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Sample records for basin wyoming usa

  1. Middle Jurassic (Bajocian and Bathonian) dinosaur megatracksites, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, E.P.; Johnson, G.D.; Mickelson, D.L.; Keller, K.; Furer, L.; Archer, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two previously unknown rare Middle Jurassic dinosaur megatracksites are reported from the Bighorn Basin of northern Wyoming in the Western Interior of the United States. These trace fossils occur in carbonate units once thought to be totally marine in origin, and constitute the two most extensive Middle Jurassic dinosaur tracksites currently known in North America. The youngest of these occurs primarily along a single horizon at or near the top of the "basal member" of the "lower" Sundance Formation, is mid-Bathonian in age, and dates to ??? 167 ma. This discovery necessitates a major change in the paleogeographic reconstructions for Wyoming for this period. The older tracksites occur at multiple horizons within a 1 m interval in the middle part of the Gypsum Spring Formation. This interval is uppermost Bajocian in age and dates to ??? 170 ma. Terrestrial tracks found, to date, have been all bipedal tridactyl dinosaur prints. At least some of these prints can be attributed to the theropods. Possible swim tracks of bipedal dinosaurs are also present in the Gypsum Spring Formation. Digitigrade prints dominate the Sundance trackways, with both plantigrade and digitigrade prints being preserved in the Gypsum Spring trackways. The Sundance track-bearing surface locally covers 7.5 square kilometers in the vicinity of Shell, Wyoming. Other tracks occur apparently on the same horizon approximately 25 kilometers to the west, north of the town of Greybull. The Gypsum Spring megatracksite is locally preserved across the same 25 kilometer east-west expanse, with the Gypsum Spring megatracksite more extensive in a north-south direction with tracks occurring locally across a 100 kilometer extent. Conservative estimates for the trackway density based on regional mapping in the Sundance tracksite discovery area near Shell suggests that over 150, 000 in situ tracks may be preserved per square kilometer in the Sundance Formation in this area. Comparable estimates have not been made

  2. Ferris coalfield boundary, Hanna Basin, Wyoming (ferbndg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a representation of the boundary of the Ferris coalfield in the Hanna Basin, Wyoming. This theme was created specifically for the...

  3. Bighorn Basin Coring Project: Palynofloral changes and taphonomy through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, G.; Jardine, P.

    2012-12-01

    The early Palaeogene hyperthermals provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the biotic responses to rapid and transient global warming events. As part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP), we have analyzed 182 sporomorph (pollen and spore) samples from three newly cored sites in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming. Two sites, Basin Substation (121 samples) and Polecat Bench (41 samples), contain the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ETM1), and one early Eocene site, Gilmore Hill (20 samples), contains the ELMO (ETM2) event. We have focused initially on the Basin Substation section, because it is more organic rich, has demonstrated higher sporomorph recovery potential than the other two sites, and is the main focus of complementary geochemical analyses. Below 90 m core depth sporomorph concentrations are typically 1000 - 10 000 grains/gram, but between 90 and 60 m these decline to gymnosperms Cupressacites hiatipites (cypress, Cupressaceae) and bisaccate pollen (Pinaceae and/or Podocarpaceae), and the angiosperm taxa Polyatriopollenites vermontensis (wingnut or wheel wingnut, Juglandaceae), Caryapollenites spp. (hickory, Juglandaceae), and Alnipollenites spp. (alder, Betulaceae). However, samples are heterogeneous in terms of the dominant taxon, with different taxa having the highest relative abundance in different samples. In the upper part of the core, the assemblage is similar to that in the lower part, but with a more consistent dominance of gymnosperm taxa, and with the addition of Eocene marker taxa Intratriporopollenites instructus (linden, Tilioideae) and Celtis spp. (hackberry, Cannabaceae). These both have their first appearance at 56.14 m in the core, just above the zone of low sporomorph recovery. These results point to (a) a decrease in sporomorph preservation that is linked to environmental change during the PETM event, and (b) repeated reorganizations of plant relative abundances prior to the PETM. Current research is focusing on the

  4. Organic compounds in produced waters from coalbed natural gas wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W.H.; Tatu, C.A.; Lerch, H.E.; Rice, C.A.; Bartos, T.T.; Bates, A.L.; Tewalt, S.; Corum, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The organic composition of produced water samples from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) wells in the Powder River Basin, WY, sampled in 2001 and 2002 are reported as part of a larger study of the potential health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from coal. The quality of CBNG produced waters is a potential environmental concern and disposal problem for CBNG producers, and no previous studies of organic compounds in CBNG produced water have been published. Organic compounds identified in the produced water samples included: phenols, biphenyls, N-, O-, and S-containing heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, various non-aromatic compounds, and phthalates. Many of the identified organic compounds (phenols, heterocyclic compounds, PAHs) are probably coal-derived. PAHs represented the group of organic compounds most commonly observed. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged up to 23 ??g/L. Concentrations of individual compounds ranged from about 18 to compound concentrations was documented, as two wells with relatively high organic compound contents in produced water in 2001 had much lower concentrations in 2002. In many areas, including the PRB, coal strata provide aquifers for drinking water wells. Organic compounds observed in produced water are also likely present in drinking water supplied from wells in the coal. Some of the organic compounds identified in the produced water samples are potentially toxic, but at the levels measured in these samples are unlikely to have acute health effects. The human health effects of low-level, chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water are currently unknown. Continuing studies will evaluate possible toxic effects from low level, chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water supplies.

  5. Constraints on the duration of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum by orbitally-influenced fluvial sediment records of the northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Bas; Abels, Hemmo; Meijer, Niels; Gingerich, Philip; Lourens, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    The addition of major amounts of carbon to the exogenic carbon pool caused rapid climate change and faunal turnover during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) around 56 million years ago. Constraints are still needed on the duration of the onset, main body, and recovery of the event. The Bighorn Basin in Wyoming provides expanded terrestrial sections spanning the PETM and lacking the carbonate dissolution present in many marine records. Here we provide new carbon isotope records for the Polecat Bench and Head of Big Sand Coulee sections, two parallel sites in the northern Bighorn Basin, at unprecedented resolution. Cyclostratigraphic analysis of these fluvial sediment records using descriptive sedimentology and proxy records allows subdivision into intervals dominated by avulsion deposits and intervals dominated by overbank deposits. These sedimentary sequences alternate in a regular fashion and are related to climatic precession. Correlation of the two, 8-km-spaced sections shows that the avulsion-overbank cycles are laterally consistent. The presence of longer-period alternations, related to modulation by the 100-kyr eccentricity cycle, corroborates the precession influence on the sediments. Sedimentary cyclicity is then used to develop a floating precession-scale age model for the PETM carbon isotope excursion (CIE). We find a CIE body encompassing 95 kyrs aligning with marine cyclostratigraphic age models. The duration of the CIE onset is estimated at 5 kyrs, but difficult to determine because sedimentation rates vary at the sub-precession scale. The CIE recovery starts with a 2 to 4 per mille step and lasts 40 or 90 kyrs, depending on what is considered the carbon isotope background state.

  6. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment: Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Garman, Steven L.; Walters, Annika; Ray, Andrea; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wesner, Jeff S.; O’Donnell, Michael S.; Sherrill, Kirk R.; Babel, Nils C.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) being conducted for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change, and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks. The REA also may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing the cumulative effects of a variety of land uses. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and partners for the ecoregion, identify the information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant aquatic and terrestrial species and communities that are to be conserved and (or) restored. The REA also will evaluate major drivers of ecosystem change (Change Agents) currently affecting or likely to affect the status of Conservation Elements. We selected 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages to be included as Conservation Elements. We will address the four primary Change Agents—development, fire, invasive species, and climate change—required for the REA. The purpose of the work plan for the Wyoming Basin REA is to document the selection process for, and final list of, Management Questions, Conservation Elements, and Change Agents. The work plan also presents the overall assessment framework that will be used to assess the status of Conservation Elements and answer Management Questions.

  7. Chemical and stable isotopic evidence for water/rock interaction and biogenic origin of coalbed methane, Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.A.; Flores, R.M.; Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Significant amounts (> 36??million m3/day) of coalbed methane (CBM) are currently being extracted from coal beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Information on processes that generate methane in these coalbed reservoirs is important for developing methods that will stimulate additional production. The chemical and isotopic compositions of gas and ground water from CBM wells throughout the basin reflect generation processes as well as those that affect water/rock interaction. Our study included analyses of water samples collected from 228 CBM wells. Major cations and anions were measured for all samples, ??DH2O and ??18OH2O were measured for 199 of the samples, and ??DCH4 of gas co-produced with water was measured for 100 of the samples. Results show that (1) water from Fort Union Formation coal beds is exclusively Na-HCO3-type water with low dissolved SO4 content (median < 1??mg/L) and little or no dissolved oxygen (< 0.15??mg/L), whereas shallow groundwater (depth generally < 120??m) is a mixed Ca-Mg-Na-SO4-HCO3 type; (2) water/rock interactions, such as cation exchange on clay minerals and precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 and SO4 minerals, account for the accumulation of dissolved Na and depletion of Ca and Mg; (3) bacterially-mediated oxidation-reduction reactions account for high HCO3 (270-3310??mg/L) and low SO4 (median < 0.15??mg/L) values; (4) fractionation between ??DCH4 (- 283 to - 328 per mil) and ??DH2O (- 121 to - 167 per mil) indicates that the production of methane is primarily by biogenic CO2 reduction; and (5) values of ??DH2O and ??18OH2O (- 16 to - 22 per mil) have a wide range of values and plot near or above the global meteoric water line, indicating that the original meteoric water has been influenced by methanogenesis and by being mixed with surface and shallow groundwater.

  8. Wyodak-Anderson clinker in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana (prbclkg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of the Wyodak-Anderson clinker in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. This theme was created...

  9. Population connectivity and genetic structure of burbot (Lota lota) populations in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Zachary E.; Mandeville, Elizabeth G.; Walters, Annika W.

    2016-01-01

    Burbot (Lota lota) occur in the Wind River Basin in central Wyoming, USA, at the southwestern extreme of the species’ native range in North America. The most stable and successful of these populations occur in six glacially carved mountain lakes on three different tributary streams and one large main stem impoundment (Boysen Reservoir) downstream from the tributary populations. Burbot are rarely found in connecting streams and rivers, which are relatively small and high gradient, with a variety of potential barriers to upstream movement of fish. We used high-throughput genomic sequence data for 11,197 SNPs to characterize the genetic diversity, population structure, and connectivity among burbot populations on the Wind River system. Fish from Boysen Reservoir and lower basin tributary populations were genetically differentiated from those in the upper basin tributary populations. In addition, fish within the same tributary streams fell within the same genetic clusters, suggesting there is movement of fish between lakes on the same tributaries but that populations within each tributary system are isolated and genetically distinct from other populations. Observed genetic differentiation corresponded to natural and anthropogenic barriers, highlighting the importance of barriers to fish population connectivity and gene flow in human-altered linked lake-stream habitats.

  10. Megascopic lithologic studies of coals in the Powder River basin in Wyoming and in adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; Stanton, Ronald W.; Chiehowsky, Lora A.; Moore, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated coalbed methane (CBM) resources in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin. The study also included the CBM resources in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin of North Dakota and the Wyoming portion of the Green River Basin of Wyoming. This project involved the cooperation of the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG) of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper, Wyo., and 16 independent gas operators in the Powder River, Williston, and Green River Basins. The USGS and BLM entered into agreements with these CBM operators to supply samples for the USGS to analyze and provide the RMG with rapid, timely results of total gas desorbed, coal quality, and high-pressure methane adsorption isotherm data. This program resulted in the collection of 963 cored coal samples from 37 core holes. This report presents megascopic lithologic descriptive data collected from canister samples extracted from the 37 wells cored for this project.

  11. Glacial geology of the West Tensleep Drainage Basin, Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burggraf, G.B.

    1980-08-01

    The glacial deposits of the West Tensleep Basin in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming are mapped and a relative chromology established. The deposits are correlated with the regional model as defined in the Wind River Mountains. A statistical analysis is performed on the density and weathering characteristics of the surficial boulders to determine their validity as indicators of relative age. (ACR)

  12. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserve base in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David C.; Luppens, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated in-place resources of 1.07 trillion short tons of coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. Of that total, with a maximum stripping ratio of 10:1, recoverable coal was 162 billion tons. The estimate of economically recoverable resources was 25 billion tons.

  13. Unioned layers for the the Hanna 77, 78, 79 and 81 coal zones, Hanna Basin, Wyoming (ha*fing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These ArcView shapefiles contain representations of numerous themes associated with the Hanna coal zones in the Hanna coalfield, Hanna Basin, Wyoming. The purpose of...

  14. Unioned layer for the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coal assessment area, Green River Basin, Wyoming (porbbfing.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of the spatial query layer for the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coalfield, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming....

  15. Net coal thickness in the Hanna 77, 78, 79 and 81 coal zones of Hanna Basin, Wyoming (ha*catg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These ArcView shapefiles contain representations of the net coal thickness in the Hanna 77, 78, 79 and 81 coal zones, Hanna coalfield, Hanna Basin, Wyoming. These...

  16. Wyodak-Anderson coal zone study limit in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana (wabndg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the study area for the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. This theme...

  17. Overburden above the Ferris 23, 25, 31, 50 and 65 coal zones, Hanna Basin, Wyoming (fer*ovbg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These ArcView shapefiles contain representations of the thickness of overburden above the Ferris coal zones in the Ferris coalfield, Hanna Basin, Wyoming. These...

  18. Unioned layers for the Ferris 23, 25, 31, 50 and 65 coal zones, Hanna Basin, Wyoming (fer*fing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These ArcView shapefiles contain representations of numerous themes associated with the Ferris coal zones in the Ferris coalfield, Hanna Basin, Wyoming. The purpose...

  19. Mine and lease areas in the Hanna and Carbon Basins, Wyoming, 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment (hcbleasg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of proposed and current mine lease boundaries in the Hanna and Carbon Basins, Wyoming. This shapefile was...

  20. Study limit boundaries for the Ferris 23, 25, 31, 50 and 65 coal zones, Hanna Basin, Wyoming (fer*stdyg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These ArcView shapefiles contain representations of the study areas for the Ferris coal zones in the Ferris coalfield, Hanna Basin, Wyoming. These datasets were...

  1. POLLINATION BIOLOGY OF A DISJUNCT POPULATION OF THE ENDANGERED SANDHILLS ENDEMIC PENSTEMON HAYDENII S. WATS. (SCROPHULARIACEAE) IN WYOMING, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the breeding system and pollinators of the endangered plant Penstemon haydenii, at several south central Wyoming U.S.A. occurrences. In agreement with earlier studies in Nebraska, we found Wyoming plants to be self-incompatible and pollinator-dependent for sexual reproduction. As in Nebr...

  2. Coalbed Methane Extraction and Soil Suitability Concerns in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is located in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. It is an area of approximately 55,000 square kilometers. Extraction of methane gas from the coal seams that underlie the Powder River Basin began in Wyoming in the late 1980s and in Montana in the late 1990s. About 100-200 barrels of co-produced water per day are being extracted from each active well in the Powder River Basin, which comes to over 1.5 million barrels of water per day for all the active coalbed methane wells in the Basin. Lab testing indicates that Powder River Basin co-produced water is potable but is high in sodium and other salts, especially in the western and northern parts of the Powder River Basin. Common water management strategies include discharge of co-produced water into drainages, stock ponds, evaporation ponds, or infiltration ponds; treatment to remove sodium; or application of the water directly on the land surface via irrigation equipment or atomizers. Problems may arise because much of the Powder River Basin contains soils with high amounts of swelling clays. As part of the USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center's hyperspectral research program, researchers are investigating whether hyperspectral remote sensing data can be beneficial in locating areas of swelling clays. Using detailed hyperspectral data collected over parts of the Powder River Basin and applying our knowledge of how the clays of interest reflect energy, we will attempt to identify and map areas of swelling clays. If successful, such information will be useful to resource and land managers.

  3. Geospatial data for coal beds in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Scott A.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide geospatial data for various layers and themes in a Geographic Information System (GIS) format for the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. In 2015, as part of the U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of coal resources and reserves within the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. This report is supplemental to USGS Professional Paper 1809 and contains GIS data that can be used to view digital layers or themes, including the Tertiary limit of the Powder River Basin boundary, locations of drill holes, clinker, mined coal, land use and technical restrictions, geology, mineral estate ownership, coal thickness, depth to the top of the coal bed (overburden), and coal reliability categories. Larger scale maps may be viewed using the GIS data provided in this report supplemental to the page-size maps provided in USGS Professional Paper 1809. Additionally, these GIS data can be exported to other digital applications as needed by the user. The database used for this report contains a total of 29,928 drill holes, of which 21,393 are in the public domain. The public domain database is linked to the geodatabase in this report so that the user can access the drill-hole data through GIS applications. Results of this report are available at the USGS Energy Resources Program Web site,http://energy.usgs.gov/RegionalStudies/PowderRiverBasin.aspx.

  4. Structure contour map of the greater Green River basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickus, M.R.; Law, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Greater Green River basin of Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah contains five basins and associated major uplifts (fig. 1). Published structure maps of the region have commonly used the top of the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone as a structural datum (Petroleum Ownership Map Company (POMCO), 1984; Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists, 1972). However, because relatively few wells in this area penetrate the Dakota, the Dakota structural datum has to be constructed by projecting down from shallower wells. Extrapolating in this manner may produce errors in the map. The primary purpose of this report is to present a more reliable structure contour map of the Greater Green River basin based on datums that are penetrated by many wells. The final map shows the large- to small-scale structures present in the Greater Green River basin. The availability of subsurface control and the map scale determined whether or not a structural feature was included on the map. In general, large structures such as the Moxa arch, Pinedale anticline, and other large folds were placed on the map based solely on the structure contours. In comparison, smaller folds and some faults were placed on the map based on structure contours and other reports (Bader 1987; Bradley 1961; Love and Christiansen, 1985; McDonald, 1975; Roehler, 1979; Wyoming Geological Association Oil and Gas Symposium Committee, 1979). State geologic maps and other reports were used to position basin margin faults (Bryant, 1985; Gries, 1983a, b; Hansen 1986; Hintze, 1980; Love and Christiansen, 1985; Tweto, 1979, 1983). In addition, an interpreted east-west-trending regional seismic line by Garing and Tainter (1985), which shows the basin configuration in cross-section, was helpful in locating buried faults, such as the high-angle reverse or thrust fault along the west flank of the Rock Springs uplift.

  5. San Juan Basin, USA; coalbed methane development and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluskoter, H. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)

    2002-07-01

    Twenty one slides/overheads outline the talk on production of coalbed methane from sedimentary basins in the USA. Figures are given for production and reserves for the year 2000. The San Juan basin's geologic structure, containing resources of the Cretaceous coal age, primarily in the Fruitland Formation, is described. 4 refs.

  6. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  7. Secondary lead poisoning in golden eagle and ferruginous hawk chicks consuming shot black-tailed prairie dogs, Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Recreational shooting of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a common activity at Thunder Basin National Grassland (TSNG), Wyoming. The prairie dog...

  8. Drill hole and/or outcrop locations, Ferris Coal Zones in Hanna Basin, Wyoming, 23, 25, 31, 50 and 65 coal zones (fer*ptg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These ArcView shapefiles contain representations of the public drill holes in the Ferris coal zones in the Ferris coalfield, Hanna Basin, Wyoming. These datasets...

  9. Drill hole data for coal beds in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.

    2013-01-01

    This report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Montana and Wyoming is part of the U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project. Essential to that project was the creation of a comprehensive drill hole database that was used for coal bed correlation and for coal resource and reserve assessments in the PRB. This drill hole database was assembled using data from the USGS National Coal Resources Data System, several other Federal and State agencies, and selected mining companies. Additionally, USGS personnel manually entered lithologic picks into the database from geophysical logs of coalbed methane, oil, and gas wells. Of the 29,928 drill holes processed, records of 21,393 are in the public domain and are included in this report. The database contains location information, lithology, and coal bed names for each drill hole.

  10. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Early Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, E.; Fan, M.; Sheldon, N. D.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial basin systems provide important information on paleoclimatic, paleoecological, and paleoenvironmental factors and how they control and respond to global changes and spatio-temporal heterogeneity. Examining these dynamics is crucial for times of major global change like the broad-scale climatic trends (warm/wet/high-CO2 conditions) of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). As most climatic records of such events are derived from global marine datasets, regional terrestrial studies such as these provide a better model for understanding ecological responses and the localized effects of events like the EECO. The formation of the Wind River Basin (northwestern Wyoming) has been studied for decades, but its regional climatic, environmental, and ecological dynamics have been largely overlooked. Recent work in other contemporaneous sites in the Green River Basin has suggested that the dynamics and rapidity of climate change in terrestrial interiors during the EECO may have been significantly different than what is indicated by the marine record, so to address these issues on a more regional scale we examined paleosols preserved in the fluvial, basin-margin Wind River Formation preserved near Dubois, Wyoming. Field identification of the paleosols indicated a suite that includes primarily Inceptisols and Alfisols; most exhibited significant redoximorphic features and Bg horizons that indicate a ponded floodplain paleoenvironment, while others contained deep Bk horizons (>100 cm) consistent with more well-drained, but still sub-humid to humid conditions. Based on the identification of these well-developed soil features, along with distinct horizonation and root development, paleosols were robustly correlated and sampled throughout the Formation, and environmental descriptors were assigned. To further examine the question of regional terrestrial climate/environmental change, whole rock geochemistry (XRF) samples from paleosol depth profiles were analyzed for use

  11. Invasive species and coal bed methane development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, E.; Evangelista, P.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Alley, N.

    2007-01-01

    One of the fastest growing areas of natural gas production is coal bed methane (CBM) due to the large monetary returns and increased demand for energy from consumers. The Powder River Basin, Wyoming is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of CBM development with projections of the establishment of up to 50,000 wells. CBM disturbances may make the native ecosystem more susceptible to invasion by non-native species, but there are few studies that have been conducted on the environmental impacts of this type of resource extraction. To evaluate the potential effects of CBM development on native plant species distribution and patterns of non-native plant invasion, 36 modified Forest Inventory and Analysis plots (each comprised of four 168-m2 subplots) were established in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. There were 73 168-m2 subplots on control sites; 42 subplots on secondary disturbances; 14 on major surface disturbances; eight on well pads; and seven on sites downslope of CBM wells water discharge points. Native plant species cover ranged from 39.5 ?? 2.7% (mean ?? 1 SE) in the secondary disturbance subplots to 17.7 ?? 7.5% in the pad subplots. Non-native plant species cover ranged from 31.0 ?? 8.4% in the discharge areas to 14.7 ?? 8.9% in the pad subplots. The control subplots had significantly less non-native species richness than the combined disturbance types. The combined disturbance subplots had significantly greater soil salinity than the control sites. These results suggest that CBM development and associated disturbances may facilitate the establishment of non-native plants. Future research and management decisions should consider the accumulative landscape-scale effects of CBM development on preserving native plant diversity. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

  12. Invasive species and coal bed methane development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, E; Evangelista, P; Stohlgren, T J; Alley, N

    2007-05-01

    One of the fastest growing areas of natural gas production is coal bed methane (CBM) due to the large monetary returns and increased demand for energy from consumers. The Powder River Basin, Wyoming is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of CBM development with projections of the establishment of up to 50,000 wells. CBM disturbances may make the native ecosystem more susceptible to invasion by non-native species, but there are few studies that have been conducted on the environmental impacts of this type of resource extraction. To evaluate the potential effects of CBM development on native plant species distribution and patterns of non-native plant invasion, 36 modified Forest Inventory and Analysis plots (each comprised of four 168-m2 subplots) were established in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. There were 73 168-m2 subplots on control sites; 42 subplots on secondary disturbances; 14 on major surface disturbances; eight on well pads; and seven on sites downslope of CBM wells water discharge points. Native plant species cover ranged from 39.5 +/- 2.7% (mean +/- 1 SE) in the secondary disturbance subplots to 17.7 +/- 7.5% in the pad subplots. Non-native plant species cover ranged from 31.0 +/- 8.4% in the discharge areas to 14.7 +/- 8.9% in the pad subplots. The control subplots had significantly less non-native species richness than the combined disturbance types. The combined disturbance subplots had significantly greater soil salinity than the control sites. These results suggest that CBM development and associated disturbances may facilitate the establishment of non-native plants. Future research and management decisions should consider the accumulative landscape-scale effects of CBM development on preserving native plant diversity.

  13. Ecological Impact of Climate Change on Leaf Economic Strategies Across the Paleocene- Eocene Thermal Maximum, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, D. L.; Currano, E. D.; Wilf, P.; Wing, S. L.; Labandeira, C. C.; Lovelock, E. C.

    2007-12-01

    Deciphering the ecological impacts of climate change is a key priority for paleontologists and ecologists alike. An important ecological metric in vegetated settings is the leaf economics spectrum, which represents an adaptive continuum running from rapid resource acquisition to maximized resource retention. This spectrum is comprised of a large number of coordinated traits, including leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf lifespan, photosynthetic rate, nutrient concentration, and palatability to herbivores. Here we apply a recently developed technique for reconstructing LMA to a suite of four isotaphonomic fossil plant sites spanning the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA. This technique is based on the biomechanical scaling between petiole width and leaf mass, and it has been calibrated with 65 present-day sites from five continents and tested on two well-known Eocene fossil localities (Bonanza, Utah and Republic, Washington). There are no significant differences in LMA among plants across the PETM. This stasis is present despite a backdrop of extreme climate change during the PETM in this region, including a three-to-four-fold increase in atmospheric CO2, an ~5 °C rise in temperature, and possible drying. Moreover, quantitative measurements of insect herbivory show, on average, a two-fold increase during the PETM relative to before and after the event. We interpret our results to suggest that leaf-economic relationships can, in some situations, partially decouple. More specifically, our documented increase in insect herbivory during the PETM with no concomitant decrease in LMA implies that during this interval less carbon was being captured by plants per unit of investment. Because the rate and magnitude of climate change during the PETM is similar to present-day anthropogenic changes, our results may provide clues for predictions of ecological impacts in the near future.

  14. Oil shale resources in the Eocene Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales in the Eocene Green River in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. This CD-ROM includes reports, data, and an ArcGIS project describing the assessment. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. Total in-place resources for the three assessed units in the Green River Formation are: (1) Tipton Shale Member, 362,816 million barrels of oil (MMBO), (2) Wilkins Peak Member, 704,991 MMBO, and (3) LaClede Bed of the Laney Member, 377,184 MMBO, for a total of 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in place. This compares with estimated in-place resources for the Piceance Basin of Colorado of 1.53 trillion barrels and estimated in-place resources for the Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado of 1.32 trillion barrels.

  15. Petrophysical Properties of Cody, Mowry, Shell Creek, and Thermopolis Shales, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    The petrophysical properties of four shale formations are documented from well-log responses in 23 wells in the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming. Depths of the examined shales range from 4,771 to 20,594 ft. The four formations are the Thermopolis Shale (T), the Shell Creek Shale (SC), the Mowry Shale (M), and the lower part of the Cody Shale (C), all of Cretaceous age. These four shales lie within a 4,000-ft, moderately overpressured, gas-rich vertical interval in which the sonic velocity of most rocks is less than that of an interpolated trendline representing a normal increase of velocity with depth. Sonic velocity, resistivity, neutron, caliper, and gamma-ray values were determined from well logs at discrete intervals in each of the four shales in 23 wells. Sonic velocity in all four shales increases with depth to a present-day depth of about 10,000 ft; below this depth, sonic velocity remains relatively unchanged. Velocity (V), resistivity (R), neutron porosity (N), and hole diameter (D) in the four shales vary such that: VM > VC > VSC > VT, RM > RC > RSC > RT, NT > NSC ≈ NC > NM, and DT > DC ≈ DSC > DM. These orderings can be partially understood on the basis of rock compositions. The Mowry Shale is highly siliceous and by inference comparatively low in clay content, resulting in high sonic velocity, high resistivity, low neutron porosity, and minimal borehole enlargement. The Thermopolis Shale, by contrast, is a black fissile shale with very little silt--its high clay content causes low velocity, low resistivity, high neutron response, and results in the greatest borehole enlargement. The properties of the Shell Creek and lower Cody Shales are intermediate to the Mowry and Thermopolis Shales. The sonic velocities of all four shales are less than that of an interpolated trendline that is tied to velocities in shales above and below the interval of moderate overpressure. The reduction in velocity varies among the four shales, such that the amount of offset (O) from

  16. Analysis of sediment production from two small semiarid basins in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankl, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Data were collected at two small, semiarid basins in Wyoming to determine the relation between rainfall, runoff, and sediment production. The basins were Dugout Creek tributary and Saint Marys Ditch tributary. Sufficient rainfall and runoff data were collected at Dugout Creek tributary to determine the source of sediment and the dominant sediment production processes. Because runoff from only one storm occurred in Saint Marys Ditch tributary, emphasis of the study was placed on the analysis of data collected at Dugout Creek tributary. At Dugout Creek tributary, detailed measurements were made to establish the source of sediment. To determine the quantity of material removed from headcuts during the study, two headcuts were surveyed. Aerial photographs were used to define movement of all headcuts. The total quantity of sediment removed from all headcuts between September 26, 1982, and September 26, 1983, was estimated to be 1,220 tons, or 15%-25% of the estimated total sediment load passing the streamflow-gaging station. A soil plot was used to sample upland erosion. A rainfall and runoff modeling system was used to evaluate the interaction between the physical processes which control sediment production. The greatest change in computed sediment load was caused by changing the parameter values for equations used to compute the detachment of sediment particles by rainfall and overland flow resulted in very small changes in computed sediment load. The upland areas were the primary source of sediment. A relationship was developed between the peak of storm runoff and the total sediment load for that storm runoff. The sediment concentration used to compute the total sediment load for the storm runoff was determined from sediment samples collected by two automatic pumping samplers. The coefficient of variation of the relationship is 34% with a 0.99 correlation coefficient. (Author 's abstract)

  17. Multi-scale remote sensing sagebrush characterization with regression trees over Wyoming, USA: Laying a foundation for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Meyer, Debra K.; Schell, Spencer J.

    2012-02-01

    Sagebrush ecosystems in North America have experienced extensive degradation since European settlement. Further degradation continues from exotic invasive plants, altered fire frequency, intensive grazing practices, oil and gas development, and climate change - adding urgency to the need for ecosystem-wide understanding. Remote sensing is often identified as a key information source to facilitate ecosystem-wide characterization, monitoring, and analysis; however, approaches that characterize sagebrush with sufficient and accurate local detail across large enough areas to support this paradigm are unavailable. We describe the development of a new remote sensing sagebrush characterization approach for the state of Wyoming, U.S.A. This approach integrates 2.4 m QuickBird, 30 m Landsat TM, and 56 m AWiFS imagery into the characterization of four primary continuous field components including percent bare ground, percent herbaceous cover, percent litter, and percent shrub, and four secondary components including percent sagebrush ( Artemisia spp.), percent big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata), percent Wyoming sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Wyomingensis), and shrub height using a regression tree. According to an independent accuracy assessment, primary component root mean square error (RMSE) values ranged from 4.90 to 10.16 for 2.4 m QuickBird, 6.01 to 15.54 for 30 m Landsat, and 6.97 to 16.14 for 56 m AWiFS. Shrub and herbaceous components outperformed the current data standard called LANDFIRE, with a shrub RMSE value of 6.04 versus 12.64 and a herbaceous component RMSE value of 12.89 versus 14.63. This approach offers new advancements in sagebrush characterization from remote sensing and provides a foundation to quantitatively monitor these components into the future.

  18. Multi-scale remote sensing sagebrush characterization with regression trees over Wyoming, USA: laying a foundation for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Meyer, Debra K.; Schell, Spencer J.

    2012-01-01

    agebrush ecosystems in North America have experienced extensive degradation since European settlement. Further degradation continues from exotic invasive plants, altered fire frequency, intensive grazing practices, oil and gas development, and climate change – adding urgency to the need for ecosystem-wide understanding. Remote sensing is often identified as a key information source to facilitate ecosystem-wide characterization, monitoring, and analysis; however, approaches that characterize sagebrush with sufficient and accurate local detail across large enough areas to support this paradigm are unavailable. We describe the development of a new remote sensing sagebrush characterization approach for the state of Wyoming, U.S.A. This approach integrates 2.4 m QuickBird, 30 m Landsat TM, and 56 m AWiFS imagery into the characterization of four primary continuous field components including percent bare ground, percent herbaceous cover, percent litter, and percent shrub, and four secondary components including percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), percent big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), percent Wyoming sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Wyomingensis), and shrub height using a regression tree. According to an independent accuracy assessment, primary component root mean square error (RMSE) values ranged from 4.90 to 10.16 for 2.4 m QuickBird, 6.01 to 15.54 for 30 m Landsat, and 6.97 to 16.14 for 56 m AWiFS. Shrub and herbaceous components outperformed the current data standard called LANDFIRE, with a shrub RMSE value of 6.04 versus 12.64 and a herbaceous component RMSE value of 12.89 versus 14.63. This approach offers new advancements in sagebrush characterization from remote sensing and provides a foundation to quantitatively monitor these components into the future.

  19. Coal geology and assessment of coal resources and reserves in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the final results of the first assessment of both coal resources and reserves for all significant coal beds in the entire Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The basin covers about 19,500 square miles, exclusive of the part of the basin within the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations in Montana. The Powder River Basin, which contains the largest resources of low-sulfur, low-ash, subbituminous coal in the United States, is the single most important coal basin in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey used a geology-based assessment methodology to estimate an original coal resource of about 1.16 trillion short tons for 47 coal beds in the Powder River Basin; in-place (remaining) resources are about 1.15 trillion short tons. This is the first time that all beds were mapped individually over the entire basin. A total of 162 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources (coal reserve base) are estimated at a 10:1 stripping ratio or less. An estimated 25 billion short tons of that coal reserve base met the definition of reserves, which are resources that can be economically produced at or below the current sales price at the time of the evaluation. The total underground coal resource in coal beds 10–20 feet thick is estimated at 304 billion short tons.

  20. Integrating geophysics and geochemistry to evaluate coalbed natural gas produced water disposal, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Brian Andrew

    Production of methane from thick, extensive coalbeds in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming has created water management issues. More than 4.1 billion barrels of water have been produced with coalbed natural gas (CBNG) since 1997. Infiltration impoundments, which are the principal method used to dispose CBNG water, contribute to the recharge of underlying aquifers. Airborne electromagnetic surveys of an alluvial aquifer that has been receiving CBNG water effluent through infiltration impoundments since 2001 reveal produced water plumes within these aquifers and also provide insight into geomorphologic controls on resultant salinity levels. Geochemical data from the same aquifer reveal that CBNG water enriched in sodium and bicarbonate infiltrates and mixes with sodium-calcium-sulfate type alluvial groundwater, which subsequently may have migrated into the Powder River. The highly sodic produced water undergoes cation exchange reactions with native alluvial sediments as it infiltrates, exchanging sodium from solution for calcium and magnesium on montmorillonite clays. The reaction may ultimately reduce sediment permeability by clay dispersion. Strontium isotope data from CBNG wells discharging water into these impoundments indicate that the Anderson coalbed of the Fort Union Formation is dewatered due to production. Geophysical methods provide a broad-scale tool to monitor CBNG water disposal especially in areas where field based investigations are logistically prohibitive, but geochemical data are needed to reveal subsurface processes undetectable by geophysical techniques. The results of this research show that: (1) CBNG impoundments should not be located near streams because they can alter the surrounding hydraulic potential field forcing saline alluvial groundwater and eventually CBNG water into the stream, (2) point bars are poor impoundment locations because they are essentially in direct hydraulic communication with the associated stream and because plants

  1. Estimated Wind River Range (Wyoming, USA Glacier Melt Water Contributions to Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Pochop

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, Wyoming was ranked 8th in barley production and 20th in hay production in the United States and these crops support Wyoming’s $800 million cattle industry. However, with a mean elevation of 2,040 meters, much of Wyoming has a limited crop growing season (as little as 60 days and relies on late-summer and early-fall streamflow for agricultural water supply. Wyoming is host to over 80 glaciers with the majority of these glaciers being located in the Wind River Range. These “frozen reservoirs” provide a stable source of streamflow (glacier meltwater during this critical late-summer and early-fall growing season. Given the potential impacts of climate change (increased temperatures resulting in glacier recession, the quantification of glacier meltwater during the late-summer and early-fall growing seasons is needed. Glacier area changes in the Wind River Range were estimated for 42 glaciers using Landsat data from 1985 to 2005. The total surface area of the 42 glaciers was calculated to be 41.2 ± 11.7 km2 in 1985 and 30.8 ± 8.2 km2 in 2005, an average decrease of 25% over the 21 year period. Small glaciers experienced noticeably more area reduction than large glaciers. Of the 42 glaciers analyzed, 17 had an area of greater than 0.5 km2 in 1985, while 25 were less than 0.5 km2 in 1985. The glaciers with a surface area less than 0.5 km2 experienced an average surface area loss (fraction of 1985 surface area of 43%, while the larger glaciers (greater than 0.5 km2 experienced an average surface area loss of 22%. Applying area-volume scaling relationships for glaciers, volume loss was estimated to be 409 × 106 m3 over the 21 year period, which results in an estimated 4% to 10% contribution to warm season (July–October streamflow.

  2. Environmental impact and magnitude of paleosol carbonate carbon isotope excursions marking five early Eocene hyperthermals in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Hemmo A.; Lauretano, Vittoria; van Yperen, Anna E.; Hopman, Tarek; Zachos, James C.; Lourens, Lucas J.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2016-05-01

    Transient greenhouse warming events in the Paleocene and Eocene were associated with the addition of isotopically light carbon to the exogenic atmosphere-ocean carbon system, leading to substantial environmental and biotic change. The magnitude of an accompanying carbon isotope excursion (CIE) can be used to constrain both the sources and amounts of carbon released during an event and also to correlate marine and terrestrial records with high precision. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is well documented, but CIE records for the subsequent warming events are still rare, especially from the terrestrial realm.Here, we provide new paleosol carbonate CIE records for two of the smaller hyperthermal events, I1 and I2, as well as two additional records of Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2) and H2 in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA. Stratigraphic comparison of this expanded, high-resolution terrestrial carbon isotope history to the deep-sea benthic foraminiferal isotope records from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) sites 1262 and 1263, Walvis Ridge, in the southern Atlantic Ocean corroborates the idea that the Bighorn Basin fluvial sediments record global atmospheric change. The ˜ 34 m thicknesses of the eccentricity-driven hyperthermals in these archives corroborate precession forcing of the ˜ 7 m thick fluvial overbank-avulsion sedimentary cycles. Using bulk-oxide mean-annual-precipitation reconstructions, we find soil moisture contents during the four younger hyperthermals that are similar to or only slightly wetter than the background, in contrast with soil drying observed during the PETM using the same proxy, sediments, and plant fossils.The magnitude of the CIEs in soil carbonate for the four smaller, post-PETM events scale nearly linearly with the equivalent event magnitudes documented in marine records. In contrast, the magnitude of the PETM terrestrial CIE is at least 5 ‰ smaller than expected based on extrapolation of the scaling relationship established

  3. Depth of the base of the Jackson aquifer, based on geophysical exploration, southern Jackson Hole, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Campbell, David L.; Senterfit, Robert M.

    A geophysical survey was conducted to determine the depth of the base of the water-table aquifer in the southern part of Jackson Hole, Wyoming, USA. Audio-magnetotellurics (AMT) measurements at 77 sites in the study area yielded electrical-resistivity logs of the subsurface, and these were used to infer lithologic changes with depth. A 100-600ohm-m geoelectric layer, designated the Jackson aquifer, was used to represent surficial saturated, unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age. The median depth of the base of the Jackson aquifer is estimated to be 200ft (61m), based on 62 sites that had sufficient resistivity data. AMT-measured values were kriged to predict the depth to the base of the aquifer throughout the southern part of Jackson Hole. Contour maps of the kriging predictions indicate that the depth of the base of the Jackson aquifer is shallow in the central part of the study area near the East and West Gros Ventre Buttes, deeper in the west near the Teton fault system, and shallow at the southern edge of Jackson Hole. Predicted, contoured depths range from 100ft (30m) in the south, near the confluences of Spring Creek and Flat Creek with the Snake River, to 700ft (210m) in the west, near the town of Wilson, Wyoming. Résumé Une campagne géophysique a été entreprise pour préciser la profondeur du mur de l'aquifère dans le secteur sud de Jackson Hole (Wyoming, États-Unis). Des mesures audio-magnétotelluriques (audio MT) sur 77 sites de ce secteur ont fourni des logs de résistivitéélectrique du sous-sol ; les variations de la lithologie en fonction de la profondeur en ont été déduites. Un niveau géoélectrique à 100-600ohm.m, dénommé "aquifère de Jackson", a servi à définir des dépôts superficiels quaternaires saturés en eau et non consolidés. La profondeur médiane de la base de l'aquifère de Jackson est de l'ordre de 61m, à partir des 62 sites ayant fourni suffisamment de données de résistivité. Les valeurs audio MT mesur

  4. Ecological assessment of streams in the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D.A.; Wright, P.R.; Edwards, G.P.; Hargett, E.G.; Feldman, D.L.; Zumberge, J.R.; Dey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Energy and mineral development, particularly coalbed natural gas development, is proceeding at a rapid pace in the Powder River Structural Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming. Concerns about the potential effects of development led to formation of an interagency working group of primarily Federal and State agencies to address these issues in the PRB in Wyoming and in Montana where similar types of resources exist but are largely undeveloped. Under the direction of the interagency working group, an ecological assessment of streams in the PRB was initiated to determine the current status (2005–06) and to establish a baseline for future monitoring.The ecological assessment components include assessment of stream habitat and riparian zones as well as assessments of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities. All of the components were sampled at 47 sites in the PRB during 2005. A reduced set of components, consisting primarily of macroinvertebrate and fish community assessments, was sampled in 2006. Related ecological data, such as habitat and fish community data collected from selected sites in 2004, also are included in this report.The stream habitat assessment included measurement of channel features, substrate size and embeddedness, riparian vegetation, and reachwide characteristics. The width-to-depth ratio (bankfull width/bankfull depth) tended to be higher at sites on the main-stem Powder River than at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and at sites on tributary streams. The streambed substrate particle size was largest at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and smallest at sites on small tributary streams such as Squirrel Creek and Otter Creek. Total vegetative cover at the ground level, understory, and canopy layers ranged from less than 40 percent at a few sites to more than 90 percent at many of the sites. A bank-stability index indicated that sites in the Tongue River drainage were less at risk of bank failure than sites on the main-stem Powder River

  5. Assessment of Coal Geology, Resources, and Reserves in the Gillette Coalfield, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; Ellis, Margaret S.

    2008-01-01

    The Gillette coalfield, within the Powder River Basin in east-central Wyoming, is the most prolific coalfield in the United States. In 2006, production from the coalfield totaled over 431 million short tons of coal, which represented over 37 percent of the Nation's total yearly production. The Anderson and Canyon coal beds in the Gillette coalfield contain some of the largest deposits of low-sulfur subbituminous coal in the world. By utilizing the abundance of new data from recent coalbed methane development in the Powder River Basin, this study represents the most comprehensive evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coalfield to date. Eleven coal beds were evaluated to determine the in-place coal resources. Six of the eleven coal beds were evaluated for reserve potential given current technology, economic factors, and restrictions to mining. These restrictions included the presence of railroads, a Federal interstate highway, cities, a gas plant, and alluvial valley floors. Other restrictions, such as thickness of overburden, thickness of coal beds, and areas of burned coal were also considered. The total original coal resource in the Gillette coalfield for all eleven coal beds assessed, and no restrictions applied, was calculated to be 201 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 164 billion short tons (81 percent of the original coal resource). Recoverable coal, which is the portion of available coal remaining after subtracting mining and processing losses, was determined for a stripping ratio of 10:1 or less. After mining and processing losses were subtracted, a total of 77 billion short tons of coal were calculated (48 percent of the original coal resource). Coal reserves are the portion of the recoverable coal that can be mined, processed, and marketed at a profit at the time of the economic

  6. Fischer Assays of Oil-Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Greater Green River Basin, Southwestern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Chapter 1 of this CD-ROM is a database of digitized Fischer (shale-oil) assays of cores and cuttings from boreholes drilled in the Eocene Green River oil shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Assays of samples from some surface sections are also included. Most of the Fischer assay analyses were made by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at its laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Other assays, made by institutional or private laboratories, were donated to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and are included in this database as well as Adobe PDF-scanned images of some of the original laboratory assay reports and lithologic logs prepared by USBM geologists. The size of this database is 75.2 megabytes and includes information on 971 core holes and rotary-drilled boreholes and numerous surface sections. Most of these data were released previously by the USBM and the USGS through the National Technical Information Service but are no longer available from that agency. Fischer assays for boreholes in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado have been published by the USGS. Additional data include geophysical logs, groundwater data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, and other data. These materials are available for inspection in the office of the USGS Central Energy Resources Team in Lakewood, Colorado. The digitized assays were checked with the original laboratory reports, but some errors likely remain. Other information, such as locations and elevations of core holes and oil and gas tests, were not thoroughly checked. However, owing to the current interest in oil-shale development, it was considered in the public interest to make this preliminary database available at this time. Chapter 2 of this CD-ROM presents oil-yield histograms of samples of cores and cuttings from exploration drill holes in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Great Divide, Green River, and Washakie Basins of southwestern Wyoming. A database was compiled that includes about 47

  7. Revised Subsurface Stratigraphic Framework of the Fort Union and Wasatch Formations, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Spear, Brianne D.; Purchase, Peter A.; Gallagher, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Described in this report is an updated subsurface stratigraphic framework of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and Eocene Wasatch Formation in the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana. This framework is graphically presented in 17 intersecting west-east and north-south cross sections across the basin. Also included are: (1) the dataset and all associated digital files and (2) digital files for all figures and table 1 suitable for large-format printing. The purpose of this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report is to provide rapid dissemination and accessibility of the stratigraphic cross sections and related digital data to USGS customers, especially the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM), to facilitate their modeling of the hydrostratigraphy of the PRB. This report contains a brief summary of the coal-bed correlations and database, and is part of a larger ongoing study that will be available in the near future.

  8. Regional modeling of large wildfires under current and potential future climates in Colorado and Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amanda; Kumar, Sunil; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Regional analysis of large wildfire potential given climate change scenarios is crucial to understanding areas most at risk in the future, yet wildfire models are not often developed and tested at this spatial scale. We fit three historical climate suitability models for large wildfires (i.e. ≥ 400 ha) in Colorado andWyoming using topography and decadal climate averages corresponding to wildfire occurrence at the same temporal scale. The historical models classified points of known large wildfire occurrence with high accuracies. Using a novel approach in wildfire modeling, we applied the historical models to independent climate and wildfire datasets, and the resulting sensitivities were 0.75, 0.81, and 0.83 for Maxent, Generalized Linear, and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines, respectively. We projected the historic models into future climate space using data from 15 global circulation models and two representative concentration pathway scenarios. Maps from these geospatial analyses can be used to evaluate the changing spatial distribution of climate suitability of large wildfires in these states. April relative humidity was the most important covariate in all models, providing insight to the climate space of large wildfires in this region. These methods incorporate monthly and seasonal climate averages at a spatial resolution relevant to land management (i.e. 1 km2) and provide a tool that can be modified for other regions of North America, or adapted for other parts of the world.

  9. Influences on wood load in mountain streams of the Bighorn National Forest, Wyoming, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Amy L; Wohl, Ellen

    2008-10-01

    We documented valley and channel characteristics and wood loads in 19 reaches of forested headwater mountain streams in the Bighorn National Forest of northern Wyoming. Ten of these reaches were in the Upper Tongue River watershed, which has a history of management including timber harvest, tie floating, and road construction. Nine reaches were in the North Rock Creek watershed, which has little history of management activities. We used these data to test hypotheses that (i) valley geometry correlates with wood load, (ii) stream gradient correlates with wood load, and (iii) wood loads are significantly lower in managed watersheds than in otherwise similar unmanaged watersheds. Statistical analyses of the data support the first and third hypotheses. Stream reaches with steeper valley side slopes tend to have higher wood loads, and reaches in managed watersheds tend to have lower wood loads than reaches in unmanaged watersheds. Results do not support the second hypothesis. Shear stress correlated more strongly with wood load than did stream gradient, but statistical models with valley-scale variables had greater explanatory power than statistical models with channel-scale variables. Wood loads in stream reaches within managed watersheds in the Bighorn National Forest tend to be two to three times lower than wood loads in unmanaged watersheds.

  10. Tree-ring-based reconstruction of precipitation in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, since 1260 A.D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, S.T.; Fastie, C.L.; Jackson, S.T.; Betancourt, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Cores and cross sections from 79 Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) trees at four sites in the Bighorn Basin of north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana were used to develop a proxy for annual (June-June) precipitation spanning 1260-1998 A.D. The reconstruction exhibits considerable nonstationarity, and the instrumental era (post-1900) in particular fails to capture the full range of precipitation variability experienced in the past ???750 years. Both single-year and decadal-scale dry events were more severe before 1900. Dry spells in the late thirteenth and sixteenth centuries surpass both magnitude and duration of any droughts in the Bighorn Basin after 1900. Precipitation variability appears to shift to a higher-frequency mode after 1750, with 15-20-yr droughts becoming rare. Comparisons between instrumental and reconstructed values of precipitation and indices of Pacific basin variability reveal that precipitation in the Bighorn Basin generally responds to Pacific forcing in a manner similar to that of the southwestern United States (drier during La Nin??a events), but high country precipitation in areas surrounding the basin displays the opposite response (drier during El Nin??o events). ?? 2004 American Meteorological Society.

  11. Microclimatic performance of a free-air warming and CO2 enrichment experiment in windy Wyoming, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO2) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO2 enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night) but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms(-1) average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO2 had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO2. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much of the

  12. Microclimatic performance of a free-air warming and CO2 enrichment experiment in windy Wyoming, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel LeCain

    Full Text Available In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO2 on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night and growing season free-air CO2 enrichment (600 ppm in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms(-1 average and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO2 had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO2. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for

  13. Human infrastructure and invasive plant occurrence across rangelands of southwestern Wyoming, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, Daniel J.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Schell, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    Although human influence across rural landscapes is often discussed, interactions between the native, natural systems and human activities are challenging to measure explicitly. We assessed the distribution of introduced, invasive species as related to anthropogenic infrastructure and environmental conditions across southwestern Wyoming. to discern direct correlations as well as covariate influences between land use, land cover, and abundance of invasive plants, and assess the supposition that these features affect surrounding rangeland conditions. Our sample units were 1 000 m long and extended outward from target features, which included roads, oil and gas well pads, pipelines, power lines, and featureless background sites. Sample sites were distributed across the region using a stratified, random design with a frame that represented features and land-use intensity. In addition to land-use gradients, we captured a representative, but limited, range of variability in climate, soils, geology, topography, and dominant vegetation. Several of these variables proved significant, in conjunction with distance from anthropogenic features, in regression models of invasive plant abundance. We used general linear models to demonstrate and compare associations between invasive plant frequency and Euclidian distance from features, natural logarithm transformed distances (log-linear), and environmental variables which were presented as potential covariates. We expected a steep curvilinear (log or exponential) decline trending towards an asymptote along the axis representing high abundance near features with rapid decrease beyond approximately 50–100 m. Some of the associations we document exhibit this pattern, but we also found some invasive plant distributions that extended beyond our expectations, suggesting a broader distribution than anticipated. Our results provide details that can inform local efforts for management and control of invasive species, and they provide

  14. Comparison of bulk and n-alkane PETM carbon isotope trends from the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczynski, A. A.; McInerney, F. A.; Kraus, M. J.; Wing, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a period of abrupt, short-term, and large-scale global warming fueled by a large release of isotopically light carbon, is recorded in terrestrial and marine carbonates and organic carbon as a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Here we present a composite stable carbon isotope record from n-alkanes and four bulk organic carbon records from individual sections spanning the PETM interval in the Cabin Fork area of the southeastern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. The n-alkane curve shows an abrupt, negative shift in δ13C values, an extended CIE body, and a rapid recovery to pre-PETM δ13C values. While the bulk organic carbon records show similarly abrupt negative shifts in δ13C values, the CIE appears to be compressed as well as smaller in magnitude, and the return to more positive δ13C values is often more gradual. Furthermore, the stratigraphic thickness of the most negative CIE values and the pattern of the recovery phase are not consistent among the four bulk organic carbon records. The discrepancy between the bulk organic matter and n-alkane CIE may arise because of changes in soil organic matter cycling during the PETM. Bulk soil organic matter δ13C values are influenced by degradation and selective preservation whereas n-alkanes are resistant to diagenesis. Variations in sediment accumulation rates across the basin may be responsible for the differences between the four bulk organic carbon δ13C records. Sites with extended CIE bodies likely present more complete isotope records with greater time resolution and less time averaging than those with reduced CIEs. The shape of the high-resolution n-alkane curve presented here is similar to the newest 3He-based timescale for the PETM using data from Walvis Ridge, IODP site 1266 (Murphy et al., 2010). The most significant difference between this revised PETM timescale and previously published age models is the allocation of time within the PETM event. Murphy et

  15. The history of dinosaur footprint discoveries in Wyoming with emphasis on the Bighorn basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, E.P.; Mickelson, D.L.; Hasiotis, S.T.; Johnson, G.D.

    2003-01-01

    Dinosaur traces are well known from the western United States in the Colorado Plateau region (Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona). Utah contains the greatest abundance of known and documented dinosaur footprints and trackways. Far less well known, however, is the occurrence and distribution of dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons in Wyoming. Scientific studies over the past 10 years have shown that three of the four Middle and Upper Jurassic formations in northern Wyoming contain dinosaur footprints. Two of the footprint-bearing horizons are located in geologic intervals that were once thought to have been deposited in offshore to nearshore marine settings and represent rare North American examples of Middle Jurassic (Bajocian and Bathonian) dinosaur remains. Some of these new Wyoming sites can be correlated to known dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons or intervals in Utah. Wyoming has a great potential for additional discoveries of new dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons, and further prospecting and study is warranted and will ultimately lead to a much better understanding of the geographic distribution and behavior of the potential footprint-makers. ?? Taylor and Francis Inc.

  16. 78 FR 77644 - Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota; Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming; Teckla...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... in Wyoming. The line would be constructed on wood or steel H-frame structures for most of its length with possibly some steel monopole structures in the Rapid City area. The structures would be 65 to 75... of transmission line Require a 125 foot right-of-way Construction of wood or steel H-frame...

  17. Geology of the Pumpkin Buttes Area of the Powder River Basin, Campbell and Johnson Counties, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, William Neil; White, Amos McNairy

    1956-01-01

    About 200 uranium occurrences have been examined in the Pumpkin Buttes area, Wyoming. Uranium minerals are visible at most of these places and occur in red and buff sandstone lenses in the Wasatch formation of Eocene age. The uranium minerals are disseminated in buff sandstone near red sandstone, and also occur in red sandstone in manganese oxide concretions and uraninite concretions.

  18. An evaluation of health risk to the public as a consequence of in situ uranium mining in Wyoming, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Johnson, Thomas E

    2015-12-01

    In the United States there is considerable public concern regarding the health effects of in situ recovery uranium mining. These concerns focus principally on exposure to contaminants mobilized in groundwater by the mining process. However, the risk arising as a result of mining must be viewed in light of the presence of naturally occurring uranium ore and other constituents which comprise a latent hazard. The United States Environmental Protection Agency recently proposed new guidelines for successful restoration of an in situ uranium mine by limiting concentrations of thirteen groundwater constituents: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, nitrate (as nitrogen), molybdenum, radium, total uranium, and gross α activity. We investigated the changes occurring to these constituents at an ISR uranium mine in Wyoming, USA by comparing groundwater quality at baseline measurement to that at stability (post-restoration) testing. Of the groundwater constituents considered, only uranium and radium-226 showed significant (p Uranium concentrations increased by a factor of 5.6 (95% CI 3.6-8.9 times greater) while radium-226 decreased by a factor of about one half (95% CI 0.42-0.75 times less). Change in risk was calculated using the RESRAD (onsite) code for an individual exposed as a resident-farmer; total radiation dose to a resident farmer decreased from pre-to post-mining by about 5.2 mSv y(-1). Higher concentrations of uranium correspond to increased biomarkers of nephrotoxicity, however the clinical significance of this increase is unclear.

  19. Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas in the Bighorn Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Bighorn Basin Province, which encompasses about 6.7 million acres in north-central Wyoming and southern Montana. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, petroleum generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined two total petroleum systems: (1) Phosphoria, and (2) Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite. Within these two systems, eight assessment units (AU) were defined, and undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated within each AU.

  20. The rare earth element geochemistry of acid-sulphate and acid-sulphate-chloride geothermal systems from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anita J.; Palmer, Martin R.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Kemp, Anthony J.

    1997-02-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) in acid-sulphate and acid-sulphate-chloride waters and the associated sinters and volcanic rocks from the Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA, geothermal system. REE concentrations in the volcanic rocks range from 222 to 347 ppm; their chondite-normalised REE patterns are typical of upper continental crust, with LREE > HREE and negative Eu anomalies. Total REE concentrations in the fluids range from 3 to 1133 nmol kg -1 (≥ 162 ppm), and ΣREE concentrations in sinter are ≥ 181 ppm. REE abundances and patterns in drill core material from YNP indicate some REE mobility. Normalisation of REE concentrations in altered Lava Creek Tuff (LCT) from Y-12 drill core to REE concentrations in fresh LCT indicate that the REE overall have been depleted with the exception of Eu, which has been decoupled from the REE series and concentrated in the altered rocks. Relative to the host rocks the REE patterns of the fluids are variably depleted in HREEs and LREEs, and usually have a pronounced positive Eu anomaly. This decoupling of Eu from the REE suite suggests that (1) Eu has been preferentially removed either from the host rock glass or from the host rock minerals, or (2) the waters are from a high temperature or reducing environment where Eu 2+ is more soluble than the trivalent REEs. Since the latter is inconsistent with production of acid-sulphate springs in a low temperature, oxidising near-surface environment, we suggest that the positive Eu anomalies in the fluids result from preferential dissolution of a Eu-rich phase in the host rock. Spatial and temporal variations in major element chemistry and pH of the springs sampled from Norris Geyser Basin and Crater Hills accompany variations in REE concentrations and patterns of individual geothermal springs. These are possibly related to changes in subsurface plumbing, which results in variations in

  1. Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, B.A.; Sams, J.I.; Smith, B.D.; Harbert, W.

    2008-01-01

    Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are poorly understood. Helicopter electromagnetic surveys (HEM) were completed in July 2003 and July 2004 to characterize the hydrogeology of an alluvial aquifer along the Powder River. The aquifer is receiving CBNG produced water discharge from infiltration impoundments. HEM data were subjected to Occam's inversion algorithms to determine the aquifer bulk conductivity, which was then correlated towater salinity using site-specific sampling results. The HEM data provided high-resolution images of salinity levels in the aquifer, a result not attainable using traditional sampling methods. Interpretation of these images reveals clearly the produced water influence on aquifer water quality. Potential shortfalls to this method occur where there is no significant contrast in aquifer salinity and infiltrating produced water salinity and where there might be significant changes in aquifer lithology. Despite these limitations, airborne geophysical methods can provide a broadscale (watershed-scale) tool to evaluate CBNG water disposal, especially in areas where field-based investigations are logistically prohibitive. This research has implications for design and location strategies of future CBNG water surface disposal facilities within the Powder River Basin. ?? 2008 2008 Society of ExplorationGeophysicists. All rights reserved.

  2. After a century-Revised Paleogene coal stratigraphy, correlation, and deposition, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Spear, Brianne D.; Kinney, Scott A.; Purchase, Peter A.; Gallagher, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    The stratigraphy, correlation, mapping, and depositional history of coal-bearing strata in the Paleogene Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Powder River Basin were mainly based on measurement and description of outcrops during the early 20th century. Subsequently, the quality and quantity of data improved with (1) exploration and development of oil, gas, and coal during the middle 20th century and (2) the onset of coalbed methane (CBM) development during the late 20th and early 21st centuries that resulted in the drilling of more than 26,000 closely spaced wells with accompanying geophysical logs. The closeness of the data control points, which average 0.5 mi (805 m) apart, made for better accuracy in the subsurface delineation and correlation of coal beds that greatly facilitated the construction of regional stratigraphic cross sections and the assessment of resources. The drillhole data show that coal beds previously mapped as merged coal zones, such as the Wyodak coal zone in the Wyoming part of the Powder River Basin, gradually thinned into several discontinuous beds and sequentially split into as many as 7 hierarchical orders westward and northward. The thinning and splitting of coal beds in these directions were accompanied by as much as a ten-fold increase in the thicknesses of sandstone-dominated intervals within the Wyodak coal zone. This probably resulted from thrust loading by the eastern front of the Bighorn uplift accompanied by vertical displacement along lineaments that caused subsidence of the western axial part of the Powder River Basin during Laramide deformation in Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Accommodation space was thereby created for synsedimentary alluvial infilling that controlled thickening, thinning, splitting, pinching out, and areal distribution of coal beds. Equally important was differential subsidence between this main accommodation space and adjoining areas, which influenced the overlapping, for example, of the

  3. Permafrost and infrastructure in the Usa Basin (Northeast European Russia) : Possible impacts of global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazhitova, G.; Karstkarel, N.; Oberman, N.; Romanovsky, V.; Kuhry, P.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between permafrost conditions and the distribution of infrastructure in the Usa Basin, Northeast European Russia, is analyzed. About 75% of the Basin is underlain by permafrost terrain with various degrees of continuity (isolated patches to continuous permafrost). The region has a h

  4. Stratigraphic cross sections of the Niobrara interval of the Cody Shale and associated rocks in the Wind River Basin, central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Thomas M.

