villages in Kampong Cham and Kampong Thom provinces. The first intermediate host Bithynia siamensis siamensis was identified in the target areas of Takaev, Kandal, and Kampong Cham provinces. Cercariae were identified morphologically as O. viverrini and some were confirmed using PCR. Metacercariae of O. viverrini were identified by morphologic observations, animal experiments, or PCR in six species of fish in the target areas. Four Cambodian provinces were identified as endemic areas of O. viverrini infection. Careful planning is necessary for effective field surveys, because complex environmental factors might be involved in the distribution of O. viverrini infection-endemic areas in Cambodia. Many problems remain to be resolved regarding the status of O. viverrini infection in Cambodia, and a nationwide baseline survey is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiologic study of bronchopulmonary mycosis in the province of cordoba, argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana T. Masih

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study for histoplasmosis coccidioidomycosis and cryptococcosis made in five areas of the province of Córdoba is presented. The data obtained showed a global positivity of 41.1% for histoplasmin 26.7% for coccidioidin and 14.1% for cryptococcin. In some areas, the Rio III basin and Traslasierra, the histoplasmosis infection indexes were much higher, 53,3% and 73.1% respectively. The index of positive skin tests with Cryptococcus antigen in Traslasierra was also very high: 31.9%.

  9. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  10. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  11. Characterisation and genesis of the Singhbhum uranium province, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Singhbhum Uranium province is characterised by the late Archaean predominantly granitic Singhbhum Craton and the associated Proterozoic mobile belts, the boundaries of which are marked by major crustal dislocations. The Singhbhum craton had two-phase evolution during the time range 4000-2900 million years and its stabilisation around 2900 million years was marked by the emplacement of K-rich granitoids and the early crustal enrichment of uranium. Two distinctive types of uranium mineralisation occur in the Province - (i) the early Quartz Pebble Conglomerate (QPC) type and (ii) the later economically most significant shear-controlled hydrothermal type. The QPC type is confined to the cratonic volcano-sedimentary basins, characterised by basal fluvial high-energy deposits, near-continental volcanics and banded iron formations spanning the time band of 2900-2500 million years. The shear controlled hydrothermal mineralisation is predominantly developed in a 200 km-long arcuate zone of intense and deep tectonisation, acid-(?) alkaline-basic magmatism, hydrothermal activity and metallogenesis. This shear zone represents a belt of intense crust-mantle interaction. Uranium mineralisation is polyphasic, polymetallic. The mineralogy is complex and the chemistry of the ores is greatly influenced by the lithology of the host rocks involved in the shear. Part of the shear zone grazing the Dhanjori, predominantly volcanic supra-crustals is richer in U, Cu, Ni, Mo and also contains minor Bi, Au, Ag, Te and Se, while the western trans-Dhanjori sector of the shear zone characterised by schists and quartzites with lesser volcanic component is relatively poorer in these metals. The ore bodies in the trans-Dhanjori sector are more peneconcordant, gradational, stratabound and have spherical variograms, while those in the Dhanjori sector are transgressive, sharp, highly mobilised, vein type with Dewijsian variograms. A synthesis leads to the conclusion that uranium mineralisation is

  12. Cultural Origin and Production Technology of Xinjiang Traditional Handicraft Instruments%新疆传统手工技艺乐器文化渊源及制作工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄适远

    2016-01-01

    The playing style, production technology and cultural origin of Aijieke, Qiang and Sibuzie, which are Xinjiang traditional handmade musical instruments, are introduced in this paper.%介绍了新疆传统手工技艺乐器艾捷克、锵、斯布孜额的演奏风格、制作工艺以及文化渊源。

  13. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested

  14. [Association between the level of fasting blood glucose over 35-year-old and carotid intima-media thickness in Han, Uygur and Kazak population from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from 2007 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomei; Li, Haixia; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bangdang; Yang, Yining; Ma, Yitong

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the relationship between different levels of fasting blood glucose over 35-year old and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in Han, Uygur and Kazak adult population from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. From October 2007 to April 2010, the present study was performed in 13 935 inhabitants among Han, Uygur and Kazak adult population of aged 35 years old and over by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling principles from 7 regions in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous and we excluded the IMT over 0.9 millimeter, long-term out and the floating population. All subjects were measured fasting blood glucose and IMT values of carotid artery. The subjects were divided into three groups according to different fasting blood glucose levels: normal, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes mellitus (DM) and we used the analysis of variance to compare the differences among groups of IMT. Multiple linear regression model was used to explore factors of carotid IMT. The IMT of males of Han, Uygur and Kazak were (0.81 ± 0.29), (0.71 ± 0.27) and (0.79 ± 0.21) mm respectively, the differences were significant (F = 88.50, P blood pressure (β = 0.101, P blood glucose (β = 0.023, P = 0.009) were independent risk factors of IMT. The level of fasting blood glucose was an independent influence factor of carotid IMT and had a positive correlation in Han, Uygur and Kazak population of Xinjiang Autonomous Region.

  15. Research on Service Marketing Strategy of Xinjiang Mobile Corporation%新疆移动服务营销策略浅析-以乌鲁木齐市场为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雷鸣; 刘晓芬

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, service marketing mix strategy, based on brief overview of Xinjiang Mobile Communication Company Limited and the business scope of Urumqi, Xinjiang Mobile Service Marketing mix situation and find the problem, then consumer demand as the starting point of Urumqi, Urumqi, Xinjiang Mobile market presented service marketing mix strategies to improve the views to improve service levels, to provide feasible basis for competitive advantage.%本文以服务营销组合策略为依据,简述新疆移动通信有限公司概况,分析新疆移动乌鲁木齐市场服务营销组合现状并从中发现问题,然后以乌鲁木齐市消费者需求为出发点,提出新疆移动乌鲁木齐市场服务营销组合策略的改善意见,为提高服务水平、企业竞争优势提供可行性依据。

  16. Neogene seismites and seismic volcanic rocks in the Linqu area, Shandong Province, E China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian H.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Yishu Fault Zone runs through the centre of Shandong Province (E China; it is a deep-seated large fault system that still is active. Two volcanic faulted basins (the Shanwang and Linqu Basins in the Linqu area, west of the fault zone, are exposed to rifting, which process is accompanied by a series of tectonic and volcanic earthquakes with a magnitude of 5-8. Lacustrine sediments in the basins were affected by these earthquakes so that seismites with a variety of soft-sediment deformation structures originated. The seismites form part of the Shanwang Formation of the Linqu Group. Semi-consolidated fluvial conglomerates became deformed in a brittle way; these seismites are present at the base of the Yaoshan Formation. Intense earthquakes triggered by volcanic activity left their traces in the form of seismic volcanic rocks associated with liquefied-sand veins in the basalt/sand intercalations at the base of the Yaoshan Formation. These palaeo-earthquake records are dated around 14-10 Ma; they are responses to the intense tectonic extension and the basin rifting in this area and even the activity of the Yishu Fault Zone in the Himalayan tectonic cycle.

  17. Assessing the changes in land use and ecosystem services in an oasis agricultural region of Yanqi Basin, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuixian; Wu, Bin; Yang, Pengnian

    2014-12-01

    The Yanqi Basin, one of the most productive agricultural areas, has a high population density in Xinjiang, Northwest China. Land use changes, mainly driven by oasis expansion, significantly impact ecosystem services and functions, but these effects are difficult to quantify. The valuation of ecosystem services is important to clarify the ecological and environmental changes caused by agriculturalization of oasis. This study aimed to investigate variations in ecosystem services in response to land use changes during oasis agricultural expansion activities in the Yanqi Basin from 1964 to 2009. The methods used were based on formula of ecosystem service value (ESV) and ESV coefficients. Satellite data were combined with the ESV coefficients to quantify land use changes and ecosystem service changes in the study area. Sensitivity analysis determined the effect of manipulating the coefficients on the estimated values. The results show that the total ESVs in the Yanqi Basin were $1,674, $1,692, $1,471, $1,732, and $1,603 million in 1964, 1973, 1989, 1999, and 2009, respectively. The net deline in ESV was $71 million in the past 46 years, but the ESVs of each types of landscape changed significantly. The aggregated ESVs of water areas and wetlands were approximately 80 % of the total ESV. Water supply and waste treatment were the two largest service functions and contributed approximately 65 % of the total ESV. The estimated ESVs in this study were elastic with respect to the value coefficients. Therefore, the estimations were robust in spite of uncertainties on the value coefficients. These significant changes in land use occur within the entire basin over the study period. These changes cause environmental problems, such as land degradation, vegetation degeneracy, and changes in aquatic environment.

  18. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the Hamra Basin, Libya, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The Hamra Basin Province encompasses approximately 244,100 square kilometers (94,250 square miles) and is entirely within Libya. One composite total petroleum system (TPS) was defined for this assessment; it extends from Libya westward into adjacent parts of Algeria and southern Tunisia. The Hamra Basin part of the TPS was subdivided into four assessment units for the purpose of resource assessment. The assessment units cover only 172,390 square kilometers of the Hamra Basin Province; the remaining area has little potential for undiscovered petroleum resources because of the absence of petroleum source rocks. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 784 million barrels of crude oil, 4,748 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 381 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Hamra Basin of northwestern Libya. Most of the undiscovered crude oil and natural gas are interpreted to be in deeper parts of the Hamra Basin.

