WorldWideScience

Sample records for basin water quality

  1. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kimberlee K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Creswell, John

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes major findings about nutrients in surface and groundwater in the eastern Iowa basins (see map) between 1996 and 1998. The data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). Water quality is discussed in terms of local and regional issues and compared with conditions found in all 36 National NAWQA study areas assessed to date. Findings are explained in the context of selected national U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) benchmarks, such as those for drinking water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms.

  2. Robustness of river basin water quality models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blois, Chris; Wind, H.G.; de Kok, Jean-Luc; Koppeschaar, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the concept of robustness is introduced and applied to a model for the analysis of the impacts of spatially distributed policy measures on the surface water quality on a river basin scale. In this model the influence of precipitation on emissions and resuspension of pollutants in the

  3. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Flanagan, Sarah M.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, a 391-square-kilometer (km2) watershed near Kabul, Afghanistan, was assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Geological Survey to provide an understanding of the water resources in an area of Afghanistan with considerable copper and other mineral resources. Water quality, chemical, and isotopic samples were collected at eight wells, four springs, one kareze, and the Chakari River in a basin-fill aquifer in the Chakari Basin by the Afghanistan Geological Survey. Results of water-quality analyses indicate that some water samples in the basin had concentrations of chemical constituents that exceeded World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate, sodium, and dissolved solids and some of the samples also had elevated concentrations of trace elements, such as copper, selenium, strontium, uranium, and zinc. Chemical and isotopic analyses, including for tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, and carbon-14, indicate that most wells contain water with a mixture of ages from young (years to decades) to old (several thousand years). Three wells contained groundwater that had modeled ages ranging from 7,200 to 7,900 years old. Recharge from precipitation directly on the basin-fill aquifer, which covers an area of about 150 km2, is likely to be very low (7 × 10-5 meters per day) or near zero. Most recharge to this aquifer is likely from rain and snowmelt on upland areas and seepage losses and infiltration of water from streams crossing the basin-fill aquifer. It is likely that the older water in the basin-fill aquifer is groundwater that has travelled along long and (or) slow flow paths through the fractured bedrock mountains surrounding the basin. The saturated basin-fill sediments in most areas of the basin are probably about 20 meters thick and may be about 30 to 60 meters thick in most areas near the center of the Chakari Basin. The combination of low recharge and little storage indicates that groundwater

  4. Spatio-temporal evaluation of Yamchi Dam basin water quality using Canadian water quality index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Djahed, Babak; Shahsavani, Esmaeel; Poureshg, Yousef

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the growth of population and increase of the industries around the tributaries of Yamchi Dam basin have led to deterioration of dam water quality. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the Yamchi Dam basin water, which is used for drinking and irrigation consumptions using Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI) model, and to determine the main water pollution sources of this basin. Initially, nine sampling stations were selected in the sensitive locations of the mentioned basin's tributaries, and 12 physico-chemical parameters and 2 biological parameters were measured. The CWQI for drinking consumptions was under 40 at all the stations indicating a poor water quality for drinking consumptions. On the other hand, the CWQI was 62-100 for irrigation at different stations; thus, the water had an excellent to fair quality for irrigation consumptions. Almost in all the stations, the quality of irrigation and drinking water in cold season was better. Besides, for drinking use, total coliform and fecal coliform had the highest frequency of failure, and total coliform had the maximum deviation from the specified objective. For irrigation use, total suspended solids had the highest frequency of failure and deviation from the objective in most of the stations. The pisciculture center, aquaculture center, and the Nir City wastewater discharge were determined as the main pollution sources of the Yamchi Dam basin. Therefore, to improve the water quality in this important surface water resource, urban and industrial wastewater treatment prior to disposal and more stringent environmental legislations are recommended.

  5. Assessing river water quality using water quality index in Lake Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoshi; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Yuwei; Cai, Yongjiu; Deng, Jiancai

    2018-01-15

    Lake Taihu Basin, one of the most developed regions in China, has received considerable attention due to its severe pollution. Our study provides a clear understanding of the water quality in the rivers of Lake Taihu Basin based on basin-scale monitoring and a water quality index (WQI) method. From September 2014 to January 2016, four samplings across four seasons were conducted at 96 sites along main rivers. Fifteen parameters, including water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, turbidity (tur), permanganate index (COD Mn ), total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonium (NH 4 -N), nitrite, nitrate (NO 3 -N), calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, were measured to calculate the WQI. The average WQI value during our study period was 59.33; consequently, the water quality was considered as generally "moderate". Significant differences in WQI values were detected among the 6 river systems, with better water quality in the Tiaoxi and Nanhe systems. The water quality presented distinct seasonal variation, with the highest WQI values in autumn, followed by spring and summer, and the lowest values in winter. The minimum WQI (WQI min ), which was developed based on a stepwise linear regression analysis, consisted of five parameters: NH 4 -N, COD Mn , NO 3 -N, DO, and tur. The model exhibited excellent performance in representing the water quality in Lake Taihu Basin, especially when weights were fully considered. Our results are beneficial for water quality management and could be used for rapid and low-cost water quality evaluation in Lake Taihu Basin. Additionally, we suggest that weights of environmental parameters should be fully considered in water quality assessments when using the WQI min method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Water quality in Una River Basin – Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Silva Tavares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the lower portion of Una River Basin, Pernambuco, by means of analysis of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The monitoring was conducted among October 2013 and March 2014. Sampling locations were in the cities of Catende, Palmares and Água Preta, selecting three collection points in each district. Parameters analyzed: temperature, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, turbidity, potassium, pH, total phosphorus, thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia Coli. The results showed the water quality in the Basin Una River is outside of CONAMA standars Resolution 357/2005 for fresh water Class II parameters: dissolved oxygen, pH, phosphorus, thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia Coli. Potassium concentration shows the discharge of effluents from the processing of sugar cane in the hydrous body did not affect the quality of the water. The main contamination source of water was the release of domestic sewage.

  7. Upper Hiwassee River Basin reservoirs 1989 water quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehring, J.P.

    1991-08-01

    The water in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin is slightly acidic and low in conductivity. The four major reservoirs in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin (Apalachia, Hiwassee, Chatuge, and Nottely) are not threatened by acidity, although Nottely Reservoir has more sulfates than the other reservoirs. Nottely also has the highest organic and nutrient concentrations of the four reservoirs. This results in Nottely having the poorest water clarity and the most algal productivity, although clarity as measured by color and secchi depths does not indicate any problem with most water use. However, chlorophyll concentrations indicate taste and odor problems would be likely if the upstream end of Nottely Reservoir were used for domestic water supply. Hiwassee Reservoir is clearer and has less organic and nutrient loading than either of the two upstream reservoirs. All four reservoirs have sufficient algal activity to produce supersaturated dissolved oxygen conditions and relatively high pH values at the surface. All four reservoirs are thermally stratified during the summer, and all but Apalachia have bottom waters depleted in oxygen. The very short residence time of Apalachia Reservoir, less than ten days as compared to over 100 days for the other three reservoirs, results in it being more riverine than the other three reservoirs. Hiwassee Reservoir actually develops three distinct water temperature strata due to the location of the turbine intake. The water quality of all of the reservoirs supports designated uses, but water quality complaints are being received regarding both Chatuge and Nottely Reservoirs and their tailwaters

  8. Driver detection of water quality trends across Mediterranean river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantini, Elena; Lutz, Stefanie; Mallucci, Stefano; Majone, Bruno; Merz, Ralf; Bellin, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    In this study, thirteen physicochemical surficial water variables and four drivers (i.e. monthly aggregated air temperature and streamflow, population density and percentage of agricultural land use) were analysed in three large Mediterranean river basins (i.e. Adige, Ebro, Sava). In particular, the purpose of the analysis is to identify how indicators of water quality and drivers of change coevolve in three large river basins representing the diversity of climatic, soil and water uses conditions observed in southern Europe. Spearman rank correlation, principal component analysis, Mann-Kendall trend test and Sen's Slope estimator were performed in order to (i) analyse long-term time series of water quality data during the period 1990-2015, (ii) detect links between variables patterns and drivers and (iii) compare the river basins under investigation with respect to their vulnerability and resilience to the identified drivers of change. Results show that air temperature, considered as a proxy of climate change, has a significant impact in all basins but in particular in the Adige and Ebro: positive trends of water temperature and negative for dissolved oxygen are found to be correlated with upward trends of air temperatures. The aquatic ecosystems of these rivers are therefore experiencing a reduction in oxygen, which may further worsen in the future given the projected increase of temperature for this century. At the same time, monthly streamflow has been shown to reduce in the Ebro River, thereby decreasing the beneficial effect of dilution, as appears evident from the observed upward patterns of chloride concentration and electrical conductivity. Upward trends of chloride and biological oxygen demand in the Adige and Sava and positive trends of phosphate in the Adige are related to the increase of population and finally phosphates in the Sava and biological oxygen demand in the Ebro are highly correlated with agricultural land use. The study showed the complex

  9. Water Quality of Lake Tana Basin, Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goshu, G.; Koelmans, A.A.; Klein, de J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Water is at the forefront of the economic agenda of Ethiopian government and Tana basin has been identified as a major economic corridor because of the basin’s immense water resource potential for socioeconomic development. For effective and sustainable utilization of water resources in the basin,

  10. Comparison of 2002 Water Year and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Population growth and changes in land-use practices have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local sponsors, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, and Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations, stations that are considered as long term and stations that are rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions have changed over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short term concerns. Another group of stations (rotational group 2) will be chosen and sampled beginning in water year 2004. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality sampling in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water year 2002. The introduction provides a map of the sampling locations, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water year 2002 are compared to historical data (data collected for this network since 1995), state water-quality standards, and federal water-quality guidelines

  11. Water quality of fresh water bodies in the lower Volta Basin: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out on water from lakes Kasu and Nyafie, two of the fresh water bodies situated near Asutsuare, an agricultural town in the lower Volta basin of Ghana to determine the level of water quality parameters. To be able to this, water samples were taken from designated points in both lakes. Sampling was ...

  12. Determining the Spatial Trend of Water Quality Indices across Kan and Karaj River Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Alizadeh

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The spatial trend analysis of water quality parameters along the rivers plays a crucial role for identifying the spatial variation of water quality. Also, availability of clean water depends on the geographical locations and topological situation across the basin.

  13. Climate change and water quality in the Great Lakes Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    The Great Lakes Basin is subjected to several stresses, such as land use changes, chemical contamination, nutrient over-enrichment, alien invasive species, and acid precipitation. Climate change is now added to this list. The Water Quality Board was asked to provide advice concerning the impacts of climate change on the water quality of the Great Lakes and on how to address the issue. A White Paper was commissioned by the Board to address four key questions: (1) what are the Great Lakes water quality issues associated with climate change, (2) what are potential impacts of climate change on beneficial uses, (3) how might impacts vary across the Great Lakes region, and (4) what are the implications for decision making. The conclusions and findings of the White Paper were then discussed at a workshop held in May 2003. Part 1 of the document provides an executive summary. The advice of the Water Quality Board was based on the findings of the White Paper and presented in Part 2. Part 3 presented the White Paper, while a summary of the workshop was provided in Part 4. A presentation on cross border tools and strategies was also presented by a workshop participant.

  14. Optimizing basin-scale coupled water quantity and water quality management with stochastic dynamic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    Few studies address water quality in hydro-economic models, which often focus primarily on optimal allocation of water quantities. Water quality and water quantity are closely coupled, and optimal management with focus solely on either quantity or quality may cause large costs in terms of the oth......-er component. In this study, we couple water quality and water quantity in a joint hydro-economic catchment-scale optimization problem. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocation, water curtailment and water treatment. The simple water...... concentrations. Inelastic water demands, fixed water allocation curtailment costs and fixed wastewater treatment costs (before and after use) are estimated for the water users (agriculture, industry and domestic). If the BOD concentration exceeds a given user pollution thresh-old, the user will need to pay...

  15. Monitoring of urban and rural basins: water quality of Mourão basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Passig

    Full Text Available The Mourão River basin is located on the central western region of the Paraná State – Brazil, between coordinates 23º 44’ - 24º 25 South latitude and 52º 12’ - 52º 30’ West longitude, between 270 and 820 m above sea level, and 1,648.21 km2 drainage area. Water quality was evaluated by monitoring physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Monthly samplings were performed for a year at five sites in the basin for analysis of: pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate, total phosphorus, turbidity, total solids, volatile solids and fecal coliforms. The results of the evaluated parameters showed higher values than the limits set by CONAMA Resolution 357 from 2005 for Class 2 in some samples. The Water Quality Index (WQI indicated that 72% of samples had average quality and 28% had good quality for the Mourão River basin. Higher values of WQI were observed after rainfall period with median of 75 compared to the dry period with median of 62. The source of the Mourão River is contaminated with fecal coliforms, evidencing the real need to treat sewage in rural areas.

  16. Graphical user interface for accessing water-quality data for the Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Damschen, William C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2005-01-01

    Maintaining the quality of surface waters in the Devils Lake Basin in North Dakota is important for protecting the agricultural resources, fisheries, waterfowl and wildlife habitat, and recreational value of the basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies, has collected and analyzed water-quality samples from streams and lakes in the basin since 1957, and the North Dakota Department of Health has collected and analyzed water-quality samples from lakes in the basin since 2001. Because water-quality data for the basin are important for numerous reasons, a graphical user interface was developed to access, view, and download the historical data for the basin. The interface is a web-based application that is available to the public and includes data through water year 2003. The interface will be updated periodically to include data for subsequent years.

  17. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Great Salt Lake basins study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.

    1999-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake Basins NAWQA study will increase the scientific understanding of the factors that influence surface- and ground-water quality. This information will benefit water-resources managers that need, but often lack, the data required to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  18. Evaluation of surface water quality and pollution in Lepenica river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin is axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija region. However, because of disorderly water regime of Lepenica river and its tributaries, it appears several hydrologic problems on this territory, as example insufficiency of drinking and irrigating water by one cite, and floods and torrents (especially in Kragujevac valley by other cite. Particular problem is water quality and pollution in river basin. In this paper will be analyzed water quality of Lepenica river and artificial lakes, built in its river basin, according to the data of Republic Hydrometeorologic Institute of Serbia. Also, it will be present polluter cadastre in river basin.

  19. Quality of surface water in the Bear River basin, Utah, Wyoming, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Price, Don

    1972-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, began a reconnaissance in 1967 to obtain essential water-quality information for the Bear River basin. The reconnaissance was directed toward defining the chemical quality of the basin’s surface waters, including suitability for specific uses, geology, and general basin hydrology. Emphasis was given to those areas where water-development projects are proposed or being considered.

  20. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation of... CODE AND ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL-PART III WATER QUALITY REGULATIONS § 410.1 Basin regulations—Water Code and Administrative Manual—Part III Water Quality Regulations. (a) The Water Code of the Delaware River...

  1. Water quality in the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi, and Tennessee, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, J. Brian; Zappia, Humbert; Robinson, James L.; McPherson, Ann K.; Moreland, Richard S.; Harned, Douglas A.; Johnston, Brett F.; Harvill, John S.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999?2001 assessment of water quality in the Mobile River Basin. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Mobile River Basin summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed from the Mobile River Basin Web site (http://al.water.usgs.gov/pubs/mobl/mobl.html). Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

  2. Water Quality in the Cook Inlet Basin Alaska, 1998-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Roy L.; Brabets, Timothy P.; Frenzel, Steven A.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1998?2001 assessment of water quality in the Cook Inlet Basin. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies; universities; public interest groups; or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Cook Inlet Basin summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed at http://ak.water.usgs.gov. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report, in addition to reports in this series from other basins, can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

  3. Water Quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1998-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Giddings, Elise M.; Baskin, Robert L.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Albano, Christine M.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1998-2001 assessment of water quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to water quality in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Great Salt Lake Basins summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed at http://ut.water.usgs.gov. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed at the national NAWQA Web site http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa.

  4. Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin Water Quality Study. Supplement. Technical Report No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisnant, David M., Ed.

    During the period extending from May 1972 through April 1973, an investigation of the overall water quality conditions of streams flowing into Lake Superior from the entire state of Wisconsin was conducted. The goal of this publication was to provide much needed regional information on water quality, drainage basins, pollution sources and loads,…

  5. Water Quality in the Santa Ana Basin, California, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitz, Kenneth; Hamlin, Scott N.; Burton, Carmen A.; Kent, Robert; Fay, Ronald G.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999-2001 assessment of water quality in the Santa Ana River Basin. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live and how that water quality compares to other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Santa Ana River Basin summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed from http://ca.water.usgs.gov/ sana_nawqa/. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to other reports in this series from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

  6. Design of water quality monitoring networks with two information scenarios in tropical Andean basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Juan Carlos; Vélez, Jorge Julián; Zambrano, Jeannette; Londoño, Adela

    2017-09-01

    Design and redesign of water quality monitoring networks were evaluated for two similarly sized watersheds in the tropical Andes via optimization techniques using geographic information system technology (GIS) and a matter-element analysis of 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) and total suspended solids (TSS). This resulted in a flexible, objectively based design for a 1128-km 2 watershed without prior water quality data (La Miel River), and a network redesign of a 1052-km 2 watershed with historical water quality monitoring (Chinchiná River). Monitoring design for the undocumented basin incorporated mathematical expressions for physical, anthropological, and historical factors-and was based on clear objectives for diagnosis and intervention of water pollution. Network redesign identified network redundancy, which resulted in a 64% reduction in the number of water quality monitoring stations along the channel, and a 78% reduction of stations throughout the basin. Most tropical drainage basins throughout the world have little to no prior water quality data. But even in well-studied drainage basins like the Chinchiná River, which is among the most thoroughly studied basins in Colombia, redesign of historical and existing monitoring networks will become a standard tool to advance the restoration of polluted surface waters, not only in Colombia, but also throughout the world.

  7. CHEMICAL WATER QUALITY INDICATORS IN BASIN FOREST PARCZEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Grzywna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the characteristics of the chemistry of surface and ground water in the bottom of the river valley reclaimed Ochoza. Drained grassland accounts for 20% of the total catchment area and are located on organic soils in the valley Tyśmienica classified to the Natura 2000 sites. Analysis of physico-chemical properties of water are to assess the effects of anthropogenic transformation and identify factors that influence water quality in the study area. Water samples were collected in the years 2011–2012 in several points. The walls were characterized by surface water stagnant in the trenches, in July, blueberry plantation. Characterized by the highest quality of surface water runoff river with the test object. Occurring here throughout the growing season water flow reed growing on the bed and temporary impoundment of water contribute to the self-cleaning effect of water. Conducted at different times of the growing season (winter, spring, summer, autumn of water chemistry analysis allows to assess the impact of vegetation on the process of self-purification of water. Based on the survey it was found that the river is reduced by 26% BOD 5, COD by 37%, 12% phosphate and potassium by 13%. Concurrently, an increase in the content of nitrogen compounds – ammonia at 27% and 15% nitrate. The increase in the content of nitrogen compounds is particularly evident in the bottom of the object, which is probably associated with the deep trench causing excessive drying of the soil. The highest values of pollutants were recorded mostly in the spring probably due to the outflow of water from the drans.

  8. Evaluation of constraints to water quality improvements in the Western Lake Erie Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaluvu, Lawrence; Zhang, Lefei; Gitau, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    Severe environmental and health impacts have been experienced in the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB) because of eutrophication and associated proliferation of harmful algae blooms. Efforts to improve water quality within the WLEB have been on-going for several decades. However, water quality improvements in the basin have not been realized as anticipated. In this study, factors affecting water quality within the WLEB were evaluated with a view to differentiating their impacts and informing further assessments in the basin. Over the long-term (1966-2015) and basin-wide, total annual precipitation increased significantly by about 2.4 mm/year while mean monthly streamflows also increased during the same period although the increase was not significant (p = 0.36). There was, however, a significant increase in spring streamflows during this period (p = 0.003). Patterns in water quality parameters showed significant reductions in total suspended solids (TSS) (p basin with daily values ranging between 0.03 and 1.84 mg/L and less than 0.002-0.52 mg/L, respectively. Basin-wide, both spring precipitation and spring streamflows increased significantly during the period 2005-2015 (p basin and fertilizer applied to corn increased by 33% and 10% respectively. Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) and impoundments were also important factors due to their prevalence in the basin. Based on the analysis, changes in agricultural management, increase in spring precipitation, CSOs, legacy phosphorus, and the presence of dams were thought to present constraints to water quality improvements despite conservation efforts within the basin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Water Years 2004-05 and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, Norman E.; Hartle, David M.; Diaz, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River Basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River Basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River Basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2004 and 2005. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2004 and 2005 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were

  10. Comparison of 2006-2007 Water Years and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, P.A.; Moore, Bryan; Smits, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2006 and 2007. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2006 and 2007 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were

  11. River water quality assessment using environmentric techniques: case study of Jakara River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Adamu; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Juahir, Hafizan; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Kura, Nura Umar

    2013-08-01

    Jakara River Basin has been extensively studied to assess the overall water quality and to identify the major variables responsible for water quality variations in the basin. A total of 27 sampling points were selected in the riverine network of the Upper Jakara River Basin. Water samples were collected in triplicate and analyzed for physicochemical variables. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship of water quality parameters and revealed a significant relationship between salinity, conductivity with dissolved solids (DS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and nitrogen in form of ammonia (NH4). Partial correlation analysis (r p) results showed that there is a strong relationship between salinity and turbidity (r p=0.930, p=0.001) and BOD5 and COD (r p=0.839, p=0.001) controlling for the linear effects of conductivity and NH4, respectively. Principal component analysis and or factor analysis was used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter in the Jakara Basin and identified three major factors explaining 68.11 % of the total variance in water quality. The major variations are related to anthropogenic activities (irrigation agricultural, construction activities, clearing of land, and domestic waste disposal) and natural processes (erosion of river bank and runoff). Discriminant analysis (DA) was applied on the dataset to maximize the similarities between group relative to within-group variance of the parameters. DA provided better results with great discriminatory ability using eight variables (DO, BOD5, COD, SS, NH4, conductivity, salinity, and DS) as the most statistically significantly responsible for surface water quality variation in the area. The present study, however, makes several noteworthy contributions to the existing knowledge on the spatial variations of surface water quality and is believed to serve as a baseline data for further studies. Future

  12. Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernewski, Gerald; Hürdler, Jens; Neumann, Thomas; Stybel, Nardine; Venohr, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess and evaluate the effects of nutrient loads on coastal water quality as well as the efficiency of river basin management measures on surface waters and especially lagoons and estuaries. The Odra river basin, the Szczecin Lagoon and its coastal waters cover an area of about 150,000 km² and are an eutrophication hot-spot in the Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of an optimal nitrogen and phosphorus management scenario in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35 %) would have positive effects on coastal water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased

  13. Surface-water quality assessment of the Clover Creek basin, Pierce County, Washington, 1991-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing urbanization in the 67-square-mile Clover Creek Basin has generated interest in the effects of land-use changes on local water quality. To investigate these effects, water-quality and streamflow data were collected from 19 surface-water sites in the basin over a 16-month period from January 1991 through April 1992. These data were used to understand the effects of surficial geology, land-use practices, and wastewater disposal practices on surface-water quality within the basin. The basin was divided into four drainage subbasins with dissimilar hydrogeologic, land-use, and water-quality characteristics. In the Upper Clover Creek subbasin, the high permeability of surficial geologic materials promotes infiltration of precipitation to ground water and thus attenuates the response of streams to rainfall. Significant interaction occurs between surface and ground water in this subbasin, and nitrate concentrations and specific conductance values, similar to those found historically in local ground water, indicate that sources such as subsurface waste-disposal systems and fertilizers are affecting surface- water quality in this area. In the Spanaway subbasin, the presence of Spanaway and Tule Lakes affects water quality, primarily because of the reduced velocity and long residence time of water in the lakes. Reduced water velocity and long residence times (1) cause settling of suspended materials, thereby reducing concentrations of suspended sediment and constituents that are bound to the sediment; (2) promote biological activity, which tends to trap nutrients in the lakes; and (3) allow dispersion to attenuate peaks in discharge and water-quality constituent concentrations. In the North Fork subbasin, the low permeability of surficial geologic materials and areas of intensive land development inhibit infiltration of precipitation and thus promote surface runoff to streams. Surface pathways provide little attenuation of storm runoff and result in rapid increases

  14. Water quality trends in the Delaware River Basin (USA) from 1980 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Gerald J; Homsey, Andrew R; Belden, Andrew C; Sanchez, Jessica Rittler

    2011-06-01

    In 1940, the tidal Delaware River was "one of the most grossly polluted areas in the United States." During the 1950s, water quality was so poor along the river at Philadelphia that zero oxygen levels prevented migration of American shad leading to near extirpation of the species. Since then, water quality in the Delaware Basin has improved with implementation of the 1961 Delaware River Basin Compact and 1970s Federal Clean Water Act Amendments. At 15 gages along the Delaware River and major tributaries between 1980 and 2005, water quality for dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, and sediment improved at 39%, remained constant at 51%, and degraded at 10% of the stations. Since 1980, improved water-quality stations outnumbered degraded stations by a 4 to 1 margin. Water quality remains good in the nontidal river above Trenton and, while improved, remains fair to poor for phosphorus and nitrogen in the tidal estuary near Philadelphia and in the Lehigh and Schuylkill tributaries. Water quality is good in heavily forested watersheds (>50%) and poor in highly cultivated watersheds. Water quality recovery in the Delaware Basin is coincident with implementation of environmental laws enacted in the 1960s and 1970s and is congruent with return of striped bass, shad, blue crab, and bald eagle populations.