    2017-02-07

    The Wind River Basin in Wyoming is one of many structural and sedimentary basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain foreland during the Laramide orogeny. The basin is nearly 200 miles long, 70 miles wide, and encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range, Owl Creek uplift, and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east, the Granite Mountains on the south, and Wind River Range on the west.Many important conventional oil and gas fields producing from reservoirs ranging in age from Mississippian through Tertiary have been discovered in this basin. In addition, an extensive unconventional overpressured basin-centered gas accumulation has been identified in Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the deeper parts of the basin. It has long been suggested that various Upper Cretaceous marine shales, including the Cody Shale, are the principal hydrocarbon source rocks for many of these accumulations. With recent advances and success in horizontal drilling and multistage fracture stimulation, there has been an increase in exploration and completion of wells in these marine shales in other Rocky Mountain Laramide basins that were traditionally thought of only as hydrocarbon source rocks.The two stratigraphic cross sections presented in this report were constructed as part of a project carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize and evaluate the undiscovered continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources of the Niobrara interval of the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale in the Wind River Basin in central Wyoming. The primary purpose of the cross sections is to show the stratigraphic relationship of the Niobrara equivalent strata and associated rocks in the lower part of the Cody Shale in the Wind River Basin. These two cross sections were constructed using borehole geophysical logs from 37 wells drilled for oil and gas exploration and production, and one surface section along East Sheep Creek

  5. U.S. Geological Survey and Bureau of Land Management Cooperative Coalbed Methane Project in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Evidence that earthquakes threaten the Mississippi, Ohio, and Wabash River valleys of the Central United States abounds. In fact, several of the largest historical earthquakes to strike the continental United States occurred in the winter of 1811-1812 along the New Madrid seismic zone, which stretches from just west of Memphis, Tenn., into southern Illinois (fig. 1). Several times in the past century, moderate earthquakes have been widely felt in the Wabash Valley seismic zone along the southern border of Illinois and Indiana (fig. 1). Throughout the region, between 150 and 200 earthquakes are recorded annually by a network of monitoring instruments, although most are too small to be felt by people. Geologic evidence for prehistoric earthquakes throughout the region has been mounting since the late 1970s. But how significant is the threat? How likely are large earthquakes and, more importantly, what is the chance that the shaking they cause will be damaging?The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Wyoming Reservoir Management Group and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a cooperative project in 1999 to collect technical and analytical data on coalbed methane (CBM) resources and quality of the water produced from coalbeds in the Wyoming part of the Powder River Basin. The agencies have complementary but divergent goals and these kinds of data are essential to accomplish their respective resource evaluation and management tasks. The project also addresses the general public need for information pertaining to Powder River Basin CBM resources and development. BLM needs, which relate primarily to the management of CBM resources, include improved gas content and gas in-place estimates for reservoir characterization and resource/reserve assessment, evaluation, and utilization. USGS goals include a basinwide assessment of CBM resources, an improved understanding of the nature and origin of coalbed gases and formation waters, and the development of predictive

  6. Point of Rocks, Black Butte faults, Green River Basin, Wyoming (grbfltg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a line representation of faults in a portion of the the Green River Basin. The fault data are part of the National Coal Resource...

  7. Effects of coal-bed methane discharge waters on the vegetation and soil ecosystem in Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, M.; Tindall, J.A.; Cronin, G.; Friedel, M.J.; Bergquist, E.

    2005-01-01

    Coal-bed methane (CBM) co-produced discharge waters in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, resulting from extraction of methane from coal seams, have become a priority for chemical, hydrological and biological research during the last few years. Soil and vegetation samples were taken from affected and reference sites (upland elevations and wetted gully) in Juniper Draw to investigate the effects of CBM discharge waters on soil physical and chemical properties and on native and introduced vegetation density and diversity. Results indicate an increase of salinity and sodicity within local soil ecosystems at sites directly exposed to CBM discharge waters. Elevated concentrations of sodium in the soil are correlated with consistent exposure to CBM waters. Clay-loam soils in the study area have a much larger specific surface area than the sandy soils and facilitate a greater sodium adsorption. However, there was no significant relation between increasing water sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values and increasing sediment SAR values downstream; however, soils exposed to the CBM water ranged from the moderate to severe SAR hazard index. Native vegetation species density was highest at the reference (upland and gully) and CBM affected upland sites. The affected gully had the greatest percent composition of introduced vegetation species. Salt-tolerant species had the greatest richness at the affected gully, implying a potential threat of invasion and competition to established native vegetation. These findings suggest that CBM waters could affect agricultural production operations and long-term water quality. ?? Springer 2005.

  8. Mammalian community response to the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: An isotaphonomic study in the northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, William C.; Gingerich, Philip D.

    1998-11-01

    New stratigraphic and paleontological information from the McCullough Peaks, northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, is incorporated into an isotaphonomic faunal database and used to investigate the impact of the latest Paleocene thermal maximum and coincident earliest Wasatchian immigration event on local mammalian community structure. Surface collections from Willwood Formation overbank deposits provide taphonomically consistent and stratigraphically resolved samples of the medium- to large-sized components of underlying mammalian communities. Rarefaction shows that the immigration event caused an abrupt and dramatic increase in species richness and evenness. After this initial increase, diversity tapered off to more typical Wasatchian levels that were still higher than those in the preceding Clarkforkian. Wasatchian immigrants were rapidly incorporated into the new community organization, representing ˜20% of the taxa and ˜50% of the individuals. Immigrant taxa generally had larger body sizes and more herbivorous and frugivorous dietary habits compared to endemic taxa, causing significant turnover in body-size structure and trophic structure. There was a significant short-term body-size decrease in many lineages that may have been prompted by the elevated temperatures and/or decreased latitudinal thermal gradients during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum. Rapid short-term climatic change (transient climates) and associated biotic dispersal can have abrupt and long-lasting effects on mammalian community evolution.

  9. Chapter A. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the South Platte River basin, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Dupree, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 basins along an urban land-use gradient in the South Platte River Basin, Colorado and Wyoming, from 2002 through 2003. Study basins were chosen to minimize natural variability among basins due to factors such as geology, elevation, and climate and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among basins. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated in a multimetric urban intensity index to represent the degree of urban development in each study basin. Physical characteristics studied included stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied included nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, and fecal bacteria concentrations; and biological characteristics studied included algae, fish, and invertebrate communities. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization; (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities; and (3) evaluate the relevance of the results to the management of water resources in the South Platte River Basin. Commonly observed effects of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased flashiness, higher magnitude and more frequent peak flows, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in aquatic community structure, generally were not observed in this study. None of the hydrologic, temperature, habitat

  10. 78 FR 56650 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland; Wyoming; Thunder Basin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... established control colonies to address human health and safety concerns around residences, as well as colony... Basin National Grassland Prairie Dog Amendment AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to... National Grassland Plan to modify Categories 1 and 2 of the 2009 Prairie Dog Management Strategy....

  11. Map showing principal coal beds of the Clearmont Quadrangle, Sheridan County, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    This map is a product of field mapping and of photogrammetric mapping using color aerial photographs at a scale of approximately 1:24,000 (Molina, 1983). These geologic investigations were part of a project to map the principal coal beds of large parts of the Powder River basin for national coal resource assessment.

  12. Identifying key climate and environmental factors affecting rates of post-fire big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) recovery in the northern Columbia Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas; McIlroy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe of North America is considered highly imperilled, in part owing to increased fire frequency. Sagebrush ecosystems support numerous species, and it is important to understand those factors that affect rates of post-fire sagebrush recovery. We explored recovery of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp.wyomingensis) and basin big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. tridentata) communities following fire in the northern Columbia Basin (Washington, USA). We sampled plots across 16 fires that burned in big sagebrush communities from 5 to 28 years ago, and also sampled nearby unburned locations. Mixed-effects models demonstrated that density of large–mature big sagebrush plants and percentage cover of big sagebrush were higher with time since fire and in plots with more precipitation during the winter immediately following fire, but were lower when precipitation the next winter was higher than average, especially on soils with higher available water supply, and with greater post-fire mortality of mature big sagebrush plants. Bunchgrass cover 5 to 28 years after fire was predicted to be lower with higher cover of both shrubs and non-native herbaceous species, and only slightly higher with time. Post-fire recovery of big sagebrush in the northern Columbia Basin is a slow process that may require several decades on average, but faster recovery rates may occur under specific site and climate conditions.

  13. Competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on some native and reclamation species in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, E.B.; Knight, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on certain native and reclamation species. The first experiment was initiated by discing three sites in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, at three distances from introduced weed seed sources. Introduced weed colonization was greatest when a seed source was located nearby. Higher weed cover resulted in reductions of percent cover, density, and richness of the native species. The second experiment was conducted in the greenhouse and was designed to determine if there are changes in response of S. kali and the native grasses Agropyron smithii and Bouteloua gracilis to competition and water regime. Both grass species had lower biomass and higher stomatal resistance when growing in mixed culture with S. kali than in pure culture in the dry regime, but there were no significant differences in the wet regime. In general, the difference in plant response between mixed and pure cultures was more pronounced in the dry than in the wet regime. The third study was a greenhouse experiment on germination and competition of S. kali (a C/sub 4/ species) with native species Lepidium densiflorum (C/sub 3/), Chenopodium pratericola (C/sub 3/), A. smithii (C/sub 3/), and B. gracilis (C/sub 4/) under May, June, and July temperature regimes. Salsola kali germinated equally well in all three regimes, but the other C/sub 4/ species had highest germination in the July regime and the C/sub 3/ species in the May and June regimes. The fourth study was designed to examine the effect of weed colonization on the success of mine reclamation. Little effect was observed, but colonization by introduced annuals was very low. (ERB)

  14. Distributions of air pollutants associated with oil and natural gas development measured in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Field

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diffusive sampler monitoring techniques were employed during wintertime studies from 2009 to 2012 to assess the spatial distribution of air pollutants associated with the Pinedale Anticline and Jonah Field oil and natural gas (O&NG developments in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming. Diffusive sampling identified both the extent of wintertime ozone (O3 episodes and the distributions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx, and a suite of 13 C5+ volatile organic compounds (VOC, including BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, allowing the influence of different O&NG emission sources to be determined. Concentration isopleth mapping of both diffusive sampler and continuous O3 measurements show the importance of localized production and advective transport. As for O3, BTEX and NOx mixing ratios within O&NG development areas were elevated compared to background levels, with localized hotspots also evident. One BTEX hotspot was related to an area with intensive production activities, while a second was located in an area influenced by emissions from a water treatment and recycling facility. Contrastingly, NOx hotspots were at major road intersections with relatively high traffic flows, indicating influence from vehicular emissions. Comparisons of observed selected VOC species ratios at a roadside site in the town of Pinedale with those measured in O&NG development areas show that traffic emissions contribute minimally to VOCs in these latter areas. The spatial distributions of pollutant concentrations identified by diffusive sampling techniques have potential utility for validation of emission inventories that are combined with air quality modeling.

  15. Tracking solutes and water from subsurface drip irrigation application of coalbed methane-produced waters, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, M.A.; Bern, C.R.; Healy, R.W.; Sams, J.I.; Zupancic, J.W.; Schroeder, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    One method to beneficially use water produced from coalbed methane (CBM) extraction is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) of croplands. In SDI systems, treated CBMwater (injectate) is supplied to the soil at depth, with the purpose of preventing the buildup of detrimental salts near the surface. The technology is expanding within the Powder River Basin, but little research has been published on its environmental impacts. This article reports on initial results from tracking water and solutes from the injected CBM-produced waters at an SDI system in Johnson County, Wyoming. In the first year of SDI operation, soil moisture significantly increased in the SDI areas, but well water levels increased only modestly, suggesting that most of the water added was stored in the vadose zone or lost to evapotranspiration. The injectate has lower concentrations of most inorganic constituents relative to ambient groundwater at the site but exhibits a high sodium adsorption ratio. Changes in groundwater chemistry during the same period of SDI operation were small; the increase in groundwater-specific conductance relative to pre-SDI conditions was observed in a single well. Conversely, groundwater samples collected beneath another SDI field showed decreased concentrations of several constituents since the SDI operation.Groundwater-specific conductance at the 12 other wells showed no significant changes. Major controls on and compositional variability of groundwater, surface water, and soil water chemistry are discussed in detail. Findings from this research provide an understanding of water and salt dynamics associated with SDI systems using CBM-produced water. Copyright ??2011. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  16. Feasibility of CO2 Sequestration with Simultaneous Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, H. E.; Zoback, M. D.

    2005-12-01

    CO2 sequestration in geological formations has been proposed as a means to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. Coal is an attractive geologic environment for CO2 sequestration because CO2 is retained in the coal as an adsorbed phase and the cost of sequestration can be offset by enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Using reservoir simulations of sub-bituminous coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, we examined the feasibility of injecting and sequestering CO2 in this basin, particularly looking at whether hydraulically fracturing the coal would help increase CO2 injectivity. Our 3D model was built in an area where the least principal stress is equal to the overburden stress, resulting in horizontal hydraulic fractures, and gamma ray logs from coalbed methane wells were used to determine the depth and thickness of the coal. These wells produce from the Big George coal, which is approximately 20 m thick in this area, with a depth to the top of 310-360 m. Geostatistical techniques were employed to populate the coal matrix and cleats with permeability and porosity data taken from published reports. We conducted enhanced coalbed methane simulations using a commercial enhanced coalbed methane simulator. Our base case involved one injection well and one production well (1/4 of a 5-spot pattern). We then added a hydraulic fracture at the base of the injector and closed the rest of the well off. All our simulations were run with and without coal matrix shrinkage and swelling. The natural fracture system of the coal is the main pathway for gas migration. We found that gravity and buoyancy were the major driving forces behind gas flow within the coal, which reduced gas sweep efficiency and sequestration. Gravity caused the gas to migrate upwards at first and then along the top of the coal. The presence of the hydraulic fracture assisted in greater penetration of gas into the base of the reservoir, creating a more uniform vertical sweep as gas rose to the

  17. ALIEN SPECIES IMPORTANTANCE IN NATIVE VEGETATION ALONG WADEABLE STREAMS, JOHN DAY RIVER BASIN, OREGON, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the importance of alien species in existing vegetation along wadeable streams of a large, topographically diverse river basin in eastern Oregon, USA; sampling 165 plots (30 × 30 m) across 29 randomly selected 1-km stream reaches. Plots represented eight streamside co...

  18. Stochastic Joint Simulation of Facies and Diagenesis: A Case Study on Early Diagenesis of the Madison Formation (Wyoming, USA Simulation stochastique couplée faciès et diagenèse. L’exemple de la diagenèse précoce dans la Formation Madison (Wyoming, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbier M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose an integrated approach to reproduce both facies and diagenetic trends in a static reservoir model based on an outcrop case study. In Wyoming (USA, the Madison Formation (Mississippian is a thick (up to 350 m carbonate series, outcropping in several locations of the Bighorn foreland basin. Within these series, nine sedimentary facies have been identified. Based on their vertical stacking pattern, they are organized in small-scale facies sequences: 1 intertidal to supratidal facies sequence; 2 shallow subtidal to intertidal facies sequence; 3 deep subtidal facies sequence. These facies associations have been integrated in a synthetic depositional model, which corresponds to a carbonate ramp progressively evolving towards the most inner part of a platform. This enables to propose a sequence stratigraphy framework for the studied series, that represents at least six third-order sequences (some of them being locally eroded. The diagenetic study has been focused on the identification of the early diagenetic phases. Results from these analyses show the occurrence of several successive early diagenetic phases (micritization, marine calcite cementation, dolomitization, etc.. For modeling purposes, seven “diagenetic imprints” have been defined, each of them corresponding to a succession of diagenetic phases that can coexist in the same sedimentary facies. Moreover, as each sedimentary facies may be affected by several diagenetic imprints, a quantification of these imprints has been realized. A 3D gridded model designed for geostatistical modeling has been constructed in order to reproduce the facies organization of the three first third-order sequences (that are the best documented. The gridding is then based on the four sequence boundaries which have been recognized on every section. The relationships between sedimentary facies and diagenesis have been used to define lithofacies simulation rules. The simulations

  19. Water-quality characteristics, including sodium-adsorption ratios, for four sites in the Powder River drainage basin, Wyoming and Montana, water years 2001-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, monitors streams throughout the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and parts of Montana for potential effects of coalbed natural gas development. Specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios may be larger in coalbed waters than in stream waters that may receive the discharge waters. Therefore, continuous water-quality instruments for specific conductance were installed and discrete water-quality samples were collected to characterize water quality during water years 2001-2004 at four sites in the Powder River drainage basin: Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming; Crazy Woman Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; Clear Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; and Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. During water years 2001-2004, the median specific conductance of 2,270 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm) in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming, was larger than the median specific conductance of 1,930 ?S/cm in discrete samples collected downstream from the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The median specific conductance was smallest in discrete samples from Clear Creek (1,180 ?S/cm), which has a dilution effect on the specific conductance for the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The daily mean specific conductance from continuous water-quality instruments during the irrigation season showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance values for the discrete samples. Dissolved sodium, sodium-adsorption ratios, and dissolved solids generally showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance. The largest median sodium concentration (274 milligrams per liter) and the largest range of sodium-adsorption ratios (3.7 to 21) were measured in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming. Median concentrations of sodium and sodium-adsorption ratios were substantially smaller in Crazy Woman Creek and Clear Creek, which tend to

  20. Carbon isotope excursions in paleosol carbonate marking five early Eocene hyperthermals in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Abels

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Transient greenhouse warming events in the Paleocene and Eocene were associated with the addition of isotopically-light carbon to the exogenic atmosphere–ocean carbon pool, leading to substantial environmental and biotic change. The magnitude of an accompanying carbon isotope excursion (CIE can be used to constrain both the sources and amounts of carbon released during an event, as well as to correlate marine and terrestrial records with high precision. The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM is well documented, but CIE records for the subsequent warming events are still rare especially from the terrestrial realm. Here, we provide new CIE records for two of the smaller hyperthermal events, I1 and I2, in paleosol carbonate, as well as two additional records of ETM2 and H2 in the Bighorn Basin. Stratigraphic comparison of this expanded, high-resolution terrestrial carbon isotope record to the deep-sea benthic foraminifera records from ODP Sites 1262 and 1263, Walvis Ridge, in the southern Atlantic Ocean corroborates that the Bighorn Basin fluvial sediments record global atmospheric change. The stratigraphic thicknesses of the eccentricity-driven hyperthermals in these archives are in line with precession-forcing of the 7 m thick fluvial overbank-avulsion sedimentary cycles. Using the CALMAG bulk oxide mean annual precipitation proxy, we reconstruct similar or slightly wetter than background soil moisture contents during the four younger hyperthermals, in contrast to drying observed during the PETM. Soil carbonate CIEs vary in magnitude proportionally with the marine CIEs for the four smaller early Eocene hyperthermals. This relationship breaks down for the PETM, with the soil carbonate CIE ~ 2–4‰ less than expected if all five linearly relate to marine CIEs. If the PETM CO2 forcing was similar but scaled to the younger hyperthermals, photosynthetic isotope fractionation or soil environmental factors are needed to explain this anomaly. We

  1. Chapter A. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the South Platte River basin, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Dupree, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 basins along an urban land-use gradient in the South Platte River Basin, Colorado and Wyoming, from 2002 through 2003. Study basins were chosen to minimize natural variability among basins due to factors such as geology, elevation, and climate and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among basins. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated in a multimetric urban intensity index to represent the degree of urban development in each study basin. Physical characteristics studied included stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied included nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, and fecal bacteria concentrations; and biological characteristics studied included algae, fish, and invertebrate communities. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization; (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities; and (3) evaluate the relevance of the results to the management of water resources in the South Platte River Basin. Commonly observed effects of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased flashiness, higher magnitude and more frequent peak flows, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in aquatic community structure, generally were not observed in this study. None of the hydrologic, temperature, habitat

  2. Late Quaternary environmental change in the Bonneville basin, western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, D.B.; Rhode, D.; Grayson, D.K.; Broughton, J.M.; Livingston, S.D.; Hunt, J.; Quade, Jay; Schmitt, D.N.; Shaver, M. W.

    2001-01-01

    Excavation and analyses of small animal remains from stratified raptor deposits spanning the last 11.5 ka, together with collection and analysis of over 60 dated fossil woodrat midden samples spanning the last 50 ka, provide a detailed record of changing climate in the eastern Great Basin during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Sagebrush steppe dominated the northern Bonneville basin during the Full Glacial, suggesting that conditions were cold and relatively dry, in contrast to the southern basin, which was also cold but moister. Limber pine woodlands dominated ???13-11.5 ka, indicating increased dryness and summer temperatures ???6-7??C cooler than present. This drying trend accelerated after ???11.5 ka causing Lake Bonneville to drop rapidly, eliminating 11 species of fish from the lake. From ???11.5-8.2 ka xerophytic sagebrush and shadscale scrub replaced more mesophilic shrubs in a step-wise fashion. A variety of small mammals and plants indicate the early Holocene was ???3??C cooler and moister than at present, not warmer as suggested by a number of climatic models. The diversity of plants and animals changed dramatically after 8.2 ka as many species disappeared from the record. Some of the upland species returned after ???4 ka and Great Salt Lake became fresh enough at ???3.4 and ???1.2 ka to support populations of Utah chub. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Post-fire regeneration dynamics in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in Wind River and Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer G Klutsch; Betsy A Goodrich; William R Jacobi

    2015-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) populations are in decline across the species’ range due to historic wildfire exclusion, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) outbreaks, and an invasive fungal pathogen causing the disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, WPBR). Despite reliance on stand-replacing fires, information on whitebark pine regeneration occurrence is limited and the trajectory of future forests is largely unknown in some areas of the range. Regeneration densities were assessed in burned and adjacent non-burned areas at six high elevation locations in northwest Wyoming where stand-replacing fires occurred 8–32 years before the surveys. In these locations at the eastern extent of the species range, we assessed what site factors were associ-ated with regeneration success. Whitebark pine regen-eration density was greater and seedlings were older in non-burned compared to burned areas. Within burns, north aspects had more regeneration than south aspects. Potential seed source densities and other species’ regeneration were positively related to whitebark pine regeneration densities in burned areas. South facing slopes or grass covered areas may have either delayed or no regeneration of whitebark pine without the help of artificial planting.

  4. Coalbed methane resources of the Appalachian Basin, eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Hatch, Joseph R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the technically recoverable, undiscovered coalbed-gas resources in the Appalachian basin and Black Warrior basin Assessment Provinces as about 15.5 trillion cubic feet. Although these resources are almost equally divided between the two areas, most of the production occurs within relatively small areas within these Provinces, where local geological and geochemical attributes have resulted in the generation and retention of large amounts of methane within the coal beds and have enhanced the producibility of the gas from the coal. In the Appalachian basin, coalbed methane (CBM) tests are commonly commercial where the cumulative coal thickness completed in wells is greater than three meters (10 ft), the depth of burial of the coal beds is greater than 100 m (350 ft), and the coal is in the thermogenic gas window. In addition to the ubiquitous cleating within the coal beds, commercial production may be enhanced by secondary fracture porosity related to supplemental fracture systems within the coal beds. In order to release the methane from microporus coal matrix, most wells are dewatered prior to commercial production of gas. Two Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were defined by the USGS during the assessment: the Pottsville Coal-bed gas TPS in Alabama, and the Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas TPS in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee, and Alabama. These were divided into seven assessment units, of which three had sufficient data to be assessed. Production rates are higher in most horizontal wells drilled into relatively thick coal beds, than in vertical wells; recovery per unit area is greater, and potential adverse environmental impact is decreased.

  5. Grass-Shrub Associations over a Precipitation Gradient and Their Implications for Restoration in the Great Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthuijzen, Maike F; Veblen, Kari E

    2015-01-01

    As environmental stress increases positive (facilitative) plant interactions often predominate. Plant-plant associations (or lack thereof) can indicate whether certain plant species favor particular types of microsites (e.g., shrub canopies or plant-free interspaces) and can provide valuable insights into whether "nurse plants" will contribute to seeding or planting success during ecological restoration. It can be difficult, however, to anticipate how relationships between nurse plants and plants used for restoration may change over large-ranging, regional stress gradients. We investigated associations between the shrub, Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis), and three common native grasses (Poa secunda, Elymus elymoides, and Pseudoroegneria spicata), representing short-, medium-, and deep-rooted growth forms, respectively, across an annual rainfall gradient (220-350 mm) in the Great Basin, USA. We hypothesized that positive shrub-grass relationships would become more frequent at lower rainfall levels, as indicated by greater cover of grasses in shrub canopies than vegetation-free interspaces. We sampled aerial cover, density, height, basal width, grazing status, and reproductive status of perennial grasses in canopies and interspaces of 25-33 sagebrush individuals at 32 sites along a rainfall gradient. We found that aerial cover of the shallow rooted grass, P. secunda, was higher in sagebrush canopy than interspace microsites at lower levels of rainfall. Cover and density of the medium-rooted grass, E. elymoides were higher in sagebrush canopies than interspaces at all but the highest rainfall levels. Neither annual rainfall nor sagebrush canopy microsite significantly affected P. spicata cover. E. elymoides and P. spicata plants were taller, narrower, and less likely to be grazed in shrub canopy microsites than interspaces. Our results suggest that exploring sagebrush canopy microsites for restoration of native perennial grasses might

  6. Terrestrial records of Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 / H1 / Elmo) and H2 in the Bighorn Basin (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, H. A.; Clyde, W. C.; Gingerich, P. D.; Hilgen, F. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Bowen, G. J.; Lourens, L. J.

    2012-04-01

    Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermal events are short-lived periods of rapid greenhouse warming related to massive increases in the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2; also known as the Elmo event or H1) is the second largest of these events after the PETM and is followed after ~100 kyr by the smaller H2 event. ETM2 has only been documented in a few high-resolution marine successions and suggested in one low-resolution terrestrial record. Thus the impact of ETM2 on continental climates and biotas remains largely unknown. Recently, we located two successive negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) of ~3.8 and ~2.8 per mille in paleosol carbonate in the floodplain sedimentary record of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming (USA). The C24r/C24n magnetochron boundary is pinpointed above the base of the larger CIE in our paleomagnetic results (Fig. 1). This stratigraphic position and the pattern and magnitude of the events indicate that the CIEs are the ETM2/H1 and H2 events, respectively. Mammal finds in the McCullough Peaks area where we documented the CIEs indicate that the Wa4-Wa5 biozone boundary occurs well below ETM2. If rapid faunal turnover at the Wa4-Wa5 boundary (known as 'biohorizon B') involved extinction of Ectocion and Haplomylus and the first appearance of Bunophorus, as commonly assumed, then faunal turnover at biohorizon B cannot be explained by greenhouse warming at the ETM2 hyperthermal event. Our new terrestrial carbon isotope record of ETM2/H1 and H2 reveals, when placed in an astronomically-calibrated timeframe, a very similar pattern to records recovered from marine successions. The magnitudes of the ongoing CIEs are similar to those found in western India that has been tentatively linked to ETM2. Also, the CIEs of PETM, ETM2, and H2 in paleosol carbonate records from the Bighorn Basin seem to scale linearly with CIEs in marine carbonate records from the same events.

  7. Emissions from Produced Water Treatment Ponds, Uintah Basin, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S. N.; Tran, H.; O'Neil, T.; Anderson, R.

    2015-12-01

    An aqueous phase, known as "produced water," usually accompanies the hydrocarbon fluid phases that are extracted from Earth's crust during oil and natural gas extraction. Produced water contains dissolved and suspended organics and other contaminants and hence cannot be discharged directly into the hydrosphere. One common disposal method is to discharge produced water into open-pit evaporation ponds. Spent hydraulic fracturing fluids are also often discharged into the same ponds. It is obvious to anyone with a healthy olfactory system that such ponds emit volatile organics to the atmosphere, but very little work has been done to characterize such emissions. Because oil, gas, and water phases are often in contact in geologic formations, we can expect that more highly soluble compounds (e.g., salts, alcohols, carbonyls, carboxyls, BTEX, etc.) partition preferentially into produced water. However, as the water in the ponds age, many physical, chemical, and biological processes alter the composition of the water, and therefore the composition and strength of volatile organic emissions. For example, some ponds are aerated to hasten evaporation, which also promotes oxidation of organics dissolved in the water. Some ponds are treated with microbes to promote bio-oxidation. In other words, emissions from ponds are expected to be a complex function of the composition of the water as it first enters the pond, and also of the age of the water and of its treatment history. We have conducted many measurements of emissions from produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah, both by flux chamber and by evacuated canister sampling with inverse modeling. These measurements include fluxes of CO2, CH4, methanol, and many other volatile organic gases. We have also measured chemical compositions and microbial content of water in the ponds. Results of these measurements will be reported.

  8. Source and fate of inorganic solutes in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. II. Trace element chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Susong, David D.; Ball, James W.; Taylor, Howard E.

    2010-01-01

    The Gibbon River in Yellowstone National Park receives inflows from several geothermal areas, and consequently the concentrations of many trace elements are elevated compared to rivers in non-geothermal watersheds. Water samples and discharge measurements were obtained from the Gibbon River and its major tributaries near Norris Geyser Basin under the low-flow conditions of September 2006 allowing for the identification of solute sources and their downstream fate. Norris Geyser Basin, and in particular Tantalus Creek, is the largest source of many trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Cs, Hg, Li, Sb, Tl, W, and REEs) to the Gibbon River. The Chocolate Pots area is a major source of Fe and Mn, and the lower Gibbon River near Terrace Spring is the major source of Be and Mo. Some of the elevated trace elements are aquatic health concerns (As, Sb, and Hg) and knowing their fate is important. Most solutes in the Gibbon River, including As and Sb, behave conservatively or are minimally attenuated over 29 km of fluvial transport. Some small attenuation of Al, Fe, Hg, and REEs occurs but primarily there is a transformation from the dissolved state to suspended particles, with most of these elements still being transported to the Madison River. Dissolved Hg and REEs loads decrease where the particulate Fe increases, suggesting sorption onto suspended particulate material. Attenuation from the water column is substantial for Mn, with little formation of Mn as suspended particulates.

  9. Conductive thermal modeling of Wyoming geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heasler, H.P.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1981-05-01

    A summary of techniques used by the Wyoming Geothermal Resource Assessment Group in defining low-temperature hydrothermal resource areas is presented. Emphasis is placed on thermal modeling techniques appropriate to Wyoming's geologic setting. Thermal parameters discussed include oil-well bottom hole temperatures, heat flow, thermal conductivity, and measured temperature-depth profiles. Examples of the use of these techniques are from the regional study of the Bighorn Basin and two site specific studies within the Basin.

  10. USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html......http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html...

  11. Ultramafic xenoliths from the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana, USA: Evidence for multiple metasomatic events in the lithospheric mantle beneath the Wyoming craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, H.; Macdonald, R.; Upton, B.G.J.; Cox, K.G.; Bodinier, J.-L.; Mason, P.R.D.; James, D.; Hill, P.G.; Hearn, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    Ultramafic xenoliths in Eocene minettes of the Bearpaw Mountains volcanic field (Montana, USA), derived from the lower lithosphere of the Wyoming craton, can be divided based on textural criteria into tectonite and cumulate groups. The tectonites consist of strongly depleted spinel lherzolites, harzbugites and dunites. Although their mineralogical compositions are generally similar to those of spinel peridotites in off-craton settings, some contain pyroxenes and spinels that have unusually low Al2O3 contents more akin to those found in cratonic spinel peridotites. Furthermore, the tectonite peridotites have whole-rock major element compositions that tend to be significantly more depleted than non-cratonic mantle spinel peridotites (high MgO, low CaO, Al2O3 and TiO2) and resemble those of cratonic mantle. These compositions could have been generated by up to 30% partial melting of an undepleted mantle source. Petrographic evidence suggests that the mantle beneath the Wyoming craton was re-enriched in three ways: (1) by silicate melts that formed mica websterite and clinopyroxenite veins; (2) by growth of phlogopite from K-rich hydrous fluids; (3) by interaction with aqueous fluids to form orthopyroxene porphyroblasts and orthopyroxenite veins. In contrast to their depleted major element compositions, the tectonite peridotites are mostly light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched and show enrichment in fluid-mobile elements such as Cs, Rb, U and Pb on mantle-normalized diagrams. Lack of enrichment in high field strength elements (HFSE; e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf) suggests that the tectonite peridotites have been metasomatized by a subduction-related fluid. Clinopyroxenes from the tectonite peridotites have distinct U-shaped REE patterns with strong LREE enrichment. They have 143Nd/144Nd values that range from 0??5121 (close to the host minette values) to 0??5107, similar to those of xenoliths from the nearby Highwood Mountains. Foliated mica websterites also have low 143Nd

  12. Plan for study of water and its relation to economic development in the Green River and Great Divide basins in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowham, H.W.; De Long, L.L.; Peter, K.D.; Wangsness, D.J.; Head, W.J.

    1976-05-01

    Development of extensive coal, oil, gas, trona, and oil-shale resources as well as other developments in the Green River and Great Divide basins will require a projected increase in water consumption of 490,000 acre-ft (600 cu hm) per year by 2020. Developments of energy resources in other parts of Wyoming also will require large amounts of water; transbasin diversion of Green River water to other areas could total an additional 270,000-acre-ft (330 cu hm) per year. In anticipation of this increased demand, water planners and managers need much more information about available ground and surface waters, present quality of the waters, and hydrologic effects that would be caused by development of energy resources. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an extensive hydrologic study of the basins. This report summarizes the study plan and discusses particular methods of approach that would be utilized in the study. The principal objectives of the study are given. (73 refs.)

  13. Density of river otters (Lontra canadensis) in relation to energy development in the Green River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, B.L.; Albeke, S.E.; Bergman, H.L.; Walters, Annika W.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas have increased in recent years and are expected to expand in the future. Reduction in water quality from energy extraction may negatively affect water supply for agriculture and urban use within catchments as well as down river. We used non-invasive genetic techniques and capture–recapture modeling to estimate the abundance and density of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis), a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems, in Southwestern Wyoming. While densities in two of three river reaches were similar to those reported in other freshwater systems in the western US (1.45–2.39 km per otter), otters appeared to avoid areas near energy development. We found no strong difference in habitat variables, such as overstory cover, at the site or reach level. Also, fish abundance was similar among the three river reaches. Otter activity in our study area could have been affected by elevated levels of disturbance surrounding the industrial gas fields, and by potential surface water contamination as indicated by patterns in water conductivity. Continued monitoring of surface water quality in Southwestern Wyoming with the aid of continuously recording devices and sentinel species is warranted.

  14. Net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and evapotranspiration response of a high elevation Rocky Mountain (Wyoming, USA) forest to a bark beetle epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Ewers, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    Bark beetle epidemics have caused major disturbance in the forests of western North America where significant tree mortality alters the balance of ecosystem photosynthesis, carbon balance, and water exchange. In this study we investigate the change in the growing-season light-response of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET) in a high elevation Rocky Mountain forest over the three years preceding and three years following a bark beetle outbreak. The GLEES AmeriFlux site (southeastern Wyoming, USA) is located in a high elevation subalpine forest dominated by Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) and recently experienced an epidemic of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis). The peak beetle outbreak occurred in 2008, and has impacted 35% of the stems and 90% of the basal area of Engelmann spruce, which accounts for 30% of the trees and 70% of the basal area of the forest. Two semi-empirical light response curves for eddy-covariance carbon flux were compared, with a logistic sigmoid performing better because of residual bias than a rectangular hyperbola (Michaelis-Menten) at estimating the quantum yield of photosynthesis. In the first two years after the peak beetle outbreak the original quantum yield of 0.015 mol mol-1 was reduced by 25%. By the third year it was reduced by a half, which was composed of declines of 45% in the ecosystem's responses to diffuse radiation and 60% to direct radiation. The light-saturated rate of photosynthesis decreased by 10% in the first two years post outbreak, and fell by 40% in the third year. After the peak outbreak, the cumulative NEE over the growing season was reduced by over a half from a sink of 185 gC m-2 to 80 gC m-2, and by the third year it was reduced to near zero, or carbon neutral. The change in the ET response to light was similar in all years after the peak outbreak where the slope of the response curve was decreased by 25%. This led to a

  15. Holocene mammalian change in the central Columbia Basin of eastern Washington state, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2016-08-01

    Predictions of changes in the Holocene mammalian fauna of the central Columbia Basin in eastern Washington (USA) based on environmental changes are largely met. Taxonomic richness is greatest during periods of cool-moist climate. Rates of input of faunal remains to the paleozoological record may suggest greater mammalian biomass during periods of greater moisture but are difficult to interpret without data on sampling intensity in the form of volume of sediment excavated. Abundances of leporids and grazing ungulates fluctuate in concert with abundance of grass. Several biogeographic records are tantalizing but require additional study and data before being accepted as valid. Records of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) indicate this species was present in the central basin during the Holocene contrary to historic records and recent suggestions modern foxes there are escapees from fur farms. Bison (Bison bison) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) underwent diminution of body size during the Holocene. Modern efforts to conserve the Columbia Basin ecosystem are advised to consider the Holocene record as indicative of what may happen to that ecosystem in the future.

  16. Surface-water sampling stations, National Water-Quality Assessment, Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  17. Mine and lease boundaries in the Green River Basin, Wyoming, 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment (grbleasg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of mine & lease boundaries in the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coalfield in the Greater Green River Basin,...

  18. Wyodak-Anderson mine and lease areas in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana (prbleasg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a representation of the mine and lease boundaries in the Powder River Basin. This theme was created specifically for the National...

  19. Net coal thickness isopachs, Ferris 23, 25, 31, 50 and 65 coal zones, Hanna Basin Wyoming (fer*catg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These ArcView shapefiles contain representations of the net coal thickness in the Ferris 23, 25, 31, 50 and 65 coal zones in the Ferris coalfield, Hanna Basin,...

  20. Overburden above the Hanna 77, 78, 79 and 81 coal zones, Hanna Basin, Wyoming (ha*ovbg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These ArcView shapefiles contain representations of the overburden thckness above the Hanna 77, 78, 79 and 81 coal zones in the Hanna coalfield, Hanna Basin,...

  1. Water Quality of the Snake River and Five Eastern Tributaries in the Upper Snake River Basin, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 1998-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Sadler, Wilfrid J.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    tributary basins. Concentrations of dissolved ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate in all samples collected from the Snake River and the five eastern tributaries were less than water-quality criteria for surface waters in Wyoming. Concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in samples from the Snake River and the tributaries generally were less than median concentrations determined for undeveloped streams in the United States; however, concentrations in some samples did exceed ambient total-nitrogen and total-phosphorus criteria for forested mountain streams in the Middle Rockies ecoregion recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to address cultural eutrophication. Sources for the excess nitrogen and phosphorus probably are natural because these basins have little development and cultivation. Concentrations of trace metals and pesticides were low and less than water-quality criteria for surface waters in Wyoming in samples collected from the Snake River and the five eastern tributaries. Atrazine, dieldrin, EPTC, or tebuthiuron were detected in estimated concentrations of 0.003 microgram per liter or less in 5 of 27 samples collected from the Snake River. An estimated concentration of 0.008 microgram per liter of metolachlor was detected in one sample from the Buffalo Fork. The estimated concentrations were less than the reporting levels for the pesticide analytical method. Suspended-sediment concentrations in 43 samples from the upstream site on the Snake River ranged from 1 to 604 milligrams per liter and were similar to suspended-sediment concentrations in 33 samples from the downstream site, which ranged from 1 to 648 milligrams per liter. Suspended-sediment concentrations in 38 samples collected from the tributary streams ranged from 1 t

  2. HYDROLOGY, CAMPBELL COUNTY, WYOMING, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. Hydraulic fracturing and wellbore completion of coalbed methane wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Implications for water and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenares, L.B.; Zoback, M.D. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics

    2007-01-15

    Excessive water production (more than 7000 bbl/month per well) from many coalbed methane (CBM) wells in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming is also associated with significant delays in the time it takes for gas production to begin. Analysis of about 550 water-enhancement activities carried out during well completion demonstrates that such activities result in hydraulic fracturing of the coal. Water-enhancement activities, consists of pumping 60 bbl of water/min into the coal seam during approximately 15 min. This is done to clean the well-bore and to enhance CBM production. Hydraulic fracturing is of concern because vertical hydraulic fracture growth could extend into adjacent formations and potentially result in excess CBM water production and inefficient depressurization of coals. Analysis of the pressure-time records of the water-enhancement tests enabled us to determine the magnitude of the least principal stress (S{sub 3}) in the coal seams of 372 wells. These data reveal that because S{sub 3} switches between the minimum horizontal stress and the overburden at different locations, both vertical and horizontal hydraulic fracture growth is inferred to occur in the basin, depending on the exact location and coal layer. Relatively low water production is observed for wells with inferred horizontal fractures, whereas all of the wells associated with excessive water production are characterized by inferred vertical hydraulic fractures. The reason wells with exceptionally high water production show delays in gas production appears to be inefficient depressurization of the coal caused by water production from the formations outside the coal. To minimize CBM water production, we recommend that in areas of known vertical fracture propagation, the injection rate during the water-enhancement tests should be reduced to prevent the propagation of induced fractures into adjacent water-bearing formations.

  4. Precession-scale cyclicity in the lower Eocene fluvial Willwood Formation of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming (USA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abels, H.A.; Kraus, M.J.; Gingerich, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about controls on river avulsion at geological time scales longer than 104 years, primarily because it is difficult to link observed changes in alluvial architecture to well-defined allogenic mechanisms and to disentangle allogenic from autogenic processes. Recognition of Milankovitc

  5. The Postcranial Skeleton of an Exceptionally Complete Individual of the Plated Dinosaur Stegosaurus stenops (Dinosauria: Thyreophora) from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Susannah Catherine Rose Maidment; Charlotte Brassey; Paul Michael Barrett

    2015-01-01

    Although Stegosaurus is one of the most iconic dinosaurs, well-preserved fossils are rare and as a consequence there is still much that remains unknown about the taxon. A new, exceptionally complete individual affords the opportunity to describe the anatomy of Stegosaurus in detail for the first time in over a century, and enables additional comparisons with other stegosaurian dinosaurs. The new specimen is from the Red Canyon Ranch Quarry, near Shell Wyoming, and appears to have been so well...

  6. The association of land cover with aeolian sediment production at Jornada Basin, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kevin W.; Gill, Thomas E.

    2011-06-01

    We investigated amounts and particle size distributions (PSDs) of aeolian sediments collected at five heights in five ecosystem types at the Jornada Basin, Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA. Particle size distributions, mass fluxes, and percent of dust-sized (⩽50 μm) mass flux were determined for all heights and all ecosystem types. Differences between sites were determined using ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer post hoc tests to find groupings. For creosote shrublands, grasslands, and two tarbush-dominated alluvial flats, samples collected at 5, 10, and 20 cm had >80% sand-sized (>50 μm) particles, while one playa and tarbush site yielded ˜45% dust-sized particles at 5 and 10 cm. The transition from saltation to suspension was ˜20 cm for most sites. Two mesquite dune sites and an anthropogenically devegetated site, all with high overall mass fluxes, shifted to suspension at ˜50 cm. Highest dust fluxes occurred at the devegetated site, followed by the playa, a mesquite site with unvegetated "streets," and tarbush sites. These field observations are consistent with laboratory-based dust emission experiments and remote sensing studies in the Chihuahuan Desert. Playas and tarbush sites are major dust producers due to high proportions of fines, whereas the mesquite site produces much dust because of greater overall mass flux. Mesquite dunes covering most of the basin likely produce the most dust overall, though playas and tarbush-dominated alluvial flats (which cover about 8%) can emit large amounts of dust. Continuing shrubland encroachment will likely increase dust emissions from the Jornada Basin, as well as in other arid regions.

  7. Evidence for rapid climate change in North America during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic phosphate from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Henry C.; Clyde, William C.; O'Neil, James R.; Gingerich, Philip D.

    1998-07-01

    Oxygen isotope records of Cenozoic sea water temperatures indicate that a rapid warming event known as the Latest Paleocene Thermal Maximum (LPTM) occurred during the otherwise gradual increase in world temperatures during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene. Oxygen isotope analysis of the carbonate and phosphate components of hydroxyapatite found in mammalian tooth enamel and body scales of river-dwelling fish from the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming were made to investigate corresponding changes in the terrestrial climate. A comparison of carbonate and phosphate isotope data from modern and fossil material indicates that some diagenetic alteration of the fossil material has occurred, although systematically larger intra-tooth ranges in the oxygen isotope composition of carbonate indicate that it is more likely to have been affected than phosphate. Carbonate and phosphate from the ecologically diverse mammals and fishes both record a shift to higher oxygen isotope ratios at the same time and of the same duration as the LPTM. These shifts reflect a change in the isotopic composition of regional precipitation, which in turn provides the first evidence for continental climate change during the LPTM. Assuming the present-day relation between the oxygen isotope composition of precipitation and temperature applies to conditions in the past, and that animal physiology and behavior is relatively invariant over time, the isotopic shift is equivalent to an increase of surface temperature in western North America of several degrees. This result is consistent with the magnitude of high-latitude ocean warming, and provides a basis for relating marine and terrestrial oxygen isotope records to records of terrestrial biotic change.

  8. Geochemistry of inorganic nitrogen in waters released from coal-bed natural gas production wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L; Repert, Deborah A; Hart, Charles P

    2009-04-01

    Water originating from coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) production wells typically contains ammonium and is often disposed via discharge to ephemeral channels. A study conducted in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, documented downstream changes in CBNG water composition, emphasizing nitrogen-cycling processes and the fate of ammonium. Dissolved ammonium concentrations from 19 CBNG discharge points ranged from 95 to 527 microM. Within specific channels, ammonium concentrations decreased with transport distance, with subsequent increases in nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Removal efficiency, or uptake, oftotal dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) varied between channel types. DIN uptake was greater in the gentle-sloped, vegetated channel as compared to the incised, steep, and sparsely vegetated channel and was highly correlated with diel patterns of incident light and dissolved oxygen concentration. In a larger main channel with multiple discharge inputs (n=13), DIN concentrations were >300 microM, with pH > 8.5, after 5 km of transport. Ammonium represented 25-30% of the large-channel DIN, and ammonium concentrations remained relatively constant with time, with only a weak diel pattern evident. In July 2003, the average daily large-channel DIN load was 23 kg N day(-1) entering the Powder River, an amount which substantially increased the total Powder River DIN load after the channel confluence. These results suggest that CBNG discharge may be an important source of DIN to western watersheds, at least at certain times of the year, and that net oxidation and/or removal is dependent upon the extent of contact with sediment and biomass, type of drainage channel, and time of day.

  9. Tectonic and Structural Controls of Geothermal Activity in the Great Basin Region, Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulds, J. E.; Hinz, N.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    We are conducting a thorough inventory of structural settings of geothermal systems (>400 total) in the extensional to transtensional Great Basin region of the western USA. Most of the geothermal systems in this region are not related to upper crustal magmatism and thus regional tectonic and local structural controls are the most critical factors controlling the locations of the geothermal activity. A system of NW-striking dextral faults known as the Walker Lane accommodates ~20% of the North American-Pacific plate motion in the western Great Basin and is intimately linked to N- to NNE-striking normal fault systems throughout the region. Overall, geothermal systems are concentrated in areas with the highest strain rates within or proximal to the eastern and western margins of the Great Basin, with the high temperature systems clustering in transtensional areas of highest strain rate in the northwestern Great Basin. Enhanced extension in the northwestern Great Basin probably results from the northwestward termination of the Walker Lane and the concomitant transfer of dextral shear into west-northwest directed extension, thus producing a broad transtensional region. The capacity of geothermal power plants also correlates with strain rates, with the largest (hundreds of megawatts) along the Walker Lane or San Andreas fault system, where strain rates range from 10-100 nanostrain/yr to 1,000 nanostrain/yr, respectively. Lesser systems (tens of megawatts) reside in the Basin and Range (outside the Walker Lane), where local strain rates are typically geothermal fields catalogued, step-overs or relay ramps in normal fault zones serve as the most favorable setting, hosting ~32% of the systems. Such areas have multiple, overlapping fault strands, increased fracture density, and thus enhanced permeability. Other common settings include a) intersections between normal faults and strike-slip or oblique-slip faults (27%), where multiple minor faults connect major structures and

  10. Heavy metal distribution and water quality characterization of water bodies in Louisiana's Lake Pontchartrain Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengqiang; Wang, Jim J; Ali, Amjad; DeLaune, Ronald D

    2016-11-01

    The seasonal variation in physico-chemical properties, anions, and the heavy metal (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentration was evaluated in water from nine different rivers in Lake Pontchartrain Basin, Louisiana, USA. The water quality parameters were compared with toxicity reference values (TRV), US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking/aquatic life protection, and WHO standards. Among physico-chemical properties, pH, DO, and turbidity were high during spring, while, EC, temperature, and DOC were high during summer and vice versa. The anion study revealed that the concentrations of F(-), Cl(-), and NO3(-) were higher during summer and Br(-) and SO4(-) were higher during spring. Our research findings showed anion concentration decreased in the order of Cl(-) > SO4(-) > NO3(-) > Br(-) > F(-), in accordance with the global mean anion concentration. The dissolved heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb) except Zn were higher during spring than summer. None of the rivers showed any Cd pollution for both seasons. Co showed higher concentrations in Amite River, Mississippi River, Industrial Canal, and Lacombe Bayou during summer. The Cr concentration was higher than WHO drinking water standards, implicating water unsuitability for drinking purposes in all the rivers associated with the Lake Pontchartrain Basin. Cu showed no pollution risk for the study area. Mn and Co were similar to concentration in Lacombe Bayou, Liberty Bayou, Blind River, and Industrial Canal. Mn levels were greater than WHO standards for the Tickfaw River, Tangipahoa River, and Blind River in both seasons. Blind River, Tangipahoa River, Tickfaw River, and Amite River will require more monitoring for determining possible Mn pollution. Ni content in river water during both seasons showed low pollution risk. Liberty Bayou and Industrial Canal concentrations were closer to the WHO regulatory standards, indicating possible risk of Pb pollution in these water bodies. The Zn

  11. Plant-derived terpenoids as paleovegetation proxies: evaluation of the proxy with Paleocene and Eocene megafloras and plant biomarkers in the Bighorn Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorf, A. F.; Freeman, K. H.; Wing, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Plant terpenoids (defense compounds synthesized from the 5-carbon building block isoprene) have a long history of use as geochemical plant biomarkers, and potentially can be used to reconstruct changes in the abundances of major land plant groups in rocks and sediments that do not preserve plant megafossils or pollen. Pentacyclic triterpenoids are synthesized almost exclusively by angiosperms whereas conifers produce the tricyclic diterpenoids. Many previous studies have focused on the use of di- to triterpenoid ratios to reconstruct floral changes in the geologic past, however few studies have compared terpenoid-based paleoflora proxies to pollen or megafossils. Prior reconstructions also did not take into account differences in biomarker production between plant functional types, such as deciduous and evergreen plants, which can be quite large. To investigate the use of terpenoids as paleoflora proxies, we examined sediments from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA) where ancient megafloras have been studied in detail. We analyzed di- and triterpenoid abundances as well as plant leaf waxes (n-alkanes) and other biomarkers in a total of 75 samples from 15 stratigraphic horizons from the late Paleocene (62 Ma) to early Eocene (52.5 Ma). By comparing terpenoid ratios with abundances estimated from plant megafossils, we can evaluate the utility of terpenoids as paleovegetation proxies. In nearly all samples, angiosperm triterpenoids are significantly lower in abundance than conifer diterpenoids. This contrasts with leaf fossil data that indicate paleofloras were dominated by angiosperms in both abundance and diversity. Traditional use of terpenoid paleovegetation proxies would therefore significantly overestimate the abundance of conifers, even when accounting for plant production differences. To determine if this overestimate is related to the loss of angiosperm triterpenoids (rather than enhanced production of diterpenoids in the geologic past), we compared angiosperm

  12. Mapping and monitoring cheatgrass dieoff in rangelands of the Northern Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyte, Stephen P.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Major, Donald J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) dynamics in the Northern Great Basin rangelands, USA, is necessary to effectively manage the region’s lands. This study’s goal was to map and monitor cheatgrass performance to identify where and when cheatgrass dieoff occurred in the Northern Great Basin and to discover how this phenomenon was affected by climatic, topographic, and edaphic variables. We also examined how fire affected cheatgrass performance. Land managers and scientists are concerned by cheatgrass dieoff because it can increase land degradation, and its causes and effects are not fully known. To better understand the scope of cheatgrass dieoff, we developed multiple ecological models that integrated remote sensing data with geophysical and biophysical data. The models’ R2 ranged from 0.71 to 0.88, and their root mean squared errors (RMSEs) ranged from 3.07 to 6.95. Validation of dieoff data showed that 41% of pixels within independently developed dieoff polygons were accurately classified as dieoff, whereas 2% of pixels outside of dieoff polygons were classified as dieoff. Site potential, a long-term spatial average of cheatgrass cover, dominated the development of the cheatgrass performance model. Fire negatively affected cheatgrass performance 1 year postfire, but by the second year postfire performance exceeded prefire levels. The landscape-scale monitoring study presented in this paper helps increase knowledge about recent rangeland dynamics, including where cheatgrass dieoffs occurred and how cheatgrass responded to fire. This knowledge can help direct further investigation and/or guide land management activities that can capitalize on, or mitigate the effects of, cheatgrass dieoff.

  13. Geomorphology and fish assemblages in a Piedmont river basin, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, D.M.; Leigh, D.S.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.; Pringle, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    1. We investigated linkages between fishes and fluvial geomorphology in 31 wadeable streams in the Etowah River basin in northern Georgia, U.S.A. Streams were stratified into three catchment sizes of approximately 15, 50 and 100 km2, and fishes and geomorphology were sampled at the reach scale (i.e. 20?40 times stream width). 2. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) identified 85% of the among-site variation in fish assemblage structure and identified strong patterns in species composition across sites. Assemblages shifted from domination by centrarchids, and other pool species that spawn in fine sediments and have generalised food preferences, to darter-cyprinid-redhorse sucker complexes that inhabit riffles and runs, feed primarily on invertebrates, and spawn on coarser stream beds. 3. Richness and density were correlated with basin area, a measure of stream size, but species composition was best predicted (i.e. |r| between 0.60?0.82) by reach-level geomorphic variables (stream slope, bed texture, bed mobility and tractive force) that were unrelated to stream size. Stream slope was the dominant factor controlling stream habitat. Low slope streams had smaller bed particles, more fines in riffles, lower tractive force and greater bed mobility compared with high slope streams. 4. Our results contrast with the `River Continuum Concept? which argues that stream assemblages vary predictably along stream size gradients. Our findings support the `Process Domains Concept?, which argues that local-scale geomorphic processes determine the stream habitat and disturbance regimes that influence stream communities.

  14. Seismic, magnetic, and geotechnical properties of a landslide and clinker deposits, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    Exploitation of vast coal and other resources in the Powder River Basin has caused recent, rapid increases in population and in commercial and residential development and has prompted land utilization studies. Two aspects of land utilization were studied for this report: (1) the seismic and geotechnical properties of a landslide and (2) the seismic, magnetic, and geotechnical properties of clinker deposits. (1) The landslide seismic survey revealed two layers in the slide area. The upper (low-velocity) layer is a relatively weak mantle of colluvium and unconsolidated and weathered bedrock that ranges in thickness from 3.0 to 7.5 m and has an average seismic velocity of about 390 m/s. It overlies high-velocity, relatively strong sedimentary bedrock that has velocities greater than about 1330 m/s. The low-velocity layer is also present at the other eight seismic refraction sites in the basin; a similar layer has also been reported in the Soviet Union in a landslide area over similar bedrock. The buried contact of the low- and high-velocity layers is relatively smooth and is nearly parallel with the restored topographic surface. There is no indication that any of the high-velocity layer (bedrock) has been displaced or removed. The seismic data also show that the shear modulus of the low-velocity layer is only about one-tenth that of the high-velocity layer and the shear strength (at failure) is only about one-thirtieth. Much of the slide failure is clearly in the shear mode, and failure is, therefore, concluded to be confined to the low-velocity layer. The major immediate factor contributing to landslide failure is apparently the addition of moisture to the low-velocity layer. The study implies that the low-velocity layer can be defined over some of the basin by seismic surveys and that they can help predict or delineate potential slides. Preventative actions that could then be taken include avoidance, dewatering, prevention of saturation, buttressing the toe, and

  15. A Climatic Sequence Stratigraphic Model in the Terrestrial Lacustrine Basin:A Case Study of Green River Formation,Uinta Basin,USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Junling; ZHENG Herong; XIAO Huanqin; ZHONG Guohong; Ronald STEEL; YIN Peigui

    2009-01-01

    In recent years,with the development of terrestrial sequence stratigraphy,more attention has been focused on the study of the terrestrial lacustrine sequence stratigraphic model globally. Different viewpoints are preferred by researchers.Under the guidance of the theory of sequence stratigraphy,the findings of this paper indicate that climate is a major factor controlling the formation of the fourth-order sequence,based upon the study of the sequence stratigraphy in the Green River Formation of the Uinta basin in the USA.It also divides the fourth-order sequence in the terrestrial lacustrine basin into two system tracts:the wet(rising)half-cycle and the dry(falling)half-cycle,establishing a new-style fourth-order sequence stratigraphic model for the terrestrial lacustrine basin,that is,the climate-genetic sequence stratigraphic model.As a result, the theory of sequence stratigraphy is greatly enriched.

  16. The Influence of Woodland Encroachment on Runoff and Erosion in Sagebrush Steppe Systems, Great Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, F. B.; Kormos, P. R.; Williams, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    Pinyon and juniper woodlands have expanded 10 to 30% in the past 30 years and now occupy nearly 20 million hectares of sagebrush shrub steppe in the Great Basin Region and Colorado Plateau, USA. The conversion of sagebrush steppe to pinyon and juniper woodlands has been linked to changes in plant community structure and composition and respective increases in overland flow and erosion from these landscapes. The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP, www.sagestep.org) was implemented in 2005 as a 5 year interdisciplinary research study to evaluate restoration methodologies for sagebrush rangelands degraded by woodland and grassland encroachment over a six state area within the Great Basin. The hydrology component of SageSTEP focuses on the relationships between changes in vegetation and groundcover and runoff/erosion processes. In 2006, 140 small scale (0.5 m2) rainfall simulations were conducted at 2 locations within the Great Basin to determine whether critical thresholds exist in vegetation and ground cover that significantly influence infiltration, runoff, and erosion in pinyon and juniper woodlands. Simulation plots were distributed on interspaces (areas between shrub/tree canopies) and juniper, pinyon, and shrub coppices (areas underneath canopy). Water drop penetration times and litter depths were also collected for each plot to explore controls on soil hydrophobicity. Preliminary results suggest a positive correlation between litter depth and hydrophobicity, as soils under thick pinyon and juniper coppices are strongly water repellant and soils in interspaces and under shrub coppices are easily wettable. Interspace plots with varying amounts of grasses and forbs have the highest erosion and runoff rates due to higher percentages of bare ground and relatively low soil stability. Pinyon coppices have the least runoff and erosion due to very high litter depths and low bare ground cover, even though surface soils are hydrophobic. Juniper and

  17. Orbital forced rhythmites in the upper Lamar Limestone (Guadalupian) of the Delaware Basin, West Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Xuan, C.; Noble, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Gray scale data, radiolarian relative abundance, and three types of geochemical data (oxygen isotope of bulk carbonates, organic carbon isotope, and total organic carbon) collected from an ~8 m section of the upper Lamar Limestone (Guadalupian) in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, USA, show apparent rhythms that mimic orbital variations. Spectral analyses on the radiolarian relative abundance and geochemical data, using Blackman-Tukey, multi-taper, maximum entropy, and REDFIT (Schulz, M., Mudelsee, M., 2002, REDFIT: estimating red-noise spectra directly from unevenly spaced paleoclimatic time series. Comput. Geosci. 28, 421-426) methods, reveal a common period with cycle length of ~1.16 m. Another spectral peak, which corresponds to period with cycle length of ~5.50 m, appears to be common in power spectra of the geochemical proxies. Power spectra of the high-resolution gray scale data are dominated by periods that have cycle length around 1.2-1.6 m, 0.67 m, 0.24-0.31 m, 0.14-0.18 m, and 0.07-0.09 m. Wavelet analyses confirm the existence of these cycles, and suggest that the power of the dominant periods in these parameters varies through the section, presumably due to accumulation rate variations. Average spectral misfit calculation (Meyers, S.R., Sageman, B.B., 2007, Quantification of deep-time orbital forcing by average spectral misfit. Am. J. Sci. 307, 773-792) using dominant frequencies from the power spectra of the gray scale data implies that average accumulation rates of ~1.5 cm/kyr provide the best fit of the data to orbital frequencies. Statistic tests for rejecting the null hypothesis (no orbital signal), on a wide range of average accumulation rates, also suggest lowest significance levels of the tests for accumulation rates around 1.5 cm/kyr. The ~1.5 cm/kyr accumulation rates are within the accumulation rate range estimated for the Capitanian strata in the basin-margin facies of the Delaware Basin. The Lamar Limestone appears to record the eccentricity

  18. Total Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources in the Powder River Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, L. O.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Powder River Basin in 2006. The assessment of undiscovered oil and gas used the total petroleum system concept, which includes mapping the distribution of potential source rocks and known petroleum accumulations and determining the timing of petroleum generation and migration. Geologically based, it focuses on source and reservoir rock stratigraphy, timing of tectonic events and the configuration of resulting structures, formation of traps and seals, and burial history modeling. The total petroleum system is subdivided into assessment units based on similar geologic characteristics and accumulation and petroleum type. In chapter 1 of this report, five total petroleum systems, eight conventional assessment units, and three continuous assessment units were defined and the undiscovered oil and gas resources within each assessment unit quantitatively estimated. Chapter 2 describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on this CD-ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

  19. Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide degassing and cryptic thermal input to Brimstone Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, D.; Evans, William C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Hurwitz, S.

    2012-01-01

    Brimstone Basin, a remote area of intense hydrothermal alteration a few km east of the Yellowstone Caldera, is rarely studied and has long been considered to be a cold remnant of an ancient hydrothermal system. A field campaign in 2008 confirmed that gas emissions from the few small vents were cold and that soil temperatures in the altered area were at background levels. Geochemical and isotopic evidence from gas samples (3He/4He ~ 3RA, δ13C-CO2 ~ − 3‰) however, indicate continuing magmatic gas input to the system. Accumulation chamber measurements revealed a surprisingly large diffuse flux of CO2 (~ 277 t d-1) and H2S (0.6 t d-1). The flux of CO2 reduces the 18O content of the overlying cold groundwater and related stream waters relative to normal meteoric waters. Simple isotopic modeling reveals that the CO2 likely originates from geothermal water at a temperature of 93 ± 19 °C. These results and the presence of thermogenic hydrocarbons (C1:C2 ~ 100 and δ13C-CH4 = − 46.4 to − 42.8‰) in gases require some heat source at depth and refute the assumption that this is a “fossil” hydrothermal system.