  20. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of the upper Potomac River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, Frank W.; Watkins, Frank A.

    1975-01-01

    The upper Potomac River basin, in the central Appalachian region in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia, is a humid temperate region of diverse fractured rocks. Three geohydrologic terranes, which underlie large parts of the basin, are described in terms of their aquifer characteristics and of the magnitude and duration of their base runoff: (1) fractured rock having a thin regolith, (2) fractured rock having a thick regolith, and (3) carbonate rock. Crystalline rock in the mountainous part of the Blue Ridge province and shale with tight sandstone in the folded Appalachians are covered with thin regolith. Water is stored in and moves through fairly unmodified fractures. Average transmissivity (T) is estimated to be 150 feet squared per day, and average storage coefficient (S), 0.005. Base runoff declines rapidly from its high levels during spring and is poorly sustained during the summer season of high evapotranspiration. The rocks in this geohydrologic terrane are the least effective in the basin for the development of water supplies and as a source of dry-weather streamflow. Crystalline and sedimentary rocks in the Piedmont province and in the lowland part of the Blue Ridge province are covered with thick regolith. Water is stored in and moves through both the regolith and the underlying fractured rock. Estimated average values for aquifer characteristics are T, 200 feet squared per day, and S, 0.01. Base runoff is better sustained in this terrane than in the thin-regolith terrane and on the average .is about twice as great. Carbonate rock, in which fractures have been widened selectively by solution, especially near streams, has estimated average aquifer characteristics of T, 500 feet squared per day, and S, 0.03-0.04. This rock is the most effective in the basin in terms of water supply and base runoff. Where its fractures have not been widened by solution, the carbonate rock is a fractured-rock aquifer much like the noncarbonate rock. At low

  1. [Status of seroepidemiology of hepatitis A, B and C in primary and middle school students in Shufu county, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z B; Xue, Z X; Han, Z G; Yang, Q Y; Zheng, X R; Zulipikaer, Tuerhong; Wang, M

    2016-12-10

    Objective: To explore the status of seroepidemiology on hepatitis A, B and C in primary and middle school students in Shufu county, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China (Xinjiang) and to evaluate the effect of related immunization. Methods: Students in four towns and villages were selected by cluster random sampling method. HAV-IgG, HBsAg, HBsAb and HCV-IgG were detected in Feb to May, 2015. Results: The overall HAV-IgG positive rate was 99.75%, among 4 830 primary and middle school students. The positive rates were seen 99.92% in boys and 99.57% in girls, with difference statistically significant ( χ 2 =5.798, P =0.016). The overall HBsAg positive rate appeared as 3.02%, with 3.55% for boys and 2.47% for girls, with difference statistically significant ( χ 2 =4.782, P =0.029). The difference between age specific HBsAg positive rates also showed statistically significant ( χ 2 =71.990, P =0.000). HBsAg positive rate in the students in rural area (3.28%) was higher than that in the students in urban area (1.61%, χ 2 =6.019, P =0.014). HBsAb positive rate was 38.84%, and the differences between the age specific HBsAb positive rates appeared statistically significant ( χ 2 =837.699, P =0.000). HBsAg positive rate in students from the urban area (42.36%) was higher than those from the rural area (38.20%, χ 2 =4.598, P =0.032). 2 815 students, accounting for 58.28% of the total students, showed negative on both HBsAg and HBsAb. The overall HCV-IgG positive rate was 0.19%, and all appeared in students from the rural areas, with ethnicity solely as Uygur. Conclusions: The effect of hepatitis A vaccine was satisfactory in primary and middle school students in Shufu county but quiet a number of the students missed the vaccination. The infection rate of hepatitis C was low. Publicity and health education on hepatitis immunization and control should be revved up. Programs regarding primary and supplementary immunization on hepatitis, should be carried out timely

  2. [Source identification and potential ecological hazards assessment of trace metalloid/heavy metals in the soil of Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Yong; Jilili, Abuduwailil; Jiang, Feng-Qing

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the contents of ten metalloid/heavy metals (As, Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Hg, Cu, Mn, Zn and Cr) in soil samples collected from three sections including the central Urumqi-Akesu, eastern Blikun-Yiwu and western Zhaosu-Tekesi in Tianshan Mountains were determined, and their sources were identified by using typical statistical and multivariate statistical methods. The potential ecological risks of these heavy metals were assessed by employing pollution index method, potential ecological risk index and the background values of Tianshan Mountains, and Xinjiang, and also the Second National Standard of the Soil Qualities of China. The results showed that the contents of the heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Hg, Cu, Mn Zn and Cr) and metalloid As were all higher than the soil background values of the Tianshan Mountain or Xinjiang, and their variation co- efficients belonged to the medium variation. In general, the contents of the ten metalloid/heavy metals in the soil of Tianshan Mountains were low. Principal component analysis showed that the ten metalloid/heavy metals could be identified as two principal components, among which PC1 (Cd, Pb, Hg, Mn and Zn) could be seen as 'human influence sources factor', PC2 (Cu, Ni, Cr, Co and As) as 'natural sources factor'. Mn and As had larger loads both in PC1 and PC2, and they could be co-influenced by human and natural sources. The pollution assessment showed that Hg and Cd in central Urumuqi-Akesu section and As in western Zhaosu-Tekesi section were all at alert level, while the other heavy metals in other sections were all at security level. From the comprehensive pollution indices (P(z)) of heavy metals, it was found that the ten metalloid/heavy metals in the soils of central Urumqi-Akesu section were at low pollution level, but those in the other two sections were at clean level. The potential ecological risk assessment showed that the potential ecological risk coefficient (E(i)r) and the ecological damage index (RI) of Hg

  3. Awareness of and willingness to use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples: a cross-sectional survey in Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peierdun Mijiti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the awareness of and willingness to use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for HIV prevention among HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Xinjiang, China and determine factors that predict willingness to use oral PrEP. METHODS: Between November 2009 and December 2010, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among 351 HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples from three cities in Xinjiang, China. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess their awareness of and willingness to use oral PrEP. Additionally, blood samples were collected to test for HIV infection. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of willingness to use oral PrEP. RESULTS: Only 10 participants (2.8% reported having heard of PrEP, and only two reported ever using PrEP. However, 297 (84.6% reported that they were willing to use oral PrEP if it was proven to be both safe and effective. Results of multivariate analysis revealed the following independent predictors of willingness to use oral PrEP: monthly household income (adjusted odds ratio = 2.78, <1000 RMB vs. ≥ 1000 RMB, 95% confidence interval: 1.36-5.69, perceived likelihood of contracting HIV from HIV-positive partner (adjusted odds ratio = 2.63, likely vs. unlikely, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-6.19, and worrying about being discriminated against by others due to oral PrEP use (adjusted odds ratio = 9.43, No vs. Yes, 95% confidence interval: 3.78-23.50. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in China had low awareness of oral PrEP but high willingness to use oral PrEP for HIV prevention. Cost of oral PrEP should be taken into consideration in future PrEP prevention strategy. In addition, efforts should be made to reduce stigma attached to oral PrEP use, which may increase its acceptability among

  4. Isotope Hydrology Investigation of Zonguldak And Province Groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erduran, B.; Toerk, K.; Oektue, G.

    2002-01-01

    The most important coal area of Turkey is situated in Zonguldak and province. The coal series occurred during Westfalien (Carboniferous) are lower-bounded by Visean aged karstic limestones and upper-bounded by Aptian-Barremian aged karstic limestones. The isotope hydrology, which consists one of the studies dealed with karst hydrogeology, was held to determine the groundwater relations between the karstic limestones adjacent to the coal layers located in the Zonguldak coal mine areas. Environmental isotope samples were collected in the basin during 1994 - 1995 period, from the surface and groundwater. Deuterium ( 2 H), Oxygen 18 ( 18 O) and Tritium ( 3 H) analysis were carried out on the samples. Recharge elevation, water origin and transit time of the groundwater system were determined with the evaluation of the analysis results. Waters encountered in the area are of marine origined rainfall, recharging at an elevation of 400-500 meters and consisting of shallow and deep circulation systems. Groundwater that intruding the coal mine galleries, have a short flow period and are recharged from recent precipitations

  5. Cahora Bassa and Tete Province (Mozambique): A great potential for an industrial hub in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebitosi, A.B.; Graca, A. da

    2009-01-01

    Mozambique is host to the great Zambezi River Basin and the World Famous Cahora Bassa power plant that generates some 13,000 GWh annually. The bulk of this energy (85%) is exported but the revenue raised does not appear to have any appreciable impact on the host economy. Moreover it is estimated that a further 10% of the generated energy is lost along the 1414 km long transmission line to South Africa. So quite evidently, Mozambique would benefit more if its energy were utilized by locally based industry. This would also save on the losses that are currently incurred during regional transmission. In this paper the authors visit Tete, the Mozambican Province that hosts the Zambezi Basin. They examine its natural and human resources. They observe that its strategic location gives it easy access to regional markets. They also hold interviews with a number of administrators in the Province. Finally, they conclude that Tete is uniquely advantaged to develop into the next regional industrial hub for the Southern African region. This would also greatly add value to the local resources. To realize this dream will require, conviction supported by strong and timely political commitment as well as hard work. Current trends towards integrated regional trading blocks will provide an even easier access to potential markets and human skills pools.