  15. Ribeira do Iguape basin water quality assessment for drinking water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza

    2006-01-01

    Ribeira do Iguape Basin, located in the Southeast region of Sao Paulo state, is the largest remaining area of Mata Atlantica which biodiversity as rich as Amazon forest , where the readiness of water versus demand is extremely positive. With sparse population density and economy almost dependent on banana agriculture, the region is still well preserved. To water supply SABESP (Sao Paulo State Basic Sanitation Company). Ribeira do Iguape Businesses Unit - RR, uses different types of water supplies. In the present work, in order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor elements were evaluated in various types of water supply (surface and groundwater's as well as the drinking water supplied). Forty three producing systems were monitored: 18 points of surface waters and treated distributed water, 10 points of groundwater and 15 points of surface water in preserved areas, analyzing 30 elements. Bottom sediments (fraction -1 and 172 μg.g -1 , respectively. Data revealed that trace elements concentration in the sediment were below PEL (Probable Effect Level - probable level of adverse effect to the biological community), exception for Pb in Sete Barras and Eldorado. (author)

  16. Meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data for water year 1992 from two basins in Central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, P.W.; Oliver, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential repository for high level nuclear waste. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Project, the analog recharge study is providing data for the evaluation of recharge to the Yucca Mountain ground-water system given a cooler and wetter climate than currently exists. The current and climatic conditions are favorable to the isolation of radioactive waste. Because waste isolation from the accessible environment for 10,000 years is necessary, climatic change and the potential for increased ground-water recharge need to be considered as part of the characterization of the potential repository. Therefore, two small basins, measuring less than 2 square miles, were studied to determine the volume of precipitation available for recharge to ground water. The semiarid 3-Springs Basin is located to the east of Kawich Peak in the Kawich Range east of Tonopah, Nevada. Stewart Basin is a subalpine drainage basin north of Arc Dome in the Toiyabe Range north of Tonopah, Nevada. The purpose of this publication is to make available the meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data collected during the study. Meteorological data collected include air temperature, soil temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Stream-discharge data were collected from the surface-water outlet of each basin. Water-quality data are chemical analyses of water samples collected from surface- and ground-water sources. Each basin has a meteorological station located in the lower and upper reaches of the basin. Hydrologic records include stream-discharge and water-quality data from the lower meteorological site and water-quality data from springs within the basins

  17. Water-quality assessment of Steiner Branch basin, Lafayette County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Stephen J.; Lidwin, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Steiner Branch basin in southwestern Wisconsin has rugged mature topography. Corn is planted in 30 percent of the basin on slopes ranging from 0 to 20 percent. Although contour stripcropping is a recommended practice for these easily eroded soil slopes, few conservation practices are followed to reduce soil losses. Because the stream drains into a manmade lake used for recreation, its water quality is of major concern. The purpose of this report is to assess the magnitude and types of nonpoint discharges that affect the water quality of Steiner Branch.

  18. Climate Change Impacts on US Water Quality Using Two Models: HAWQS and US Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fant

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and freshwater quality are well-linked. Changes in climate result in changes in streamflow and rising water temperatures, which impact biochemical reaction rates and increase stratification in lakes and reservoirs. Using two water quality modeling systems (the Hydrologic and Water Quality System; HAWQS and US Basins, five climate models, and two greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation policies, we assess future water quality in the continental U.S. to 2100 considering four water quality parameters: water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Once these parameters are aggregated into a water quality index, we find that, while the water quality models differ under the baseline, there is more agreement between future projections. In addition, we find that the difference in national-scale economic benefits across climate models is generally larger than the difference between the two water quality models. Both water quality models find that water quality will more likely worsen in the East than in the West. Under the business-as-usual emissions scenario, we find that climate change is likely to cause economic impacts ranging from 1.2 to 2.3 (2005 billion USD/year in 2050 and 2.7 to 4.8 in 2090 across all climate and water quality models.

  19. Water quality in the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and Wyoming, 1992-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gregory M.; Maret, T.R.; Rupert, M.G.; Maupin, M.A.; Low, W.H.; Ott, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to summarize major findings that emerged between 1992 and 1995 from the water-quality assessment of the Upper Snake River Basin Study Unit and to relate these findings to water-quality issues of regional and national concern. This information is primarily intended for those who are involved in water-resource management. Yet, the information contained here may also interest those who simply wish to know more about the quality of water in the rivers and aquifers in the area where they live.

  20. Integrated modeling of water quantity and quality in the Araguari River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Ricardo Salla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Araguari River basin has a huge water resource potential. However, population and industrial growth have generated numerous private and collective conflicts of interest in the multiple uses of water, resulting in the need for integrated management of water quantity and quality at the basin scale. This study used the AQUATOOL Decision Support System. The water balance performed by the SIMGES module for the period of October 2006 to September 2011 provided a good representation of the reality of this basin. The parameters studied were dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, organic nitrogen, ammonia, nitrate and total phosphorus. The coefficients of biochemical reactions, sedimentation rates and sediment dissolved oxygen release for this period were calibrated and validated in the quality modeling using the GESCAL module. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the coefficients of carbonaceous matter decomposition, nitrification, water temperature, and sediment oxygen demand interfered more significantly in the variables of state. To prevent eutrophication in the Nova Ponte reservoir and in the other cascade reservoirs, the local River Basin Committee should adopt restrictive actions against the use of agricultural fertilizers. On the other hand, in the sub basin of the Uberabinha River, new alternatives for public water supply to the city of Uberlândia and improvements in the treatment efficiency of the main wastewater treatment plant (WWTP should be proposed, since the biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia and total phosphorus failed to meet the requirements of COPAM (2008 in the driest months.

  1. Water-quality assessment of the Central Arizona Basins, Arizona and northern Mexico; environmental setting and overview of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Gail E.; Rees, Julie A.; Edmonds, Robert J.; Gebler, Joseph B.; Wirt, Laurie; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.; Anning, David W.

    1998-01-01

    The Central Arizona Basins study area in central and southern Arizona and northern Mexico is one of 60 study units that are part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. The purpose of this report is to describe the physical, chemical, and environmental characteristics that may affect water quality in the Central Arizona Basins study area and present an overview of water quality. Covering 34,700 square miles, the study area is characterized by generally north to northwestward-trending mountain ranges separated by broad, gently sloping alluvial valleys. Most of the perennial rivers and streams are in the northern part of the study area. Rivers and streams in the south are predominantly intermittent or ephemeral and flow in response to precipitation such as summer thunderstorms. Effluent-dependent streams do provide perennial flow in some reaches. The major aquifers in the study area are in the basin-fill deposits that may be as much as 12,000 feet thick. The 1990 population in the study area was about 3.45 million, and about 61 percent of the total was in Maricopa County (Phoenix and surrounding cities). Extensive population growth over the past decade has resulted in a twofold increase in urban land areas and increased municipal water use; however, agriculture remains the major water use. Seventy-three percent of all water with drawn in the study area during 1990 was used for agricultural purposes. The largest rivers in the study area-the Gila, Salt, and Verde-are perennial near their headwaters but become intermittent downstream because of impoundments and artificial diversions. As a result, the Central Arizona Basins study area is unique compared to less arid basins because the mean surface-water outflow is only 528 cubic feet per second from a total drainage area of 49,650 square miles. Peak flows in the northern part of the study area are the result of snowmelt runoff; whereas, summer thunderstorms account for the peak flows in

  2. Water-quality assessment of the Smith River drainage basin, California and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsubo, Rick T.; Washabaugh, Donna S.

    1982-01-01

    A water-quality assessment of the Smith River drainage basin was made to provide a summary of the water-quality conditions including known or potential water-quality problems. Results of the study showed that the water quality of the Smith River is excellent and generally meets the water-quality objectives for the beneficial uses identified by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, North Coast Region. Known and potential problems related to water quality include: Sedimentation resulting from both natural erosional processes and land-use activities such as timber harvest, road construction, and mining that accelerate the erosional processes; bacterial contamination of surface and ground waters from inundated septic tanks and drainfields, and grazing activities; industrial spills which have resulted in fish kills and oil residues; high concetrations of iron in ground water; log and debris jams creating fish migration barriers; and pesticide and trace-element contamination from timber-harvest and mining activities, respectively. Future studies are needed to establish: (1) a sustained long-term monitoring program to provide a broad coverage of water-quality conditions in order to define long-term water-quality trends; and (2) interpretive studies to determine the source of known and potential water-quality problems. (USGS)

  3. Water-quality and flow data, Chulitna River basin, Southwest Alaska, October 2009-June 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    The Chulitna River basin in southwest Alaska drains an area of about 1,160 square miles, with the lower 158 square miles of the basin in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve. Water from this basin influences Lake Clark ecosystems that support salmon that, in part, sustain the Bristol Bay fishery. An area of about 391 square miles in the upper part of the Chulitna River basin has been staked for mining development (1,670 claims), and a proposed large scale copper-gold-molybdenum mine (Pebble Mine) lies adjacent to the Chulitna River drainage. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service conducted a water-quality assessment of the Chulitna River from October 2009 to June 2012. Discrete water-quality samples and continuous-records of dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, turbidity, water-stage, and water temperature data were collected from the Chulitna River. In addition, four miscellaneous sites were visited five times during 2010–12 to measure flow and water-quality parameters.

  4. Reconnaissance of the chemical quality of surface waters of the Neches River basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Leon S.; Leifeste, Donald K.

    1967-01-01

    with less than 30 ppm hardness. The chloride concentrations are less than 20 ppm in surface water in the southern half of the basin and usually range from 20 to 100 ppm in the northern half of the basin. Concentrations greater than 100 ppm are found only where pollution is occurring. The Neches River basin has an abundance of surface water, but uneven distribution of runoff makes storage projects necessary to provide dependable water supplies. The principal existing reservoirs, with the exception of Striker Creek Reservoir, contain water of excellent quality. Chemical-quality data for the Striker Creek drainage area indicate that its streams are affected by .the disposal of brines associated with oil production. Sam Rayburn Reservoir began impounding water in 1965. The water impounded should prove of acceptable quality for most uses, but municipal and industrial wastes released into the Angelina River near Lufkin may have a degrading effect on the quality of the water, especially during extended periods of low flows. Water available for storage at the many potential reservoir sites will be of good quality; but, if the proposed salt-water barrier is to impound acceptable water, the disposal of oilfield brine into Pine Island Bayou should be discontinued.

  5. Surface water-quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K.D.; Smoot, J.L.; Jackson, J.K.; Choquette, Anne F.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began the National Water Quality Assessment Program, which at present (1987) is in a pilot phase in which assessment concepts and approaches are being tested and modified to prepare for full implementation of the program in the future. Seven pilot projects (four surface water projects and three groundwater projects) have been started. The preliminary plans for the surface water quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin pilot project are described. The Kentucky River basin drains an area of approximately 7,000 sq mi in east central Kentucky and is underlain by rocks that range in composition from limestone to sandstone and shale. Because greater than 95% of the basin population relies on surface water, surface water quality is of great concern. Land use practices that affect the surface water quality in the basin include agriculture, forestry, oil and gas production, coal mining, and urbanization. Water quality concerns resulting from the various land uses include the effects of: oil and gas field brine discharges; agricultural chemicals; sedimentation caused by coal mining; and trace element impacts from industrial and urban environments. Assessment activity is designed to occur over a 9-year period of time. During the first 3-year period of the cycle, concentrated data acquisition and interpretation will occur. For the next 6 years, sample collection will occur at a much lower level of intensity to document the occurrence of any gross changes in water quality. This 9-year cycle will then be repeated. Historical data will be evaluated to provide, to the extent possible, a description of existing and past trends in water quality conditions and to develop conceptual models that relate the observed conditions to the sources and causes, both natural and human-controlled. New data will be collected to verify the water quality conditions documented by historic data, to track long-term trends in water quality, to intensify

  6. Water quality modelling in the San Antonio River Basin driven by radar rainfall data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almoutaz Elhassan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of stream water quality is needed as it has significant impacts on human and ecological health and well-being. Estimating water quality between sampling dates requires model simulation based on the available geospatial and water quality data for a given watershed. Models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT can be used to estimate the missing water quality data. In this study, SWAT was used to estimate water quality at a monitoring station near the outlet of the San Antonio River. Precipitation data from both rain gauges and weather radar were used to force the SWAT simulations. Virtual rain gauges which were based on weather radar data were created in the approximate centres of the 163 sub-watersheds of the San Antonio River Basin for SWAT simulations. This method was first tested in a smaller watershed in the middle of the Guadalupe River Basin resulting in increased model efficiency in simulating surface run-off. The method was then applied to the San Antonio River watershed and yielded good simulations for surface run-off (R2 = 0.7, nitrate (R2 = 0.6 and phosphate (R2 = 0.5 at the watershed outlet (Goliad, TX – USGS (United States Geological Survey gauge as compared to observed data. The study showed that the proper use of weather radar precipitation in SWAT model simulations improves the estimation of missing water quality data.

  7. Temporal and spatial changes in water quality of the indus basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, M.N.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, M.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Total useable water supply for agriculture is essentially fixed and is a limiting factor for increasing agriculture production. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate water quality of rivers, drains and groundwater. Suggestions are made for controlling pollution and for sustainable use of water. The scope of the paper is limited to the Indus Basin. The criteria based on TDS, SAR and RSC was used to categorize water as useable, marginal and hazardous quality for agricultural use. Data of different water quality surveys from 1959 to 2003 were used for the study. Spatial changes of groundwater quality indicate saline water intrusion towards fresh groundwater pockets. Temporal changes of groundwater quality also show deterioration of water quality over long periods. Canal supplies need to be increased to reduce reliance on groundwater which indirectly help sustainable use of groundwater. River water quality at Kotri, the lowest point in the Indus River system, is suitable for irrigation through out the year, However, pollution is a serious issue particularly during low flow periods. During the year 2004 about 40 persons died in Hyderabad due to pollution in drinking water the source of which was the River Indus. Municipal and Industrial effluents are being disposed into rivers, drains and canals without treatment which is not only detrimental to crops, human beings, livestock and marine life but also a potential threat to environment. Out of 143 outfall drains of the Indus Basin, the effluent quality of 53 drains is useable, 46 marginal and 44 hazardous. A large number of farmers are using drainage effluent for agriculture. There is no monitoring of land and water for such use. Provincial irrigation department and environment protection agencies should provide technical guidance and support to the farmers, using the drainage effluent. The Environment Act should be strictly implemented. Provincial Irrigation and Drainage Authorities (PIDA's) must work with

  8. Physicochemical quality evaluation of groundwater and development of drinking water quality index for Araniar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, I; Mallikarjuna, P

    2014-02-01

    Groundwater is the most important natural resource which cannot be optimally used and sustained unless its quality is properly assessed. In the present study, the spatial and temporal variations in physicochemical quality parameters of groundwater of Araniar River Basin, India were analyzed to determine its suitability for drinking purpose through development of drinking water quality index (DWQI) maps of the post- and pre-monsoon periods. The suitability for drinking purpose was evaluated by comparing the physicochemical parameters of groundwater in the study area with drinking water standards prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Interpretation of physicochemical data revealed that groundwater in the basin was slightly alkaline. The cations such as sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) and anions such as bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) and chloride (Cl(-)) exceeded the permissible limits of drinking water standards (WHO and BIS) in certain pockets in the northeastern part of the basin during the pre-monsoon period. The higher total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration was observed in the northeastern part of the basin, and the parameters such as calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), sulfate (SO4 (2-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), and fluoride (F(-)) were within the limits in both the seasons. The hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater of the basin demonstrated with the Piper trilinear diagram indicated that the groundwater samples of the area were of Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) types during the post-monsoon period and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) types during the pre-monsoon period. The DWQI maps for the basin revealed that 90.24 and 73.46% of the basin area possess good quality drinking water during the post- and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively.

  9. MECHANISMS CONTROLLING SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN THE COBRAS RIVER SUB-BASIN, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE DE OLIVEIRA LIMA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stream water quality is dependent on many factors, including the source and quantity of the streamflow and the types of geology and soil along the path of the stream. This study aims to evaluate the origin and the mechanisms controlling the input of ions that effect surface water quality in the sub-basin of the Rio das Cobras, Rio Grande do Norte state, Northeastern Brazil. Thirteen ponds were identified for study: three in the main river and ten in the tributaries between, thus covering the whole area and lithology of the sub-basin. The samples were collected at two different times (late dry and rainy periods in the hydrological years 2009 and 2010, equating to total of four collection times. We analyzed the spatial and seasonal behavior of water quality in the sub-basin, using Piper diagrams, and analyzed the source of the ions using Guibbs diagram and molar ratios. With respect to ions, we found that water predominate in 82% sodium and 76% bicarbonate water (cations and anions, respectively. The main salinity control mechanism was related to the interaction of the colloidal particles (minerals and organic sediment with the ions dissolved in water. Based on the analysis of nitrates and nitrites there was no evidence of contamination from anthropogenic sources.

  10. Comparison of 2008-2009 water years and historical water-quality data, upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Patricia A.; Moore, Bryan; Blacklock, Ty D.

    2012-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River Basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, U.S. Forest Service, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River Basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of sites: (1) sites that are considered long term and (2) sites that are considered rotational. Data from the long-term sites assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational sites assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and address local and short-term concerns. Biannual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for stakeholder discussions regarding the location and purpose of water-quality monitoring sites in the upper Gunnison River Basin. This report compares and summarizes the data collected during water years 2008 and 2009 to the historical data available at these sites. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network sites. The remainder of the report is organized around the data collected at individual sites. Data collected during water years 2008 and 2009 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines

  11. Characterization of water quality for streams in the southern Yampa River basin, northwestern Colorado. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, the Yampa River basin in northwestern Colorado has been an area of coal-mining development. Coal mining generally has been developed in the southern part of the basin and at lower elevations. The purpose of the report is to characterize the stream water quality by summarizing selected major dissolved constituents for the streams that drain the southern part of the Yampa River basin. Characterization is done initially by providing a statistical summary of the constituents for individual water-quality sites in the study area. These statistical summaries can be used to help assess water-quality within specified stream reaches. Water-quality data are available for sites on most perennial streams in the study area, and these data provide the best information about the immediate stream reach. Water-quality data from all sites are combined into regions, and linear-regression equations between dissolved constituents and specific conductance are calculated. Such equations provide an estimate of the water-quality relations within these regions. The equations also indicate an increase in error as individual sites are combined

  12. A Preliminary Study of Water Quality Index in Terengganu River Basin, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratman, S.; Mohd, S.M.I.; Hee, Y.Y.; Bedurus, E.A.; Latif, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    The Malaysian Department of Environment-Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) was determined for the Terengganu River basin which is located at the coastal water of the southern South China Sea between July and October 2008. Monthly samplings were carried out at ten sampling stations within the basin. Six parameters listed in DOE-WQI were measured based on standard methods: pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonical nitrogen (AN). The results indicated the impact of various anthropogenic activities which contribute to high values of BOD, COD, TSS and AN at middle and downstream stations, as compared with the upstream of the basin. The reverses were true for the pH and DO values. The DOE-WQI ranged from 71.5-94.6 % (mean 86.9 %), which corresponded to a classification status range from slightly polluted to clean. With respect to the Malaysia National Water Quality Standards (NWQS), the level of most of the parameters measured remained at Class I which is suitable for the sustainable conservation of the natural environment, for water supply without treatment and as well as for very sensitive aquatic species. It is suggested that monitoring should be carried out continuously for proper management of this river basin. (author)

  13. Water-quality assessment of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming; environmental setting, 1980-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1995-01-01

    The 35,800-square-mile upper Snake River Basin is one of 20 areas studied as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Objectives of NAWQA are to study ground- and surface-water quality, biology, and their relations to land-use activities. Major land and water uses that affect water quality in the basin are irrigated agriculture, grazing, aquaculture, food processing, and wastewater treatment. Data summarized in this report are used in companion reports to help define the relations among land use, water use, water quality, and biological conditions.

  14. The Public Discourse about Land Use and Water Quality: Themes in Newspapers in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andrea N.; Thompson, Jan R.; Bengston, David N.

    2007-01-01

    Effective educational and management programs to improve water quality will require an improved understanding of public perceptions of the relationship between land use and water quality. We analyzed a large database of newspaper articles in the Upper Mississippi River Basin to assess the public discourse about water quality and land use, and…

  15. Water quality variation in the highly disturbed Huai River Basin, China from 1994 to 2005 by multi-statistical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaoyan; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Yongyong

    2014-10-15

    Water quality deterioration is a prominent issue threatening water security throughout the world. Huai River Basin, as the sixth largest basin in China, is facing the most severe water pollution and high disturbance. Statistical detection of water quality trends and identification of human interferences are significant for sustainable water quality management. Three key water quality elements (ammonium nitrogen: NH3-N, permanganate index: CODMn and dissolved oxygen: DO) at 18 monitoring stations were selected to analyze their spatio-temporal variations in the highly disturbed Huai River Basin using seasonal Mann-Kendall test and Moran's I method. Relationship between surrounding water environment and anthropogenic activities (point source emission, land use) was investigated by regression analysis. The results indicated that water environment was significantly improved on the whole from 1994 to 2005. CODMn and NH3-N concentrations decreased at half of the stations, and DO concentration increased significantly at 39% (7/18) stations. The high pollution cluster centers for both NH3-N and CODMn were in the middle stream of Shaying River and Guo River in the 2000s. Water quality of Huai River Basin was mainly influenced by point source pollution emission, flows regulated by dams, water temperature and land use variations and so on. This study was expected to provide insights into water quality evolution and foundations for water quality management in Huai River Basin, and scientific references for the implementation of water pollution prevention in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Turbidity as an Indicator of Water Quality in Diverse Watersheds of the Upper Pecos River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M. Huey

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS and turbidity vary with stream hydrology and land use. Turbidity, TSS, and microbial concentrations, loads and yields from four watersheds were assessed: an unburned montane forest, a catastrophically burned montane forest, urban land use and rangeland prairie. Concentrations and loads for most water quality variables were greatest during storm events. Turbidity was an effective indicator of TSS, E. coli and Enterococci spp. The greatest threat to public health from microbial contamination occurs during storm runoff events. Efforts to manage surface runoff and erosion would likely improve water quality of the upper Pecos River basin in New Mexico, USA.

  17. An assessment of water quality in the Coruh Basin (Turkey) using multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ayla

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of 24 water parameters, measured semi-annually between 2011 and 2013 in Coruh Basin (Turkey), based on the quality of the water. The study utilised analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) methods. The water-quality data was obtained from a total of four sites by the 26th Regional Directorate of the State Hydraulic Works (DSI). ANOVA was carried out to identify the differences between the parameters at the different measuring sites. The variables were classified using factor analysis, and at the end of the ANOVA test, it was established that there was a statistically significant difference between the downstream and upstream waste waters released by the Black Sea copper companies and between the Murgul and Borcka Dams, in terms of water quality, while no statistically significant difference was observed between the Murgul and Borcka Dams. It was determined through factor analysis that five factors explained 81.3% of the total variance. It was concluded that domestic, industrial and agricultural activities, in combination with physicochemical properties, were factors affecting the quality of the water in the Coruh Basin.