  20. A thick lens of fresh groundwater in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot; Gingerich, Stephen

    2002-11-01

    A thick lens of fresh groundwater exists in a large region of low permeability in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. The conventional conceptual model for groundwater occurrence in Hawaii and other shield-volcano islands does not account for such a thick freshwater lens. In the conventional conceptual model, the lava-flow accumulations of which most shield volcanoes are built form large regions of relatively high permeability and thin freshwater lenses. In the southern Lihue Basin, basin-filling lavas and sediments form a large region of low regional hydraulic conductivity, which, in the moist climate of the basin, is saturated nearly to the land surface and water tables are hundreds of meters above sea level within a few kilometers from the coast. Such high water levels in shield-volcano islands were previously thought to exist only under perched or dike-impounded conditions, but in the southern Lihue Basin, high water levels exist in an apparently dike-free, fully saturated aquifer. A new conceptual model of groundwater occurrence in shield-volcano islands is needed to explain conditions in the southern Lihue Basin. Résumé. Dans le sud du bassin de Lihue (Kauai, Hawaii, USA), il existe une épaisse lentille d'eau souterraine douce dans une vaste région à faible perméabilité. Le modèle conceptuel conventionnel pour la présence d'eau souterraine à Hawaii et dans les autres îles de volcans en bouclier ne rend pas compte d'une lentille d'eau douce si épaisse. Dans ce modèle conceptuel, les accumulations de lave dont sont formés la plupart des volcans en bouclier couvrent de vastes régions à relativement forte perméabilité, avec des lentilles d'eau douce peu épaisses. Dans le sud du bassin de Lihue, les laves remplissant le bassin et les sédiments constituent une région étendue à faible conductivité hydraulique régionale, qui, sous le climat humide du bassin, est saturée presque jusqu'à sa surface; les surfaces pi

  1. Identification of hydrochemical facies in the Roswell Artesian Basin, New Mexico (USA), using graphical and statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Brent D.; Havenor, Kay C.; Longmire, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of groundwater chemistry can yield important insights about subsurface conditions, and provide an alternative and complementary method for characterizing basin hydrogeology, especially in areas where hydraulic data are limited. More specifically, hydrochemical facies have been used for decades to help understand basin flow and transport, and a set of facies were developed for the Roswell Artesian Basin (RAB) in a semi-arid part of New Mexico, USA. The RAB is an important agricultural water source, and is an excellent example of a rechargeable artesian system. However, substantial uncertainties about the RAB hydrogeology and groundwater chemistry exist. The RAB was a great opportunity to explore hydrochemcial facies definition. A set of facies, derived from fingerprint diagrams (graphical approach), existed as a basis for testing and for comparison to principal components, factor analysis, and cluster analyses (statistical approaches). Geochemical data from over 300 RAB wells in the central basin were examined. The statistical testing of fingerprint-diagram-based facies was useful in terms of quantitatively evaluating differences between facies, and for understanding potential controls on basin groundwater chemistry. This study suggests the presence of three hydrochemical facies in the shallower part of the RAB (mostly unconfined conditions) and three in the deeper artesian system of the RAB. These facies reflect significant spatial differences in chemistry in the basin that are associated with specific stratigraphic intervals as well as structural features. Substantial chemical variability across faults and within fault blocks was also observed.

  2. Landscape changes in the Mullica River basin of the Pinelands National Reserve, New Jersey, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, John F; Zampella, Robert A; Lathrop, Richard G; Bognar, John A

    2003-06-01

    In 1979, the Pinelands Commission was established as a regional land-use planning and regulatory agency charged with the implementation of a Comprehensive Management Plan (CMP) for the Pinelands National Reserve (New Jersey, USA). The CMP was created to balance land preservation and development interests in the Reserve. Because water-quality degradation from developed and agricultural landscapes is associated with changes in the composition of biological communities, monitoring landscape changes provides one of the most direct measures of the impact of land-use policies on the Pinelands ecosystem. In this study, we prepared detailed, land-cover maps within randomly selected aerial-photograph plots for a major watershed in the Reserve. We used these land-cover maps to quantify changes in landscape composition and structure (i.e., patch size, patch area, and number of patches) and characterize land-cover transitions in the basin between 1979 and 1991. Because the study period represented the first 12 years of the regional-planning effort in the Reserve, we evaluated the relationship between land-cover transitions and Commission management-area designations which permit different land-use intensities. Although the landscape composition was similar in 1979 and 1991, we found an increase in the total area and number of developed-land, managed-grassland, and barren-land patches. An increase in the number of patches and a decrease in the total area and median and third-quartile patch sizes for forest land and for all patches regardless of cover type indicated that fragmentation of forest land and the landscape as a whole occurred during the study period. The major land-cover transitions that occurred during the period were the loss of forest land to development and associated cover types and the conversion of one agricultural type to another. Overall, land-cover transitions during the period were found to be consistent with the Commission management-area designations

  3. Noble gas tracing of groundwater/coalbed methane interaction in the San Juan Basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.; Ballentine, C.J.; Kipfer, R.; Schoell, M.; Thibodeaux, S. [ETH, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Isotope Geology & Mineral Resources

    2005-12-01

    The San Juan Basin natural gas field, located in northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado in the USA, is a case-type coalbed methane system. Groundwater is thought to play a key role in both biogenic methane generation and the CO{sub 2} sequestration potential of coalbed systems. We show here how noble gases can be used to construct a physical model that describes the interaction between the groundwater system and the produced gas. The results conclusively show that the volume of groundwater seen by coal does not play a role in determining the volume of methane produced by secondary biodegradation of these coalbeds. There is no requirement of continuous groundwater flow for renewing the microbes or nutrient components. Strong mass related isotopic fractionation of {sup 20}Ne/{sup 22}NE and {sup 38}Ar/{sup 36} isotopic ratios was also seen. This can be explained by a noble gas concentration gradient in the groundwater during gas production, which causes diffusive partial re-equilibration of the noble gas isotopes. It is important for the study of other systems in which extensive groundwater degassing may have occurred to recognize that severe isotopic fractionation of air-derived noble gases can occur when such concentration gradients are established during gas production. Excess air-derived Xe and Kr in our samples are shown to be related to the diluting coalbed methane and can only be accounted for if Xe and Kr are preferentially and volumetrically trapped within the coal matrix and released during biodegradation to form CH{sub 4}.

  4. In Situ Production of Branched Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers in a Great Basin Hot Spring (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlun eZhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs are predominantly found in soils and peat bogs. In this study, we analyzed core-bGDGTs and polar (P- bGDGTs after hydrolysis of polar fractions using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry and analyzed intact P-bGDGTs using total lipid extract (TLE without hydrolysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-multiple stage mass spectrometry. Our results show multiple lines of evidence for the production of bGDGTs in sediments and cellulolytic enrichments in a hot spring (62-86°C in the Great Basin (USA. First, in situ cellulolytic enrichment led to an increase in the relative abundance of hydrolysis-derived P-bGDGTs over their Core (C-bGDGT counterparts. Second, the hydrolysis-derived P- and C-bGDGT profiles in the hot spring were different from those of the surrounding soil samples; in particular, a monoglycosidic bGDGT Ib containing 13,16-dimethyloctacosane and one cyclopentane moiety was detected in the TLE but it was undetectable in surrounding soil samples even after sample enrichments. Third, previously published 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis from the same lignocellulose samples demonstrated the enrichment of thermophiles, rather than mesophiles, and total bGDGT abundance in cellulolytic enrichments correlated with the relative abundance of 16S rRNA gene pyrotags from thermophilic bacteria in the phyla Bacteroidetes, Dictyoglomi, EM3, and OP9 (Atribacteria. These observations conclusively demonstrate the production of bGDGTs in this hot spring; however, the identity of organisms that produce bGDGTs in the geothermal environment remains unclear.

  5. Persistence at distributional edges: Columbia spotted frog habitat in the arid Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkle, Robert S.; Pilliod, David S.

    2015-01-01

    A common challenge in the conservation of broadly distributed, yet imperiled species is understanding which factors facilitate persistence at distributional edges, locations where populations are often vulnerable to extirpation due to changes in climate, land use, or distributions of other species. For Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Great Basin (USA), a genetically distinct population segment of conservation concern, we approached this problem by examining (1) landscape-scale habitat availability and distribution, (2) water body-scale habitat associations, and (3) resource management-identified threats to persistence. We found that areas with perennial aquatic habitat and suitable climate are extremely limited in the southern portion of the species’ range. Within these suitable areas, native and non-native predators (trout and American bullfrogs [Lithobates catesbeianus]) are widespread and may further limit habitat availability in upper- and lower-elevation areas, respectively. At the water body scale, spotted frog occupancy was associated with deeper sites containing abundant emergent vegetation and nontrout fish species. Streams with American beaver (Castor canadensis) frequently had these structural characteristics and were significantly more likely to be occupied than ponds, lakes, streams without beaver, or streams with inactive beaver ponds, highlighting the importance of active manipulation of stream environments by beaver. Native and non-native trout reduced the likelihood of spotted frog occupancy, especially where emergent vegetation cover was sparse. Intensive livestock grazing, low aquatic connectivity, and ephemeral hydroperiods were also negatively associated with spotted frog occupancy. We conclude that persistence of this species at the arid end of its range has been largely facilitated by habitat stability (i.e., permanent hydroperiod), connectivity, predator-free refugia, and a commensalistic interaction with an ecosystem

  6. Collocated cokriging and neural-network multi-attribute transform in the prediction of effective porosity: A comparative case study for the Second Wall Creek Sand of the Teapot Dome field, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seonghoon; Lee, Gwang H.; Kim, Hyeonju; Choi, Yosoon; Kim, Han-Joon

    2016-08-01

    Collocated cokriging (CCK) and neural-network multi-attribute transform (NN-MAT) are widely used in the prediction of reservoir properties because they can integrate sparsely-distributed, high-resolution well-log data and densely-sampled, low-resolution seismic data. CCK is a linear-weighted averaging method based on spatial covariance model. NN-MAT, based on a nonlinear relationship between seismic attributes and log values, treats data as spatially independent observations. In this study, we analyzed 3-D seismic and well-log data from the Second Wall Creek Sand of the Teapot Dome field, Wyoming, USA to investigate: (1) how CCK and NN-MAT perform in the prediction of porosity and (2) how the number of wells affects the results. Among a total of 64 wells, 25 wells were selected for CCK and NN-MAT and 39 wells were withheld for validation. We examined four cases: 25, 20, 15, and 10 wells. CCK overpredicted the porosity in the validation wells for all cases likely due to the strong influence of high values, but failed to predict very large porosities. Overprediction of CCK porosity becomes more pronounced with decreasing number of wells. NN-MAT largely underpredicted the porosity for all cases probably due to the band-limited nature of seismic data. The performance of CCK appears to be not affected significantly by the number of wells. Overall, NN-MAT performed better than CCK although its performance decreases continuously with decreasing number of wells.

  7. The Relationship of Land Cover to Aeolian Dust Production at the Jornada Basin, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, K. W.; Gill, T. E.; Gillette, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Vegetation tends to reduce aeolian transport of surface sediments. However, not all vegetation types act in the same way to do so. In general, the more land cover the less erosion will occur; thus grasslands should experience less aeolian erosion than shrublands, which are characterized by patchy cover with open intershrub spaces. Five major ecosystem types are described at the Jornada Basin Long- Term Ecological Research site (Jornada LTER) in south-central New Mexico, USA: mesquite dunes, black grama grasslands, creosote bush shrublands, tarbush alluvial flats, and grass-dominated playas. Here we investigate the dry particle size distribution of material collected by BSNE aeolian particle samplers in 2006 in these five different vegetation types, allowing us to estimate dust production at sites with different land cover. As mesquite and creosote bush continue replacing historical grasslands at Jornada, understanding the characteristics of wind erosion will be important for future management plans. The mesquite sites had the greatest horizontal mass flux, although with substantial variation. M-NORT, a site with large sand dunes, had much greater mass flux than other mesquite sites. For most sites, the dry particle size distributions at 5, 10 and 20 cm heights above the land surface were very similar, dominated by sand, while the distributions for 50 and 100cm heights shifted towards a greater percentage of silt and clay (dust) particles. The playa site and one of three tarbush sites stand out as having the greatest percentages of dust particles, between 33- 52 % of total mass at all heights. After taking into account the differences in mass flux, the mesquite site with the larger dunes and the playa site had the greatest flux of dust-sized particles. These two sites demonstrate different mechanisms of producing dust at the Jornada LTER. The playa is a relatively major dust producer due to its high proportion of fine particles, whereas the mesquite site is a major

  8. The Postcranial Skeleton of an Exceptionally Complete Individual of the Plated Dinosaur Stegosaurus stenops (Dinosauria: Thyreophora from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah Catherine Rose Maidment

    Full Text Available Although Stegosaurus is one of the most iconic dinosaurs, well-preserved fossils are rare and as a consequence there is still much that remains unknown about the taxon. A new, exceptionally complete individual affords the opportunity to describe the anatomy of Stegosaurus in detail for the first time in over a century, and enables additional comparisons with other stegosaurian dinosaurs. The new specimen is from the Red Canyon Ranch Quarry, near Shell Wyoming, and appears to have been so well preserved because it was buried rapidly in a pond or body of standing water immediately after death. The quarry is probably located in the middle part of the Morrison Formation, which is believed to be Tithonian in age in this area. The specimen is referable to Stegosaurus stenops based on the possession of an edentulous anterior portion of the dentary and elevated postzygapophyses on the cervical vertebrae. New information provided by the specimen concerns the morphology of the vertebrae, the iliosacral block and dermal armor. Several aspects of its morphology indicate the individual was not fully skeletally mature at the time of death, corroborating a previous histological study.

  9. The Postcranial Skeleton of an Exceptionally Complete Individual of the Plated Dinosaur Stegosaurus stenops (Dinosauria: Thyreophora) from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, Susannah Catherine Rose; Brassey, Charlotte; Barrett, Paul Michael

    2015-01-01

    Although Stegosaurus is one of the most iconic dinosaurs, well-preserved fossils are rare and as a consequence there is still much that remains unknown about the taxon. A new, exceptionally complete individual affords the opportunity to describe the anatomy of Stegosaurus in detail for the first time in over a century, and enables additional comparisons with other stegosaurian dinosaurs. The new specimen is from the Red Canyon Ranch Quarry, near Shell Wyoming, and appears to have been so well preserved because it was buried rapidly in a pond or body of standing water immediately after death. The quarry is probably located in the middle part of the Morrison Formation, which is believed to be Tithonian in age in this area. The specimen is referable to Stegosaurus stenops based on the possession of an edentulous anterior portion of the dentary and elevated postzygapophyses on the cervical vertebrae. New information provided by the specimen concerns the morphology of the vertebrae, the iliosacral block and dermal armor. Several aspects of its morphology indicate the individual was not fully skeletally mature at the time of death, corroborating a previous histological study.

  10. Studying Iron Mineralogy to Understand Redox Conditions in the Mesoproterozoic Belt Basin, USA Using Complementary Microscopic, Spectroscopic, and Magnetic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotznick, S. P.; Webb, S.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Fischer, W. W.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of iron chemistry and mineralogy over time provide a valuable tool for studying paleoenvironments, but questions still remain as to the redox character of Proterozoic basins after the rise of oxygen. To evaluate the mechanisms of iron mineralization in Proterozoic samples, we developed an approach that pairs the microscale textural techniques of light microscopy, magnetic scanning microscopy, and (synchrotron-based) microprobe x-ray spectroscopy with sensitive bulk rock magnetic experiments. Samples were collected from stratigraphic sections across the ~1.4 Ga lower Belt Group, Belt Supergroup, MT and ID, USA with a focus on excellently preserved sedimentary rocks, but also including those altered by a variety of diagenetic, metamorphic, and metasomatic events. Results show that even in the best-preserved parts of the Belt Basin, late diagenetic and/or metasomatic fluids affected (in some cases very mildly) the primary iron phases as evidenced by prevalent post-depositional alterations such as rare base metal sulfides. In more heavily altered rocks, the appearance of pyrrhotite and other minerals signaled transformations in iron mineralogy through metamorphism and metasomatism. Despite these secondary phases crystallizing in an open fluid-rich system, primary records of redox chemistry were preserved in the recrystallized early diagenetic framboidal pyrite and (sub)micron-sized detrital magnetite grains. Detrital magnetite is not the most abundant iron-bearing phase in any of the samples (typically <0.01 wt%), but is widely observed in both proximal and deeper basin facies, illustrating an important detrital flux of iron to the basin and a highly reactive iron source for early diagenetic pyrite. Based on our analyses, we interpret the shallow waters of the Belt Basin to be oxic with sulfidic pore fluids and deeper waters in parts of the basin as likely euxinic, consistent with the results of some bulk geochemical proxies. This redox reconstruction also

  11. Basement influences on dolomite-hosted vertical sedimentary intrusions in marine erg-margin deposits from the Pennsylvanian of Northern Wyoming (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Sébastien; Frank, Tracy D.; Fielding, Christopher R.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding soft-sediment deformation structures and their triggers can help in assessing the influence of tectonics, climate, and diagenesis on the stratigraphic record. Such features commonly record processes that would not otherwise be preserved. The description of soft-sediment deformation in Pennsylvanian deposits of the western United States, characterized by orbitally driven alternations between eolian sandstones, marine dolomites, and shales, has been limited to contorted cross-beds. We document discordant, sheet-like sedimentary intrusions in three marine intervals over a 45-km-wide area. Intrusions consist of very well to moderately cemented, very fine to fine-grained quartz sandstone. Body widths range from 5 to 50 cm, and heights up to 2 m. The orientations of 103 vertical bodies were measured. Based on upward- and downward-tapering, and the presence of deformed, microfractured fragments of host rocks, these intrusions are interpreted to result from seismically induced fluidization of water-saturated sands. Their sheet-like morphology indicates injection through fractures. Two predominant directions (WNW-ESE and N-S) were recognized and interpreted as pre-injection fracture sets. Folding of surrounding layers around the intrusions suggests negligible compaction prior to injection, indicating penecontemporaneous or shallow burial fluidization. The intraplate location of Wyoming implies that seismicity did not originate at a plate boundary. The area within which intrusions are found is crossed by a zone characterized by localized development of thick eolian stories at the top of the formation, interpreted to reflect the rejuvenation of a basement lineament. The seismically active character of lineaments may explain overpressure and fluidization, substantiating the notion that Precambrian structures repeatedly affected Phanerozoic sedimentation. Similar intrusive features may be wrongly identified or overlooked in deposits of arid environments, but their

  12. Persistent U(IV) and U(VI) following in-situ recovery (ISR) mining of a sandstone uranium deposit, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Campbell, Kate M.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Reimus, P.W.; J.T. Clay,; N. Janot,; J. J. Bargar,; Benzel, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Drill-core samples from a sandstone-hosted uranium (U) deposit in Wyoming were characterized to determine the abundance and distribution of uranium following in-situ recovery (ISR) mining with oxygen- and carbon dioxide-enriched water. Concentrations of uranium, collected from ten depth intervals, ranged from 5 to 1920 ppm. A composite sample contained 750 ppm uranium with an average oxidation state of 54% U(VI) and 46% U(IV). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated rare high uranium (∼1000 ppm U) in spatial association with P/Ca and Si/O attributed to relict uranium minerals, possibly coffinite, uraninite, and autunite, trapped within low permeability layers bypassed during ISR mining. Fission track analysis revealed lower but still elevated concentrations of U in the clay/silica matrix and organic matter (several 10 s ppm) and yet higher concentrations associated with Fe-rich/S-poor sites, likely iron oxides, on altered chlorite or euhedral pyrite surfaces (but not on framboidal pyrite). Organic C (<1.62%), total S (<0.31%), and P (<0.03%) were in low abundance relative to the overall bulk composition. Microbial community analysis showed a diverse group of bacteria present with a wide range of putative metabolisms, and provides evidence for a variety of redox microenvironments co-existing in core samples. Although the uranium minerals persisting in low permeability areas in association with organic carbon were less affected by oxidizing solutions during mining, the likely sequestration of uranium within labile iron oxides following mining and sensitivity to changes in redox conditions requires careful attention during groundwater restoration.

  13. Environmental Conditions Constrain the Distribution and Diversity of Archaeal merA in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Boyd, E.; Crane, S.; Lu-Irving, P.; Krabbenhoft, D.; King, S.; Dighton, J.; Geesey, G.; Barkay, T.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution and phylogeny of extant protein-encoding genes recovered from geochemically diverse environments can provide insight into the physical and chemical parameters that led to the origin and which constrained the evolution of a functional process. Mercuric reductase (MerA) plays an integral role in mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry by catalyzing the transformation of Hg(II) to Hg(0). Putative merA sequences were amplified from DNA extracts of microbial communities associated with mats and sulfur precipitates from physicochemically diverse Hg-containing springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, using four PCR primer sets that were designed to capture the known diversity of merA. The recovery of novel and deeply rooted MerA lineages from these habitats supports previous evidence that indicates merA originated in a thermophilic environment. Generalized linear models indicate that the distribution of putative archaeal merA lineages was constrained by a combination of pH, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved total mercury and sulfide. The models failed to identify statistically well supported trends for the distribution of putative bacterial merA lineages as a function of these or other measured environmental variables, suggesting that these lineages were either influenced by environmental parameters not considered in the present study, or the bacterial primer sets were designed to target too broad of a class of genes which may have responded differently to environmental stimuli. The widespread occurrence of merA in the geothermal environments implies a prominent role for Hg detoxification in these environments. Moreover, the differences in the distribution of the merA genes amplified with the four merA primer sets suggests that the organisms putatively engaged in this activity have evolved to occupy different ecological niches within the geothermal gradient. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. Shale depositional processes: Example from the Paleozoic Barnett Shale, Fort Worth Basin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelresh, Mohamed; Slatt, Roger

    2011-12-01

    A long held geologic paradigm is that mudrocks and shales are basically the product of `hemipelagic rain' of silt- and/or clay-sized, detrital, biogenic and particulate organic particles onto the ocean floor over long intervals of time. However, recently published experimental and field-based studies have revealed a plethora of micro-sedimentary features that indicate these common fine-grained rocks also could have been transported and/or reworked by unidirectional currents. In this paper, we add to this growing body of knowledge by describing such features from the Paleozoic Barnett Shale in the Fort Worth Basin, Texas, U.S.A. which suggests transport and deposition was from hyperpycnal, turbidity, storm and/or contour currents, in addition to hemipelagic rain. On the basis of a variety of sedimentary textures and structures, six main sedimentary facies have been defined from four 0.3 meter intervals in a 68m (223 ft) long Barnett Shale core: massive mudstone, rhythmic mudstone, ripple and low-angle laminated mudstone, graded mudstone, clay-rich facies, and spicule-rich facies. Current-induced features of these facies include mm- to cmscale cross- and parallel-laminations, scour surfaces, clastic/biogenic particle alignment, and normal- and inverse-size grading. A spectrum of vertical facies transitions and bed types indicate deposition from waxing-waning flows rather than from steady `rain' of particles to the sea floor. Detrital sponge spicule-rich facies suggests transport to the marine environment as hypopycnal or hyperpycnal flows and reversal in buoyancy by transformation from concentrated to dilute flows; alternatively the spicules could have originated by submarine slumping in front of contemporaneous shallow marine sponge reefs, and then transported basinward as turbidity current flows. The occurrence of dispersed biogenic/organic remains and inversely size graded mudstones also support a hyperpycnal and/or turbidity flow origin for a significant part of

  15. Water-quality characteristics and trend analyses for the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins, Wyoming and Montana, for selected periods, water years 1991 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.

    2012-01-01

    The Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is an area of ongoing coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development. Waters produced during CBNG development are managed with a variety of techniques, including surface impoundments and discharges into stream drainages. The interaction of CBNG-produced waters with the atmosphere and the semiarid soils of the Powder River structural basin can affect water chemistry in several ways. Specific conductance and sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of CBNG-produced waters that are discharged to streams have been of particular concern because they have the potential to affect the use of the water for irrigation. Water-quality monitoring has been conducted since 2001 at main-stem and tributary sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins in response to concerns about CBNG effects. A study was conducted to summarize characteristics of stream-water quality for water years 2001–10 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2010) and examine trends in specific conductance, SAR, and primary constituents that contribute to specific conductance and SAR for changes through time (water years 1991–2010) that may have occurred as a result of CBNG development. Specific conductance and SAR are the focus characteristics of this report. Dissolved calcium, magnesium, and sodium, which are primary contributors to specific conductance and SAR, as well as dissolved alkalinity, chloride, and sulfate, which are other primary contributors to specific conductance, also are described. Stream-water quality in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins was variable during water years 2001–10, in part because of variations in streamflow. In general, annual runoff was less than average during water years 2001–06 and near or above average during water years 2007–10. Stream water of the Tongue River had the smallest specific conductance values, sodium adsorption ratios

  16. Geological and production characteristics of the Lewis Shale, San Juan Basin, USA: an ongoing study with applications to other foreland basins of the Western Interior, USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereskin, R. [Tesseract Corporation, Park City, UT (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The geological characteristics of the Lewis Shale, San Juan Basin, New Mexico is examined to provide information about ways to characterize productive wells. Logs of Cretaceous shale need to be examined more closely. The lithology, environment of deposition, and porosity types shown by a type log of Lewis shale and the utility of a FMI log for indicating various features are described. Integrated use of core, FMI, gamma ray, and neutron log techniques improve target identification. Lewis shale analogues likely exist along lengths of the Western Interior and Canada. 21 figs.

  17. Water-Quality Characteristics for Sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River Drainage Basins, Wyoming and Montana, Water Years 2001-05, with Temporal Patterns of Selected Long-Term Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality sampling was conducted regularly at stream sites within or near the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana during water years 2001-05 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2005) to characterize water quality in an area of coalbed natural gas development. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, characterized the water quality at 22 sampling sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins. Data for general hydrology, field measurements, major-ion chemistry, and selected trace elements were summarized, and specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios were evaluated for relations with streamflow and seasonal variability. Trend analysis for water years 1991-2005 was conducted for selected sites and constituents to assess change through time. Average annual runoff was highly variable among the stream sites. Generally, streams that have headwaters in the Bighorn Mountains had more runoff as a result of higher average annual precipitation than streams that have headwaters in the plains. The Powder River at Moorhead, Mont., had the largest average annual runoff (319,000 acre-feet) of all the sites; however, streams in the Tongue River drainage basin had the highest runoff per unit area of the four major drainage basins. Annual runoff in all major drainage basins was less than average during 2001-05 because of drought conditions. Consequently, water-quality samples collected during the study period may not represent long-term water-quality con-ditions for all sites. Water-quality characteristics were highly variable generally because of streamflow variability, geologic controls, and potential land-use effects. The range of median specific-conductance values among sites was smallest in the Tongue River drainage basin. Median values in that basin ranged from 643 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm at 25?C) on the

  18. Hydrochemical tracers in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA: 1. Conceptualization of groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Sanford, Ward E.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    Chemical and isotopic data for groundwater from throughout the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico, USA, were used to identify and map groundwater flow from 12 sources of water to the basin, evaluate radiocarbon ages, and refine the conceptual model of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Hydrochemical zones, representing groundwater flow over thousands to tens of thousands of years, can be traced over large distances through the primarily siliciclastic aquifer system. The locations of the hydrochemical zones mostly reflect the ``modern'' predevelopment hydraulic-head distribution, but are inconsistent with a trough in predevelopment water levels in the west-central part of the basin, indicating that this trough is a transient rather than a long-term feature of the aquifer system. Radiocarbon ages adjusted for geochemical reactions, mixing, and evapotranspiration/dilution processes in the aquifer system were nearly identical to the unadjusted radiocarbon ages, and ranged from modern to more than 30 ka. Age gradients from piezometer nests ranged from 0.1 to 2 year cm-1 and indicate a recharge rate of about 3 cm year-1 for recharge along the eastern mountain front and infiltration from the Rio Grande near Albuquerque. There has been appreciably less recharge along the eastern mountain front north and south of Albuquerque. Des données sur les éléments chimiques et les isotopes présents dans l'eau souterraine prélevée à divers endroits dans le bassin moyen du Rio Grande, au centre du Nouveau-Mexique (É-U), ont permis de déterminer l'existence et l'étendue de douze sources d'eau régionales dans le bassin, d'évaluer les âges radiocarbones et de raffiner le modèle conceptuel du système aquifère du groupe de Santa Fe. Des zones hydro-chimiques qui représentent l'écoulement de l'eau souterraine depuis des dizaines de milliers d'années peuvent être suivies sur de longues distances à travers l'aquifère principalement siliclastique. La position des

  19. Precipitation Frequency for Ohio River Basin, USA - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Ohio River Basin and Surrounding states is based on precipitation data collected between...

  20. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Powder River Basin, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska: Chapter B in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, William H.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Mars, John L.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven A.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents ten storage assessment units (SAUs) within the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska. The Powder River Basin contains a thick succession of sedimentary rocks that accumulated steadily throughout much of the Phanerozoic, and at least three stratigraphic packages contain strata that are suitable for CO2 storage. Pennsylvanian through Triassic siliciclastic strata contain two potential storage units: the Pennsylvanian and Permian Tensleep Sandstone and Minnelusa Formation, and the Triassic Crow Mountain Sandstone. Jurassic siliciclastic strata contain one potential storage unit: the lower part of the Sundance Formation. Cretaceous siliciclastic strata contain seven potential storage units: (1) the Fall River and Lakota Formations, (2) the Muddy Sandstone, (3) the Frontier Sandstone and Turner Sandy Member of the Carlile Shale, (4) the Sussex and Shannon Sandstone Members of Cody Shale, and (5) the Parkman, (6) Teapot, and (7) Teckla Sandstone Members of the Mesaverde Formation. For each SAU, we discuss the areal distribution of suitable CO2 reservoir rock. We also characterize the overlying sealing unit and describe the geologic characteristics that influence the potential CO2 storage volume and reservoir performance. These characteristics include reservoir depth, gross thickness, net thickness, porosity, permeability, and groundwater salinity. Case-by-case strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are presented. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included herein will be employed to calculate the potential storage space in the various SAUs.

  1. Groundwater recharge in Pleistocene sediments overlying basalt aquifers in the Palouse Basin, USA: modeling of distributed recharge potential and identification of water pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksma, R.; Brooks, E.S.; Boll, J.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater levels in basalt aquifers around the world have been declining for many years. Understanding water pathways is needed for solutions like artificial drainage. Water supply in the Palouse Basin, Washington and Idaho, USA, primarily relies on basalt aquifers. This study presents a combinati

  2. Three-parameter-based streamflow elasticity model: application to MOPEX basins in the USA at annual and seasonal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konapala, Goutam; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2016-07-01

    We present a three-parameter streamflow elasticity model as a function of precipitation, potential evaporation, and change in groundwater storage applicable at both seasonal and annual scales. The model was applied to 245 Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) basins spread across the continental USA. The analysis of the modified equation at annual and seasonal scales indicated that the groundwater and surface water storage change contributes significantly to the streamflow elasticity. Overall, in case of annual as well as seasonal water balances, precipitation has higher elasticity values when compared to both potential evapotranspiration and storage changes. The streamflow elasticities show significant nonlinear associations with the climate conditions of the catchments indicating a complex interplay between elasticities and climate variables with substantial seasonal variations.

  3. Bivariate Drought Analysis Using Streamflow Reconstruction with Tree Ring Indices in the Sacramento Basin, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Kwak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term streamflow data are vital for analysis of hydrological droughts. Using an artificial neural network (ANN model and nine tree-ring indices, this study reconstructed the annual streamflow of the Sacramento River for the period from 1560 to 1871. Using the reconstructed streamflow data, the copula method was used for bivariate drought analysis, deriving a hydrological drought return period plot for the Sacramento River basin. Results showed strong correlation among drought characteristics, and the drought with a 20-year return period (17.2 million acre-feet (MAF per year in the Sacramento River basin could be considered a critical level of drought for water shortages.

  4. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. II. Formation and decomposition of thiosulfate and polythionate in Cinder Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Schoonen, M.A.A.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Cunningham, K.M.; Ball, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Cinder Pool is an acid-sulfate-chloride boiling spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. The pool is unique in that its surface is partially covered with mm-size, black, hollow sulfur spherules, while a layer of molten sulfur resides at the bottom of the pool (18 m depth). The sulfur speciation in the pool was determined on four different days over a period of two years. Samples were taken to evaluate changes with depth and to evaluate the importance of the sulfur spherules on sulfur redox chemistry. All analyses were conducted on site using a combination of ion chromatography and colorimetric techniques. Dissolved sulfide (H2S), thiosulfate (S2O32−), polythionates (SxO62−), and sulfate were detected. The polythionate concentration was highly variable in time and space. The highest concentrations were found in surficial samples taken from among the sulfur spherules. With depth, the polythionate concentrations dropped off. The maximum observed polythionate concentration was 8 μM. Thiosulfate was rather uniformly distributed throughout the pool and concentrations ranged from 35 to 45 μM. Total dissolved sulfide concentrations varied with time, concentrations ranged from 16 to 48 μM. Sulfate was relatively constant, with concentrations ranging from 1150 to 1300 μM. The sulfur speciation of Cinder Pool is unique in that the thiosulfate and polythionate concentrations are significantly higher than for any other acid-sulfate spring yet sampled in Yellowstone National Park. Complementary laboratory experiments show that thiosulfate is the intermediate sulfoxyanion formed from sulfur hydrolysis under conditions similar to those found in Cinder Pool and that polythionates are formed via the oxidation of thiosulfate by dissolved oxygen. This last reaction is catalyzed by pyrite that occurs as a minor constituent in the sulfur spherules floating on the pool's surface. Polythionate decomposition proceeds via two pathways: (1) a reaction with H2S

  5. Geologic and geomorphic controls of coal development in some Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, R.M. (US Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center)

    1993-09-01

    Previous investigations have not well defined the controls on the development of minable coals in fluvial environments. This study was undertaken to provide a clearer understanding of these controls, particularly in the lower Tertiary coal-bearing deposits of the Raton and Powder River basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. In this region, large amounts of coals accumulated in swamps formed in the flow-through fluvial systems that infilled these intermontane basins. Extrabasinal and intrabasinal tectonism partly controlled the stratigraphic and facies distributions of minable coal deposits. The regional accumulation of coals was favoured by the rapid basin subsidence coupled with minimal uplift of the source area. During these events, coals developed in swamps associated with anastomosed and meandering fluvial systems and alluvial fans. The extensive and high rate of sediment input from these fluvial systems promoted the formation of ombrotrophic, raised swamps, which produced low ash and anomalously thick coals. The petrology and palynology of these coals, and the paleobotany of the associated sediments, suggest that ombrotrophic, raised swamps were common in the Powder River Basin, where the climate during the early Tertiary was paratropical. The paleoecology of these swamps is identical to that of the modern ombrotrophic raised swamps of the Baram and Mahakam Rivers of Borneo. 32 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Fine-scale modeling of bristlecone pine treeline position in the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Jamis M.; Tran, Tyler J.; Bunn, Andrew G.; Weiss, Stuart B.; Salzer, Matthew W.

    2017-01-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) and foxtail pine (Pinus balfouriana) are valuable paleoclimate resources due to their longevity and climatic sensitivity of their annually-resolved rings. Treeline research has shown that growing season temperatures limit tree growth at and just below the upper treeline. In the Great Basin, the presence of precisely dated remnant wood above modern treeline shows that the treeline ecotone shifts at centennial timescales tracking long-term changes in climate; in some areas during the Holocene climatic optimum treeline was 100 meters higher than at present. Regional treeline position models built exclusively from climate data may identify characteristics specific to Great Basin treelines and inform future physiological studies, providing a measure of climate sensitivity specific to bristlecone and foxtail pine treelines. This study implements a topoclimatic analysis—using topographic variables to explain patterns in surface temperatures across diverse mountainous terrain—to model the treeline position of three semi-arid bristlecone and/or foxtail pine treelines in the Great Basin as a function of growing season length and mean temperature calculated from in situ measurements. Results indicate: (1) the treeline sites used in this study are similar to other treelines globally, and require a growing season length of between 147-153 days and average temperature ranging from 5.5°C-7.2°C, (2) site-specific treeline position models may be improved through topoclimatic analysis and (3) treeline position in the Great Basin is likely out of equilibrium with the current climate, indicating a possible future upslope shift in treeline position.

  7. Water-quality assessment of the Lower Grand River Basin, Missouri and Iowa, USA, in support of integrated conservation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    greatest impact on reducing nutrient export from the basin. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Hanna 77, 78, 79 and 81 coal zone study limit boundaries, Wyoming (ha*stdyg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These ArcView shapefiles contain representations of the Hanna coal zone study limit boundaries in the Hanna coalfield, Hanna Basin, Wyoming. These shapefiles were...

  9. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  10. Decreased runoff response to precipitation, Little Missouri River Basin, northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Eleanor R.; Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2017-01-01

    High variability in precipitation and streamflow in the semiarid northern Great Plains causes large uncertainty in water availability. This uncertainty is compounded by potential effects of future climate change. We examined historical variability in annual and growing season precipitation, temperature, and streamflow within the Little Missouri River Basin and identified differences in the runoff response to precipitation for the period 1976-2012 compared to 1939-1975 (n = 37 years in both cases). Computed mean values for the second half of the record showed little change (1°C increases in January through March, are the dominant driver of the observed decrease in runoff response to precipitation in the Little Missouri River Basin.

  11. New Seismic Reflection Profiling Across the Northern Newark Basin USA: Data Acquisition and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymchak, M.; Collins, D.; Brown, C.; Conrad, J.; Papadeas, P.; Coueslan, M. L.; Tamulonis, K.; Goldberg, D.; Olsen, P. E.

    2011-12-01

    Deep saline formations in basins underlying major population centers represent opportunities for carbon (CO2) sequestration, but intensive surface development in such settings can hinder field operations to acquire geologic and geophysical data critical to effective characterization. Seismic-reflection is a tool that can be used to characterize basins and their potential capacity for carbon storage. The northern part of the Triassic-Jurassic Newark Rift Basin represents a potential storage opportunity for carbon as a result of its proximity to large-scale CO2 emitters; however, a lack of deep geologic and seismic data from this area has precluded evaluation of this basin to date. As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Labs (NETL) Carbon Sequestration programs portion of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)- and NYSERDA-funded TriCarb Consortium for Carbon Sequestration basin characterization project, two new seismic-reflection profiles were acquired in the northern portion of the Newark Basin in Rockland County, NY and Bergen County NJ. This densely developed region, proximal to New York City, presents a variety of challenges for seismic surveys, including route selection and access, community acceptance, high traffic volumes and associated data noise, in addition to regulatory requirements and private property limitations. In spite of these challenges, two high-resolution, perpendicular lines were successfully surveyed in late March and early April, 2011; one dip line extending 21 km (13 mi) across most of the basin (east-west), and a shorter strike line extending 8 km (5 mi, north-south). The survey lines intersected near the location of a planned 8,000 ft stratigraphic borehole to be drilled by the TriCarb consortium. Three vibroseis trucks comprised the source array. Source points were spaced at 36.5 m (120-ft) intervals and geophone accelerometers collected data at a 3.05 m (10 ft) intervals. Seismic-reflection data

  12. Temporal and Seasonal Variations of the Hot Spring Basin Hydrothermal System, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Jaworowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring Yellowstone National Park’s hydrothermal systems and establishing hydrothermal baselines are the main goals of an ongoing collaborative effort between Yellowstone National Park’s Geology program and Utah State University’s Remote Sensing Services Laboratory. During the first years of this research effort, improvements were made in image acquisition, processing and calibration. In 2007, a broad-band, forward looking infrared (FLIR camera (8–12 microns provided reliable airborne images for a hydrothermal baseline of the Hot Spring Basin hydrothermal system. From 2008 to 2011, night-time, airborne thermal infrared image acquisitions during September yielded temperature maps that established the temporal variability of the hydrothermal system. A March 2012 airborne image acquisition provided an initial assessment of seasonal variability. The consistent, high-spatial resolution imagery (~1 m demonstrates that the technique is robust and repeatable for generating corrected (atmosphere and emissivity and calibrated temperature maps of the Hot Spring Basin hydrothermal system. Atmospheric conditions before and at flight-time determine the usefulness of the thermal infrared imagery for geohydrologic applications, such as hydrothermal monitoring. Although these ground-surface temperature maps are easily understood, quantification of radiative heat from the Hot Spring Basin hydrothermal system is an estimate of the system’s total energy output. Area is a key parameter for calculating the hydrothermal system’s heat output. Preliminary heat calculations suggest a radiative heat output of ~56 MW to 62 MW for the central Hot Spring Basin hydrothermal system. Challenges still remain in removing the latent solar component within the calibrated, atmospherically adjusted, and emissivity corrected night-time imagery.

  13. Assessing sediment dynamics of the Middle St. Johns River Basin, Lake Jesup, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. T.; Nielsen, S. M.; Scinto, L. J.; Thomas, S.; Fugate, D. C.; Corbett, D. R.; Brandt-Williams, S.

    2010-12-01

    Lake Jesup is a shallow, hypereutrophic lake located in the middle St. Johns River basin that received large loads of secondary effluent prior to 1985 and experiences tidal, tributary and wind influenced flow. To date we have assessed the use of several different types of sediment traps at different water depths within this shallow basin (typically less than 2.5 m). Each system deployed has its advantages, but deployments in shallow systems present unique challenges. We have augmented our sediment traps with additional observation and data collection systems to evaluate our approach for studying sedimentation rates in the basin. These systems include a floating barge platform to collect daily water samples for suspended particles, weather stations for wind direction and velocity current (flow) meter and acoustic Doppler water velocity systems (ADVs). Results from 2009 to 2010 show mass accumulation rates ranging between 200 g dw m-2 d-1 to 1200 g dw m-2 d-1. Trap material was analyzed for nutrients to better understand fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Sediment oxygen demand was measured during incubation experiments to determine potential effects on water column oxygen concentrations during resuspension events. In the second phase of this project (2010 to 2011) we will measure radioisotopes to better estimate the source of resuspended particles. Our goal is to use the deployed instrumentation to show how hydrodynamics affect sediment transport in this basin. Studying the sediment dynamics of highly productive fresh water end members of estuary systems is critical to better quantify biogeochemical fluxes necessary for effective restoration management. This paper will present a model of nutrient flux and accumulation rates, sediment oxygen demand, correlations between sediment flux and potential driving forces, and initial results from radioisotope sourcing.

  14. Distributions of median nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations across the Red River Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longing, D; Haggard, B E

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition and compilation of water-quality data for an 11-yr time period (1996-2006) from 589 stream and river stations were conducted to support nutrient criteria development for the multistate Red River Basin shared by Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Ten water-quality parameters were collected from six data sources (USGS, Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality, Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Oklahoma Conservation Commission, Oklahoma Water Resources Board, and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), and an additional 13 parameters were acquired from at least one source. Median concentrations of water-quality parameters were calculated at each individual station and frequency distributions (minimum, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th percentiles, and maximum) of the median concentrations were calculated. Across the Red River Basin, median values for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and sestonic chlorophyll-a (chl-a) ranged from water-quality parameters as the first step to support states in developing nutrient criteria to protect designated uses in the multijurisdictional Red River Basin.

  15. Drainage-area boundaries for selected sampling stations, scale 1:100,000, Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  16. Yellowstone River Basin study unit boundary, National Water-Quality Assessment Program, scale 1:100,000, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  17. Climatic gradients and human development pressure determine spatial patterns of forest fragmentation in the Great Lakes basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, W. S.; Hart, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over half of temperate forest area globally has been fragmented or deforested by human activities. Our objective was to gain insight into the combination of climatic, ecological, and social factors that control complex spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation at the regional scale. Our study area was the US portion of the land area of the Laurentian Great Lakes basin (USGL basin) of the Upper Midwest, USA, covering ca. 300,000 km2 and home to 25 million people. While this region was historically forested, today there are regional gradients in forest cover as well as complex spatial patterns of agriculture, human settlements, and tree cover. This includes large expanses of fragmented forests in the wildland-urban interface or the forest transition zone. We used structural equation modeling to test models of social and climatic-ecological factors to explain spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation. This is a model-driven approach to statistical analysis that is used to test proposed causal "structures" of direct and indirect relationships among variables. It is an innovative approach that makes use of large spatial datasets to test understanding. We assembled numerous spatial data layers at 1 km2 resolution across the USGL basin. We found that 64% to 75% of variance in tree cover and forest connectivity was explained through a relatively simple model combining climatic gradients and human development pressure. Human development pressure was best represented as a measurement model that explained 45% of variance in road density and 87% of housing unit density, while significantly explaining patterns of forest fragmentation. Climate could be represented by a single variable, temperature: where temperature was higher, tree cover and forest connectivity was lower due to human land use. Temperatures did not help to explain patterns of human development as roads and housing, but did affect forest fragmentation through land use as cropland. This suggests

  18. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M.; Kim, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000 – 2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time was determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990 ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121 ha have likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and- gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, injection wells, etc.), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin.

  19. Modeling Water-Quality Loads to the Reservoirs of the Upper Trinity River Basin, Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taesoo Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Trinity River Basin (TRB is the most populated river basin and one of the largest water suppliers in Texas. However, sediment and nutrient loads are reducing the capacity of reservoirs and degrading water quality. The objectives of this study are to calibrate and validate the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model for ten study watersheds within the Upper TRB in order to assess nutrient loads into major reservoirs in the basin and to predict the effects of point source elimination and urbanization on nutrient loads through scenario analyses. SWAT performed reasonably well for the current condition except for two out of five tributaries in the Eagle Mountain watershed and total phosphorous OPEN ACCESS Water 2015, 7 5690 in Richland-Chambers. The impacts of simulated scenarios varied within watersheds. Point-source elimination achieved reductions ranging from 0.3% to 24% in total phosphorus and 1% to 56% in total nitrogen received by the reservoirs. Population and development projections were used to examine the impacts of urbanization on each watershed. Projected urbanization in 2030 had large effects on simulated total phosphorus loads in some watersheds, ranging from a reduction of 1% to an increase of 111%. Projected urbanization also affected simulated total nitrogen loads, from a reduction of 3% to an increase of 24%. One limitation of this study is the lack of long-term, up-to-date water quality data due to discontinued water-quality monitoring stations. Although careful considerations were given to the adjustment of parameter values reflecting various aspects of the nutrient processes, further data collection will enhance modeling study for assessment of these watersheds’ water resources and environmental problem.

  20. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M; Kim, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000-2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time were determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121ha has likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and-gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, and injection wells), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin.

  1. Latest Pliocene and Quaternary diatom floras of the Lake Tahoe basin, California and Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starratt, S. W.

    2005-12-01

    Despite an active research program at Lake Tahoe, few attempts have been made to understand the conditions that existed within the watershed prior to European contact. A greater understanding of the Quaternary history of the basin would not only benefit local stakeholders, but would also enhance the knowledge of the entire Truckee River system. Lake Tahoe has been called one of the most oligotrophic lakes in the world. Historically, the lake has contained low levels of phosphorus (5 g/L) and nitrogen (100 g/L). As a result, the abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton is also low. Over the past century anthropogenic inputs have caused parts of the lake to become seasonally mesotrophic. The impact of climate variability on the nutrient load in the lake is poorly known. Detailed analysis of the pre-European contact record is necessary in order to unravel the complex interaction between natural and human inputs to the watershed. Dredge samples collected from slump blocks and surface sediments in the deep basin and surface samples collected at a number of sites around the margin of Lake Tahoe have been analyzed for diatoms and chrysophyte stomatocysts. The deep lake basin diatom flora is dominated by planktonic, oligotrophic, alkaliphilic taxa such as Cyclotella bodanica and C. ocellata. Planktonic and obligate planktonic taxa ( Aulacoseira distans, Fragilaria crotonensis, Stephanodiscus spp.) found close to shore and benthic taxa are representative of oligotrophic to eutrophic conditions ( Frustulia rhomboides, Tetracyclus glans, Achnanthes minutissima, Epithemia spp., Rhopalodia gibba, Meridion circulare). Several samples of diatomaceous sediment collected near Tahoe City, California, on the west side of the lake, contain taxa that are representative of shallow, more eutrophic conditions and at least one of these samples contains late Pliocene taxa ( Tertiarius sp., Pliocaenicus sp.), which suggests that at least locally, the lake at that time was shallower and was

  2. Estimation of sediment sources using selected chemical tracers in the Perry lake basin,Kansas,USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.E.JURACEK; A.C.ZIEGLER

    2009-01-01

    The ability to achieve meaningful decreases in sediment loads to reservoirs requires a determination of the relative importance of sediment sources within the contributing basins.In an investigation of sources of fine-grained sediment (clay and silt) within the Perry Lake Basin in northeast Kansas,representative samples of channel-bank sources,surface-soil sources (cropland and grassland),and reservoir bottom sediment were collected,chemically analyzed,and compared.The samples were sieved to isolate the <63μ m fraction and analyzed for selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus),organic and total carbon,25 trace elements,and the radionuclide cesium-137 (137Cs).On the basis of substantial and consistent compositional differences among the source types,total nitrogen (TN),total phosphorus (TP),total organic carbon (TOC),and 137Cs were selected for use in the estimation of sediment sources.To further account for differences in particle-size composition between the sources and the reservoir bottom sediment,constituent ratio and clay-normalization techniques were used.Computed ratios included TOC to TN,TOC to TP,and TN to TP.Constituent concentrations (TN,TP,TOC) and activities (137Cs) were normalized by dividing by the percentage of clay.Thus,the sediment-source estimations involved the use of seven sediment-source indicators.Within the Perry Lake Basin,the consensus of the seven indicators was that both channel-bank and surface-soil sources were important in the Atchison County Lake and Banner Creek Reservoir subbasins,whereas channel-bank sources were dominant in the Mission Lake subbasin.On the sole basis of 137Cs activity,surface-soil sources contributed the most fine-grained sediment to Atchison County Lake,and channel-bank sources contributed the most fine-grained sediment to Banner Creek Reservoir and Mission Lake.Both the seven-indicator consensus and 137Cs indicated that channelbank sources were dominant for Perry Lake and that channel

  3. Implementation of MAR within the Rio Grande Basin of Central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Robert; Blandford, T. Neil; Ewing, Amy; Webb, Larry; Yuhas, Katherine

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation has identified the Rio Grande basin within Central New Mexico as one of several regions where water supplies are over-allocated and future conflicts over the inadequate resource are highly likely. Local water providers have consistently identified managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as an important tool to provide conjunctive management of surface-water, groundwater, and reclaimed water sources in order to extend the useful life of existing water sources. However, MAR projects have been slow to take root partly due to rigorous demonstration requirements, groundwater quality protection concerns, and ongoing water right uncertainties. At first glance the several thousand meters of unconsolidated basin-fill sediments hosting the regional aquifer appear to provide an ideal environment for the subsurface storage of surplus water. However, the basin has a complex structural and depositional history that impacts the siting and overall effectiveness of MAR systems. Several recharge projects are now in various stages of implementation and are overcoming site specific challenges including source water and ambient groundwater compatibility, low-permeability sediments and compartmentalization of the aquifer by extensive faulting, well clogging, and overall water quality management. This presentation will highlight ongoing efforts of these water providers to develop full-scale recharge facilities. The performance of natural in-channel infiltration, engineered infiltration galleries, and direct injection systems designed to introduce from 500 to 5,000 mega-liters per annum to target intervals present from 150 to 600 meters below ground surface will be described. Source waters for recharge operations include inter-basin transferred surface water and highly treated reclaimed water sources requiring from minor to extensive treatment pre-recharge and post-recovery. Operational complexities have raised concerns related to long-term operation and maintenance

  4. Watershed Response to Climate Change and Fire-Burns in the Upper Umatilla River Basin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Yazzie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed watershed response to climate change and forest fire impacts in the upper Umatilla River Basin (URB, Oregon, using the precipitation runoff modeling system. Ten global climate models using Coupled Intercomparison Project Phase 5 experiments with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5 were used to simulate the effects of climate and fire-burns on runoff behavior throughout the 21st century. We observed the center timing (CT of flow, seasonal flows, snow water equivalent (SWE and basin recharge. In the upper URB, hydrologic regime shifts from a snow-rain-dominated to rain-dominated basin. Ensemble mean CT occurs 27 days earlier in RCP 4.5 and 33 days earlier in RCP 8.5, in comparison to historic conditions (1980s by the end of the 21st century. After forest cover reduction in the 2080s, CT occurs 35 days earlier in RCP 4.5 and 29 days earlier in RCP 8.5. The difference in mean CT after fire-burns may be due to projected changes in the individual climate model. Winter flow is projected to decline after forest cover reduction in the 2080s by 85% and 72% in RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, in comparison to 98% change in ensemble mean winter flows in the 2080s before forest cover reduction. The ratio of ensemble mean snow water equivalent to precipitation substantially decreases by 81% and 91% in the 2050s and 2080s before forest cover reduction and a decrease of 90% in RCP 4.5 and 99% in RCP 8.5 in the 2080s after fire-burns. Mean basin recharge is 10% and 14% lower in the 2080s before fire-burns and after fire-burns, and it decreases by 13% in RCP 4.5 and decreases 22% in RCP 8.5 in the 2080s in comparison to historical conditions. Mixed results for recharge after forest cover reduction suggest that an increase may be due to the size of burned areas, decreased canopy interception and less evaporation occurring at the watershed surface, increasing the potential for infiltration. The effects of fire on the watershed system are

  5. CO{sub 2} sequestration in an unmineable coalbed - San Juan Basin, Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, D.; Jensen, J.R. [BP Amoco, Sunbury-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    BP Amoco (BPA) is investigating the sequestration of approximately 464 tonnes per day of vented CO{sub 2} from gas processing plant by injecting the CO{sub 2} into a non-mineable natural gas producing coal in the Colorado portion of the San Juan Basin. Removed CO{sub 2} from this production will be re-injected into the coalbed for sequestration. BPA has concentrated efforts on utilizing nitrogen to enhance the recovery of methane from coals and currently operates the largest and most significant project of its kind. On a pilot basis, CO{sub 2} sequestration, as an enhanced recovery process for Fruitland coals, has also been undertaken in the San Juan Basin (SJB). The two gases behave differently in coals. CO{sub 2} is readily adsorbed on the coal and therefore displaces the methane whereas the nitrogen strips the methane from the coals by reducing the partial pressure of the methane. Injection, production and reservoir data will be used to evaluate the success of the CO{sub 2} sequestration. BPA will use its proprietary GCOMP Reservoir Model to investigate the flow and adsorption of CO{sub 2}, simulate the process, compare field results with model predictions, and adjust the model to better match actual field performance. Preliminary simulations indicate that some incremental methane production will be recovered, while sequestering nearly all of the injected CO{sub 2} in the coals seams. 3 figs.

  6. Temporal variations of geyser water chemistry in the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Hunt, Andrew G.; Evans, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Geysers are rare features that reflect a delicate balance between an abundant supply of water and heat and a unique geometry of fractures and porous rocks. Between April 2007 and September 2008, we sampled Old Faithful, Daisy, Grand, Oblong, and Aurum geysers in Yellowstone National Park's Upper Geyser Basin and characterized temporal variations in major element chemistry and water isotopes (δ18O, δD, 3H). We compare these temporal variations with temporal trends of Geyser Eruption Intervals (GEI). SiO2 concentrations and geothermometry indicate that the geysers are fed by waters ascending from a reservoir with temperatures of ∼190 to 210°C. The studied geysers display small and complex chemical and isotopic seasonal variations, and geysers with smaller volume display larger seasonal variations than geysers with larger volumes. Aurum and Oblong Geysers contain detectable tritium concentrations, suggesting that erupted water contains some modern meteoric water. We propose that seasonal GEI variations result from varying degrees of evaporation, meteoric water recharge, water table fluctuations, and possible hydraulic interaction with the adjacent Firehole River. We demonstrate that the concentrations of major dissolved species in Old Faithful Geyser have remained nearly constant since 1884 despite large changes in Old Faithful's eruption intervals, suggesting that no major changes have occurred in the hydrothermal system of the Upper Geyser Basin for >120 years. Our data set provides a baseline for monitoring future changes in geyser activity that might result from varying climate, earthquakes, and changes in heat flow from the underlying magmatic system.

  7. Assessing climate-change risks to cultural and natural resources in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Waste, Stephen M.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an overview of an interdisciplinary special issue that examines the influence of climate change on people and fish in the Yakima River Basin, USA. Jenni et al. (2013) addresses stakeholder-relevant climate change issues, such as water availability and uncertainty, with decision analysis tools. Montag et al. (2014) explores Yakama Tribal cultural values and well-being and their incorporation into the decision-making process. Graves and Maule (2012) simulates effects of climate change on stream temperatures under baseline conditions (1981–2005) and two future climate scenarios (increased air temperature of 1 °C and 2 °C). Hardiman and Mesa (2013) looks at the effects of increased stream temperatures on juvenile steelhead growth with a bioenergetics model. Finally, Hatten et al. (2013) examines how changes in stream flow will affect salmonids with a rule-based fish habitat model. Our simulations indicate that future summer will be a very challenging season for salmonids when low flows and high water temperatures can restrict movement, inhibit or alter growth, and decrease habitat. While some of our simulations indicate salmonids may benefit from warmer water temperatures and increased winter flows, the majority of simulations produced less habitat. The floodplain and tributary habitats we sampled are representative of the larger landscape, so it is likely that climate change will reduce salmonid habitat potential throughout particular areas of the basin. Management strategies are needed to minimize potential salmonid habitat bottlenecks that may result from climate change, such as keeping streams cool through riparian protection, stream restoration, and the reduction of water diversions. An investment in decision analysis and support technologies can help managers understand tradeoffs under different climate scenarios and possibly improve water and fish conservation over the next century.

  8. Optimization of a Radiative Transfer Forward Operator for Simulating SMOS Brightness Temperatures over the Upper Mississippi Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, H.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Martens, B.; VanDenBerg, M. J.; Bitar, A. Al; Tomer, S. Kumar; Merlin, O.; Cabot, F.; Kerr, Y.; DeLannoy, G. J. M.; Drusch, M.; Hendricks-Franssen, H.-J.; Vereecken, H.; Pan, M.; Wood, E. F.; Dumedah, G.; Walker, J. P.; Pauwels, V. R. N.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission is routinely providing global multi-angular observations of brightness temperature (TB) at both horizontal and vertical polarization with a 3-day repeat period. The assimilation of such data into a land surface model (LSM) may improve the skill of operational flood forecasts through an improved estimation of soil moisture (SM). To accommodate for the direct assimilation of the SMOS TB data, the LSM needs to be coupled with a radiative transfer model (RTM), serving as a forward operator for the simulation of multi-angular and multi-polarization top of atmosphere TBs. This study investigates the use of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) LSM coupled with the Community Microwave Emission Modelling platform (CMEM) for simulating SMOS TB observations over the Upper Mississippi basin, USA. For a period of 2 years (2010-2011), a comparison between SMOS TBs and simulations with literature-based RTM parameters reveals a basin averaged bias of 30K. Therefore, time series of SMOS TB observations are used to investigate ways for mitigating these large biases. Specifically, the study demonstrates the impact of the LSM soil moisture climatology in the magnitude of TB biases. After CDF matching the SM climatology of the LSM to SMOS retrievals, the average bias decreases from 30K to less than 5K. Further improvements can be made through calibration of RTM parameters related to the modeling of surface roughness and vegetation. Consequently, it can be concluded that SM rescaling and RTM optimization are efficient means for mitigating biases and form a necessary preparatory step for data assimilation.

  9. Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Bauder

    2008-09-30

    U.S. emphasis on domestic energy independence, along with advances in knowledge of vast biogenically sourced coalbed methane reserves at relatively shallow sub-surface depths with the Powder River Basin, has resulted in rapid expansion of the coalbed methane industry in Wyoming and Montana. Techniques have recently been developed which constitute relatively efficient drilling and methane gas recovery and extraction techniques. However, this relatively efficient recovery requires aggressive reduction of hydrostatic pressure within water-saturated coal formations where the methane is trapped. Water removed from the coal formation during pumping is typically moderately saline and sodium-bicarbonate rich, and managed as an industrial waste product. Current approaches to coalbed methane product water management include: surface spreading on rangeland landscapes, managed irrigation of agricultural crop lands, direct discharge to ephermeral channels, permitted discharge of treated and untreated water to perennial streams, evaporation, subsurface injection at either shallow or deep depths. A Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory funded research award involved the investigation and assessment of: (1) phytoremediation as a water management technique for waste water produced in association with coalbed methane gas extraction; (2) feasibility of commercial-scale, low-impact industrial water treatment technologies for the reduction of salinity and sodicity in coalbed methane gas extraction by-product water; and (3) interactions of coalbed methane extraction by-product water with landscapes, vegetation, and water resources of the Powder River Basin. Prospective, greenhouse studies of salt tolerance and water use potential of indigenous, riparian vegetation species in saline-sodic environments confirmed the hypothesis that species such as Prairie cordgrass, Baltic rush, American bulrush, and Nuttall's alkaligrass will thrive in saline-sodic environments

  10. Seismicity in the Raton Basin of Southern Colorado and Northern New Mexico, USA, as Recorded by a Local Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macartney, H.

    2013-12-01

    Microseismic events (Raton Basin of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, USA, over a period of 18 months following the occurrence of a 5.3 magnitude event near Trinidad CO in August, 2011. Micro-seismicity was observed in the region, concentrated in six clusters at depths of 6-12 km below the surface, deep in the basement, and 4-10 km below zones used for fluid disposal from an overlying coalbed methane natural gas field. Clusters are separated from disposal zones by large aseismic intervals. The clusters are mixed in character; both planar and elongate amorphous swarms, some continually active and some as short-lived bursts, with larger initial events tending to occur deeper and smaller after-shocks propagating upward and away from the nucleating events. Magnitudes range between 0 and 3, with the vast majority being less than 1.5M. Most of the clusters have no disposal wells above and no seismic activity was correlated with changes in fluid disposal. No seismicity was detected from hydraulic fracturing operations.

  11. Development and application of a pollen-based paleohydrologic reconstruction from the lower Roanoke River Basin, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D.; Bernhardt, C.; Brown, R.; Landacre, B.; Townsend, P.