  6. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau Physiographic Province. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veatch, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    This report contains a discussion of the hydrologic conditions of the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province. The Columbia River Plateau is underlain by a thick basalt sequence. The Columbia River basalt sequence contains both basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. These sedimentary interbeds, which are layers of sedimentary rock between lava flows, are the main aquifer zones in the basalt sequence. Permeable interflow zones, involving the permeable top and/or rubble bottom of a flow, are also water-transmitting zones. A number of stratigraphic units are present in the Pasco Basin, which is in the central part of the Columbia River Plateau. At a conceptual level, the stratigraphic sequence from the surface downward can be separated into four hydrostratigraphic systems. These are: (1) the unsaturated zone, (2) the unconfined aquifer, (3) the uppermost confined aquifers, and (4) the lower Yakima basalt hydrologic sequence. A conceptual layered earth model (LEM) has been developed. The LEM represents the major types of porous media (LEM units) that may be encountered at a number of places on the Columbia Plateau, and specifically in the Pasco Basin. The conceptual LEM is not representative of the actual three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic sequence and hydrologic conditions existing at any specific site within the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. However, the LEM may be useful for gaining a better understanding of how the hydrologic regime may change as a result of disruptive events that may interact with a waste repository in geologic media

  7. Assessing arsenic intake from groundwater and rice by residents in Prey Veng province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Heng, Savoeun; Huoy, Laingshun; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2014-01-01

    We investigated total daily intake of As by residents in Prey Veng province in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Groundwater (n = 11), rice (n = 11) and fingernail (n = 23) samples were randomly collected from the households and analyzed for total As by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Calculation indicated that daily dose of inorganic As was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL 0.5 equals to 3.0 μg d −1 kg −1 body wt. ). Moreover, positive correlation between As in fingernail and daily dose of As from groundwater and rice and total daily dose of As were found. These results suggest that the Prey Veng residents are exposed to As in groundwater. As in rice is an additional source which is attributable to high As accumulation in human bodies in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. -- Highlights: • We investigated total daily intake of As in Prey Veng province of Cambodia. • Residents in Prey Veng study area are at risk of As in groundwater. • As in rice is an additional source for high As accumulation in human bodies. -- Calculation of total daily intake indicated that Prey Veng residents are at risk of As in groundwater while As in rice is an additional source for high As accumulation in human bodies

  8. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed on the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-75 Ma. Canada Basin is filled with Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Mackenzie River system, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. Except for the absence of a salt- and shale-bearing mobile substrate Canada Basin is analogous to the Mississippi Delta and the western Gulf of Mexico. Canada Basin contains about 7 to >14 km of sediment beneath the Mackenzie Prodelta on the southeast, 6 to 7 km of sediment beneath the abyssal plain on the west, and roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. About three fourths of the basin fill generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemiplegic deposits, and a fourth of the fill generates interbedded lenses to extensive layers of moderate to high amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits. Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin may contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks and the apparent age of the basin suggests that it contains three of the six stratigraphic intervals that together provided >90?? of the World's discovered reserves of oil and gas.. Worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas window. At least five types of structural or stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin. These consist of 1) a belt of late Eocene to Miocene shale-cored detachment folds containing with at least two anticlines that are capped by beds with bright spots, 2) numerous moderate to high amplitude reflection packets

  9. Composite Sunrise Butte pluton: Insights into Jurassic–Cretaceous collisional tectonics and magmatism in the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth H.; Schwartz, J.J.; Žák, Jiří; Verner, Krystof; Barnes, Calvin G.; Walton, Clay; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wright, James E.; Kistler, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    shortening and deformation were diachronous, progressing from north to south. We envision that Late Jurassic deformation may have collapsed a Gulf of California–style oceanic extensional basin that extended from the Klamath Mountains (e.g., Josephine ophiolite) to the central Blue Mountains Province, and possibly as far north as the North Cascades (i.e., the coeval Ingalls ophiolite).

  10. Uranium provinces and the exploration industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.; Michie, U.McL.

    1988-01-01

    There is little doubt that exploration by mining companies in established districts or 'provinces' has led to the discovery of substantial additional ore reserves. However, the competition for, and expenses of, land acquisitions in these known districts often prompts companies to search further afield. In some cases, new discoveries can merely be regarded as extensions of known provinces while others are located in completely new areas. Whether the explorers utilized concepts of metallogenic provinces in the course of such discoveries is questionable; rather, they would have sought the particular combinations of geological circumstances required by the model. Once a new deposit is found, however, the concept of a province, whether correct in that situation or not, is usually responsible for stimulating further activity. Recent examples of such behaviour are the Arizona Strip and NE Nebraska (USA) in provincial extensions and Roxby Downs, Lone Gull (NW Territories, Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) in new areas. More routine and scientific application of metallogenic province theory by the uranium exploration industry would require evidence that not only the bulk of the world's uranium reserves but also the majority of the individual world-class deposits fall into geologically definable provinces. Such evidence should include the demonstration that particular areas of the Earth's crust had been enriched in uranium (with or without related elements) and that this enrichment had persisted through periods of crustal reworking and been responsible for concentrations of the metal ore deposits. The evidence described in the volume is critically reviewed in this context. (author). Refs, 4 figs

  11. Pb isotope investigations on Cu-Au deposits from Carajas Province, Amazonian craton, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macambira, M.J.B.; Galarza, M.A.T.; Souza, S.R.B.; Silva, C.M.G

    2001-01-01

    The Carajas Province is the most important mineral province of Brazil hosting deposits of iron, copper, gold, manganese, nickel and others. In the last years, discoveries of large Cu-Au deposits in Carajas Province have demonstrated the vocation of this region for such deposits, which are, in general, associated with volcanosedimentary sequences and, in some cases, with Archean and/or Paleoproterozoic granitic instrusions. The age and nature of the deposits, as well as the metal source, are still not well understood. Someone believe that these deposits are volcano-exhalant in nature (e.g. Ferreira Filho, 1985; Vieira et al., 1988; Almada and Villas, 1999), while others propose a hydrothermal source for the ore associated with granitic intrusions (e.g. Winter, 1994; Lindenmayer et al., 1998; Tallarico et al., 2000). This work presents a brief discussion about three Cu-Au deposits from Carajas Basin (Bahia, Aguas Claras, and Pojuca deposits) based on new Pb isotope data on zircon and sulfides carried out in the Para-Iso Laboratory of the University of Para, Brazil (au)

  12. Summary of Hydrologic Data for the Tuscarawas River Basin, Ohio, with an Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, Ralph J.; Simonson, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    The Tuscarawas River Basin drains approximately 2,600 square miles in eastern Ohio and is home to 600,000 residents that rely on the water resources of the basin. This report summarizes the hydrologic conditions in the basin, describes over 400 publications related to the many factors that affect the groundwater and surface-water resources, and presents new water-quality information and a new water-level map designed to provide decisionmakers with information to assist in future data-collection efforts and land-use decisions. The Tuscarawas River is 130 miles long, and the drainage basin includes four major tributary basins and seven man-made reservoirs designed primarily for flood control. The basin lies within two physiographic provinces-the Glaciated Appalachian Plateaus to the north and the unglaciated Allegheny Plateaus to the south. Topography, soil types, surficial geology, and the overall hydrology of the basin were strongly affected by glaciation, which covered the northern one-third of the basin over 10,000 years ago. Within the glaciated region, unconsolidated glacial deposits, which are predominantly clay-rich till, overlie gently sloping Pennsylvanian-age sandstone, limestone, coal, and shale bedrock. Stream valleys throughout the basin are filled with sands and gravels derived from glacial outwash and alluvial processes. The southern two-thirds of the basin is characterized by similar bedrock units; however, till is absent and topographic relief is greater. The primary aquifers are sand- and gravel-filled valleys and sandstone bedrock. These sands and gravels are part of a complex system of aquifers that may exceed 400 feet in thickness and fill glacially incised valleys. Sand and gravel aquifers in this basin are capable of supporting sustained well yields exceeding 1,000 gallons per minute. Underlying sandstones within 300 feet of the surface also provide substantial quantities of water, with typical well yields of up to 100 gallons per minute