  18. Hydrogeochemistry and water quality assessment of the Kor-Sivand Basin, Fars province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Fatemeh; Kiani Pouya, Ali; Cheraghi, Seyed Ali Mohammad

    2012-08-01

    In order to assess the quality and suitability of waters in the Kor-Sivand river basin, 60 water samples from the Kor river and 90 water samples from wells in the basin were studied. Assessments were based on Piper's and Gibbs' diagrams for water quality, Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) guidelines, and US Salinity Laboratory diagram for water suitability. The results showed that the river water is of Ca-HCO(3) type, while well water is of Ca-Cl and Na-Cl type. Based on Gibbs' diagram, the source of soluble ions in the river water samples is the weathering of stones over which water flows, while evaporation was found to be the dominant process in the ion concentration of the well samples. According to the FAO Guidelines, the salinity of surface water for irrigation did not cause great restrictions; however, many of these waters could create potential permeability problems. In the groundwater samples, a high salt concentration is more important than the infiltration problem. Mg hazard values at some sites limit its use for agricultural purposes. One third of the river water samples and two thirds of well waters had more than 50% magnesium. Saturation indices showed that 94% of the analyzed water samples are supersaturated with calcite, aragonite, and dolomite. Based on the US Salinity Laboratory diagram, river water samples were classified as C(2)S(1) and C(3)S(1), while C(4)S(3), C(4)S(4), C(2)S(1), and C(3)S(1) were the most dominant classes in well samples. Some management practices necessary for sustainable development of water resources in the study area were discussed briefly, including appropriate selection of crops, adequate drainage, leaching, blending and cyclic use of saline water, proper irrigation method, and addition of soil amendment.

  19. Water-quality assessment of the lower Illinois River Basin; environmental setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kelly L.

    1998-01-01

    The lower Illinois River Basin (LIRB) encompasses 18,000 square miles of central and western Illinois. Historical and recent information from Federal, State, and local agencies describing the physiography, population, land use, soils, climate, geology, streamflow, habitat, ground water, water use, and aquatic biology is summarized to describe the environmental setting of the LIRB. The LIRB is in the Till Plains Section of the Central Lowland physiographic province. The basin is characterized by flat topography, which is dissected by the Illinois River. The drainage pattern of the LIRB has been shaped by many bedrock and glacial geologic processes. Erosion prior to and during Pleistocene time created wide and deep bedrock valleys. The thickest deposits and most major aquifers are in buried bedrock valleys. The Wisconsinan glaciation, which bisects the northern half of the LIRB, affects the distribution and characteristics of glacial deposits in the basin. Agriculture is the largest land use and forested land is the second largest land use in the LIRB. The major urban areas are near Peoria, Springfield, Decatur, and Bloomington-Normal. Soil type and distribution affect the amount of soil erosion, which results in sedimentation of lakes and reservoirs in the basin. Rates of soil erosion of up to 2 percent per year of farmland soil have been measured. Many of the 300 reservoirs, lakes, and wetlands are disappearing because of sedimentation resulting from agriculture activities, levee building, and urbanization. Sedimentation and the destruction of habitat appreciably affect the ecosystem. The Illinois River is a large river-floodplain ecosystem where biological productivity is enhanced by annual flood pulses that advance and retreat over the flood plain and temporarily expand backwater and flood-plain lakes. Ground-water discharge to streams affects the flow and water quality of the streams. The water budget of several subbasins show variability in ground-water

  20. Integrated analysis of water quality in a mesoscale lowland basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Habeck

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a modelling study on nitrogen transport from diffuse sources in the Nuthe catchment, representing a typical lowland region in the north-eastern Germany. Building on a hydrological validation performed in advance using the ecohydrological model SWIM, the nitrogen flows were simulated over a 20-year period (1981-2000. The relatively good quality of the input data, particularly for the years from 1993 to 2000, enabled the nitrogen flows to be reproduced sufficiently well, although modelling nutrient flows is always associated with a great deal of uncertainty. Subsequently, scenario calculations were carried out in order to investigate how nitrogen transport from the catchment could be further reduced. The selected scenario results with the greatest reduction of nitrogen washoff will briefly be presented in the paper.

  1. Water-quality assessment in the Trinity River Basin, Texas; nutrient concentrations in streams winter and spring 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Allison A.

    1995-01-01

    A consistent, basin-wide set of data for streams in the Trinity River Basin is a necessary baseline to compare current conditions with historical data and to provide a reference for future studies. In addition, the basin-wide surveys begin the process of addressing the cause-effect relations for water quality in the basin. Effects of land use, geology, vegetation, soils, and reservoirs on water quality were considered in selection of sites. Seasonal differences were addressed by conducting two surveys, the first during the winter low-flow period and the second during the late spring high-flow period.

  2. Water quality in the Trinity River basin, Texas, 1992-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Larry F.; Moring, J. Bruce; Van Metre, Peter C.; Reutter, David C.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Shipp, Allison A.; Ulery, Randy L.

    1999-01-01

    Water quality in the Trinity River basin was studied during 1992-95 as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Studies included chemical sampling of streams, streambed sediments, biota, and ground water; measuring distributions of biological communities in streams; and measuring physical characteristics of streams that affect biological habitat. The sampling design, in general, relates water-quality conditions to causative human and natural environmental factors. The occurrence of pesticides, for example, is related to land use. Trends are mixed, with a substantial improvement in the diversity of fish species downstream from Dallas and large decreases in regulated contaminants such as DDT; but increases in unregulated contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls.

  3. Results from the Big Spring basin water quality monitoring and demonstration projects, Iowa, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowden, R.D.; Liu, H.; Libra, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural practices, hydrology, and water quality of the 267-km2 Big Spring groundwater drainage basin in Clayton County, Iowa, have been monitored since 1981. Land use is agricultural; nitrate-nitrogen (-N) and herbicides are the resulting contaminants in groundwater and surface water. Ordovician Galena Group carbonate rocks comprise the main aquifer in the basin. Recharge to this karstic aquifer is by infiltration, augmented by sinkhole-captured runoff. Groundwater is discharged at Big Spring, where quantity and quality of the discharge are monitored. Monitoring has shown a threefold increase in groundwater nitrate-N concentrations from the 1960s to the early 1980s. The nitrate-N discharged from the basin typically is equivalent to over one-third of the nitrogen fertilizer applied, with larger losses during wetter years. Atrazine is present in groundwater all year; however, contaminant concentrations in the groundwater respond directly to recharge events, and unique chemical signatures of infiltration versus runoff recharge are detectable in the discharge from Big Spring. Education and demonstration efforts have reduced nitrogen fertilizer application rates by one-third since 1981. Relating declines in nitrate and pesticide concentrations to inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides at Big Spring is problematic. Annual recharge has varied five-fold during monitoring, overshadowing any water-quality improvements resulting from incrementally decreased inputs. ?? Springer-Verlag 2001.

  4. Impact of Various Biofuel Feedstock Production Scenarios on Water Quality in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M.; Demissie, Y.; Yan, E.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of increased biofuel feedstock production on regional water quality was examined. This study focused on the Upper Mississippi River Basin, from which a majority of U.S. biofuel is currently produced. The production of biofuel from both conventional feedstock and cellulosic feedstock will potentially increase in the near future. Historically, this water basin generates the largest nitrogen loading to the waterway in the United States and is often cited as a main contributor to the anoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico. To obtain a quantitative and spatial estimate of nutrient burdens at the river basin, a SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model application was developed. The model was equipped with an updated nutrient cycle feature and modified model parameters to represent current crop and perennial grass yield as a result of advancements in breeding and biotechnology. Various biofuel feedstock production scenarios were developed to assess the potential environmental implications of increased biofuel production through corn, agriculture residue, and perennial cellulosic feedstock (such as Switchgrass). Major factors were analyzed, including land use changes, feedstock types, fertilizer inputs, soil property, and yield. This tool can be used to identify specific regional factors affecting water quality and examine options to meet the requirement for environmental sustainability, thereby mitigating undesirable environmental consequences while strengthening energy security.

  5. Environmental setting and its relations to water quality in the Kanawha River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Terence; Hughes, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    spring and least in the autumn. About 61 percent of the basin's population use surface water from public supply for their domestic needs; about 30 percent use self-supplied ground water, and about nine percent use ground water from public supply. In 1995, total withdrawal of water in the basin was about 1,130 Mgal/d. Total consumptive use was about 118 Mgal/d. Surface water in the Blue Ridge Province is usually dilute (less than 100 mg/L dissolved solids) and well aerated. Dissolved- solids concentrations in streams of the Valley and Ridge Province at low flow are typically greater (150-180 mg/L) than those in the Blue Ridge Province. The Appalachian Plateaus Province contains streams with the most dilute (less than 30 mg/L dissolved solids) and least dilute (more than 500 mg/L dissolved solids) water in the basin. Coal mining has degraded more miles of streams in the basin than any other land use. Streams that receive coal-mine drainage may be affected by sedimentation, and typically contain high concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese. Other major water-quality issues include inadequate domestic sewage treatment, present and historic disposal of industrial wastes, and logging, which results in the addition of sediment, nutrients, and other constituents to the water. One hundred eighteen fish species are reported from the Kanawha River system downstream from Kanawha Falls. Of these, 15 are listed as possible, probable, or known introductions. None of these fish species is endemic to the Kanawha River Basin. The New River system has only 46 native fishes, the lowest ratio of native fishes to drainage area of any river system in the eastern United States, and the second-highest proportion of endemic fish species (eight of 46) of any river system in the eastern United States.

  6. Sedimentation and chemical quality of surface waters in the Wind River basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, B.R.; Hembree, C.H.; Rainwater, F.H.

    1956-01-01

    This report gives results of an investigation by the U. S. Geological Survey of chemical quality of surface waters and sedimentation in the Wind River Basin, Wyo. The sedimentation study was begun in 1946 to determine the quantity of sediment that is transported by the streams in the basin; the probable sources of the sediment; the effect of large irrigation projects on sediment yield, particularly along Fivemile Creek; and the probable specific weight of the sediment when initially deposited in a reservoir. The study of the chemical quality of the water was begun in 1945 to obtain information on the sources, nature, and amounts of dissolved material that is transported by streams and on the suitability of the waters for different uses. Phases of geology and hydrology pertinent to the sedimentation and chemical quality were studied. Results of the investigation through September 30, 1952, and some special studies that were made during the 1953 and 1954 water years are reported. The rocks in the Wind River Basin are granite, schist, and gneiss of Precambrian age and a thick series of sedimentary strata that range in age from Cambrian to Recent. Rocks of Precambrian and Paleozoic age are confined to the mountains, rocks of Mesozoic age crop out along the flank of the Wind River and Owl Creek Mountains and in denuded anticlines in the floor of the basin, and rocks of Tertiary age cover the greater part of the floor of the basin. Deposits of debris from glaciers are in the mountains, and remnants of gravel-capped terraces of Pleistocene age are on the floor of the basin. The lateral extent and depth of alluvial deposits of Recent age along all the streams are highly variable. The climate of the floor of the basin is arid. The foothills probably receive a greater amount of intense rainfall than the areas at lower altitudes. Most precipitation in the Wind River Mountains falls as snow. The foothill sections, in general, are transitional zones between the cold, humid

  7. Assessment of groundwater quality and health risk in drinking water basin using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Şehnaz; Şener, Erhan; Davraz, Ayşen

    2017-02-01

    Eğirdir Lake basin was selected as the study area because the lake is the second largest freshwater lake in Turkey and groundwater in the basin is used as drinking water. In the present study, 29 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters to determine the hydrochemical characteristics, groundwater quality, and human health risk in the study area. The dominant ions are Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , HCO 3 2- , and SO 4 2 . According to Gibbs plot, the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction field. A groundwater quality index (WQI) reveals that the majority of the samples falls under good to excellent category of water, suggesting that the groundwater is suitable for drinking and other domestic uses. The Ca-Mg-HCO 3 , Ca-HCO 3 , Ca-SO 4 -HCO 3 , and Ca-Mg-HCO 3 -SO 4 water types are the dominant water types depending on the water-rock interaction in the investigation area. Risk of metals to human health was then evaluated using hazard quotients (HQ) by ingestion and dermal pathways for adults and children. It was indicated that As with HQ ingestion >1 was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic concerns. It can be concluded that the highest contributors to chronic risks were As and Cr for both adults and children.

  8. Water-quality assessment of the New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island : environmental settings and implications for water quality and aquatic biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sarah M.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Robinson, Keith W.; Coles, James F.

    1999-01-01

    The New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island constitute one of 59 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. England Coastal Basins study unit encompasses the fresh surface waters and ground waters in a 23,000 square-mile area that drains to the Atlantic Ocean. Major basins include those of the Kennebec, Androscoggin, Saco, Merrimack, Charles, Blackstone, Taunton, and Pawcatuck Rivers. Defining the environmental setting of the study unit is the first step in designing and conducting a multi-disciplinary regional water-quality assessment. The report describes the natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basins and includes descriptions of the physiography, climate, geology, soils, surface- and ground-water hydrology, land use, and the aquatic ecosystem. Although surface-water quality has greatly improved over the past 30 years as a result of improved wastewater treatment at municipal and industrial wastewater facilities, a number of water-quality problems remain. Industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, combined sewer overflows, hydrologic modifications from dams and water diversions, and runoff from urban land use are the major causes of water-quality degradation in 1998. The most frequently detected contaminants in ground water in the study area are volatile organic compounds, petroleum-related products, nitrates, and chloride and sodium. Sources of these contaminants include leaking storage tanks, accidental spills, landfills, road salting, and septic systems and lagoons. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in fish tissue from streams and lakes throughout the study area.

  9. Optimizing basin-scale coupled water quantity and water quality man-agement with stochastic dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Engelund Holm, Peter; Trapp, Stefan; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Few studies address water quality in hydro-economic models, which often focus primarily on optimal allocation of water quantities. Water quality and water quantity are closely coupled, and optimal management with focus solely on either quantity or quality may cause large costs in terms of the oth-er component. In this study, we couple water quality and water quantity in a joint hydro-economic catchment-scale optimization problem. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocation, water curtailment and water treatment. The simple water quality module can handle conservative pollutants, first order depletion and non-linear reactions. For demonstration purposes, we model pollutant releases as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and use the Streeter-Phelps equation for oxygen deficit to compute the resulting min-imum dissolved oxygen concentrations. Inelastic water demands, fixed water allocation curtailment costs and fixed wastewater treatment costs (before and after use) are estimated for the water users (agriculture, industry and domestic). If the BOD concentration exceeds a given user pollution thresh-old, the user will need to pay for pre-treatment of the water before use. Similarly, treatment of the return flow can reduce the BOD load to the river. A traditional SDP approach is used to solve one-step-ahead sub-problems for all combinations of discrete reservoir storage, Markov Chain inflow clas-ses and monthly time steps. Pollution concentration nodes are introduced for each user group and untreated return flow from the users contribute to increased BOD concentrations in the river. The pollutant concentrations in each node depend on multiple decision variables (allocation and wastewater treatment) rendering the objective function non-linear. Therefore, the pollution concen-tration decisions are outsourced to a genetic algorithm, which calls a linear program to determine the remainder of the decision

  10. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin, environmental setting and study design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Andrews, W.J.; Fallon, J.D.; Fong, A.L.; Goldstein, R.M.; Hanson, P.E.; Kroening, S.E.; Lee, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River Basin is diverse in ways that can control the areal distribution and flow of water and the distribution and concentration of constituents that affect water quality. A review of the environmental setting of the Upper Mississippi River Basin study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program is intended to put water quality in perspective with the geology, soils, climate, hydrology, ecology and historical uses of the land and provides a basis for the sampling design of the study.

  11. Emission Control in River Network System of the Taihu Basin for Water Quality Assurance of Water Environmentally Sensitive Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As pollution incidents frequently occurred in the functional water areas of the Taihu Basin, Yangtze Delta, effective emission control to guarantee water quality in the Taihu Basin became the priority for environmental management. In this study, a new total emission control (TEC method was proposed with an emphasis on the concept of water environmentally sensitive areas (WESAs. This method was verified in Wujiang District and the techniques can be concluded in three steps: (1 a 1-D mathematical model for the study area was established and the model was calibrated using field measurement data; (2 based on an analysis of administrative planning and regulations, WESAs were identified as the main controlling objectives for emission control calculations. The weighting coefficient of local pollution sources was investigated to discuss the effectiveness of TEC on water quality improvement at WESAs; and (3 applying the river network mathematical model, water quality along the river segments was simulated under different pollution control plans. The results proved the effectiveness of TEC in the study area and indicated that a 14.6% reduction in the total amount of ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N, as well as a 31.1% reduction in the total amount of chemical oxygen demand (CODcr, was essential in order to meet the water quality standard in the WESAs.

  12. THE GEOPOLITICAL DIMENSION OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY. WATERS AND CONFLICT IN THE ARAL SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Piastra

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the Aral Sea, located in Central Asia on the boundary between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, experienced a dramatic shrinking, divulged even in newspapers and magazines. Such an ecological catastrophe, renamed the “Aral Sea Crisis”, was triggered by the artificial diversion of the rivers of the basin during the Soviet period, in order to irrigate new cotton fields. Nowadays, notwithstanding the fulfilment of several environmental restoration projects and a wide scientific literature about the process, the general balance about the water body, in particular its Uzbek side, is still critical. This paper, after a synthesis concerning the causes and the consequences of the ecological disaster, analyses the geopolitical implications connected to the deterioration of the environmental quality in the region and to water management in Post-Soviet Central Asia, underlining, in the case of the Aral Sea Basin, the criticities linked to its fast transition from an internal basin to an international one. Finally, Central Asian water-related old programs and future scenarios are discussed.

  13. Water-quality, streamflow, and meteorological data for the Tualatin River Basin, Oregon, 1991-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M.C.; Caldwell, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Surface-water-quality data, ground-water-quality data, streamflow data, field measurements, aquatic-biology data, meteorological data, and quality-assurance data were collected in the Tualatin River Basin from 1991 to 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Unified Sewerage Agency of Washington County, Oregon (USA). The data from that study, which are part of this report, are presented in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format in subject-specific data files on a Compact Disk-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM). The text of this report describes the objectives of the study, the location of sampling sites, sample-collection and processing techniques, equipment used, laboratory analytical methods, and quality-assurance procedures. The data files on CD-ROM contain the analytical results of water samples collected in the Tualatin River Basin, streamflow measurements of the main-stem Tualatin River and its major tributaries, flow data from the USA wastewater-treatment plants, flow data from stations that divert water from the main-stem Tualatin River, aquatic-biology data, and meteorological data from the Tualatin Valley Irrigation District (TVID) Agrimet Weather Station located in Verboort, Oregon. Specific information regarding the contents of each data file is given in the text. The data files use a series of letter codes that distinguish each line of data. These codes are defined in data tables accompanying the text. Presenting data on CD-ROM offers several advantages: (1) the data can be accessed easily and manipulated by computers, (2) the data can be distributed readily over computer networks, and (3) the data may be more easily transported and stored than a large printed report. These data have been used by the USGS to (1) identify the sources, transport, and fate of nutrients in the Tualatin River Basin, (2) quantify relations among nutrient loads, algal growth, low dissolved-oxygen concentrations, and high pH, and (3) develop and

  14. Hydrologic and water-quality characterization and modeling of the Chenoweth Run basin, Jefferson County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary R.; Zarriello, Phillip J.; Shipp, Allison A.

    2001-01-01

    Rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data collected in the Chenoweth Run Basin during February 1996?January 1998, in combination with the available historical sampling data, were used to characterize hydrologic conditions and to develop and calibrate a Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF) model for continuous simulation of rainfall, streamflow, suspended-sediment, and total-orthophosphate (TPO4) transport relations. Study results provide an improved understanding of basin hydrology and a hydrologic-modeling framework with analytical tools for use in comprehensive waterresource planning and management. Chenoweth Run Basin, encompassing 16.5 mi2 in suburban eastern Jefferson County, Kentucky, contains expanding urban development, particularly in the upper third of the basin. Historical water-quality problems have interfered with designated aquatic-life and recreation uses in the stream main channel (approximately 9 mi in length) and have been attributed to organic enrichment, nutrients, metals, and pathogens in urban runoff and wastewater inflows. Hydrologic conditions in Jefferson County are highly varied. In the Chenoweth Run Basin, as in much of the eastern third of the county, relief is moderately sloping to steep. Also, internal drainage in pervious areas is impeded by the shallow, fine-textured subsoils that contain abundant silts and clays. Thus, much of the precipitation here tends to move rapidly as overland flow and (or) shallow subsurface flow (interflow) to the stream channels. Data were collected at two streamflowgaging stations, one rain gage, and four waterquality- sampling sites in the basin. Precipitation, streamflow, and, consequently, constituent loads were above normal during the data-collection period of this study. Nonpoint sources contributed the largest portion of the sediment loads. However, the three wastewatertreatment plants (WWTP?s) were the source of the majority of estimated total phosphorus (TP) and TPO4 transport

  15. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Carson River basin, Nevada and California; analysis of available water-quality data through 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, A.H.; Plume, R.W.; Frick, E.A.; Hughes, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Data on groundwater quality, hydrogeology, and land and water use for the Carson River basin, Nevada and California were analyzed as part of the U. S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program. The basin consists of six hydrographic areas--a mountainous headwaters area and five downstream areas interconnected by the Carson River. Each valley contains one or more basin-fill aquifers. The data on groundwater quality came from several agencies and were screened to verify site location and to avoid analyses of treated water. The screened data are stored in the U. S. Geological Survey National Water Information System data base. Differences in sample-collection and preservation procedures among some of the data-collection agencies restrict use of the data to a descriptive analysis. Drinking water standards were employed as the basis for evaluating reported concentrations. Frequencies with which primary or secondary standards are exceeded increase from upstream parts of the basin to downstream parts. Primary standards commonly exceeded are fluoride in upstream areas and arsenic and fluoride in downstream areas. Secondary standards commonly exceeded are iron and manganese in upstream areas and chloride, dissolved solids, iron, manganese, and sulfate in downstream areas. The poorer-quality groundwater generally is a result of natural geochemical reactions, rather than the introduction of chemicals by man. Limited data indicate, however , that manmade organic compounds are present, mostly at or near urban land. (USGS)

  16. Chemical quality of surface water in the Allegheny River basin, Pennsylvania and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarren, Edward F.

    1967-01-01

    The Allegheny River is the principal source of water to many industries and to communities in the upper Ohio River Valley. The river and its many tributaries pass through 19 counties in northwestern and western Pennsylvania. The population in these counties exceeds 3 million. A major user of the Allegheny River is the city of Pittsburgh, which has a population greater than The Allegheny River is as basic to the economy of the upper Ohio River Valley in western Pennsylvania as are the rich deposits of bituminous coal, gas, and oil that underlie the drainage basin. During the past 5 years many streams that flow into the Allegheny have been low flowing because of droughts affecting much of the eastern United States. Consequently, the concentration of solutes in some streams has been unusually high because of wastes from coal mines and oil wells. These and other water-quality problems in the Allegheny River drainage basin are affecting the economic future of some areas in western Pennsylvania. Because of environmental factors such as climate, geology, and land and water uses, surface-water quality varies considerably throughout the river basin. The natural quality of headwater streams, for example, is affected by saltwater wastes from petroleum production. One of the streams most affected is Kinzua Creek, which had 2,900 parts per million chloride in a sample taken at Westline on September 2, 1959. However, after such streams as the Conewango, Brokenstraw, Tionesta, Oil, and French Creeks merge with the Allegheny River, the dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations are reduced by dilution. Central segments of the main river receive water from the Clarion River, Redbank, Mahoning, and Crooked Creeks after they have crossed the coal fields of west-central Pennsylvania. At times, therefore, these streams carry coal-mine wastes that are acidic. The Kiskiminetas River, which crosses these coal fields, discharged sulfuric acid into the Allegheny at a rate of 299 tons a

  17. Water-quality assessment in the Trinity River Basin, Texas; pesticide occurrence in streams, winter and spring 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Allison A.