    2011-01-01

    We used pollen assemblages to reconstruct late-Holocene paleohydrologic patterns in floodplain deposits from the lower Roanoke River basin (North Carolina, southeastern USA). Using 120 surface samples from 38 transects, we documented statistical relationships between pollen assemblages, vegetation, and landforms. Backswamp pollen assemblages (long hydroperiods) are dominated by Nyssa (tupelo) and Taxodium (cypress) and have high pollen concentrations. Sediments from elevated levees and seasonally flooded forests (shorter hydroperiods) are characterized by dominant Pinus (pine) pollen, variable abundance of hardwood taxa, and low pollen concentrations. We apply the calibration data set to interpret past vegetation and paleohydrology. Pollen from a radiocarbon-dated sediment core collected in a tupelo-cypress backswamp indicates centennial-scale fluctuations in forest composition during the last 2400 years. Backswamp vegetation has occupied the site since land clearance began ~300 years ago. Recent dam emplacement affected sedimentation rates, but vegetation changes are small compared with those caused by pre-Colonial climate variability. The occurrence of wetter conditions from ~2200 to 1800 cal. yr BP, ~1100 to 750 cal. yr BP, and ~400 to 250 cal. yr BP may indicate changes in cyclonic circulation patterns related to shifts in the position of the Bermuda High and jet stream.

  12. Characterization of Habitat and Biological Communities at Fixed Sites in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, Water Years 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Christine M.; Giddings, Elise M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat and biological communities were sampled at 10 sites in the Great Salt Lake Basins as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program to assess the occurrence and distribution of biological organisms in relation to environmental conditions. Sites were distributed among the Bear River, Weber River, and Utah Lake/Jordan River basins and were selected to represent stream conditions in different land-use settings that are prominent within the basins, including agriculture, rangeland, urban, and forested. High-gradient streams had more diverse habitat conditions with larger substrates and more dynamic flow characteristics and were typically lower in discharge than low-gradient streams, which had a higher degree of siltation and lacked variability in geomorphic channel characteristics, which may account for differences in habitat. Habitat scores were higher at high-gradient sites with high percentages of forested land use within their basins. Sources and causes of stream habitat impairment included effects from channel modifications, siltation, and riparian land use. Effects of hydrologic modifications were evident at many sites. Algal sites where colder temperatures, less nutrient enrichment, and forest and rangeland uses dominated the basins contained communities that were more sensitive to organic pollution, siltation, dissolved oxygen, and salinity than sites that were warmer, had higher degrees of nutrient enrichment, and were affected by agriculture and urban land uses. Sites that had high inputs of solar radiation and generally were associated with agricultural land use supported the greatest number of algal species. Invertebrate samples collected from sites where riffles were the richest-targeted habitat differed in species composition and pollution tolerance from those collected at sites that did not have riffle habitat (nonriffle sites), where samples were collected in depositional areas, woody snags, or macrophyte beds

  13. Aptian ‘Shale Gas’ Prospectivity in the Downdip Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Gulf Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Valentine, Brett J.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Scott, Krystina R.; Dulong, Frank T.; Bove, Alana M.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates regional ‘shale gas’ prospectivity of the Aptian section (primarily Pine Island Shale) in the downdip Mississippi Salt Basin (MSB). Previous work by the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered gas resource of 8.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) in the chronostratigraphic-equivalent Pearsall Formation in the Maverick Basin of south Texas, where industry has established a moderately successful horizontal gas and liquids play. Wells penetrating the downdip MSB Aptian section at depths of 12,000-15,000 ft were used to correlate formation tops in a 15-well cross-section extending about 200 miles (mi) east-southeastward from Adams Co. to Jackson Co. Legacy cuttings from these wells were analyzed for thermal maturity and source rock quality. Bitumen reflectance (n=53) increases with increasing present-day burial depth in the east-central study area from 1.0% to 1.7%. As the Aptian section shallows in Adams Co. to the west, bitumen Ro values are higher (1.7-2.0%), either from relatively greater heat flux or greater mid-Cenomanian uplift and erosion in this area. Total organic carbon (TOC) content ranges 0.01-1.21 and averages 0.5 wt.% (n=51); pyrolysis output (S2; n=51) averages 0.40 mg HC/g rock, indicating little present-day hydrocarbon-generative potential. Bitumen reflectance is preferred as a thermal maturity parameter as Tmax values are unreliable. Normalized X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineral analyses (n=26) indicate high average clay abundance (53 wt.%) relative to quartz (29%) and carbonate (18%). Mineral content shows a spatial relationship to an Appalachian orogen clastic sediment source, with proximal high clay and quartz and distal high carbonate content. Clastic influx from the Appalachian orogen is confirmed by detrital zircon U-Pb ages with dominant Grenville and Paleozoic components [105 ages from a Rodessa sandstone and 112 ages from a Paluxy (Albian) sandstone]. Preliminary information from fluid inclusion microthermometry

  14. Volatile emissions and gas geochemistry of Hot Spring Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C.; Hurwitz, S.; Evans, William C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Bergfeld, D.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Hunt, A.

    2008-01-01

    We characterize and quantify volatile emissions at Hot Spring Basin (HSB), a large acid-sulfate region that lies just outside the northeastern edge of the 640??ka Yellowstone Caldera. Relative to other thermal areas in Yellowstone, HSB gases are rich in He and H2, and mildly enriched in CH4 and H2S. Gas compositions are consistent with boiling directly off a deep geothermal liquid at depth as it migrates toward the surface. This fluid, and the gases evolved from it, carries geochemical signatures of magmatic volatiles and water-rock reactions with multiple crustal sources, including limestones or quartz-rich sediments with low K/U (or 40*Ar/4*He). Variations in gas chemistry across the region reflect reservoir heterogeneity and variable degrees of boiling. Gas-geothermometer temperatures approach 300????C and suggest that the reservoir feeding HSB is one of the hottest at Yellowstone. Diffuse CO2 flux in the western basin of HSB, as measured by accumulation-chamber methods, is similar in magnitude to other acid-sulfate areas of Yellowstone and is well correlated to shallow soil temperatures. The extrapolation of diffuse CO2 fluxes across all the thermal/altered area suggests that 410 ?? 140??t d- 1 CO2 are emitted at HSB (vent emissions not included). Diffuse fluxes of H2S were measured in Yellowstone for the first time and likely exceed 2.4??t d- 1 at HSB. Comparing estimates of the total estimated diffuse H2S emission to the amount of sulfur as SO42- in streams indicates ~ 50% of the original H2S in the gas emission is lost into shallow groundwater, precipitated as native sulfur, or vented through fumaroles. We estimate the heat output of HSB as ~ 140-370??MW using CO2 as a tracer for steam condensate, but not including the contribution from fumaroles and hydrothermal vents. Overall, the diffuse heat and volatile fluxes of HSB are as great as some active volcanoes, but they are a small fraction (1-3% for CO2, 2-8% for heat) of that estimated for the entire

  15. Modeling Potential Climatic Treeline of Great Basin Bristlecone Pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, J. M.; Tran, T. J.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a valuable paleoclimate resource due to the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Recent work has shown that low growing season temperatures limit tree growth at the upper treeline ecotone. The presence of precisely dated remnant wood above modern treeline shows that this ecotone shifts at centennial timescales; in some areas during the Holocene climatic optimum treeline was 100 m higher than at present. A recent model from Paulsen and Körner (2014, doi:10.1007/s00035-014-0124-0) predicts global potential treeline position as a function of climate. The model develops three parameters necessary to sustain a temperature-limited treeline; a growing season longer than 94 days, defined by all days with a mean temperature >0.9 °C, and a mean temperature of 6.4 °C across the entire growing season. While maintaining impressive global accuracy in treeline prediction, these parameters are not specific to the semi-arid Great Basin bristlecone pine treelines in Nevada. In this study, we used 49 temperature sensors arrayed across approximately one square kilometer of complex terrain at treeline on Mount Washington to model temperatures using topographic indices. Results show relatively accurate prediction throughout the growing season (e.g., July average daily temperatures were modeled with an R2 of 0.80 and an RMSE of 0.29 °C). The modeled temperatures enabled calibration of a regional treeline model, yielding different parameters needed to predict potential treeline than the global model. Preliminary results indicate that modern Bristlecone pine treeline on and around Mount Washington occurs in areas with a longer growing season length (~160 days defined by all days with a mean temperature >0.9 °C) and a warmer seasonal mean temperature (~9 °C) than the global average. This work will provide a baseline data set on treeline position in the Snake Range derived only from parameters physiologically relevant to

  16. Volatile emissions and gas geochemistry of Hot Spring Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C.; Hurwitz, S.; Evans, W. C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Bergfeld, D.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Hunt, A.

    2008-12-01

    We characterize and quantify volatile emissions at Hot Spring Basin (HSB), a large acid-sulfate region that lies just outside the northeastern edge of the 640 ka Yellowstone Caldera. Relative to other thermal areas in Yellowstone, HSB gases are rich in He and H 2, and mildly enriched in CH 4 and H 2S. Gas compositions are consistent with boiling directly off a deep geothermal liquid at depth as it migrates toward the surface. This fluid, and the gases evolved from it, carries geochemical signatures of magmatic volatiles and water-rock reactions with multiple crustal sources, including limestones or quartz-rich sediments with low K/U (or 40*Ar/ 4*He). Variations in gas chemistry across the region reflect reservoir heterogeneity and variable degrees of boiling. Gas-geothermometer temperatures approach 300 °C and suggest that the reservoir feeding HSB is one of the hottest at Yellowstone. Diffuse CO 2 flux in the western basin of HSB, as measured by accumulation-chamber methods, is similar in magnitude to other acid-sulfate areas of Yellowstone and is well correlated to shallow soil temperatures. The extrapolation of diffuse CO 2 fluxes across all the thermal/altered area suggests that 410 ± 140 t d - 1 CO 2 are emitted at HSB (vent emissions not included). Diffuse fluxes of H 2S were measured in Yellowstone for the first time and likely exceed 2.4 t d - 1 at HSB. Comparing estimates of the total estimated diffuse H 2S emission to the amount of sulfur as SO 42- in streams indicates ~ 50% of the original H 2S in the gas emission is lost into shallow groundwater, precipitated as native sulfur, or vented through fumaroles. We estimate the heat output of HSB as ~ 140-370 MW using CO 2 as a tracer for steam condensate, but not including the contribution from fumaroles and hydrothermal vents. Overall, the diffuse heat and volatile fluxes of HSB are as great as some active volcanoes, but they are a small fraction (1-3% for CO 2, 2-8% for heat) of that estimated for the

  17. Energy Development Opportunities for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick

    2012-11-01

    The Wyoming Business Council, representing the state’s interests, is participating in a collaborative evaluation of energy development opportunities with the NGNP Industry Alliance (an industry consortium), the University of Wyoming, and the US Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory. Three important energy-related goals are being pursued by the State of Wyoming: Ensuring continued reliable and affordable sources of energy for Wyoming’s industries and people Restructuring the coal economy in Wyoming Restructuring the natural gas economy in Wyoming

  18. Riverine Landscape Patch Heterogeneity Drives Riparian Ant Assemblages in the Scioto River Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagwireyi, Paradzayi; Sullivan, S Mažeika P

    2015-01-01

    Although the principles of landscape ecology are increasingly extended to include riverine landscapes, explicit applications are few. We investigated associations between patch heterogeneity and riparian ant assemblages at 12 riverine landscapes of the Scioto River, Ohio, USA, that represent urban/developed, agricultural, and mixed (primarily forested, but also wetland, grassland/fallow, and exurban) land-use settings. Using remotely-sensed and ground-collected data, we delineated riverine landscape patch types (crop, grass/herbaceous, gravel, lawn, mudflat, open water, shrub, swamp, and woody vegetation), computed patch metrics (area, density, edge, richness, and shape), and conducted coordinated sampling of surface-active Formicidae assemblages. Ant density and species richness was lower in agricultural riverine landscapes than at mixed or developed reaches (measured using S [total number of species], but not using Menhinick's Index [DM]), whereas ant diversity (using the Berger-Park Index [DBP]) was highest in agricultural reaches. We found no differences in ant density, richness, or diversity among internal riverine landscape patches. However, certain characteristics of patches influenced ant communities. Patch shape and density were significant predictors of richness (S: R2 = 0.72; DM: R2=0.57). Patch area, edge, and shape emerged as important predictors of DBP (R2 = 0.62) whereas patch area, edge, and density were strongly related to ant density (R2 = 0.65). Non-metric multidimensional scaling and analysis of similarities distinguished ant assemblage composition in grass and swamp patches from crop, gravel, lawn, and shrub as well as ant assemblages in woody vegetation patches from crop, lawn, and gravel (stress = 0.18, R2 = 0.64). These findings lend insight into the utility of landscape ecology to river science by providing evidence that spatial habitat patterns within riverine landscapes can influence assemblage characteristics of riparian arthropods.

  19. Silt and gas accumulation beneath an artificial recharge spreading basin, Southwestern Utah, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, D.K.; Ortiz, G.

    2009-01-01

    Sand Hollow Reservoir in southwestern Utah, USA, is operated for both surface-water storage and artificial recharge to the underlying Navajo Sandstone. The total volume of estimated artificial recharge between 2002 and 2007 is 85 million cubic meters (69,000 acre-feet). Since 2002, artificial recharge rates have generally been declining and are inversely correlated with the increasing surface area of the reservoir. Permeability testing of core samples retrieved from beneath the reservoir indicates that this decline may not be due to silt accumulation. Artificial recharge rates also show much seasonal variability. Calculations of apparent intrinsic permeability show that these variations can only partly be explained by variation in water viscosity associated with seasonal changes in water temperature. Sporadic seasonal trends in recharge rates and intrinsic permeability during 2002-2004 could be associated with the large fluctuations in reservoir elevation and wetted area. From 2005 through 2007, the reservoir was mostly full and there has been a more consistent seasonal pattern of minimum recharge rates during the summer and maximum rates during the autumn. Total dissolved-gas pressure measurements indicate the presence of biogenic gas bubbles in the shallow sediments beneath the shallower parts of Sand Hollow Reservoir when the water is warmer. Permeability reduction associated with this gas clogging may contribute to the decrease in artificial recharge rates during the spring and summer, with a subsequently increasing recharge rates in the autumn associated with a decline in volume of gas bubbles. Other possible causes for seasonal variation in artificial recharge rates require further investigation.

  20. Riverine Landscape Patch Heterogeneity Drives Riparian Ant Assemblages in the Scioto River Basin, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradzayi Tagwireyi

    Full Text Available Although the principles of landscape ecology are increasingly extended to include riverine landscapes, explicit applications are few. We investigated associations between patch heterogeneity and riparian ant assemblages at 12 riverine landscapes of the Scioto River, Ohio, USA, that represent urban/developed, agricultural, and mixed (primarily forested, but also wetland, grassland/fallow, and exurban land-use settings. Using remotely-sensed and ground-collected data, we delineated riverine landscape patch types (crop, grass/herbaceous, gravel, lawn, mudflat, open water, shrub, swamp, and woody vegetation, computed patch metrics (area, density, edge, richness, and shape, and conducted coordinated sampling of surface-active Formicidae assemblages. Ant density and species richness was lower in agricultural riverine landscapes than at mixed or developed reaches (measured using S [total number of species], but not using Menhinick's Index [DM], whereas ant diversity (using the Berger-Park Index [DBP] was highest in agricultural reaches. We found no differences in ant density, richness, or diversity among internal riverine landscape patches. However, certain characteristics of patches influenced ant communities. Patch shape and density were significant predictors of richness (S: R2 = 0.72; DM: R2=0.57. Patch area, edge, and shape emerged as important predictors of DBP (R2 = 0.62 whereas patch area, edge, and density were strongly related to ant density (R2 = 0.65. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and analysis of similarities distinguished ant assemblage composition in grass and swamp patches from crop, gravel, lawn, and shrub as well as ant assemblages in woody vegetation patches from crop, lawn, and gravel (stress = 0.18, R2 = 0.64. These findings lend insight into the utility of landscape ecology to river science by providing evidence that spatial habitat patterns within riverine landscapes can influence assemblage characteristics of riparian

  1. Dams, floodplain land use, and riparian forest conservation in the semiarid Upper Colorado River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D.C.; Cooper, D.J.; Northcott, K.

    2007-01-01

    Land and water resource development can independently eliminate riparian plant communities, including Fremont cottonwood forest (CF), a major contributor to ecosystem structure and functioning in semiarid portions of the American Southwest. We tested whether floodplain development was linked to river regulation in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) by relating the extent of five developed land-cover categories as well as CF and other natural vegetation to catchment reservoir capacity, changes in total annual and annual peak discharge, and overall level of mainstem hydrologic alteration (small, moderate, or large) in 26 fourth-order subbasins. We also asked whether CF appeared to be in jeopardy at a regional level. We classified 51% of the 57,000 ha of alluvial floodplain examined along >2600 km of mainstem rivers as CF and 36% as developed. The proportion developed was unrelated to the level of mainstem hydrologic alteration. The proportion classified as CF was also independent of the level of hydrologic alteration, a result we attribute to confounding effects from development, the presence of time lags, and contrasting effects from flow alteration in different subbasins. Most CF (68% by area) had a sparse canopy (???5% cover), and stands with >50% canopy cover occupied Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Three-Dimensional Geothermal Fairway Mapping: Examples From the Western Great Basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, Drew L [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno; Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-09-29

    Elevated permeability along fault systems provides pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids. Accurate location of such fluid flow pathways in the subsurface is crucial to future geothermal development in order to both accurately assess resource potential and mitigate drilling costs by increasing drilling success rates. Employing a variety of surface and subsurface data sets, we present detailed 3D geologic analyses of two Great Basin geothermal systems, the actively producing Brady’s geothermal system and a ‘greenfield’ geothermal prospect at Astor Pass, Nevada. 3D modeling provides the framework for quantitative structural analyses. We combine 3D slip and dilation tendency analysis along fault zones and calculations of fault intersection density in the two geothermal systems with the locations of lithologies capable of supporting dense, interconnected fracture networks. The collocation of these permeability promoting characteristics with elevated heat represent geothermal ‘fairways’, areas with ideal conditions for geothermal fluid flow. Location of geothermal fairways at high resolution in 3D space can help to mitigate the costs of geothermal exploration by providing discrete drilling targets and data-based evaluations of reservoir potential.

  3. ADVANCES IN HYDROGEOCHEMICAL INDICATORS FOR THE DISCOVERY OF NEW GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN THE GREAT BASIN, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Stuart F [Colorado School of Mines; Spycher, Nicolas [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Sonnenthal, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2013-05-20

    This report summarizes the results of Phase I work for a go/no go decision on Phase II funding. In the first objective, we assessed the extent to which fluid-mineral equilibria controlled deep water compositions in geothermal systems across the Great Basin. Six systems were evaluated: Beowawe; Desert Peak; Dixie Valley; Mammoth; Raft River; Roosevelt. These represent a geographic spread of geothermal resources, in different geological settings and with a wide range of fluid compositions. The results were used for calibration/reformulation of chemical geothermometers that reflect the reservoir temperatures in producing reservoirs. In the second objective, we developed a reactive -transport model of the Desert Peak hydrothermal system to evaluate the processes that affect reservoir fluid geochemistry and its effect on solute geothermometry. This included testing geothermometry on “reacted” thermal water originating from different lithologies and from near-surface locations where the temperature is known from the simulation. The integrated multi-component geothermometer (GeoT, relying on computed mineral saturation indices) was tested against the model results and also on the systems studied in the first objective.

  4. Effects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River basin, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas; Vitvar, Tomas; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Hassett, James; Duncan, Jonathan; Kendall, Carol

    2005-09-01

    The effects of impervious area, septic leach-field effluent, and a riparian wetland on runoff generation were studied in three small (0.38-0.56 km 2) headwater catchments that represent a range of suburban development (high density residential, medium density residential, and undeveloped) within the Croton River basin, 70 km north of New York City. Precipitation, stream discharge, and groundwater levels were monitored at 10-30 min intervals for 1 year, and stream water and groundwater samples were collected biweekly for δ 18O, NO 3-, and SO 42- analysis for more than 2 years during an overlapping period in 2000-2002. Data from 27 storms confirmed that peak magnitudes increased and recession time decreased with increasing development, but lags in peak arrival and peak discharge/mean discharge were greatest in the medium density residential catchment, which contains a wetland in which storm runoff is retained before entering the stream. Baseflow during a dry period from Aug. 2001-Feb. 2002 was greatest in the high-density residential catchment, presumably from the discharge of septic effluent through the shallow groundwater system and into the stream. In contrast, moderate flows during a wet period from Mar.-Aug. 2002 were greatest in the undeveloped catchment, possibly as a result of greater subsurface storage or greater hydraulic conductivity at this site. The mean residence time of baseflow was about 30 weeks at all three catchments, indicating that human influence was insufficient to greatly affect the groundwater recharge and discharge properties that determine catchment residence time. These results suggest that while suburban development and its associated impervious surfaces and storm drains accelerate the transport of storm runoff into streams, the combined effects of remnant natural landscape features such as wetlands and human alterations such as deep groundwater supply and septic systems can change the expected effects of human development on storm

  5. Testing fault growth models with low-temperature thermochronology in the northwest Basin and Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Magdalena A. E.; Barnes, Jason B.; Colgan, Joseph P.

    2016-10-01

    Common fault growth models diverge in predicting how faults accumulate displacement and lengthen through time. A paucity of field-based data documenting the lateral component of fault growth hinders our ability to test these models and fully understand how natural fault systems evolve. Here we outline a framework for using apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology (AHe) to quantify the along-strike growth of faults. To test our framework, we first use a transect in the normal fault-bounded Jackson Mountains in the Nevada Basin and Range Province, then apply the new framework to the adjacent Pine Forest Range. We combine new and existing cross sections with 18 new and 16 existing AHe cooling ages to determine the spatiotemporal variability in footwall exhumation and evaluate models for fault growth. Three age-elevation transects in the Pine Forest Range show that rapid exhumation began along the range-front fault between approximately 15 and 11 Ma at rates of 0.2-0.4 km/Myr, ultimately exhuming approximately 1.5-5 km. The ages of rapid exhumation identified at each transect lie within data uncertainty, indicating concomitant onset of faulting along strike. We show that even in the case of growth by fault-segment linkage, the fault would achieve its modern length within 3-4 Myr of onset. Comparison with the Jackson Mountains highlights the inadequacies of spatially limited sampling. A constant fault-length growth model is the best explanation for our thermochronology results. We advocate that low-temperature thermochronology can be further utilized to better understand and quantify fault growth with broader implications for seismic hazard assessments and the coevolution of faulting and topography.

  6. A Hydraulic Tomography Experiment in Fractured Sedimentary Rocks, Newark Basin, New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedeman, C. R.; Barrash, W.; Thrash, C. J.; Johnson, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic tomography was performed in July 2015 in contaminated fractured mudstone beds at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in the Newark Basin near Trenton, NJ using seven existing wells. The spatial arrangement of wells (in a circle of 9 m radius with one central well), the use of packers to divide the wells into multiple monitoring intervals, and the deployment of fiber optic pressure transducers enabled collection of a hydraulic tomography dataset comprising high-resolution drawdown observations at an unprecedented level of spatial detail for fractured rocks. The experiment involved 45-minute cross-hole aquifer tests, conducted by pumping from a given packer-isolated well interval and continuously monitoring drawdowns in all other well intervals. The collective set of drawdown data from all tests and intervals displays a wide range of behavior suggestive of highly heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity (K) within the tested volume, such as: drawdown curves for different well intervals crossing one another on drawdown-time plots; variable drawdown curve shapes, including linear segments on log-log plots; variable order and magnitude of time-lag and/or drawdown for intervals of a given well in response to pumping from similar fractures or stratigraphic units in different wells; and variable groupings of wells and intervals showing similar responses for different pumping tests. The observed behavior is consistent with previous testing at the NAWC indicating that K within and across individual mudstone beds can vary by orders of magnitude over scales of meters. Preliminary assessment of the drawdown data together with a rich set of geophysical logs suggests an initial conceptual model that includes densely distributed fractures of moderate K at the shallowest depths of the tested volume, connected high-K bedding-plane-parting fractures at intermediate depths, and sparse low-K fractures in the deeper rocks. Future work will involve tomographic inversion of

  7. Fire and Climate History of Mixed Conifer Woodlands in the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, F.; Bradley, M.; Cheek, J.; Jamieson, L.; Kilpatrick, M.; Sibold, J.; Strachan, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    We investigated climate, fire, and species dynamics before and after Euro-American settlement at two locations in Lincoln County, Nevada. Both the Mt. Irish and Clover Mountains sites are isolated high ranges in the southern Great Basin Desert, not far from the floristic boundary with the northern Mojave Desert. At Mt. Irish, non-scarred ponderosa pines and single-leaf piñons were used to develop a tree-ring reconstruction of drought (mean PDSI for May-July, NV Clim. Div. 3) from 1396 to 2003. Fire-scarred ponderosas found at both study areas were then sampled, and crossdated fire-scar records were used to generate the fire history. A total of 12 plots, each 0.1 ha in size, was sampled at each site to quantify stand structure, age of surviving trees, and fuel loads. Additional information on species dynamics were collected at regularly spaced grid points. Density of pinyon pine at both sites has more than doubled since Euro-American settlement, with peak survivorship occurring in 1900-1940 at Mount Irish and 1930-1970 at the Clover Mountains. Pre-settlement trees occur throughout each site, particularly at Mount Irish, where in 1550-1860 fires that scarred at least two trees were very frequent (mean fire return interval: 4 years), while fires that scarred at least 10% of the recorder trees were relatively rare (mean fire return interval: 66 years). At the Clover Mountains, for the period 1785-2007, fires that scarred at least two trees and fires that scarred at least 10% of the recorder trees had more similar mean fire return intervals: 7 and 12 years. Fire frequency did not decrease during the 1780-1840 period, when fire was reduced or absent in other areas of the western United States. Much lower fire frequency was noted after Euro-American settlement at Mt. Irish, most likely because of less favorable climatic conditions, while the difference was less pronounced, and also affected by fire suppression activity, at the Clover Mountains. Fuel loads at the two

  8. Discovery of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae, Pterygoplichthys spp.) in the Santa Fe River drainage, Suwannee River basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Butt, Peter L.; Johnston, Gerald R.; Jelks, Howard L.; Kail, Matthew; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the occurrence of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) in the Suwannee River basin, southeastern USA. Over the past few years (2009-2012), loricariid catfishes have been observed at various sites in the Santa Fe River drainage, a major tributary of the Suwannee in the state of Florida. Similar to other introduced populations of Pterygoplichthys, there is high likelihood of hybridization. To date, we have captured nine specimens (270-585 mm, standard length) in the Santa Fe River drainage. One specimen taken from Poe Spring best agrees with Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner, 1854) or may be a hybrid with either P. pardalis or P. disjunctivus. The other specimens were taken from several sites in the drainage and include seven that best agree with Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991); and one a possible P. disjunctivus x P. pardalis hybrid. We observed additional individuals, either these or similar appearing loricariids, in Hornsby and Poe springs and at various sites upstream and downstream of the long (> 4 km) subterranean portion of the Santa Fe River. These specimens represent the first confirmed records of Pterygoplichthys in the Suwannee River basin. The P. gibbiceps specimen represents the first documented record of an adult or near adult of this species in open waters of North America. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus or its hybrids (perhaps hybrid swarms) are already abundant and widespread in other parts of peninsular Florida, but the Santa Fe River represents a northern extension of the catfish in the state. Pterygoplichthys are still relatively uncommon in the Santa Fe drainage and successful reproduction not yet documented. However, in May 2012 we captured five adult catfish (two mature or maturing males and three gravid females) from a single riverine swallet pool. One male was stationed at a nest burrow (no eggs present). To survive the occasional harsh Florida winters, these South American catfish apparently use

  9. Multi-scale responses of vegetation to removal of horse grazing from Great Basin (USA) mountain ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, E.A.; Tausch, R.J.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Although free-roaming equids occur on all of the world's continents except Antarctica, very few studies (and none in the Great Basin, USA) have either investigated their grazing effects on vegetation at more than one spatial scale or compared characteristics of areas from which grazing has been removed to those of currently grazed areas. We compared characteristics of vegetation at 19 sites in nine mountain ranges of the western Great Basin; sites were either grazed by feral horses (Equus caballus) or had had horses removed for the last 10-14 years. We selected horse-occupied and horse-removed sites with similar aspect, slope, fire history, grazing pressure by cattle (minimal to none), and dominant vegetation (Artemisia tridentata). During 1997 and 1998, line-intercept transects randomly located within sites revealed that horse-removed sites exhibited 1.1-1.9 times greater shrub cover, 1.2-1.5 times greater total plant cover, 2-12 species greater plant species richness, and 1.9-2.9 times greater cover and 1.1-2.4 times greater frequency of native grasses than did horse-occupied sites. In contrast, sites with horses tended to have more grazing-resistant forbs and exotic plants. Direction and magnitude of landscape-scale results were corroborated by smaller-scale comparisons within horse-occupied sites of horse-trail transects and (randomly located) transects that characterized overall site conditions. Information-theoretic analyses that incorporated various subsets of abiotic variables suggested that presence of horses was generally a strong determinant of those vegetation-related variables that differed significantly between treatments, especially frequency and cover of grasses, but also species richness and shrub cover and frequency. In contrast, abiotic variables such as precipitation, site elevation, and soil erodibility best predicted characteristics such as forb cover, shrub frequency, and continuity of the shrub canopy. We found species richness of plants

  10. Groundwater flow in an `underfit' carbonate aquifer in a semiarid climate: application of environmental tracers to the Salt Basin, New Mexico (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigstedt, Sophia C.; Phillips, Fred M.; Ritchie, Andre B. O.

    2016-06-01

    The Salt Basin is a semiarid hydrologically closed drainage basin in southern New Mexico, USA. The aquifers in the basin consist largely of Permian limestone and dolomite. Groundwater flows from the high elevations (˜2,500 m) of the Sacramento Mountains south into the Salt Lakes, which are saline playas. The aquifer is `underfit' in the sense that depths to groundwater are great (˜300 m), implying that the aquifer could transmit much more water than it does. In this study, it is speculated that this characteristic is a result of a geologically recent reduction in recharge due to warming and drying at the end of the last glacial period. Water use is currently limited, but the basin has been proposed for large-scale groundwater extraction and export projects. Wells in the basin are of limited utility for hydraulic testing; therefore, the study focused on environmental tracers (major-ion geochemistry, stable isotopes of O, H, and C, and 14C dating) for basin analysis. The groundwater evolves from a Ca-HCO3 type water into a Ca-Mg (Na) - HCO3-Mg (Cl) water as it flows toward the center of the basin due to dedolomitization driven by gypsum dissolution. Carbon-14 ages corrected for dedolomitization ranged from less than 1,000 years in the recharge area to 19,000 years near the basin center. Stable isotopes are consistent with the presence of glacial-period recharge that is much less evaporated than modern. This supports the hypothesis that the underfit nature of the aquifer is a result of a geologically recent reduction in recharge.

  11. Chemical and stable isotopic composition of water and gas in the Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Evidence for water/rock interaction and the biogenic origin of coalbed natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cynthia A.; Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Ellis, Margaret S.

    2008-01-01

    Significant amounts (> 36 million m3/day) of coalbed methane (CBM) are currently being extracted from coal beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Information on processes that generate methane in these coalbed reservoirs is important for developing methods that will stimulate additional production. The chemical and isotopic compositions of gas and ground water from CBM wells throughout the basin reflect generation processes as well as those that affect water/rock interaction. Our study included analyses of water samples collected from 228 CBM wells. Major cations and anions were measured for all samples, δDH2O and δ18OH2O were measured for 199 of the samples, and δDCH4 of gas co-produced with water was measured for 100 of the samples. Results show that (1) water from Fort Union Formation coal beds is exclusively Na–HCO3-type water with low dissolved SO4 content (median < 1 mg/L) and little or no dissolved oxygen (< 0.15 mg/L), whereas shallow groundwater (depth generally < 120 m) is a mixed Ca–Mg–Na–SO4–HCO3 type; (2) water/rock interactions, such as cation exchange on clay minerals and precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 and SO4 minerals, account for the accumulation of dissolved Na and depletion of Ca and Mg; (3) bacterially-mediated oxidation–reduction reactions account for high HCO3 (270–3310 mg/L) and low SO4 (median < 0.15 mg/L) values; (4) fractionation between δDCH4 (− 283 to − 328 per mil) and δDH2O (− 121 to − 167 per mil) indicates that the production of methane is primarily by biogenic CO2 reduction; and (5) values of δDH2O and δ18OH2O (− 16 to − 22 per mil) have a wide range of values and plot near or above the global meteoric water line, indicating that the original meteoric water has been influenced by methanogenesis and by being mixed with surface and shallow groundwater.

  12. Use of Fatty Acid Analysis to Determine Dispersal of Caspian Terns in the Columbia River Basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranto, C.J.; Parrish, J.K.; Herman, D.P.; Punt, A.E.; Olden, J.D.; Brett, M.T.; Roby, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lethal control, which has been used to reduce local abundances of animals in conflict with humans or with endangered species, may not achieve management goals if animal movement is not considered. In populations with emigration and immigration, lethal control may induce compensatory immigration, if the source of attraction remains unchanged. Within the Columbia River Basin (Washington, U.S.A.), avian predators forage at dams because dams tend to reduce rates of emigration of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), artificially concentrating these prey. We used differences in fatty acid profiles between Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia) at coastal and inland breeding colonies and terns culled by a lethal control program at a mid-Columbia River dam to infer dispersal patterns. We modeled the rate of loss of fatty acid biomarkers, which are fatty acids that can be traced to a single prey species or groups of species, to infer whether and when terns foraging at dams had emigrated from the coast. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that coastal terns had high levels of C20 and C22 monounsaturated fatty acids, whereas fatty acids of inland breeders were high in C18:3n3, C20:4n6, and C22:5n3. Models of the rate of loss of fatty acid showed that approximately 60% of the terns collected at Rock Island Dam were unlikely to have bred successfully at local (inland) sites, suggesting that terns foraging at dams come from an extensive area. Fatty acid biomarkers may provide accurate information about patterns of dispersal in animal populations and may be extremely valuable in cases where populations differ demonstrably in prey base. ??2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Urbanization is a major influence on microplastic ingestion by sunfish in the Brazos River Basin, Central Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Colleen A; Bratton, Susan P

    2016-03-01

    Microplastics, degraded and weathered polymer-based particles, and manufactured products ranging between 50 and 5000 μm in size, are found within marine, freshwater, and estuarine environments. While numerous peer-reviewed papers have quantified the ingestion of microplastics by marine vertebrates, relatively few studies have focused on microplastic ingestion by freshwater organisms. This study documents microplastic and manufactured fiber ingestion by bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and longear (Lepomis megalotis) sunfish (Centrarchidae) from the Brazos River Basin, between Lake Whitney and Marlin, Texas, USA. Fourteen sample sites were studied and categorized into urban, downstream, and upstream areas. A total of 436 sunfish were collected, and 196 (45%) stomachs contained microplastics. Four percent (4%) of items sampled were debris on the macro size scale (i.e. >5 mm) and consisted of masses of plastic, metal, Styrofoam, or fishing material, while 96% of items sampled were in the form of microplastic threads. Fish length was statistically correlated to the number of microplastics detected (p = 0.019). Fish collected from urban sites displayed the highest mean number of microplastics ingested, followed by downstream and upstream sites. Microplastics were associated with the ingestion of other debris items (e.g. sand and wood) and correlated to the ingestion of fish eggs, earthworms, and mollusks, suggesting that sunfish incidentally ingest microplastics during their normal feeding methods. The high frequency of microplastic ingestion suggest that further research is needed to determine the residence time of microplastics within the stomach and gut, potential for food web transfer, and adverse effects on wildlife and ecosystemic health.

  14. Identifying groundwater recharge connections in the Moscow (USA) sub-basin using isotopic tracers and a soil moisture routing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, Jasper; Brooks, Erin; Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Grader, George; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-11-01

    Globally, aquifers are suffering from large abstractions resulting in groundwater level declines. These declines can be caused by excessive abstraction for drinking water, irrigation purposes or industrial use. Basaltic aquifers also face these conflicts. A large flood basalt area (1.1 × 105 km2) can be found in the Northwest of the USA. This Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) consists of a thick series of basalt flows of Miocene age. The two major hydrogeological units (Wanapum and Grand Ronde formations) are widely used for water abstraction. The mean decline over recent decades has been 0.6 m year-1. At present day, abstraction wells are drying up, and base flow of rivers is reduced. At the eastern part of CRBG, the Moscow sub-basin on the Idaho/Washington State border can be found. Although a thick poorly permeable clay layer exists on top of the basalt aquifer, groundwater level dynamics suggest that groundwater recharge occurs at certain locations. A set of wells and springs has been monitored bi-weekly for 9 months for δ18O and δ2H. Large isotopic fluctuations and d-excess values close to the meteoric water line in some wells are indicating that recharge occurs at the granite/basalt interface through lateral flow paths in and below the clay. A soil moisture routing (SMR) model showed that most recharge occurs on the granitic mountains. The basaltic aquifer receives recharge from these sedimentary zones around the granite/basalt interface. The identification of these types of areas is of major importance for future managed-aquifer recharge solutions to solve problems of groundwater depletion.

  15. Interactive effects of water diversion and climate change for juvenile chinook salmon in the lemhi river basin (USA.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Annika W; Bartz, Krista K; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    The combined effects of water diversion and climate change are a major conservation challenge for freshwater ecosystems. In the Lemhi Basin, Idaho (U.S.A.), water diversion causes changes in streamflow, and climate change will further affect streamflow and temperature. Shifts in streamflow and temperature regimes can affect juvenile salmon growth, movement, and survival. We examined the potential effects of water diversion and climate change on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). To examine the effects for juvenile survival, we created a model relating 19 years of juvenile survival data to streamflow and temperature and found spring streamflow and summer temperature were good predictors of juvenile survival. We used these models to project juvenile survival for 15 diversion and climate-change scenarios. Projected survival was 42-58% lower when streamflows were diverted than when streamflows were undiverted. For diverted streamflows, 2040 climate-change scenarios (ECHO-G and CGCM3.1 T47) resulted in an additional 11-39% decrease in survival. We also created models relating habitat carrying capacity to streamflow and made projections for diversion and climate-change scenarios. Habitat carrying capacity estimated for diverted streamflows was 17-58% lower than for undiverted streamflows. Climate-change scenarios resulted in additional decreases in carrying capacity for the dry (ECHO-G) climate model. Our results indicate climate change will likely pose an additional stressor that should be considered when evaluating the effects of anthropogenic actions on salmon population status. Thus, this type of analysis will be especially important for evaluating effects of specific actions on a particular species. Efectos Interactivos de la Desviación del Agua y el Cambio Climático en Individuos Juveniles de Salmón Chinook en la Cuenca del Río Lemhi (E.U.A.).

  16. Identifying groundwater recharge connections in the Moscow (USA) sub-basin using isotopic tracers and a soil moisture routing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, Jasper; Brooks, Erin; Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Grader, George; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-06-01

    Globally, aquifers are suffering from large abstractions resulting in groundwater level declines. These declines can be caused by excessive abstraction for drinking water, irrigation purposes or industrial use. Basaltic aquifers also face these conflicts. A large flood basalt area (1.1 × 105 km2) can be found in the Northwest of the USA. This Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) consists of a thick series of basalt flows of Miocene age. The two major hydrogeological units (Wanapum and Grand Ronde formations) are widely used for water abstraction. The mean decline over recent decades has been 0.6 m year-1. At present day, abstraction wells are drying up, and base flow of rivers is reduced. At the eastern part of CRBG, the Moscow sub-basin on the Idaho/Washington State border can be found. Although a thick poorly permeable clay layer exists on top of the basalt aquifer, groundwater level dynamics suggest that groundwater recharge occurs at certain locations. A set of wells and springs has been monitored bi-weekly for 9 months for δ18O and δ2H. Large isotopic fluctuations and d-excess values close to the meteoric water line in some wells are indicating that recharge occurs at the granite/basalt interface through lateral flow paths in and below the clay. A soil moisture routing (SMR) model showed that most recharge occurs on the granitic mountains. The basaltic aquifer receives recharge from these sedimentary zones around the granite/basalt interface. The identification of these types of areas is of major importance for future managed-aquifer recharge solutions to solve problems of groundwater depletion.

  17. Recent desiccation of Western Great Basin Saline Lakes: Lessons from Lake Abert, Oregon, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Johnnie N

    2016-06-01

    Although extremely important to migrating waterfowl and shorebirds, and highly threatened globally, most saline lakes are poorly monitored. Lake Abert in the western Great Basin, USA, is an example of this neglect. Designated a critical habitat under the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, the lake is at near record historic low levels and ultra-high salinities that have resulted in ecosystem collapse. Determination of the direct human effects and broader climate controls on Lake Abert illustrates the broader problem of saline lake desiccation and suggests future solutions for restoration of key habitat values. A 65-year time series of lake area was constructed from Landsat images and transformed to lake volume and salinity. "Natural" (without upstream withdrawals) conditions were calculated from climate and stream flow data, and compared to measured volume and salinity. Under natural conditions the lake would have higher volume and lower salinities because annual water withdrawals account for one-third of mean lake volume. Without withdrawals, the lake would have maintained annual mean salinities mostly within the optimal range of brine shrimp and alkali fly growth. Even during the last two years of major drought, the lake would have maintained salinities well below measured values. Change in climate alone would not produce the recent low lake volumes and high salinities that have destroyed the brine shrimp and alkali fly populations and depleted shorebird use at Lake Abert. Large scale withdrawal of water for direct human use has drastically increased the imbalance between natural runoff and evaporation during periods of drought in saline lakes worldwide but could be offset by establishing an "environmental water budget" to lay a foundation for the conservation of saline lake habitats under continued threats from development and climate change.

  18. Expansion and Enhacement of the Wyoming Coalbed Methane Clearinghouse Website to the Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulme, Diana [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Hamerlinck, Jeffrey [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Bergman, Harold [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Oakleaf, Jim [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2010-03-25

    Energy development is expanding across the United States, particularly in western states like Wyoming. Federal and state land management agencies, local governments, industry and non-governmental organizations have realized the need to access spatially-referenced data and other non-spatial information to determine the geographical extent and cumulative impacts of expanding energy development. The Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse (WERIC) is a web-based portal which centralizes access to news, data, maps, reports and other information related to the development, management and conservation of Wyoming's diverse energy resources. WERIC was established in 2006 by the University of Wyoming's Ruckelshaus Institute of Environment and Natural Resources (ENR) and the Wyoming Geographic Information Science Center (WyGISC) with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The WERIC web portal originated in concept from a more specifically focused website, the Coalbed Methane (CBM) Clearinghouse. The CBM Clearinghouse effort focused only on coalbed methane production within the Powder River Basin of northeast Wyoming. The CBM Clearinghouse demonstrated a need to expand the effort statewide with a comprehensive energy focus, including fossil fuels and renewable and alternative energy resources produced and/or developed in Wyoming. WERIC serves spatial data to the greater Wyoming geospatial community through the Wyoming GeoLibrary, the WyGISC Data Server and the Wyoming Energy Map. These applications are critical components that support the Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse (WERIC). The Wyoming GeoLibrary is a tool for searching and browsing a central repository for metadata. It provides the ability to publish and maintain metadata and geospatial data in a distributed environment. The WyGISC Data Server is an internet mapping application that provides traditional GIS mapping and analysis

  19. Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Bala; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L; Cully, Jack F

    2008-07-01

    Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off.

  20. Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, B.; Bal, Y.; Gage, K.L.; Cully, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  1. Quantity and location of groundwater recharge in the Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico (USA), and their relation to the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawling, Geoffrey C.; Newton, B. Talon

    2016-06-01

    The Sacramento Mountains and the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin, in south-central New Mexico (USA), comprise a regional hydrologic system, wherein recharge in the mountains ultimately supplies water to the confined basin aquifer. Geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and climatologic data were used to delineate the area of recharge in the southern Sacramento Mountains. The water-table fluctuation and chloride mass-balance methods were used to quantify recharge over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Extrapolation of the quantitative recharge estimates to the entire Sacramento Mountains region allowed comparison with previous recharge estimates for the northern Sacramento Mountains and the Roswell Artesian Basin. Recharge in the Sacramento Mountains is estimated to range from 159.86 × 106 to 209.42 × 106 m3/year. Both the location of recharge and range in estimates is consistent with previous work that suggests that ~75 % of the recharge to the confined aquifer in the Roswell Artesian Basin has moved downgradient through the Yeso Formation from distal recharge areas in the Sacramento Mountains. A smaller recharge component is derived from infiltration of streamflow beneath the major drainages that cross the Pecos Slope, but in the southern Sacramento Mountains much of this water is ultimately derived from spring discharge. Direct recharge across the Pecos Slope between the mountains and the confined basin aquifer is much smaller than either of the other two components.

  2. Petrographic maturity parameters of a Devonian shale maturation series, Appalachian Basin, USA. ICCP Thermal Indices Working Group interlaboratory exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Carla Viviane; Borrego, Angeles G.; Cardott, Brian; das Chagas, Renata Brenand A.; Flores, Deolinda; Goncalves, Paula; Hackley, Paul C.; Hower, James C.; Kern, Marcio Luciano; Kus, Jolanta; Mastalerz, Maria; Filho, João Graciano Mendonça; de Oliveira Mendonça, Joalice; Rego Menezes, Taissa; Newman, Jane; Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel; Sobrinho da Silva, Frederico; Viegas de Souza, Igor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results of an interlaboratory exercise on organic matter optical maturity parameters using a natural maturation series comprised by three Devonian shale samples (Huron Member, Ohio Shale) from the Appalachian Basin, USA. This work was conducted by the Thermal Indices Working Group of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) Commission II (Geological Applications of Organic Petrology). This study aimed to compare: 1. maturation predicted by different types of petrographic parameters (vitrinite reflectance and spectral fluorescence of telalginite), 2. reproducibility of the results for these maturation parameters obtained by different laboratories, and 3. improvements in the spectral fluorescence measurement obtained using modern detection systems in comparison with the results from historical round robin exercises.Mean random vitrinite reflectance measurements presented the highest level of reproducibility (group standard deviation 0.05) for low maturity and reproducibility diminished with increasing maturation (group standard deviation 0.12).Corrected fluorescence spectra, provided by 14 participants, showed a fair to good correspondence. Standard deviation of the mean values for spectral parameters was lowest for the low maturity sample but was also fairly low for higher maturity samples.A significant improvement in the reproducibility of corrected spectral fluorescence curves was obtained in the current exercise compared to a previous investigation of Toarcian organic matter spectra in a maturation series from the Paris Basin. This improvement is demonstrated by lower values of standard deviation and is interpreted to reflect better performance of newer photo-optical measuring systems.Fluorescence parameters measured here are in good agreement with vitrinite reflectance values for the least mature shale but indicate higher maturity than shown by vitrinite reflectance for the two more mature shales. This red shift in

  3. The effect of the "Great Flood of 1993" on subsequent suspended sediment concentrations and fluxes in the Mississippi River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    During the spring/summer of 1993, the upper Midwestern USA experienced unusually heavy precipitation (200-350% above normal). More than 500 gauging stations in the region were simultaneously above flood stage, and nearly 150 major rivers and tributaries over-topped their banks. This was one of the costliest floods in the history of the USA, and came to be known as the "Great Flood of 1993". An examination of the long-term daily sediment record for the Mississippi River at Thebes, Illinois (representing the middle, or lower part of the upper basin), indicates that the flood had a severe and long-lasting impact on subsequent suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) and annual suspended sediment fluxes in the basin. At Thebes, pre1993 (1981-1992) median discharge and SSC were about 5400 m3 s-1 and 304 mg L-1, respectively; whereas, post-1993 (1994-2004) median discharge and SSC were about 5200 m3 s-1 and 189 mg L-1, respectively. Clearly, the 1993 flood removed substantial amounts of "stored" bed sediment and/or readily erodible flood plain deposits, eliminating a major source of SSC for the Thebes site. Examination of additional, but discontinuous sediment records (covering the period from 1981-2004) for other sites in the basin indicates that current post-flood declines in SSC and suspended sediment fluxes range from a low of about 10% to a high of about 36%.

  4. Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Bauder

    2008-09-30

    U.S. emphasis on domestic energy independence, along with advances in knowledge of vast biogenically sourced coalbed methane reserves at relatively shallow sub-surface depths with the Powder River Basin, has resulted in rapid expansion of the coalbed methane industry in Wyoming and Montana. Techniques have recently been developed which constitute relatively efficient drilling and methane gas recovery and extraction techniques. However, this relatively efficient recovery requires aggressive reduction of hydrostatic pressure within water-saturated coal formations where the methane is trapped. Water removed from the coal formation during pumping is typically moderately saline and sodium-bicarbonate rich, and managed as an industrial waste product. Current approaches to coalbed methane product water management include: surface spreading on rangeland landscapes, managed irrigation of agricultural crop lands, direct discharge to ephermeral channels, permitted discharge of treated and untreated water to perennial streams, evaporation, subsurface injection at either shallow or deep depths. A Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory funded research award involved the investigation and assessment of: (1) phytoremediation as a water management technique for waste water produced in association with coalbed methane gas extraction; (2) feasibility of commercial-scale, low-impact industrial water treatment technologies for the reduction of salinity and sodicity in coalbed methane gas extraction by-product water; and (3) interactions of coalbed methane extraction by-product water with landscapes, vegetation, and water resources of the Powder River Basin. Prospective, greenhouse studies of salt tolerance and water use potential of indigenous, riparian vegetation species in saline-sodic environments confirmed the hypothesis that species such as Prairie cordgrass, Baltic rush, American bulrush, and Nuttall's alkaligrass will thrive in saline-sodic environments

  5. The creation of digital thematic soil maps at the regional level (with the map of soil carbon pools in the Usa River basin as an example)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, A. V.; Kaverin, D. A.; Shchanov, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    A digital map of soil carbon pools was created for the forest-tundra ecotone in the Usa River basin with the use of ERDAS Imagine 2014 and ArcGIS 10.2 software. Supervised classification and thematic interpretation of satellite images and digital terrain models with the use of a georeferenced database on soil profiles were applied. Expert assessment of the natural diversity and representativeness of random samples for different soil groups was performed, and the minimal necessary size of the statistical sample was determined.

  6. Assessment of ecological conditions and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities in streams of the Powder River structural basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David A.; Clark, Melanie L.; Foster, Katharine; Wright, Peter R.; Boughton, Gregory K.

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing development of coalbed natural gas in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and Montana led to formation of an interagency task group to address concerns about the effects of the resulting production water on biological communities in streams of the area. The interagency task group developed a monitoring plan and conducted sampling of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities at 47 sites during 2005-08 to document current ecological conditions and determine existing and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities. Macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish community composition varied between drainage basins, among sites within drainage basins, and by year. Macroinvertebrate communities of the main-stem Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and higher abundance of Ephemeroptera, for example, compared to macroinvertebrate communities in plains tributaries of the Tongue River and the main-stem Powder River. Fish communities of the Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and abundance of introduced species compared to the Powder River where native species were dominant. Macroinvertebrate community metric values from sites in the middle reach of the main-stem Powder River, from below Willow Creek to below Crazy Woman Creek, differed from metric values in the upper and lower reaches of the Powder River. Metrics indicative of communitywide differences included measures of taxa richness, relative abundance, feeding mode, and tolerance. Some of the variation in the macroinvertebrate communities could be explained by variation in environmental variables, including physical (turbidity, embeddedness, bed substrate size, and streamflow) and chemical (alkalinity and specific conductance) variables. Of these environmental variables, alkalinity was the best indicator of coalbed natural gas development because of the sodiumbicarbonate signature of the production water. Algal

  7. The bats of Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Michael A.; Cryan, Paul M.; Choate, Jerry R.

    2000-01-01

    We examined 1280 bats of 12 species submitted to the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory (WSVL) for ra­bies testing between 1981 and 1992. The most abundant species in the sample was Myotis lucifugus, followed by Epte­sicus fuscus, Lasionycteris noetivagans, M. ciliolabrum, and M. volans. Using the WSVL sample and additional museum specimens, we summarized available records and knowledge for 17 species of bats in Wyoming, Records of the WSVL show that, between 1981 and 1992, 113 bats actually tested positive for rabies. We examined 45 of those rabies­ positive bats; E. fuscus had the highest incidence (60%) in the sample, followed by L. noctivagans (11 %) and L. cinereus (9%).

  8. Particle size distributions of aeolian sediments from five ecosystem types at the Jornada Basin, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, K. W.; Gill, T. E.; Gillette, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation protects surface sediments from wind erosion. Vegetation cover varies across landscapes, especially in arid lands where grasses are patchy and shrublands with open intershrub spaces tend to dominate: intershrub spaces tend to experience greater aeolian erosion than nearby grasslands. There are five major ecosystem types at the Jornada Basin Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in south-central New Mexico, USA: mesquite dunes, black grama grasslands, creosote shrublands, tarbush alluvial flats, and grass-dominated playas. We describe dry particle size distributions (PSDs) of material collected in BSNE aeolian sediment traps in late spring - early summer 2006 in these five ecosystem types. Four towers per site, three sites per ecosystem, collected sediment at 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 cm heights. Sediment PSDs were determined in dry state with a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser diffractometer. The PSDs at 5 and 10 cm were generally very similar across the sites, most sites having > 80% sand-sized particles (>50 µm). The exceptions were the one playa site and one tarbush site, where 35% and 40% of the sediment at 5 cm was silt and clay (500 µm particles than at 5 and 10 cm. Two mesquite sites had nearly identical PSDs at 5, 10, and 20 cm heights, with the sediment at 50 cm slightly finer than lower heights, and the 100 cm height strongly shifted to finer particles. The same pattern was seen at an artificially de-vegetated site. Shifts in PSDs with height are consistent with a transition between saltation (coarser particle)-dominated transport and suspension (finer particle)-dominated transport. For most of the sites at Jornada, the transition occurred either at ~20 cm or between 20 and 50 cm. The tarbush site and playa site had unusually large percentages of fines at 5 cm, where larger particles are expected to dominate. These sites have aggregated fines which aerodynamically act as larger particles, and thus are too coarse to suspend. Our earlier work

  9. Quantitative seismic reservoir characterization of tight sands (granite wash) play at Stiles Ranch field in the Anadarko Basin, Texas (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Muhammad Zahid Afzal

    The main objective of this study is to conduct quantitative seismic reservoir characterization study of the Granite Wash (Marmaton-tight sand) play at Stiles Ranch field in the Anadarko Basin, Texas (USA). The proposed methodology incorporates seismic petrophysics, rock physics, Amplitude Variation with Offset (AVO) analysis and seismic pre-stack simultaneous elastic impedance inversion. In addition, it utilizes geostatistical technique to improve the reservoir property estimation and quantify uncertainty in seismic lithology and fluid prediction. The general objective encompasses several more specific goals to study: well data conditioning and prediction of essential petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, permeability and saturation), and their relationship to the elastic properties. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of seismic petrophysics, only three core aspects are focused on that cover the desired objectives: 1) porosity modeling, 2) shear wave prediction, and (3) fluid substitution. The rock types are characterized by Rock Physics Diagnostic (RPD) approach conducted on well log data calibrated with core data and thin sections. The Granite Wash reservoir elastic properties are upscaled from log to seismic scale using Backus averaging to obtain a more coarsely (upscaled) sampled data set equivalent to the seismic scale. Anisotropy parametric (epsilon, gamma and delta) log curves are estimated consistent with seismic measurements using rock properties, seismic velocity and clay volume (Vsh) as a function of depth. The reservoir elastic properties are related to both the depositional environment and burial history through rock physics depth trends as function of depth. Furthermore, based on the practical aspects two separate inversion approaches; AVO and Elastic Impedance (EI) are evaluated prior to their application to real seismic. Various AVO derived attribute volumes such as intercept (A), gradient (B) and reflection coefficients (scaled Poisson's ratio

  10. A case study of waste fluid injection and induced seismicity in the Raton Basin, Trinidad, CO, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, M. B.; Ge, S.

    2012-12-01

    Waste fluid injection into rock formations has been speculated to cause seismicity. This study analyzed the link between the injection of fluid waste from coal-bed methane production and recent earthquakes swarms around the town of Trinidad, Colorado, USA. The study area is in a relatively quiescent intraplate zone, located in the Mesozoic sedimentary formations of the Raton Basin. Since 1999, when waste fluid injection began in the vicinity of Trinidad, more than 175 earthquakes of greater than M2.5 have occurred, representing a more than 30-fold increase in the number of earthquakes as compared with the previous 3 decades. The vast majority of earthquake epicenters are located within 5 km of one of the 24 injection wells. Two years after waste fluid injection began, an earthquake swarm occurred on a NE-trending fault structure, but a causal relationship between the fluid injection and swarm could not be definitively made. Earthquakes and injection continued and, in 2011, another earthquake swarm occurred, possibly reactivating the same NE-trending fault structure. Due to the lack of robust spatial seismometer coverage, earthquake hypocentral depths often have significant uncertainties, but could be at depths co-located with injection depths. The link between fluid waste injection and seismicity is characterized by spatial and temporal correlations as well as pore pressure changes sufficient to induce seismicity at depth. Pore pressure calculations were performed using a two-dimensional analytical solution for a homogeneous and isotropic aquifer with a hydraulic conductivity of 1.0x10^-7 m/s and storage coefficient of 5.0x10^-5. Reservoir model parameters are representative of the Dakota Sandstone, a fluvial and conglomeratic sandstone sequence, which is the dominant formation for injection. Computed pressure buildup in the aquifer was correlated spatially and temporally to earthquake epicenters. Preliminary results suggest that pore pressure changes in the

  11. Effect of irrigation pumpage during drought on karst aquifer systems in highly agricultural watersheds: example of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river basin, southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Subhasis; Srivastava, Puneet; Singh, Sarmistha

    2016-09-01

    In the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) river basin in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida (USA), population growth in the city of Atlanta and increased groundwater withdrawal for irrigation in southwest Georgia are greatly affecting the supply of freshwater to downstream regions. This study was conducted to understand and quantify the effect of irrigation pumpage on the karst Upper Floridan Aquifer and river-aquifer interactions in the lower ACF river basin in southwest Georgia. The groundwater MODular Finite-Element model (MODFE) was used for this study. The effect of two drought years, a moderate and a severe drought year, were simulated. Comparison of the results of the irrigated and non-irrigated scenarios showed that groundwater discharge to streams is a major outflow from the aquifer, and irrigation can cause as much as 10 % change in river-aquifer flux. The results also show that during months with high irrigation (e.g., June 2011), storage loss (34 %), the recharge and discharge from the upper semi-confining unit (30 %), and the river-aquifer flux (31 %) are the major water components contributing towards the impact of irrigation pumpage in the study area. A similar scenario plays out in many river basins throughout the world, especially in basins in which underlying karst aquifers are directly connected to a nearby stream. The study suggests that improved groundwater withdrawal strategies using climate forecasts needs to be developed in such a way that excessive withdrawals during droughts can be reduced to protect streams and river flows.

  12. Characterization and modes of occurrence of elements in feed coal and coal combustion products from a power plant utilizing low-sulfur coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Cathcart, James D.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Brownfield, Isabelle K.; Rice, Cynthia A.; O'Connor, Joseph T.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Bullock, John H.; Hower, James C.; Meeker, Gregory P.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana utility company to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products from a coal-fired power plant. The Indiana power plant utilizes a low-sulfur (0.23 to 0.47 weight percent S) and lowash (4.9 to 6.3 weight percent ash) subbituminous coal from the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Based on scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analyses of feed coal samples, two mineral suites were identified: (1) a primary or detrital suite consisting of quartz (including beta-form grains), biotite, feldspar, and minor zircon; and (2) a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The primary mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be of volcanic origin, whereas the authigenic mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be the result of the alteration of the volcanic minerals. The mineral suites have contributed to the higher amounts of barium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, strontium, and titanium in the Powder River Basin feed coals in comparison to eastern coals. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that (1) fly ash is mostly aluminate glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals; and (2) bottom ash is predominantly quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite, and spinel group minerals. Microprobe and scanning electron microscope analyses of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, and monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, wollastonite, and periclase. The abundant calcium and

  13. Long-term suspended sediment transport in the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed and Salt River Basin, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1992, efforts have been conducted in Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed to assess sediment transport from this 72-km2 Missouri watershed located in the Salt River Basin, the Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research site in the Central Mississippi River Basin. This effort was complemented by field...

  14. Biodegradation of sedimentary organic matter associated with coalbed methane in the Powder River and San Juan Basins, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formolo, Michael; Petsch, Steven [Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 01003-9297 (United States); Martini, Anna [Department of Geology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA, 01002 (United States)

    2008-10-02

    The Powder River Basin and San Juan Basin, U.S.A., are two of the most productive coalbed methane reserves in the world. Of particular interest is the microbial biodegradation of coal beds associated with this natural gas production. Biogenic methane production is indicated as a significant component to the total gas resources in the San Juan Basin, and as the nearly sole source for the shallow coals of the Powder River Basin. Molecular and isotopic signatures indicate a microbial origin for the gas. Geochemical characteristics of formation waters, such as elevated alkalinity and {sup 13}C-enriched dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), further support extensive microbial degradation of coal organic matter associated with methanogenesis. Extractable organic matter isolated from coals in both basins point to patterns of hydrocarbon biodegradation in coals restricted to specific depths. To some extent, biodegradation patterns are similar to those observed in methanogenic, biodegraded black shales of the mid-continent of the United States. Specifically, both coals and shales exhibit near-quantitative removal of straight-chain and acyclic isoprenoid hydrocarbons. However, loss of aromatic hydrocarbons in the coals proceeds prior to the extensive removal of the saturated hydrocarbons, in contrast to what is conventionally observed in biodegraded petroleum systems or in black shales. In addition, previous thermal maturation histories in both the Fruitland and Fort Union coalbed methane systems have little impact on more recent hydrocarbon biodegradation. Instead, localized hydrologic conditions and subsurface geology likely play important roles in controlling the extents of biodegradation and methanogenesis. These results suggest that biodegradation of hydrocarbons coupled with methanogenesis may develop regardless of organic matter source across a range of inherited thermal maturities. (author)

  15. Lithosphere-Asthenosphere boundary from a petrological perspective: Results form the Basin and Range, Western USA (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, E.; Plank, T.; Rau, C. J.; Forsyth, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    The lithosphere is the strong lid at the surface of the earth that defines the different tectonic plates and consists of the crust and rigid uppermost-mantle that moves on top of the viscous asthenospheric mantle. Magmas carry in their chemical codes the conditions of their mantle origin, and can be powerful tools for constraining the location of the LAB. Isotopic and trace element data are the traditional means by which magmas are ascribed to sub-continental lithospheric vs. asthenospheric sources, despite the fact that these tools provide no information on the depths or temperatures of melting. The causes of mantle melting and widespread mafic volcanism across the Basin and Range (B&R), Western USA, over the past 10 Ma is still debated. Lithospheric extension, mantle hydration, and local convective upwellings are different possible mechanisms. Constraining mantle temperature, compositional structure, and the relationship to the continental lithosphere are key to understanding the conditions of melt generation. Quantitative information is now becoming available due to improved mantle-melt thermobarometers, and our new data on the water content and oxidation state (fO2) of magmas in the B&R. Our work focuses on modeled primary magmas calibrated with data from undegassed melt inclusions trapped in olivine from young cinders. Preliminary work reveals large variations in melting conditions across the region, from cool (< 1300°C) and shallow (40-50 km) melting beneath in the west volcanic fields (e.g., Big Pine, CA) to higher temperatures (~1450°C) and deeper melting (80-100km) in the east volcanic fields (e.g., Hurricane, UT). These melting pressures are interpreted as the final melting pressures and coincide with a boundary at the top of the low velocity region in recent surface wave models using EarthScope data. Recent work on Big Pine lavas suggests that the depth of melting relates to the trace element composition of the magmas (e.g., Ce/Pb). Deeper melts have

  16. Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part B: oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled Part B of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). Part B consists of oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar energy resource information in support of the WLCI. The WLCI represents the USGS partnership with other Department of the Interior Bureaus, State and local agencies, industry, academia, and private landowners, all of whom collaborate to maintain healthy landscapes, sustain wildlife, and preserve recreational and grazing uses while developing energy resources in southwestern Wyoming. This product is the second and final part of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming series (also see USGS Data Series 683, http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/683/), and encompasses all of Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, and Uinta Counties, as well as areas in Fremont County that are in the Great Divide and Green River Basins.