  13. Formation and distribution of large lithologic-stratigraphic oil & gas fields (provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizhen Tao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the “Tenth Five-Year Plan”, lithologic and stratigraphic reservoirs have been the main contribution of both the discovery as well as reserve and production increase in China; there were about 80% of proven reserves. The typical reservoirs in six major basins in the eastern, central, and western China were adopted as reservoir forming models. The reservoir forming models in three types of slopes, three types of depressions, and three types of lithologic reservoir assemblages have been built on the basis of application of new technologies, physical modeling of reservoir forming mechanism, and investigation to the formation and distribution of the reservoirs. The evaluation methods for large lithologic reservoirs provinces were established based on the forming mechanism and main controlling factors mentioned above. In addition, the study reveals the main controlling factors and the laws of enrichment of two types of stratigraphic reservoirs (pinch-out and weathered karst reservoirs based on the evaluation methods for large stratigraphic reservoir provinces that have been established. By comprehensively understanding the laws of enrichment of lithologic-stratigraphic reservoirs in four types of basins, specific evaluation methods and fine exploration techniques have been developed. The findings led to an exploration direction in the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” period. The study supported the exploration and selection of oil and gas plays, as well as promoted the exploration of lithologic and stratigraphic reservoirs. Keywords: Lithologic trap, Stratigraphic trap, Lithostratigraphic reservoir, Large oil and gas field, Large oil and gas province, Formation and distribution, Exploration potential

  14. Lateral mobility of minibasins during shortening: Insights from the SE Precaspian Basin, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Oliver B.; Fernandez, Naiara; Hudec, Michael R.; Jackson, Martin P. A.; Burg, George; Dooley, Tim P.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2017-04-01

    Minibasin provinces are widespread and can be found in all types of salt tectonic settings, many of which are prone to shortening. Previous studies of how minibasin provinces shorten assume that the salt between the minibasins is homogeneous and that the base of salt is flat or of low relief, such that minibasins are free to move laterally. Here we investigate how minibasin provinces respond to shortening when the lateral mobility of the minibasins is restricted by intra-salt sediment bodies, in order to gain a greater understanding of the controls on the structural styles and modes of tectono-stratigraphic evolution exhibited in minibasin provinces. We examine a borehole-constrained, 3D seismic reflection dataset from the SE Precaspian Basin (onshore western Kazakhstan). The study area is characterised by large, supra-salt minibasins and an array of smaller intra-salt sediment packages distributed between these larger minibasins. We first outline the evidence of episodic shortening between the Late Triassic and present, after the onset of supra-salt minibasin subsidence. Next, we document spatial variations in shortening style, showing how these relate to the concentration of intra-salt sediment packages. Finally, we develop synoptic models showing how intra-salt sediment packages influence both the lateral mobility of minibasins during shortening and the resultant structural style, and we compare and contrast our findings with existing models and other natural examples of shortened minibasin provinces. We conclude that minibasin provinces may have different degrees of lateral mobility depending on the presence, or absence, of intrasalt barriers, and that these variations provide a first-order control on basin-shortening style and tectono-stratigraphic evolution.

  15. [Prospective cohort study on the occupational stress and mental disorder among the oilfield workers in Xinjiang Autonomous Region in 2013-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rui; Shi, Haohua; Chen, Yulu; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2018-01-01

    To explore the relationship between occupational stress and psychological disorder among oilfield workers. In 2013, 1485 psychological normal oilfield workers using the stratified cluster sampling in Xinjiang Autonomous Region were investigated, and the follow-up was conducted in 2015. Occupational stress and mental health status were assessed by questionnaire for the occupation stress and self-rating symptom. The people with mental disorder was 556, the incidence rate was40. 29%. The level of occupational stress level low-high group( RR = 2. 689, 95% CI1. 342-5. 391) and middle-high group( RR = 2. 878, 95% CI 1. 205-6. 875) of mental disorder were higher than the low-low group, the level of Personal Strain Questionnaire low-middle group( RR = 2. 500, 95% CI 1. 700-3. 763) and low-high group( RR =3. 907, 95% CI 1. 955-7. 651) and middle-middle group( RR = 2. 141, 95% CI 1. 016-4. 512) of mental disorder were higher than low-low group. Without drinking( RR =0. 779, 95% CI = 0. 622-0. 976) was protective factor for mental disorders. Occupational stress and drinking are the risk factors of mental disorder, it is more practical to multiple measurement of the psychological disorder of occupational stress exposure than single one.

  16. Peat δ13Ccelluose-recorded wetting trend during the past 8000 years in the southern Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongliang; Feng, Zhaodong; Yang, Yunpeng; Lan, Bo; Ran, Min; Mu, Guijin

    2018-05-01

    There have been large discrepancies in the proposed mechanisms accounting for the wetting trend since ∼8.0 cal. kyr BP in the Altai Mountains and the surrounding areas. To validate or invalidate the widely reported wetting trend, we obtained a carbon isotope of cellulose (δ13Ccelluose)-recorded warm-season moisture history from a Narenxia (NRX) peat core in the southern Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang, NW China. The δ13Ccelluose-recorded warm-season moisture reconstruction of the NRX peat core provides a strong support to the widely-reported proposition that the climate was generally dry before ∼8.0 cal. kyr BP and was changed to a wetting trend during the past ∼8000 years in the Altai Mountains and the surrounding areas. The wetting trend since ∼8.0 cal. kyr BP well resembles the increasing trend of the reconnaissance drought index (RDI) that was calculated on the basis of pollen-inferred temperature and precipitation data from the same core. The resemblance implies that the wetting trend during the past ∼8000 years resulted from the combined effect of temperature and precipitation.

  17. A Cross-sectional Survey Assessing Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Healthy Population in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Na; Chen, Zhao Yun; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Bing Qing; Xu, Li; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Ai Yu; Zhao, Pan; Liu, Ji Wen; Shao, Zhu Jun

    2018-03-01

    The carriage rate and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) in a healthy population in China remains unclear. In this study, we collected the oropharyngeal swabs from 513 individuals in Xinjiang, China. Real-time PCR targeting the lytA gene and 12 serotypes were assessed to identify S. pneumoniae carriage. The total carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was 70.4% (361/513). The most prevalent serotypes were 19B/F, 18B/C, 5, and 6A/B. The highest carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was noted in children aged 6-10 years (88.6%), which merits further attention. The co-colonization rate of two or more S. pneumoniae serotypes was 79.8% (264/331). This study aimed to investigate the baseline pneumococcal carriage rate among healthy individuals in China to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  18. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyessar Turdi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively. The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y. Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element–induced health risk (including for DW adults was higher than acceptable (10−6 and lower than priority risk levels (10−4 (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B. For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10−4, higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10−4.

  19. Listwaenite in the Sartohay ophiolitic mélange (Xinjiang, China): A genetic model based on petrology, U-Pb chronology and trace element geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Zhu, Yongfeng

    2018-03-01

    Listwaenite lenses in the Sartohay ophiolitic mélange (Xinjiang, China) were formed via reactions between serpentinite and metasomatic fluids. First, serpentinite changed into talc schist via the reaction of serpentine + CO2 → talc + magnesite + H2O. Second, talc schist changed into listwaenite via the reaction of talc + CO2 → magnesite + quartz + H2O. Magnetite was progressively destroyed during transformation from serpentinite to talc schist, and completely consumed in listwaenite. Zircon crystals 30-100 μm long, disseminating in talc schist, undeformed listwaenite and mylonitized listwaenite, coexist with talc, quartz and magnesite, while micron-sized zircon grains (ages (302.9 ± 6.8 Ma, 299.7 ± 5.5 Ma and 296.5 ± 3.5 Ma), and are thought to represent the age of formation of the talc schist and listwaenite. These ages are indistinguishable within errors and suggest a rapid transformation from talc schist to listwaenite. Some zircon rims in samples of the undeformed listwaenite and mylonitized listwaenite give much younger apparent U-Pb ages (280-277 Ma), which could be interpreted as a recrystallization age reflecting late-stage shearing in the Sartohay ophiolitic mélange.

  20. [The different experession of human papilloma viral types 6 and 11 in Uyghur and Chinese juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in a large pediatric population in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainura, Amrulla; Yalkun, Yasin; Wu, Mei

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the Human papilloma viral types 6 and 11 in a large pediatric population in XinJiang and the different expression in chinese and uyghur pediatric population. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we analyzed paraffin embedded tissue in 42 cases of juvenile Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (JRRP)and determined the HPV types 6 and 11, and to correlate these results with retrospectively analysis about those cases who were consecutively treated in our ENT department, meanwhile we carry out a critical review of the literature of JRRP. A total HPV infection positive rate was 97.61% (41/42), and HPV11 positive rate was 63.41% (41/26), HPV6 positive rate was 36.58% (41/15). In uyghur patient HPV11 positive rate was 65.38% (17/26), HPV6 positive rate was53. 33% (8/15). in Chince patient HPV11 positive rate was 34.61% (9/26), HPV6 positive rate was 46.67% (7/15). Juvenile laryngeal papilloma is associated with HPV11, HPV6 infection and we considered that HPV11 infection may be the important guideline of the evaluation of disease prognosis. but no statistical signtificance was determined in the patients of various ethnic groups in Xin jiang (P > 0.05).