    1995-01-01

    A consistent, basin-wide set of data for streams in the Trinity River Basin is necessary to provide a baseline for current conditions, to compare with historical data, and to provide a reference for future studies by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. In addition, the basin-wide surveys begin the process of addressing the cause-effect relation for water quality in the basin. Effects of land use, geology, vegetation, soils, and reservoirs on water quality were considered by site selection. Seasonal differences were addressed by conducting two surveys, the first during the winter low-flow period and the second during the late spring high-flow period.

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of water quality in the Belaya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashchevskaia, Tatiana; Motovilov, Yuri

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this research is to identify the spatiotemporal regularities of the maintenance of nitrogen compounds in the streams of the Belaya River basin. The dynamics of human activities in the catchment and intra and inter-annual changes in the water quality are analyzed for the period 1969-2007 years. The Belaya River is situated in the South Ural region and is one of the biggest tributary in the Volga River basin with catchment area of 142 000 km2. The Belaya River provides drinking water for a lot of settlements, it is used for industrial and agricultural water supply, fishery use, it is also a wastewater receiver for industry and housing and communal services. More than sixty years the diverse economic activities are carried out in the Belaya River basin, the intensity of this activity is characterized by high temporal variability. The leading industries in the region are oil mining, petroleum processing, chemistry and petro chemistry, mechanical engineering, metallurgy, power industry, timber industry. About 50% of the river basin is used for agriculture. Inter-annual dynamics of the nitrogen content in the river waters was identified on the basis of the long-term hydrological monitoring statistics at the 32 sites. It was found that the dynamics of the intensity of economic activities in the Belaya River basin is the cause statistically significant changes in the content of nitrogen compounds of the river network. Statistically homogeneous time intervals have been set for each monitoring site. Within these time intervals there were obtained averaged reliable quantitative estimations of water quality. Calculations showed that from the end of 1980 to 2007 the average long-term content of nutrients in the river waters is reduced in comparison with the previous period: ammonium nitrogen - in 1,6-7,5 times, nitrite nitrogen - 1,9-37,3 times, but the average concentration of nitrate nitrogen is increased in 1,4-6,6 times. Empirical probability distributions of

  19. Impacts of biofuels production alternatives on water quantity and quality in the Iowa River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Liu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn stover as well as perennial grasses like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and miscanthus are being considered as candidates for the second generation biofuel feedstocks. However, the challenges to biofuel development are its effects on the environment, especially water quality. This study evaluates the long-term impacts of biofuel production alternatives (e.g., elevated corn stover removal rates and the potential land cover change) on an ecosystem with a focus on biomass production, soil erosion, water quantity and quality, and soil nitrate nitrogen concentration at the watershed scale. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was modified for setting land cover change scenarios and applied to the Iowa River Basin (a tributary of the Upper Mississippi River Basin). Results show that biomass production can be sustained with an increased stover removal rate as long as the crop demand for nutrients is met with appropriate fertilization. Although a drastic increase (4.7–70.6%) in sediment yield due to erosion and a slight decrease (1.2–3.2%) in water yield were estimated with the stover removal rate ranging between 40% and 100%, the nitrate nitrogen load declined about 6–10.1%. In comparison to growing corn, growing either switchgrass or miscanthus can reduce sediment erosion greatly. However, land cover changes from native grass to switchgrass or miscanthus would lead to a decrease in water yield and an increase in nitrate nitrogen load. In contrast to growing switchgrass, growing miscanthus is more productive in generating biomass, but its higher water demand may reduce water availability in the study area.

  20. Streamflow and water-quality data for Meadow Run Basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, December 1987-November 1988. Open file report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Witt, E.C.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected throughout the Meadow Run basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, from December 7, 1987 through November 15, 1988, to determine the prevailing quality of surface water over a range of hydrologic conditions. The data will assist the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources during its review of coal-mine permit applications. A water-quality station near the mouth of Meadow Run provided continuous-record of stream stage, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature. Monthly water-quality samples collected at the station were analyzed for total and dissolved metals, nutrients, major cations and anions, and suspended-sediment concentrations

  1. Long-term trends of metal content and water quality in the Belaya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashchevskaia, Tatiana; Motovilov, Yuri

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this research is to identify the spatiotemporal regularities of iron, copper and zinc contents in the streams of the Belaya River basin. The Belaya River is situated in the South Ural region and it is one of the biggest tributary in the Volga River basin with catchment area of 142 000 km2. More than sixty years the diverse economic activities are carried out in the Belaya River basin, the intensity of this activity is characterized by high temporal variability. The leading industries in the region are metallurgy, oil production, petroleum processing, chemistry and petro chemistry, mechanical engineering, power industry. The dynamics of human activities in the catchment and intra and inter-annual changes in the water quality were analyzed for the period 1969-2007 years. Inter-annual dynamics of the metal content in the river waters was identified on the basis of the long-term hydrological monitoring statistics at the 32 sites. It was found that the dynamics of intensity of economic activities in the Belaya River basin was the cause statistically significant changes in the metal content of the river network. Statistically homogeneous time intervals have been set for each monitoring site. Within these time intervals there were obtained averaged reliable quantitative estimations of water quality. Calculations showed that the content of iron, copper and zinc did not change during the analyzed period at the sites, located in the mountain and foothill parts of the basin. At other sites, located on the plains areas of the Belaya River Basin and in the areas of functioning of large industrial facilities, metal content varies. A period of increased concentrations of metals is since the second half of 1970 until the end of the 1990s. From the end of 1990 to 2007 the average metal content for a long-term period in the river waters is reduced in comparison with the previous period: iron - to 7.4 times, copper - to 6.7 times, zinc - to 15 times. As a result, by the

  2. Are the streams of the Sinos River basin of good water quality? Aquatic macroinvertebrates may answer the question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bieger

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrate communities are one of the most used groups in assessments of water quality, since they respond directly to the level of contamination of aquatic ecosystems. The main objective of this study was the assessment of the water quality of the Sinos River basin (Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil through biotic indices based on the macroinvertebrate community ("Family Biotic Index - FBI", and "Biological Monitoring Working Party Score System - BMWP". Three lower order streams (2nd order were selected in each one of three main regions of the basin. In each stream, the samplings were performed in three reaches (upper, middle, and lower, totalling 27 reaches. Two samplings were carried in each reach over one year (winter and summer. A total of 6,847 macroinvertebrates distributed among 54 families were sampled. The streams from the upper region were of better water quality than the lower region. The water quality did not change between the upper, middle and lower reaches of the streams. However, the upper reaches of the streams were of better water quality in all the regions of the basin. The water quality of the streams did not vary between the summer and the winter. This result demonstrated that water quality may be analysed in both studied seasons (summer and winter using biotic indices. The analysis of the results allows us to conclude that the biotic indices used reflected the changes related to the water quality along the longitudinal gradient of the basin. Thus, aquatic macroinvertebrates were important bioindicators of the water and environmental quality of the streams of the Sinos River basin.

  3. Are the streams of the Sinos River basin of good water quality? Aquatic macroinvertebrates may answer the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieger, L; Carvalho, A B P; Strieder, M N; Maltchik, L; Stenert, C

    2010-12-01

    Macroinvertebrate communities are one of the most used groups in assessments of water quality, since they respond directly to the level of contamination of aquatic ecosystems. The main objective of this study was the assessment of the water quality of the Sinos River basin (Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil) through biotic indices based on the macroinvertebrate community ("Family Biotic Index - FBI", and "Biological Monitoring Working Party Score System - BMWP"). Three lower order streams (2nd order) were selected in each one of three main regions of the basin. In each stream, the samplings were performed in three reaches (upper, middle, and lower), totalling 27 reaches. Two samplings were carried in each reach over one year (winter and summer). A total of 6,847 macroinvertebrates distributed among 54 families were sampled. The streams from the upper region were of better water quality than the lower region. The water quality did not change between the upper, middle and lower reaches of the streams. However, the upper reaches of the streams were of better water quality in all the regions of the basin. The water quality of the streams did not vary between the summer and the winter. This result demonstrated that water quality may be analysed in both studied seasons (summer and winter) using biotic indices. The analysis of the results allows us to conclude that the biotic indices used reflected the changes related to the water quality along the longitudinal gradient of the basin. Thus, aquatic macroinvertebrates were important bioindicators of the water and environmental quality of the streams of the Sinos River basin.

  4. Surface-water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mades, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a National Water-Quality Assessment program to (1) provide nationally consistent descriptions of the current status of water quality for a large, diverse, and geographically distributed part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources; (2) define, where possible, trends in water quality; and (3) identify and describe the relations of both status and trends in water quality to natural factors and the history of land use and land- and waste-management activities. The program is presently in a pilot phase that will test and modify, as necessary, concepts and approaches in preparation for possible full implementation of the program in the future. The upper Illinois River basin is one of four basins selected to test the concepts and approaches of the surface-water-quality element of the national program. The basin drains 10,949 square miles of Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin. Three principal tributaries are the Kankakee and Des Plaines Rivers that join to form the Illinois River and the Fox River. Land use is predominantly agricultural; about 75 percent of the basin is cultivated primarily for production of corn and soybeans. About 13 percent of the basin is urban area, most of which is located in the Chicago metropolitan area. The population of the basin is about 7 million. About 6 million people live in the Des Plaines River basin. Many water-quality issues in the upper Illinois River basin are related to sediment, nutrients, potentially toxic inorganic and organic constituents, and to water-management practices. Occurrence of sediment and the chemical constituents in the rivers and lakes within the basin has the potential to adversely affect the water's suitability for aquatic life, recreation, or, through the consumption of fish, human health. The upper Illinois River basin project consists of five major activities. The first activity--analysis of existing information and preparation of a report that describes

  5. Design of a water quality monitoring network for the Limpopo River Basin in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilundo, M.; Kelderman, P.; O´keeffe, J. H.

    The measurement of chemical, physical and biological parameters is important for the characterization of streams health. Thus, cost-effective and targeted water quality (WQ) monitoring programmes are required for proper assessment, restoration and protection of such systems. This research proposes a WQ monitoring network for the Limpopo River Basin (LRB) in Mozambique located in Southern Africa, a region prone to severe droughts. In this Basin both anthropogenic and natural driven processes, exacerbated by the increased water demand by the four riparian countries (Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique) are responsible for the degradation of surface waters, impairing their downstream use, either for aquatic ecosystem, drinking, industrial or irrigation. Hence, physico-chemical, biological and microbiological characteristics at 23 sites within the basin were studied in November 2006 and January 2007. The physico-chemical and microbiological samples were analyzed according to American Public Health Association (APHA) standard methods, while the biological monitoring working party method (BMWP) was used for biological assessment. The assessment of the final WQ condition at sampled points was done taking into account appropriate indexes, the Mozambican standards for receiving waters and the WHO guidelines for drinking WQ. The assessed data indicated that sites located at proximities to the border with upstream countries were contaminated with heavy metals. The Elephants subcatchment was found with a relatively better WQ, whereas the Changane subcatchment together with the effluent point discharges in the basin were found polluted as indicated by the low dissolved oxygen and high total dissolved solids, electric conductivity, total hardness, sodium adsorption ratio and low benthic macroinvertebrates taxa. Significant differences ( p < 0.05) were found for some parameters when the concentrations recorded in November and January were tested, therefore, indicating

  6. The Benthonic Macroinvertebrates of Pozo Azul (Gaira River Basin, Colombia and their Relationship with Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Guerrero-Bolaño

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available On July 2002, a study of some physicochemical parameters and their relationship with the benthonic macroinvertebrates community structure on four coriotypes: stone, trash, silt and macrophytes, was carried out in Pozo Azul (Gaira River basin, Magdalena, Colombia. The physicochemical parameters were determined, to a considerable extent, by the geographic characteristics of the system. The water was found to be oxygen saturated, and intermediate compounds of the organic matter stabilization, such as nitrites and ammonium, there were found 588 individuals distributed in 11 orders and 38 families. The most representative orders were Trichoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and Ephemeroptera. The most representative families were Baetidae, Simullidae, Perlidae, Chironomidae, and Hydropsychidae, in this rank of abundance. The BMWP index for the relationship between the community structure and the water quality (adapted by Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia was calculated. According to this index the water quality was optimum. Also, given the general characteristics of the site studied, the water mass quality was classified as good and oligosaprobit, based on the saprobit ecology. It is possible that this state was reached due to stabilization after a small perturbation induced by coffee cultivation in the zone.

  7. Characterization of Surface Water and Groundwater Quality in the Lower Tano River Basin Using Statistical and Isotopic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjah, Adwoba; Stenni, Barbara; Cozzi, Giulio; Turetta, Clara; Dreossi, Giuliano; Tetteh Akiti, Thomas; Yidana, Sandow

    2017-04-01

    Adwoba Kua- Manza Edjaha, Barbara Stennib,c,Giuliano Dreossib, Giulio Cozzic, Clara Turetta c,T.T Akitid ,Sandow Yidanae a,eDepartment of Earth Science, University of Ghana Legon, Ghana West Africa bDepartment of Enviromental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, Ca Foscari University of Venice, Italy cInstitute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes, CNR, Venice, Italy dDepartment of Nuclear Application and Techniques, Graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences University of Ghana Legon This research is part of a PhD research work "Hydrogeological Assessment of the Lower Tano river basin for sustainable economic usage, Ghana, West - Africa". In this study, the researcher investigated surface water and groundwater quality in the Lower Tano river basin. This assessment was based on some selected sampling sites associated with mining activities, and the development of oil and gas. Statistical approach was applied to characterize the quality of surface water and groundwater. Also, water stable isotopes, which is a natural tracer of the hydrological cycle was used to investigate the origin of groundwater recharge in the basin. The study revealed that Pb and Ni values of the surface water and groundwater samples exceeded the WHO standards for drinking water. In addition, water quality index (WQI), based on physicochemical parameters(EC, TDS, pH) and major ions(Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, HCO3-,NO3-, CL-, SO42-, K+) exhibited good quality water for 60% of the sampled surface water and groundwater. Other statistical techniques, such as Heavy metal pollution index (HPI), degree of contamination (Cd), and heavy metal evaluation index (HEI), based on trace element parameters in the water samples, reveal that 90% of the surface water and groundwater samples belong to high level of pollution. Principal component analysis (PCA) also suggests that the water quality in the basin is likely affected by rock - water interaction and anthropogenic activities (sea water intrusion). This

  8. Hydrogeology and water quality of the West Valley Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, L.A.; Sloto, R.A.; Reif, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    .5 inches in 1990 and 13.7 inches in 1991. Ground-water quality in the basin reflects differences in lithology and has been affected by human activities. Ground water in the carbonate rocks is naturally hard, has a near neutral pH, and contains more dissolved solids and less dissolved iron, manganese, and radon-222 than ground water in the non-carbonate rocks, which is soft, with moderately acidic to acidic pH. Regional contamination by chloride and nitrate and local contamination by organic compounds and metals was detected. Natural background concentrations are estimated to be about 1 milligram per liter for nitrate as nitrogen and less than 3 milligrams per liter for chloride. Ground water in unsewered areas and agricultural areas of the basin has median concentrations of nitrate that are greater than those in ground water from other areas; septic system effluent and fertilizer are probably sources of elevated nitrate. Water samples from wells in urbanized areas contain greater concentrations of chloride than samples from wells in residential areas; road salt is the probable source of elevated chloride. Organic solvents, especially trichloroethylene, were detected in 30 percent of the wells sampled in the urbanized carbonate valley. Most of the organic solvents and some of the metals in ground water were detected near old industrial sites. Base-flow stream quality of West Valley Creek was determined at 15 sites from monthly sampling for 1 year. Differences in stream quality reflect differences in lithology, land use, and point sources in tributary subbasins and mainstem reaches. The chemical composition of base flow in the mainstem is dominated by ground-water discharge of carbonate rocks. Elevated concentrations of nitrate (greater than 3 milligrams per liter as nitrogen) in base flow were measured in a tributary draining agricultural land and in a tributary draining an unsewered residential area. Elevated concentrations of

  9. Water Quality and Algal Data for the North Umpqua River Basin, Oregon, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Arnsberg, Andrew J.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    2006-01-01

    The upper North Umpqua River Basin has experienced a variety of water-quality problems since at least the early 1990's. Several reaches of the North Umpqua River are listed as water-quality limited under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act. Diamond Lake, a eutrophic lake that is an important source of water and nutrients to the upper North Umpqua River, is also listed as a water-quality limited waterbody (pH, nuisance algae). A draft Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) was proposed for various parameters and is expected to be adopted in full in 2006. Diamond Lake has supported potentially toxic blue-green algae blooms since 2001 that have resulted in closures to recreational water contact and impacts to the local economy. Increased populations of the invasive tui chub fish are reportedly responsible, because they feed on zooplankton that would otherwise control the algal blooms. The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Diamond Lake Restoration Project advocates reduced fish biomass in Diamond Lake in 2006 as the preferred alternative. A restoration project scheduled to reduce fish biomass for the lake includes a significant water-level drawdown that began in January 2006. After the drawdown of Diamond Lake, the fish toxicant rotenone was applied to eradicate the tui chub. The lake will be refilled and restocked with game fish in 2007. Winter exports of nutrients from Diamond Lake during the restoration project could affect the summer trophic status of the North Umpqua River if retention and recycling in Lemolo Lake are significant. The FEIS includes comprehensive monitoring to assess the water quality of the restored Diamond Lake and the effects of that restoration downstream. One component of the monitoring is the collection of baseline data, in order to observe changes in the river's water quality and algal conditions resulting from the restoration of Diamond Lake. During July 2005, the USGS, in cooperation with Douglas County, performed a synoptic

  10. water quality of the high-montane Juan Cojo and El Salado's basins (Glrardota - Antioqula, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Marin, Ana Maria; Naranjo Fernandez, Dario; Martinez, Andres Alfonso; Gallego Suarez, Dario de Jesus

    2007-01-01

    This work is a preliminary diagnosis of the actual state of the high-montane water sources located in the Juan Cojo's and El Salado's basins of the NE side of the Aburra valley' both belong to the Girardota municipality (6 degrades 20.951' N, 75 celsius 27.199' W between 1900 and 2500 meter above sea level in the central montane chain. in order to achieve this work several samples were taken in august 10, 11, 17 and 19 of 2004. this preliminary study includes the physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of 30 sampling points. just one of the 30 sampling points exhibited absence of microbiological pollution due to fecal and total coliforms. this fact suggests bad practices in the final disposal of domestic and farming water residuals. in the other hand, the physicochemical and the ICA (water quality index) evaluation reveal that the sampled water sources exhibit typical characteristics of common low-montane ,non-polluted water sources. in other words, although pollution levels found in those water sources are not alarming, they do not exhibit the typical pollution levels found in natural high-montane waters, as they should, even we could find some sampling points with meso-eutrophic conditions

  11. Water resource planning and water quality in the Riu Cixerri Basin (Southern Sardinia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coni, M.; Ferralis, M; Madonia, P.; Sechi, C.; Verde, C.

    2000-01-01

    Present paper deals with a hydrogeological and biological study of the Riu Cixerri watershed (Southern Sardinia), carried out in order to evaluate volumes and quality of surface waters. Variables of hydrogeological balance have been derived by the use of a G.I.S. based method. The obtained results underline the low reliability of data used for past water resource planning and the good self purification capability of the Cixerri river [it

  12. The disappearing Environmental Kuznets Curve: a study of water quality in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yoon Loong Andrew; Lewis, Lynne

    2013-12-15

    The literature is flush with articles focused on estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for various pollutants and various locations. Most studies have utilized air pollution variables; far fewer have utilized water quality variables, all with mixed results. We suspect that mixed evidence of the EKC stems from model and error specification. We analyze annual data for four water quality indicators, three of them previously unstudied - total phosphorus (TOTP), dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonium (NH4) and nitrites (NO2) - from the Lower Mekong Basin region to determine whether an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is evident for a transboundary river in a developing country and whether that curve is dependent on model specification and/or pollutant. We build upon previous studies by correcting for the problems of heteroskedasticity, serial correlation and cross-sectional dependence. Unlike multi-country EKC studies, we mitigate for potential distortion from pooling data across geographically heterogeneous locations by analyzing data drawn from proximate locations within a specific international river basin in Southeast Asia. We also attempt to identify vital socioeconomic determinants of water pollution by including a broad list of explanatory variables alongside the income term. Finally, we attempt to shed light on the pollution-income relationship as it pertains to trans-boundary water pollution by examining data from an international river system. We do not find consistent evidence of an EKC for any of the 4 pollutant indicators in this study, but find the results are entirely dependent on model and error specification as well as pollutant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Common Agricultural Policy as a driver of water quality changes: the case of the Guadalquivir River Basin (southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Salmoral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have analysed the effects of European environmental policies on water quality, but no detailed retrospective analysis of the impacts of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP reforms on observed water quality parameters has been carried out. This study evaluates the impact of the CAP and other drivers on the concentrations of nitrates and suspended solids in the Guadalquivir River Basin (southern Spain over the 1999-2009 period. The most important drivers that are degrading both water quality indicators are exports from upland areas and agricultural intensification. Water quality conditions have improved in regions where there has been abandonment and/or deintensification. The decoupling process has reduced the concentration of nitrates and suspended solids in a number of subbasins. Although agricultural production and water efficiency in the basin have improved, high erosion rates have not yet been addressed. 

  14. Integrated approach of hydrological and water quality dynamic simulation for anthropogenic disturbance assessment in the Huai River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaoyan; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Yongyong

    2017-11-15

    Detailed depiction of hydrological process and its associated pollution processes plays a critical role in environment improvement and management at basin scale. It also provides a useful tool to assess impact of potential factors on hydrological and water quality conditions. However, it was still difficult to well capture some typical characteristics of these complicated processes including built-in nonlinearity and time-variation, water infrastructure regulations, particularly for highly regulated basins. In this study, an integrated approach of hydrological and water quality dynamic simulation was proposed to solve these difficulties and assess the impacts of several anthropogenic disturbances. The Huai River Basin which was highly disturbed and seriously polluted, was selected as the study area. The main anthropogenic activities considered were point source pollution emissions, diffuse pollutant losses and dam regulations. Results showed that the integrated simulation could well capture the variations in water level, water discharge, concentrations of permanganate index (COD Mn ) and ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 -N) in high (2007), normal (2008) and low (2004) flow years at 15 stations in the upper and middle streams of Huai River Basin. The regulation rules of downstream sluices played negative roles on water quality improvement if keeping current pollution sources, while those of middle stream sluices played positive roles on water quality improvement. However, the water quality deterioration was mainly attributed to emission of point source pollution (12%-43%), followed by diffuse pollutant loss (0-23%) and water quantity-oriented dam regulation (-29%-20%). The study was expected to provide technical supports for the implementation of water pollution control and sustainable water resources management in the Huai River Basin, and give a reference of integrated hydrological and hydrodynamic simulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stilling basin design and operation for water quality : field testing, final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Many construction projects involve the need to pump turbid water from borrow pits or other excavations into stilling : basins or sediment bags prior to discharge. The design and operation of these basins needs to be optimized to : provide the best wa...