  17. Evaluation of the importance of clay confining units on groundwaterflow in alluvial basins using solute and isotope tracers: the case of Middle San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Candice B.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Eastoe, Chris; Dickinson, Jesse E.; Meixner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    As groundwater becomes an increasingly important water resource worldwide, it is essential to understand how local geology affects groundwater quality, flowpaths and residence times. This study utilized multiple tracers to improve conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow in the Middle San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona (USA) by determining recharge areas, compartmentalization of water sources, flowpaths and residence times. Ninety-five groundwater and surface-water samples were analyzed for major ion chemistry (water type and Ca/Sr ratios) and stable (18O, 2H, 13C) and radiogenic (3H, 14C) isotopes, and resulting data were used in conjunction with hydrogeologic information (e.g. hydraulic head and hydrostratigraphy). Results show that recent recharge (recharged at high elevation in the fractured bedrock and has been extensively modified by water-rock reactions (increasing F and Sr, decreasing 14C) over long timescales (up to 35,000 years BP). Distinct solute and isotope geochemistries between the lower and upper basin fill aquifers show the importance of a clay confining unit on groundwater flow in the basin, which minimizes vertical groundwater movement.

  18. 77 FR 43611 - Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW156551, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW156551, Wyoming... from EnCana Oil & Gas (USA) for competitive oil and gas lease WYW156551 for land in Natrona County... lease terminated under the law. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management, Julie...

  19. A crocodylian trace from the Lance Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Wyoming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkingham, Peter L; Milàn, Jesper; Manning, Philip L

    2010-01-01

    A 1.5-m-long double sinusoidal trace from the Lance Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A, is attributed a crocodylian origin. The trace forms part of a diverse tracksite containing dinosaur and bird tracks. The double sinusoidal nature of the trace is suggested to have originated from the dual undulatory...

  20. Developmental geology of coalbed methane from shallow to deep in Rocky Mountain basins and in Cook Inlet-Matanuska Basin, Alaska, USA and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.C.; Flores, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain basins of western North America contain vast deposits of coal of Cretaceous through early Tertiary age. Coalbed methane is produced in Rocky Mountain basins at depths ranging from 45 m (150 ft) to 1981 m (6500 ft) from coal of lignite to low-volatile bituminous rank. Although some production has been established in almost all Rocky Mountain basins, commercial production occurs in only a few. despite more than two decades of exploration for coalbed methane in the Rocky Mountain region, it is still difficult to predict production characteristics of coalbed methane wells prior to drilling. Commonly cited problems include low permeabilities, high water production, and coals that are significantly undersaturated with respect to methane. Sources of coalbed gases can be early biogenic, formed during the early stages of coalification, thermogenic, formed during the main stages of coalification, or late stage biogenic, formed as a result of the reintroduction of methane-gnerating bacteria by groundwater after uplift and erosion. Examples of all three types of coalbed gases, and combinations of more than one type, can be found in the Rocky Mountain region. Coals in the Rocky Mountain region achieved their present ranks largely as a result of burial beneath sediments that accumulated during the Laramide orogeny (Late Cretaceous through the end of the eocene) or shortly after. Thermal events since the end of the orogeny have also locally elevated coal ranks. Coal beds in the upper part of high-volatile A bituminous rank or greater commonly occur within much more extensive basin-centered gas deposits which cover large areas of the deeper parts of most Rocky Mountain basins. Within these basin-centered deposits all lithologies, including coals, sandstones, and shales, are gas saturated, and very little water is produced. The interbedded coals and carbonaceous shales are probably the source of much of this gas. Basin-centered gas deposits become overpressured

  1. Environmental Contaminants Issues in Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The environmental contaminants program at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Ecological Services Office in Cheyenne, Wyoming was initiated in May 1988. The goal of...

  2. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  3. Variability of geochemical properties in a microbially dominated coalbed gas system from the eastern margin of the Illinois Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapoc, D.; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.; Drobniak, A.; Hedges, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study outlines gas characteristics along the southeastern margins of the Illinois Basin and evaluates regional versus local gas variations in Seelyville and Springfield coal beds. Our findings suggest that high permeability and shallow (100-250??m) depths of these Indiana coals allowed inoculation with methanogenic microbial consortia, thus leading to widespread microbial methane generation along the eastern marginal part of the Illinois Basin. Low maturity coals in the Illinois Basin with a vitrinite reflectance Ro ~ 0.6% contain significant amounts of coal gas (~ 3??m3/t, 96??scf/t) with ??? 97??vol.% microbial methane. The amount of coal gas can vary significantly within a coal seam both in a vertical seam section as well as laterally from location to location. Therefore sampling of an entire core section is required for accurate estimates of coal gas reserves. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sequence stratigraphy of the marine and non-marine Upper Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, San Juan Basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannessen, P.

    1994-12-31

    Late Cretaceous, middle Cenomanian, shallow marine and non-marine sandstones of the Dakota Sandstone have been studied in the western part of the Western Interior, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. 15-20 m thick sharp based, slightly coarsening upward shoreface sandstones characterize the eastern fully marine part of the San Juan Basin, while non-marine sediments dominate the western part of the basin. The aim of this paper is to carefully correlate key-surfaces from the thick shoreface sandstones towards the west into the non-marine succession, using sequence stratigraphic principles. The present paper will document an additional marine sandstone underlying the Cubero Tongue; the Oak Canyon Member. (au)

  5. Hydrochemical evidence for mixing of river water and groundwater during high-flow conditions, lower Suwannee River basin, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Christy A.; Katz, Brian G.; Hirten, Joshua J.

    Karstic aquifers are highly susceptible to rapid infiltration of river water, particularly during periods of high flow. Following a period of sustained rainfall in the Suwannee River basin, Florida, USA, the stage of the Suwannee River rose from 3.0 to 5.88m above mean sea level in April 1996 and discharge peaked at 360m3/s. During these high-flow conditions, water from the Suwannee River migrated directly into the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer, the main source of water supply for the area. Changes in the chemical composition of groundwater were quantified using naturally occurring geochemical tracers and mass-balance modeling techniques. Mixing of river water with groundwater was indicated by a decrease in the concentrations of calcium, silica, and 222Rn; and by an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), tannic acid, and chloride, compared to low-flow conditions in water from a nearby monitoring well, Wingate Sink, and Little River Springs. The proportion (fraction) of river water in groundwater ranged from 0.13 to 0.65 at Wingate Sink and from 0.5 to 0.99 at well W-17258, based on binary mixing models using various tracers. The effectiveness of a natural tracer in quantifying mixing of river water and groundwater was related to differences in tracer concentration of the two end members and how conservatively the tracer reacted in the mixed water. Solutes with similar concentrations in the two end-member waters (Na, Mg, K, Cl, SO4, SiO2) were not as effective tracers for quantifying mixing of river water and groundwater as those with larger differences in end-member concentrations (Ca, tannic acid, DOC, 222Rn, HCO3). Résumé Les aquifères karstiques sont particulièrement sensibles à l'infiltration rapide d'eau de rivières, spécialement pendant les périodes de hautes eaux. A la suite d'une période de pluies soutenues sur le bassin de la rivière Suwannee (Floride, États-Unis), le niveau de cette rivière est monté de 3,0 à 5,88m au-dessus du niveau

  6. Natural Gas Resources of the Greater Green River and Wind River Basins of Wyoming (Assessing the Technology Needs of Sub-economic Resources, Phase I: Greater Green River and Wind river Basins, Fall 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, Ray; Douds, Ashley; Pratt, Skip; Rose, Kelly; Pancake, Jim; Bruner, Kathy (EG& G Services); Kuuskraa, Vello; Billingsley, Randy (Advanced Resources International)

    2003-02-28

    In 2000, NETL conducted a review of the adequacy of the resource characterization databases used in its Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). This review indicated that the most striking deficiency in GSAM’s databases was the poor representation of the vast resource believed to exist in low-permeability sandstone accumulations in western U.S. basins. The model’s databases, which are built primarily around the United States Geological Survey (USGS) 1995 National Assessment (for undiscovered resources), reflected an estimate of the original-gas-inplace (OGIP) only in accumulations designated “technically-recoverable” by the USGS –roughly 3% to 4% of the total estimated OGIP of the region. As these vast remaining resources are a prime target of NETL programs, NETL immediately launched an effort to upgrade its resource characterizations. Upon review of existing data, NETL concluded that no existing data were appropriate sources for its modeling needs, and a decision was made to conduct new, detailed log-based, gas-in-place assessments.

  7. Threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the Meramec River Basin, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Augspurger, Tom; Barnhart, M. Christopher; McMurray, Stephen E.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Schrader, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The Meramec River Basin in east-central Missouri is an important stronghold for native freshwater mussels (Order: Unionoida) in the United States. Whereas the basin supports more than 40 mussel species, previous studies indicate that the abundance and distribution of most species are declining. Therefore, resource managers have identified the need to prioritize threats to native mussel populations in the basin and to design a mussel monitoring program. The objective of this study was to identify threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the basin. Affected habitat parameters considered as the main threats to mussel conservation included excess sedimentation, altered stream geomorphology and flow, effects on riparian vegetation and condition, impoundments, and invasive non-native species. Evaluating water-quality parameters for conserving mussels was a main focus of this study. Mussel toxicity data for chemical contaminants were compared to national water quality criteria (NWQC) and Missouri water quality standards (MWQS). However, NWQC and MWQS have not been developed for many chemical contaminants and some MWQS may not be protective of native mussel populations. Toxicity data indicated that mussels are sensitive to ammonia, copper, temperature, certain pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products; these compounds were identified as the priority water-quality parameters for mussel conservation in the basin. Measures to conserve mussel diversity in the basin include expanding the species and life stages of mussels and the list of chemical contaminants that have been assessed, establishing a long term mussel monitoring program that measures physical and chemical parameters of high priority, conducting landscape scale modeling to predict mussel distributions, determining sublethal effects of primary contaminants of concern, deriving risk-based guidance values for mussel conservation, and assessing the effects of wastewater

  8. Libraries in Wyoming: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/wyoming.html Libraries in Wyoming To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. Gillette Campbell County Health Medical Library 501 S. Burma Ave. PO Box 3011 Gillette, WY ...

  9. The Penobscot River, Maine, USA: a Basin-Scale Approach to Balancing Power Generation and Ecosystem Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Opperman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although hydropower is a source of low-carbon energy, without careful consideration and management, dams have the potential to degrade river ecosystems and the goods and services they provide to society. Today, a broad range of hydropower interests and stakeholders are seeking approaches to hydropower development and operation that are more environmentally and socially sustainable. The Penobscot River Restoration Project ('the Project' illustrates that basin-scale approaches can provide a broader set of solutions for balancing energy and riverine environmental resources than can be achieved at the scale of individual projects. The Penobscot basin is the largest in Maine and historically supported culturally and economically significant populations of migratory fish. These migratory fish populations declined dramatically following the construction of a series of hydropower dams on the main stem river and major tributaries in the early 20th century. The Project, negotiated between a power company (PPL Corporation and a coalition including the Penobscot Indian Nation, resource agencies, and nongovernmental conservation organizations, features the removal of two main stem dams on the lower Penobscot and improved fish passage at the dams that remain. Because of various capacity and/or operational changes, power production will be increased at the remaining dams and total hydropower energy production from the basin will be maintained or increase slightly. The Project is expected to expand considerably the proportion of the basin accessible to migratory fish and contribute to significant increases in fish populations. The Project illustrates that a basin-scale approach can potentially yield more comprehensive solutions for sustainable hydropower than can be achieved at the project scale, and we recommend that such large-scale planning processes can improve the sustainability of both regulatory licensing of existing dams as well as the planning of

  10. Comparative study of transport processes of nitrogen, phosphorus, and herbicides to streams in five agricultural basins, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, J.L.; Ator, S.; Coupe, R.; McCarthy, K.; Lampe, D.; Sandstrom, M.; Baker, N.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural chemical transport to surface water and the linkage to other hydrological compartments, principally ground water, was investigated at five watersheds in semiarid to humid climatic settings. Chemical transport was affected by storm water runoff, soil drainage, irrigation, and how streams were linked to shallow ground water systems. Irrigation practices and timing of chemical use greatly affected nutrient and pesticide transport in the semiarid basins. Irrigation with imported water tended to increase ground water and chemical transport, whereas the use of locally pumped irrigation water may eliminate connections between streams and ground water, resulting in lower annual loads. Drainage pathways in humid environments are important because the loads may be transported in tile drains, or through varying combinations of ground water discharge, and overland flow. In most cases, overland flow contributed the greatest loads, but a significant portion of the annual load of nitrate and some pesticide degradates can be transported under base-flow conditions. The highest basin yields for nitrate were measured in a semiarid irrigated system that used imported water and in a stream dominated by tile drainage in a humid environment. Pesticide loads, as a percent of actual use (LAPU), showed the effects of climate and geohydrologic conditions. The LAPU values in the semiarid study basin in Washington were generally low because most of the load was transported in ground water discharge to the stream. When herbicides are applied during the rainy season in a semiarid setting, such as simazine in the California basin, LAPU values are similar to those in the Midwest basins. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  11. Stable Isotopic Constraints on Abiogenic Hydrocarbon gas Contributions to Thermogenic Natural gas Resources in the Northern Appalachian Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, R. C.; Laughrey, C. D.

    2006-05-01

    The generation of abiogenic methane by serpentinization or by graphite-water reactions in high-grade metamorphic rocks is well documented by isotopic, fluid inclusion, and petrographic studies. However, geochemical evidence is equivocal for abiogenic generation of higher hydrocarbon gases (ethane through pentane) in economic resources. Thermogenic hydrocarbon gases, generated by thermal cracking of sedimentary organic matter of biological origin, are progressively enriched in 13C as a function of increasing number of carbon atoms in the molecule. The isotopic composition is controlled by the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) during carbon-carbon bond breaking with the largest KIE for methane. Published work on gases in Precambrian rocks in Canada and South Africa suggest that some were generated by abiogenic Fischer-Tropsch type reactions that produced gases with carbon isotopic compositions that are reversed from the thermogenic trend. We have documented reversed isotopic compositions in natural gas accumulations in lower Paleozoic reservoirs of the Appalachian basin regionally from West Virginia and eastern Ohio through Pennsylvania to central New York. The regional accumulation in lower Silurian age strata shows progressive enhancement of the isotopic reversal with increasing depth in the basin. Multivariate analysis of the molecular and isotopic data define an end-member in the deep basin with an approximate composition of 98 mol % CH4, 1-2 mol % C2H6, -150‰, C1/C2+ up to 220). New isotopic studies of gas accumulations, gases in fluid inclusions, and of sedimentary organic matter in the Appalachian basin are in progress to constrain the possible contribution of abiogenic hydrocarbon generation to gas accumulations in this basin.

  12. Long-term response of surface water acid neutralizing capacity in a central Appalachian (USA) river basin to declining acid deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kathleen M.; Eshleman, Keith N.; Garlitz, James E.; U'Ren, Sarah H.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term changes in acid-base chemistry resulting from declining regional acid deposition were examined using data from repeating synoptic surveys conducted within the 275 km2 Upper Savage River Watershed (USRW) in western Maryland (USA); a randomly-selected set of 40 stream reaches was sampled 36 times between 1999 and 2014 to: (1) repeatedly characterize the acid-base status of the entire river basin; (2) determine whether an extensive network of streams of varying order has shown signs of recovery in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC); and (3) understand the key factors controlling the rate of ANC recovery across the river network. Several non-parametric analyses of trends (i.e., Mann Kendall Trend: MKT tests; and Regional Kendall Trend: RKT) in streamwater acid-base chemistry suggest that USRW has significantly responded to declining acid deposition during the study period; the two most robust, statistically significant trends were decreasing surface water SO42- (∼1.5 μeq L-1 yr-1) and NO3- (∼1 μeq L-1 yr-1) concentrations-consistent with observed downward trends in regional wet S and N deposition. Basin-wide decreasing trends in K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ were also observed, while Na+ concentrations increased. Significant ANC recovery was observed in 10-20% of USRW stream reaches (depending on the p level used), but the magnitude of the trend relative to natural variability was apparently insufficient to allow detection of a basin-wide ANC trend using the RKT test. Watershed factors, such as forest disturbances and increased application of road deicing salts, appeared to contribute to substantial variability in concentrations of NO3- and Na+ in streams across the basin, but these factors did not affect our overall interpretation of the results as a systematic recovery of USRW from regional acidification. Methodologically, RKT appears to be a robust method for identifying basin-wide trends using synoptic data, but MKT results for individual systems should be

  13. Late Neogene exhumation of the Piceance basin, N.W. Colorado, USA: Integrated analysis of multiple thermochronometers and subsidence modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, A. J.; Kendall, J. J.; Becker, T. P.; Patterson, P. E.; Reiners, P. W.; Kapp, J.

    2010-12-01

    The retrograde history of sedimentary basins is often poorly constrained by the study of subsidence, compaction, and thermal diffusion models. As part of industry/academic collaborative research on the fundamental processes active in convergent tectonics we combined multiple paleothermometers, paleobarometers, and thermochronometers on deep borehole samples with modern heat flow measurements to provide powerful constraint for estimating the exhumation history in an area. The Piceance basin (N.W. Colorado) lies east of the leading edge of the Cretaceous to early Eocene Sevier thrust belt, and is flanked by several basement-involved structures (Douglas Creek arch, White River dome, Uinta uplift, White River uplift) that exhibit growth from the Maastrichtian through the late Eocene. The youngest preserved strata within the Piceance basin are within the early Oligocene Uinta Formation, although there are deposits as young as Miocene locally preserved in the region that may have also capped the basin. The timing of uplift, river incision, and plateau-scale exhumation within this region fits into the larger context of the evolution of the Colorado River drainage system. A series of core, cutting, and surface samples were compiled to develop a synthetic well (or vertical section) of over 5000 m. Samples were collected from stratigraphic intervals ranging from the Jurassic to the Eocene and analyzed for apatite and zircon U-Th/He ages, as well as apatite fission track length distributions and ages. As the exhumation model was the unconstrained parameter, the timing and magnitude of the cooling associated with such an event was systematically varied. Thermal histories of each sampled interval were extracted from differing exhumation scenarios in the Piceance basin model (which tracks the temperature and pressure evolution during burial and denudation) and forward modeled using HeFTy. The combined use of several thermochronometers (apatite and zircon U-Th/He, apatite fission

  14. Correlation of basinal carbonate cycles to nearshore parasequences in the late Cretaceous Greenhorn seaway, Western Interior USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, W.P.; Gustason, E.R.; Sageman, B.B.

    1994-01-01

    In the central basin in Colorado and Kansas, these sedimentary cycles are represented by limestone-shale and marlstone-shale couplets ~0.5-1.0m in thickness. More calcareous parts of these couplets may be correlated westward into condensed, fossiliferous concretion and shell beds in proximal offshore lithofacies of Arizona and Utah. These concretion and shell beds are physically traceable farther landward (westward) into bioturbated, fossil-rich, transgressive lag deposits that bound 10-20m thick coarsening-upward progradational strand-plain deposits (parasequences) in southwestern Utah. We consider Milankovitch-style orbital forcing of climate and tectonically induced fluctuations in rates of foredeep basin subsidence as possible forcing mechanisms for these basinwide events. -from Authors

  15. Identifying groundwater recharge connections in the Moscow (USA) sub-basin using isotopic tracers and a soil moisture routing model

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Globally, aquifers are suffering from large abstractions resulting in groundwater level declines. These declines can be caused by excessive abstraction for drinking water, irrigation purposes or industrial use. Basaltic aquifers also face these conflicts. A large flood basalt area (1.1 × 105 km2) can be found in the Northwest of the USA. This Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) consists of a thick series of basalt flows of Miocene age. The two major hydrogeological units (Wanapum and Grand Ron...

  16. The magnitude of the snow-sourced reactive nitrogen flux to the boundary layer in the Uintah Basin, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatko, Maria; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joel; Geng, Lei; Easley, Lauren; Schauer, Andrew; Bates, Timothy; Quinn, Patricia K.; Light, Bonnie; Morison, David; Osthoff, Hans D.; Lyman, Seth; Neff, William; Yuan, Bin; Alexander, Becky

    2016-11-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr = NO, NO2, HONO) and volatile organic carbon emissions from oil and gas extraction activities play a major role in wintertime ground-level ozone exceedance events of up to 140 ppb in the Uintah Basin in eastern Utah. Such events occur only when the ground is snow covered, due to the impacts of snow on the stability and depth of the boundary layer and ultraviolet actinic flux at the surface. Recycling of reactive nitrogen from the photolysis of snow nitrate has been observed in polar and mid-latitude snow, but snow-sourced reactive nitrogen fluxes in mid-latitude regions have not yet been quantified in the field. Here we present vertical profiles of snow nitrate concentration and nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) collected during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study 2014 (UBWOS 2014), along with observations of insoluble light-absorbing impurities, radiation equivalent mean ice grain radii, and snow density that determine snow optical properties. We use the snow optical properties and nitrate concentrations to calculate ultraviolet actinic flux in snow and the production of Nr from the photolysis of snow nitrate. The observed δ15N(NO3-) is used to constrain modeled fractional loss of snow nitrate in a snow chemistry column model, and thus the source of Nr to the overlying boundary layer. Snow-surface δ15N(NO3-) measurements range from -5 to 10 ‰ and suggest that the local nitrate burden in the Uintah Basin is dominated by primary emissions from anthropogenic sources, except during fresh snowfall events, where remote NOx sources from beyond the basin are dominant. Modeled daily averaged snow-sourced Nr fluxes range from 5.6 to 71 × 107 molec cm-2 s-1 over the course of the field campaign, with a maximum noontime value of 3.1 × 109 molec cm-2 s-1. The top-down emission estimate of primary, anthropogenic NOx in Uintah and Duchesne counties is at least 300 times higher than the estimated snow NOx emissions presented in this study. Our results suggest

  17. Effects of thermal maturation and thermochemical sulfate reduction on compound-specific sulfur isotopic compositions of organosulfur compounds in Phosphoria oils from the Bighorn Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Said-Ahamed, Ward; Lillis, Paul G.; Shawar, Lubna; Amrani, Alon

    2017-01-01

    Compound-specific sulfur isotope analysis was applied to a suite of 18 crude oils generated from the Permian Phosphoria Formation in the Bighorn Basin, western USA. These oils were generated at various levels of thermal maturity and some experienced thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). This is the first study to examine the effects of thermal maturation on stable sulfur isotopic compositions of individual organosulfur compounds (OSCs) in crude oil. A general trend of 34S enrichment in all of the studied compounds with increasing thermal maturity was observed, with the δ34S values of alkyl-benzothiophenes (BTs) tending to be enriched in 34S relative to those of the alkyl-dibenzothiophenes (DBTs) in lower-maturity oils. As thermal maturity increases, δ34S values of both BTs and DBTs become progressively heavier, but the difference in the average δ34S value of the BTs and DBTs (Δ34S BT-DBT) decreases. Differences in the isotopic response to thermal stress exhibited by these two compound classes are considered to be the result of relative differences in their thermal stabilities. TSR-altered Bighorn Basin oils have OSCs that are generally enriched in 34S relative to non-TSR-altered oils, with the BTs being enriched in 34S relative to the DBTs, similar to the findings of previous studies. However, several oils that were previously interpreted to have been exposed to minor TSR have Δ34S BT-DBT values that do not support this interpretation. The δ34S values of the BTs and DBTs in some of these oils suggest that they did not experience TSR, but were derived from a more thermally mature source. The heaviest δ34S values observed in the OSCs are enriched in 34S by up to 10‰ relative to that of Permian anhydrite in the Bighorn Basin, suggesting that there may be an alternate or additional source of sulfate in some parts of the basin. These results indicate that the sulfur isotopic composition of OSCs in oil provides a sensitive indicator for the extent of TSR

  18. Miocene sediment dispersal in the central Española basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazza, William

    1986-12-01

    The central Española basin in north-central New Mexico represents one of the best opportunities to examine deposits related to the development of the Rio Grande rift. The Miocene Tesuque Formation represents the bulk of the Española basin fill. It is composed of a 2000-2500 m thick sequence of alluvial-fluvial and, subordinately, lacustrine deposits with numerous interbedded ash-fall tuff layers. The overall detrital composition of the Tesuque Formation is very similar throughout the central Española basin. Provenance is primarily from basement uplifts composed of Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nevertheless, the combined use of paleocurrent analysis, and sandstone and conglomerate petrology allows a detailed reconstruction of the sediment paleodispersal system. Two sedimentary provinces are present within the Tesuque Formation: Province A, present in the eastern, central and southern portions of the study area, has a predominantly plutoniclastic and metamorphiclastic composition, and shows systematic paleocurrents toward the west. The sediments were derived from the Precambrian-cored Santa Fe block of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, located directly to the east of the study area. Province B, present only in the northwestern portion of the study area, is characterized by a minor but significant amount of volcaniclastic and sedimentaclastic detritus, and shows consistent SSW-directed paleocurrents. The source area was possibly located in the area of the Taos Plateau and Latir volcanic fields. An intermediate narrow and discontinuous belt (province A + B) represents a hybrid province, where directional and compositional parameters are gradational.

  19. Reconstructing Vegetation and Hydrological Changes from Biomarkers in Modern Soils and Late Neogene Paleosols, Meade Basin, KS, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Femal, B.; Uno, K. T.; Polissar, P. J.; Fox-Dobbs, K.; Feinberg, J. M.; Fox, D. L.; Snell, K. E.; Martin, R.

    2014-12-01

    Paleoclimate and paleovegetation proxies can help us understand how C4 grasslands have expanded worldwide and responded to climate change during the late Neogene. The Miocene-Holocene deposits of the Meade Basin, southwestern Kansas preserve a record of C4 ecosystem expansion as well as a rich fossil record of small mammals. These records combined provide an excellent opportunity to study the cause(s) of the C4 ecosystem expansion and the consequences for faunal evolution. As part of an interdisciplinary project, we are investigating the organic geochemical record of vegetation and hydrological change in the Meade Basin. Preliminary findings from three modern soil pits suggest n-alkane δ¹³C values have similar trends to n-alkanoic acid δ¹³C values in each soil profile, but the absolute values of these two different types of plant-wax compounds are offset by up to 6.8‰. This result was unexpected because the absolute δ¹³C values of n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids are assumed to be very similar in the plants themselves. Moreover, the δ¹³C values of the n-alkanoic acids more accurately reflect the modern vegetation at our sites. Few studies compare carbon isotope data in n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids and it is important to constrain how these two types of plant-wax compounds reflect vegetation differently. We will use hydrogen isotope measurements on these same plant-wax samples to evaluate how the modern precipitation isotopic ratios are recorded in biomarkers, which in turn will be used to interpret hydrogen isotope data from paleosol biomarkers. Ongoing work will use plant-wax isotopic records from the modern soil profiles as a framework for interpreting the plant-wax isotopic records from Meade Basin paleosol and fluvial sediments to reconstruct the late Neogene C4 grassland expansion and hydroclimate change in this region.

  20. Change in the forested and developed landscape of the Lake Tahoe basin, California and Nevada, USA, 1940-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raumann, C.G.; Cablk, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    The current ecological state of the Lake Tahoe basin has been shaped by significant landscape-altering human activity and management practices since the mid-1850s; first through widespread timber harvesting from the 1850s to 1920s followed by urban development from the 1950s to the present. Consequences of landscape change, both from development and forest management practices including fire suppression, have prompted rising levels of concern for the ecological integrity of the region. The impacts from these activities include decreased water quality, degraded biotic communities, and increased fire hazard. To establish an understanding of the Lake Tahoe basin's landscape change in the context of forest management and development we mapped, quantified, and described the spatial and temporal distribution and variability of historical changes in land use and land cover in the southern Lake Tahoe basin (279 km2) from 1940 to 2002. Our assessment relied on post-classification change detection of multi-temporal land-use/cover and impervious-surface-area data that were derived through manual interpretation, image processing, and GIS data integration for four dates of imagery: 1940, 1969, 1987, and 2002. The most significant land conversion during the 62-year study period was an increase in developed lands with a corresponding decrease in forests, wetlands, and shrublands. Forest stand densities increased throughout the 62-year study period, and modern thinning efforts resulted in localized stand density decreases in the latter part of the study period. Additionally forests were gained from succession, and towards the end of the study period extensive tree mortality occurred. The highest rates of change occurred between 1940 and 1969, corresponding with dramatic development, then rates declined through 2002 for all observed landscape changes except forest density decrease and tree mortality. Causes of landscape change included regional population growth, tourism demands

  1. Identifying stakeholder-relevant climate change impacts: a case study in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, K.; Graves, D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Hatten, James R.; Mastin, Mark C.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Montag, J.; Nieman, Timothy; Voss, Frank D.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    Designing climate-related research so that study results will be useful to natural resource managers is a unique challenge. While decision makers increasingly recognize the need to consider climate change in their resource management plans, and climate scientists recognize the importance of providing locally-relevant climate data and projections, there often remains a gap between management needs and the information that is available or is being collected. We used decision analysis concepts to bring decision-maker and stakeholder perspectives into the applied research planning process. In 2009 we initiated a series of studies on the impacts of climate change in the Yakima River Basin (YRB) with a four-day stakeholder workshop, bringing together managers, stakeholders, and scientists to develop an integrated conceptual model of climate change and climate change impacts in the YRB. The conceptual model development highlighted areas of uncertainty that limit the understanding of the potential impacts of climate change and decision alternatives by those who will be most directly affected by those changes, and pointed to areas where additional study and engagement of stakeholders would be beneficial. The workshop and resulting conceptual model highlighted the importance of numerous different outcomes to stakeholders in the basin, including social and economic outcomes that go beyond the physical and biological outcomes typically reported in climate impacts studies. Subsequent studies addressed several of those areas of uncertainty, including changes in water temperatures, habitat quality, and bioenergetics of salmonid populations.

  2. Peace on the River? Social-Ecological Restoration and Large Dam Removal in the Klamath Basin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Gosnell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the multiple factors that contributed to a 2010 agreement to remove four large dams along the Klamath river in California and Oregon and initiate a comprehensive social-ecological restoration effort that will benefit Indian tribes, the endangered fish on which they depend, irrigated agriculture, and local economies in the river basin. We suggest that the legal framework, including the tribal trust responsibility, the Endangered Species Act, and the Federal Power Act, combined with an innovative approach to negotiation that allowed for collaboration and compromise, created a space for divergent interests to come together and forge a legally and politically viable solution to a suite of social and environmental problems. Improved social relations between formerly antagonistic Indian tribes and non-tribal farmers and ranchers, which came about due to a number of local collaborative processes during the early 2000s, were critical to the success of this effort. Overall, we suggest that recent events in the Klamath basin are indicative of a significant power shift taking place between tribal and non-tribal interests as tribes gain access to decision-making processes regarding tribal trust resources and develop capacity to participate in the development of complex restoration strategies.

  3. Migration of recharge waters downgradient from the Santa Catalina Mountains into the Tucson basin aquifer, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Erin E. B.; Long, Austin; Eastoe, Chris; Bassett, R. L.

    Aquifers in the arid alluvial basins of the southwestern U.S. are recharged predominantly by infiltration from streams and playas within the basins and by water entering along the margins of the basins. The Tucson basin of southeastern Arizona is such a basin. The Santa Catalina Mountains form the northern boundary of this basin and receive more than twice as much precipitation (ca. 700mm/year) as does the basin itself (ca. 300mm/year). In this study environmental isotopes were employed to investigate the migration of precipitation basinward through shallow joints and fractures. Water samples were obtained from springs and runoff in the Santa Catalina Mountains and from wells in the foothills of the Santa Catalina Mountains. Stable isotopes (δD and δ18O) and thermonuclear-bomb-produced tritium enabled qualitative characterization of flow paths and flow velocities. Stable-isotope measurements show no direct altitude effect. Tritium values indicate that although a few springs and wells discharge pre-bomb water, most springs discharge waters from the 1960s or later. Résumé La recharge des aquifères des bassins alluviaux arides du sud-ouest des États-Unis est assurée surtout à partir des lits des cours d'eau et des playas dans les bassins, ainsi que par l'eau entrant à la bordure de ces bassins. Le bassin du Tucson, dans le sud-est de l'Arizona, est l'un de ceux-ci. La chaîne montagneuse de Santa Catalina constitue la limite nord de ce bassin et reçoit plus de deux fois plus de précipitations (environ 700mm/an) que le bassin (environ 300mm/an). Dans cette étude, les isotopes du milieu ont été utilisés pour analyser le déplacement de l'eau de pluie vers le bassin au travers des fissures et des fractures proches de la surface. Des échantillons d'eau ont été prélevés dans les sources et dans l'écoulement de surface de la chaîne montagneuse et dans des puits au pied de la chaîne. Les isotopes stables (δD et δ18O) et le tritium d

  4. Palynology, geochemistry and Re-Os age of the Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian stage boundary, central Appalachian basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, N.; Tripathy, G. R.; Ruppert, L. F.; Eble, C. F.; Blake, B. M.; Hannah, J. L.; Stein, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    The central Appalachian basin (CAB) in the eastern United States contains complicated sedimentary sequences often with thin and discontinuous strata. As an economically important coal-producing region, the basin's architectural framework and depositional history are important to understand. Typically, eustatic marine incursions, marked with black shale deposits, are used for basin-wide correlation. The Betsie Shale Member of the Kanawha Formation represents one of these relatively thick and laterally extensive marine zones. This study examines the palynoflora of the Matewan coalbed, which conformably underlies the Betsie, in the context of a new Re-Os date for the Betsie Shale Member and additional geochemical measures. At its base, the Matewan contains abundant lycopsid tree spores, indicative of a submerged, flooded paleomire. Upsection, biodiversity increases to include small fern and calamite spores as well as cordaite pollen. Combined with an observed increase of inertinite, the diversification of palynoflora suggests surficial peat exposure and drying out of the paleomire. A S-rich (28 wt. %) shaley parting separates these lower and upper benches of the Matewan and may represent an initial marine pulse prior to the glacioeustatic incursion that ultimately flooded the Matewan and deposited the overlying Betsie Shale. The Betsie is organic-rich (3.05 - 4.89 wt. % TOC) with Re and Os content ranging from 320 - 1,200 ppb and 1.5 - 5.3 ppb, respectively. The highly enriched Re values result in notably high parent:daughter ratios (187Re/188Os = 3,644 - 5,737). The Re-Os isotopic data yield a Model 1 age of 323 ± 7.8 Ma (n = 7; MSWD = 0.63) with evidence that the true age lies closer to the younger end of the uncertainty. This age is consistent with previous paleontologic-based interpretations but represents the first directly measured radiometric date for the Betsie. An absolute age for the Betsie is a critical result, as the member is correlated with units in

  5. Elasto-Plastic Constitutive Behavior in Three Lithofacies of the Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewers, T.; Newell, P.; Broome, S. T.; Heath, J. E.; Bauer, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Mt. Simon Formation, a basal Cambrian sandstone underlying the Illinois Basin in the Central US, is a target for underground storage and waste injection which require an assessment of geomechanical behavior. The range of depositional environments, from braided streams and minor eolean features in the lower Mt Simon, to tidally-influenced near- and on-shore sands in the upper Mt. Simon, yield a heterogeneous formation with a range in porosity, permeability, and mechanical properties. We examine the experimental deformational behavior of three distinct Mt. Simon lithofacies via axisymmetric compressional testing. Initial yielding is confirmed with acoustic emissions in many of the tests and failure envelopes are determined for each lithofacies. The evolution of (assumed) isotropic elastic moduli are examined during testing by use of unload-reload cycles, which permit the separation of total measured strains into elastic and plastic (permanent) strains. The upper Mt Simon samples deform largely elastically at stresses encountered in the Illinois Basin, with very little modulus degradation. The lower Mt. Simon facies are weaker and deform plastically, with varying amounts of modulus degradation. Results are interpreted via petrographic observation of textural contrasts. This range in constitutive response is captured up to failure with a phenomenological elasto-plasticity model. Essential aspects to describe observed behavior used in the model include non-associative plasticity, stress-invariant dependent failure, an elliptical cap surface capturing shear effects on pore collapse, kinematic and isotropic hardening, nonlinear elasticity and elastic-plastic coupling, among other features. Static moduli derived from laboratory tests are compared to dynamic moduli from wellbore log response which can allow experimental results and model to be extrapolated to Mt. Simon occurrences across the basin. This work was funded in part by the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface

  6. Radionuclides in ground water of the Carson River Basin, western Nevada and eastern California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.M.; Welch, A.H.; Lico, M.S.; Hughes, J.L.; Whitney, R.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of domestic and public supply in the Carson River Basin. Ground water originates as precipitation primarily in the Sierra Nevada in the western part of Carson and Eagle Valleys, and flows down gradient in the direction of the Carson River through Dayton and Churchill Valleys to a terminal sink in the Carson Desert. Because radionuclides dissolved in ground water can pose a threat to human health, the distribution and sources of several naturally occurring radionuclides that contribute to gross-alpha and gross-beta activities in the study area were investigated. Generally, alpha and beta activities and U concentration increase from the up-gradient to down-gradient hydrographic areas of the Carson River Basin, whereas 222Rn concentration decreases. Both 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations are similar throughout the study area. Alpha and beta activities and U concentration commonly exceed 100 pCi/l in the Carson Desert at the distal end of the flow system. Radon-222 commonly exceeds 2,000 pCi/l in the western part of Carson and Eagle Valleys adjacent to the Sierra Nevada. Radium-226 and 228Ra concentrations are oxide coatings on fracture surfaces and fine-grained sediment, by adsorption on organic matter, and by coprecipitation with Fe and Mn oxides. These coated sediments are transported throughout the basin by fluvial processes. Thus, U is transported as dissolved and adsorbed species. A rise in the water table in the Carson Desert because of irrigation has resulted in the oxidation of U-rich organic matter and dissolution of U-bearing coatings on sediments, producing unusually high U concentration in the ground water. Alpha activity in the ground water is almost entirely from the decay of U dissolved in the water. Beta activity in ground water samples is primarily from the decay of 40K dissolved in the water and ingrowth of 238U progeny in the sample before analysis. Approximately one-half of the measured beta activity may not be present

  7. Environmental management and monitoring of coal bed methane development and production, northern San Juan Basin, Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherbee, K.G.; Salwerowicz, F.A.; Hoffmann, K.L.; Swanson, D.M.; Lovato, J.A. [Colorado State Office, Lakewood, CO (United States). Bureau of Land Management

    1994-12-31

    Potential contamination of groundwater supplies from methane produced from coal has become a critical environmental concern in the northern San Juan basin, Colorado. BLM`s San Juan Resources Area (SJRA) office was instrumental and proactive in building citizens` confidence in our regulatory responsibilities, establishing an environmental baseline, identifying potential sources of contamination, and instituting annual monitoring (Bradenhead testing) of all jurisdictional wells. Outreach programs by the SJRA have continued to maintain lines of communication among the various regulatory agencies, special interest groups, and concerned citizens. These programs emphasized the regulatory requirements necessary to protect valid existing rights to develop the gas resources, as well as protecting the resource values of the surface. Future activity includes continued coordination with other governmental agencies, state and local governments, and citizens groups and remains among our highest priority in managing resource development. This coordination is necessary to maintain the starting of information, identificating and mitigating of problems, and for developing reasonable alternatives. 4 refs.

  8. Automatic calibration of an erosion and sediment yield distributed conceptual model: application to the Goodwin Creek experimental river basin (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussi, G.; Francés, F.

    2010-05-01

    In the last decades, distributed hydrological models have achieved a fundamental importance in Hydrology, mainly for their capacity to describe the spatial variability of the basin processes. TETIS is a distributed conceptual model created to simulate rainfall-runoff processes. In the same way, a distributed approach to erosion and sediment yield modelling can lead to improvements for the solution of several sedimentological and geomorphological problems, such as sediment redistribution, localization of heavy erosion and soil loss zones, estimation of soil erosion and sediment yield and assessment of land use change effects on the sediment cycle. Following these considerations, the TETIS model has been coupled with a sediment cycle module with the purpose of representing erosion and sediment transport at basin scale. TETIS-SED is the result of integrating the erosion submodel of CASC2D-SED into the hydrological model TETIS. In the TETIS-SED model, the erosion/sedimentation rates are calculated as a function of the hydraulic properties of the flow, the physical properties of the soil and the surface characteristics. The modified Kilinc-Richardson equation is used to determine the upland sediment transport by grain size (silt, clay, and sand) from one cell into the next one. Sediment by size fraction is routed in the channels and the Engelund and Hansen equation is used to compute the transport capacity in one dimension. This formulation in both cases depends on hydraulic parameters (hydraulic radius, flow velocity and friction slope) and particle characteristics (specific gravity and particle diameter). Due to the uncertainty affecting the sediment parameters, the calibration stage may be a key issue in erosion and sediment yield modelling. In the TETIS model, automatic calibration is carried out by adjusting up to 9 hydrological correction factors with an automatic calibration algorithm, the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE-UA). In this work, 3 sedimentological

  9. Integrated Geologic and Geophysical Approach for Establishing Geothermal Play Fairways and Discovering Blind Geothermal Systems in the Great Basin Region, Western USA: A Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James E.; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Coolbaugh, Mark F.; Shevenell, Lisa A.; Siler, Drew L.; dePolo, Craig M.; Hammond, William C.; Kreemer, Corne; Oppliger, G.; Wannamaker, P.; Queen, John H.; Visser, Charles

    2015-09-02

    We have undertaken an integrated geologic, geochemical, and geophysical study of a broad 240-km-wide, 400-km-long transect stretching from west-central to eastern Nevada in the Great Basin region of the western USA. The main goal of this study is to produce a comprehensive geothermal potential map that incorporates up to 11 parameters and identifies geothermal play fairways that represent potential blind or hidden geothermal systems. Our new geothermal potential map incorporates: 1) heat flow; 2) geochemistry from springs and wells; 3) structural setting; 4) recency of faulting; 5) slip rates on Quaternary faults; 6) regional strain rate; 7) slip and dilation tendency on Quaternary faults; 8) seismologic data; 9) gravity data; 10) magnetotelluric data (where available); and 11) seismic reflection data (primarily from the Carson Sink and Steptoe basins). The transect is respectively anchored on its western and eastern ends by regional 3D modeling of the Carson Sink and Steptoe basins, which will provide more detailed geothermal potential maps of these two promising areas. To date, geological, geochemical, and geophysical data sets have been assembled into an ArcGIS platform and combined into a preliminary predictive geothermal play fairway model using various statistical techniques. The fairway model consists of the following components, each of which are represented in grid-cell format in ArcGIS and combined using specified weights and mathematical operators: 1) structural component of permeability; 2) regional-scale component of permeability; 3) combined permeability, and 4) heat source model. The preliminary model demonstrates that the multiple data sets can be successfully combined into a comprehensive favorability map. An initial evaluation using known geothermal systems as benchmarks to test interpretations indicates that the preliminary modeling has done a good job assigning relative ranks of geothermal potential. However, a major challenge is defining

  10. Isotopes in the Hueco Bolson aquifer, Texas (USA) and Chihuahua (Mexico): local and general implications for recharge sources in alluvial basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastoe, Christopher J.; Hibbs, Barry J.; Olivas, Alfredo Granados; Hogan, James F.; Hawley, John; Hutchison, William R.

    2008-06-01

    Stable isotope data for the Hueco Bolson aquifer (Texas, USA and Chihuahua, Mexico) distinguish four water types. Two types relate to recharge from the Rio Grande: pre-dam (pre-1916) river water with oxygen-18 and deuterium (δ18O, δD, ‰) from (-11.9, -90) to (-10.1, -82), contrasts with present-day river water (-8.5, -74) to (-5.3, -56). Pre-dam water is found beneath the Rio Grande floodplain and Ciudad Juárez, and is mixed with post-dam river water beneath the floodplain. Two other types relate to recharge of local precipitation; evidence of temporal change of precipitation isotopes is present in both types. Recharge from the Franklin and Organ Mountains plots between (-10.9, -76) and (-8.5, -60) on the global meteoric water line (GMWL), and is found along the western side of the Hueco Bolson, north of the Rio Grande. Recharge from the Diablo Plateau plots on an evaporation trend originating on the GMWL near (-8.5, -58). This water is found in the southeastern Hueco Bolson, north of the river; evaporation may be related to slow recharge through fine-grained sediment. Pre-dam water, recognizable by isotope composition, provides information on groundwater residence times in this and other dammed river basins.

  11. Meteorite search in the deflation basins in Lea County, New Mexico and Winkler County, Texas, USA: Discovery of Lea County 003 (H4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikouchi, T; Buchanan, P C; Zolensky, M E; Welten, K C; Hutchison, R; Hutchison, M

    2000-01-14

    During the past few decades great numbers of meteorites have been recovered from the ice accumulation zones of Antarctica and from the vast Sahara. Although these two great deserts are the two most productive areas, the Southern High Plains in USA (New Mexico and Texas) and Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia have great potential for meteorite recovery. The number of meteorite finds from Roosevelt County, New Mexico alone exceeds 100 in only approximately 11 km{sup 2} area. Most meteorites from this area have been found on the floors of active deflation basins (blowouts) that have been excavated from a mantle of sand dunes. This area has no apparent fluvial or permafrost activity within the last 50,000 years, suggesting that only prevailing winds and natural aridity aid in the concentration and preservation of meteorites. The authors investigated these deflation surfaces in Lea County (the SE corner of New Mexico) and neighboring Winkler County, Texas following a prior search in this area which found two chondrites. They found a tiny H4 chondrite in this search and here they report its mineralogy and petrology along with preliminary data on its exposure history.

  12. Characterization of mean transit time at large springs in the Upper Colorado River Basin, USA: a tool for assessing groundwater discharge vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solder, John E.; Stolp, Bernard J.; Heilweil, Victor M.; Susong, David D.

    2016-07-01

    Environmental tracers (noble gases, tritium, industrial gases, stable isotopes, and radio-carbon) and hydrogeology were interpreted to determine groundwater transit-time distribution and calculate mean transit time (MTT) with lumped parameter modeling at 19 large springs distributed throughout the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), USA. The predictive value of the MTT to evaluate the pattern and timing of groundwater response to hydraulic stress (i.e., vulnerability) is examined by a statistical analysis of MTT, historical spring discharge records, and the Palmer Hydrological Drought Index. MTTs of the springs range from 10 to 15,000 years and 90 % of the cumulative discharge-weighted travel-time distribution falls within the range of 2-10,000 years. Historical variability in discharge was assessed as the ratio of 10-90 % flow-exceedance (R 10/90%) and ranged from 2.8 to 1.1 for select springs with available discharge data. The lag-time (i.e., delay in discharge response to drought conditions) was determined by cross-correlation analysis and ranged from 0.5 to 6 years for the same select springs. Springs with shorter MTTs (<80 years) statistically correlate with larger discharge variations and faster responses to drought, indicating MTT can be used for estimating the relative magnitude and timing of groundwater response. Results indicate that groundwater discharge to streams in the UCRB will likely respond on the order of years to climate variation and increasing groundwater withdrawals.

  13. A new species of Ischyodus (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali: Callorhynchidae) from Upper Maastrichtian Shallow marine facies of the Fox Hills and Hell Creek Formations, Williston basin, North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoganson, J.W.; Erickson, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A new species of chimaeroid, Ischyodus rayhaasi sp. nov., is described based primarily upon the number and configuration of tritors on palatine and mandibular tooth plates. This new species is named in honour of Mr Raymond Haas. Fossils of I. rayhaasi have been recovered from the Upper Maastrichtian Fox Hills Formation and the Breien Member and an unnamed member of the Hell Creek Formation at sites in south-central North Dakota and north-central South Dakota, USA. Ischyodus rayhaasi inhabited shallow marine waters in the central part of the Western Interior Seaway during the latest Cretaceous. Apparently it was also present in similar habitats at that time in the Volga region of Russia. Ischyodus rayhaasi is the youngest Cretaceous species Ischyodus known to exist before the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinction, and the species apparently did not survive that event. It was replaced by Ischyodus dolloi, which is found in the Paleocene Cannonball Formation of the Williston Basin region of North Dakota and is widely distributed elsewhere. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  14. Characterization of mean transit time at large springs in the Upper Colorado River Basin, USA: a tool for assessing groundwater discharge vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solder, John E.; Stolp, Bernard J.; Heilweil, Victor M.; Susong, David D.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental tracers (noble gases, tritium, industrial gases, stable isotopes, and radio-carbon) and hydrogeology were interpreted to determine groundwater transit-time distribution and calculate mean transit time (MTT) with lumped parameter modeling at 19 large springs distributed throughout the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), USA. The predictive value of the MTT to evaluate the pattern and timing of groundwater response to hydraulic stress (i.e., vulnerability) is examined by a statistical analysis of MTT, historical spring discharge records, and the Palmer Hydrological Drought Index. MTTs of the springs range from 10 to 15,000 years and 90 % of the cumulative discharge-weighted travel-time distribution falls within the range of 2-10,000 years. Historical variability in discharge was assessed as the ratio of 10-90 % flow-exceedance ( R 10/90%) and ranged from 2.8 to 1.1 for select springs with available discharge data. The lag-time (i.e., delay in discharge response to drought conditions) was determined by cross-correlation analysis and ranged from 0.5 to 6 years for the same select springs. Springs with shorter MTTs (groundwater response. Results indicate that groundwater discharge to streams in the UCRB will likely respond on the order of years to climate variation and increasing groundwater withdrawals.

  15. Summer Watering Patterns of Mule Deer in the Great Basin Desert, USA: Implications of Differential Use by Individuals and the Sexes for Management of Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V. Shields

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the abundance and distribution of free water can negatively influence wildlife in arid regions. Free water is considered a limiting factor for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus in the Great Basin Desert. Consequently, a better understanding of differential use of water by individuals and the sexes could influence the conservation and management of mule deer and water resources in their habitats. We deployed remote cameras at all known water sources (13 wildlife water developments and 4 springs on one mountain range in western Utah, USA, during summer from 2007 to 2011 to document frequency and timing of water use, number of water sources used by males and females, and to estimate population size from individually identified mule deer. Male and female mule deer used different water sources but visited that resource at similar frequencies. Individual mule deer used few water sources and exhibited high fidelity to that resource. Wildlife water developments were frequently used by both sexes. Our results highlight the differing use of water sources by sexes and individual mule deer. This information will help guide managers when siting and reprovisioning wildlife water developments meant to benefit mule deer and will contribute to the conservation and management of this species.

  16. Evidence for coal forest refugia in the seasonally dry Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands of the Illinois Basin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy V. Looy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Moscovian plant macroflora at Cottage Grove southeastern Illinois, USA, is a key example of Pennsylvanian (323–299 Million years ago dryland vegetation. There is currently no palynological data from the same stratigraphic horizons as the plant macrofossils, leaves and other vegetative and reproductive structures, at this locality. Consequently, reconstructions of the standing vegetation at Cottage Grove from these sediments lack the complementary information and a more regional perspective that can be provided by sporomorphs (prepollen, pollen, megaspores and spores. In order to provide this, we have analysed the composition of fossil sporomorph assemblages in two rock samples taken from macrofossil-bearing inter-coal shale at Cottage Grove. Our palynological data differ considerably in composition and in the dominance-diversity profile from the macrofossil vegetation at this locality. Walchian conifers and pteridosperms are common elements in the macroflora, but are absent in the sporomorph assemblages. Reversely, the sporomorph assemblages at Cottage Grove comprise 17 spore taxa (∼16% and ∼63% of the total assemblages that are known from the lycopsid orders Isoetales, Lepidodendrales and Selaginallales, while Cottage Grove’s macrofloral record fails to capture evidence of a considerable population of coal forest lycopsids. We interpret our results as evidence that the Pennsylvanian dryland glacial landscape at Cottage Grove included fragmented populations of wetland plants living in refugia.

  17. Comparison of drier- to wetter-interval estuarine roof facies in the Eastern and Western Interior coal basins, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, A.W.; Feldman, H.R.; Kvale, E.P.; Lanier, Wendy E.

    1994-01-01

    Many of the Carboniferous coals in the eastern interior of the US are associated with siliciclastic roof facies that were deposited within a fluvio-estuarine transition. These facies include a variety of rhythmites, some of which exhibit tidal cycles. Drier-interval coals (Westphalian B-C, Stephanian) tend to be more laterally restricted and more commonly are associated with paleovalleys. Conversely, wetter-interval coals (Westphalian D) are very widespread and are not restricted to paleovalleys. Throughout the Lake Carboniferous, wet paleoclimates associated with these coals lead to valley incision during sea-level lowstand when large tropical rivers downcut older sediments deposited during previous sea-level highstands. During subsequent rise of sea level, these fluvial valleys were flooded and converted to estuaries where tidal ranges and sedimentation rates were significantly amplified. Based on modern analogs and interpretation of many examples of Carboniferous tidal rhythmites, the localized depositional rates in these settings are exceptionally high. The estuaries became sediment sinks, trapping sediment that is pumped in from both fluvial and marine sources. As a result, sedimentation readily keeps pace with rising baselevel. Extensive intertidal flats and shallow subtidal flats are created and prograde over the valley-confined mires. Thick tidal cycles and upright trees (some with attached foliage) record rapid burial of mires. This model is supported with examples of roof facies from the Westphalian B-C of the Eastern Interior Basin, and the Stephanian of the Western Interior Basin. In these areas facies within each cycle range from well-developed, extensive paleosols and coals, to widespread marine shales or limestones. Variations in both sea level and climate resulted in a complex history of valley fill during which coals could be developed at any time (except during widespread flooding). Minable, low-sulfur and low-ash coals occur, but the coals are

  18. Multireaction equilibrium geothermometry: A sensitivity analysis using data from the Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonathan M.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2016-12-01

    A multireaction chemical equilibria geothermometry (MEG) model applicable to high-temperature geothermal systems has been developed over the past three decades. Given sufficient data, this model provides more constraint on calculated reservoir temperatures than classical chemical geothermometers that are based on either the concentration of silica (SiO2), or the ratios of cation concentrations. A set of 23 chemical analyses from Ojo Caliente Spring and 22 analyses from other thermal features in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park are used to examine the sensitivity of calculated reservoir temperatures using the GeoT MEG code (Spycher et al. 2013, 2014) to quantify the effects of solute concentrations, degassing, and mineral assemblages on calculated reservoir temperatures. Results of our analysis demonstrate that the MEG model can resolve reservoir temperatures within approximately ± 15 °C, and that natural variation in fluid compositions represents a greater source of variance in calculated reservoir temperatures than variations caused by analytical uncertainty (assuming 5% for major elements). The analysis also suggests that MEG calculations are particularly sensitive to variations in silica concentration, the concentrations of the redox species Fe(II) and H2S, and that the parameters defining steam separation and CO2 degassing from the liquid may be adequately determined by numerical optimization. Results from this study can provide guidance for future applications of MEG models, and thus provide more reliable information on geothermal energy resources during exploration.

  19. Mapping grassland productivity with 250-m eMODIS NDVI and SSURGO database over the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Bliss, Norman B.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed and described a relationship between satellite-derived growing season averaged Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and annual productivity for grasslands within the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) of the United States. We compared growing season averaged NDVI (GSN) with Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database rangeland productivity and flux tower Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) for grassland areas. The GSN was calculated for each of nine years (2000–2008) using the 7-day composite 250-m eMODIS (expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data. Strong correlations exist between the nine-year mean GSN (MGSN) and SSURGO annual productivity for grasslands (R2 = 0.74 for approximately 8000 pixels randomly selected from eight homogeneous regions within the GPRB; R2 = 0.96 for the 14 cluster-averaged points). Results also reveal a strong correlation between GSN and flux tower growing season averaged GPP (R2 = 0.71). Finally, we developed an empirical equation to estimate grassland productivity based on the MGSN. Spatially explicit estimates of grassland productivity over the GPRB were generated, which improved the regional consistency of SSURGO grassland productivity data and can help scientists and land managers to better understand the actual biophysical and ecological characteristics of grassland systems in the GPRB. This final estimated grassland production map can also be used as an input for biogeochemical, ecological, and climate change models.

  20. Small-mammal data on early and middle Holocene climates and biotic communities in the Bonneville Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D.N.; Madsen, D.B.; Lupo, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    Archaeological investigations in Camels Back Cave, western Utah, recovered a series of small-mammal bone assemblages from stratified deposits dating between ca. 12,000 and 500 14C yr B.P. The cave's early Holocene fauna includes a number of species adapted to montane or mesic habitats containing grasses and/or sagebrush (e.g., Lepus townsendii, Marmota flaviventris, Reithrodontomys megalotis, and Brachylagus idahoensis) which suggest that the region was relatively cool and moist until after 8800 14C yr B.P. Between ca. 8600 and 8100 14C yr B.P. these mammals became locally extinct, taxonomic diversity declined, and there was an increase in species well-adapted to xeric, low-elevation habitats, including ground squirrels, Lepus californicus and Neotoma lepida. The early small-mammal record from Camels Back Cave is similar to the 11,300-6000 14C yr B.P. mammalian sequence from Homestead Cave, northwestern Utah, and provides corroborative data on Bonneville Basin paleoenvironments and mammalian responses to middle Holocene desertification. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  1. A comparative study of historical droughts over Texas, USA and Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: Factors influencing initialization and cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon-Kidd, Danielle C.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Ren, Tong; Fernando, D. Nelun

    2017-02-01

    Water availability and food security are tightly coupled on a global scale. The occurrence of drought puts this balance at risk due to reductions in dryland farming production and water allocations to irrigated agriculture. Improved understanding of drought initiation and cessation would therefore be beneficial for drought planning and management. The study objective was to determine factors affecting drought initiation and cessation over the past century in two climatologically similar regions that represent net agricultural exporters; south central U.S. (Texas) and southeast Australia (Murray Darling Basin, MDB). Drought indices included the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, 1900-2014) for meteorological drought, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, 1981-2014) for agricultural drought, and the Streamflow Drought Index (SDI, 1930-2014) for hydrological drought. Results show that meteorological drought tends to develop gradually over a period of up to six months, with agricultural drought developing shortly thereafter (within one month) in both regions. Evidence of hydrological drought was observed within one month (Texas) and within four months (MDB) on average after meteorological drought was established. Further, droughts appear to cease more quickly than they initiate over Texas, whereas rates of drought initiation and cessation are similar over the MDB. Drought breaking rainfall in Texas is generally a result of a southward shift in the Polar Jet Stream or a low-pressure trough over central North America, whereas drought cessation in the MDB is typically associated with a monsoon trough or low-pressure system in the Tasman Sea/Great Australian Bight. Improved knowledge of the climate mechanisms controlling the onset and termination of drought periods should enhance drought forecasts and improve drought management practices, particularly in regions where water security is a primary objective.

  2. Trace-element accumulation by Hygrohypnum ochraceum in the upper Rio Grande Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, L.F. [Geological Survey, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Porter, S.D. [Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center

    1997-12-01

    Accumulation of 12 trace elements by transplanted aquatic bryophytes (Hygrohypnum ochraceum) was determined at 13 sites in the Rio Grande and tributary streams in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico as part of the US Geological Survey`s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purposes of the study were to determine the spatial distribution of trace elements in relation to land-use practices in the upper Rio Grande Basin, compare accumulation rates of metals in bryophytes at sites contaminated by trace elements, and evaluate transplanted aquatic bryophytes as a tool for examining the bioavailability of trace elements in relation to concentrations in water and bed sediment. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in bryophytes, water, and bed sediment were significantly higher at sites that receive drainage from mining areas than at sites near agricultural or urban activities. Concentrations of most trace elements were lower in a tributary stream below an urban source than at sites near mining or agricultural use. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in bryophytes correlated with concentrations in water and bed sediment. In addition, bryophyte concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb correlated with concentrations in bed sediment. Transplanted bryophytes can provide an indication of bioavailability. Rates of accumulation were related to the magnitude of ambient trace-element concentrations; maximal uptake occurred during the first 10 d of exposure. Trace-element concentrations in transplanted bryophytes could potentially be used to predict water and sediment concentrations that represent an integration of conditions over short to intermediate lengths of time, rather than instantaneous conditions as measured using water samples.

  3. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. performance of treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of passive and semi-passive treatment systems were constructed by state and local agencies to neutralize acidic mine drainage (AMD) and reduce the transport of dissolved metals in the upper Swatara Creek Basin in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield in eastern Pennsylvania. To evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment systems installed during 1995–2001, the US Geological Survey collected water-quality data at upstream and downstream locations relative to each system eight or more times annually for a minimum of 3 years at each site during 1996–2007. Performance was normalized among treatment types by dividing the acid load removed by the size of the treatment system. For the limestone sand, open limestone channel, oxic limestone drain, anoxic limestone drain (ALD), and limestone diversion well treatment systems, the size was indicated by the total mass of limestone; for the aerobic wetland systems, the size was indicated by the total surface area of ponds and wetlands. Additionally, the approximate cost per tonne of acid treated over an assumed service life of 20 years was computed. On the basis of these performance metrics, the limestone sand, ALD, oxic limestone drain, and limestone diversion wells had similar ranges of acid-removal efficiency and cost efficiency. However, the open limestone channel had lower removal efficiency and higher cost per ton of acid treated. The wetlands effectively attenuated metals transport but were relatively expensive considering metrics that evaluated acid removal and cost efficiency. Although the water-quality data indicated that all treatments reduced the acidity load from AMD, the ALD was most effective at producing near-neutral pH and attenuating acidity and dissolved metals. The diversion wells were effective at removing acidity and increasing pH of downstream water and exhibited unique potential to treat moderate to high flows associated with storm flow conditions.