  1. Isolation and Sequence Analysis of HMW Glutenin Subunit 1Dy10.1 Ecoding Gene from Xinjiang Wheat (Triticum petropavlovskyi Udacz.et Migusch)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Qian-tao; WEI Yu-ming; WANG Ji-rui; YAN Ze-hong; ZHENG You-liang

    2006-01-01

    A novel HMW glutenin subunit gene 1Dy10.1 was isolated and characterized from Xinjiang wheat (Triticum petropavlovskyi. Udacz. et Migusch) accession Daomai 2. The complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1Dy10.1 was 1965 bp, encoding 655 amino acids. The numbers and distribution of cysteines in 1Dy10.1 were similar to those of 1Dy10 and other y-type subunits. In the N-terminal of 1Dy10.1, an amino acid was changed from L (leucine) to P (proline) at position 55. The repetitive domain of 1Dy10.1 differed from those of known HMW subunits by substitutions, insertions or/and deletions involving single or more amino acid residues. In the repetitive domain of subunit 1Dy10.1, the deletion of tripeptide GQQ in the consensus unit PGQGQQ resulted in the appearance of the motif PGQ that have not been observed in other known y-type HMW subunits. In comparison with the subunit 1Dy12, a deletion of dipeptide GQ, which occurred in subunit 1Dy10, was also observed in subunit 1Dy10.1. The cloned 1Dyl0.1 gene had been successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and the expressed protein had the identical mobility with the endogenous subunit 1Dyl0.1 from seed.

  2. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-09-23

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)).

  3. Factors affecting medication adherence in community-managed patients with hypertension based on the principal component analysis: evidence from Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuji; Li, Xiaoju; Mao, Lu; Zhang, Mei; Li, Ke; Zheng, Yinxia; Cui, Wangfei; Yin, Hongpo; He, Yanli; Jing, Mingxia

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of factors affecting the nonadherence to antihypertensive medications is important in the control of blood pressure among patients with hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between factors and medication adherence in Xinjiang community-managed patients with hypertension based on the principal component analysis. A total of 1,916 community-managed patients with hypertension, selected randomly through a multi-stage sampling, participated in the survey. Self-designed questionnaires were used to classify the participants as either adherent or nonadherent to their medication regimen. A principal component analysis was used in order to eliminate the correlation between factors. Factors related to nonadherence were analyzed by using a χ 2 -test and a binary logistic regression model. This study extracted nine common factors, with a cumulative variance contribution rate of 63.6%. Further analysis revealed that the following variables were significantly related to nonadherence: severity of disease, community management, diabetes, and taking traditional medications. Community management plays an important role in improving the patients' medication-taking behavior. Regular medication regimen instruction and better community management services through community-level have the potential to reduce nonadherence. Mild hypertensive patients should be monitored by community health care providers.

  4. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case - Crasna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  5. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei

    2010-05-01

    the Paleo-Asian Ocean the Jiamusi Block underwent a very rapid exhumation in the late Permian. In the early Mesozoic the area went into a basin developing stage and formed a large basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. In the Late Cretaceous the Jiamusi Block started uplifting and the basin was broken into isolate small basins. References: Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Heilongjiang Province. Regional geology of Heilongjiang Province. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993.578-581. Cao Chengrun, Zheng Qingdao. Structural evolution feature and its significance of hydrocarbon exploration in relict basin formation, Eastern Heilongjiang province. Journal of Jilin university (Earth Science Edition), 2003, 33(2):167-172. Lang Xiansheng. Biologic Assemblage features of Coal-bearing Strata in Shuangyashan-Jixian coal-field. Coal geology of China, 2002, 14(2):7-12. Piao Taiyuan , Cai Huawei , Jiang Baoyu. On the Cretaceous coal-bearing Strata in Eastern Heilongjiang. Journal Of Stratigraphy, 2005, 29:489-496. Wang Jie , He Zhonghua , Liu Zhaojun , Du Jiangfeng , Wang Weitao. Geochemical characteristics of Cretaceous detrital rocks and their constraint on provenance in Jixi Basin. Global Geology,2006, 25(4):341-348. DickinsonW R and Christopher A. Suczek. Plate Tectonics and Sandstone Composition. AAPG B. 1979,63(12 ):2164-2182. DickinsonW R, Beard L S, Brakenridge G R, et al. Provenance of North American Phanerozoic sandstones in relation to tectonic setting. Bull Geo-Soc Amer, 1983, 94: 222-235. Maruyama S, Seno T. Orogeny and relative plate motions: Example of the Japanese Islands. Tectonophysics, 1986,127(3-4):305-329. Maruyama S, Isozaki Y, Kimura Gand Terabayashi M C.Paleogeographic maps of the Japanese Islands: plate tectonic systhesis from 750 Ma to the present. Island Arc, 1997,6:121-142.

  6. Drainage basins features and hydrological behaviour river Minateda basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Sarria, F.

    1991-01-01

    Nine basin variables (shape, size and topology) have been analyzed in four small basins with non-permanent run off (SE of Spain). These geomorphological variables have been selected for their high correlation with the Instantaneous unit hydrograph parameters. It is shown that the variables can change from one small basin to another within a very short area; because of it, generalizations about the behaviour of the run off are not possible. In conclusion, it is stated that the variations in geomorphological aspects between different basins, caused mainly by geological constraints, are a very important factor to be controlled in a study of geoecological change derived from climatic change

  7. Sedimentary rocks Uranium in Cerro Largo Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaron, P.; Garau Tous, M.

    1976-01-01

    With the aim of the uranium minerals exploration has been carried out several studies by UTE technicians in Cerro Largo Province from 1968 to 1969. In uranium concentration has been found pyrite, phosphate, iron oxides and manganese in uranium. Furthermore in La Divisa Ore were studied concentration Uranium enrichment has been studied in La Divisa ore

  8. Policing powers, Politics, Pragmatism and the Provinces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The draft Western Cape Community Safety Bill, introduced in the provincial legislature in February 2012, is part of a broader provincial government initiative to tackle issues of safety in the province. The Bill sets out to concretise the powers allocated to provincial governments by the Constitution. Specific provisions reflect the ...

  9. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...

  10. Cogeneration opportunities in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    With the arrival of natural gas in New Brunswick in November 1999, the province will be faced with new power generation development opportunities in four different categories of power projects. These include industrial self generation (including cogeneration), merchant power plants, power projects to replace aging facilities, and power projects to help meet future environmental needs. New Brunswick's competitive advantage in harnessing the power generation development opportunities lies in the fact that it is close to major electricity markets in Quebec and New England. It also has many available generation sites. The province's many pulp and paper plants with large process steam needs are also ideal candidates for cogeneration. Some of the major competitive advantages of natural gas over coal are its lower operation and maintenance costs, it is thermally more efficient, produces lower emissions to the environment and prices are competitive. One of the suggestions in New Brunswick Power's new restructuring proposal is to unbundle electricity service in the province into generation and transmission and distribution services. Three gas-fired projects have already been proposed for the province. The 284 MW Bayside Power Project at the Courtenay Bay Generating Station is the most advanced

  11. Tectonic-sedimentary evolution of foreland basins: U-Pb dating of the discharge that would have originated the piggy-back basin of Rodeo-Iglesias, San Juan-Argentina; Evolucao tectono-sedimentar de bacias de antepais: datacao U-Pb do corrimento que teria originado a bacia de piggy-back de Rodeo-Iglesias, San Juan-Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Romulo Duarte Moreira dos; Hauser, Natalia; Matteini, Massimo; Pimentel, Marcio Martins [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Laboratorio de de Estudos Geocronologicos, Geodinamicos e Ambientais; Limarino, Oscar; Marensi, Sergio; Ciccioli, Patricia; Alonso, Susana, E-mail: romulodms@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias Geologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-07-01

    Between the 28 ° and 31 ° LS parallels of the Argentinean west, in the province of San Juan, foreland basins originated by the subhorizontal subduction of oceanic crust as a result of the Andean orogeny in the late Oligocene emerges. The Bermejo basin and Rodeo-Iglesias piggy-back basin would be associated with the progressive development of landslides, backscatter and minor faults, and basin fragmentation. Two samples of volcanic rocks, R-1 (rhyolitic dome) and R-3 (fall deposit) of the Rodeo-Iglesias basin, had ages of 8.2 ± 0.11 Ma and 8.7 ± 0.24 Ma. At the same time, the age of the (R-1) made it possible to infer quantitatively the age of the first cavalcade that occurred approximately 8.2 ± 0.11 Ma. From the data obtained in the Rodeo-Iglesias basin both volcanism and the first cavalcade could have been synchronous.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Jazan Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia and assess the ... Conclusion: These results indicate the need for a vaccination program in Jazan Province and for public .... from blue to yellow.