  16. Satellite Data and Hydrological Model to Asses Water Quantity and Quality in the Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Marco; Corbari, Chiara; Di Trapani, Antonio; Li, Jiren; Xin, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jianli; Zhang, Xingnan; Su, Bob; Yesou, Herve

    2016-08-01

    The main objective of the project is to assess water quantity and quality for the Yangtze River basin through remote sensing data and a distributed hydrological model. The paper provides an overview of the project activities that are supported by several peer review articles to which we refer for details. Water quantity analyses are assed with the fully distributed hydrological model FEST-EWB. The model algorithm solves the system of energy and mass balances in terms of a representative equilibrium temperature (RET) that is the land surface temperature that closes the energy balance equation and so governs the fluxes of energy and mass over the basin domain. This equilibrium surface temperature, which is a critical model state variable, is comparable to LST as retrieved from operational remote sensing data (MODIS) which is used for the calibration of soil and vegetation parameters. The effects on river discharge of the Three Gorges dam, the largest hydropower project in the world is evaluated. Observed flow duration curves, for the four available river cross sections, will be evaluated and compared to FEST- EWB simulated flow duration curves as well as observed as simulated hydrographs.The dynamic of the three large lakes (Poyang, Dongting and Taihu), which change considerably their area during the seasons, will also be analyzed using MERIS and ASAR data to infer surface area changes and LEGOS altimetry data (Topex/Poseidon, Jason, ENVISAT) for water level. Data from 2003 to 2006 are evaluated.FEST-EWB is run in for the whole Yangtze River basin at spatial resolution of 0.05° and temporal resolution of 3 hours. Results are provided in terms of hourly evapotranspiration, soil moisture and land surface temperature maps for the period between 2003 to 2006 and flood hydrographs at different river cross sections.Water quality analyses are performed along the Yangtze river estimating turbidity and suspended solid sediments from MERIS (250 m) and MODIS (300 m) data using

  17. Fluvial sediment and chemical quality of water in the Little Blue River basin, Nebraska and Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundorff, J.C.; Waddell, K.M.

    1966-01-01

    The Little Blue River drains about 3,37)0 square miles in south-central Nebraska and north-central Kansas. The uppermost bedrock in the basin is limestone and shale of Permian age and sandstone, shale, and limestone of Cretaceous age. Bedrock is exposed in many places in the lower one-third of the basin but elsewhere is buried beneath a thin to thick mantle of younger sediments, mostly of Quaternary age. These younger sediments are largely fluvial and eolian deposits but also include some glacial till. Consisting in large part of sand and gravel, the fluvial deposits are an important source of ground-water supplies throughout much of the upper two-thirds of the basin. Loess, an eolian deposit of clayey silt, is by far the most widespread surficial deposit. The climate is continental. Temperatures ranging from -38 ? F to 118 ? F have been recorded in the basin. Average annual precipitation as low as 10.31 and as high as 49.32 inches has been recorded. During most years in the period 1956-62, when nearly all the water-quality data were obtained, annual precipitation and annual runoff were greater than normal. Flow-duration data indicate, however, that the flow distribution for the period was near normal. The Little Blue River has the same suspended-sediment characteristics as nearly all unregulated streams in the Great Plains--a wide range in concentrations, low concentrations during low-flow periods, and high concentrations during almost all periods of significant overland runoff. The maximum instantaneous concentration normally occurs many hours before maximum water discharge during any given rise in stage; the maximum daily mean concentration during any given year normally occurs at a moderate stream stage, not during a major flood. Suspended-sediment data for Little Blue River near Deweese, Nebr., which receives drainage from the upstream third of the basin, approximately, show that during the 1!}57-61 water years concentrations of 100 ppm (parts per million) or

  18. Agricultural land use and water quality in the upper St. Joseph River basin, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, T. Ray

    1978-01-01

    Land use in the upper St. Joseph River basin of south-central Michigan is primarily agricultural. In the 144-square-mile area, the chemical and physical characteristics of water are determined by the climate and soils, as well as by land conservation practices. Municipal waste discharges affect water quality at some locations, as do the larger lakes and ponds. Data indicate that mean discharge from the basin is 135 cubic feet per second. About half this flow is contributed to the St. Joseph River by three major tributaries: Beebe Creek (36 cubic feet per second); Sand Creek (24 cubic feet per second); and Soap Creek (13 cubic feet per second). Runoff from 21 drainage areas delineated for the investigation ranged from 0.22 to 4.07 cubic feet per second per square mile; both the higher and lower values are largely the result of naturally occurring inter- and intrabasin transfers of water.Suspended-sediment concentrations are low throughout the basin, rarely exceeding 100 milligrams per liter. Mean concentrations at four daily sampling stations on the major tributaries and on the St. Joseph River ranged from 9.7 milligrams per liter to 38 milligrams per liter. The maximum sediment yield was 182 pounds per acre per year. Deposition of sediment in five of the 21 areas resulted in a net loss of sediment transported, and thus “negative” yields.Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations do not vary greatly from site to site. Mean concentrations of total nitrogen at downstream sites on Beebe, Sand, and Soap Creeks, and on the St. Joseph River ranged from 1.5 to 1.8 milligrams per liter. About 90 percent of all nitrogen, and 66 percent of all phosphorus, is transported in solution. Land used principally for agriculture has a mean total nitrogen yield of 4.9 pounds per acre per year and a mean total phosphorus yield of 0.13 pounds per year. A comparison of total nitrogen and total phosphorus yields with type of agricultural use showed few relationships; nitrogen yield

  19. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Dressler, Valerie M.

    2002-01-01

    The quantity and quality of current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are concerns of people who reside within the basin. Additional water resources are needed because of recent growth in population, industry, and agriculture. How the management of current and future water-resources will impact water quality within the basin is a critical issue. Water-quality data, particularly for surface-water sources, will help water-resources managers make decisions about current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for 43 streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are presented in this report. Statistical summaries include sample size, maximum, minimum, mean, and values for the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentiles.

  20. Water quality modelling in the San Antonio River Basin driven by radar rainfall data

    OpenAIRE

    Almoutaz Elhassan; Hongjie Xie; Ahmed A. Al-othman; James Mcclelland; Hatim O. Sharif

    2016-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of stream water quality is needed as it has significant impacts on human and ecological health and well-being. Estimating water quality between sampling dates requires model simulation based on the available geospatial and water quality data for a given watershed. Models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate the missing water quality data. In this study, SWAT was used to estimate water quality at a monitoring station near the outlet of...

  1. Geologic setting and water quality of selected basins in the active coal-mining areas of Ohio, 1987-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedam, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic data from selected drainage basins in the active coal-mining areas of Ohio from July 1987 through October 1988. The study area is mostly within the unglaciated part of eastern Ohio along the western edge of the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province. The 1987-88 work is the second phase of a 7-year study to assess baseline water quality in Ohio's coal region. The data collection network consisted of 41 long-term surface-water sites in 21 basins. The sites were measured and sampled twice yearly at low flow. In addition, six individual basins (three each year) selected for a more detailed representation of surface-water and ground-water quality. In 1987, the Sandy Creek, Middle Tuscarawas River and Sugar Creek, and Lower Tuscarawas River basins were chosen. In 1988, the Short and Wheeling Creeks, Upper Wills Creek, and Upper Raccoon Creek basins were chosen. Because of their proximity to the glaciated region and outwash drainage, the basins studied intensively in 1987 contain more shallow productive aquifers than do the basins studied in detail for 1988, in which shallow ground-water sources are very localized. Chemical analyses for 202 surface-water and 24 ground-water samples are presented. For field measurements made at surface-water sites, the specific conductance ranged from 295 to 3150 ? S/cm (microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius). For pH, the range was 2.8 to 8.6. Alkalinity ranged from 5 to 305 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as CaCO3.

  2. Analysis of point source pollution and water environmental quality variation trends in the Nansi Lake basin from 2002 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yufan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong

    2016-03-01

    Based on the data analysis of the water environmental quality and economic development from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake basin, the correlation and change between the water environmental quality and economic development were studied. Results showed that the GDP and wastewater emissions of point source in the Nansi Lake basin had an average annual growth of 7.30 and 7.68 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012. The emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) had the average annual decrease of 7.69 and 6.79 % in 2012, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water quality overall improved, reaching the Class III of the "Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002)," in which the main reason was that sewage treatment rate increased gradually and was above 90 % in 2012 (an increase of 10 % compared to 2002) with the progress of pollution abatement technology and the implementation of relevant policies and regulations. The contribution of water environmental pollution was analyzed from related cities (Ji'ning, Zaozhuang, Heze). Results indicated that Ji'ning had the largest contribution to water pollution of the Nansi Lake basin, and the pollutant from domestic sources accounted for a higher percentage compared to industrial sources. The wastewater, COD, and NH3-N mainly came from mining and washing of coal, manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, papermaking industry, and food processing industry. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of lakeside point source pollution along the Nansi Lake.

  3. The Common Agricultural Policy as a driver of water quality changes: the case of the Guadalquivir River Basin (southern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Salmoral, Gloria; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have analysed the effects of European environmental policies on water quality, but no detailed retrospective analysis of the impacts of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms on observed water quality parameters has been carried out. This study evaluates the impact of the CAP and other drivers on the concentrations of nitrates and suspended solids in the Guadalquivir River Basin (southern Spain) over the 1999-2009 period. The most important drivers that are degrading bot...

  4. Spatial and temporal changes of water quality, and SWAT modeling of Vosvozis river basin, North Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskidis, Ioannis; Gikas, Georgios D; Pisinaras, Vassilios; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2010-09-01

    The results of an investigation of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Vosvozis river in Northern Greece is presented. For the purposes of this study, three gaging stations were installed along Vosvozis river, where water quantity and quality measurements were conducted for the period August 2005 to November 2006. Water discharge, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured in situ using appropriate equipment. The collected water samples were analyzed in the laboratory for the determination of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium nitrogen, total Kjeldalh nitrogen (TKN), orthophosphate (OP), total phosphorus (TP), COD, and BOD. Agricultural diffuse sources provided the major source of nitrate nitrogen loads during the wet period. During the dry period (from June to October), the major nutrient (N, P) and COD, BOD sources were point sources. The trophic status of Vosvozis river during the monitoring period was determined as eutrophic, based on Dodds classification scheme. Moreover, the SWAT model was used to simulate hydrographs and nutrient loads. SWAT was validated with the measured data. Predicted hydrographs and pollutographs were plotted against observed values and showed good agreement. The validated model was used to test eight alternative scenarios concerning different cropping management approaches. The results of these scenarios indicate that nonpoint source pollution is the prevailing type of pollution in the study area. The SWAT model was found to satisfactorily simulate processes in ephemeral river basins and is an effective tool in water resources management.

  5. Threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the Meramec River Basin, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Augspurger, Tom; Barnhart, M. Christopher; McMurray, Stephen E.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Schrader, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The Meramec River Basin in east-central Missouri is an important stronghold for native freshwater mussels (Order: Unionoida) in the United States. Whereas the basin supports more than 40 mussel species, previous studies indicate that the abundance and distribution of most species are declining. Therefore, resource managers have identified the need to prioritize threats to native mussel populations in the basin and to design a mussel monitoring program. The objective of this study was to identify threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the basin. Affected habitat parameters considered as the main threats to mussel conservation included excess sedimentation, altered stream geomorphology and flow, effects on riparian vegetation and condition, impoundments, and invasive non-native species. Evaluating water-quality parameters for conserving mussels was a main focus of this study. Mussel toxicity data for chemical contaminants were compared to national water quality criteria (NWQC) and Missouri water quality standards (MWQS). However, NWQC and MWQS have not been developed for many chemical contaminants and some MWQS may not be protective of native mussel populations. Toxicity data indicated that mussels are sensitive to ammonia, copper, temperature, certain pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products; these compounds were identified as the priority water-quality parameters for mussel conservation in the basin. Measures to conserve mussel diversity in the basin include expanding the species and life stages of mussels and the list of chemical contaminants that have been assessed, establishing a long term mussel monitoring program that measures physical and chemical parameters of high priority, conducting landscape scale modeling to predict mussel distributions, determining sublethal effects of primary contaminants of concern, deriving risk-based guidance values for mussel conservation, and assessing the effects of wastewater

  6. Chemical quality of surface waters in Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Herbert; Colby, Bruce R.

    1955-01-01

    fallen slowly. Hydrologic changes that may have caused Devils Lake to alter from a very large, moderately deep lake of fresh water to a small, shallow body of brackish water are discussed and evaluated on the basis of scanty information. During several years of average precipitation, temperature, and evaporation, Devils Lake and lakes upstream should receive nearly a quarter of an inch of runoff annually from the drainage area of about 3,000 square miles. Approximately 55 square miles of tributary area would be required to maintain each square mile of lake surface. However, runoff, expressed as percentage of the average, differs greatly from year to year. The amount of runoff retained in upstream lakes also Varies greatly. For these two reasons, annual inflow to Devils Lake is extremely variable. Because many waterways in this basin have no surface outlets at normal stages, runoff collects in depressions, is concentrated by evaporation, and forms saline or alkaline lakes. The chemical and physical properties of the lake waters vary chiefly with changes in lake stage and volume of inflow. Scattered records from 1899 to 1923 and more comprehensive data from 1948 to 1952 show a range of salt concentration from 6,130 to 25,000 parts per million (ppm) in the water of Devils Lake. Although concentration has varied, the chemical composition of the dissolved solids has not changed appreciably. Lake waters are more concentrated in the lower part of the basin, downstream from Devils Lake. For periods of record the salt concentration ranged from 14,932 to 62,000 ppm in East Devils Lake and from 19,000 to 106,000 ppm in east Stump Lake. Current and past tonnages of dissolved solids in Devils Lake, East Bay Devils Lake, East Devils Lake, and east and west Stump Lakes were computed from concentrations and from altitude-capacity curves for each lake. Neither the average rate of diversion of water to restore Devils Lake to a higher level nor the quality of the divert

  7. Using integrated multivariate statistics to assess the hydrochemistry of surface water quality, Lake Taihu basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Mu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural factors and anthropogenic activities both contribute dissolved chemical loads to  lakes and streams.  Mineral solubility,  geomorphology of the drainage basin, source strengths and climate all contribute to concentrations and their variability. Urbanization and agriculture waste-water particularly lead to aquatic environmental degradation. Major contaminant sources and controls on water quality can be asssessed by analyzing the variability in proportions of major and minor solutes in water coupled to mutivariate statistical methods.   The demand for freshwater needed for increasing crop production puulation and industrialization occurs almost everywhere in in China and these conflicting needs have led to widespread water contamination. Because of heavy nutrient loadings from all of these sources, Lake Taihu (eastern China notably suffers periodic hyper-eutrophication and drinking water deterioration, which has led to shortages of freshwater for the City of Wuxi and other nearby cities. This lake, the third largest freshwater body in China, has historically beeen considered a cultural treasure of China, and has supported long-term fisheries. The is increasing pressure to remediate the present contamination which compromises both aquiculture and the prior economic base centered on tourism.  However, remediation cannot be effectively done without first characterizing the broad nature of the non-point source pollution. To this end, we investigated the hydrochemical setting of Lake Taihu to determine how different land use types influence the variability of surface water chemistry in different water sources to the lake. We found that waters broadly show wide variability ranging from  calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate hydrochemical facies type to mixed sodium-sulfate-chloride type. Principal components analysis produced three principal components that explained 78% of the variance in the water quality and reflect three major types of water

  8. Changes in water quality during flood waves in small mountainous river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symader, W. [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    As a flood response is a reaction of the total basin to a rain impulse, the controlling factors are the characteristics of the basin, the size of the event and the pre-event conditions. This presentation focuses on summer events in small mountainous basins. Since 1988 flood response is investigated in two small basins in the Eifel and the Hunsrueck mountains. In both basins flood waves were sampled and analysed for major ions, and heavy metals in dissolved and particulate conditions, and for suspended sediment concentration and particle characteristics. In several projects the behaviour of PAHs, PCBs and pesticides in high floods were investigated as well. These investigations were accompanied by analyses of major ions and heavy metals in daily water samples and weekly samples of the river bottom sediments. (orig.)

  9. Sustainable water quality management framework and a strategy planning system for a river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Liu, Wei-Lin; Leu, Horng-Guang

    2006-12-01

    In Taiwan, the authorities have spent years working on remedying polluted rivers. Generally, the remediation planning works are divided into two phases. During the first phase, the allowed pollution discharge quantity and abatement quantity of each drainage zone, including the assimilative capacity, are generated based on the total river basin. In the second phase, the abatement action plans for each pollution source in each drainage zone are respectively devised by the related organizations based on the strategies generated during the first phase. However, the effectiveness of linking the two phases is usually poor. Highly integrated performances are not always achieved because the separate two-phase method does not take system and management thinking into consideration in the planning stage. This study pioneers the use of the Managing for Results (MFR) method in planning strategies and action plans for river water quality management. A sustainable management framework is proposed based on the concept and method of MFR, Management Thinking, and System Analysis. The framework, consisting of planning, implementation, and controlling stages, systematically considers the relationships and interactions among four factors: environment, society, economy, and institution, based on the principles of sustainable development. Based on the framework, the Modified Bounded Implicit Enumeration algorithm, which is used as a solving method, is combined with Visual Basic software and MS Excel to develop a computer system for strategy planning. The Shetzu River, located in northern Taiwan, is applied as a case study. According to the theoretical, practical, and regulatory considerations, the result-oriented objectives are defined to first improve the pollution length of the Shetzu River in specific remediation periods to finally meet regulated water quality standards. The objectives are then addressed as some of the constraints for the strategy planning model. The model objective

  10. Evaluation of water quality in the Rimac River Basin of Peru: Huaycoloro urban subbasin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeón Quispe, W.; Vela Cardich, R.; Huamán Paredes, F.

    2013-05-01

    In Peru, the increasing water scarcity and quality deterioration caused public health problems and deterioration of ecosystems that are exacerbated during periods of drought. The most populated basin is the Rimac River which rises in the Andes, between 4000 and 6000 meters and flow into the Pacific Ocean. This basin has pollution problems and a clear example is the Huaycoloro urban subbasin that originated in 2005, the creation of multi-sectoral technical committee for the recovery of health and environmental quality of the Huaycoloro subbasin (DIGESA, 2006a). The objective of this work is the need to generate and evaluate information on water quality in the Huaycoloro subbasin, quantifying physicochemical and microbiological parameters in four monitoring stations for a period from October 1, 2006 to April 24, 2010. The monitoring was conducted in the dry season because the Huaycoloro subbasin is a dry riverbed and therefore this is the critical period for evaluation. Initially samples were taken every two weeks during the months of October and November 2006. In 2007 were sampled monthly in April, June and September. In the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 surveys were conducted once a year, in the months of October, May and April respectively. Wide variations in the results of the various parameters analyzed in each of the stations mainly be explained by differences in the frequency of discharge of domestic and industrial effluent without prior treatment, effluent turn change in quantity and quality according to the various processes associated with each activity. Domestic effluents from populations that do not have sewer, industrial effluents from tannery correspond to activities, laundry, dairy, brewing and other. During field trips, we could be determined, in some instances, significant changes in water quality in a short period of time (one hour or less), manifested by changes in color fluctuations of water and the solids content in suspension. We obtained total

  11. Water-Quality Trends in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, 1974-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    Data from two U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sites in the Neuse River basin were reviewed for trends in major ions, sediment, nutrients, and pesticides during the period 1974-2003. In 1997, the North Carolina Division of Water Quality implemented management rules to reduce nitrogen loading to the Neuse River by 30 percent by 2003. Therefore, the 1997-2003 period was reviewed for trends associated with the management changes. The Neuse River at Kinston basin (2,695 square miles) includes much of Raleigh, N.C., with 8-percent urban and 30-percent agricultural land use (1992 data). The Contentnea Creek basin (734 square miles), a Neuse River tributary, is 42-percent agricultural and 3-percent urban. Agricultural land uses in the Contentnea Creek basin have changed over the last decade from predominantly corn, soybean, and tobacco row crops to corn, soybeans, and cotton, with reduced tobacco acreages, and development of the hog industry. Data for this analysis were collected by the USGS for the National Stream Quality Accounting Network and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Data were examined for trends using the Seasonal Kendall trend test or Tobit regression. The Seasonal Kendall test, which accounts for seasonal variability and adjusts for effects of streamflow on concentration with residuals from LOWESS (LOcally Weighted Sum of Squares) curves, was used to analyze trends in major ions, nutrients, and sediment. The Tobit test, appropriate for examining values with reporting limits, was used for the pesticide analysis. Monotonic trends are considered significant at the alpha solids, hardness, and sulfate in the Neuse River and for potassium in Contentnea Creek. No significant recent (1997-2003) trends were detected for dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, hardness, dissolved solids, or major ions. The Neuse River data indicated a recent declining trend in sediment concentration. Nitrogen concentrations in the form of ammonia, total ammonia and organic

  12. Spatial patterns of water quality in Xingu River Basin (Amazonia prior to the Belo Monte dam impoundment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL. Rodrigues-Filho

    Full Text Available Abstract The Xingu River, one of the most important of the Amazon Basin, is characterized by clear and transparent waters that drain a 509.685 km2 watershed with distinct hydrological and ecological conditions and anthropogenic pressures along its course. As in other basins of the Amazon system, studies in the Xingu are scarce. Furthermore, the eminent construction of the Belo Monte for hydropower production, which will alter the environmental conditions in the basin in its lower middle portion, denotes high importance of studies that generate relevant information that may subsidize a more balanced and equitable development in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the water quality in the Xingu River and its tributaries focusing on spatial patterns by the use of multivariate statistical techniques, identifying which water quality parameters were more important for the environmental changes in the watershed. Data sampling were carried out during two complete hydrological cycles in twenty-five sampling stations. The data of twenty seven variables were analyzed by Spearman's correlation coefficients, cluster analysis (CA, and principal component analysis (PCA. The results showed a high auto-correlation between variables (> 0.7. These variables were removed from multivariate analyzes because they provided redundant information about the environment. The CA resulted in the formation of six clusters, which were clearly observed in the PCA and were characterized by different water quality. The statistical results allowed to identify a high spatial variation in the water quality, which were related to specific features of the environment, different uses, influences of anthropogenic activities and geochemical characteristics of the drained basins. It was also demonstrated that most of the sampling stations in the Xingu River basin showed good water quality, due to the absence of local impacts and high power of depuration of the

  13. Environmental Setting and Effects on Water Quality in the Great and Little Miami River Basins, Ohio and Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrewer, Linda M.; Rowe, Gary L.; Reutter, David C.; Moore, Rhett C.; Hambrook, Julie A.; Baker, Nancy T.

    2000-01-01

    The Great and Little Miami River Basins drain approximately 7,354 square miles in southwestern Ohio and southeastern Indiana and are included in the more than 50 major river basins and aquifer systems selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Principal streams include the Great and Little Miami Rivers in Ohio and the Whitewater River in Indiana. The Great and Little Miami River Basins are almost entirely within the Till Plains section of the Central Lowland physiographic province and have a humid continental climate, characterized by well-defined summer and winter seasons. With the exception of a few areas near the Ohio River, Pleistocene glacial deposits, which are predominantly till, overlie lower Paleozoic limestone, dolomite, and shale bedrock. The principal aquifer is a complex buried-valley system of sand and gravel aquifers capable of supporting sustained well yields exceeding 1,000 gallons per min-ute. Designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a sole-source aquifer, the Buried-Valley Aquifer System is the principal source of drinking water for 1.6 million people in the basins and is the dominant source of water for southwestern Ohio. Water use in the Great and Little Miami River Basins averaged 745 million gallons per day in 1995. Of this amount, 48 percent was supplied by surface water (including the Ohio River) and 52 percent was supplied by ground water. Land-use and waste-management practices influence the quality of water found in streams and aquifers in the Great and Little Miami River Basins. Land use is approximately 79 percent agriculture, 13 percent urban (residential, industrial, and commercial), and 7 percent forest. An estimated 2.8 million people live in the Great and Little Miami River Basins; major urban areas include Cincinnati and Dayton, Ohio. Fertilizers and pesticides associated with agricultural activity, discharges from municipal and

  14. Impacts of Land Use on Surface Water Quality in a Subtropical River Basin: A Case Study of the Dongjiang River Basin, Southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Ding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between land use and surface water quality is necessary for effective water management. We estimated the impacts of catchment-wide land use on water quality during the dry and rainy seasons in the Dongjiang River basin, using remote sensing, geographic information systems and multivariate statistical techniques. The results showed that the 83 sites can be divided into three groups representing different land use types: forest, agriculture and urban. Water quality parameters exhibited significant variations between the urban-dominated and forest-dominated sites. The proportion of forested land was positively associated with dissolved oxygen concentration but negatively associated with water temperature, electrical conductivity, permanganate index, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and chlorophyll-a. The proportion of urban land was strongly positively associated with total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Forested and urban land use had stronger impacts on water quality in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, agricultural land use did not have a significant impact on water quality. Our study indicates that urban land use was the key factor affecting water quality change, and limiting point-source waste discharge in urban areas during the dry season would be critical for improving water quality in the study area.