  4. Hydrochemical tracers in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA: 2. Calibration of a groundwater-flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Plummer, L. Niel; McAda, Douglas P.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    The calibration of a groundwater model with the aid of hydrochemical data has demonstrated that low recharge rates in the Middle Rio Grande Basin may be responsible for a groundwater trough in the center of the basin and for a substantial amount of Rio Grande water in the regional flow system. Earlier models of the basin had difficulty reproducing these features without any hydrochemical data to constrain the rates and distribution of recharge. The objective of this study was to use the large quantity of available hydrochemical data to help calibrate the model parameters, including the recharge rates. The model was constructed using the US Geological Survey's software MODFLOW, MODPATH, and UCODE, and calibrated using 14C activities and the positions of certain flow zones defined by the hydrochemical data. Parameter estimation was performed using a combination of nonlinear regression techniques and a manual search for the minimum difference between field and simulated observations. The calibrated recharge values were substantially smaller than those used in previous models. Results from a 30,000-year transient simulation suggest that recharge was at a maximum about 20,000 years ago and at a minimum about 10,000 years ago. Le calibrage d'un modèle hydrogéologique avec l'aide de données hydrochimiques a démontré que la recharge relativement faible dans le Grand Bassin du Middle Rio est vraisemblablement responsable d'une dépression des eaux souterraines dans le centre du bassin et de la présence d'une quantité substantielle d'eau du Rio Grande dans l'aquifère du Groupe de Santa Fe. Les modèles antérieurs avaient des difficultés à reproduire ses conclusions sans l'aide de données hydrochimiques pour contraindre les taux et la distribution de la recharge. L'objectif de cette étude était d'utiliser une grande quantité de données hydrochimiques permettant de calibrer les paramètres du modèle, et notamment les taux de recharge. Le modèle a

  5. Genetic and temporal relations between formation waters and biogenic methane: Upper Devonian Antrim Shale, Michigan Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, A. M.; Walter, L. M.; Budai, J. M.; Ku, T. C. W.; Kaiser, C. J.; Schoell, M.

    1998-05-01

    basinward and (2) progressive bacterial oxidation of ethane as the Antrim Shale subcrop is approached. Multiple episodes of Pleistocene glaciation over northern Michigan appear critical to the development of these gas deposits. Loading of thick ice sheets may have provided hydraulic head that enhanced dilation of preexisting fractures and influx of meteoric water. The physical erosion cycle of repeated glacial advances and retreats exhumed the Antrim Shale around the northern margin of the Michigan Basin, subjecting it to near-surface physiochemical and biochemical processes. The chemical and hydrologic relations demonstrated in the Antrim Shale reservoir suggest a dynamic connection between Pleistocene glacial history of the midcontinent region and development of recoverable, microbially generated natural gas reserves.

  6. Genesis of Middle Miocene Yellowstone hotspot-related bonanza epithermal Au-Ag deposits, Northern Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J. A.; Unger, D. L.; Kamenov, G. D.; Fayek, M.; Hames, W. E.; Utterback, W. C.

    2008-09-01

    Epithermal deposits with bonanza Au-Ag veins in the northern Great Basin (NGB) are spatially and temporally associated with Middle Miocene bimodal volcanism that was related to a mantle plume that has now migrated to the Yellowstone National Park area. The Au-Ag deposits formed between 16.5 and 14 Ma, but exhibit different mineralogical compositions, the latter due to the nature of the country rocks hosting the deposits. Where host rocks were primarily of meta-sedimentary or granitic origin, adularia-rich gold mineralization formed. Where glassy rhyolitic country rocks host veins, colloidal silica textures and precious metal-colloid aggregation textures resulted. Where basalts are the country rocks, clay-rich mineralization (with silica minerals, adularia, and carbonate) developed. Oxygen isotope data from quartz (originally amorphous silica and gels) from super-high-grade banded ores from the Sleeper deposit show that ore-forming solutions had δ 18O values up to 10‰ heavier than mid-Miocene meteoric water. The geochemical signature of the ores (including their Se-rich nature) is interpreted here to reflect a mantle source for the “epithermal suite” elements (Au, Ag, Se, Te, As, Sb, Hg) and that signature is preserved to shallow crustal levels because of the similar volatility and aqueous geochemical behavior of the “epithermal suite” elements. A mantle source for the gold in the deposits is further supported by the Pb isotopic signature of the gold ores. Apparently the host rocks control the mineralization style and gangue mineralogy of ores. However, all deposits are considered to have derived precious metals and metalloids from mafic magmas related to the initial emergence of the Yellowstone hotspot. Basalt-derived volatiles and metal(loid)s are inferred to have been absorbed by meteoric-water-dominated geothermal systems heated by shallow rhyolitic magma chambers. Episodic discharge of volatiles and metal(loid)s from deep basaltic magmas mixed with

  7. Geology of tight oil and potential tight oil reservoirs in the lower part of the Green River Formation, Uinta, Piceance, and Greater Green River Basins, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2016-05-02

    The recent successful development of a tight oil play in the Eocene-age informal Uteland Butte member of the lacustrine Green River Formation in the Uinta Basin, Utah, using modern horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques has spurred a renewed interest in the tight oil potential of lacustrine rocks. The Green River Formation was deposited by two large lakes, Lake Uinta in the Uinta and Piceance Basins and Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River Basin. These three basins contain the world’s largest in-place oil shale resources with recent estimates of 1.53 trillion, 1.33 trillion, and 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in place in the Piceance, Uinta, and Greater Green River Basins, respectively. The Uteland Butte member was deposited during an early freshwater stage of the lake in the Uinta Basin prior to deposition of the assessed oil shale intervals. This report only presents information on the early freshwater interval and overlying brackish-water interval in all three basins because these intervals are most likely to have tight oil potential. Burial histories of the three basins were reconstructed to study (1) variations in subsidence and lake development, and (2) post deposition burial that led to the development of a petroleum system in only the Uinta Basin. The Uteland Butte member is a successful tight oil play because it is thermally mature for hydrocarbon generation and contains organic-rich shale, brittle carbonate, and porous dolomite. Abnormally high pressure in parts of the Uteland Butte is also important to production. Variations in organic richness of the Uteland Butte were studied using Fischer assay analysis from oil shale assessments, and pressures were studied using drill-stem tests. Freshwater lacustrine intervals in the Piceance and Greater Green River Basins are immature for hydrocarbon generation and contain much less carbonate than the Uteland Butte member. The brackish-water interval in the Uinta Basin is thermally mature for

  8. Characterization of mean transit time at large springs in the Upper Colorado River Basin, USA: A tool for assessing groundwater discharge vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solder, John; Stolp, Bernard J.; Heilweil, Victor M.; Susong, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental tracers (noble gases, tritium, industrial gases, stable isotopes, and radio-carbon) and hydrogeology were interpreted to determine groundwater transit-time distribution and calculate mean transit time (MTT) with lumped parameter modeling at 19 large springs distributed throughout the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), USA. The predictive value of the MTT to evaluate the pattern and timing of groundwater response to hydraulic stress (i.e., vulnerability) is examined by a statistical analysis of MTT, historical spring discharge records, and the Palmer Hydrological Drought Index. MTTs of the springs range from 10 to 15,000 years and 90 % of the cumulative discharge-weighted travel-time distribution falls within the range of 2−10,000 years. Historical variability in discharge was assessed as the ratio of 10–90 % flow-exceedance (R 10/90%) and ranged from 2.8 to 1.1 for select springs with available discharge data. The lag-time (i.e., delay in discharge response to drought conditions) was determined by cross-correlation analysis and ranged from 0.5 to 6 years for the same select springs. Springs with shorter MTTs (<80 years) statistically correlate with larger discharge variations and faster responses to drought, indicating MTT can be used for estimating the relative magnitude and timing of groundwater response. Results indicate that groundwater discharge to streams in the UCRB will likely respond on the order of years to climate variation and increasing groundwater withdrawals.

  9. Cluster analyses of 20th century growth patterns in high elevation Great Basin bristlecone pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T. J.; Bruening, J. M.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a useful climate proxy because of the species' long lifespan (up to 5000 years) and the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Past studies have shown that growth of individual trees can be limited by temperature, soil moisture, or a combination of the two depending on biophysical setting at the scale of tens of meters. We extend recent research suggesting that trees vary in their growth response depending on their position on the landscape to analyze how growth patterns vary over time. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to examine the growth of 52 bristlecone pine trees near the treeline of Mount Washington, Nevada, USA. We classified growth of individual trees over the instrumental climate record into one of two possible scenarios: trees belonging to a temperature-sensitive cluster and trees belonging to a precipitation-sensitive cluster. The number of trees in the precipitation-sensitive cluster outnumbered the number of trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster, with trees in colder locations belonging to the temperature-sensitive cluster. When we separated the temporal range into two sections (1895-1949 and 1950-2002) spanning the length of the instrumental climate record, we found that most of the 52 trees remained loyal to their cluster membership (e.g., trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster in 1895-1949 were also in the temperature sensitive cluster in 1950-2002), though not without exception. Of those trees that do not remain consistent in cluster membership, the majority changed from temperature-sensitive to precipitation-sensitive as time progressed. This could signal a switch from temperature limitation to water limitation with warming climate. We speculate that topographic complexity in high mountain environments like Mount Washington might allow for climate refugia where growth response could remain constant over the Holocene.

  10. Wyoming DOE EPSCoR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gern, W.A.

    2004-01-15

    All of the research and human resource development projects were systemic in nature with real potential for becoming self sustaining. They concentrated on building permanent structure, such as faculty expertise, research equipment, the SEM Minority Center, and the School of Environment and Natural Resources. It was the intent of the DOE/EPSCoR project to permanently change the way Wyoming does business in energy-related research, human development for science and engineering careers, and in relationships between Wyoming industry, State Government and UW. While there is still much to be done, the DOE/EPSCoR implementation award has been successful in accomplishing that change and enhancing UW's competitiveness associated with coal utilization, electrical energy efficiency, and environmental remediation.

  11. Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Final technical report, September 15, 1993--October 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, T.L.

    1996-10-01

    This multidisciplinary study was designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal was accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, and depositional regional frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery. Concurrent efforts were aimed at understanding the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery processes. The work focused on quantifying the interrelationship of fluid-rock interaction with lithologic characterization and with fluid characterization in terms of changes in chemical composition and fluid properties. This work establishes new criteria for the susceptibility of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs to formation alteration that results in wellbore scale damage. This task was accomplished by flow experiments using core material; examination of regional trends in water chemistry; examination of local water chemistry trends the at field scale; and chemical modeling of both the experimental and reservoir systems.

  12. The influence of faults in basin-fill deposits on land subsidence, Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbey, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    The role of horizontal deformation caused by pumping of confined-aquifer systems is recognized as contributing to the development of earth fissures in semiarid regions, including Las Vegas Valley, Nevada. In spite of stabilizing water levels, new earth fissures continue to develop while existing ones continue to lengthen and widen near basin-fill faults. A three-dimensional granular displacement model based on Biot's consolidation theory (Biot, MA, 1941, General theory of three-dimensional consolidation. Jour. Applied Physics 12:155-164) has been used to evaluate the nature of displacement in the vicinity of two vertical faults. The fault was simulated as (1) a low-permeability barrier to horizontal flow, (2) a gap or structural break in the medium, but where groundwater flow is not obstructed, and (3) a combination of conditions (1) and (2). Results indicate that the low-permeability barrier greatly enhances horizontal displacement. The fault plane also represents a location of significant differential vertical subsidence. Large computed strains in the vicinity of the fault may suggest high potential for failure and the development of earth fissures when the fault is assumed to have low permeability. Results using a combination of the two boundaries suggest that potential fissure development may be great at or near the fault plane and that horizontal deformation is likely to play a key role in this development. Résumé. On considère que la déformation horizontale provoquée par un pompage dans un aquifère captif joue un rôle dans le développement des fissures du sol en régions semi-arides, comme la vallée de Las Vegas (Nevada). Malgré des niveaux d'eau stabilisés, de nouvelles fissures du sol continuent de se développer en longueur et en largeur au voisinage de failles dans les bassins sédimentaires. Un modèle de déplacement granulaire tri-dimensionnel, basé sur la théorie de la consolidation de Biot (Biot, M A, 1941, General theory of three

  13. Seismic architecture and lithofacies of turbidites in Lake Mead (Arizona and Nevada, U.S.A.), an analogue for topographically complex basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, D.C.; Cross, V.A.; Hanson, A.D.; Buck, B.J.; Zybala, J.G.; Rudin, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Turbidites, which have accumulated in Lake Mead since completion of the Hoover Dam in 1935, have been mapped using high-resolution seismic and coring techniques. This lake is an exceptional natural laboratory for studying fine-grained turbidite systems in complex topographic settings. The lake comprises four relatively broad basins separated by narrow canyons, and turbidity currents run the full length of the lake. The mean grain size of turbidites is mostly coarse silt, and the sand content decreases from 11-30% in beds in the easternmost basin nearest the source to 3-14% in the central basins to 1-2% in the most distal basin. Regionally, the seismic amplitude mimics the core results and decreases away from the source. The facies and morphology of the sediment surface varies between basins and suggests a regional progression from higher-energy and possibly channelized flows in the easternmost basin to unchannelized flows in the central two basins to unchannelized flows that are ponded by the Hoover Dam in the westernmost basin. At the local scale, turbidites are nearly flat-lying in the central two basins, but here the morphology of the basin walls strongly affects the distribution of facies. One of the two basins is relatively narrow, and in sinuous sections reflection amplitude increases toward the outsides of meanders. Where a narrow canyon debouches into a broad basin, reflection amplitude decreases radially away from the canyon mouth and forms a fan-like deposit. The fine-grained nature of the turbidites in the most distal basin and the fact that reflections drape the underlying pre-impoundment surface suggest ponding here. The progression from ponding in the most distal basin to possibly channelized flows in the most proximal basin shows in plan view a progression similar to the stratigraphic progression documented in several minibasins in the Gulf of Mexico. Copyright ?? 2005, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  14. Decadal-scale export of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment from the Susquehanna River basin, USA: Analysis and synthesis of temporal and spatial patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Ball, William P.; Moyer, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The export of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and suspended sediment (SS) is a long-standing management concern for the Chesapeake Bay watershed, USA. Here we present a comprehensive evaluation of nutrient and sediment loads over the last three decades at multiple locations in the Susquehanna River basin (SRB), Chesapeake's largest tributary watershed. Sediment and nutrient riverine loadings, including both dissolved and particulate fractions, have generally declined at all sites upstream of Conowingo Dam (non-tidal SRB outlet). Period-of-record declines in riverine yield are generally smaller than those in source input, suggesting the possibility of legacy contributions. Consistent with other watershed studies, these results reinforce the importance of considering lag time between the implementation of management actions and achievement of river quality improvement. Whereas flow-normalized loadings for particulate species have increased recently below Conowingo Reservoir, those for upstream sites have declined, thus substantiating conclusions from prior studies about decreased reservoir trapping efficiency. In regard to streamflow effects, statistically significant log-linear relationships between annual streamflow and annual constituent load suggest the dominance of hydrological control on the inter-annual variability of constituent export. Concentration-discharge relationships revealed general chemostasis and mobilization effects for dissolved and particulate species, respectively, both suggesting transport-limitation conditions. In addition to affecting annual export rates, streamflow has also modulated the relative importance of dissolved and particulate fractions, as reflected by its negative correlations with dissolved P/total P, dissolved N/total N, particulate P/SS, and total N/total P ratios. For land-use effects, period-of-record median annual yields of N, P, and SS all correlate positively with the area fraction of non-forested land but negatively with

  15. Multi-Scale Transport Properties of Fine-Grained Rocks: A Case Study of the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. E.; Dewers, T. A.; McPherson, B. J.; Wilson, T. H.; Flach, T.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding and characterizing transport properties of fine-grained rocks is critical in development of shale gas plays or assessing retention of CO2 at geologic storage sites. Difficulties arise in that both small scale (i.e., ~ nm) properties of the rock matrix and much larger scale fractures, faults, and sedimentological architecture govern migration of multiphase fluids. We present a multi-scale investigation of sealing and transport properties of the Kirtland Formation, which is a regional aquitard and reservoir seal in the San Juan Basin, USA. Sub-micron dual FIB/SEM imaging and reconstruction of 3D pore networks in core samples reveal a variety of pore types, including slit-shaped pores that are co-located with sedimentary structures and variations in mineralogy. Micron-scale chemical analysis and XRD reveal a mixture of mixed-layer smectite/illite, chlorite, quartz, and feldspar with little organic matter. Analysis of sub-micron digital reconstructions, mercury capillary injection pressure, and gas breakthrough measurements indicate a high quality sealing matrix. Natural full and partially mineralized fractures observed in core and in FMI logs include those formed from early soil-forming processes, differential compaction, and tectonic events. The potential impact of both fracture and matrix properties on large-scale transport is investigated through an analysis of natural helium from core samples, 3D seismic data and poro-elastic modeling. While seismic interpretations suggest considerable fracturing of the Kirtland, large continuous fracture zones and faults extending through the seal to the surface cannot be inferred from the data. Observed Kirtland Formation multi-scale transport properties are included as part of a risk assessment methodology for CO2 storage. Acknowledgements: The authors gratefully acknowledge the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory for sponsoring this project. The DOE’s Basic Energy Science

  16. Trend and magnitude of changes in climate variables and reference evapotranspiration over 116-yr period in the Platte River Basin, central Nebraska-USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, Suat; Kabenge, Isa; Skaggs, Kari E.; Mutiibwa, Denis

    2012-02-01

    SummarySome studies that investigate the climate change and hydrologic balance relationships utilize reference (potential) evapotranspiration ( ETref) to either calculate the changes in trends and magnitude of actual ET or to determine changes in atmospheric demand. In such cases, it is important to acquire robust ETref estimates to correctly assess the impact of changes in meteorological variables on atmospheric evaporative demand, hydrologic balances, response of vegetation to climate, and their interactions. Despite its crucial importance, unfortunately, ETref is sometimes poorly addressed in climate change studies as some studies utilize temperature or radiation-based empirical equations due to various reasons (unavailability of climate data to solve combination-based energy balance equations, etc.). Since many climate variables that affect ETref rates have been changing and are expected to change in the future, single-variable equations for estimating the trend in ETref should be avoided due to the inherent nature of the trend passed to ETref from the variable. Here, we showed an integrated approach of practical and robust procedures that are already exist to estimate necessary climate variables [incoming shortwave radiation ( R s), net radiation ( R n), wind speed at 2-m ( u2), relative humidity (RH), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD)] only from observed maximum and minimum air temperatures ( Tmax and Tmin) and precipitation ( P) data to be used in Penman-Monteith-type combination-based energy balance equations to predict grass-and alfalfa-reference evapotranspiration ( ET o and ET r, respectively). We analyzed the trends and magnitudes of change in meteorological variables for a 116-yr period from 1893 to 2008 in the agro-ecosystem-dominated Platte River Basin in central Nebraska, USA. Although we found a significant ( P energy, which is primary driver of ETref. There was approximately 100 mm of increase in precipitation from 1893 to 2008 in the study

  17. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, CONVERSE COUNTY, WYOMING, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  18. Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2) in Colbert County, Alabama, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemin, Stephen J.; Jun A. Ebersole; Dickinson, William C.; Charles N Ciampaglio

    2016-01-01

    The Tennessee River Basin is considered one of the most important regions for freshwater biodiversity anywhere on the globe. The Tennessee River Basin currently includes populations of at least half of the described contemporary diversity of extant North American freshwater fishes, crayfish, mussel, and gastropod species. However, comparatively little is known about the biodiversity of this basin from the Pleistocene Epoch, particularly the late Pleistocene (∼10,000 to 30,000 years B.P.) lead...

  19. Taphonomy and paleoecology of nonmarine mollusca: indicators of alluvial plain lacustrine sedimentation, upper part of the Tongue River Member, Fort Union Formation ( Paleocene), Northern Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana ( USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J.H.; Flores, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The composition, species abundances, and spatial and temporal distributions of mollusc assemblages were controlled by the environments in which they lived and the depositional processes that affected the molluscs after death and before final burial. Post-mortem transport, reworking and concentration of shells, and mixing of faunal elements from discrete habitats produced a taphonomic 'overprint' on assemblage characteristics that directly reflects the processes of alluvial plain and floodbasin lacustrine sedimentation. The 'overprint' can be interpreted from outcrop analysis of molluscan biofabric, which consists of: 1) orientation, fragmentation, size-sorting, abrasion, density, and dispersion of shells, 2) the nature and extent of shell-infilling, and 3) ratio of articulated to disarticulated bivalves. Taphonomic characteristics were used with sedimentological properties to differentiate in-place, reworked, transported, and ecologically mixed mollusc assemblages. This study also defines the paleoecology of habitat preferences of mollusc species as a basis for recognition of the environments in which these assemblages were deposited: 1) large floodbasin lakes, 2) small floodbasin lakes, and 3) crevasse deltas and splays. Integration of sedimentology and paleoecology provides an interdisciplinary approach to the interpretation of alluvial environments through time in the Tongue River Member. -Authors

  20. Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2) in Colbert County, Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Stephen J; Ebersole, Jun A; Dickinson, William C; Ciampaglio, Charles N

    2016-01-01

    The Tennessee River Basin is considered one of the most important regions for freshwater biodiversity anywhere on the globe. The Tennessee River Basin currently includes populations of at least half of the described contemporary diversity of extant North American freshwater fishes, crayfish, mussel, and gastropod species. However, comparatively little is known about the biodiversity of this basin from the Pleistocene Epoch, particularly the late Pleistocene (∼10,000 to 30,000 years B.P.) leading to modern Holocene fish diversity patterns. The objective of this study was to describe the fish assemblages of the Tennessee River Basin from the late Pleistocene using a series of faunas from locales throughout the basin documented from published literature, unpublished reports, and an undocumented fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2, Colbert County, AL). Herein we discuss 41 unequivocal taxa from 10 late Pleistocene localities within the basin and include a systematic discussion of 11 families, 19 genera, and 24 identifiable species (28 unequivocal taxa) specific to the Bell Cave locality. Among the described fauna are several extirpated (e.g., Northern Pike Esox lucius, Northern Madtom Noturus stigmosus) and a single extinct (Harelip Sucker Moxostoma lacerum) taxa that suggest a combination of late Pleistocene displacement events coupled with more recent changes in habitat that have resulted in modern basin diversity patterns. The Bell Cave locality represents one of the most intact Pleistocene freshwater fish deposits anywhere in North America. Significant preservational, taphonomic, sampling, and identification biases preclude the identification of additional taxa. Overall, this study provides a detailed look into paleo-river ecology, as well as freshwater fish diversity and distribution leading up to the contemporary biodiversity patterns of the Tennessee River Basin and Mississippi River Basin as a whole.

  1. Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2 in Colbert County, Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Jacquemin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tennessee River Basin is considered one of the most important regions for freshwater biodiversity anywhere on the globe. The Tennessee River Basin currently includes populations of at least half of the described contemporary diversity of extant North American freshwater fishes, crayfish, mussel, and gastropod species. However, comparatively little is known about the biodiversity of this basin from the Pleistocene Epoch, particularly the late Pleistocene (∼10,000 to 30,000 years B.P. leading to modern Holocene fish diversity patterns. The objective of this study was to describe the fish assemblages of the Tennessee River Basin from the late Pleistocene using a series of faunas from locales throughout the basin documented from published literature, unpublished reports, and an undocumented fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2, Colbert County, AL. Herein we discuss 41 unequivocal taxa from 10 late Pleistocene localities within the basin and include a systematic discussion of 11 families, 19 genera, and 24 identifiable species (28 unequivocal taxa specific to the Bell Cave locality. Among the described fauna are several extirpated (e.g., Northern Pike Esox lucius, Northern Madtom Noturus stigmosus and a single extinct (Harelip Sucker Moxostoma lacerum taxa that suggest a combination of late Pleistocene displacement events coupled with more recent changes in habitat that have resulted in modern basin diversity patterns. The Bell Cave locality represents one of the most intact Pleistocene freshwater fish deposits anywhere in North America. Significant preservational, taphonomic, sampling, and identification biases preclude the identification of additional taxa. Overall, this study provides a detailed look into paleo-river ecology, as well as freshwater fish diversity and distribution leading up to the contemporary biodiversity patterns of the Tennessee River Basin and Mississippi River Basin as a whole.

  2. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Ashton Quadrangle, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suekawa, H.S.; Merrick, D.; Clayton, J.; Rumba, S.

    1982-07-01

    The Ashton Quadrangle, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas containing environments favorable for uranium deposits, using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. General surface reconnaissance, radiometric traverses, and geochemical sampling were carried out in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric data were evaluated, and anomalies were examined in the field. Fourteen uranium occurrences were noted in the study area. Only one environment, the phosphorites of the Permian Phosphoria Formation, is considered favorable for uranium deposition. The unfavorable environments include: limestones, sandstones, coal and carbonaceous shales, volcanics, Precambrian metamorphics, and Tertiary basins. Unevaluated areas include the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Memorial Parkway and Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, where park service regulations prohibit detailed investigations.

  3. Investigating Controls on Sedimentation Through Interpretation of the Syntectonic Cretaceous-Paleogene Sedimentary Record in the San Juan Basin (New Mexico, U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, K.; Weissmann, G. S.; Fawcett, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the southwestern San Juan Basin is bracketed by the mudstone-dominated Cretaceous Kirtland Formation, the sandstone-dominated Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone, and the mudstone-dominated Paleocene lower Nacimiento Formation. Geochemical trends of fluvial mudstones from these units indicate changing sedimentary source areas through time. While the Kirtland and Nacimiento Formations represent periods of high accommodation within the San Juan Basin, the Ojo Alamo Sandstone represents a period of low accommodation and general reworking and transport by southeast-flowing paleorivers. The Kirtland and Nacimiento Formations thin and fine away from their interpreted source area whereas the Ojo Alamo Sandstone thickens and fines away from the source area. Here we investigate the enigmatic sedimentary architecture of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone, geochemical evidence for a changing source area through this time period, and the complex relationships between sedimentation, source area, accommodation, and basin tectonic evolution. Incorporating new measured sections, petrographic analyses, geochemical trends, and stratigraphic relationships, we propose that the Ojo Alamo Sandstone represents an anomalous short period of low accommodation in the San Juan Basin during the early Laramide Orogeny and explore possible intra- and extra-basinal tectonic, climatic, and sedimentologic explanations as well as implications for understanding the evolution of the basin.

  4. Long-term trend analysis of reservoir water quality and quantity at the landscape scale in two major river basins of Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; Asquith, William H.; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Dawson, D.

    2016-01-01

    Trends in water quality and quantity were assessed for 11 major reservoirs of the Brazos and Colorado river basins in the southern Great Plains (maximum period of record, 1965–2010). Water quality, major contributing-stream inflow, storage, local precipitation, and basin-wide total water withdrawals were analyzed. Inflow and storage decreased and total phosphorus increased in most reservoirs. The overall, warmest-, or coldest-monthly temperatures increased in 7 reservoirs, decreased in 1 reservoir, and did not significantly change in 3 reservoirs. The most common monotonic trend in salinity-related variables (specific conductance, chloride, sulfate) was one of no change, and when significant change occurred, it was inconsistent among reservoirs. No significant change was detected in monthly sums of local precipitation. Annual water withdrawals increased in both basins, but the increase was significant (P water quality data due to the presence of high- and low-salinity reservoirs in both basins. These observations present a landscape in the Brazos and Colorado river basins where, in the last ∼40 years, reservoir inflow and storage generally decreased, eutrophication generally increased, and water temperature generally increased in at least 1 of 3 temperature indicators evaluated. Because local precipitation remained generally stable, observed reductions in reservoir inflow and storage during the study period may be attributable to other proximate factors, including increased water withdrawals (at least in the Colorado River basin) or decreased runoff from contributing watersheds.

  5. Protecting the geyser basins of Yellowstone National Park: toward a new national policy for a vulnerable environmental resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Kenneth A

    2010-01-01

    Geyser basins provide high value recreation, scientific, economic and national heritage benefits. Geysers are globally rare, in part, because development activities have quenched about 260 of the natural endowment. Today, more than half of the world's remaining geysers are located in Yellowstone National Park, northwest Wyoming, USA. However, the hydrothermal reservoirs that supply Yellowstone's geysers extend well beyond the Park borders, and onto two "Known Geothermal Resource Areas"-Island Park to the west and Corwin Springs on the north. Geysers are sensitive geologic features that are easily quenched by nearby geothermal wells. Therefore, the potential for geothermal energy development adjacent to Yellowstone poses a threat to the sustainability of about 500 geysers and 10,000 hydrothermal features. The purpose here is to propose that Yellowstone be protected by a "Geyser Protection Area" (GPA) extending in a 120-km radius from Old Faithful Geyser. The GPA concept would prohibit geothermal and large-scale groundwater wells, and thereby protect the water and heat supply of the hydrothermal reservoirs that support Yellowstone's geyser basins and important hot springs. Proactive federal leadership, including buyouts of private groundwater development rights, can assist in navigating the GPA through the greater Yellowstone area's "wicked" public policy environment. Moreover, the potential impacts on geyser basins from intrusive research sampling techniques are considered in order to facilitate the updating of national park research regulations to a precautionary standard. The GPA model can provide the basis for protecting the world's few remaining geyser basins.

  6. Geochemistry of formation waters from the Wolfcamp and “Cline” shales: Insights into brine origin, reservoir connectivity, and fluid flow in the Permian Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Reyes, Francisco R.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Orem, William H.; Lin, Ma; Ianno, Adam J.; Westphal, Tiffani M.; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being one of the most important oil producing provinces in the United States, information on basinal hydrogeology and fluid flow in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico is lacking. The source and geochemistry of brines from the basin were investigated (Ordovician- to Guadalupian-age reservoirs) by combining previously published data from conventional reservoirs with geochemical results for 39 new produced water samples, with a focus on those from shales. Salinity of the Ca–Cl-type brines in the basin generally increases with depth reaching a maximum in Devonian (median = 154 g/L) reservoirs, followed by decreases in salinity in the Silurian (median = 77 g/L) and Ordovician (median = 70 g/L) reservoirs. Isotopic data for B, O, H, and Sr and ion chemistry indicate three major types of water. Lower salinity fluids (100 g/L), isotopically heavy (O and H) water in Leonardian [Permian] to Pennsylvanian reservoirs (2–3.2 km depth) is evaporated, Late Permian seawater. Water from the Permian Wolfcamp and Pennsylvanian “Cline” shales, which are isotopically similar but lower in salinity and enriched in alkalis, appear to have developed their composition due to post-illitization diffusion into the shales. Samples from the “Cline” shale are further enriched with NH4, Br, I and isotopically light B, sourced from the breakdown of marine kerogen in the unit. Lower salinity waters (3 km depth), which plot near the modern local meteoric water line, are distinct from the water in overlying reservoirs. We propose that these deep meteoric waters are part of a newly identified hydrogeologic unit: the Deep Basin Meteoric Aquifer System. Chemical, isotopic, and pressure data suggest that despite over-pressuring in the Wolfcamp shale, there is little potential for vertical fluid migration to the surface environment via natural conduits.

  7. Assessing the role of ancient and active geothermal systems in oil-reservoir evolution in the eastern Basin and Range province, western USA. Annual progress report, June 1, 1992--May 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.

    1993-07-01

    Results of our research on the oil fields of the Basin and Range province of the western USA continue to support the following concept: Convecting, moderate-temperature geothermal systems in this region have fostered and in some cases critically influenced the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil. At one Basin-Range field (Grant Canyon), oil-bearing and aqueous fluid inclusions in late-stage hydrothermal quartz were entrapped at temperatures comparable to those now prevailing at reservoir depths (120--130{degrees}C); apparent salinities of the aqueous varieties match closely the actual salinity of the modern, dilute oil-field waters. The inclusion-bearing quartz has the oxygen-isotopic signature for precipitation of the mineral at contemporary temperatures from modern reservoir waters. Measured and fluid-inclusion temperatures define near-coincident isothermal profiles through the oil-reservoir interval, a phenomenon suggesting ongoing heat and mass transfer. These findings are consistent with a model whereby a still-active, convectively circulating, meteoric-hydrothermal system: (1) enhanced porosity in the reservoir rock through dissolution of carbonate; (2) hydrothermally sealed reservoir margins; (3) transported oil to the reservoirs from a deep source of unknown size and configuration; and (4) possibly accelerated source-rock maturation through an increase in the local thermal budget. Grant Canyon and other Basin-Range oil fields are similar to the oil-bearing, Carlin-type, sediment-hosted, disseminated gold deposits of the nearby Alligator Ridge district. The oil fields could represent either weakly mineralized analogues of these deposits, or perhaps an incipient phase in their evolution.

  8. Map service: Historical oil and gas exploration for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), southwestern Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service was created to assemble oil and gas well information for a comprehensive inventory of energy data pertinent to the Wyoming Landscape Conservation...

  9. Map service: Oil and gas wells for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), southwestern Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service was created to assemble oil and gas well information for a comprehensive inventory of energy data pertinent to the Wyoming Landscape Conservation...

  10. Oil and gas wells data for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), southwestern Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This feature class was created to assemble oil and gas well information for a comprehensive inventory of energy data pertinent to the Wyoming Landscape Conservation...

  11. Map service: Oil and gas development for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), southwestern Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service was created to assemble oil and gas well information for a comprehensive inventory of energy data pertinent to the Wyoming Landscape Conservation...

  12. Field guide to Muddy Formation outcrops, Crook County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawn-Schatzinger, V.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this research program are to (1) determine the reservoir characteristics and production problems of shoreline barrier reservoirs; and (2) develop methods and methodologies to effectively characterize shoreline bamer reservoirs to predict flow patterns of injected and produced fluids. Two reservoirs were selected for detailed reservoir characterization studies -- Bell Creek field, Carter County, Montana that produces from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Muddy Formation, and Patrick Draw field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming that produces from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Almond Formation of the Mesaverde Group. An important component of the research project was to use information from outcrop exposures of the producing formations to study the spatial variations of reservoir properties and the degree to which outcrop information can be used in the construction of reservoir models. This report contains the data and analyses collected from outcrop exposures of the Muddy Formation, located in Crook County, Wyoming, 40 miles south of Bell Creek oil field. The outcrop data set contains permeability, porosity, petrographic, grain size and geologic data from 1-inch-diameter core plugs chilled from the outcrop face, as well as geological descriptions and sedimentological interpretations of the outcrop exposures. The outcrop data set provides information about facies characteristics and geometries and the spatial distribution of permeability and porosity on interwell scales. Appendices within this report include a micropaleontological analyses of selected outcrop samples, an annotated bibliography of papers on the Muddy Formation in the Powder River Basin, and over 950 permeability and porosity values measured from 1-inch-diameter core plugs drilled from the outcrop. All data contained in this resort are available in electronic format upon request. The core plugs drilled from the outcrop are available for measurement.

  13. Implications of paleobotany of Pennsylvanian-age coal of the central Appalachian basin for climate and coal-bed development. [USA - Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, R.B. (Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Lycopod abundance in coal is used to estimate climatic 'wetness' during the Pennsylvanian period in the central Appalachian basin. Plants were identified from their anatomy using etched, polished coal rather than using permineralized peat, compressions/impressions, or palynology. The data indicate that two drier intervals occurred: one in the Westphalian B (middle of the Kanawha Formation), the other in the early Stephanian (Conemaugh Formation). Both drier intervals have been previously recognized in the Illinois basin, but only the second has been previously recognized in the Appalachian basin. In 9 of 18 localities, lycopod abundance decreases upward within coal beds, whereas at the other nine localities, no statistically significant trends in lycopod abundance were observed. An upward decrease in lycopod abundance is suggestive of coal that formed in the central region of a domed peat swamp, but peat-dome formation is not demonstrated. Within coalbeds, pteridosperms are most abundant in samples which are split or contain abundant mineral matter. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Wyoming: Open Range for Library Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Helen Meadors

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development of library technology and the need for telecommunications in a state with a lack of population density. Topics include the state library's role; shared library resources and library networks; government information; the Wyoming State Home Page on the World Wide Web; Ariel software; network coordinating; and central…

  15. Instructional Computing in Wyoming: Status and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Bob

    The status of instructional computing in Wyoming's public schols as of April 1980 is reported. Specifically the document indicates the nature and extent of computer usage in grades K-12, summarizes teachers' opinions regarding the potential instructional uses of computers in the schools, and presents the recommendations of a select committee of…

  16. 78 FR 13004 - Wyoming Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations on non- Federal ] and non-Indian lands within its borders by... approval of the Wyoming program in the November 26, 1980, Federal Register (45 FR 78637). You can also find... rules at Chapter 2, Section 1(c); adding language to clarify that wildlife enhancement is not limited...

  17. 75 FR 42470 - Wyoming Disaster #WY-00014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Wyoming Disaster WY-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  18. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of Wyoming,...

  19. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in...

  20. Properties, origin and nomenclature of rodlets of the inertinite maceral group in coals of the central Appalachian basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Finkelman, R.B.; Thompson, C.L.; Brown, F.W.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Resin rodlets, sclerenchyma strands and woody splinters, which are collectively called rodlets, were studied by chemical, optical petrographic, and scanning-electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. A study was made of such rodlets from the bituminous coal beds of the central Appalachian basin (Pennsylvanian; Upper Carboniferous) of the United States. Comparisons were made with rodlets from coal beds of the Illinois basin, the Southern Anthracite Field of Pennsylvania, the St. Rose coal field of Nova Scotia, and European and other coal fields. In order to determine their physical and chemical properties, a detailed study was made of the rodlets from the Pomeroy coal bed (high volatile A bituminous coal; Monongahela Formation; Upper Pennsylvanian) of Kanawha County, West Virginia. The origin of the rodlets was determined by a comparative analysis of a medullosan (seed fern) stem from the Herrin (No. 6) coal bed (high volatile C bituminous coal; Carbondale Formation) from Washington County, Illinois. Rodlets are commonly concentrated in fusain or carbominerite layers or lenses in bituminous coal beds of the central Appalachian basin. Most of the rodlets examined in our study were probably derived from medullosan seed ferns. The three types of rodlets are distinguished on the basis of cellularity, morphology and fracture. The resin rodlets studied by us are noncellular and appear to be similar in properties and origin to those found in coal beds of the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian of the Illinois basin. The resin rodlets extracted from the Pomeroy coal bed exhibit high relief and high reflectance when polished and viewed in reflected light; they are opaque in transmitted light. In cross section, the resin rodlets are oval to round and have diameters ranging from 60 to 450 ??m. Many are solid, but some have vesicles, canals or cavities, which are commonly filled with clay, probably kaolinite. Typically, they have distinct fracture patterns ("kerfs") in longitudinal and

  1. The late Holocene dry period: multiproxy evidence for an extended drought between 2800 and 1850 cal yr BP across the central Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensing, Scott A.; Sharpe, Saxon E.; Tunno, Irene; Sada, Don W.; Thomas, Jim M.; Starratt, Scott W.; Smith, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of a multi-centennial scale dry period between ∼2800 and 1850 cal yr BP is documented by pollen, mollusks, diatoms, and sediment in spring sediments from Stonehouse Meadow in Spring Valley, eastern central Nevada, U.S. We refer to this period as the Late Holocene Dry Period. Based on sediment recovered, Stonehouse Meadow was either absent or severely restricted in size at ∼8000 cal yr BP. Beginning ∼7500 cal yr BP, the meadow became established and persisted to ∼3000 cal yr BP when it began to dry. Comparison of the timing of this late Holocene drought record to multiple records extending from the eastern Sierra Nevada across the central Great Basin to the Great Salt Lake support the interpretation that this dry period was regional. The beginning and ending dates vary among sites, but all sites record multiple centuries of dry climate between 2500 and 1900 cal yr BP. This duration makes it the longest persistent dry period within the late Holocene. In contrast, sites in the northern Great Basin record either no clear evidence of drought, or have wetter than average climate during this period, suggesting that the northern boundary between wet and dry climates may have been between about 40° and 42° N latitude. This dry in the southwest and wet in the northwest precipitation pattern across the Great Basin is supported by large-scale spatial climate pattern hypotheses involving ENSO, PDO, AMO, and the position of the Aleutian Low and North Pacific High, particularly during winter.

  2. Comparison of fluid geochemistry and microbiology of multiple organic-rich reservoirs in the Illinois Basin, USA: Evidence for controls on methanogenesis and microbial transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Melissa E.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Bates, Brittney L.; Kirk, Matthew F.; Martini, Anna M.

    2011-04-01

    Microbial methane in sedimentary basins comprises approximately 20% of global natural gas resources, yet little is known about the environmental requirements and metabolic rates of these subsurface microbial communities. The Illinois Basin, located in the midcontinent of the United States, is an ideal location to investigate hydrogeochemical factors controlling methanogenesis as microbial methane accumulations occur: (1) in three organic-rich reservoirs of different geologic ages and organic matter types - Upper Devonian New Albany Shale (up to 900 m depth), Pennsylvanian coals (up to 600 m depth), and Quaternary glacial sediments (shallow aquifers); (2) across steep salinity gradients; and (3) with variable concentrations of SO42-. For all three organic-rich reservoirs aqueous geochemical conditions are favorable for microbial methanogenesis, with near neutral pH, SO42- concentrations methanogenic systems. Additionally, similar methanogenic communities are present in all three reservoirs with comparable cell counts (8.69E3-2.58E6 cells/mL). TRFLP results show low numbers of archaea species with only two dominant groups of base pairs in coals, shale, and limestone aquifers. These results compare favorably with other methanogen-containing deep subsurface environments. Individual hydrogeochemical parameters that have a Spearman correlation coefficient greater than 0.3 to variations in methanogenic species include stable isotopes of water (δ 18O and δD), type of substrate (i.e. coals versus shale), pH, and Cl - concentration. The matching of variations between methanogenic TRFLP data and conservative tracers suggests that deep circulation of meteoric waters influenced archaeal communities in the Illinois Basin. In addition, coalification and burial estimates suggest that in the study area, coals and shale reservoirs were previously sterilized (>80 °C in nutrient poor environments), necessitating the re-introduction of microbes into the subsurface via groundwater

  3. The implications of geology, soils, and vegetation on landscape morphology: Inferences from semi-arid basins with complex vegetation patterns in Central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetemen, Omer; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines the relationship between land surface properties (e.g. soil, vegetation, and lithology) and landscape morphology quantified by the catchment descriptors: the slope-area (S-A) relation, curvature-area (C-A) relation, and the cumulative area distribution (CAD), in two semi-arid basins in central New Mexico. The first site is composed of several basins located in today's desert elevations with mesic north-facing and xeric south-facing hillslopes underlain by different lithological formations. The second site is a mountainous basin exhibiting vegetation gradients from shrublands in the lower elevations to grasslands and forests at higher elevations. All three land surface properties were found to have significant influences on the S-A and C- A relations, while the power-law exponents of the CADs for these properties did not show any significant deviations from the narrow range of universal scaling exponents reported in the literature. Among the three different surface properties we investigated, vegetation had the most profound impact on the catchment descriptors. In the S-A diagrams of the aspect-controlled ecosystems, we found steeper slopes in north-facing aspects than south-facing aspects for a given drainage area. In elevation-controlled ecosystems, forested landscapes exhibited the steepest slopes for the range of drainage areas examined, followed by shrublands and grasslands in all soil textures and lithologies. In the C-A diagrams, steeper slopes led to a higher degree of divergence on hillslopes and a higher degree of convergence in the valleys than shallower slopes. The influence of functional types of vegetation detected on observed topography provided some initial understanding of the potential impacts of life on the organization of topography. This finding also emphasizes the critical role of climate in catchment development. We suggest that climatic fluctuations that are capable of replacing vegetation communities could lead to highly

  4. Estimating Groundwater-Age Distributions Contributing to Streams in the Fractured-Rock Terrain of the Upper Potomac River Basin, USA (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, W. E.; Fleming, B.; Pope, J.

    2013-12-01

    Base flow to individual streams has discharging groundwater with ages that vary widely between values of days to centuries or more. This distribution of ages has important repercussions for the response time of a watershed between change in land-use practices and the discharge of contaminants, such as nitrogen, to streams or coastal waterways. Lumped parameter models are frequently used to predict such watershed responses in shallow aquifers, but these usually assume homogeneous hydraulic properties. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, however, over half of the terrain is underlain by fractured-rock, where heterogeneous hydraulic properties do not fit standard lumped-parameter model assumptions. In order to better understand the response behavior of a regional fractured-rock terrain, we developed a seven-million node, three-dimensional groundwater model of the Upper Potomac River Basin (~24,000 sq. km) using MODFLOW that includes siliciclastic, carbonate, and metamorphic rocks. Inverse modeling was undertaken to estimate regional values of hydraulic conductivity (K) using 200 water-level measurements in wells, and effective porosity using >100 environmental tracer (CFC-113, SF6, 3H, 3He) measurements from wells, springs and the Potomac River at the basin outlet. Results indicate a very strong depth-dependence of K, with values declining by 4-6 orders of magnitude within 100 m of land surface, with the bulk of the transmissivity being focused in the upper 10 m. This depth-dependent behavior has major implications for the watershed response time, as the base flows have ages that range over four orders of magnitude, as opposed to a shallow homogenous aquifer that usually has an equivalent range of less than two orders of magnitude. A tritium record from 1961-1991 in the Potomac River at the basin outflow can be reproduced by the model using advective transport and a single regional porosity value of 2-3 percent. In addition, the fit to the data can be improved at early

  5. Small Reservoir Distribution, Rate of Construction, and Uses in the Upper and Middle Chattahoochee Basins of the Georgia Piedmont, USA, 1950–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber R. Ignatius

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction of small reservoirs affects ecosystem processes in numerous ways including fragmenting stream habitat, altering hydrology, and modifying water chemistry. While the upper and middle Chattahoochee River basins within the Southeastern United States Piedmont contain few natural lakes, they have a high density of small reservoirs (more than 7500 small reservoirs in the nearly 12,000 km2 basin. Policymakers and water managers in the region have little information about small reservoir distribution, uses, or the cumulative inundation of land cover caused by small reservoir construction. Examination of aerial photography reveals the spatiotemporal patterns and extent of small reservoir construction from 1950 to 2010. Over that 60 year timeframe, the area inundated by water increased nearly six fold (from 19 reservoirs covering 0.16% of the study area in 1950 to 329 reservoirs covering 0.95% of the study area in 2010. While agricultural practices were associated with reservoir creation from 1950 to 1970, the highest rates of reservoir construction occurred during subsequent suburban development between 1980 and 1990. Land cover adjacent to individual reservoirs transitioned over time through agricultural abandonment, land reforestation, and conversion to development during suburban expansion. The prolific rate of ongoing small reservoir creation, particularly in newly urbanizing regions and developing counties, necessitates additional attention from watershed managers and continued scientific research into cumulative environmental impacts at the watershed scale.

  6. Predicting impacts of increased CO₂ and climate change on the water cycle and water quality in the semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Gallant, Alisa L

    2012-07-15

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO(2) concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO(2), precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO(2) concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO(3)-N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO(3)-N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin.

  7. Using noble gases measured in spring discharge to trace hydrothermal processes in the Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, W.P.; Susong, D.D.; Solomon, D.K.; Heasler, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved noble gas concentrations in springs are used to investigate boiling of hydrothermal water and mixing of hydrothermal and shallow cool water in the Norris Geyser Basin area. Noble gas concentrations in water are modeled for single stage and continuous steam removal. Limitations on boiling using noble gas concentrations are then used to estimate the isotopic effect of boiling on hydrothermal water, allowing the isotopic composition of the parent hydrothermal water to be determined from that measured in spring. In neutral chloride springs of the Norris Geyser Basin, steam loss since the last addition of noble gas charged water is less than 30% of the total hydrothermal discharge, which results in an isotopic shift due to boiling of ?? 2.5% ??D. Noble gas concentrations in water rapidly and predictably change in dual phase systems, making them invaluable tracers of gas-liquid interaction in hydrothermal systems. By combining traditional tracers of hydrothermal flow such as deuterium with dissolved noble gas measurements, more complex hydrothermal processes can be interpreted. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral mapping of snow depth and albedo in the Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado, USA by the NASA JPL Airborne Snow Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deems, J. S.; Painter, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Operational hydrologic simulation and forecasting in snowmelt-dominated watersheds currently relies on indices of snow accumulation and melt from measurements at a small number of point locations or geographically-limited manual surveys. These data sources cannot adequately characterize the spatial distribution of snow depth/water equivalent, which is the primary determinant of snowpack volume and runoff rates. The NASA JPL Airborne Snow Observatory's airborne laser scanning system maps snow depth at high spatial and temporal resolutions, and is paired with a hyperspectral imager to provide an unprecedented snowpack monitoring capability and enabling a new operational paradigm. We present the initial results from this new application of multi-temporal LiDAR and hyperspectral mapping. During the snowmelt seasons of 2013 and 2014, the ASO mapped snow depth and albedo in the Uncompahgre River Basin in Colorado's Upper Colorado River Basin on a nominally monthly basis. These products enable an assessment and comparison of spatial snow accumulation and melt processes in two years with very different snowmelt hydrographs.

  9. Predicting impacts of increased CO{sub 2} and climate change on the water cycle and water quality in the semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yiping, E-mail: ywu@usgs.gov [ASRC Research and Technology Solutions, contractor to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198 (United States); Liu, Shuguang, E-mail: sliu@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198 (United States); Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Gallant, Alisa L., E-mail: gallant@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198 (United States); Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO{sub 2}, precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO{sub 2} concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO{sub 3}-N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO{sub 3}-N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used a modified version of SWAT to more accurately simulate the effects of CO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our sensitivity analysis indicated this basin is very responsive to climate change. Black

  10. Pesticides in Wyoming Groundwater, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Taylor, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 296 wells during 1995-2006 as part of a baseline study of pesticides in Wyoming groundwater. In 2009, a previous report summarized the results of the baseline sampling and the statistical evaluation of the occurrence of pesticides in relation to selected natural and anthropogenic (human-related) characteristics. During 2008-10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Agriculture, resampled a subset (52) of the 296 wells sampled during 1995-2006 baseline study in order to compare detected compounds and respective concentrations between the two sampling periods and to evaluate the detections of new compounds. The 52 wells were distributed similarly to sites used in the 1995-2006 baseline study with respect to geographic area and land use within the geographic area of interest. Because of the use of different types of reporting levels and variability in reporting-level values during both the 1995-2006 baseline study and the 2008-10 resampling study, analytical results received from the laboratory were recensored. Two levels of recensoring were used to compare pesticides—a compound-specific assessment level (CSAL) that differed by compound and a common assessment level (CAL) of 0.07 microgram per liter. The recensoring techniques and values used for both studies, with the exception of the pesticide 2,4-D methyl ester, were the same. Twenty-eight different pesticides were detected in samples from the 52 wells during the 2008-10 resampling study. Pesticide concentrations were compared with several U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or health advisories for finished (treated) water established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. All detected pesticides were measured at concentrations smaller than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or health advisories where applicable (many pesticides did not have standards or advisories). One or more pesticides

  11. Holocene environmental changes inferred from biological and sedimentological proxies in a high elevation Great Basin lake in the northern Ruby Mountains, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, David B.; Starratt, Scott W.; Anderson, Lysanna; Kusler, Jennifer E.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Addison, Jason A.; Wan, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    Multi-proxy analyses were conducted on a sediment core from Favre Lake, a high elevation cirque lake in the northern Ruby Mountains, Nevada, and provide a ca. 7600 year record of local and regional environmental change. Data indicate that lake levels were lower from 7600-5750 cal yr BP, when local climate was warmer and/or drier than today. Effective moisture increased after 5750 cal yr BP and remained relatively wet, and possibly cooler, until ca. 3750 cal yr BP. Results indicate generally dry conditions but also enhanced climatic variability from 3750-1750 cal yr BP, after which effective moisture increased. The timing of major changes in the Favre Lake proxy data are roughly coeval and in phase with those recorded in several paleoclimate studies across the Great Basin, suggesting regional climatic controls on local conditions and similar responses at high and low altitudes.

  12. Geochemical Variability and the Potential for Beneficial Use of Waste Water Coproduced with Oil from Permian Basin of the Southwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N. A.; Holguin, F. O.; Xu, P.; Engle, M.; Dungan, B.; Hunter, B.; Carroll, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. generates 21 billion barrels/year of coproduced water from oil and gas exploration, which is generally considered waste water. Growth in unconventional oil and gas production has spurred interest in beneficial uses of produced water, especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico, the largest U.S. tight oil producer. Produced waters have variable chemistries, but generally contain high levels of organics and salts. In order to evaluate the environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of produced water. In the present study, produced water samples were collected from 12 wells across the Permian Basin. Compositional analyses including coupled gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy were conducted. The samples show elevated benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylene, alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene compared to other heteroaromatics; they also contain complex hydrocarbon compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. Van Krevelen diagrams show an increase in the concentration of heteroaromatic hydrocarbons with increasing well depth. The salinity, dominated by sodium-chloride, also increases with depth, ranging from 37-150 g/L TDS. Depth of wells (or producing formation) is a primary control on predicting water quality for treatment and beneficial use. Our results suggest that partial treatment by removing suspended solids and organic contaminants would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse, bioenergy production, and other industrial uses. Due to the high salinity, conventional desalination processes are not applicable or very costly, making beneficial uses requiring low salinity not feasible.

  13. Comparisons of drier-interval to wetter-interval estuarine roof facies in the eastern and western interior coal basins, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, A.W.; Feldman, H.R.; Kvale, E.P.; Lanier, W.P. (Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1994-01-01

    Many of the Carboniferous coals in the eastern interior of the US are associated with siliciclastic roof facies that were deposited within a fluvio-estuarine transition. Drier-interval coals (Westphalian B-C, Stephanian) tend to be more laterally restricted and more commonly are associated with paleovalleys. Conversely, wetter-interval coals (Westphalian D) are very widespread and are not restricted to paleovalleys. Throughout the Late Carboniferous, wet paleoclimates associated with these coals lead to valley incision during sea-level lowstand when large tropical rivers downcut sediments deposited during previous sea-level highstands. During subsequent rise of sea level, these fluvial valleys were flooded and converted to estuaries. Based on modern analogs and interpretation of many examples of Carboniferous tidal rhythmites, the localized depositional rates in these settings are exceptionally high, with the estuaries becoming sediment sinks. As a result, sedimentation readily keeps pace with rising base-level. Extensive intertidal flats and shallow subtitle flats are created and prograde over the valley-confined mires. Thick tidal cycles and upright trees record rapid burial of mires. This model is supported with examples of roof facies from the Westphalian B-C of the Eastern Interior Basin, and the Stephanian of the Western Interior Basin. In these areas facies within each cycle range from well-developed, extensive paleosols and coals, to widespread marine shales or limestones. Minable, low-sulfur and low-ash coals occur, but the coals are relatively thin and discontinuous. Conversely, the Westphalian D coals are very widespread and significant peat accumulations were not confined to paleovalleys. Nonetheless, the lowest sulfur coals are related to rapid deposition of roof facies that occurred within the paleovalley whereas high-sulfur coals were formed in areas of lower sedimentation rate of roof facies that occurred beyond the confines of the paleovalley.

  14. Predicting Impacts of Increased CO2 and Climate Change on the Water Cycle and Water Quality in the Semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Gallant, Alisa L.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO3–N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO2, precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO2 concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO3–N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO3–N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin.

  15. Participatory Modeling Processes to Build Community Knowledge Using Shared Model and Data Resources and in a Transboundary Pacific Northwest Watershed (Nooksack River Basin, Washington, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaragoda, C.; Dumas, M.

    2014-12-01

    As with many western US watersheds, the Nooksack River Basin faces strong pressures associated with climate variability and change, rapid population growth, and deep-rooted water law. This transboundary basin includes contributing areas in British Columbia, Canada, and has a long history of joint data collection, model development, and facilitated communication between governmental (federal, tribal, state, local), environmental, timber, agricultural, and recreational user groups. However, each entity in the watershed responds to unique data coordination, information sharing, and adaptive management regimes and thresholds, further increasing the complexity of watershed management. Over the past four years, participatory methods were used to compile and review scientific data and models, including fish habitat (endangered salmonid species), channel hydraulics, climate data, agricultural, municipal and industrial water use, and integrated watershed scale distributed hydrologic models from over 15 years of projects (from jointly funded to independent shared work by individual companies, agencies, and universities). A specific outcome of the work includes participatory design of a collective problem statement used for guidance on future investment of shared resources and development of a data-generation process where modeling results are communicated in a three-tiers for 1) public/decision-making, 2) technical, and 3) research audiences. We establish features for successful participation using tools that are iteratively developed, tested for usability through incremental knowledge building, and designed to provide rigor in modeling. A general outcome of the work is ongoing support by tribal, state, and local governments, as well as the agricultural community, to continue the generation of shared watershed data using models in a dynamic legal and regulatory setting, where two federally recognized tribes have requested federal court resolution of federal treaty rights

  16. Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

    2005-12-30

    In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOE’s Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

  17. Transient shortening strain across an active extensional fault, Basin and Range Province, north-central Nevada, USA, based on geodetic and paleoseismologic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, A.; Wernicke, B.; Lee, J.; Sieh, K.

    2003-04-01

    The northern Basin and Range province is one of the largest continental extensional regions on earth. At 40 degrees N latitude, the province is 800 km wide and consists of 15 and 20 N-S striking normal faults. These faults accommodated mainly east-west directed extension of tens of kilometers since Mid-Miocene time and recent geodetic surveys show that extension is still active today at a rate of ~1.5 cm/yr across the province (e.g., Bennett et al. 2000; Thatcher et al. 1999). The distribution of this geodetically measurable strain accumulation within the province, however, contradicts geologic observations across some of the active normal faults. For example, coordinated geologic and geodetic measurements across the Crescent Valley fault (CVF), north-central Nevada, reveal a profound mismatch in deformation rates. Since 1996, the two ranges on either side of the CVF have been moving toward each other at ca. 2 mm/yr, indicating shortening. In contrast, new reconnaissance mapping and paleoseismological analyses along the CVF also indicate that this fault is one of the more active normal faults of the Basin and Range province. The 50 km long Cortez Mountains range front is characterized by relief of up to 1.3 km, steep (up to 36 degrees) triangular facets, and young (late Pleistocene to late Holocene) alluvial fans cut by normal fault scarps. Vertical displacement across the CVF is ca. 3 km; since 15 Ma the average long-term vertical displacement rate is ca. 0.2 mm/yr. Topographic profiling shows that fault scarps, 2-7 m high, are the result of a single rupture event and cut late Holocene alluvial fans. A trench across a faulted alluvial fan at Fourmile Canyon reveals a vertical displacement of 4.5 m distributed across two normal faults. 14C analyses on charcoal from a buried offset surface in the hanging wall of the trench and from the base of the overlying colluvial wedge tightly bracket the age of the most recent earthquake to between 2.8 +- 0.1 and 2.7 +- 0.1 ka

  18. Environmental audit: Fossil energy sites in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit completed for Selected Fossil Energy Sites in Wyoming. During this Audit, facilities, field sites, and activities were investigated and inspected in several areas of Wyoming that are considered to be representative of offsite work falling under the purview of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. Department of Energy (DOE) personnel at METC and at the Liquid Fuels Technology Branch (LFTB) in Laramie, Wyoming were interviewed as were DOE contractors and Federal and state regulators. Extensive document review was also a key part of this Audit. The on-site portion of the Audit occurred in Morgantown from May 18 to 22, 1992, and throughout Wyoming from May 26 through June 10, 1992. EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and DOE-funded off-site activities as part of the Assistant Secretary's Environmental Audit Program. That program is designed to evaluate the status of facilities and activities regarding compliance with environmental laws, regulations, DOE Directives, formal written procedures, compliance agreements, and Best Management Practices (BMPs). This internal oversight function plays an important role in improving the compliance status of DOE operations. The Audit stresses the fact that it is the responsibility of line management to conduct operations in an environmentally sound and safe manner. The scope of this Environmental Audit was comprehensive, covering all areas of environmental activities and waste management operations with the exception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which is beyond the purview of EH-24. Specifically included within this Audit were Air, Soils/Sediment/Biota, Surface Water/Drinking Water, Groundwater, Waste Management, Toxic and Chemical Materials, Quality Assurance, Radiation, Inactive Waste Sites, and Environmental Management.

  19. Environmental audit: Fossil energy sites in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit completed for Selected Fossil Energy Sites in Wyoming. During this Audit, facilities, field sites, and activities were investigated and inspected in several areas of Wyoming that are considered to be representative of offsite work falling under the purview of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. Department of Energy (DOE) personnel at METC and at the Liquid Fuels Technology Branch (LFTB) in Laramie, Wyoming were interviewed as were DOE contractors and Federal and state regulators. Extensive document review was also a key part of this Audit. The on-site portion of the Audit occurred in Morgantown from May 18 to 22, 1992, and throughout Wyoming from May 26 through June 10, 1992. EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and DOE-funded off-site activities as part of the Assistant Secretary`s Environmental Audit Program. That program is designed to evaluate the status of facilities and activities regarding compliance with environmental laws, regulations, DOE Directives, formal written procedures, compliance agreements, and Best Management Practices (BMPs). This internal oversight function plays an important role in improving the compliance status of DOE operations. The Audit stresses the fact that it is the responsibility of line management to conduct operations in an environmentally sound and safe manner. The scope of this Environmental Audit was comprehensive, covering all areas of environmental activities and waste management operations with the exception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which is beyond the purview of EH-24. Specifically included within this Audit were Air, Soils/Sediment/Biota, Surface Water/Drinking Water, Groundwater, Waste Management, Toxic and Chemical Materials, Quality Assurance, Radiation, Inactive Waste Sites, and Environmental Management.