  13. Large igneous provinces (LIPs) and carbonatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Richard E.; Bell, Keith

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that many carbonatites are linked both spatially and temporally with large igneous provinces (LIPs), i.e. high volume, short duration, intraplate-type, magmatic events consisting mainly of flood basalts and their plumbing systems (of dykes, sills and layered intrusions). Examples of LIP-carbonatite associations include: i. the 66 Ma Deccan flood basalt province associated with the Amba Dongar, Sarnu-Dandali (Barmer), and Mundwara carbonatites and associated alkali rocks, ii. the 130 Ma Paraná-Etendeka (e.g. Jacupiranga, Messum); iii. the 250 Ma Siberian LIP that includes a major alkaline province, Maimecha-Kotui with numerous carbonatites, iv. the ca. 370 Ma Kola Alkaline Province coeval with basaltic magmatism widespread in parts of the East European craton, and v. the 615-555 Ma CIMP (Central Iapetus Magmatic Province) of eastern Laurentia and western Baltica. In the Superior craton, Canada, a number of carbonatites are associated with the 1114-1085 Ma Keweenawan LIP and some are coeval with the pan-Superior 1880 Ma mafic-ultramafic magmatism. In addition, the Phalaborwa and Shiel carbonatites are associated with the 2055 Ma Bushveld event of the Kaapvaal craton. The frequency of this LIP-carbonatite association suggests that LIPs and carbonatites might be considered as different evolutionary ‘pathways’ in a single magmatic process/system. The isotopic mantle components FOZO, HIMU, EM1 but not DMM, along with primitive noble gas signatures in some carbonatites, suggest a sub-lithospheric mantle source for carbonatites, consistent with a plume/asthenospheric upwelling origin proposed for many LIPs.

  14. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  15. Cooperative and adaptive transboundary water governance in Canada's Mackenzie River Basin: status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada's Mackenzie River Basin (MRB is one of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in North America. Home to indigenous peoples for millennia, the basin is also the site of increasing resource development, notably fossil fuels, hydroelectric power resources, minerals, and forests. Three provinces, three territories, the Canadian federal government, and Aboriginal governments (under Canada's constitution, indigenous peoples are referred to as "Aboriginal" have responsibilities for water in the basin, making the MRB a significant setting for cooperative, transboundary water governance. A framework agreement that provides broad principles and establishes a river basin organization, the MRB Board, has been in place since 1997. However, significant progress on completing bilateral agreements under the 1997 Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement has only occurred since 2010. We considered the performance of the MRB Board relative to its coordination function, accountability, legitimacy, and overall environmental effectiveness. This allowed us to address the extent to which governance based on river basin boundaries, a bioregional approach, could contribute to adaptive governance in the MRB. Insights were based on analysis of key documents and published studies, 19 key informant interviews, and additional interactions with parties involved in basin governance. We found that the MRB Board's composition, its lack of funding and staffing, and the unwillingness of the governments to empower it to play the role envisioned in the Master Agreement mean that as constituted, the board faces challenges in implementing a basin-wide vision. This appears to be by design. The MRB governments have instead used the bilateral agreements under the Master Agreement as the primary mechanism through which transboundary governance will occur. A commitment to coordinating across the bilateral agreements is needed to enhance the prospects for

  16. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, M E; Manzano, M; Vives, L

    2015-06-15

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the "Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff" Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO3-Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO3-Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO4-NaCa and Cl-Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO2, calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Gui, G.

    1997-01-01

    Shanxi Province is abundant in coal reserve. Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corporation is a large sized union enterprise engaged in comprehensive use of coal in Shanxi province, and significant economic, social, environmental benefits have been brought forth with it. This leads people to believe that coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province in the fields of improvement of environment and development of economy

  18. Assessment of volcanic and geothermal activity in the Pasco Basin and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Event network analyses indicate the most likely volcanic hazard to the Pasco Basin is influx of ash fall tephra from source areas in the Cascade Range. Less likely, but still notable, is the possibility of water flooding the Pasco Basin as a result of volcanic damming of one or more major drainages in the region. The least probable hazards include (1) influx of ash flows from eruptions in the Cascade Range or the Basin and Range Province, (2) renewed flood basalt volcanism, and (3) breaching of a repository by a dike or fissure. It is highly unlikely that volcanism will pose a direct threat to the integrity of any nuclear waste repositories in the Pasco Basin. Low-temperature geothermal water (20 degrees--90 degrees C) is present at random locations within the Pasco Basin and vicinity. This water may represent a potential resource only for direct heating purposes. Available data indicate no geothermal reservoirs with temperatures high enough and depths shallow enough for economical production of electricity are present within the Pasco Basin. 70 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Evaluation of water quality at the source of streams of the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Benvenuti

    Full Text Available The Sinos River Basin (SRB is located in the northeastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º20' to 30º10'S and 50º15' to 51º20'W, southern Brazil, and covers two geomorphologic provinces: the southern plateau and the central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin, has an area of approximately 800 km2 and contains 32 counties. The basin provides drinking water for 1.6 million inhabitants in one of the most important industrial centres in Brazil. This study describes different water quality indices (WQI used for the sub-basins of three important streams in the SRB: Pampa, Estância Velha/Portão and Schmidt streams. Physical, chemical and microbiological parameters assessed bimonthly using samples collected at each stream source were used to calculate the Horton Index (HI, the Dinius Index (DI and the water quality index adopted by the US National Sanitation Foundation (NSF WQI in the additive and multiplicative forms. These indices describe mean water quality levels at the streams sources. The results obtained for these 3 indexes showed a worrying scenario in which water quality has already been negatively affected at the sites where three important sub-basins in the Sinos River Basin begin to form.

  20. Identification of Hydrochemical Function and Behavior of the Houzhai Karst Basin, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the difference of geomorphology and the development of fractures, the hydrochemical function and behavior appear to be complex. Variations of karst water conductivity can reflect the contribution of different runoff sources and thus indirectly reflect the development characteristics of conduits and fractures. Taking Houzhai karst system (southwestern China as a case study, the frequency distribution curves of karst water conductivity were decomposed by Gaussian Mixture Analysis to identify the runoff components of different karst landform. The dominant runoff types had been distinguished, and the relative contribution of the different water types had been investigated. The results showed that the karst flow types were slope flow, rapid fracture flow, and slow fracture flow. Rapid fracture flow was the major recharge type of Houzhai karst water system. Slow fracture flow in the downstream area accounted for a larger proportion than that of the upstream area. The relative contribution of the different runoff components showed that the upstream area was a rapid flow area of conduit structure with low storage capacity, the downstream area was an aquifer spatial structure of netted fissure conduit with high storage capacity, and the midstream area was a transitional zone between the upstream and downstream area.

  1. Neotectonics of the San Andreas fault system: Basin and range province juncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Crowell, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Several new details regarding the surficial patterns of neotectonic activity of the Eastern Transverse Ranges and vicinity were discovered. Additionally a number of data display and analysis techniques were developed. These findings will be useful both in the continued development of neotectonic models for southern California and for the future application of remote sensing methodologies elsewhere.

  2. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Yangtze River basin: Spatial pattern and source attribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wen; Zhao, Yuanhong; Liu, Xuejun; Dore, Anthony J.; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Lei; Cheng, Miaomiao

    2018-01-01

    The Yangtze River basin is one of the world's hotspots for nitrogen (N) deposition and likely plays an important role in China's riverine N output. Here we constructed a basin-scale total dissolved inorganic N (DIN) deposition (bulk plus dry) pattern based on published data at 100 observational sites between 2000 and 2014, and assessed the relative contributions of different reactive N (N r ) emission sectors to total DIN deposition using the GEOS-Chem model. Our results show a significant spatial variation in total DIN deposition across the Yangtze River basin (33.2 kg N ha −1 yr −1 on average), with the highest fluxes occurring mainly in the central basin (e.g., Sichuan, Hubei and Hunan provinces, and Chongqing municipality). This indicates that controlling N deposition should build on mitigation strategies according to local conditions, namely, implementation of stricter control of N r emissions in N deposition hotspots but moderate control in the areas with low N deposition levels. Total DIN deposition in approximately 82% of the basin area exceeded the critical load of N deposition for semi-natural ecosystems along the basin. On the basin scale, the dominant source of DIN deposition is fertilizer use (40%) relative to livestock (11%), industry (13%), power plant (9%), transportation (9%), and others (18%, which is the sum of contributions from human waste, residential activities, soil, lighting and biomass burning), suggesting that reducing NH 3 emissions from improper fertilizer (including chemical and organic fertilizer) application should be a priority in curbing N deposition. This, together with distinct spatial variations in emission sector contributions to total DIN deposition also suggest that, in addition to fertilizer, major emission sectors in different regions of the basin should be considered when developing synergistic control measures. - Highlights: • Total DIN deposition fluxes showed a significant spatial variation in the

  3. Political rotations and cross-province acquisitions in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muratova, Yulia; Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    The underdeveloped institutional framework and trade barriers between China’s provinces make cross-province acquisitions challenging. We explore how Chinese firms can mitigate this problem. Drawing on social network theory we propose that cross-province rotation of political leaders—a key element...... of the promotion system of political cadres in China—is a mechanism enabling growth through cross-province acquisitions. We conceptualize rotated leaders as brokers between two geographically dispersed networks. We contribute to the literature on the characteristics of Chinese social networks, the effect...... of political connections on firm strategy, and the impact of political rotations on firm growth in China’s provinces....