  15. Impact of storm water on groundwater quality below retention/detention basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Arif; Hussain, Asif; Farooq, Mohammed A; Abbasi, Haq Nawaz

    2010-03-01

    Groundwater from 33 monitoring of peripheral wells of Karachi, Pakistan were evaluated in terms of pre- and post-monsoon seasons to find out the impact of storm water infiltration, as storm water infiltration by retention basin receives urban runoff water from the nearby areas. This may increase the risk of groundwater contamination for heavy metals, where the soil is sandy and water table is shallow. Concentration of dissolved oxygen is significantly low in groundwater beneath detention basin during pre-monsoon season, which effected the concentration of zinc and iron. The models of trace metals shown in basin groundwater reflect the land use served by the basins, while it differed from background concentration as storm water releases high concentration of certain trace metals such as copper and cadmium. Recharge by storm water infiltration decreases the concentration and detection frequency of iron, lead, and zinc in background groundwater; however, the study does not point a considerable risk for groundwater contamination due to storm water infiltration.

  16. Using ecotechnology to address water quality and wetland habitat loss problems in the Mississippi basin: a hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John W; Yañéz Arancibia, Alejandro; Mitsch, William J; Lara-Dominguez, Ana Laura; Day, Jason N; Ko, Jae-Young; Lane, Robert; Lindsey, Joel; Lomeli, David Zarate

    2003-12-01

    Human activities are affecting the environment at continental and global scales. An example of this is the Mississippi basin where there has been a large scale loss of wetlands and water quality deterioration over the past century. Wetland and riparian ecosystems have been isolated from rivers and streams. Wetland loss is due both to drainage and reclamation, mainly for agriculture, and to isolation from the river by levees, as in the Mississippi delta. There has been a decline in water quality due to increasing use of fertilizers, enhanced drainage and the loss of wetlands for cleaning water. Water quality has deteriorated throughout the basin and high nitrogen in the Mississippi river is causing a large area of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi delta. Since the causes of these problems are distributed over the basin, the solution also needs to be distributed over the basin. Ecotechnology and ecological engineering offer the only ecologically sound and cost-effective method of solving these problems. Wetlands to promote nitrogen removal, mainly through denitrification but also through burial and plant uptake, offer a sound ecotechnological solution. At the level of the Mississippi basin, changes in farming practices and use of wetlands for nitrogen assimilation can reduce nitrogen levels in the River. There are additional benefits of restoration of wetland and riverine ecosystems, flood control, reduction in public health threats, and enhanced wildlife and fisheries. At the local drainage basin level, the use of river diversions in the Mississippi delta can address both problems of coastal land loss and water quality deterioration. Nitrate levels in diverted river water are rapidly reduced as water flows through coastal watersheds. At the local level, wetlands are being used to treat municipal wastewater. This is a cost-effective method, which results in improved water quality, enhanced wetland productivity and increased accretion. The

  17. Ground-Water Quality in the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, New York, 2004-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetcher-Aguila, Kari K.; Eckhardt, David A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 20 production wells and 13 private residential wells throughout the upper Susquehanna River Basin (upstream from the Pennsylvania border) during the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 and analyzed to describe the chemical quality of ground water in the upper basin. Wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and highest vulnerability to contamination, and to provide a representative sampling from the entire (4,516 square-mile) upper basin. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, nutrients, inorganic constituents, metals, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; the anions that were detected in the greatest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrient was nitrate, the concentrations of which were greater in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock. The metals barium, boron, cobalt, copper, and nickel were detected in every sample; the metals with the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, manganese, strontium, and lithium. The pesticide compounds detected most frequently were atrazine, deethylatrazine, alachlor ESA, and two degradation products of metolachlor (metolachlor ESA and metolachlor OA); the compounds detected in highest concentration were metolachlor ESA and OA. Volatile organic compounds were detected in 11 samples, and concentrations of 3 of these compounds exceeded 1 microgram per liter (?g/L). Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasollline additive, was not detected in any sample. Several analytes were found in concentrations that exceeded Federal and New York State water-quality standards, which are typically identical. Chloride concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in two samples

  18. Water-quality assessment of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming; summary of aquatic biological data for surface water through 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Terry R.

    1995-01-01

    The 35,800-square-mile upper Snake River Basin in eastern Idaho and western Wyoming was one of 20 areas selected for water-quality study under the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. As part of the initial phase of the study, data were compiled to describe the current (1992) and historical aquatic biological conditions of surface water in the basin. This description of natural and human environmental factors that affect aquatic life provides the framework for evaluating the status and trends of aquatic biological conditions in streams of the basins. Water resource development and stream alterations, irrigated agriculture, grazing, aquaculture, and species introductions have affected stream biota in the upper Snake River Basin. Cumulative effects of these activities have greatly altered cold-water habitat and aquatic life in the middle Snake River reach (Milner Dam to King Hill). Most of the aquatic Species of Special Concern in the basin , consisting of eight native mollusks and three native fish species, are in this reach of the Snake River. Selected long-term studies, including comprehensive monitoring on Rock Creek, have shown reduced pollutant loadings as a result of implementing practice on cropland; however, aquatic life remains affected by agricultural land use. Community level biological data are lacking for most of the streams in the basin, especially for large river. Aquatic life used to assess water quality of the basin includes primarily macroinvertebrate and fish communities. At least 26 different macroinvertebrate and fish community metrics have been utilized to assess water quality of the basin. Eight species of macroinvertebrates and fish are recognized as Species of Special Concern. The native fish faunas of the basin are composed primarily of cold-water species representing 5 families and 26 species. An additional 13 fish species have been introduced to the basin. Concentrations of synthetic organic compounds and trace-element contaminants

  19. Water-quality assessment of the Albermarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia; environmental setting and water-quality issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Gerard; Lloyd, Orville B.

    1995-01-01

    The Albemarle-Pamlico drainage study unit is one of 60 units of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, and includes the large river basins which drain into the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds-the Chowan, Roanoke, Tar-Pamlico, and Neuse River Basins. The study unit includes about 28,000 square miles and has an interrelated set of environmental characteristics which strongly influence water quality. The chemical and physical nature of these characteristics are the dominant controls on baseline water quality in the study area. About 50 percent of the study area is forested, slightly more than 30 percent is agricultural, about 15 percent is wetlands, and less than 5 percent is developed. Three million people live in the study area, and activities related to agriculture and development have caused increased concentrations of constituents such as nutrients, pesticides, and suspended sediment. About two-thirds of the 36 to 52 inches of precipitation in the area reenters the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. About one-third of the remaining precipitation reaches streams by overland runoff; the remainder recharges the water table aquifer, where much of the water eventually discharges to streams as ground water. Thus, ground-water quality has a substantial influence on surface-water quality, particularly during dry weather. In 1990, about 152,900 tons of elemental nitrogen and 10,500 tons of elemental phosphorus either were applied to crops as fertilizer or fixed by biological processes, and in 1987, about 43,500 tons of nitrogen and 12,200 tons of phosphorus were produced as animal wastes. In addition, about 1,300 tons of selected herbicides and 400 tons of selected insecticides were applied to crops in 1990. Some 249 permitted point sources discharged 410 million gallons per day, containing an annual load of 5,800 tons of nitrogen and 1,800 tons of phosphorus, to the study area in 1990. Data from 1970-79 indicate that mean annual suspended

  20. Potential water quality changes due to corn expansion in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Silvia; Gassman, Philip W; Jha, Manoj; Kurkalova, Lyubov; Kling, Catherine L

    2011-06-01

    While biofuels may yield renewable fuel benefits, there could be downsides in terms of water quality and other environmental stressors, particularly if corn is relied upon exclusively as the feedstock. The consequences of increased corn production will depend importantly on where (and how) the additional corn is grown, which, in turn, depends on the characteristics of land and its associated profitability. Previous work has relied on rules of thumb for allocating land to increased acreage based on historical land use or other heuristics. Here, we advance our understanding of these phenomena by describing a modeling system that links an economics-driven land use model with a watershed-based water quality model for the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB). This modeling system is used to assess the water quality changes due to increased corn acreage, which is associated with higher relative corn prices. We focus on six scenarios based on six realistic pairs of corn and soybean prices which correspond to a scale of decreasing soybean to corn price ratio. These price-driven land use changes provide estimates of the water quality effects that current biofuel policies may have in the UMRB. Our analysis can help evaluate the costs and environmental consequences associated with implementation strategies for the biofuel mandates of the new energy bill. The amounts of total N and P delivered to the outlet of the UMRB (located at Grafton, Illinois, USA) rise as corn production becomes more intensive in the region. Our results indicate that a 14.4% in corn acreage in the watershed due to corn intensification in the most economically profitable locations would result in a 5.4% increase in total nitrogen loads and in a 4.1% increase in total phosphorus loads at Grafton. Our most aggressive scenario, driven by high but not out of reach crop prices, results in about a 57% increase in corn acreage with a corresponding 18.5% increase in N and 12% increase in P. These are somewhat

  1. Water-Quality Assessment of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana and Wyoming-Water Quality of Fixed Sites, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kirk A.; Clark, Melanie L.; Wright, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey initiated an assessment in 1997 of the quality of water resources in the Yellowstone River Basin. Water-quality samples regularly were collected during 1999-2001 at 10 fixed sites on streams representing the major environmental settings of the basin. Integrator sites, which are heterogeneous in land use and geology, were established on the mainstem of the Yellowstone River (4 sites) and on three major tributaries?Clarks Fork Yellowstone River (1 site), the Bighorn River (1 site), and the Powder River (1 site). Indicator sites, which are more homogeneous in land use and geology than the integrator sites, were located on minor tributaries with important environmental settings?Soda Butte Creek in a mineral resource area (1 site), the Tongue River in a forested area (1 site), and the Little Powder River in a rangeland area (1 site). Water-quality sampling frequency generally was at least monthly and included field measurements and laboratory analyses of fecal-indicator bacteria, major ions, dissolved solids, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Median concentrations of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli were largest for basins that were predominantly rangeland and smallest for basins that were predominantly forested. Concentrations of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli significantly varied by season (p-value geologic terrain in the Yellowstone River Basin. The water type of Soda Butte Creek and the Tongue River was calcium bicarbonate. These two sites are in forested and mountainous areas where igneous rocks and Paleozoic-era and Mesozoic-era sedimentary rocks are the dominant geologic groups. The water type of the Little Powder River was sodium sulfate. The Little Powder River originates in the plains, and geology of the basin is nearly homogenous with Tertiary-period sedimentary rocks. Water type of the Yellowstone River changed from a mixed-cation bicarbonate type

  2. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  3. Vegetation cover, avoided erosion and water quality in high Andean wetlands, Yeso River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Alejandro; Soto, Jorge; Seguel, Oscar; Pérez, Javier; Osses, Daniela; Leiva, Nicolás; Zerega, Linka

    2017-04-01

    Wetlands on the high Andes mountains near Santiago de Chile have been impacted by overgrazing and off-road tourists. We studied wetlands in El Yeso River basin. In February 2015 we established 36 exclusions and measured vegetation cover and height, biomass production in and out the exclusions starting in October. Water and undisturbed soil samples were collected. Data were analyzed statistically to estimate i) the recovery of vegetation, and ii) the influence of grazing and vehicle traffic on vegetation loss, and iii) impacts on soil and water quality. In areas with less intense traffic, the difference in vegetation coverage in and out the exclusions is 22% (± 11.4%); in areas with more intense traffic this difference is 16% (± 16%). Height of vegetation, in the less intense traffic areas, ranges from 6.25 cm (± 2.8) to 13.32 cm (± 6.3). With higher traffic it varies between 6.9 cm (± 3.1) and 13.6 cm (± 5.4). Biomass varies between 0.06 kg DM/m2 to 0.57 kg DM/m2 depending on botanical composition and date. After water circulates through the wetlands its content of nitrogen increases 37.33% to 0.37 mg N/l and the fecal coliforms 66.67% to 0.67 MPN/100 ml, because of cattle. On the contrary, turbidity decreases 20.67% to 0.21 UNT because sediments are captured by vegetation. We also estimated an avoided erosion rate, ranging between 1.23% and 31.87% (depending on the slope) due to the increase in coverage within the exclusions.

  4. Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin Water Quality Study. Technical Report No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickas, Albert B., Ed.

    This hydrologic study focuses on Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin. Water is the most important natural resource in this area which includes Douglass, Bayfield, Ashland, and Iron counties. This study was undertaken to determine the character of this hydrologic base and to determine the effects and extent of man-influenced disturbances. It includes…

  5. Selected aquatic biological investigations in the Great Salt Lake basins, 1875-1998, National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, Elise M.P.; Stephens, Doyle W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes previous investigations of aquatic biological communities, habitat, and contaminants in streams and selected large lakes within the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The Great Salt Lake Basins study unit is one of 59 such units designed to characterize water quality through the examination of chemical, physical, and biological factors in surface and ground waters across the country. The data will be used to aid in the planning, collection, and analysis of biological information for the NAWQA study unit and to aid other researchers concerned with water quality of the study unit. A total of 234 investigations conducted during 1875-1998 are summarized in this report. The studies are grouped into three major subjects: (1) aquatic communities and habitat, (2) contamination of streambed sediments and biological tissues, and (3) lakes. The location and a general description of each study is listed. The majority of the studies focus on fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Studies of algal communities, aquatic habitat, riparian wetlands, and contamination of streambed sediment or biological tissues are less common. Areas close to the major population centers of Salt Lake City, Provo, and Logan, Utah, are generally well studied, but more rural areas and much of the Bear River Basin are lacking in detailed information, except for fish populations..

  6. Surface-water quality in Pequea Creek basin, Pennsylvania, 1977-79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the Pequea Creek basin was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission and the EPA from February 1977 through March 1979. Pequea Creek drains an intensive agricultural area of 154 sq mi in southeastern Pennsylvania, and enters the Susquehanna River 30 mi north of the Chesapeake Bay. The study included measurement of streamflow and collection of water and bottom material samples from seven sites in the basin during selected base flows and storms. Water samples were collected daily at a site near the mouth of Pequea Creek, and analyzed for suspended sediment, nitrogen and phosphorus species, organic carbon, and pesticides. Some groundwater samples also were collected and analyzed for nitrate. Annual yields measured from the basin during the study period were 1,950 ton/sq mi for suspended sediment, 13.8 ton/sq mi for total nitrogen, and 1.8 ton/sq mi for phosphorus. These yields are five times higher than any previously measured in the Susquehanna River basin. The discharges of all constituents monitored increased with increasing flow, indicated that a large amount of material in the basin is available for transport to streams during storms. The large yields of nitrogen and phosphorus are probably caused by the intensive agriculture in the basin coupled with large applications of fertilizer and manure to farm fields. Chemical analyses of rainfall samples indicate that precipitation was not a significant source of nitrogen and phosphorus. Excluding nitrate, all constituents measured were transported mainly during storms. Nitrate concentrations during base flow were as high as 10 mg/L as N--the Environmental Protection Agency standard for domestic water supplies. Groundwater sampled from farm wells had nitrate concentrations up to 28 mg/L as N. The largest concentrations of herbicides detected in Pequea basin were for 2,4-D, atrazine, and simazine. The maximum concentrations observed during storms were 1

  7. Multiple biomarkers responses in Prochilodus lineatus allowed assessing changes in the water quality of Salado River basin (Santa Fe, Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, Jimena, E-mail: jcazenave@inali.unl.edu.a [Laboratorio de Ictiologia, Instituto Nacional de Limnologia (INALI-CONICET-UNL), Paraje El Pozo, Ciudad Universitaria UNL, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Bacchetta, Carla; Parma, Maria J.; Scarabotti, Pablo A. [Laboratorio de Ictiologia, Instituto Nacional de Limnologia (INALI-CONICET-UNL), Paraje El Pozo, Ciudad Universitaria UNL, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Wunderlin, Daniel A. [Dto. Bioquimica Clinica-CIBICI-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Haya de la Torre esq Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-11-15

    This field study assessed water quality of Salado River basin by using a set of biomarkers in the fish Prochilodus lineatus. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including morphological indexes (condition factor, liver somatic index), hematological (red and white blood cells) and biochemical (glucose, total protein and cholinesterase activity) parameters. Besides, detoxication and oxidative stress markers (antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation) were measured in liver, gills and kidney. Despite water quality assessment did not show marked differences among sites, biomarkers responses indicate that fish are living under stressful environmental conditions. According to multivariate analysis glucose, glutathione S-transferase activity, lipid peroxidation levels and the count of white blood cells are key biomarkers to contribute to discrimination of sites. So, we suggest use those biomarkers in future monitoring of freshwater aquatic systems. - A battery of biomarkers was successfully applied to assess the health of the fish Prochilodus lineatus from Salado River basin.

  8. Multiple biomarkers responses in Prochilodus lineatus allowed assessing changes in the water quality of Salado River basin (Santa Fe, Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazenave, Jimena; Bacchetta, Carla; Parma, Maria J.; Scarabotti, Pablo A.; Wunderlin, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    This field study assessed water quality of Salado River basin by using a set of biomarkers in the fish Prochilodus lineatus. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including morphological indexes (condition factor, liver somatic index), hematological (red and white blood cells) and biochemical (glucose, total protein and cholinesterase activity) parameters. Besides, detoxication and oxidative stress markers (antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation) were measured in liver, gills and kidney. Despite water quality assessment did not show marked differences among sites, biomarkers responses indicate that fish are living under stressful environmental conditions. According to multivariate analysis glucose, glutathione S-transferase activity, lipid peroxidation levels and the count of white blood cells are key biomarkers to contribute to discrimination of sites. So, we suggest use those biomarkers in future monitoring of freshwater aquatic systems. - A battery of biomarkers was successfully applied to assess the health of the fish Prochilodus lineatus from Salado River basin.

  9. A GIS-based Model for Urban Change and Implications for Water Quality in the Pontchartrain Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, D.; Amer, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The combination of remote sensing techniques and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to measure water quality allows researchers to monitor changes in various water quality parameters over temporal and spatial scales that are not always readily apparent from in situ measurements. Water has a distinct spectral behavior in comparison to soil, vegetation and urban, and therefore can be distinguished from surrounding environments. This study involves using remote sensing and GIS methods to map urban sprawl and its resulting influences on water quality in the Pontchartrain Basin over the last three decades. Two images of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were taken in October 1985 and two images of Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI) were taken in 2015 were atmospherically corrected and processed to map urban sprawl and influences on water quality of Pontchartrain Basin in the last three decades. To accomplish this, a normalized difference building index (NDBI) was developed for Landsat images. The NDBI was calculated from (NIR - SWIR) / (NIR + SWIR), where SWIR is the longest wavelength. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the normalized difference soil index (NDSI), and the normalized difference water index (NDWI) were also calculated for Landsat images. A GIS model was developed by integrating the NDBI, NDVI, NDSI, and NDWI, and yielded urban/non-urban/water boundary maps with 30-m resolution. Results indicate that urban areas have increased approximately from 25,643 km2 to 26,677 km2, which represents about 4.0% change from non-urban to urban in the last 3 decades. The results are in a good agreement with the U.S. Census data, which indicated that there is a 12.25% increase in population over the last 25 years in the 16 parishes of the Pontchartrain Basin. Urban changes were compared with changes of water quality parameters in PONTCHARTRAIN BASIN, which include pH, specific conductance, nitrogen, phosphorous, and dissolved oxygen. The results show that

  10. Water-quality assessment of part of the upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Volatile organic compounds in surface and ground water, 1978-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W.J.; Fallon, J.D.; Kroening, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey compiled and summarized analyses of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in surface and ground water from water-quality data bases maintained by-Federal, State, and local agencies as part of a retrospective analysis of water-quality data for the Upper Mississippi River Basin study unit of the National WaterQuality Assessment Program. The retrospective analysis focused on a study area that encompasses 19,500 mi2 of the eastern portion of the study unit. Major river basins in the study area include the part of the Upper Mississippi River drainage from Lake Pepin upstream to sampling stations on the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers where long-term water-quality data are available and the entire drainage basin of the St. Croix River. The Twin Cities metropolitan area, with a population of 2.4 million people, is located in the south-central part of the study area. Water-quality data collected in the study area from 1978 through 1994 by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Minnesota Department of Health, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, the Metropolitan Council Environmental Services, and the city of Minneapolis were included in the retrospective analysis.

  11. Effects on water quality from mud clearance operations in the Pezze' hydropower basin (Trentino, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canepel, R.; Cadrobbi, G.; Fedrizzi, F.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper describes dynamic concentration for various parameters, that have been monitored through both continuous and instant samplings, during maintenance operations (mud deposit clearance) in a hydropower basin along Torrent Avisio in Trentino region, Italy. Aim of the work is to demonstrate that, during such operations, an organic water pollution occur besides turbidity. The former is well expressed by a marked value increment of different parameters, as total phosphorus, ammonium and organic matter [it

  12. Streamflow gain and loss and water quality in the upper Nueces River Basin, south-central Texas, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Lambert, Rebecca B.; Slattery, Richard N.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey-in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, The Nature Conservancy, the Real Edwards Conservation and Reclamation District, and the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department-investigated streamflow gain and loss and water quality in the upper Nueces River Basin, south-central Texas, specifically in the watersheds of the West Nueces, Nueces, Dry Frio, Frio, and Sabinal Rivers upstream from the Edwards aquifer outcrop. Streamflow in these rivers is sustained by groundwater contributions (for example, from springs) and storm runoff from rainfall events. To date (2012), there are few data available that describe streamflow and water-quality conditions of the rivers within the upper Nueces River Basin. This report describes streamflow gain-loss characteristics from three reconnaissance-level synoptic measurement surveys (hereinafter referred to as "surveys") during 2008-10 in the upper Nueces River Basin. To help characterize the hydrology, groundwater-level measurements were made, and water-quality samples were collected from both surface-water and groundwater sites in the study area from two surveys during 2009-10. The hydrologic (streamflow, springflow, and groundwater) measurements were made during three reconnaissance-level synoptic measurement surveys occurring in July 21-23, 2008; August 8-18, 2009; and March 22-24, 2010. These survey periods were selected to represent different hydrologic conditions. Streamflow gains and losses were based on streamflow and springflow measurements made at 74 sites in the study area, although not all sites were measured during each survey. Possible water chemistry relations among sample types (streamflow, springflow, or groundwater), between surveys, and among watersheds were examined using water-quality samples collected from as many as 20 sites in the study area.

  13. Landowner values, water quality, and recreation in the Lake Champlain Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter F. Kuentzel; Donald F. Dennis

    1998-01-01

    This study describes landowner values about water quality among resident landowners in the LaPlatte River watershed, tests whether suburbanization is producing a new mix of social values, analyzes the relationship between values and behaviors, and explores the link between recreation and water quality advocacy. Results showed that residents hold pro-environmental...

  14. Climate Change Impacts on US Water Quality using two Models: HAWQS and US Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change and freshwater quality are well-linked. Changes in climate result in changes in streamflow and rising water temperatures, which impact biochemical reaction rates and increase stratification in lakes and reservoirs. Using two water quality modeling systems (the Hydr...

  15. Investigation of selected water quality parameters in the Amargosa Drainage Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, B.

    1982-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether Amargoso Desert water quality meets established federal drinking water standards. Samples were collected at selected drinking water supply sites and were analyzed for inorganic chemical constituents and radioactivity. The findings indicate that no concentrations of radioactivity in the drinking water exceeded the standards; however, some naturally occurring chemical constituent analysis indicate concentrations above federal drinking water standards. 18 references, 3 figures, 4 tables. (MF)

  16. Land use change and effects on water quality and ecosystem health in the Lake Tahoe basin, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, William; Richards, Lora; Adams, Kenneth D.; Minor, Timothy B.; Rowe, Timothy G.; Smith, J. LaRue; Raumann, Christian G.