  20. The role of tidal-velocity asymmetries in the deposition of silty tidal rhythmites (Carboniferous, Eastern Interior Coal Basin, U.S.A.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, A.W. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Geology; Kuecher, G.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Kvale, E.P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Indiana Geological Survey

    1995-04-03

    Laminated to thin-bedded siltstones directly overlie Carboniferous coals at several localities in the Eastern Interior Coal Basin. Because lamina thicknesses show cyclical variations, the siltstones have been termed tidal rhythmites. The rhythmites commonly show a repetitive thick-thin pairing of the laminae, and these two-lamina rhythmites have been interpreted as the result of the asymmetry of flood and ebb velocities that affected sedimentation in a diurnal paleotidal system. Alternatively, the pairing has been interpreted to be related to a pronounced difference in height between successive high tides in a semidiurnal system. This explanation suggests deposition in a mixed, predominantly semidiurnal system with a marked diurnal inequality. In addition to the two-lamina rhythmites described originally, subsequent examination of drill cores indicates the occurrence of relatively rare, more complex three- and four-lamina rhythmites. A variety of mathematical techniques are used herein to analyze lamina-thickness data extracted from these rhythmites. Processing techniques include: (1) comparing the linear relationship between the thicknesses of the thinner and thicker laminae and comparing these relationships to modern tidal systems; (2) analyses of thickness periodicities and comparison with modern neap-spring tidal cycles; and (3) extraction of lamina-thickness inequalities and comparison to the diurnal inequalities that occur in semidiurnal tidal systems. These tests indicate that reasonable conclusions can be made for the type of originating paleotidal system. For the cases analyzed herein, the paleotidal signature suggests a mixed, predominantly semidiurnal system with a marked diurnal inequality.

  1. Population and habitat viability assessment for the Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri): Final workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Wyoming toad was discovered by Dr. George Baxter in 1946 and was originally known as Bufo hemiophrys baxteri until 1998 when it was given full species status as Bufo baxteri. The toad is thought to be a glacial relic always found only in the Laramie Basin. It was originally known from many breeding sites in the floodplains of the Big and Little Laramie Rivers. Later, after irrigation practices changed the nature of the floodpains, it was found along margins of ponds and small seepage lakes between 7,000 and 7,500 feet. Baxter and others monitored breeding sites for more than 30 years, with few toads seen or heard from 1975 to 1979. An extensive survey of the Laramie Basin in 1980 found only one population.

  2. Organic geochemistry and petrology of subsurface Paleocene-Eocene Wilcox and Claiborne Group coal beds, Zavala County, Maverick Basin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter; Hook, Robert W.; Alimi, Hossein; Mastalerz, Maria; Swanson, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    Coal samples from a coalbed methane exploration well in northern Zavala County, Maverick Basin, Texas, were characterized through an integrated analytical program. The well was drilled in February, 2006 and shut in after coal core desorption indicated negligible gas content. Cuttings samples from two levels in the Eocene Claiborne Group were evaluated by way of petrographic techniques and Rock–Eval pyrolysis. Core samples from the Paleocene–Eocene Indio Formation (Wilcox Group) were characterized via proximate–ultimate analysis in addition to petrography and pyrolysis. Two Indio Formation coal samples were selected for detailed evaluation via gas chromatography, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. Samples are subbituminous rank as determined from multiple thermal maturity parameters. Elevated rank (relative to similar age coal beds elsewhere in the Gulf Coast Basin) in the study area is interpreted to be a result of stratigraphic and/or structural thickening related to Laramide compression and construction of the Sierra Madre Oriental to the southwest. Vitrinite reflectance data, along with extant data, suggest the presence of an erosional unconformity or change in regional heat flow between the Cretaceous and Tertiary sections and erosion of up to >5 km over the Cretaceous. The presence of liptinite-rich coals in the Claiborne at the well site may indicate moderately persistent or recurring coal-forming paleoenvironments, interpreted as perennially submerged peat in shallow ephemeral lakes with herbaceous and/or flotant vegetation. However, significant continuity of individual Eocene coal beds in the subsurface is not suggested. Indio Formation coal samples contain abundant telovitrinite interpreted to be preserved from arborescent, above-ground woody vegetation that developed during the middle portion of mire development in forested swamps. Other petrographic criteria suggest enhanced biological, chemical and physical

  3. Petrography and microanalysis of Pennsylvanian coal-ball concretions (Herrin Coal, Illinois Basin, USA): Bearing on fossil plant preservation and coal-ball origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewers, Fredrick D.; Phillips, Tom L.

    2015-11-01

    Petrographic analyses of 25 coal balls from well-studied paleobotanical profiles in the Middle Pennsylvanian Herrin Coal (Westphalian D, Illinois Basin) and five select coal balls from university collections, indicate that Herrin Coal-ball peats were permineralized by fibrous and non-fibrous carbonates. Fibrous carbonates occur in fan-like to spherulitic arrays in many intracellular (within tissue) pores, and are best developed in relatively open extracellular (between plant) pore spaces. Acid etched fibrous carbonates appear white under reflected light and possess a microcrystalline texture attributable to abundant microdolomite. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microprobe analysis demonstrate that individual fibers have a distinct trigonal prism morphology and are notable for their magnesium content (≈ 9-15 mol% MgCO3). Non-fibrous carbonates fill intercrystalline spaces among fibers and pores within the peat as primary precipitates and neomorphic replacements. In the immediate vicinity of plant cell walls, non-fibrous carbonates cut across fibrous carbonates as a secondary, neomorphic phase attributed to coalification of plant cell walls. Dolomite occurs as diagenetic microdolomite associated with the fibrous carbonate phase, as sparite replacements, and as void-filling cement. Maximum dolomite (50-59 wt.%) is in the top-of-seam coal-ball zone at the Sahara Mine, which is overlain by the marine Anna Shale. Coal-ball formation in the Herrin Coal began with the precipitation of fibrous high magnesium calcite. The trigonal prism morphology of the carbonate fibers suggests rapid precipitation from super-saturated, meteoric pore waters. Carbonate precipitation from marine waters is discounted on the basis of stratigraphic, paleobotanical, and stable isotopic evidence. Most non-fibrous carbonate is attributable to later diagenetic events, including void-fill replacements, recrystallization, and post-depositional fracture fills. Evidence

  4. Magnetic minerals as recorders of weathering, diagenesis, and paleoclimate: A core-outcrop comparison of Paleocene-Eocene paleosols in the Bighorn Basin, WY, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxbauer, Daniel P.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Fox, David L.; Clyde, William C.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic minerals in paleosols hold important clues to the environmental conditions in which the original soil formed. However, efforts to quantify parameters such as mean annual precipitation (MAP) using magnetic properties are still in their infancy. Here, we test the idea that diagenetic processes and surficial weathering affect the magnetic minerals preserved in paleosols, particularly in pre-Quaternary systems that have received far less attention compared to more recent soils and paleosols. We evaluate the magnetic properties of non-loessic paleosols across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (a short-term global warming episode that occurred at 55.5 Ma) in the Bighorn Basin, WY. We compare data from nine paleosol layers sampled from outcrop, each of which has been exposed to surficial weathering, to the equivalent paleosols sampled from drill core, all of which are preserved below a pervasive surficial weathering front and are presumed to be unweathered. Comparisons reveal an increase in magnetization in outcrops compared with core equivalents, which is principally driven by secondary hematite production. Authigenic hematite production in outcrops presents a complication for goethite-hematite based paleoprecipitation proxies where estimates will be biased toward drier climate regimes. The occurrence of low coercivity minerals is more consistent between core and outcrop. However, we propose an alteration process for pedogenic magnetite that is observed in both core and outcrop, where pedogenic magnetite becomes progressively oxidized leading to higher mean coercivities and broader coercivity distributions compared to modern pedogenic magnetite. This combination of diagenetic processes and surface weathering influences the magnetic properties of paleosols. Despite these changes, magnetic enhancement ratios from B-horizons correlate with independent MAP estimates from geochemical proxies, which suggests that paleoprecipitation information is preserved. Future

  5. Cambarus (C.) hatfieldi, a new species of crayfish (Decapoda:Cambaridae) from the Tug Fork River Basin of Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Fagundo, Raquel A.; Lau, Evan; Welsh, Stuart; Thoma, Roger F.

    2013-01-01

    Cambarus (Cambarus) hatfieldi is a stream-dwelling crayfish that appears to be endemic to the Tug Fork River system of West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky. Within this region, it is prevalent in all major tributaries in the basin as well as the Tug Fork River’s mainstem. The new species is morphologically most similar to Cambarus sciotensis and Cambarus angularis. It can be differentiated from C. sciotensis by its squamous, subtrinagular chelae compared to the elongate triangular chelae of C. sciotensis; its shorter palm length/palm depth ratio (1.9) compared to C. sciotensis (2.3); and a smaller areola length/total carapace length ratio (30.4% vs.36.5% respectively). Cambarus hatfieldican be differentiated from C. angularis by its smaller areola length/total carapace length ratio (30.4% vs. 36.7% respectively); a smaller rostrum width/rostral length ratio (59.4% vs. 67.2% respectively); its rounded abdominal pleura as compared to the subtruncated pleura of C. angularis; the length of the central projection and mesial process of C. hatfieldi which both extend to the margin of the gonopod shaft or slightly beyond the margin compared to the central projection of C. sciotensis and C. angulariswhere both extend well beyond the margin of the gonopod shaft.

  6. Use of Orbital Time Scale to Evaluate Molluscan Biozones and Evolutionary Rates during the Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian, Western Interior Basin (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sageman, B. B.; Meyers, S. R.; Hinnov, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Cyclostratigraphic analysis of the Cenomanian-Turonian Bridge Creek Limestone Member (Cretaceous Western Interior Basin) was used to develop a new high-resolution time scale for this approximately 2 myr interval. The new time scale was derived by application of time-frequency methods (evolutive harmonic analysis) to an optical densitometry data series from the interval. Evolutive harmonic analysis permits detection of changes in sedimentation, including the quantification of hiatus, and therefore allows the construction of a time-scale that is free of the biases associated with sedimentary distortions. The new time scale permits an independent quantitative assessment of rates of geochemical and paleobiologic change in the C-T boundary interval. In this study, we compare the new orbital time scale to previous time scales, and use it to assess the validity of the "equal-duration biozone" hypothesis, an assumption that has been employed in the construction of the previous time scales. The "equal-duration biozone" approach uses scattered radiometric dates within a succession of taxonomically consistent biozones (ideally representing a lineage), and interpolates biozone boundary ages based on the assumption that each biozone is of approximately equal duration. In addition, we employ the new time scale to assess rates of evolutionary change for molluscan taxa (ammonites, bivalves, gastropods), and for the total preserved macrofauna in the study interval. The results of this analysis lead us to a discussion of two related topics: 1) the principles inherent in the development of biozonation schemes, and 2) the factors that control evolutionary rates of benthic and necktobenthic taxa. >http://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/meyers/ paleoclimate.html

  7. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Torrington Quadrangle, Wyoming and Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeland, D

    1982-09-01

    The Torrington 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle in southeastern Wyoming and western Nebraska was evaluated to identify areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits likely to contain 100 tons of uranium with an average grade of not less than 100 ppM (0.01 percent) U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Almost all uranium occurrences reported in the literature were visited and sampled. Geochemical analyses of rock samples collected during the study were used in the evaluation. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment analyses were not available. Aerial-radiometric, and helium soil-gas surveys were analyzed. Much of the quadrangle is covered by Tertiary rocks. To assess the uranium potential of the Tertiary and pre-Tertiary rocks 270 well logs were studied and both contour and geologic maps made of the pre-Oligocene surface east and north of the Laramie Mountains. Five environments favorable for uranium deposits were outlined. The first is in the coarse-grained arkosic sandstone facies of the Wasatch Formation and the Lebo Member of the Fort Union Formation in the southern Powder River Basin. The second is in the Wind River Formation in the Shirley Basin, a stratigraphic and lithologic equivalent of the Wasatch. The third is the Lower Cretaceous Cloverly Formation in the northeastern part of the quadrangle. The fourth is in the Upper Cretaceous Lance (Laramie) Formation and the Fox Hills Sandstone in the southeastern corner of the quadrangle. The fifth favorable environment is in Precambrian rocks in the Laramie Mountains and Hartville uplift.

  8. 76 FR 18240 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that..., Wyoming, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of...

  9. 76 FR 11258 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that..., Wyoming, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of...

  10. Correlation of aptian-albian carbon isotope excursions in continental strata of the cretaceous Foreland Basin, Eastern Utah, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigson, Greg A.; Joeckel, R.M.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Gulbranson, E.L.; Rasbury, E.T.; Hunt, G.J.; Kirkland, J.I.; Madsen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Nodular carbonates ("calcretes") in continental foreland-basin strata of the Early Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation (CMF) in eastern Utah yield ??13C and ??O records of changes in the exogenic carbon cycle related to oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), and terrestrial paleoclimate. Chemostratigraphic profiles of both forebulge and foredeep sections show two prominent positive ??13C excursions, each with a peak value of -3% VPDB, and having background ??13C values of about -6% VPDB. These excursions correlate with the global early Aptian (Ap7) and late Aptian-early Albian (Apl2-All) carbon isotope excursions. Aptian-Albian positive ??13C excursions in the CMF also correspond to 3-4 per mil increases in carbonate ??18O. These phenomena record local aridification events. The chemostratigraphic profile on the thinner forebulge section of the CMF is calibrated, for the first time, by a radiogenic U-Pb date of 119.4 ?? 2.6 Ma on a carbonate bed, and by detrital zircon U-Pb dates on two bounding sandstone units (maximum depositional ages of 146 Ma and 112 Ma). P??trographie observations and diagenetic analyses of micritic to microsparitic carbonates from nodules indicate palustrine origins and demonstrate that they crystallized in shallow early meteoric phreatic environments. Meteoric calcite lines derived from CMF carbonates have ??18O values ranging between -8.1 to -7.5%o VPDB, supporting an estimate of zonal mean groundwater ??18O of -6% VSMOW for an Aptian-Albian paleolatitude of 34?? N. Furthermore, our two chemostratigraphic profiles exhibit a generally proportionate thinning of correlative strata from the foredeep on to the forebulge, suggesting that there were consistently lower rates of accumulation on the forebulge during the Aptian-Albian. Identification of the global Aptian-Albian ??13C excursions in purely continental strata, as demonstrated in this paper, opens a new avenue of research by identifying specific stratigraphie intervals that record the terrestrial

  11. Controls on selenium distribution and mobilization in an irrigated shallow groundwater system underlain by Mancos Shale, Uncompahgre River Basin, Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Taylor J.; Mast, M. Alisa; Thomas, Judith; Keith, Gabrielle

    2016-10-01

    Elevated selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water and groundwater have become a concern in areas of the Western United States due to the deleterious effects of Se on aquatic ecosystems. Elevated Se concentrations are most prevalent in irrigated alluvial valleys underlain by Se-bearing marine shales where Se can be leached from geologic materials into the shallow groundwater and surface water systems. This study presents groundwater chemistry and solid-phase geochemical data from the Uncompahgre River Basin in Western Colorado, an irrigated alluvial landscape underlain by Se-rich Cretaceous marine shale. We analyzed Se species, major and trace elements, and stable nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate in groundwater and aquifer sediments to examine processes governing selenium release and transport in the shallow groundwater system. Groundwater Se concentrations ranged from below detection limit (< 0.5 μg L{sup −1}) to 4070 μg L{sup −1}, and primarily are controlled by high groundwater nitrate concentrations that maintain oxidizing conditions in the aquifer despite low dissolved oxygen concentrations. High nitrate concentrations in non-irrigated soils and nitrate isotopes indicate nitrate is largely derived from natural sources in the Mancos Shale and alluvial material. Thus, in contrast to areas that receive substantial NO{sub 3} inputs through inorganic fertilizer application, Se mitigation efforts that involve limiting NO{sub 3} application might have little impact on groundwater Se concentrations in the study area. Soluble salts are the primary source of Se to the groundwater system in the study area at-present, but they constitute a small percentage of the total Se content of core material. Sequential extraction results indicate insoluble Se is likely composed of reduced Se in recalcitrant organic matter or discrete selenide phases. Oxidation of reduced Se species that constitute the majority of the Se pool in the study area could be a potential

  12. An Integrated Geochemical and Paleontological Investigation of Environmental and Biotic Change Associated with Late Devonian Mass Extinctions in the Appalachian Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, E.; Love, G. D.; Boyer, D.; Droser, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Upper Kellwasser (uK) black shale, a global unit at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary, closely associated with the Late Devonian extinction event, is commonly linked to oxygen limitation in the water column. In spite of the significance of this time interval, the nature of the ocean redox geochemistry is poorly understood. Using a multi-proxy approach, this study tests the appropriateness of three distinct oceanographic models for ocean redox chemistry at this time: 1) an oxic setting with sub-oxic bottom waters but with sulfide production confined to sedimentary porewaters; 2) an expanded oxygen minimum zone within a highly stratified marine redox column with only intermittent photic zone (shallow water) euxinia; and 3) a persistently euxinic water column extending up into the photic zone. Bottom water oxygen conditions are described at a high resolution for 4 uK black shale localities in western New York State, using inorganic and organic geochemical proxies and trace fossils to constrain relative oxygen levels and identify signals of anoxia and euxinia in the Devonian Appalachian Basin. Mo concentrations typically range from crustal (2-3 ppm) to moderately enriched values suggestive of suboxic conditions (typically less than 30 ppm), with some higher values between 30 and 40 ppm perhaps suggesting intermittent euxinia, indicating that the uK black shale preserves reduced oxygen bottom water conditions. The levels of enrichment are muted, though, such that these are inconsistent with persistent anoxia or euxinia for the interval, especially as compared to other Phanerozoic euxinic black shale intervals. Other trace metals suggest similarly suboxic to intermittently anoxic bottom water conditions. Lipid biomarker patterns are typical for Paleozoic marine rocks, indicating that the biomarker molecules in the extracted bitumens are syndepositional and not significantly affected by contamination. Independent thermal maturity screening data indicating peak oil

  13. Understanding the past to interpret the future: comparison of simulated groundwater recharge in the upper Colorado River basin (USA) using observed and general-circulation-model historical climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom

    2016-10-01

    In evaluating potential impacts of climate change on water resources, water managers seek to understand how future conditions may differ from the recent past. Studies of climate impacts on groundwater recharge often compare simulated recharge from future and historical time periods on an average monthly or overall average annual basis, or compare average recharge from future decades to that from a single recent decade. Baseline historical recharge estimates, which are compared with future conditions, are often from simulations using observed historical climate data. Comparison of average monthly results, average annual results, or even averaging over selected historical decades, may mask the true variability in historical results and lead to misinterpretation of future conditions. Comparison of future recharge results simulated using general circulation model (GCM) climate data to recharge results simulated using actual historical climate data may also result in an incomplete understanding of the likelihood of future changes. In this study, groundwater recharge is estimated in the upper Colorado River basin, USA, using a distributed-parameter soil-water balance groundwater recharge model for the period 1951-2010. Recharge simulations are performed using precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature data from observed climate data and from 97 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5) projections. Results indicate that average monthly and average annual simulated recharge are similar using observed and GCM climate data. However, 10-year moving-average recharge results show substantial differences between observed and simulated climate data, particularly during period 1970-2000, with much greater variability seen for results using observed climate data.

  14. Understanding the past to interpret the future: comparison of simulated groundwater recharge in the upper Colorado River basin (USA) using observed and general-circulation-model historical climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom

    2017-03-01

    In evaluating potential impacts of climate change on water resources, water managers seek to understand how future conditions may differ from the recent past. Studies of climate impacts on groundwater recharge often compare simulated recharge from future and historical time periods on an average monthly or overall average annual basis, or compare average recharge from future decades to that from a single recent decade. Baseline historical recharge estimates, which are compared with future conditions, are often from simulations using observed historical climate data. Comparison of average monthly results, average annual results, or even averaging over selected historical decades, may mask the true variability in historical results and lead to misinterpretation of future conditions. Comparison of future recharge results simulated using general circulation model (GCM) climate data to recharge results simulated using actual historical climate data may also result in an incomplete understanding of the likelihood of future changes. In this study, groundwater recharge is estimated in the upper Colorado River basin, USA, using a distributed-parameter soil-water balance groundwater recharge model for the period 1951-2010. Recharge simulations are performed using precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature data from observed climate data and from 97 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5) projections. Results indicate that average monthly and average annual simulated recharge are similar using observed and GCM climate data. However, 10-year moving-average recharge results show substantial differences between observed and simulated climate data, particularly during period 1970-2000, with much greater variability seen for results using observed climate data.

  15. Multi-scale measurements and modeling of denitrification in streams with varying flow and nitrate concentration in the upper Mississippi River basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlke, Johnkarl F.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Harvey, Judson W.; Smith, Richard L.; Voytek, Mary A.; Laursen, A.; Smith, L.K.

    2009-01-01

    Denitrification is an important net sink for NO3 - in streams, but direct measurements are limited and in situ controlling factors are not well known. We measured denitrification at multiple scales over a range of flow conditions and NO3 - concentrations in streams draining agricultural land in the upper Mississippi River basin. Comparisons of reach-scale measurements (in-stream mass transport and tracer tests) with local-scale in situ measurements (pore-water profiles, benthic chambers) and laboratory data (sediment core microcosms) gave evidence for heterogeneity in factors affecting benthic denitrification both temporally (e.g., seasonal variation in NO3 - concentrations and loads, flood-related disruption and re-growth of benthic communities and organic deposits) and spatially (e.g., local stream morphology and sediment characteristics). When expressed as vertical denitrification flux per unit area of streambed (U denit, in µmol N m-2 h-1), results of different methods for a given set of conditions commonly were in agreement within a factor of 2–3. At approximately constant temperature (~20 ± 4°C) and with minimal benthic disturbance, our aggregated data indicated an overall positive relation between U denit (~0–4,000 µmol N m-2 h-1) and stream NO3 - concentration (~20–1,100 µmol L-1) representing seasonal variation from spring high flow (high NO3 -) to late summer low flow (low NO3 -). The temporal dependence of U denit on NO3 - was less than first-order and could be described about equally well with power-law or saturation equations (e.g., for the unweighted dataset, U denit ˜26 * [NO3 -]0.44 or U denit ˜640 * [NO3 -]/[180 + NO3 -]; for a partially weighted dataset, U denit ˜14 * [NO3 -]0.54 or U denit ˜700 * [NO3 -]/[320 + NO3 -]). Similar parameters were derived from a recent spatial comparison of stream denitrification extending to lower NO3 - concentrations (LINX2), and from the combined dataset from both studies over 3 orders of magnitude

  16. Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealon, Teresa

    2014-06-30

    This report outlines the accomplishments of the Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology Institute (WCTI), including creating a website and online course catalog, sponsoring technology transfer workshops, reaching out to interested parties via news briefs and engaging in marketing activities, i.e., advertising and participating in tradeshows. We conclude that the success of WCTI was hampered by the lack of a market. Because there were no supporting financial incentives to store carbon, the private sector had no reason to incur the extra expense of training their staff to implement carbon storage. ii

  17. LARAMIE PEAK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Weisner, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, most of the Laramie Peak Wilderness study area in Wyoming was concluded to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Only three small areas in the northern part, one extending outside the study area to Esterbrook, were found to have probable mineral-resource potential for copper and lead. The geologic setting precludes the presence of fossil-fuel resources in the study area. There are no surface indications that geothermal energy could be developed within or near the study area.

  18. Oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an in-place assessment of the oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado. The Piceance Basin is one of three large structural and sedimentary basins that contain vast amounts of oil shale resources in the Green River Formation of Eocene age. The other two basins, the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and westernmost Colorado, and the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah also contain large resources of oil shale in the Green River Formation, and these two basins will be assessed separately. Estimated in-place oil is about 1.5 trillion barrels, based on Fischer a ssay results from boreholes drilled to evaluate oil shale, making it the largest oil shale deposit in the world. The estimated in-place nahcolite resource is about 43.3 billion short tons.

  19. Ecological Status of Wyoming Streams, 2000-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David A.; Hargett, Eric G.; Wright, Peter R.; Zumberge, Jeremy R.

    2007-01-01

    The ecological status of perennial streams in Wyoming was determined and compared with the status of perennial streams throughout 12 States in the western United States, using data collected as part of the Western Pilot Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP-West). Results for Wyoming are compared and contrasted in the context of the entire EMAP-West study area (west-wide) and climatic regions (based on aggregated ecoregions) within Wyoming. In Wyoming, ecological status, estimated as the proportion of the perennial stream length in least disturbed, most disturbed, and intermediate disturbance condition, based on ecological indicators of vertebrate and invertebrate assemblages was similar, in many cases, to the status of those assemblages determined for EMAP-West. Ecological status based on chemical and physical habitat stressors also was similar in Wyoming to west-wide proportions in many cases. Riparian disturbance was one of the most common physical stressors west-wide and in Wyoming. The estimates of riparian disturbance indicated about 90 percent of the stream length in the xeric climatic region in Wyoming was rated most disturbed, compared to about 30 percent rated most disturbed in the mountain climatic region in Wyoming. Results from analyses using a macroinvertebrate multi-metric index (MMI) and macroinvertebrate ratio of observed to expected taxa (O/E) developed specifically for the west-wide EMAP study were compared to results using a macroinvertebrate MMI and O/E developed for Wyoming. Proportions of perennial stream length in various condition categories determined from macroinvertebrate MMIs often were similar in Wyoming to proportions observed west-wide. Differences were larger, but not extreme, between west-wide and Wyoming O/E models. An aquatic life use support decision matrix developed for interpreting the Wyoming MMI and O/E model data indicated about one-half of the stream length statewide achieves the State's narrative aquatic

  20. Basin-centered gas evaluated in Dnieper-Donets basin, Donbas foldbelt, Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.E. [Law (B.E.), Lakewood, CO (United States); Ulmishek, G.F.; Clayton, J.L. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Kabyshev, B.P. [Ukrainian State Geological Inst., Chernigov (Ukraine); Pashova, N.T.; Krivosheya, V.A. [Ukrainian State Geological Inst., Poltava (Ukraine)

    1998-11-23

    An evaluation of thermal maturity, pore pressures, source rocks, reservoir quality, present-day temperatures, and fluid recovery data indicates the presence of a large basin-centered gas accumulation in the Dnieper-Donets basin (DDB) and Donbas foldbelt (DF) of eastern Ukraine. This unconventional accumulation covers an area of at least 35,000 sq km and extends vertically through as much as 7,000 m of Carboniferous rocks. The gas accumulation is similar, in many respects, to some North American accumulations such as Elmworth in the Alberta basin of western Canada, the Greater Green River basin of southwestern Wyoming, and the Anadarko basin of Oklahoma. Even though rigorous assessments of the recoverable gas have not been conducted in the region, a comparison of the dimensions of the accumulation to similar accumulations in the US indicates gas resources in excess of 100 tcf in place. The paper describes the geology, the reservoirs, source rocks, seals, and recommendations for further study.

  1. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2005-07-01

    This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last six (6) months (January 2005-June 2005) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the United States: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico. Gnomon as project lead, worked in both areas.

  2. Annotated bibliography of selected references on shoreline barrier island deposits with emphasis on Patrick Draw Field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Schatzinger, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    This bibliography contains 290 annotated references on barrier island and associated depositional environments and reservoirs. It is not an exhaustive compilation of all references on the subject, but rather selected papers on barrier islands, and the depositional processes of formation. Papers that examine the morphology and internal architecture of barrier island deposits, exploration and development technologies are emphasized. Papers were selected that aid in understanding reservoir architecture and engineering technologies to help maximize recovery efficiency from barrier island oil reservoirs. Barrier islands from Wyoming, Montana and the Rocky Mountains basins are extensively covered.

  3. Uranium in the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative study area, southwestern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna B.

    2015-10-20

    Wyoming has led the nation as the producer of uranium ore since 1995 and contains the largest reserves of any state. Approximately one third of Wyoming’s total production came from deposits in, or immediately adjacent to, the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) study area in the southwestern corner of the state including all of Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, Uinta, and parts of southern Fremont Counties. Conventional open-pit and underground mining methods were employed in the study area until the early 1990s. Since the early 1990s, all uranium mining has been by in-situ recovery (also called in-situ leach). It is estimated that statewide remaining resources of 141,000 tonnes of uranium are about twice the 84,000 tonnes of uranium that the state has already produced.

  4. Oil field produced water discharges into wetlands in Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Approximately 600 oil field produced water discharges are permitted in Wyoming by the State’s Department of Environmental Quality's (WDEQ) National Pollutant...

  5. 77 FR 24176 - Bridger-Teton National Forest; Wyoming; Long Term Special Use Authorization for Wyoming Game and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Game and Fish Commission To Use National Forest System Land for Their Winter Elk Management Programs.... SUMMARY: The Bridger-Teton National Forest received a request from the Wyoming Game and Fish...

  6. Behavioral and catastrophic drift of invertebrates in two streams in northeastern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, David J.; Peterson, David A.

    1980-01-01

    Invertebrate drift samples were collected in August 1977 from two streams in the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming. The streams are Clear Creek, a mountain stream, and the Little Powder River, a plains stream. Two major patterns of drift were recognized. Clear Creek was sampled during a period of normal seasonal conditions. High drift rates occurred during the night indicating a behavioral drift pattern that is related to the benthic invertebrate density and carrying capacity of the stream substrates. The mayfly genes Baetis, a common drift organism, dominated the peak periods of drift in Clear Creek. The Little Powder River has a high discharge during the study period. Midge larvae of the families Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae, ususally not common in drift, dominated the drift community. The dominance of midge larvae, the presence of several other organisms not common in drift, and the high discharge during the study period caused a catastrophic drift pattern. (USGS)

  7. Overview of Energy Development Opportunities for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick

    2012-11-01

    An important opportunity exists for the energy future of Wyoming that will • Maintain its coal industry • Add substantive value to its indigenous coal and natural gas resources • Improve dramatically the environmental impact of its energy production capability • Increase its Gross Domestic Product These can be achieved through development of a carbon conversion industry that transforms coal and natural gas to synthetic transportation fuels, chemical feedstocks, and chemicals that are the building blocks for the chemical industry. Over the longer term, environmentally clean nuclear energy can provide the substantial energy needs of a carbon conversion industry and be part of the mix of replacement technologies for the current fleet of aging coal-fired electric power generating stations.

  8. Newcastle folio, Wyoming-South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, N. H.

    1904-01-01

    The Newcastle quadrangle embraces the quarter of a square degree which lies between parallels 43° 30' and 44° north latitude and meridians 104° and 104° 30' west longitude.  It measures approximately 34 1/2 miles from north to south and 25 1/8 from east to west, and its area is 863 4/5 square miles.  It lies mainly in the eastern portion of Weston County, Wyo., but includes also a narrow area of western Custer and Pennington counties, S. Dak.  The northeastern portion of the quadrangle lies on the slopes of the Black Hills, but the larger part of it belongs to the Great Plains, although these plains are lower here than in the greater part of adjoining portions of Nebraska and Wyoming.  The district is drained by branches of the South Branch of Cheyenne River.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wyoming. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wyoming.

  10. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  11. Geodatabase of Wyoming statewide oil and gas drilling activity to 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Wyoming statewide oil and gas wells feature class was developed to provide a historical perspective of drilling activity for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation...

  12. Fate of geothermal mercury from Yellowstone National Park in the Madison and Missouri Rivers, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimick, David A; Caldwell, Rodney R; Skaar, Donald R; Selch, Trevor M

    2013-01-15

    Mercury is a worldwide contaminant derived from natural and anthropogenic sources. River systems play a key role in the transport and fate of Hg because they drain widespread areas affected by aerial Hg deposition, transport Hg away from point sources, and are sites of Hg biogeochemical cycling and bioaccumulation. The Madison and Missouri Rivers provide a natural laboratory for studying the fate and transport of Hg contributed by geothermal discharge in Yellowstone National Park and from the atmosphere for a large drainage basin in Montana and Wyoming, United States of America (USA). Assessing Hg in these rivers also is important because they support fishery-based recreation and irrigated agriculture. During 2002 to 2006, Hg concentrations were measured in water, sediment, and fish from the main stem, 7 tributaries, and 6 lakes. Using these data, the geothermal Hg load to the Madison River and overall fate of Hg along 378 km of the Missouri River system were assessed. Geothermal Hg was the primary source of elevated total Hg concentrations in unfiltered water (6.2-31.2 ng/L), sediment (148-1100 ng/g), and brown and rainbow trout (0.12-1.23 μg total Hg/g wet weight skinless filet) upstream from Hebgen Lake (the uppermost impoundment). Approximately 7.0 kg/y of geothermal Hg was discharged from the park via the Madison River, and an estimated 87% of that load was lost to sedimentation in and volatilization from Hebgen Lake. Consequently, Hg concentrations in water, sediment, and fish from main-stem sites downstream from Hebgen Lake were not elevated and were comparable to concentrations reported for other areas affected solely by atmospheric Hg deposition. Some Hg was sequestered in sediment in the downstream lakes. Bioaccumulation of Hg in fish along the river system was strongly correlated (r(2)=0.76-0.86) with unfiltered total and methyl Hg concentrations in water and total Hg in sediment.

  13. Anatomy of wintertime ozone associated with oil and natural gas extraction activity in Wyoming and Utah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Oltmans

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Winter maximum daily 8-hour average (MDA8 ozone concentrations in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming (UGRBWY and the Uintah Basin, Utah (UBUT have frequently exceeded 100 ppb in January, February and March, in the past few years. Such levels are well above the U.S. air quality standard of 75 ppb. In these two remote basins in the Rockies, local ozone precursor emissions result from intense oil and gas extraction activities that release methane, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, and nitrogen oxides (NOx to the atmosphere. These emissions become trapped beneath a stable and shallow (∼50–200 m boundary layer maintained in low wind conditions. Wintertime surface ozone formation conditions are more likely in the UBUT than in the UGRBWY as the topography of the UBUT is an enclosed basin whereas the UGRBWY is open on its southern perimeter thus allowing for more air turnover. With snow-covered ground, high ozone events regularly begin in mid-December and last into early March in the UBUT whereas they usually do not begin in earnest until about a month later in the UGRBWY and may persist until mid-March. Winters without snow cover and the accompanying cold pool meteorological conditions do not experience high ozone events in either basin. For nine years with ozone observations in the UGRBWY (2005–2013 and four in the UBUT (2010–2013, all years with adequate (≥6 inches and persistent snow cover, experienced days with ozone values ≥75 ppb except in 2012 in the UGRBWY when persistent high wind (>5 m/s conditions were prevalent. Year to year differences in the occurrences of high ozone episodes appear to be driven primarily by differing meteorological conditions rather than by variations in ozone precursor levels.

  14. Occurrence of Pesticides in Ground Water of Wyoming, 1995-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Hallberg, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    . Considering only detections using the CAL, triazine pesticides were detected much more frequently than all other pesticide classes, and the number of different pesticides classified as triazines was the largest of all classes. More pesticides were detected at concentrations greater than the CSALs in water from wells sampled in the fall (28 different pesticides) than in the spring (21 different pesticides). Many pesticides were detected infrequently as nearly one-half of pesticides detected in the fall and spring at concentrations greater than the CSALs were detected only in one well. Using the CSALs for pesticides analyzed for in 11 or more wells, only five pesticides (atrazine, prometon, tebuthiuron, picloram, and 3,4-dichloroaniline, listed in order of decreasing detection frequency) were each detected in water from more than 5 percent of sampled wells. Atrazine was the pesticide detected most frequently at concentrations greater than the CSAL. Concentrations of detected pesticides generally were small (less than 1 microgram per liter), although many infrequent detections at larger concentrations were noted. All detected pesticide concentrations were smaller than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking-water standards or applicable health advisories. Most concentrations were at least an order of magnitude smaller; however, many pesticides did not have standards or advisories. The largest percentage of pesticide detections and the largest number of different pesticides detected were in samples from wells located in the Bighorn Basin and High Plains/ Casper Arch geographic areas of north-central and southeastern Wyoming. Prometon was the only pesticide detected in all eight geographic areas of the State. Pesticides were detected much more frequently in samples from wells located in predominantly urban areas than in samples from wells located in predominantly agricultural or mixed areas. Pesticides were detected distinctly less often in sa

  15. Case studies on direct liquefaction of low rank Wyoming coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, P.; Kramer, S.J.; Poddar, S.K. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Previous Studies have developed process designs, costs, and economics for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyoming Black Thunder coals at mine-mouth plants. This investigation concerns two case studies related to the liquefaction of Wyoming Black Thunder coal. The first study showed that reducing the coal liquefaction reactor design pressure from 3300 to 1000 psig could reduce the crude oil equivalent price by 2.1 $/bbl provided equivalent performing catalysts can be developed. The second one showed that incentives may exist for locating a facility that liquifies Wyoming coal on the Gulf Coast because of lower construction costs and higher labor productivity. These incentives are dependent upon the relative values of the cost of shipping the coal to the Gulf Coast and the increased product revenues that may be obtained by distributing the liquid products among several nearby refineries.

  16. Wyoming greater sage-grouse habitat prioritization: a collection of multi-scale seasonal models and geographic information systems land management tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael S.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2015-01-01

    With rapidly changing landscape conditions within Wyoming and the potential effects of landscape changes on sage-grouse habitat, land managers and conservation planners, among others, need procedures to assess the location and juxtaposition of important habitats, land-cover, and land-use patterns to balance wildlife requirements with multiple human land uses. Biologists frequently develop habitat-selection studies to identify prioritization efforts for species of conservation concern to increase understanding and help guide habitat-conservation efforts. Recently, the authors undertook a large-scale collaborative effort that developed habitat-selection models for Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) across large landscapes in Wyoming, USA and for multiple life-stages (nesting, late brood-rearing, and winter). We developed these habitat models using resource selection functions, based upon sage-grouse telemetry data collected for localized studies and within each life-stage. The models allowed us to characterize and spatially predict seasonal sage-grouse habitat use in Wyoming. Due to the quantity of models, the diversity of model predictors (in the form of geographic information system data) produced by analyses, and the variety of potential applications for these data, we present here a resource that complements our published modeling effort, which will further support land managers.

  17. An evaluation of the Wyoming gauge system for snowfall measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D.; Kane, D.L.; Hinzman, L.D.; Goodison, B.E.; Metcalfe, J.R.; Louie, P.Y.T.; Leavesley, G.H.; Emerson, D.G.; Hanson, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Wyoming snow fence (shield) has been widely used with precipitation gauges for snowfall measurement at more than 25 locations in Alaska since the late 1970s. This gauge's measurements have been taken as the reference for correcting wind-induced gauge undercatch of snowfall in Alaska. Recently, this fence (shield) was tested in the World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation Measurement Intercomparison Project at four locations in the United States of America and Canada for six winter seasons. At the Intercomparison sites an octagonal vertical Double Fence with a Russian Tretyakov gauge or a Universal Belfort recording gauge was installed and used as the Intercomparison Reference (DFIR) to provide true snowfall amounts for this intercomparison experiment. The intercomparison data collected were compiled at the four sites that represent a variety of climate, terrain, and exposure. On the basis of these data sets the performance of the Wyoming gauge system for snowfall observations was carefully evaluated against the DFIR and snow cover data. The results show that (1) the mean snow catch efficiency of the Wyoming gauge compared with the DFIR is about 80-90%, (2) there exists a close linear relation between the measurements of the two gauge systems and this relation may serve as a transfer function to adjust the Wyoming gauge records to obtain an estimate of the true snowfall amount, (3) catch efficiency of the Wyoming gauge does not change with wind speed and temperature, and (4) Wyoming gauge measurements are generally compatible to the snowpack water equivalent at selected locations in northern Alaska. These results are important to our effort of determining true snowfall amounts in the high latitudes, and they are also useful for regional hydrologic and climatic analyses.

  18. Spatial mapping and attribution of Wyoming wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael S.; Fancher, Tammy S.

    2010-01-01

    This Wyoming wind-turbine data set represents locations of wind turbines found within Wyoming as of August 1, 2009. Each wind turbine is assigned to a wind farm. For each turbine, this report contains information about the following: potential megawatt output, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, land ownership, county, wind farm power capacity, the number of units currently associated with its wind farm, the wind turbine manufacturer and model, the wind farm developer, the owner of the wind farm, the current purchaser of power from the wind farm, the year the wind farm went online, and the status of its operation. Some attributes are estimates based on information that was obtained through the American Wind Energy Association and miscellaneous online reports. The locations are derived from August 2009 true-color aerial photographs made by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of approximately ?5 meters. The location of wind turbines under construction during the development of this data set will likely be less accurate than the location of turbines already completed. The original purpose for developing the data presented here was to evaluate the effect of wind energy development on seasonal habitat used by greater sage-grouse. Additionally, these data will provide a planning tool for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative Science Team and for other wildlife- and habitat-related projects underway at the U.S. Geological Survey's Fort Collins Science Center. Specifically, these data will be used to quantify disturbance of the landscape related to wind energy as well as quantifying indirect disturbances to flora and fauna. This data set was developed for the 2010 project 'Seasonal predictive habitat models for greater sage-grouse in Wyoming.' This project's spatially explicit seasonal distribution models of sage-grouse in Wyoming will provide resource managers with tools for conservation planning. These

  19. 76 FR 78234 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland, Campbell County, WY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Forest Service Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland, Campbell County..., LLC to vacate and relocate portions of Campbell County Road 69, Mackey Road, onto National Forest... Sections 29-31 of T. 43 N., R. 69 W., 6th Principal Meridian, Campbell County, Wyoming. DATES:...

  20. 77 FR 31385 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land... lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will be held at 10 a.m. on Thursday, June 28, 2012. Sealed bids must be...

  1. 76 FR 35465 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that... offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing...

  2. 77 FR 3790 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land... lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will be held at 10 a.m. on Wednesday, February 29, 2012. Sealed bids must...

  3. 76 FR 28063 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land... lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will be held at 10 a.m., on Wednesday, July 13, 2011. Sealed bids must...

  4. Bioprospecting for podophyllotoxin in the Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate variations in podophyllotoxin concentrations in Juniperus species found in the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming. It was found that Juniperus species in the Big Horn Mountains included three species; J. communis L. (common juniper), J. horizontalis Moench. (c...

  5. Wyoming big sagebrush associations of eastern Oregon; vegetation attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides a synopsis of several vegetative characteristics for the Wyoming big sagebrush complex in eastern Oregon covering the High Desert , Snake River, and Owyhee Ecological Provinces in Harney, Lake, and Malheur Counties. The complex has been grouped into six associations defined by t...

  6. Contribution to CCN Workshop report from University of Wyoming group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D. C.; Politovich, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    The group's CCN counter is described. It is a static, horizontal, parallel plate thermal gradient diffusion chamber. Examples of the application of the CCN are presented and include the CCN spectra measured during the winter of 1978-79 near Elk Mountain, Wyoming. Comparisons of droplet concentrations derived from upwind CCN spectra are covered.

  7. Investigating the Multicultural Competency of a Sample of Wyoming Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Stacey L.

    2016-01-01

    The literature on disproportionality indicates a generally held belief that disproportionality endures, in part, because of the lack of multicultural competency in today's educators. Yet, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to support this belief. This study examined the multicultural competency of a sample of Wyoming educators in order to…

  8. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  9. Preliminary report of coal drill-hole data and chemical analysis of coal beds in Sheridan and Campbell Counties, Wyoming, and Big Horn County, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    Twenty-eight exploratory holes were drilled in Sheridan and Campbell Counties, Wyoming and Big Horn County, Montana, to gather data on thickness, quality, and characteristics of the rocks in the Fort Union and Wasatch Foundations of the Powder River Basin. This report includes the driller's logs, proximate and ultimate analyses, Btu, and sulfur forms of the coal beds that were cored. Percent ash, major oxide composition of the ash (9 oxides), quantitative analysis (in ppM) for 13 trace elements, and the results of semiquantitative, 6-step spectrographic analysis of 21 of the samples is also included.

  10. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL AND GAS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2003-07-25

    This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five sub-contractors that have taken place during the first six months (January 1, 2003--June 30, 2003) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Gnomon, Inc. and all five (5) subcontractors have agreed on a process for the framework of this two-year project. They have also started gathering geomorphological information and entering cultural resource data into databases that will be used to create models later in the project. This data is being gathered in both the Power River Basin of Wyoming, and the Southeastern region of New Mexico. Several meetings were held with key players in this project to explain the purpose of the research, to obtain feedback and to gain support. All activities have been accomplished on time and within budget with no major setbacks.

  11. Late Paleocene high Laramide ranges in northeast Wyoming: Oxygen isotope study of ancient river water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Majie; Dettman, David L.

    2009-08-01

    The distribution and initial timing of the establishment of high surface elevations in the Rocky Mountains during the Early Cenozoic remain controversial despite the importance of these data in testing tectonic models for this region. We track the timing and distribution of high elevation in the Rocky Mountains during the Late Cretaceous-Early Eocene by examining annual and seasonal δ18O values of the ancient river water, which are calculated from the δ18O values of well-preserved freshwater bivalve shells. In the Powder River basin of the eastern Laramide province, the δ18O values of the ancient river water vary between - 23.0‰ and - 8.0‰ SMOW in both seasonal and annual records in the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene. The large variation suggests that the ancient rivers were fed yearly or seasonally by snowmelt from highlands of 4.5 ± 1.3 km. This can be explained by the existence of the Bighorn Mountains and Black Hills with a drainage pattern similar to the present in northeast Wyoming. The δ18O values of ancient river water along the front of the Sevier thrust belt generally follow a trend from lower values in north, - 14.2 ± 1.4‰ in the Early Paleocene Crazy Mountains basin, to higher values in south, - 11.1 ± 0.8‰ in the Late Paleocene Bighorn basin, and - 7.1 ± 1.6‰ in the Early Eocene Washakie basin. The variations within each basin are relatively small. These rivers most likely rise in the Sevier thrust belt, and may reflect highland elevation of 1-2 km. The δ18O values in the Alberta foreland and Williston basin are very low (- 20.5‰) in the Late Cretaceous, indicating the rivers were fed by snowmelt from the Canadian Rocky Mountains of 4.3 ± 1.0 km high. The attainment of high elevation in the eastern Laramide province prior to the western province could be explained by southwestward progression of back-thrusts soled into an earlier east-directed master detachment, which may be formed by the westward rollback of subducted shallow slab.

  12. The hydrodynamics of the Big Horn Basin: a study of the role of faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Belitz, K.; Sharp-Hansen, S.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model simulates groundwater flow in the Big Horn basin, Wyoming. The hydraulic head at depth over much of the Big Horn basin is near the land surface elevation, a condition usually defined as hydrostatic. This condition indicates a high, regional-scale, vertical conductivity for the sediments in the basin. Our hypothesis to explain the high conductivity is that the faults act as vertical conduits for fluid flow. These same faults can act as either horizontal barriers to flow or nonbarriers, depending upon whether the fault zones are more permeable or less permeable than the adjoining aquifers. -from Authors

  13. Pathogens and bionomics of Lutzomyia apache (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of bacteria, parasites, and viruses. Lutzomyia apache, a North American sand fly, was incriminated as a vector of vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) due to overlapping ranges of the sand fly and recent outbreaks of VSV. We report on the discovery of two population...

  14. Rare Earth Element Speciation in Geothermal Fluids from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A. J.; Komninou, A.; Yardley, B. W. D.; Palmer, M. R.

    1998-02-01

    Elevated concentrations (20-1133 nmol/kg) of rare earth elements (REE) are present in acid-sulphate and acid-sulphate-chloride hydrothermal waters of the Yellowstone National Park (YNP). We used recently estimated thermodynamic data ( Haas et al 1995) to speciate seventeen YNP hydrothermal fluids with the EQ3NR code. The fluids show a range in pH (2.0-4.0) and temperature (70°-93°C) and are of varied chemistry, with TDS = 155-2,075 ppm, sulphate = 100-10,325 μmol/kg, chloride = 190-24,580 μmol/kg, fluoride = 26-1,790 μmol/kg, and SO 4/F = 0.8-323. Field temperature and pH measurements were used in the modelling and saturation with kaolinite and quartz was assumed, although quartz was actually supersaturated. Where possible, oxygen fugacity was calculated from the analytical sulphate/sulphide ratios, otherwise it was set above the hematite-magnetite buffer and pyrite saturation (although speciation calculations show that this is not critical). Carbonate and phosphate levels were set at the analytical detection limit, with the exception of 4 waters for which analytical data for phosphate existed. The waters show little fractionation of REE relative to their host rhyolitic volcanics; it appears that the REE abundances of hydrothermal fluids resulting from alteration of YNP rhyolites are unaffected by the presence of potential complexing species, i.e., that acid-alteration completely strips REE from the portion of the rocks that it affects without any fractionation across the REE series. The main control over REE speciation is the relative abundances of potential complexing agents; however, pH and absolute abundances are also important. In the most acidic waters (pH ˜ 2.0) the free ion is the major species when salinity and SO 4/Cl are low (60-80% of each REE), and REE complexes with chloride can be significant (up to 5%). For higher SO 4/Cl values, sulphate complexes dominate (80-90%). For less acid waters (pH 2.8-4.0) fluoride is the main complexing agent in low SO 4/F fluids, but as the SO 4/F ratio increases the sulphate species become dominant, especially for the light REE (LREE).

  15. Incorporating safety into surface haulage in the Powder River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, W.; Jennings, C.

    1996-12-31

    The Powder River Basin (PRB) coal deposit extends from southeast Montana to northeast Wyoming. This paper describes a number of haulage practices and tools in use at several mines of the southern PRB and the way in which safety has been designed into and implemented for surface haulage of coal and overburden. Experiences described herein focus on the northeastern corner of Wyoming. All the mines in this area rely on safe and efficient movement of enormous volumes of material, and the results achieved in safety underscore the planning and attention to detail present in the PRB. There are currently 12 large surface mines (those greater than 10.0MM tons/year) operating in this area. In 1995, these mines produced over 230.0MM tons of coal.

  16. Economic Development from New Generation and Transmission in Wyoming and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, D.; Lantz, E.

    2013-03-01

    This report analyzes the potential economic impacts in Colorado and Wyoming of a 225 MW natural gas fired electricity generation facility and a 900 MW wind farm constructed in Wyoming as well as a 180 mile, 345 kV transmission line that runs from Wyoming to Colorado. This report and analysis is not a forecast, but rather an estimate of economic activity associated with a hypothetical scenario.

  17. Geochemical effects of CO2 injection on produced water chemistry at an enhanced oil recovery site in the Permian Basin of northwest Texas, USA: Preliminary geochemical and Li isotope results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, S.; Gardiner, J.; Phan, T. T.; Macpherson, G. L.; Diehl, J. R.; Lopano, C. L.; Stewart, B. W.; Capo, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Injection of supercritical CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) presents an opportunity to evaluate the effects of CO2 on reservoir properties and formation waters during geologic carbon sequestration. Produced water from oil wells tapping a carbonate-hosted reservoir at an active EOR site in the Permian Basin of Texas both before and after injection were sampled to evaluate geochemical and isotopic changes associated with water-rock-CO2 interaction. Produced waters from the carbonate reservoir rock are Na-Cl brines with TDS levels of 16.5-34 g/L and detectable H2S. These brines are potentially diluted with shallow groundwater from earlier EOR water flooding. Initial lithium isotope data (δ7Li) from pre-injection produced water in the EOR field fall within the range of Gulf of Mexico Coastal sedimentary basin and Appalachian basin values (Macpherson et al., 2014, Geofluids, doi: 10.1111/gfl.12084). Pre-injection produced water 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70788-0.70795) are consistent with mid-late Permian seawater/carbonate. CO2 injection took place in October 2013, and four of the wells sampled in May 2014 showed CO2 breakthrough. Preliminary comparison of pre- and post-injection produced waters indicates no significant changes in the major inorganic constituents following breakthrough, other than a possible drop in K concentration. Trace element and isotope data from pre- and post-breakthrough wells are currently being evaluated and will be presented.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey Science for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative: 2012 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Bern, Carleton R.; Biewick, Laura R.H.; Boughton, Gregory K.; Carr, Natasha B.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Chong, Geneva W.; Clark, Melanie L.; Fedy, Bradford C.; Foster, Katharine; Garman, Steven L.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Hethcoat, Matthew G.; Homer, Collin G.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Keinath, Douglas; Latysh, Natalie; Manier, Daniel J.; McDougal, Robert R.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Miller, Kirk A.; Montag, Jessica; Potter, Christopher J.; Schell, Spencer; Shafer, Sarah L.; Smith, David B.; Sweat, Michael J.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2014-01-01

    Southwest Wyoming contains abundant energy resources, wildlife, habitat, open spaces, and outdoor recreational opportunities. Although energy exploration and development have been taking place in the region since the late 1800s, the pace of development for fossil fuels and renewable energy increased significantly in the early 2000s. This and the associated urban and exurban development are leading to landscape-level environmental and socioeconomic changes that have the potential to diminish wildlife habitat and other natural resources, and the quality of human lives, in Southwest Wyoming. The potential for negative effects of these changes prompted Federal, State, and local agencies to undertake the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative for Southwest Wyoming.

  19. Determination of impacts on the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge from ammonium nitrate concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) is found only as a reintroduced population at Mortenson NWR in the Laramie Plains of southeast Wyoming. Reasons for the...

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Southwest Wyoming Province (037) Estimated Depth to the Top of the Frontier Formation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset shows depth contours to the top of the Frontier Formation within the Southwestern Wyoming Province, southwestern Wyoming, northeastern Utah, and...

  1. Shrub and tree establishment on coal spoils in northern High Plains - USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjugstad, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Trickle irrigation, during establishment, increased survival two fold for seven species of shrubs and trees planted on coal mine spoil in the semiarid area of northeastern Wyoming, USA. Increased survival of irrigated plants persisted for five years after initiation of this study, which included two growing and winter seasons after cessation of irrigation. Species included green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), silver buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens), American plum (Prunus americana), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum). 28 references.

  2. Late Holocene subalpine lake sediments record a multi-proxy shift to increased aridity at 3.65 kyr BP, following a millennial-scale neopluvial interval in the Lake Tahoe watershed and western Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Paula; Zimmerman, Susan; Ball, Ian; Adams, Kenneth; Maloney, Jillian; Smith, Shane

    2016-04-01

    A mid Holocene dry period has been reported from lake records in the Great Basin and Sierra Nevada, yet the spatial and temporal extent of this interval is not well understood. We present evidence for a millennial-scale interval of high winter precipitation (neopluvial) at the end of the mid Holocene in the Lake Tahoe-Pyramid Lake watershed in the northern Sierra Nevada that reached its peak ˜3.7 kcal yr BP. A transect of 4 cores recovered from Fallen Leaf Lake in the Tahoe Basin were dated using AMS14C on plant macrofossils, and analyzed using scanning XRF, C and N elemental and stable isotope measurements, and diatoms as paleoclimate proxies. Fallen Leaf Lake is a deep glacially-derived lake situated in the Glen Alpine Valley at an elevation of 1942m, ˜45 m above the level of Lake Tahoe. In Fallen Leaf Lake, the end of the neopluvial is dated at 3.65 ± 0.09 kcal yr BP, and is the largest post-glacial signal in the cores. The neopluvial interval is interpreted to be a period of increased snowpack in the upper watershed, supported by depleted g δ13Corg (-27.5) values, negative baseline shifts in TOC and TN, lower C:N, and high abundances of Aulacoseira subarctica, a winter-early spring diatom. Collectively, these proxies indicate cooler temperatures, enhanced mixing, and/or shortened summer stratification resulting in increased algal productivity relative to terrestrial inputs. The neopluvial interval ends abruptly at 3.65 ka, with a change from mottled darker opaline clay to a homogeneous olive clay with decreased A. subarctica and opal, and followed by a 50% reduction in accumulation rates. After this transition δ13Corg becomes enriched by 2‰ and TOC, TN, and C:N all show the start of positive trends that continue through the Holocene. Pyramid Lake is an endorheic basin situated at the terminal end of the watershed, and inflow arrives from the Lake Tahoe basin via the Truckee River. At Pyramid Lake, existing ages on paleo-shorelines indicate a significant

  3. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig historie...

  4. Glemmer USA Afghanistan nu?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016.......Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016....

  5. Final environmental statement related to the United Nuclear Corporation, Morton Ranch, Wyoming Uranium Mill (Converse County, Wyoming)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Impacts from Morton Ranch Uranium Mill will result in: alterations of up to 270 acres occupied by the mill facilities; increase in the existing background radiation levels; socioeconomic effects on Glenrock and Douglas, Wyoming. Solid waste material (tailings solids) from the mill will be deposited onsite in exhausted surface mine pits. Any license issued for the Morton Ranch mill will be subject to conditions for the protection of the environment.

  6. Ammonia emission inventory for the state of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Maser, Colette R.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2003-12-17

    Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is the only significant gaseous base in the atmosphere and it has a variety of impacts as an atmospheric pollutant, including the formation of secondary aerosol particles: ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. NH{sub 3} preferentially forms ammonium sulfate; consequently ammonium nitrate aerosol formation may be limited by the availability of NH{sub 3}. Understanding the impact of emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen on visibility, therefore, requires accurately determined ammonia emission inventories for use in air quality models, upon which regulatory and policy decisions increasingly depend. This report presents an emission inventory of NH{sub 3} for the state of Wyoming. The inventory is temporally and spatially resolved at the monthly and county level, and is comprised of emissions from individual sources in ten categories: livestock, fertilizer, domestic animals, wild animals, wildfires, soil, industry, mobile sources, humans, and publicly owned treatment works. The Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory was developed using the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Ammonia Model as framework. Current Wyoming-specific activity data and emissions factors obtained from state agencies and published literature were assessed and used as inputs to the CMU Ammonia Model. Biogenic emissions from soils comprise about three-quarters of the Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory, though emission factors from soils are highly uncertain. Published emission factors are scarce and based on limited measurements. In Wyoming, agricultural land, rangeland, and forests comprise 96% of the land area and essentially all of the estimated emissions from soils. Future research on emission rates of NH{sub 3} for these land categories may lead to a substantial change in the magnitude of soil emissions, a different inventory composition, and reduced uncertainty in the inventory. While many NH{sub 3} inventories include annual emissions, air quality modeling studies require finer temporal

  7. Geology of the Carnegie museum dinosaur quarry site of Diplodocus carnegii, Sheep Creek, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinski, D.K.; Kollar, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    The holotype of Diplodocus carnegii Hatcher, 1901, consists of a partial skeleton (CM 84) that was recovered, along with a second partial skeleton of the same species (CM 94), from the upper 10 m of the Talking Rock facies of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation exposed along Bone Quarry Draw, a tributary of Sheep Creek in Albany County, Wyoming. A composite measured section of the stratigraphic interval exposed adjacent to the quarry indicates that the Brushy Basin Member in this area is a stacked succession of lithofacies consisting of hackly, greenish gray, calcareous mudstone and greenish brown, dense, fine-grained limestone. The more erosion resistant limestone layers can be traced over many hundreds of meters. Thus, these strata do not appear to represent a highly localized deposit such as a stream channel, oxbow lake, or backwater pond. The Sheep Creek succession is interpreted as representing a clastic-dominated lake where high turbidity and sediment influx produced deposition of calcareous mudstone. During drier periods the lake's turbidity decreased and limestone and dolomite precipitation replaced mud deposition. Microkarsting at the top of some limestone/ dolomite layers suggests subaerial deposition may have prevailed during these dry episodes. The quarry of D. carnegii was excavated within the top strata of one of the numerous intervals of hackly, greenish gray, calcareous mudstone that represent an ephemeral freshwater lake. The quarry strata are directly overlain by 0.3 m of dolomite-capped limestone that was deposited shortly after interment of D. carnegii in the lake mudstones. The close vertical proximity of the overlying limestone to the skeleton's stratigraphic: level suggests that the animal's carcass may have been buried beneath the drying lake deposits during a period of decreased rainfall.

  8. 77 FR 43612 - Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW179184, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW179184, Wyoming... from Legacy Energy, Inc., for competitive oil and gas lease WYW179184 for land in Park County, Wyoming. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied by all the rentals due since the date the...

  9. 75 FR 35082 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease, Wyoming... and Gas Lease. SUMMARY: Under the provisions of the Mineral Lands Leasing Act of 1920, the Bureau of... oil and gas lease WYW146295 for land in Sheridan County, Wyoming. The petition was timely filed...

  10. Literacy Coaching in Wyoming Secondary Schools: A Situational Analysis of Roles in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Leslie S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, The Wyoming state legislature allocated monies to fund Instructional Facilitators (IFs) in schools around the state. This interview study, developed through situational analysis, explores the roles and responsibilities of IFs in Wyoming secondary schools, and the contextual factors of those schools that impact the work of IFs,…

  11. The New Teacher Education Program at the University of Wyoming. Final Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan D.; And Others

    A new teacher education program implemented at the University of Wyoming in the Fall of 1992, made radical changes in the preexisting program. To take the place of student teaching, the program involves students in field experiences in schools participating as Wyoming Centers for Teaching and Learning. In the Fall of 1993 an in-house formative…

  12. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future

  13. Profiling Radar Observations and Numerical Simulations of a Downslope Wind Storm and Rotor on the Lee of the Medicine Bow Mountains in Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Pokharel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a downslope wind storm event observed over the Medicine Bow range (Wyoming, USA on 11 January 2013. The University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA made four along-wind passes over a five-hour period over the mountain of interest. These passes were recognized as among the most turbulent ones encountered in many years by crew members. The MacCready turbulence meter aboard the UWKA measured moderate to severe turbulence conditions on each pass in the lee of the mountain range, with eddy dissipation rate values over 0.5 m2/3 s−1. Three rawinsondes were released from an upstream location at different times. This event is simulated using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecast (WRF model at an inner- domain resolution of 1 km. The model produces a downslope wind storm, notwithstanding some discrepancies between model and rawinsonde data in terms of upstream atmospheric conditions. Airborne Wyoming Cloud Radar (WCR vertical-plane Doppler velocity data from two beams, one pointing to the nadir and one pointing slant forward, are synthesized to obtain a two-dimensional velocity field in the vertical plane below flight level. This synthesis reveals the fine-scale details of an orographic wave breaking event, including strong, persistent downslope acceleration, a strong leeside updraft (up to 10 m·s−1 flanked by counter-rotating vortices, and deep turbulence, extending well above flight level. The analysis of WCR-derived cross-mountain flow in 19 winter storms over the same mountain reveals that cross-mountain flow acceleration and downslope wind formation are difficult to predict from upstream wind and stability profiles.

  14. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  15. Loeng USA Sisejulgeolekuministeeriumi kantslerilt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    13. okt. pidas USA Sisejulgeolekuministeeriumi teaduse ja tehnoloogia kantsler dr Charles McQueary Tartu Ülikooli Tehnoloogiainstituudis loengu "Uue põlvkonna ettevõtlust suunavad ja julgeolekut edendavad tehnoloogiad"

  16. USA kunstidessant Venemaale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    USA kunstnike näitus "Kolm sajandit ameerika kunsti" Moskvas Pushkini muuseumis. Eksponeeritakse Mark Rothko, Jean-Michel Basguiat', Roy Lichtensteini, Robert Rauschenbergi, Georgia O'Keefe'i, Willem de Kooningi töid

  17. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Arminto NTMS quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-three additional elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, T.L.