  4. Analysis on the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    YU, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The paper analyzes the development and structure of inbound tourism in Fujian Province by Excel software and conducts the cluster analysis on the inbound tourism market by SPSS 23.0 software based on the inbound tourism data of Fujian Province from 2006 to 2015. The results show: the rapid development of inbound tourism in Fujian Province and the diversified inbound tourist source countries indicate the stability of inbound tourism market; the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province can be divided into four categories according to the cluster analysis, and tourists from the United States, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore are the key of inbound tourism in Fujian Province.

  5. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  6. Upper Illinois River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  7. USMC Rethinking Coin in Helmand Province Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    the national power of Afghanistan, but continued to challenge each other for control at the provincial level . The Akhundzadek clan dominated...external powers dominating the central government of the province through the capital of Lashkar Gah, but demanded some autonomy at the local level .18...commands in a MAGTF are the ground combat element ( GCE ), air combat element (ACE), and logistic combat element (LCE). Flexibility and tempo are the

  8. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life.Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  9. Relationship between Occupational Stress, 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms and Mental Health in Petroleum Workers in the Xinjiang Arid Desert: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Ge, Hua; Sun, Jian; Li, Rong; Han, Rui; Liu, Jiwen

    2017-04-10

    At present, there is growing interest in research examining the relationship between occupational stress and mental health. Owing to the socioeconomic impact of occupational stress and the unique environment of petroleum workers in Xinjiang, a cross-sectional study was carried out between April and December 2015 to investigate the relationship between occupational stress, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype, and mental health. A total of 1485 workers were selected. The Symptom Checklist 90 was used to assess nine classes of psychological symptoms. Work-related stressors were evaluated using the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised Edition. Levels of 5-HTR2A (the Tl02C and A-1438G single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5-HTR2A gene) were measured by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The findings of the present study revealed a high prevalence rate of mental health problems (40.29%) in petroleum workers stationed in the arid desert, and suggested a strong correlation between occupational stress and mental health. The TC and CC genotype of Tl02C were found to be protective factors against mental health problems (odds ratio (OR) = 0.455, 95% confidence interval (CI): = 0.269-0.771, odds ratio (OR) = 0.340, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.162-0.716). AG and GG genotype of A-1438G [odds ratio (OR) 1 = 2.729, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.433-5.195; odds ratio (OR) 2 = 2.480, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.221-5.037] were revealed as risk factors. These data provide evidence that occupational stress and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the incidence of mental health problems.

  10. Prevalence of and risk factors for high-risk human papillomavirus infection: a population-based study from Hetian, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayinuer Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection contributes to most cases of cervical cancer, and HPV genotypes exhibit different distributions according to geographic region. This study evaluates the prevalence of HPV infection in Hetian Prefecture, Xinjiang, and establishes risk factors associated with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV genotypes in this region. In this cross-sectional, population-based study, 883 healthy women 15-54 years of age were enrolled. All participants completed a questionnaire regarding sociocultural and sexual activity characteristics. Visual inspections with acetic acid, colposcopies and biopsies were performed using the Preventive Oncology International microbiopsy protocol for pathological diagnosis. Cervical epithelial tissue specimens were collected and tested for HPV using linear array assays. According to the results of HR-HPV infection status, individuals infected with HR-HPV were classified into one group, and the remaining individuals were classified into the control group. The risk factors for HR-HPF infection were analyzed. The participants included 66 women (7.47% with HR-HPV, 10 women (1.13% with low-risk HPV, and 14 women (1.59% with HPV of unknown risk. The five most prevalent types of HR-HPV were HPV-16 (0.31%, HPV-51 (0.08%, HPV-31 (0.07%, HPV-58 (0.07%, and HPV-39 (0.06%. Vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation were found in 190 participants (21.52% and 256 participants (28.99%, respectively. The HR-HPV and control groups significantly differed with respect to age at first marriage, number of marriages, and the presence of vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation (p<0.05. Based on this study, an immunization strategy targeting HPV-16 should be prioritized in Hetian Prefecture. These findings contribute to the understanding of HPV infection.

  11. Relationship between Occupational Stress, 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms and Mental Health in Petroleum Workers in the Xinjiang Arid Desert: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is growing interest in research examining the relationship between occupational stress and mental health. Owing to the socioeconomic impact of occupational stress and the unique environment of petroleum workers in Xinjiang, a cross-sectional study was carried out between April and December 2015 to investigate the relationship between occupational stress, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A genotype, and mental health. A total of 1485 workers were selected. The Symptom Checklist 90 was used to assess nine classes of psychological symptoms. Work-related stressors were evaluated using the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised Edition. Levels of 5-HTR2A (the Tl02C and A-1438G single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5-HTR2A gene were measured by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. The findings of the present study revealed a high prevalence rate of mental health problems (40.29% in petroleum workers stationed in the arid desert, and suggested a strong correlation between occupational stress and mental health. The TC and CC genotype of Tl02C were found to be protective factors against mental health problems (odds ratio (OR = 0.455, 95% confidence interval (CI: = 0.269–0.771, odds ratio (OR = 0.340, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.162–0.716. AG and GG genotype of A-1438G [odds ratio (OR 1 = 2.729, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.433–5.195; odds ratio (OR 2 = 2.480, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.221–5.037] were revealed as risk factors. These data provide evidence that occupational stress and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the incidence of mental health problems.

  12. Clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients: A cross-sectional investigation in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peierdun, Mi-ji-ti; Liu, Wen-xian; Renaguli, Ai-ze-zi; Nurmuhammat, Amat; Li, Xiao-chun; Gulibaier, Ka-ha-er; Ainivaer, Wu-la-mu; Halmurat, Upur

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of abnormal hilit syndromes in traditional Uighur medicine (TUM) among human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients, and to find out the clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type HIV/AIDS patients. Between June and July in 2012, 307 eligible HIV/AIDS patients from in-patient department and out-patient clinics of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region the Sixth People's Hospital in Urumqi were investigated. TUM syndrome differentiation was performed by a senior TUM physician. Each participant completed a Sign and Symptom Check-List for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (SSC-HIV) questionnaire. Depression was evaluated by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression Questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each participant to test the levels of blood chemicals. Of 307 HIV/AIDS patients, 189 (61.6%) were abnormal savda syndrome type, 118 (38.4%) were non-abnormal-savda syndrome type. Mean CD4 counts of abnormal savda syndrome type patients was (227.61±192.93) cells/µL, and the prevalence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated cystatin C were 49.7%, 28.6%, and 44.7%, which were significantly higher than those in the non-abnormal-savda syndrome type patients (26.3%, 16.0% and 25.0%,PHIV/AIDS-related symptoms such as fatigue (42.3%), back aches (40.7%), lack of appetite (33.9%), night sweats (31.7%) were more common among abnormal savda syndrome patients (PHIV/AIDS patients, and they present a more sever clinical manifestation.

  13. Hyperspectral Alteration Information from Drill Cores and Deep Uranium Exploration in the Baiyanghe Uranium Deposit in the Xuemisitan Area, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Jun Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Baiyanghe uranium deposit is a currently important medium-sized deposit in the Xuemisitan area, Xinjiang. The hydrothermal alteration in this deposit is closely related to the uranium mineralization of the deposit. In this study, hyperspectral data are collected from drill cores in the Baiyanghe uranium deposit using a FieldSpec4 visible-shortwave infrared spectrometer to study the hydrothermal alteration. The results reveal that the altered mineral assemblages have obvious zonation characteristics: (1 the upper section comprises long-wavelength illite and minor hematite and montmorillonite; (2 the middle section contains three types of illite (long-, medium- and short-wavelength illite and hematite; and (3 the lower section includes short-wavelength illite, chlorite and carbonate. Additionally, the variety in the characteristic absorption-peak wavelength of illite at 2200 nm gradually shifts to shorter wavelength and ranges between 2195 nm and 2220 nm with increasing depth, while the SWIR-IC (short-wavelength infrared illite crystallinity, a dimensionless quantity of the drill holes gradually increases from 0.2 to 2.1. These patterns reflect the hydrothermal fluid activity in the deposit, which features relatively high-temperature, high-pressure hydrothermal fluid in the deeper section and low-temperature, low-pressure hydrothermal fluid in the shallower section. Additionally, the uranium mineralization is located near the fracture zone, which represents the center of hydrothermal fluid activity or mineralization. This area has abundant alteration minerals, and the minerals illite (short- and medium-wavelength, hematite and fluorite can be used as uranium-prospecting indicators for uranium exploration in the deeper sections of the Baiyanghe uranium deposit.