    2001-01-01

    Human activity in the Lake Tahoe Basin has increased substantially in the past four decades, causing significant impacts on the quality and clarity of the lake's famous deep, clear water. Protection of Lake Tahoe and the surrounding environment has become an important activity in recent years. A variety of agencies, including the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, Tahoe Research Group of the University of California at Davis, Desert Research Institute of the University and Community College System of Nevada, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and a host of State (both Nevada and California) and local agencies have been monitoring and conducting research in the Basin in order to understand how the lake functions and to what extent humans have affected its landscape and ecosystem processes. In spite of all of these activities, there remains a lack of comprehensive land use change data and analysis for the Basin. A project is underway that unites the land cover mapping expertise of the USGS National Mapping Discipline with the hydrologic expertise of the Water Resources Discipline to assess the impacts of urban growth and land use change in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Three activities are planned over the next 3 years: (1) mapping the current and historic state of the land surface, (2) conducting analysis to document patterns, rates, and trends in urbanization, land use change, and ecosystem health, and (3) assessing the causes and consequences of land use change with regard to water quality and ecosystem health. We hypothesize that changes in the extent of urban growth and the corresponding increases in impervious surfaces and decreases in natural vegetation have resulted in severe impacts on ecosystem health and integrity, riparian zones and water quality over time. We are acting on multiple fronts to test this hypothesis through the quantification of landscape disturbances and impacts.

  17. Streamflow and water-quality data for Little Scrubgrass Creek basin, Venango and Butler Counties, Pennsylvania, December 1987-November 1988. Open File Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Durlin, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected throughout the Little Scrubgrass Creek basin, Venango and Butler Counties, Pennsylvania, from December 1987 to November 1988, to determine the prevailing quality of surface water throughout the basin. The data will assist the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources during its review of coal mine permit applications. A water-quality station on Little Scrubgrass Creek near Lisbon, provided continuous-record of stream stage, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature. Monthly water-quality samples collected at the station were analyzed for total and dissolved metals, nutrients, major cations and anions, and suspended sediment concentrations. Fourteen partial-record sites, located throughout the basin, were similarly sampled four times during the period of study. Streamflow and water-quality data obtained at these sites during various base flow periods are also presented

  18. Spatial variation, source identification, and quality assessment of surface water geochemical composition in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman Qaisar, Faizan Ur; Zhang, Fan; Pant, Ramesh Raj; Wang, Guanxing; Khan, Sardar; Zeng, Chen

    2018-02-22

    The Indus River Basin (IRB) with an area of 139,202 km 2 is the lifeline river basin of Pakistan. An intensive study was conducted in six subcatchments of the IRB with five in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) and one of the Lower Indus Basin (LIB; between Tarbela Dam and Panjand), i.e., the Gilgit River Basin (UIB-I), Hunza River Basin (UIB-II), UIB-III, UIB-IV and UIB-V, and LIB. A total of 84 surface water samples were collected from main stream and tributaries from June to August, 2016. The pH, electric conductivity (EC), and total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured in situ, whereas major ions (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + , Cl - , SO 4 2- , and NO 3 - ) and Si were analyzed in the laboratory. The results exhibited alkaline pH (8.55 ± 0.20) with diverse TDS (114.69 ± 77.65 mg L -1 ) and ion concentrations that were characterized primarily by the Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type in the whole basin. The average TDS in the UIB and LIB were 93.99 ± 39.73 and 181.67 ± 167.82 mg L -1 , respectively, under the influence of the arid to semi-arid climatic conditions and relatively higher anthropogenic interference in LIB compared to the UIB. The order of dominant major cations was different in the UIB and LIB, reflecting the diverse nature of geological formation. Gibbs plot, mixing diagrams, and ionic ratios were used to identify the controlling mechanism of river geochemistry in the IRB as carbonate weathering in general with different degrees of silicate weathering and minor contribution by evaporite dissolution. In addition, principal component/factor analysis also indicated that the major sources of dissolved loads in the basin are carbonates followed by silicates. Significant influences of silicate minerals were observed in the LIB, and there was a large contribution of evaporites in the UIB-II, UIB-III, and LIB. The suitability assessment showed that the river water fits the WHO permissible limits for drinking purposes from the perspective of major ions

  19. Coalbed methane-produced water quality and its management options in Raniganj Basin, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendhe, Vinod Atmaram; Mishra, Subhashree; Varma, Atul Kumar; Singh, Awanindra Pratap

    2017-06-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) recovery is associated with production of large quantity of groundwater. The coal seams are depressurized by pumping of water for regular and consistent gas production. Usually, CBM operators need to pump >10 m3 of water per day from one well, which depends on the aquifer characteristics, drainage and recharge pattern. In India, 32 CBM blocks have been awarded for exploration and production, out of which six blocks are commercially producing methane gas at 0.5 million metric standard cubic feet per day. Large amount of water is being produced from CBM producing blocks, but no specific information or data are available for geochemical properties of CBM-produced water and its suitable disposal or utilization options for better management. CBM operators are in infancy and searching for the suitable solutions for optimal management of produced water. CBM- and mine-produced water needs to be handled considering its physical and geochemical assessment, because it may have environmental as well as long-term impact on aquifer. Investigations were carried out to evaluate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions of CBM blocks in Raniganj Basin. Totally, 15 water samples from CBM well head and nine water samples from mine disposal head were collected from Raniganj Basin. The chemical signature of produced water reveals high sodium and bicarbonate concentrations with low calcium and magnesium, and very low sulphate in CBM water. It is comprehend that CBM water is mainly of Na-HCO3 type and coal mine water is of Ca-Mg-SO4 and HCO3-Cl-SO4 type. The comparative studies are also carried out for CBM- and mine-produced water considering the geochemical properties, aquifer type, depth of occurrence and lithological formations. Suitable options like impounding, reverse osmosis, irrigation and industrial use after prerequisite treatments are suggested. However, use of this huge volume of CBM- and mine-produced water for irrigation or other beneficial purposes

  20. Field Operations For The "Intelligent River" Observation System: A Basin-wide Water Quality Observation System In The Savannah River Basin And Platform Supporting Related Diverse Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, A.; Koons, M.; O'Brien-Gayes, P.; Moorer, R.; Hallstrom, J.; Post, C.; Gayes, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Intelligent River (IR) initiative is an NSF sponsored study developing new data management technology for a range of basin-scale applications. The technology developed by Florida Atlantic and Clemson University established a network of real-time reporting water quality sondes; from the mountains to the estuary of the Savannah River basin. Coastal Carolina University led the field operations campaign. Ancillary studies, student projects and initiatives benefitted from the associated instrumentation, infrastructure and operational support of the IR program. This provided a vehicle for students to participate in fieldwork across the watershed and pursue individual interests. Student projects included: 1) a Multibeam sonar survey investigating channel morphology in the area of an IR sensor station and 2) field tests of developing techniques for acquiring and assimilating flood velocity data into model systems associated with a separate NSF Rapid award. The multibeam survey within the lower Savannah basin exhibited a range of complexity in bathymetry, bedforms and bottom habitat in the vicinity of one of the water quality stations. The complex morphology and bottom habitat reflect complex flow patterns, localized areas of depositional and erosive tendencies providing a valuable context for considering point-source water quality time series. Micro- Lagrangian drifters developed by ISENSE at Florida Atlantic University, a sled mounted ADCP, and particle tracking from imagery collected by a photogrammetric drone were tested and used to develop methodology for establishing velocity, direction and discharge levels to validate, initialize and assimilate data into advance models systems during future flood events. The prospect of expanding wide scale observing systems can serve as a platform to integrate small and large-scale cooperative studies across disciplines as well as basic and applied research interests. Such initiatives provide opportunities for embedded education

  1. Evaluation and identification of significant quality parameters for the bodies of water in bahia's semi-arid region. Case study: salitre river hydrographic basin

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Clélia Nobre de; Campos, Vânia P.; Medeiros, Yvonilde Dantas Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Objective of this work was identifying superficial water quality parameters, significant to semi-arid hydrographic basins, minimizing costs of water monitoring. The Salitre river basin, an important sub-basin of the São Francisco river, was used as a case study. STD, Cl-, DO, BOD, pH, NO3-, PO4(3-), Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb were considered the most significant parameters, with concentration levels found in some stretches of the basin not compliant with the current legislation. Some of the Sa...

  2. LBA-ECO LC-07 Reflectance Spectra and Water Quality of Amazon Basin Floodplain Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes bidirectional reflectance (BDR) spectra and water-quality data of floodplain lakes of the Solimoes and Negro Rivers in the central Amazon...

  3. LBA-ECO LC-07 Reflectance Spectra and Water Quality of Amazon Basin Floodplain Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set includes bidirectional reflectance (BDR) spectra and water-quality data of floodplain lakes of the Solimoes and Negro Rivers in the central...

  4. Decadal water quality variations at three typical basins of Mekong, Murray and Yukon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Afed U.; Jiang, Jiping; Wang, Peng

    2018-02-01

    Decadal distribution of water quality parameters is essential for surface water management. Decadal distribution analysis was conducted to assess decadal variations in water quality parameters at three typical watersheds of Murray, Mekong and Yukon. Right distribution shifts were observed for phosphorous and nitrogen parameters at the Mekong watershed monitoring sites while left shifts were noted at the Murray and Yukon monitoring sites. Nutrients pollution increases with time at the Mekong watershed while decreases at the Murray and Yukon watershed monitoring stations. The results implied that watershed located in densely populated developing area has higher risk of water quality deterioration in comparison to thinly populated developed area. The present study suggests best management practices at watershed scale to modulate water pollution.

  5. Low-flow water-quality characterization of the Gore Creek watershed, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado, August 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Kirby H.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1998-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCOL) is one of 59 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study units designed to assess the status and trends of the Nation?s water quality (Leahy and others, 1990). The UCOL study unit began operation in 1994, and surface-water-quality data collection at a network of 14 sites began in October 1995 (Apodaca and others, 1996; Spahr and others, 1996). Gore Creek, which flows through Vail, Colorado, originates in pristine alpine headwaters and is designated a gold-medal trout fishery. The creek drains an area of about 102 square miles and is a tributary to the Eagle River. Gore Creek at the mouth near Minturn (site 13 in fig. 1) is one of the 14 sites in the UCOL network. This site was selected to evaluate water quality resulting from urban development and recreational land use. The Gore Creek watershed has undergone rapid land-use changes since the 1960?s as the Vail area shifted from traditional mountain ranchlands to a four-season resort community. Residential, recreational, commercial, and transportation development continues near Gore Creek and its tributaries to support the increasing permanent and tourist population of the area. Interstate 70 runs through the watershed from Vail Pass near site 14, along the eastern side of Black Gore Creek, and along the northern side of the main stem of Gore Creek to the mouth of the watershed (fig. 1). A major local concern is how increasing urbanization/recreation affects the water quality, gold-medal trout fishery, and aesthetic values of Gore Creek. An evaluation of the spatial characteristics of water quality in the watershed upstream from site 13 at the mouth of Gore Creek (fig. 1) can provide local water and land managers with information necessary to establish water policy and make land-use planning decisions to maintain or improve water quality. Historical data collected at the mouth of Gore Creek provide information about water quality resulting from land use, but a synoptic

  6. Identification of long-term trends and seasonality in high-frequency water quality data from the Yangtze River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin; Chen, Yaning; Zou, Shan; Wang, Yi; Nover, Daniel; Chen, Wen; Yang, Guishan

    2018-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the long-term trends and seasonality of water quality is important for controlling water pollution. This study focuses on spatio-temporal distributions, long-term trends, and seasonality of water quality in the Yangtze River basin using a combination of the seasonal Mann-Kendall test and time-series decomposition. The used weekly water quality data were from 17 environmental stations for the period January 2004 to December 2015. Results show gradual improvement in water quality during this period in the Yangtze River basin and greater improvement in the Uppermost Yangtze River basin. The larger cities, with high GDP and population density, experienced relatively higher pollution levels due to discharge of industrial and household wastewater. There are higher pollution levels in Xiang and Gan River basins, as indicated by higher NH4-N and CODMn concentrations measured at the stations within these basins. Significant trends in water quality were identified for the 2004-2015 period. Operations of the three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) enhanced pH fluctuations and possibly attenuated CODMn, and NH4-N transportation. Finally, seasonal cycles of varying strength were detected for time-series of pollutants in river discharge. Seasonal patterns in pH indicate that maxima appear in winter, and minima in summer, with the opposite true for CODMn. Accurate understanding of long-term trends and seasonality are necessary goals of water quality monitoring system efforts and the analysis methods described here provide essential information for effectively controlling water pollution.

  7. Spatial aspects of surface water quality in the Jakara Basin, Nigeria using chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Adamu; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as hierarchical Agglomerated cluster analysis (HACA), discriminant analysis (DA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA) were applied to identify the spatial variation and pollution sources of Jakara River, Kano, Nigeria. Thirty surface water samples were collected: 23 along Getsi River and 7 along the main channel of River Jakara. Twenty-three water quality parameters, namely pH, temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), Faecal coliform, total solids (TS), nitrates (NO(3)(-)), phosphates (PO(4)(3-)), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), sodium (Na), potassium (K), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), and calcium(Ca) were analysed. HACA grouped the sampling points into three clusters based on the similarities of river water quality characteristics: industrial, domestic, and agricultural water pollution sources. Forward and backward DA effectively discriminated 5 and 15 water quality variables, respectively, each assigned with 100% correctness from the original 23 variables. PCA and FA were used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter due to various land use activities, 7 principal components were obtained with 77.5% total variance, and in addition PCA identified 3 latent pollution sources to support HACA. From this study, one can conclude that the application of multivariate techniques derives meaningful information from water quality data.

  8. Summary of Surface-Water Quality Data from the Illinois River Basin in Northeast Oklahoma, 1970-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Becker, Mark F.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of streams in the Illinois River Basin of northeastern Oklahoma is potentially threatened by increased quantities of wastes discharged from increasing human populations, grazing of about 160,000 cattle, and confined animal feeding operations raising about 20 million chickens. Increasing numbers of humans and livestock in the basin contribute nutrients and bacteria to surface water and groundwater, causing greater than the typical concentrations of those constituents for this region. Consequences of increasing contributions of these substances can include increased algal growth (eutrophication) in streams and lakes; impairment of habitat for native aquatic animals, including desirable game fish species; impairment of drinking-water quality by sediments, turbidity, taste-and-odor causing chemicals, toxic algal compounds, and bacteria; and reduction in the aesthetic quality of the streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Scenic Rivers Commission, prepared this report to summarize the surface-water-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at five long-term surface-water-quality monitoring sites. The data summarized include major ions, nutrients, sediment, and fecal-indicator bacteria from the Illinois River Basin in Oklahoma for 1970 through 2007. General water chemistry, concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, chlorophyll-a (an indicator of algal biomass), fecal-indicator bacteria counts, and sediment concentrations were similar among the five long-term monitoring sites in the Illinois River Basin in northeast Oklahoma. Most water samples were phosphorus-limited, meaning that they contained a smaller proportion of phosphorus, relative to nitrogen, than typically occurs in algal tissues. Greater degrees of nitrogen limitation occurred at three of the five sites which were sampled back to the 1970s, probably due to use of detergents containing greater concentrations of phosphorus than in subsequent

  9. Surface water of Little River basin in southeastern Oklahoma (with a section on quality of water by R. P. Orth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, A.O.; Orth, Richard Philip

    1963-01-01

    This report summarizes basic hydrologic data of the surface water resources of Little River basin above the Oklahoma-Arkansas state line near Cerrogordo, Okla., and by analysis and interpretation, presents certain streamflow characteristics at specified points in the basin. Little River basin above the state line includes 2,269 square miles, of which about 250 square miles of the Mountain Fork River is in Arkansas. The climate is humid and the annual precipitation averages about 46 inches. Gross annual lake evaporation averages 49 inches per year. There are three reservoirs totaling 2,831,800 acre-feet of storage, either authorized or under construction in the basin. The average annual discharge at the gaging stations for the period 1930-61 is 674,900 acre-feet for Little River near Wright City; 1,273,000 acre-feet for Little River below Lukfata Creek, near Idabel; and 989,000 acre-feet for Mountain Fork River near Eagletown. The average annual discharge of Little River at the Oklahoma-Arkansas state line near Cerrogordo is 2,401,000 acre-feet. Flow-duration curves have been developed from daily records for the gaging stations. These curves show the percentage of time various rates of discharge have been equaled or exceeded. Procedures for defining the frequency of annual floods at any point in the basin are given. Low-flow frequency curves for the gaging stations defining the recurrence intervals of 7, 14 or 15, 30, 60, and 120 day mean flows have been prepared. Curves showing the relation of instantaneous discharge at specified upstream points to the daily mean discharge at two gaging stations are presented. The storage requirements for suplementing natural flows have been prepared for the gaging-station sites. Chemical analyses show that the surface water in the basin is suitable for domestic and industrial uses.

  10. Century-scale perspective on water quality in selected river basins of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stets, Edward G.; Kelly, Valerie J.; Broussard, Whitney P.; Smith, Thor E.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient pollution in the form of excess nitrogen and phosphorus inputs is a well-known cause of water-quality degradation that has affected water bodies across the Nation throughout the 20th century. The recognition of excess nutrients as pollution developed later than the recognition of other water-quality problems, such as waterborne illness, industrial pollution, and organic wastes. Nevertheless, long-term analysis of nutrient pollution is fundamental to our understanding of the current magnitude of the problem, as well the origins and the effects. This report describes the century-scale changes in water quality across a range streams in order to place current water-quality concerns in historical context and presents this history on a national scale as well as for selected river reaches. The primary focus is on nutrient pollution, but the development and societal responses to other water-quality problems also are considered. Land use and agriculture in the selected river reaches also are analyzed to consider how these factors may relate to nutrient pollution. Finally, the availability of relevant nutrient and inorganic carbon data are presented for the selected river reaches. Sources of these data included Federal agencies, State-level reports, municipal public works facilities, public health surveys, and sanitary surveys. The availability of these data extends back more than a century for most of the selected river reaches and suggests that there is a tremendous opportunity to document the development of nutrient pollution in these river reaches.

  11. Hydrology and water quality of an urban stream reach in the Great Basin - Little Cottonwood Creek near Salt Lake City, Utah, water years 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    2003-01-01

    The hydrology and water quality of an urbanized reach of Little Cottonwood Creek near Salt Lake City, Utah, were examined as part of the Great Salt Lake Basins study, part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program. Physical and chemical properties of the stream were referenced to established aquatic-life criteria as available. Two fixed sampling sites were established on Little Cottonwood Creek with the purpose of determining the influence of urbanization on the water quality of the stream. The fixed-site assessment is a component of the National Water-Quality Assessment surface-water study design used to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of selected water-quality constituents.The occurrence and distribution of major ions, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved and suspended organic carbon, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and suspended sediment were monitored during this study. From October 1998 to September 2000, stream samples were collected at regular intervals at the two fixed sites. Additional samples were collected at these sites during periods of high flow, which included runoff from snowmelt in the headwaters and seasonal thunderstorms in the lower basin.

  12. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside study unit (CESJO) was investigated from March through June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CESJO, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 78 wells in Merced and Stanislaus Counties. Fifty-eight of the 78 wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Twenty of the wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected lateral or vertical ground-water flow paths in the aquifer (flow-path wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, carbon-14, and uranium isotopes and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon], and dissolved noble and other gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected

  13. Water-Quality Characteristics for Sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River Drainage Basins, Wyoming and Montana, Water Years 2001-05, with Temporal Patterns of Selected Long-Term Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality sampling was conducted regularly at stream sites within or near the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana during water years 2001-05 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2005) to characterize water quality in an area of coalbed natural gas development. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, characterized the water quality at 22 sampling sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins. Data for general hydrology, field measurements, major-ion chemistry, and selected trace elements were summarized, and specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios were evaluated for relations with streamflow and seasonal variability. Trend analysis for water years 1991-2005 was conducted for selected sites and constituents to assess change through time. Average annual runoff was highly variable among the stream sites. Generally, streams that have headwaters in the Bighorn Mountains had more runoff as a result of higher average annual precipitation than streams that have headwaters in the plains. The Powder River at Moorhead, Mont., had the largest average annual runoff (319,000 acre-feet) of all the sites; however, streams in the Tongue River drainage basin had the highest runoff per unit area of the four major drainage basins. Annual runoff in all major drainage basins was less than average during 2001-05 because of drought conditions. Consequently, water-quality samples collected during the study period may not represent long-term water-quality con-ditions for all sites. Water-quality characteristics were highly variable generally because of streamflow variability, geologic controls, and potential land-use effects. The range of median specific-conductance values among sites was smallest in the Tongue River drainage basin. Median values in that basin ranged from 643 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm at 25?C) on the

  14. Multiple biomarkers responses in Prochilodus lineatus allowed assessing changes in the water quality of Salado River basin (Santa Fe, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Jimena; Bacchetta, Carla; Parma, María J; Scarabotti, Pablo A; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2009-11-01

    This field study assessed water quality of Salado River basin by using a set of biomarkers in the fish Prochilodus lineatus. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including morphological indexes (condition factor, liver somatic index), hematological (red and white blood cells) and biochemical (glucose, total protein and cholinesterase activity) parameters. Besides, detoxication and oxidative stress markers (antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation) were measured in liver, gills and kidney. Despite water quality assessment did not show marked differences among sites, biomarkers responses indicate that fish are living under stressful environmental conditions. According to multivariate analysis glucose, glutathione S-transferase activity, lipid peroxidation levels and the count of white blood cells are key biomarkers to contribute to discrimination of sites. So, we suggest use those biomarkers in future monitoring of freshwater aquatic systems.

  15. Studying relations between radionuclide contents and water quality and quantity indices for Rivers Kura-Araks basin, Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, A.G.; Saghatelyan, A.K.; Kyureghyan, A.A; Mikayelyan, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    We initiated a research in late 2005 as a constituent and logical expansion of an ongoing NATO Science for Peace/OSCE project 'South Caucasus River Monitoring' which has been performed since 2002 and was initially focused on indication of river water quality and quantity indices and determination of heavy metals. It should be stressed that this radioactivity research is the first ever attempt of this kind and that all the data obtained are unique. This paper is focused on a study of relations between radionuclide contents and water quality and quantity indices for Armenia's section of Rivers Kura-Araks basin and highlights data obtained for the studied period 2006-2007 (author)(tk)

  16. Summary of surface-water-quality data collected for the Northern Rockies Intermontane Basins National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the Clark Fork-Pend Oreille and Spokane River basins, Montana, Idaho, and Washington, water years 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected at 10 sites in the Clark Fork-Pend Oreille and Spokane River Basins in water years 1999 – 2001 as part of the Northern Rockies Intermontane Basins (NROK) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Sampling sites were located in varied environments ranging from small streams and rivers in forested, mountainous headwater areas to large rivers draining diverse landscapes. Two sampling sites were located immediately downstream from the large lakes; five sites were located downstream from large-scale historical mining and oreprocessing areas, which are now the two largest “Superfund” (environmental remediation) sites in the Nation. Samples were collected during a wide range of streamflow conditions, more frequently during increasing and high streamflow and less frequently during receding and base-flow conditions. Sample analyses emphasized major ions, nutrients, and selected trace elements. Streamflow during the study ranged from more than 130 percent of the long-term average in 1999 at some sites to 40 percent of the long-term average in 2001. River and stream water in the study area exhibited small values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in almost all samples were near saturation. Median total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in samples from most sites were smaller than median concentrations reported for many national programs and other NAWQA Program study areas. The only exceptions were two sites downstream from large wastewater-treatment facilities, where median concentrations of total nitrogen exceeded the national median. Maximum concentrations of total phosphorus in samples from six sites exceeded the 0.1 milligram per liter threshold recommended for limiting nuisance aquatic growth. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc were largest in samples from sites downstream from historical mining and ore

  17. Streamflow and water-quality data for Little Clearfield Creek basin, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, December 1987-November 1988. Open File Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Durlin, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected throughout the Little Clearfield Creek basin, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, from December 1987 through November 1988, to determine the existing quality of surface water over a range of hydrologic conditions. The data will assist the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources during its review of coal-mine permit applications. A water-quality station near the mouth of Little Clearfield Creek provided continuous-record of stream stage, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature. Monthly water-quality samples collected at the station were analyzed for total and dissolved metals, nutrients, major cations, and suspended-sediment concentrations. Seventeen partial-record sites, located throughout the basin, were similarly sampled four times during the study. Streamflow and water-quality data obtained at these sites during a winter base flow, a spring storm event, a low summer base flow, and a more moderate summer base flow also are presented

  18. Ground-water quality in the carbonate-rock aquifer of the Great Basin, Nevada and Utah, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Donald H.; Thiros, Susan A.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    The carbonate-rock aquifer of the Great Basin is named for the thick sequence of Paleozoic limestone and dolomite with lesser amounts of shale, sandstone, and quartzite. It lies primarily in the eastern half of the Great Basin and includes areas of eastern Nevada and western Utah as well as the Death Valley area of California and small parts of Arizona and Idaho. The carbonate-rock aquifer is contained within the Basin and Range Principal Aquifer, one of 16 principal aquifers selected for study by the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water- Quality Assessment Program.Water samples from 30 ground-water sites (20 in Nevada and 10 in Utah) were collected in the summer of 2003 and analyzed for major anions and cations, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved organic carbon, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, radon, and microbiology. Water samples from selected sites also were analyzed for the isotopes oxygen-18, deuterium, and tritium to determine recharge sources and the occurrence of water recharged since the early 1950s.Primary drinking-water standards were exceeded for several inorganic constituents in 30 water samples from the carbonate-rock aquifer. The maximum contaminant level was exceeded for concentrations of dissolved antimony (6 μg/L) in one sample, arsenic (10 μg/L) in eleven samples, and thallium (2 μg/L) in one sample. Secondary drinking-water regulations were exceeded for several inorganic constituents in water samples: chloride (250 mg/L) in five samples, fluoride (2 mg/L) in two samples, iron (0.3 mg/L) in four samples, manganese (0.05 mg/L) in one sample, sulfate (250 mg/L) in three samples, and total dissolved solids (500 mg/L) in seven samples.Six different pesticides or metabolites were detected at very low concentrations in the 30 water samples. The lack of VOC detections in water sampled from most of the sites is evidence thatVOCs are not common in the carbonate-rock aquifer. Arsenic values for water range from 0.7 to 45.7

  19. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Water Quality of Orle River Basin, S.W. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... The formation consists of Imo Shale group and a small portion of the Bende- Ameki group. They consist of mudstone/lignite sequence. ..... University of Benin, Benin City. Kuwar, P. S, Amarita, M, Sarita, S. (2005) Water Quality Assessment and appointment of Pollution Sources of Gomti River (India) using.