    1979-11-01

    During the summers of 1976 and 1977, 570 water and 1249 sediment samples were collected from 1517 locations within the 18,000-km/sup 2/ area of the Arminto NTMS quadrangle of central Wyoming. Water samples were collected from wells, springs, streams, and artifical ponds; sediment samples were collected from wet and dry streams, springs, and wet and dry ponds. All water samples were analyzed for 13 elements, including uranium, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including uranium and thorium. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit to 84.60 parts per billion (ppb) with a mean of 4.32 ppb. All water sample types except pond water samples were considered as a single population in interpreting the data. Pond water samples were excluded due to possible concentration of uranium by evaporation. Most of the water samples containing greater than 20 ppb uranium grouped into six clusters that indicate possible areas of interest for further investigation. One cluster is associated with the Pumpkin Buttes District, and two others are near the Kaycee and Mayoworth areas of uranium mineralization. The largest cluster is located on the west side of the Powder River Basin. One cluster is located in the central Big Horn Basin and another is in the Wind River Basin; both are in areas underlain by favorable host units. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 0.08 parts per million (ppm) to 115.50 ppm with a mean of 3.50 ppm. Two clusters of sediment samples over 7 ppm were delineated. The first, containing the two highest-concentration samples, corresponds with the Copper Mountain District. Many of the high uranium concentrations in samples in this cluster may be due to contamination from mining or prospecting activity upstream from the sample sites. The second cluster encompasses a wide area in the Wind River Basin along the southern boundary of the quadrangle.

  18. Opportunities to protect instream flows in Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembly, Terrence L.

    1987-01-01

    This document combines the efforts of several individuals, agencies, and organizations toward a common objective: the identification, description, and preliminary evaluation of promising opportunities for protecting instream uses of water under existing laws in Colorado and Wyoming. This report is intended for the use of State and Federal planning and management personnel who need an overview of potential opportunities for preserving instream flows. It is not intended to replace or challenge the advice of agency counsel, nor it is written to provide legal advice. Instead, it is designed as a guide for the person trying to find his or her way among sometimes bewildering State statues and administrative practices. This report is not, and should not be taken as, official policy or prediction of future actions by any agency. It is simply a summary of some potential opportunities for protecting instream uses. Toward these objectives, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, through its Water Resources Analysis Project, contracted in 1977 with Richard Dewsnup and Dallin Jensen to identify available strategies under State and Federal laws, interstate compacts, and water quality laws. A second firm, Enviro Control, Inc., was contracted to evaluate the most promising strategies. Two of the resulting documents were Instream Flow Strategies for Colorado and Instream Flow Strategies for Wyoming, which have been revised, updated, and combined in this report. Discussion of instream flow programs ad opportunities for each State--Colorado and Wyoming-- are written so that each report can be read independently, with minimal cross referencing from one State report to another.

  19. A method for examining the geospatial distribution of CO2 storage resources applied to the Pre-Punta Gorda Composite and Dollar Bay reservoirs of the South Florida Basin, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Ashby, Tina; Brandon N. Ashby,

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates geospatial modification of the USGS methodology for assessing geologic CO2 storage resources, and was applied to the Pre-Punta Gorda Composite and Dollar Bay reservoirs of the South Florida Basin. The study provides detailed evaluation of porous intervals within these reservoirs and utilizes GIS to evaluate the potential spatial distribution of reservoir parameters and volume of CO2 that can be stored. This study also shows that incorporating spatial variation of parameters using detailed and robust datasets may improve estimates of storage resources when compared to applying uniform values across the study area derived from small datasets, like many assessment methodologies. Geospatially derived estimates of storage resources presented here (Pre-Punta Gorda Composite = 105,570 MtCO2; Dollar Bay = 24,760 MtCO2) were greater than previous assessments, which was largely attributed to the fact that detailed evaluation of these reservoirs resulted in higher estimates of porosity and net-porous thickness, and areas of high porosity and thick net-porous intervals were incorporated into the model, likely increasing the calculated volume of storage space available for CO2 sequestration. The geospatial method for evaluating CO2 storage resources also provides the ability to identify areas that potentially contain higher volumes of storage resources, as well as areas that might be less favorable.

  20. Leucogranites of the Teton Range, Wyoming: A record of Archean collisional orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Carol D.; Swapp, Susan M.; Frost, B. Ronald; Finley-Blasi, Lee; Fitz-Gerald, D. Braden

    2016-07-01

    Leucogranitic rocks formed by crustal melting are a prominent feature of collisional orogens of all ages. This study describes leucogranitic gneisses associated with an Archean collisional orogeny preserved in the Teton Range of northwestern Wyoming, USA. These leucogneisses formed at 2.68 Ga, and initial Nd isotopic compositions suggest they are derived from relatively juvenile sources. Two distinct groups of leucogneisses, both trondhjemitic, are identified on the basis of field relations, petrology, and geochemistry. The Webb Canyon gneiss forms large, sheet-like bodies of hornblende biotite trondhjemite and granodiorite. This gneiss is silica-rich (SiO2 = 70-80%), strongly ferroan, comparatively low in alumina, and is characterized by high Zr and Y, low Sr, and high REE contents that define "seagull"-shaped REE patterns. The Bitch Creek gneiss forms small sills, dikes, and plutons of biotite trondhjemite. Silica, Zr, Y, and REE are lower and alumina and Sr are higher than in the Webb Canyon gneiss. These differences reflect different melting conditions: the Webb Canyon gneiss formed by dehydration melting in which amphibole and quartz breaks down, accounting for the low alumina, high FeO, high silica content and observed trace element characteristics. The Bitch Creek gneiss formed by H2O-excess melting in which plagioclase breaks down leaving an amphibole-rich restite, producing magmas higher in alumina and Sr and lower in FeO and HREE. Both melt mechanisms are expected in collisional environments: dehydration melting accompanies gravitational collapse and tectonic extension of dramatically thickened crust, and water-excess melting may occur when collision places a relatively cool, hydrous lower plate beneath a hotter upper plate. The Archean leucogranitic gneisses of the Teton Range are calcic trondhjemites and granodiorites whereas younger collisional leucogranites typically are true granites. The difference in leucogranite composition reflects the

  1. Snow Cover, Snowmelt Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather, including earlier snowmelt, has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (is greater than 70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for the management of streamflow. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work, such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud-gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period as a whole. The extent of snow-cover (percent of basin covered) derived from the lowest elevation zone (2500-3000 m) of the WRR, using MODIS CGF snow-cover maps, is strongly correlated with maximum monthly discharge on 30 April, where Spearman's Rank correlation, rs,=0.89 for the decade of the 2000s. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek above Bull Lake; and found a trend (significant at the 90% confidence level) toward reduced stream power from 1970 to 2009. Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature

  2. Fe-oxide grain coatings support bacterial Fe-reducing metabolisms in 1.7-2.0 km-deep subsurface quartz arenite sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran eDong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cambrian-age Mt. Simon Sandstone, deeply buried within the Illinois Basin of the midcontinent of North America, contains quartz sand grains ubiquitously encrusted with iron-oxide cements and dissolved ferrous iron in pore-water. Although microbial iron reduction has previously been documented in the deep terrestrial subsurface, the potential for diagenetic mineral cementation to drive microbial activity has not been well studied. In this study, two subsurface formation water samples were collected at 1.72 and 2.02 km, respectively, from the Mt. Simon Sandstone in Decatur, Illinois. Low-diversity microbial communities were detected from both horizons and were dominated by Halanaerobiales of Phylum Firmicutes. Iron-reducing enrichment cultures fed with ferric citrate were successfully established using the formation water. Phylogenetic classification identified the enriched species to be related to Vulcanibacillus from the 1.72 km depth sample, while Orenia dominated the communities at 2.02 km of burial depth. Species-specific quantitative analyses of the enriched organisms in the microbial communities suggest that they are indigenous to the Mt. Simon Sandstone. Optimal iron reduction by the 1.72 km enrichment culture occurred at a temperature of 40oC (range 20 to 60oC and a salinity of 25 parts per thousand (range 25-75 ppt. This culture also mediated fermentation and nitrate reduction. In contrast, the 2.02 km enrichment culture exclusively utilized hydrogen and pyruvate as the electron donors for iron reduction, tolerated a wider range of salinities (25-200 ppt, and exhibited only minimal nitrate- and sulfate-reduction. In addition, the 2.02 km depth community actively reduces the more crystalline ferric iron minerals goethite and hematite. The results suggest evolutionary adaptation of the autochthonous microbial communities to the Mt. Simon Sandstone and carries potentially important implications for future utilization of this reservoir

  3. Archaeal and bacterial communities in three alkaline hot springs in Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Bowen De León

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB is remotely located at the base of Mount Sheridan in southern Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA and is situated along Witch Creek and the northwestern shore of Heart Lake. Likely because of its location, little is known about the microbial community structure of springs in the HLGB. Bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored via small subunit (SSU rRNA gene pyrosequencing over 3 years in 3 alkaline (pH 8.5 hot springs with varying temperatures (44°C, 63°C, 75°C. The bacterial populations were generally stable over time, but varied by temperature. The dominant bacterial community changed from moderately thermophilic and photosynthetic members (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi at 44°C to a mixed photosynthetic and thermophilic community (Deinococcus-Thermus at 63°C and a non-photosynthetic thermophilic community at 75°C. The archaeal community was more variable across time and was predominantly a methanogenic community in the 44°C and 63°C springs and a hyperthermophilic community in the 75°C spring. The 75°C spring demonstrated large shifts in the archaeal populations and was predominantly Candidatus Nitrosocaldus, an ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote, in the 2007 sample, and almost exclusively Thermofilum or Candidatus Caldiarchaeum in the 2009 sample, depending on SSU rRNA gene region examined. The majority of sequences were dissimilar (≥10% different to any known organisms suggesting that HLGB possesses numerous new phylogenetic groups that warrant cultivation efforts.

  4. Archaeal and bacterial communities in three alkaline hot springs in Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen De León, Kara; Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M; Fields, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    The Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB) is remotely located at the base of Mount Sheridan in southern Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA and is situated along Witch Creek and the northwestern shore of Heart Lake. Likely because of its location, little is known about the microbial community structure of springs in the HLGB. Bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored via small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene pyrosequencing over 3 years in 3 alkaline (pH 8.5) hot springs with varying temperatures (44°C, 63°C, 75°C). The bacterial populations were generally stable over time, but varied by temperature. The dominant bacterial community changed from moderately thermophilic and photosynthetic members (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi) at 44°C to a mixed photosynthetic and thermophilic community (Deinococcus-Thermus) at 63°C and a non-photosynthetic thermophilic community at 75°C. The archaeal community was more variable across time and was predominantly a methanogenic community in the 44 and 63°C springs and a thermophilic community in the 75°C spring. The 75°C spring demonstrated large shifts in the archaeal populations and was predominantly Candidatus Nitrosocaldus, an ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote, in the 2007 sample, and almost exclusively Thermofilum or Candidatus Caldiarchaeum in the 2009 sample, depending on SSU rRNA gene region examined. The majority of sequences were dissimilar (≥10% different) to any known organisms suggesting that HLGB possesses numerous new phylogenetic groups that warrant cultivation efforts.

  5. Factors associated with crash severity on rural roadways in Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie S. Shinstine

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify risk factors associated with crashes is critical to determine appropriate countermeasures for improving roadway safety. Many studies have identified risk factors for urban systems and intersections, but few have addressed crashes on rural roadways, and none have analyzed crashes on Indian Reservations. This study analyzes crash severity for rural highway systems in Wyoming. These rural systems include interstates, state highways, rural county local roads, and the roadway system on the Wind River Indian Reservation (WRIR. In alignment with the Wyoming strategic highway safety goal of reducing critical crashes (fatal and serious injury, crash severity was treated as a binary response in which crashes were classified as severe or not severe. Multiple logistic regression models were developed for each of the highway systems. Five effects were prevalent on all systems including animals, driver impairment, motorcycles, mean speed, and safety equipment use. With the exception of animal crashes, all of these effects increased the probability that a crash would be severe. Based upon these results, DOTs can pursue effective policies and targeted design decisions to reduce the severity of crashes on rural highways.

  6. Traces in the dark: sedimentary processes and facies gradients in the upper shale member of the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenhoff, Sven O.; Fishman, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Black, organic-rich rocks of the upper shale member of the Upper Devonian–Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation, a world-class petroleum source rock in the Williston Basin of the United States and Canada, contain a diverse suite of mudstone lithofacies that were deposited in distinct facies belts. The succession consists of three discrete facies associations (FAs). These comprise: 1) siliceous mudstones; 2) quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones; and 3) macrofossil-debris-bearing massive mudstones. These FAs were deposited in three facies belts that reflect proximal to distal relationships in this mudstone system. The macrofossil-debris-bearing massive mudstones (FA 3) occur in the proximal facies belt and contain erosion surfaces, some with overlying conodont and phosphate–lithoclast lag deposits, mudstones with abundant millimeter-scale siltstone laminae showing irregular lateral thickness changes, and shell debris. In the medial facies belt, quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones dominate, exhibiting sub-millimeter-thick siltstone layers with variable lateral thicknesses and localized mudstone ripples. In the distal siliceous mudstone facies belt, radiolarites, radiolarian-bearing mudstones, and quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones dominate. Overall, total organic carbon (TOC) contents range between about 3 and 10 wt %, with a general proximal to distal decrease in TOC content. Abundant evidence of bioturbation exists in all FAs, and the lithological and TOC variations are paralleled by changes in burrowing style and trace-fossil abundance. While two horizontal traces and two types of fecal strings are recognized in the proximal facies belt, only a single horizontal trace fossil and one type of fecal string characterize mudstones in the distal facies belt. Radiolarites intercalated into the most distal mudstones are devoid of traces and fecal strings. Bedload transport processes, likely caused by storm-induced turbidity

  7. Environmental Contaminants Monitoring in Selected Wetlands of Wyoming: Biologically Active Elements Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment, water and biota were collected from selected wetlands in Wyoming for the Biologically Active Elements (BAE) Study in 1988, 1989 and 1990 to identify...

  8. Wyoming State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Wyoming State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wyoming. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wyoming. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wyoming.

  9. Assessment of Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Wyoming for creosote contamination of wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Semi-permeable devices (SPMDs) were deployed in wetlands along a railroad right-of-way at the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Wyoming to...

  10. 75 FR 47626 - Notice of Reestablishment of the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Reestablishment of the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming... Management's (BLM) Pinedale Anticline Working Group (PAWG). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Allison...

  11. Assessment of potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on macroinvertebrate and algal communities in the Powder River and Tongue River, Wyoming and Montana, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David A.; Hargett, Eric G.; Feldman, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing development of coalbed natural gas in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and Montana led to formation of an interagency aquatic task group to address concerns about the effects of the resulting production water on biological communities in streams of the area. Ecological assessments, made from 2005–08 under the direction of the task group, indicated biological condition of the macroinvertebrate and algal communities in the middle reaches of the Powder was lower than in the upper or lower reaches. On the basis of the 2005–08 results, sampling of the macroinvertebrate and algae communities was conducted at 18 sites on the mainstem Powder River and 6 sites on the mainstem Tongue River in 2010. Sampling-site locations were selected on a paired approach, with sites located upstream and downstream of discharge points and tributaries associated with coalbed natural gas development. Differences in biological condition among site pairs were evaluated graphically and statistically using multiple lines of evidence that included macroinvertebrate and algal community metrics (such as taxa richness, relative abundance, functional feeding groups, and tolerance) and output from observed/expected (O/E) macroinvertebrate models from Wyoming and Montana. Multiple lines of evidence indicated a decline in biological condition in the middle reaches of the Powder River, potentially indicating cumulative effects from coalbed natural gas discharges within one or more reaches between Flying E Creek and Wild Horse Creek in Wyoming. The maximum concentrations of alkalinity in the Powder River also occurred in the middle reaches. Biological condition in the upper and lower reaches of the Powder River was variable, with declines between some site pairs, such as upstream and downstream of Dry Fork and Willow Creek, and increases at others, such as upstream and downstream of Beaver Creek. Biological condition at site pairs on the Tongue River showed an increase in one case

  12. Baltimaade kunsti turnee USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    5. nov.-st USA Lõuna-Carolina osariigis Wellington B. Grey galeriis ja Jenkins Fine Art Center's 13 eesti, läti ja leedu kunstniku näitus, mis hakkab kolme aasta jooksul ringlema Ameerikas. Eksponeeritud fotokunst, video, installatsioon, joonistused. Kuraator Peeter Linnap ja Mari Laanemets peavad ettekande näituse avamisega samal ajal toimuval Fotohariduse Ühingu konverentsil

  13. Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colordao, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW). NPOSR-CUW consists of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 (NPR-3) located near Casper, Wyoming; Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 1 (NOSR-1) and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 3 (NOSR-3) located near Rifle, Colorado; and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 2 (NOSR-2) located near Vernal, Utah, which was not examined as part of this assessment.

  14. Jobs and Economic Development from New Transmission and Generation in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-03-31

    This report is intended to inform policymakers, local government officials, and Wyoming residents about the jobs and economic development activity that could occur should new infrastructure investments in Wyoming move forward. The report and analysis presented is not a projection or a forecast of what will happen. Instead, the report uses a hypothetical deployment scenario and economic modeling tools to estimate the jobs and economic activity likely associated with these projects if or when they are built.

  15. Jobs and Economic Development from New Transmission and Generation in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2011-03-01

    This report is intended to inform policymakers, local government officials, and Wyoming residents about the jobs and economic development activity that could occur should new infrastructure investments in Wyoming move forward. The report and analysis presented is not a projection or a forecast of what will happen. Instead, the report uses a hypothetical deployment scenario and economic modeling tools to estimate the jobs and economic activity likely associated with these projects if or when they are built.

  16. Mineral resource areas of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource areas are defined as those areas with a high likelihood of containing occurrences of valuable mineral deposits. A variety of sources of minerals...

  17. Oil and Gas Wells in the Wyoming Basins (8/31/2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A complete set of wells associated with oil, natural gas, and coal bed natural gas development in the western states as of August 31, 2005. This is a static dataset...

  18. Research into surface wave phenomena in sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, G. L.; Isenberg, J.; Ma, F.; Richardson, E.

    1981-12-01

    This study is a continuation of an engineering seismology research effort prompted by the sensitivity of guidance sets in Minuteman Wing V to distant earthquakes. An earlier report considers the probable cause of anomalous patterns of seismic alarms triggered by two North American earthquakes. This report extends the previous study by examining the propagation of surface waves from the 1975 Pocatello Valley, Idaho earthquake sequence across Wyoming to Wing V. In addition, the more general question of surface wave phenomena in sedimentary basins is addressed, particularly the effect of laterally inhomogeneous (dipping) basin-bedrock interfaces. Findings indicate that fundamental and first overtone surface waves are significantly modified by the travel path. In contrast, higher modes are relatively unchanged by the travel path, and affect Wing V in much the same way as body waves considered in the previous study.

  19. BRIDGER WILDERNESS AND GREEN-SWEETWATER ROADLESS AREA, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worl, Ronald G.; Ryan, George S.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource appraisal of the Bridger Wilderness and contiguous Green-Sweetwater Roadless Area in Wyoming was made. This rugged and remote region is mostly Precambrian crystalline granitic rocks that contain only small and discontinuous areas of mineralization. The area is considered to have little promise for metallic mineral deposits. Sedimentary rocks in the area have minor coal seams and beds of phosphate rock, but the coal beds are thin and of limited extent, and the phosphate rock is low-grade compared to similar rocks elsewhere in the region. A probable potential for oil and gas at depth, assigned to part of the area, is based on the assumption that oil- and gas-bearing rocks exist at depth below a low-angle thrust fault and a wedge of Precambrian crystalline rock.

  20. California-Wyoming Grid Integration Study: Phase 1 -- Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Schwabe, P.; Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.; Brinkman, G.; Paduru, A.; Diakov, V.; Hand, M.

    2014-03-01

    This study presents a comparative analysis of two different renewable energy options for the California energy market between 2017 and 2020: 12,000 GWh per year from new California in-state renewable energy resources; and 12,000 GWh per year from Wyoming wind delivered to the California marketplace. Either option would add to the California resources already existing or under construction, theoretically providing the last measure of power needed to meet (or to slightly exceed) the state's 33% renewable portfolio standard. Both options have discretely measurable differences in transmission costs, capital costs (due to the enabling of different generation portfolios), capacity values, and production costs. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the two different options to provide additional insight for future planning.

  1. Miss(ed Generation: Douglas Coupland’s Miss Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Jensen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a reading of Douglas Coupland’s 2000 novel Miss Wyoming. Long before this novel was published Coupland had denounced the Generation X phenomena he had started in the early nineties, and this article examines Miss Wyoming’s intertextual references to Jack Kerouac as a representative of the Beat generation, which was the previous self-labeled literary generation in North America before the Generation X of the 1990s. Taking this relationship as a point of departure, the article also explores the novel’s relationship with the Bildungsroman, and it is suggested that the novel portrays communicative and emotional immaturity especially in relation to ideas of postmodernism and irony.

  2. U.S. Geological Survey science for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative—2015 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Chong, Geneva W.; Dematatis, Marie K.; Miller, Cheryl E.; Garman, Steven L.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Homer, Collin G.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Huber, Christopher C.; Manier, Daniel J.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Miller, Kirk A.; Norkin, Tamar; Sanders, Lindsey E.; Walters, Annika W.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wyckoff, Teal B.

    2016-09-28

    This is the eighth annual report highlighting U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science and decision-support activities conducted for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). The activities address specific management needs identified by WLCI partner agencies. In 2015, USGS scientists continued 24 WLCI projects in 5 categories: (1) acquiring and analyzing resource-condition data to form a foundation for understanding and monitoring landscape conditions and projecting changes; (2) using new technologies to improve the scope and accuracy of landscape-scale monitoring and assessments, and applying them to monitor indicators of ecosystem conditions and the effectiveness of on-the-ground habitat projects; (3) conducting research to elucidate the mechanisms that drive wildlife and habitat responses to changing land uses; (4) managing and making accessible the large number of databases, maps, and other products being developed; and (5) coordinating efforts among WLCI partners, helping them to use USGS-developed decision-support tools, and integrating WLCI outcomes with future habitat enhancement and research projects. Of the 24 projects, 21 were ongoing, including those that entered new phases or more in-depth lines of inquiry, 2 were new, and 1 was completed.A highlight of 2015 was the WLCI science conference sponsored by the USGS, Bureau of Land Management, and National Park Service in coordination with the Wyoming chapter of The Wildlife Society. Of 260 participants, 41 were USGS professionals representing 13 USGS science centers, field offices, and Cooperative Wildlife Research Units. Major themes of USGS presentations included using new technologies for developing more efficient research protocols for modeling and monitoring natural resources, researching effects of energy development and other land uses on wildlife species and habitats of concern, and modeling species distributions, population trends, habitat use, and effects of land-use changes. There was

  3. Determination of pesticide aerial drift and associated effects to the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson and Hutton National Wildlife Refuges and potential reintroduction sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The endangered Wyoming toad is confined to Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in southeast Wyoming. Reasons for the decline of the toad are unknown, but it is...

  4. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  5. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, Casper, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary environmental findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW) conducted June 6 through 17, 1988. NPOSR consists of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Wyoming, the Naval Oil Shale Reserves No. 1 and 3 (NOSR-1 and NOSR-3) in Colorado and the Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 2 (NOSR-2) in Utah. NOSR-2 was not included in the Survey because it had not been actively exploited at the time of the on-site Survey. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, lead and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with NPOSR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at NPOSR and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team has developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing specific environmental problems identified at NOSR-3 during the on-site Survey. There were no findings associated with either NPR-3 or NOSR-1 that required Survey-related sampling and Analysis. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Summary report. The Summary Report will reflect the final determinations of the NPOSR-CUW Survey and the other DOE site-specific Surveys. 110 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey science for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative—2015 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Chong, Geneva W.; Dematatis, Marie K.; Miller, Cheryl E.; Garman, Steven L.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Homer, Collin G.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Huber, Christopher C.; Manier, Daniel J.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Miller, Kirk A.; Norkin, Tamar; Sanders, Lindsey E.; Walters, Annika W.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wyckoff, Teal B.

    2016-09-28

    This is the eighth annual report highlighting U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science and decision-support activities conducted for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). The activities address specific management needs identified by WLCI partner agencies. In 2015, USGS scientists continued 24 WLCI projects in 5 categories: (1) acquiring and analyzing resource-condition data to form a foundation for understanding and monitoring landscape conditions and projecting changes; (2) using new technologies to improve the scope and accuracy of landscape-scale monitoring and assessments, and applying them to monitor indicators of ecosystem conditions and the effectiveness of on-the-ground habitat projects; (3) conducting research to elucidate the mechanisms that drive wildlife and habitat responses to changing land uses; (4) managing and making accessible the large number of databases, maps, and other products being developed; and (5) coordinating efforts among WLCI partners, helping them to use USGS-developed decision-support tools, and integrating WLCI outcomes with future habitat enhancement and research projects. Of the 24 projects, 21 were ongoing, including those that entered new phases or more in-depth lines of inquiry, 2 were new, and 1 was completed.A highlight of 2015 was the WLCI science conference sponsored by the USGS, Bureau of Land Management, and National Park Service in coordination with the Wyoming chapter of The Wildlife Society. Of 260 participants, 41 were USGS professionals representing 13 USGS science centers, field offices, and Cooperative Wildlife Research Units. Major themes of USGS presentations included using new technologies for developing more efficient research protocols for modeling and monitoring natural resources, researching effects of energy development and other land uses on wildlife species and habitats of concern, and modeling species distributions, population trends, habitat use, and effects of land-use changes. There was

  7. Unioned layer for the South Carbon coalfield, Wyoming (scfing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of numerous themes associated with the Johnson-107 coal zone in the South Carbon coalfield, Carbon Basin,...

  8. 77 FR 24978 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Washakie County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in..., Wyoming, by non- competitive (direct) sale to the town of Ten Sleep under the provisions of the Federal... County, Wyoming, is proposed for direct sale under the authority of Section 203 of the FLPMA, (43...

  9. 78 FR 20146 - Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... COMMISSION Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project, Sweetwater County, Wyoming... in-situ recovery (ISR) of uranium at the Lost Creek Project in Sweetwater County, Wyoming. ADDRESSES.... Introduction Lost Creek ISR, LLC (LCI) is proposing to install two rotary vacuum dryers in the...

  10. 76 FR 61781 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the Federal List of Endangered and... Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened..., January 4, 1974). We listed a third gray wolf subspecies, the Mexican wolf (C. l. baileyi) as...

  11. 77 FR 55529 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the Federal List of... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the Federal List of..., January 4, 1974). We listed a third gray wolf subspecies, the Mexican wolf (C. l. baileyi) as...

  12. Albuquerque, NM, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Albuquerque, NM (35.0N, 106.5W) is situated on the edge of the Rio Grande River and flood plain which cuts across the image. The reddish brown surface of the Albuquerque Basin is a fault depression filled with ancient alluvial fan and lake bed sediments. On the slopes of the Manzano Mountains to the east of Albuquerque, juniper and other timber of the Cibola National Forest can be seen as contrasting dark tones of vegetation.

  13. Annotated bibliography of selected publications, through 1996, Cheyenne municipal well field areas, Cheyenne, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, K.M.; Jordan, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    Annotated bibliographies for 55 hydrology and geology manuscripts pertaining to the Cheyenne municipal wells fields are listed in this report. For each manuscript, a citation is provided, a summaryparagraph is presented, key words are listed, and a location of the report is given. The report lists manuscripts, conference proceedings, and guidebooks published by the U. S. Geological Survey, State of Wyoming, Geological Society of America, Wyoming State Geological Survey,private consultants, and University of Wyoming.Information on geological formations, structural geology, aquifer characteristics, water levels, well- field production, water-demand projections, and water quality is included in the manuscripts. The Cheyenne Board of Public Utilities, the University of Wyoming, and the U. S. Geological Surveycooperatively produced this annotated bibliography to allow easy access and efficient utilization of existing data. The manuscripts were authored between 1910 and 1996, reflecting work completed over a long period of development in the Cheyenne, Wyoming area. Some manuscripts did not receive broad distribution and indexing, thus they have been difficult to locate in the past. By having the references and summaries within one report, time and effort to gather previous study results will be minimized.

  14. Reliability, sensitivity, and uncertainty of reservoir performance under climate variability in basins with different hydrogeologic settings

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how reservoir performance varied across different hydrogeologic settings and under plausible future climate scenarios. The study was conducted in the Santiam River basin, OR, USA, comparing the North Santiam basin (NSB), with high permeability and extensive groundwater storage, and the South Santiam basin (SSB), with low permeability, little groundwater storage, and rapid runoff response. We applied projections of future temperature and precipitatio...

  15. Multiscale sagebrush rangeland habitat modeling in southwest Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Meyer, Debra K.; Coan, Michael J.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2009-01-01

    Sagebrush-steppe ecosystems in North America have experienced dramatic elimination and degradation since European settlement. As a result, sagebrush-steppe dependent species have experienced drastic range contractions and population declines. Coordinated ecosystem-wide research, integrated with monitoring and management activities, would improve the ability to maintain existing sagebrush habitats. However, current data only identify resource availability locally, with rigorous spatial tools and models that accurately model and map sagebrush habitats over large areas still unavailable. Here we report on an effort to produce a rigorous large-area sagebrush-habitat classification and inventory with statistically validated products and estimates of precision in the State of Wyoming. This research employs a combination of significant new tools, including (1) modeling sagebrush rangeland as a series of independent continuous field components that can be combined and customized by any user at multiple spatial scales; (2) collecting ground-measured plot data on 2.4-meter imagery in the same season the satellite imagery is acquired; (3) effective modeling of ground-measured data on 2.4-meter imagery to maximize subsequent extrapolation; (4) acquiring multiple seasons (spring, summer, and fall) of an additional two spatial scales of imagery (30 meter and 56 meter) for optimal large-area modeling; (5) using regression tree classification technology that optimizes data mining of multiple image dates, ratios, and bands with ancillary data to extrapolate ground training data to coarser resolution sensors; and (6) employing rigorous accuracy assessment of model predictions to enable users to understand the inherent uncertainties. First-phase results modeled eight rangeland components (four primary targets and four secondary targets) as continuous field predictions. The primary targets included percent bare ground, percent herbaceousness, percent shrub, and percent litter. The

  16. Tšarterkool USA-s / Johannes Kiersch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiersch, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    24.-27. mainì 01 toimub Tallinnas EFFE 2001 (European Forum of Freedom in Education) konverents "Haridus tänases kodanikuühiskonnas." Konverentsil esineb ka Witteni Waldorf-pedagoogika Instituudi õppejõud Johannes Kiersch. Lähemalt tema artiklist USA-s populaarsust võitvate tsharterkoolide kohta, mis on riigi- ja erakooli vahevorm

  17. Outplanting Wyoming big sagebrush following wldfire: stock performance and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettweiler-Robinson, Eva; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Evans, James R.; Newsome, Heidi; Davies, G. Matt; Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.; Easterly, Richard T.; Salstrom, Debra; Dunwiddle, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Finding ecologically and economically effective ways to establish matrix species is often critical for restoration success. Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis) historically dominated large areas of western North America, but has been extirpated from many areas by large wildfires; its re-establishment in these areas often requires active management. We evaluated the performance (survival, health) and economic costs of container and bare-root stock based on operational plantings of more than 1.5 million seedlings across 2 200 ha, and compared our plantings with 30 other plantings in which sagebrush survival was tracked for up to 5 yr. Plantings occurred between 2001 and 2007, and included 12 combinations of stock type, planting amendment, and planting year.We monitored 10 500 plants for up to 8 yr after planting. Survival to Year 3 averaged 21% and was higher for container stock (30%) than bare-root stock (17%). Survival did not differ among container stock plantings, whereas survival of bare-root stock was sometimes enhanced by a hydrogel dip before planting, but not by

  18. WEST AND EAST PALISADES ROADLESS AREAS, IDAHO AND WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriel, Steven S.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the West and East Palisades Roadless Areas, which lie within the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt, document structures, reservoir formations, source beds, and thermal maturities comparable to those in producing oil and gas field farther south in the belt. Therefore, the areas are highly favorable for the occurrence of oil and gas. Phosphate beds of appropriate grade within the roadless areas are thinner and less accessible than those being mined from higher thrust sheets to the southwest; however, they contain 98 million tons of inferred phosphate rock resources in areas of substantiated phosphate resource potential. Sparsely distributed thin coal seams occur in the roadless areas. Although moderately pure limestone is present, it is available from other sources closer to markets. Geochemical anomalies from stream-sediment and rock samples for silver, copper, molydenum, and lead occur in the roadless areas but they offer little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. A possible geothermal resource is unproven, despite thermal phenomena at nearby sites.

  19. Spatial mapping and attribution of Wyoming wind turbines, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael S.; Fancher, Tammy S.

    2014-01-01

    These data represent locations of wind turbines found within Wyoming as of August 2012. We assigned each wind turbine to a wind farm and, in these data, provide information about each turbine’s potential megawatt output, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, the status of the land ownership where the turbine exists, the county each turbine is located in, wind farm power capacity, the number of units currently associated with each wind farm, the wind turbine manufacturer and model, the wind farm developer, the owner of the wind farm, the current purchaser of power from the wind farm, the year the wind farm went online, and the status of its operation. Some of the attributes are estimates based on the information we found via the American Wind Energy Association and other on-line reports. The locations are derived from National Agriculture Imagery Program (2009 and 2012) true color aerial photographs and have a positional accuracy of approximately +/-5 meters. These data will provide a planning tool for wildlife- and habitat-related projects underway at the U.S. Geological Survey’s Fort Collins Science Center and other government and non-government organizations. Specifically, we will use these data to support quantifying disturbances of the landscape as related to wind energy as well as to quantify indirect disturbances to flora and fauna. This data set represents an update to a previous version by O’Donnell and Fancher (2010).

  20. BOREAS AFM-2 Wyoming King Air 1994 Aircraft Sounding Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Robert D.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS AFM-2 team used the University of Wyoming King Air aircraft during IFCs 1, 2, and 3 in 1994 to collected pass-by-pass fluxes (and many other statistics) for the large number of level (constant altitude), straight-line passes used in a variety of flight patterns over the SSA and NSA and areas along the transect between these study areas. The data described here form a second set, namely soundings that were incorporated into nearly every research flight by the King Air in 1994. These soundings generally went from near the surface to above the inversion layer. Most were flown immediately after takeoff or immediately after finishing the last flux pattern of that particular day's flights. The parameters that were measured include wind direction, wind speed, west wind component (u), south wind component (v), static pressure, air dry bulb temperature, potential temperature, dewpoint, temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and CO2 concentration. Data on the aircraft's location, attitude, and altitude during data collection are also provided. These data are stored in tabular ASCH files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  1. Application of NURE data to the study of crystalline rocks in the Wyoming uranium province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, S. M.; Anderson, J. R.; Bennett, J. E.

    1983-03-01

    The Wyoming uranium province study is a part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation for the US Department of Energy. The ultimate objective of the entire project is the integration of NURE and other data sources to develop a model for a uranium province centered in Wyoming. This paper presents results of the first phase of the Wyoming uranium province study, which comprises characterization of the crystalline rocks of the study area using NURE hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment data, aerial radiometric and magnetic data, and new data generated for zircons from intrusive rocks in the study area. The results of this study indicate that the stream-sediment, aerial radiometric, aerial magnetic, and zircon data are useful in characterization of the crystalline rocks of the uranium province.

  2. Rancher and farmer quality of life in the midst of energy development in southwest Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Leslie; Montag, Jessica; Lyon, Katie; Soileau, Suzanna; Schuster, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is usually defined as a person’s general well-being, and may include individual perceptions of a variety of factors such family, work, finances, local community services, community relationships, surrounding environment, and other important aspects of their life, ultimately leading to life satisfaction. Energy development can have an effect on QOL components for rural residents. Southwest Wyoming is a rural area with a history of ranching and farming which continues today. This area has also seen a “boom” of increasing wind, solar, oil and gas energy developments over the past decade. Wyoming Department of Agriculture, as part of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), sponsored research to examine the effect of energy development on ranchers’ and farmers’ quality of life.

  3. TTÜ ja TÜ osalevad USA armee miljoniprojektides

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    TTÜ ja TÜ liitusid USA-s tegutseva meditsiinitehnoloogia ettevõtete konsortsiumiga. Nii jõuavad juhtivate Eesti kõrgkoolide teadmised USA armeesse, kes konsortsiumi kaudu innovaatilisi tooteid ja teenuseid sisse ostab

  4. Euroopa teadis USA salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    USA endise välisministri Colin Powelli sõnul pole see tema sõpradele Euroopas uudiseks, et USA on viinud vange riikidesse, kus tema seadused ei kehti. USA praeguse välisministri Condoleezza Rice'i sõnul on USA vange üle kuulanud väljaspool USA-d. USA Today kirjeldab Stare Kiejkuty küla Poolas, kus arvatavasti on olnud salavangla

  5. Contribution of Uranium-Bearing Evaporites to Plume Persistence Issues at a Former Uranium Mill Site Riverton, Wyoming, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Raymond [Navarro Research and Engineering; Dam, William [U.S. Department of Energy, Legacy Management; Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering; Campbell, James [U.S. Geological Survey; Morris, Sarah [Navarro Research and Engineering; Tigar, Aaron [Navarrao Research and Engineering

    2016-08-01

    • Evaporites occur in an unsaturated silt layer, which is underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer. • These evaporites are rich in chloride across the site. • Uranium concentrations are higher in the evaporites that overlie the uranium contaminant plume. • Flooding can solubilize the evaporites in the silt layer and release chloride, sulfate (not shown), and uranium into the underlyingsand and gravel aquifer. • The uranium-rich evaporites can delay natural flushing, creating plume persistence near the Little Wind River.

  6. Development of the archean crust in the medina mountain area, wind river range, wyoming (U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesterer, M.E.; Frost, C.D.; Frost, B.R.; Hulsebosch, T.P.; Bridgwater, D.; Worl, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for an extensive Archean crustal history in the Wind River Range is preserved in the Medina Mountain area in the west-central part of the range. The oldest rocks in the area are metasedimentary, mafic, and ultramafic blocks in a migmatite host. The supracrustal rocks of the Medina Mountain area (MMS) are folded into the migmatites, and include semi-pelitic and pelitic gneisses, and mafic rocks of probable volcanic origin. Mafic dikes intrude the older migmatites but not the MMS, suggesting that the MMS are distinctly younger than the supracrustal rocks in the migmatites. The migmatites and the MMS were engulfed by the late Archean granite of the Bridger, Louis Lake, and Bears Ears batholiths, which constitutes the dominant rock of the Wind River Range. Isotopic data available for the area include Nd crustal residence ages from the MMS which indicate that continental crust existed in the area at or before 3.4 Ga, but the age of the older supracrustal sequence is not yet known. The upper age of the MMS is limited by a 2.7 Ga RbSr age of the Bridger batholith, which was emplaced during the waning stages of the last regional metamorphism. The post-tectonic Louis Lake and Bears Ears batholiths have ages of 2.6 and 2.5 Ga, respectively (Stuckless et al., 1985). At least three metamorphic events are recorded in the area: (1) an early regional granulite event (M1) that affected only the older inclusions within the migmatites, (2) a second regional amphibolite event (M2) that locally reached granulite facies conditions, and (3) a restricted, contact granulite facies event (M3) caused by the intrusion of charnockitic melts associated with the late Archean plutons. Results from cation exchange geobarometers and geothermometers yield unreasonablu low pressures and temperatures, suggesting resetting during the long late Archean thermal evenn. ?? 1987.

  7. Paleolimnological records of nitrogen deposition in shallow, high-elevation lakes of Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Sarah A.; Otu, Megan K.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Baron, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) from anthropogenic sources has been altering ecosystem function in lakes of the Rocky Mountains, other regions of western North America, and the Arctic over recent decades. The response of biota in shallow lakes to atmospheric deposition of Nr, however, has not been considered. Benthic algae are dominant in shallow, high-elevation lakes and are less sensitive to nutrient inputs than planktonic algae. Because the benthos is typically more nutrient rich than the water column, shallow lakes are not expected to show evidence of anthropogenic Nr. In this study, we assessed sedimentary evidence for regional Nr deposition, sediment chronology, and the nature of algal community response in five shallow, high-elevation lakes in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE). Over 140 diatom taxa were identified from the sediments, with a relatively high species richness of taxa characteristic of oligotrophic conditions. The diatom assemblages were dominated by benthic taxa, especially motile taxa. The GRTE lakes demonstrate assemblage-wide shifts in diatoms, including 1) synchronous and significant assemblage changes centered on ~1960 AD; 2) pre-1960 assemblages differed significantly from post-1960 assemblages; 3) pre-1960 diatom assemblages fluctuated randomly, whereas post- 1960 assemblages showed directional change; 4) changes in δ15N signatures were correlated with diatom community composition. These results demonstrate recent changes in shallow high18 elevation lakes that are most correlated with anthropogenic Nr. It is also possible, however, that the combined effect of Nr deposition and warming is accelerating species shifts in benthic diatoms. While uncertainties remain about the potential synergy of Nr deposition and warming, this study adds shallow lakes to the growing list of impacted high-elevation localities in western North America.

  8. Immobilization of Wyoming bears using carfentanil and xylazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreeger, Terry J; Bjornlie, Dan; Thompson, Dan; Clapp, Justin; Clark, Colby; Hansen, Cole; Huizenga, Matt; Lockwood, Sam

    2013-07-01

    Seven grizzly (Ursus arctos; four male, three female) and three black (Ursus americanus; two male, one female) bears caught in culvert traps or leg snares were immobilized in northwestern Wyoming with carfentanil and xylazine at doses, respectively, of 0.011 ± 0.001 and 0.12 ± 0.01 mg/kg for grizzly bears and 0.014 ± 0.002 and 0.15 ± 0.04 mg/kg for black bears. These drugs were antagonized with 1 mg/kg naltrexone and 2 mg/kg tolazoline. Induction and recovery times, respectively, were 4.3 ± 0.5 and 7.1 ± 0.8 min for grizzly bears and 5.2 ± 0.4 and 9.1 ± 2.2 min for black bears. Inductions were smooth and uneventful. Recoveries were characterized initially by increased respiration followed by raising of the head, which quickly led to a full recovery, with the bears recognizing and avoiding humans and moving away, maneuvering around obstacles. All bears experienced respiratory depression, which did not significantly improve with supplemental oxygen on the basis of pulse oximetry (P=0.56). Rectal temperatures were normothermic. Carfentanil-xylazine immobilization of bears provided significant advantages over other drug regimens, including small drug volumes, predictable inductions, quick and complete recoveries, and lower costs. On the basis of these data, both grizzly and black bears can be immobilized effectively with 0.01 mg/kg carfentanil and 0.1 mg/kg xylazine.

  9. Data from selected Almond Formation outcrops -- Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, S.R.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.

    1993-12-01

    The objectives of this research program are to: (1) determine the reservoir characteristics and production problems of shoreline barrier reservoirs; and (2) develop methods and methodologies to effectively characterize shoreline barrier reservoirs to predict flow patterns of injected and produced fluids. Two reservoirs were selected for detailed reservoir characterization studies -- Bell Creek field, Carter County, Montana, that produces from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Muddy Formation, and Patrick Draw field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming that produces from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Almond Formation of the Mesaverde Group. An important component of the research project was to use information from outcrop exposures of the producing formations to study the spatial variations of reservoir properties and the degree to which outcrop information can be used in the construction of reservoir models. A report similar to this one presents the Muddy Formation outcrop data and analyses performed in the course of this study (Rawn-Schatzinger, 1993). Two outcrop localities, RG and RH, previously described by Roehler (1988) provided good exposures of the Upper Almond shoreline barrier facies and were studied during 1990--1991. Core from core well No. 2 drilled approximately 0.3 miles downdip of outcrop RG was obtained for study. The results of the core study will be reported in a separate volume. Outcrops RH and RG, located about 2 miles apart were selected for detailed description and drilling of core plugs. One 257-ft-thick section was measured at outcrop RG, and three sections {approximately}145 ft thick located 490 and 655 feet apart were measured at the outcrop RH. Cross-sections of these described profiles were constructed to determine lateral facies continuity and changes. This report contains the data and analyses from the studied outcrops.

  10. Large scale Wyoming transportation data: a resource planning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael S.; Fancher, Tammy S.; Freeman, Aaron T.; Ziegler, Abra E.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Fort Collins Science Center created statewide roads data for the Bureau of Land Management Wyoming State Office using 2009 aerial photography from the National Agriculture Imagery Program. The updated roads data resolves known concerns of omission, commission, and inconsistent representation of map scale, attribution, and ground reference dates which were present in the original source data. To ensure a systematic and repeatable approach of capturing roads on the landscape using on-screen digitizing from true color National Agriculture Imagery Program imagery, we developed a photogrammetry key and quality assurance/quality control protocols. Therefore, the updated statewide roads data will support the Bureau of Land Management’s resource management requirements with a standardized map product representing 2009 ground conditions. The updated Geographic Information System roads data set product, represented at 1:4,000 and +/- 10 meters spatial accuracy, contains 425,275 kilometers within eight attribute classes. The quality control of these products indicated a 97.7 percent accuracy of aspatial information and 98.0 percent accuracy of spatial locations. Approximately 48 percent of the updated roads data was corrected for spatial errors of greater than 1 meter relative to the pre-existing road data. Twenty-six percent of the updated roads involved correcting spatial errors of greater than 5 meters and 17 percent of the updated roads involved correcting spatial errors of greater than 9 meters. The Bureau of Land Management, other land managers, and researchers can use these new statewide roads data set products to support important studies and management decisions regarding land use changes, transportation and planning needs, transportation safety, wildlife applications, and other studies.

  11. Pepeljajev eesti näitlejatega USA-s

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Sasha Pepeljajevi tantsulavastust "Uksed" etendati USA rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil "Arts & Ideas". Vene-Eesti trupi Apparatus lavastus on pühendatud Daniil Harmsi 100. sünniaastapäevale ning põhineb tema töödel

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Science for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative-2010 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edit Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Biewick, Laura R.H.; Blecker, Steven W.; Boughton, Gregory K.; Bristol, R. Sky; Carr, Natasha B.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Chong, Geneva W.; Clark, Melanie L.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fedy, Bradley C.; Foster, Katharine; Garman, Steven L.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Holloway, JoAnn; Homer, Collin G.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Keinath, Douglas; Latysh, Natalie; Manier, Daniel J.; McDougal, Robert R.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Miller, Kirk A.; Montag, Jessica; Potter, Christopher J.; Schell, Spencer; Shafer, Sarah L.; Smith, David B.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2011-01-01

    This is the third report produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) to detail annual work activities. The first report described activities for 2007 and 2008, and the second report covered work activities for FY09. This third report covers work activities conducted in FY2010, and it continues the 2009 approach of reporting on all the individual activities to help give WLCI partners and other readers the full scope of what has been accomplished. New in this year's report is an additional section for each work activity that outlines the work planned for the following fiscal year. In FY2010, there were 35 ongoing/expanded, completed, or new projects conducted under the five major multi-disciplinary science and technical-assistance activities: (1) Baseline Synthesis; (2) Targeted Monitoring and Research; (3) Data and Information Management; (4) Integration and Coordination; and (5) Decisionmaking and Evaluation. The three new work activities were to (1) compile existing water data for the entire WLCI region and (2) develop regional curves (statistical models) for relating bankfull-channel geometry and discharge to drainages in the WLCI region, both of which will help guide long-term monitoring of water resources; and (3) initiate a groundwater-monitoring network to evaluate potential effects of energy-development activities on groundwater quality where groundwater is an important source of public/private water supplies. Results of the FY2009 work to develop methods for assessing soil organic matter and mercury indicated that selenium and arsenic levels may be elevated in the Muddy Creek Basin; thus, the focus of that activity was shifted in FY2010 to evaluate biogeochemical cycling of elements in the basin. In FY2010, two ongoing activities were expanded with the addition of more sampling plots: (a) the study of how greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) use vegetation-treatment areas (sites added to

  13. 77 FR 43612 - Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW172987, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW172987, Wyoming... from Tyler Rockies Exploration, LTD, for competitive oil and gas lease WYW172987 for land in Natrona... due since the date the lease terminated under the law. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of...

  14. 77 FR 49017 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW173223, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW173223... reinstatement from WYNR, LLC, for competitive oil and gas lease WYW173223 for land in Washakie County, Wyoming. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied by all the rentals due since the date the...

  15. 77 FR 49018 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW164514, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW164514... reinstatement from WYNR, LLC, for competitive oil and gas lease WYW164514 for land in Big Horn County, Wyoming. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied by all the rentals due since the date the...

  16. 77 FR 49018 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW173254, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW173254... reinstatement from WYNR, LLC, for competitive oil and gas lease WYW173254 for land in Park County, Wyoming. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied by all the rentals due since the date the lease...

  17. 77 FR 49018 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW164510, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW164510... reinstatement from WYNR, LLC, for competitive oil and gas lease WYW164510 for land in Big Horn County, Wyoming. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied by all the rentals due since the date the...

  18. 77 FR 49019 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW164508, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW164508... reinstatement from WYNR, LLC, for competitive oil and gas lease WYW164508 for land in Big Horn County, Wyoming. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied by all the rentals due since the date the...

  19. 77 FR 43611 - Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW174754, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW174754, Wyoming... from Hot Springs Resources, Ltd., for competitive oil and gas lease WYW174754 for land in Natrona... the lease terminated under the law. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management,...

  20. 77 FR 49020 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW173225, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW173225... reinstatement from WYNR, LLC, for competitive oil and gas lease WYW173225 for land in Washakie County, Wyoming. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied by all the rentals due since the date the...

  1. 77 FR 49020 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW164747, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW164747... reinstatement from WYNR, LLC, for competitive oil and gas lease WYW164747 for land in Washakie County, Wyoming. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied by all the rentals due since the date the...

  2. 75 FR 35082 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease, WYW175014, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease, WYW175014... reinstatement from Trident Oil & Gas LLC for competitive oil and gas lease WYW175014 for land in Niobrara County, Wyoming. The petition was timely filed and was accompanied by all the rentals due since the date the...

  3. 77 FR 49017 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW173224, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW173224... reinstatement from WYNR, LLC, for competitive oil and gas lease WYW173224 for land in Washakie County, Wyoming. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied by all the rentals due since the date the...

  4. 75 FR 57496 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease, Wyoming... from EOG Resources, Inc. for competitive oil and gas lease WYW174006 for land in Converse County... lease terminated under the law. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management, Julie...

  5. 77 FR 43611 - Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW154148, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW154148, Wyoming... from Marshall & Winston, Inc., for competitive oil and gas lease WYW154148 for land in Carbon County... lease terminated under the law. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management, Julie...

  6. 77 FR 48528 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW164513, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW164513... reinstatement from WYNR, LLC, for competitive oil and gas lease WYW164513 for land in Big Horn County, Wyoming. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied by all the rentals due since the date the...

  7. 77 FR 49019 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW164511, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW164511... reinstatement from WYNR, LLC, for competitive oil and gas lease WYW164511 for land in Big Horn County, Wyoming. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied by all the rentals due since the date the...

  8. Learning from Distance Faculty: A Faculty Needs Assessment at the University of Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenild, Cassandra; Bowles-Terry, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Distance educators have special library needs. This article discusses the results of a library needs assessment of distance instructors at the University of Wyoming. Access to resources, use of library instructional services, barriers to distance library use, and perceived gaps in service are all addressed. Follow-up actions, based on survey…

  9. 78 FR 21565 - Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, Wyoming to Wilmington, DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... TV, LLC (``PMCM''), the licensee of KJWY(TV), channel 2, Jackson, Wyoming, that it agrees to the... CONTACT: Adrienne Y. Denysyk, adrienne.denysyk@fcc.gov , Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600. SUPPLEMENTARY.... Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. Final...

  10. Growing spearmint, thyme, oregano, and rosemary in Northern Wyoming using plastic tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing perennial herbs in northern climate such as Northern Wyoming is a challenge. Due to short frost-free period, high wind, and inclement weather it is impossible to harvest any herbs twice a year (summer and late fall) without using any form of season extension methods. Hence, we set up an expe...

  11. Assessment of Vaccine Exemptions among Wyoming School Children, 2009 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pride, Kerry R.; Geissler, Aimee L.; Kolasa, Maureen S.; Robinson, Byron; Van Houten, Clay; McClinton, Reginald; Bryan, Katie; Murphy, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    During 2010-2011, varicella vaccination was an added requirement for school entrance in Wyoming. Vaccination exemption rates were compared during the 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 school years, and impacts of implementing a new childhood vaccine requirement were evaluated. All public schools, grades K-12, were required to report vaccination status of…

  12. Malthematical Preparation versus Career Aspirations: A Study of Wyoming's 1978 High School Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Bob; Olson, Melfried

    This report provides a general description of the mathematical programs pursued by students in Wyoming's public schools, an evaluation of the adequacy of the high school mathematical preparation of college-bound students relative to the occupational aspirations of those students, and a measure of the extent to which students are aware of the…

  13. Teacher Evaluation Tools: An Examination of Wyoming Evaluation Models as a Predictor of Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between teacher quality, student characteristics, teacher attributes, and student growth in reading. The legislation requirements enacted with NCLB (2002), WAEA (2013), and Chapter 29 (Wyoming Department of Education, 2010) necessitated that student achievement be a primary consideration…

  14. 78 FR 13315 - Bridger-Teton National Forest; Wyoming; Teton to Snake Fuels Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Forest Service Bridger-Teton National Forest; Wyoming; Teton to Snake Fuels Management Project AGENCY... the Teton to Snake Fuels Management Project. The analysis will evaluate and disclose the effects of... Snake Fuels Management Project was previously scoped and anyalyzed through an environmental...

  15. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  16. Instructional Design of Entrepreneurship Courses: Interview Research of Wyoming BRAVO! Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Belinda J.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the opportunity recognition process of Wyoming BRAVO! Entrepreneur (WBE) Award winners or nominees, in order to better inform the learner analysis and organizational strategy components of instructional design, specifically with respect to entrepreneurship courses. This study may be of significance to post…

  17. 78 FR 40654 - Approval, Disapproval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Wyoming; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... partially approving and partially disapproving Wyoming's 40 CFR 51.309(g) regional haze SIP. 78 FR 34738. In.... at both locations. The comment period for the proposed rule published June 10, 2013 at 78 FR 34738 is...; Regional Haze State Implementation Plan; Federal Implementation Plan for Regional Haze; Notice of...

  18. Viral Surveillance during the 2006 Vesicular Stomatitis Outbreak in Natrona County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006, we collected 12203 biting flies from a vesicular stomatitis outbreak in Natrona County, Wyoming. Flies were identified to the species level and viruses were isolated and identified by RT-PCR. We detected vesicular stomatitis virus-New Jersey serotype in two pools of Simulium bivittatum, W...

  19. 76 FR 65209 - Notice of Meetings of the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Meetings of the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming AGENCY... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Pinedale Anticline Working Group (PAWG) will hold a series of... Advisory Committee Act (FACA) chartered group which develops recommendations and provides advice to the...

  20. 76 FR 22723 - Notice of Meetings of the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Meetings of the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming AGENCY... of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) announces that the Pinedale Anticline Working Group... September 12, 2008. The PAWG is a FACA-chartered group which develops recommendations and provides advice...

  1. 75 FR 21035 - Notice of Rescheduled Meetings of the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Rescheduled Meetings of the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming...), the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Pinedale Anticline Working...

  2. A Study of Informal Learning among University of Wyoming Extension Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrabut, Stanley A.

    2013-01-01

    University of Wyoming Extension educators are often hired because of their subject matter expertise; yet, they must still develop education skills as well as learn to use various and ever-changing technologies. This research was conducted to understand what impact guided instruction on informal learning concepts and methods had on UW Extension…

  3. 76 FR 68782 - Call for Nominations for the Wyoming Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 215 (Monday, November 7, 2011)] [Notices] [Pages 68782-68783] [FR Doc No: 2011-28708] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLWY910000 L16100000.XX0000] Call for Nominations for the Wyoming Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land...

  4. 77 FR 41201 - Call for Nominations for the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Nominations are being solicited for...

  5. 77 FR 61019 - Call for Nominations for the Wyoming Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for the Wyoming Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to...

  6. 78 FR 63491 - Call for Nominations for the Wyoming Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for the Wyoming Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to...

  7. 76 FR 65534 - Call for Nominations for the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Nominations are being solicited for...

  8. 77 FR 2315 - Call for Nominations for the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Nominations are being solicited for...

  9. Peopling the High Plains: Wyoming's European Heritage. Curriculum Ideas and Guides for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Arnold L.

    The teacher's guide contains 25 K-12 lessons which illustrate the activities of all ethnic groups in Wyoming. The Basque, British, Eastern European, German-speaking, Greek, and Italian immigrants are highlighted. Titles include "Costumes by Flannelboard,""National Basque Week,""Dolls From Our Heritage,""Cook-In/Dance-In Ethnic…

  10. DNA FROM ANCIENT STONE TOOLS AND BONES EXCAVATED AT BUGAS-HOLDING, WYOMING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traces of DNA may preserve on ancient stone tools. We examined 24 chipped stone artifacts recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming for the presence of DNA residues, and we compared DNA preservation in bones and stone tools from the same stratigraphic context...

  11. Library of the Year 2008: Laramie County Library System, Wyoming--The Impact Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2008-01-01

    This article features Laramie County Library System (LCLS) of Cheyenne, Wyoming, which is named as Gale/"Library Journal" 2008 Library of the Year. It is not just strong, effective publicity or the fine new building or even a staff built around its ability to connect with the people, although all of those things add to the impact of…

  12. The Spirit Is Willing, but the Flesh Is Weak: Criterion-Referenced Testing in Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan D.; Cross, Tracy L.

    The perceived needs of public school personnel in Wyoming with respect to the development and use of criterion-referenced tests (CRTs) as part of a district-wide testing program were assessed using a survey designed for the study. Questionnaires were sent to all superintendents, assistant superintendents, and curriculum directors in the state. Of…

  13. Dengue in Florida (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. Rey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Florida (USA, particularly the southern portion of the State, is in a precarious situation concerning arboviral diseases. The geographic location, climate, lifestyle, and the volume of travel and commerce are all conducive to arbovirus transmission. During the last decades, imported dengue cases have been regularly recorded in Florida, and the recent re-emergence of dengue as a major public health concern in the Americas has been accompanied by a steady increase in the number of imported cases. In 2009, there were 28 cases of locally transmitted dengue in Key West, and in 2010, 65 cases were reported. Local transmission was also reported in Martin County in 2013 (29 cases, and isolated locally transmitted cases were also reported from other counties in the last five years. Dengue control and prevention in the future will require close cooperation between mosquito control and public health agencies, citizens, community and government agencies, and medical professionals to reduce populations of the vectors and to condition citizens and visitors to take personal protection measures that minimize bites by infected mosquitoes.

  14. USA pelgab Hiina tehnoloogialuuret / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Hiina Ameerika-vastasest majandusluurest. USA luureameti andmetel on USA-s loodud üle kolme tuhande Hiina firma, kelle ülesandeks on tööstusliku või sõjalise tehnoloogia hankimine. Vt. samas: Hiina firmad ostavad üha suuremaid USA ettevõtteid

  15. Land and natural resource information and some potential environmental effects of surface mining of coal in the Gillette area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, William Richard; Hadley, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Campbell County, along the east margin of the Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming, contains more coal than any other county in the United States. The principal deposit is the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed. The bed is 50-100 feet (15-30 meters) thick over large areas, lies less than 200 feet (60 meters) deep in a north-south trending strip nearly 100 miles (161 kilometers) long and 2-3 miles (3-5 kilometers) wide, and contains an estimated 15 billion tons (13.6 billion metric tons) of sub-bituminous, low-sulfur coal that is presently considered to be accessible to surface mining. Extensive mining of this deposit has the potential for causing a variety of environmental impacts and has been a matter of much public concern and debate in recent years. An integrated program of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and related studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in central Campbell County provides basic information about the land and its resources, including (1) characteristics of the landscape, (2) properties of rocks and surface materials, (3) depth and thickness of coal, (4) streamflow, (5) depth to ground water, (6) quality of ground water, (7) sediment yield, (8) concentrations of trace elements in soils, rocks, coal, vegetation, and water, and (9) current land use. The data are used to analyze and predict some of the potential environmental effects of surface mining, such as the extent of land disturbance, nature and degree of landscape modification, and disruption of surface-water and ground-water systems. Advance knowledge and understanding of these and other problems are useful in the planning and regulation of future leasing, mining, reclamation, and related activities.

  16. Multiscale heterogeneity characterization of tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies, Almond Formation outcrops, Rock Springs uplift, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzinger, R.A.; Tomutsa, L. [BDM Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In order to accurately predict fluid flow within a reservoir, variability in the rock properties at all scales relevant to the specific depositional environment needs to be taken into account. The present work describes rock variability at scales from hundreds of meters (facies level) to millimeters (laminae) based on outcrop studies of the Almond Formation. Tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies were sampled on the eastern flank of the Rock Springs uplift, southeast of Rock Springs, Wyoming. The Almond Fm. was deposited as part of a mesotidal Upper Cretaceous transgressive systems tract within the greater Green River Basin. Bedding style, lithology, lateral extent of beds of bedsets, bed thickness, amount and distribution of depositional clay matrix, bioturbation and grain sorting provide controls on sandstone properties that may vary more than an order of magnitude within and between depositional facies in outcrops of the Almond Formation. These features can be mapped on the scale of an outcrop. The products of diagenesis such as the relative timing of carbonate cement, scale of cemented zones, continuity of cemented zones, selectively leached framework grains, lateral variability of compaction of sedimentary rock fragments, and the resultant pore structure play an equally important, although less predictable role in determining rock property heterogeneity. A knowledge of the spatial distribution of the products of diagenesis such as calcite cement or compaction is critical to modeling variation even within a single facies in the Almond Fin. because diagenesis can enhance or reduce primary (depositional) rock property heterogeneity. Application of outcrop heterogeneity models to the subsurface is greatly hindered by differences in diagenesis between the two settings. The measurements upon which this study is based were performed both on drilled outcrop plugs and on blocks.

  17. Investigation of migratory bird mortality associated with exposure to Soda Ash Mine tailings water in southwestern Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Soda ash is a pulverized mineral, commonly referred to as “trona