  14. Assessment of Land-Cover/Land-Use Change and Landscape Patterns in the Two National Nature Reserves of Ebinur Lake Watershed, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Land-cover and land-use change (LCLUC alters landscape patterns and affects regional ecosystems. The objective of this study was to examine LCLUC and landscape patterns in Ebinur Lake Wetland National Nature Reserve (ELWNNR and Ganjia Lake Haloxylon Forest National Nature Reserve (GLHFNNR, two biodiversity-rich national nature reserves in the Ebinur Lake Watershed (ELW, Xinjiang, China. Landsat satellite images from 1972, 1998, 2007 and 2013 were used to calculate the dynamics of a land-cover and land-use (LCLU transition matrix and landscape pattern index using ENVI 5.1 and FRAGSTATS 3.3. The results showed drastic land use modifications have occurred in ELWNNR during the past four decades. Between 1972 and 1998, 1998 and 2007, and 2007 and 2013, approximately 251.50 km2 (7.93%, 122.70 km2 (3.87%, and 195.40 km2 (6.16% of wetland were turned into salinized land. In GLHFNNR both low and medium density Haloxylon forest area declined while high density Haloxylon forest area increased. This contribution presents a method for characterizing LCLUC using one or more cross-tabulation matrices based on Sankey diagrams, demonstrating the depiction of flows of energy or materials through ecosystem network. The ecological landscape index displayed that a unique landscape patches have shrunk in size, scattered, and fragmented. It becomes a more diverse landscape. Human activities like farming were negatively correlated with the landscape diversity of wetlands. Furthermore, evidence of degraded wetlands caused by air temperature and annual precipitation, was also observed. We conclude that national and regional policies related to agriculture and water use have significantly contributed to the extensive changes; the ELWNNR and GLHFNNR are highly susceptible to LCLUC in the surrounding Ebinur Lake Watershed.

  15. Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from stool samples of longevous people in regions of Hotan, Xinjiang and Bama, Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Rui-Xia; Yang, Zhen-Quan; Li, Zheng-Hua; Chen, Shun-Li; Luo, Zhen-Lan

    2008-12-01

    A total of 567 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from the stool samples of longevous people in regions of Hotan, Xinjiang and Bama, Guangxi, China. In order to reduce the number of strains for further examinations, 36 isolates were screened out for further examination whilst the other strains, which had lower probiotic properties, were not suitable for yogurt production due to the absence of growth in pH 3.5 MRS medium and no curding during fermentation, and so were excluded. The result of identification by API, sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed that there were three strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, 10 strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, three strains of Lactobacillus casein, three strains of Lactobacillus brevis, two strains of Enterococcus faecium, two strains of Enterococcus faecalis, four strains of Bifdibacterium infantis, three strains of Bifdibacterium brevise, three strains of Bifdibacterium bifidium, two strains of Bifdibacterium adolecentis and one strain of Bifdibacterium longam among the 36 isolates. These strains were evaluated by in vitro methods including survival upon exposure to pH 2.0, 3.0 and/or 0.3% oxgall and adhesion to the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2 as well as antimicrobial activity against potential pathogens. The results presented here show that L. rhamnosus LV108, L. rhamnosus F, B. brevise R39 and B. infantis R42 are acid and bile tolerant, adhere to the cultured human intestinal Caco-2 cell line, antagonistic activity against potential pathogenic bacteria infection in vitro, and so are potential strains for probiotic use.

  16. [Response characteristics of the field-measured spectrum for the four general types of halophyte and species recognition in the northern slope area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Xiong, Hei-gang; Nurbay, Abdusalih; Luan, Fu-ming

    2011-12-01

    Based on the field-measured Vis-NIR reflectance of four common types of halophyte (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.) Nevski, Sophora alopecuroides L., Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) within given spots in the Northern Slope Area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang, the spectral response characteristics and species recognition of these types of halophyte were analyzed. The results showed that (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) had higher chlorophyll and carotenoid by CARI and SIPI index. (Sophora alopecuroides L. was at a vigorously growing state and had a higher NDVI compared with the other three types of halophyte because of its greater canopy density. But its CARI and SIPI values were lower due to the influence of its flowers. (Sophora alopecuroides L.) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)) had stable REPs and BEPs, but REPs and BEPs of (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski, Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) whose spectra red shift and spectra blue shift occurred concurrently obviously changed. There was little difference in spectral curves among the four types of halophyte, so the spectrum mixing phenomenon was severe. (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii (L.)Aellen) and (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) could not be separated exactly in a usual R/NIR feature space in remote sensing. Using the stepwise discriminant analysis, five indices were selected to establish the discriminant model, and the model accuracy was discussed using the validated sample group. The total accuracy of the discriminant model was above 92% and (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen) could be respectively recognized 100% correctly.

  17. 劳动力流动对区域经济发展差距的影响研究--以新疆为例%A Research on the Effect of Labor Mobility on Regional Economic Development Gap:Evidences from Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑娟; 王笳旭; 李豫新

    2015-01-01

    劳动力跨区域流动对区域经济差距的影响一直是学术界争论的焦点之一。新疆区域经济差距突出表现在北疆和南疆内部差距过大,这成为制约新疆经济社会稳定发展的主要障碍。本文引入新古典增长模型对比分析了劳动力流动对新疆区域经济差距的影响,结果显示,考虑劳动力流动因素后的模型显著性较不考虑劳动力流动因素的模型显著性得到明显提升,劳动力流动抑制了新疆区域经济差距的扩大趋势,但是新疆劳动力流动对不同经济发展水平地区的经济增长效应存在差异,对经济较发达的北疆地区差距缩小有正向效应,而对经济欠发达的南疆地区差距缩小有负向效应。对此,协调新疆区域经济发展应重视劳动力流动的作用,破除限制劳动力流动的障碍,注重对不同区域流动劳动力人口实施差别性治理政策。%The effect of labor cross⁃regional mobility on the regional economic gap has been one of the focus of academic debate. The most prominent character of regional economic disparity of Xinjiang is the internal gaps of northern Xinjiang and southern Xinjiang, and this become the key obstacle to the stable development of society and economy, in Xinjiang. This article contrasts and analysis the impact of labor mobility on the regional economic disparity in Xinjiang by introducing the neoclassical growth model. The results show that the significant improved significantly after taking labor factor model of labor mobility into consideration. The labor mobility suppresses the expending trend of regional economic gap. But the effect of labor mobility on regions economic growth in Xinjiang is different for different part of Xinjiang, it performed positive and negative effect on the regional gap of northern Xinjiang and southern Xinjiang respectively. So we should attach the importance of labor mobility to coordinate regional economic

  18. Rare earth elements in the banded iron formation of the Griqualand West sequence, northern Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, U.E.; Haelbich, I.W.; Cornell, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Proterozoic banded iron-formations (BIF) of the Griqualand West sequence of the Transvaal Supergroup in the northern Cape Province of South Africa have been investigated for their rare earth elements (REE) contents. Twenty three REE analyses were completed using an ICP-AES method. Despite diagenetic and metamorphic processes, it can be concluded from the so far available REE data that the conspicuous differences in REE patterns to those reported from elsewhere indicate the BIF of the Transvaal Supergroup to have originated in relative restricted parts or basins of the Precambrian ocean. 7 refs., 1 fig

  19. Comparison of the rift and post-rift architecture of conjugated salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter A.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a regional comparison between selected 2D seismic transects from large, conjugated salt and salt-free basins offshore southern Brazil (Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Kwanza Basin, northern and southern Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin). Tectonic-stratigraphic interpretation of the main rift and post-rift units, free-air gravity data and flexural isostatic backstripping were used for a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of key mechanisms controlling the present-day differences in conjugated and neighbouring South Atlantic basins. A significant variation in the tectonic-sedimentary architecture along-strike at each margin and between the conjugated basins across the South Atlantic reflects major differences in (1) the structural configuration of each margin segment at transitional phase between rifting and breakup, as emphasized in the highly asymmetric settings of the large Santos salt basin and the conjugated, salt-free southern Namibe Basin, (2) the post-breakup subsidence and uplift history of the respective margin segment, which caused major differences for example between the Campos and Espirito Santo basins and the conjugated northern Namibe and Kwanza basins, (3) variations in the quantity and distribution of post-breakup margin sediments, which led to major differences in the subsidence history and the related present-day basin architecture, for example in the initially rather symmetric, siliciclastic Pelotas and Walvis basins, and (4) the deposition of Aptian evaporites in the large rift and sag basin provinces north of the Rio Grande Rise and Walvis Ridge, highly contrasting the siliciclastic basins along the margin segments south of the ridges. The resulting present-day architecture of the basins can be generally classified as (i) moderately symmetric, salt-free, and magma-rich in the northern part of the southern segment, (i) highly asymmetric, salt-bearing and magma-poor vs. salt-free and magma

  20. Spatio-temporal characteristics of evapotranspiration and water use efficiency in grasslands of Xinjiang%新疆草地蒸散与水分利用效率的时空特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小涛; 罗格平

    2017-01-01

    Aims Xinjiang is located in the hinterland of the Eurasian arid areas,with grasslands widely distributed.Grasslands in Xinjiang provide significant economic and ecological benefits.However,research on evapotrans