  20. Impacts of mixed farms on water quality of Pinhal River sub-basin, Santa Catarina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil is one of the largest producers of food in the world. Agriculture and livestock production are concentrated in certain regions of the country. Livestock has been perceived as a constant threat to the quantity and quality of water resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impa...

  1. An integrated modeling approach for estimating the water quality benefits of conservation practices at the river basin scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhi, C; Kannan, N; White, M; Di Luzio, M; Arnold, J G; Wang, X; Williams, J R

    2014-01-01

    The USDA initiated the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) to quantify the environmental benefits of conservation practices at regional and national scales. For this assessment, a sampling and modeling approach is used. This paper provides a technical overview of the modeling approach used in CEAP cropland assessment to estimate the off-site water quality benefits of conservation practices using the Ohio River Basin (ORB) as an example. The modeling approach uses a farm-scale model, Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX), and a watershed scale model (the Soil and Water Assessment Tool [SWAT]) and databases in the Hydrologic Unit Modeling for the United States system. Databases of land use, soils, land use management, topography, weather, point sources, and atmospheric depositions were developed to derive model inputs. APEX simulates the cultivated cropland, Conserve Reserve Program land, and the practices implemented on them, whereas SWAT simulates the noncultivated land (e.g., pasture, range, urban, and forest) and point sources. Simulation results from APEX are input into SWAT. SWAT routes all sources, including APEX's, to the basin outlet through each eight-digit watershed. Each basin is calibrated for stream flow, sediment, and nutrient loads at multiple gaging sites and turned in for simulating the effects of conservation practice scenarios on water quality. Results indicate that sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus loads delivered to the Mississippi River from ORB could be reduced by 16, 15, and 23%, respectively, due to current conservation practices. Modeling tools are useful to provide science-based information for assessing existing conservation programs, developing future programs, and developing insights on load reductions necessary for hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Long-term trend analysis of reservoir water quality and quantity at the landscape scale in two major river basins of Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; Asquith, William H.; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Dawson, D.

    2016-01-01

    Trends in water quality and quantity were assessed for 11 major reservoirs of the Brazos and Colorado river basins in the southern Great Plains (maximum period of record, 1965–2010). Water quality, major contributing-stream inflow, storage, local precipitation, and basin-wide total water withdrawals were analyzed. Inflow and storage decreased and total phosphorus increased in most reservoirs. The overall, warmest-, or coldest-monthly temperatures increased in 7 reservoirs, decreased in 1 reservoir, and did not significantly change in 3 reservoirs. The most common monotonic trend in salinity-related variables (specific conductance, chloride, sulfate) was one of no change, and when significant change occurred, it was inconsistent among reservoirs. No significant change was detected in monthly sums of local precipitation. Annual water withdrawals increased in both basins, but the increase was significant (P quality data due to the presence of high- and low-salinity reservoirs in both basins. These observations present a landscape in the Brazos and Colorado river basins where, in the last ∼40 years, reservoir inflow and storage generally decreased, eutrophication generally increased, and water temperature generally increased in at least 1 of 3 temperature indicators evaluated. Because local precipitation remained generally stable, observed reductions in reservoir inflow and storage during the study period may be attributable to other proximate factors, including increased water withdrawals (at least in the Colorado River basin) or decreased runoff from contributing watersheds.

  3. Spatial assessment of water quality in the vicinity of Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge, Upper Devils Lake Basin, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeberg, Gregory S; Dixon, Cami S; Vose, Brian; Fisher, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    Runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations and croplands in the Upper Devils Lake Basin (Towner and Ramsey Counties), North Dakota, has the potential to impact the water quality and wildlife of the Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge. Water samples were collected at eight locations upstream and downstream of the refuge, beginning in June 2007 through March 2011, to identify the spatial distribution of water quality parameters and assess the potential impacts from the upstream land use practices. Geographic Information Systems, statistical analysis, and regulatory standards were used to differentiate between sample locations, and identify potential impacts to water quality for the refuge based on 20 chemical constituents. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences between sample locations based on boron, calcium, Escherichia coli, phosphorus, aluminum, manganese, and nickel. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis of these constituents identified four distinct water quality groupings in the study area. Furthermore, this study found a significant positive correlation between the nutrient measures of nitrate-nitrite and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and the percentage of concentrated animal feeding operation nutrient management areas using the non-parametric Spearman rho method. Significant correlations were also noted between total organic carbon and nearness to concentrated animal feeding operations. Finally, dissolved oxygen, pH, sulfate, E. coli, total phosphorus, nitrate-nitrite, and aluminum exceeded state of North Dakota and/or US Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards and/or guidelines. Elevated concentrations of phosphorus, nitrate-nitrite, and E. coli from upstream sources likely have the greatest potential impact on the Lake Alice Refuge.

  4. Using LiDAR datasets to improve HSPF water quality modeling in the Red River of the North Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. P.; Foreman, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Red River of the North Basin (RRB), located in the lakebed of ancient glacial Lake Agassiz, comprises one of the flattest landscapes in North America. The topography of the basin, coupled with the Red River's direction of flow from south to north results in a system that is highly susceptible to flooding. The magnitude and frequency of flood events in the RRB has prompted several multijurisdictional projects and mitigation efforts. In response to the devastating 1997 flood, an International Joint Commission sponsored task force established the need for accurate elevation data to help improve flood forecasting and better understand risks. This led to the International Water Institute's Red River Basin Mapping Initiative, and the acquisition LiDAR Data for the entire US portion of the RRB. The resulting 1 meter bare earth digital elevation models have been used to improve hydraulic and hydrologic modeling within the RRB, with focus on flood prediction and mitigation. More recently, these LiDAR datasets have been incorporated into Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) model applications to improve water quality predictions in the MN portion of the RRB. RESPEC is currently building HSPF model applications for five of MN's 8-digit HUC watersheds draining to the Red River, including: the Red Lake River, Clearwater River, Sandhill River, Two Rivers, and Tamarac River watersheds. This work is being conducted for the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) as part of MN's statewide watershed approach to restoring and protecting water. The HSPF model applications simulate hydrology (discharge, stage), as well as a number of water quality constituents (sediment, temperature, organic and inorganic nitrogen, total ammonia, organic and inorganic phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand, and algae) continuously for the period 1995-2009 and are formulated to provide predictions at points of interest within the watersheds, such as observation gages

  5. The benthonic macro invertebrates of Pozo Azul (Gaira River basin, Colombia) and their relationship with water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Bolano, Francisco; Manjares Hernandez, Ana; Nunez Padilla, Norbelis

    2003-01-01

    On July 2002, a study of some physicochemical parameters and their relationship with the benthonic macro invertebrates community structure on four coriotypes: stone, trash, silt and macrophytes, was carried out in Pozo Azul (Gaira River Basin, Magdalena, Colombia). The physicochemical parameters were determined, to a considerable extent, by the geographic characteristics of the system. The water was found to be oxygen saturated, and intermediate compounds of the organic matter stabilization, such as nitrites and ammonium, there were found 588 individuals distributed in 11 orders and 38 families. The most representative orders were trichoptera, coleoptera, diptera and ephemeroptera. The most representative families were baetidae, simullidae, perlidae, chironomidae, and hydropsychidae, in this rank of abundance. The BMWP index for the relationship between the community structure and the water quality (adapted by Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia) was calculated. According to this index the water quality was optimum. Also, given the general characteristics of the site studied, the water mass quality was classified as good and oligosaprobit, based on the saprobit ecology. It is possible that this state was reached due to stabilization after a small perturbation induced by coffee cultivation in the zone

  6. Long-term integrated river basin planning and management of water quantity and water quality in mining impacted catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, Ina; Zimmermann, Kai; Claus, Thomas; Koch, Hagen; Gädeke, Anne; Uhlmann, Wilfried; Kaltofen, Michael; Müller, Fabian; Redetzky, Michael; Schramm, Martina; Schoenheinz, Dagmar; Grünewald, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades, socioeconomic change in the catchment of the Spree River, a tributary of the Elbe, has been to a large extent associated with lignite mining activities and the rapid decrease of these activities in the 1990s. There are multiple interconnections between lignite mining and water management both in terms of water quantity and quality. During the active mining period a large-scale groundwater depression cone has been formed while river discharges have been artificially increased. Now, the decommissioned opencast mines are being transformed into Europe's largest man-made lake district. However, acid mine drainage causes low pH in post mining lakes and high concentrations of iron and sulphate in post mining lakes and the river system. Next to potential changes in mining activities, also the potential impacts of climate change (increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation) on water resources of the region are of major interest. The fundamental question is to what extent problems in terms of water quantity and water quality are exacerbated and whether they can be mitigated by adaptation measures. In consequence, long term water resource planning in the region has to formulate adaptation measures to climate change and socioeconomic change in terms of mining activities which consider both, water quantity and water quality aspects. To assess potential impacts of climate and socioeconomic change on water quantity and water quality of the Spree River catchment up to the Spremberg reservoir in the scenario period up to 2052, we used a model chain which consists of (i) the regional climate model STAR (scenarios with a further increase in temperature of 0 and 2 K), (ii) mining scenarios (mining discharges, cooling water consumption of thermal power plants), (iii) the ecohydrological model SWIM (natural water balance), (iv) the long term water management model WBalMo (managed discharges, withdrawal of water users, reservoir operation) and (v) the

  7. Ground-water quality in the Appalachian Plateaus, Kanawha River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Charlynn J.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    Water samples collected from 30 privately-owned and small public-supply wells in the Appalachian Plateaus of the Kanawha River Basin were analyzed for a wide range of constituents, including bacteria, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of most constituents from samples analyzed did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. Constituents that exceeded drinking-water standards in at least one sample were total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), iron, manganese, and sulfate. Total coliform bacteria were present in samples from five sites, and E. coli were present at only one site. USEPA secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) were exceeded for three constituents -- sulfate exceeded the SMCL of 250 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in samples from 2 of 30 wells; iron exceeded the SMCL of 300 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) in samples from 12 of the wells, and manganese exceeded the SMCL of 50 ?g/L in samples from 17 of the wells sampled. None of the samples contained concentrations of nutrients that exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for these constituents. The maximum concentration of nitrate detected was only 4.1 mg/L, which is below the MCL of 10 mg/L. Concentrations of nitrate in precipitation and shallow ground water are similar, potentially indicating that precipitation may be a source of nitrate in shallow ground water in the study area. Radon concentrations exceeded the recently proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 pCi/L at 50 percent of the sites sampled. The median concentration of radon was only 290 pCi/L. Radon-222 is a naturally occurring, carcinogenic, radioactive decay product of uranium. Concentrations, however, did not exceed the alternate maximum contaminant level (AMCL) for radon of 4,000 pCi/L in any of the 30 samples. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the proposed MCL of 5?g/L at 4 of the 30 sites. No samples exceeded the

  8. Influence of urban area on the water quality of the Campo River basin, Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, K Q; Lima, S B; Passig, F H; Gusmão, L K; Souza, D C; Kreutz, C; Belini, A D; Arantes, E J

    2015-12-01

    The Campo River basin is located on the third plateau of the Paraná State or trap plateau of Paraná, at the middle portion between the rivers Ivaí and Piquiri, southern Brazil, between the coordinates 23° 53 and 24° 10' South Latitude and 52° 15' and 52° 31' West Longitude. The basin has 384 Km² area, being 247 km² in the municipality of Campo Mourão and 137 km² in the municipality of Peabiru, in Paraná State. The Campo River is a left bank tributary of the Mourão River, which flows into the Ivaí River. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Km 119 River and the Campo River, tributaries of the Mourão River, with monthly collection of water samples to determine pH, temperature, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, fecal coliforms, total solids, total nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate and total phosphorus. The results obtained were compared with the indices established by the environmental legislation and applied in the determination of the Water Quality Index (WQI) used by the Water Institute of Paraná State, regulating environmental agency. Poor water quality in these rivers presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the public system. Results of organic matter, fecal coliforms and total phosphorus were higher than the limits established by Resolution CONAMA 357/2005 to river class 2, specially at downstream of the Km 119 River and the Campo River, due to the significant influence of the urban anthropic activity by the lack of tertiary treatment and also rural by the lack of basic sanitation in this area. Results of WQI of Km 119 River and do Campo River indicated that water quality can be classified as average in 71% and good in 29% of the sites evaluated.

  9. Influence of urban area on the water quality of the Campo River basin, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Q. Carvalho

    Full Text Available The Campo River basin is located on the third plateau of the Paraná State or trap plateau of Paraná, at the middle portion between the rivers Ivaí and Piquiri, southern Brazil, between the coordinates 23° 53 and 24° 10’ South Latitude and 52° 15’ and 52° 31’ West Longitude. The basin has 384 Km² area, being 247 km2 in the municipality of Campo Mourão and 137 km2 in the municipality of Peabiru, in Paraná State. The Campo River is a left bank tributary of the Mourão River, which flows into the Ivaí River. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Km 119 River and the Campo River, tributaries of the Mourão River, with monthly collection of water samples to determine pH, temperature, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, fecal coliforms, total solids, total nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate and total phosphorus. The results obtained were compared with the indices established by the environmental legislation and applied in the determination of the Water Quality Index (WQI used by the Water Institute of Paraná State, regulating environmental agency. Poor water quality in these rivers presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the public system. Results of organic matter, fecal coliforms and total phosphorus were higher than the limits established by Resolution CONAMA 357/2005 to river class 2, specially at downstream of the Km 119 River and the Campo River, due to the significant influence of the urban anthropic activity by the lack of tertiary treatment and also rural by the lack of basic sanitation in this area. Results of WQI of Km 119 River and do Campo River indicated that water quality can be classified as average in 71% and good in 29% of the sites evaluated.

  10. Water quality and quantity and simulated surface-water and groundwater flow in the Laurel Hill Creek Basin, southwestern Pennsylvania, 1991–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Risser, Dennis W.; Eicholtz, Lee W.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2017-07-10

    Laurel Hill Creek is considered one of the most pristine waterways in southwestern Pennsylvania and has high recreational value as a high-quality cold-water fishery; however, the upper parts of the basin have documented water-quality impairments. Groundwater and surface water are withdrawn for public water supply and the basin has been identified as a Critical Water Planning Area (CWPA) under the State Water Plan. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Somerset County Conservation District, collected data and developed modeling tools to support the assessment of water-quality and water-quantity issues for a basin designated as a CWPA. Streams, springs, and groundwater wells were sampled for water quality in 2007. Streamflows were measured concurrent with water-quality sampling at main-stem sites on Laurel Hill Creek and tributaries in 2007. Stream temperatures were monitored continuously at five main-stem sites from 2007 to 2010. Water usage in the basin was summarized for 2003 and 2009 and a Water-Analysis Screening Tool (WAST) developed for the Pennsylvania State Water Plan was implemented to determine whether the water use in the basin exceeded the “safe yield” or “the amount of water that can be withdrawn from a water resource over a period of time without impairing the long-term utility of a water resource.” A groundwater and surface-water flow (GSFLOW) model was developed for Laurel Hill Creek and calibrated to the measured daily streamflow from 1991 to 2007 for the streamflow-gaging station near the outlet of the basin at Ursina, Pa. The CWPA designation requires an assessment of current and future water use. The calibrated GSFLOW model can be used to assess the hydrologic effects of future changes in water use and land use in the basin.Analyses of samples collected for surface-water quality during base-flow conditions indicate that the highest nutrient concentrations in the main stem of Laurel Hill Creek were at sites in the

  11. Surface-Water Quantity and Quality of the Upper Milwaukee River, Cedar Creek, and Root River Basins, Wisconsin, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (SEWRPC), collected discharge and water-quality data at nine sites in previously monitored areas of the upper Milwaukee River, Cedar Creek, and Root River Basins, in Wisconsin from May 1 through November 15, 2004. The data were collected for calibration of hydrological models that will be used to simulate how various management strategies will affect the water quality of streams. The data also will support SEWRPC and Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) managers in development of the SEWRPC Regional Water Quality Management Plan and the MMSD 2020 Facilities Plan. These management plans will provide a scientific basis for future management decisions regarding development and maintenance of public and private waste-disposal systems. In May 2004, parts of the study area received over 13 inches of precipitation (3.06 inches is normal). In June 2004, most of the study area received between 7 and 11 inches of rainfall (3.56 inches is normal). This excessive rainfall caused flooding throughout the study area and resultant high discharges were measured at all nine monitoring sites. For example, the mean daily discharge recorded at the Cedar Creek site on May 27, 2004, was 2,120 cubic feet per second. This discharge ranked ninth of the largest 10 mean daily discharges in the 75-year record, and was the highest discharge recorded since March 30, 1960. Discharge records from continuous monitoring on the Root River Canal near Franklin since October 1, 1963, indicated that the discharge recorded on May 23, 2004, ranked second highest on record, and was the highest discharge recorded since March 4, 1974. Water-quality samples were taken during two base-flow events and six storm events at each of the nine sites. Analysis of water-quality data indicated that most concentrations of dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, fecal coliform bacteria, chloride, suspended

  12. Surface-water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; results of investigations through April 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur R.; Blanchard, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    A water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River Basin (10,949 square miles) was conducted during water years 1987-91. This assessment involved interpretation of available data; 4 years of intensive data collection, including monthly sample collection at eight fixed-monitoring stations in the basin; and synoptic studies of selected water-quality constituents at many sites. The number of exceedances of water-quality criteria for chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc in water was essentially the same at similar stations between 1978-86 and 1987-90. For water and sediment, a large signature for many trace inorganic constituents was observed from the Chicago metropolitan area, mainly from the Des Plaines River Basin and continuing down the Illinois River. Loads of trace inorganic constituents in water were 2-13 times greater from the Chicago metropolitan area than from rural areas in the upper Illinois River Basin. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc appeared to be relatively enriched in biota in the upper Illinois River Basin compared to other river basins. Biota from some urban sites were enriched with respect to several elements. For example, relatively large concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and nickel were observed in biota from sites in the Chicago River in the metropolitan area and the Calumet River. Results of pesticide sampling in 1988 and 1989 identified the pesticides bromacil, diazinon, malathion, prometon, and simazine as urban related and alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and metribuzin as agricultural related. Phenol concentrations never exceeded general-use and secondary-contact water-quality standards of 100 and 300 micrograms per liter, respectively. Pentachlorophenol concentrations observed at the Illinois River at Marseilles, Ill., between 1981 and 1992 decreased beginning in 1987. A breakdown product of the organochlorine pesticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), p

  13. Water quality index development for groundwater quality assessment of Greater Noida sub-basin, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The water quality index (WQI is an important parameter for determining the drinking water quality for the end users. The study for the same has been carried on the groundwater by collecting 47 groundwater samples from 25 blocks of Greater Noida city, India. In order to develop WQI the samples were subjected to a comprehensive physicochemical and biological analysis of 11 parameters such as pH, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, total dissolved solids, fluorides, bicarbonate, sodium and potassium. Geographical information system has been used to map the sampling area. The coordinates in terms of latitude and longitude of the sampling locations were recorded with the help of global positioning system. Piper plots and cation–anion correlation matrix were plotted from the values obtained by the analysis of various parameters. The WQI index for the same has been calculated and the values ranged from 53.69 to 267.85. The WQI values from present study indicate the very poor quality water in the area dominated by industrial and construction activities. Poor water quality has been observed in commercial zone of the study area. The analysis reveals the fact that the ground water of the Greater Noida needs a degree of treatment before consumption and needs to be protected from further contamination.

  14. Computer-program documentation of an interactive-accounting model to simulate streamflow, water quality, and water-supply operations in a river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes an interactive-accounting model used to simulate streamflow, chemical-constituent concentrations and loads, and water-supply operations in a river basin. The model uses regression equations to compute flow from incremental (internode) drainage areas. Conservative chemical constituents (typically dissolved solids) also are computed from regression equations. Both flow and water quality loads are accumulated downstream. Optionally, the model simulates the water use and the simplified groundwater systems of a basin. Water users include agricultural, municipal, industrial, and in-stream users , and reservoir operators. Water users list their potential water sources, including direct diversions, groundwater pumpage, interbasin imports, or reservoir releases, in the order in which they will be used. Direct diversions conform to basinwide water law priorities. The model is interactive, and although the input data exist in files, the user can modify them interactively. A major feature of the model is its color-graphic-output options. This report includes a description of the model, organizational charts of subroutines, and examples of the graphics. Detailed format instructions for the input data, example files of input data, definitions of program variables, and listing of the FORTRAN source code are Attachments to the report. (USGS)

  15. Predicting Impacts of Increased CO2 and Climate Change on the Water Cycle and Water Quality in the Semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Gallant, Alisa L.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO3–N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO2, precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO2 concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO3–N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO3–N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin.

  16. Identification of long-term trends and seasonality in high-frequency water quality data from the Yangtze River basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Duan

    Full Text Available Comprehensive understanding of the long-term trends and seasonality of water quality is important for controlling water pollution. This study focuses on spatio-temporal distributions, long-term trends, and seasonality of water quality in the Yangtze River basin using a combination of the seasonal Mann-Kendall test and time-series decomposition. The used weekly water quality data were from 17 environmental stations for the period January 2004 to December 2015. Results show gradual improvement in water quality during this period in the Yangtze River basin and greater improvement in the Uppermost Yangtze River basin. The larger cities, with high GDP and population density, experienced relatively higher pollution levels due to discharge of industrial and household wastewater. There are higher pollution levels in Xiang and Gan River basins, as indicated by higher NH4-N and CODMn concentrations measured at the stations within these basins. Significant trends in water quality were identified for the 2004-2015 period. Operations of the three Gorges Reservoir (TGR enhanced pH fluctuations and possibly attenuated CODMn, and NH4-N transportation. Finally, seasonal cycles of varying strength were detected for time-series of pollutants in river discharge. Seasonal patterns in pH indicate that maxima appear in winter, and minima in summer, with the opposite true for CODMn. Accurate understanding of long-term trends and seasonality are necessary goals of water quality monitoring system efforts and the analysis methods described here provide essential information for effectively controlling water pollution.

  17. Water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  18. Integral study of the quantity and quality of the underground water in the Santa Lucia basin in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This work study different aspects about the underground water in the Santa Lucia sedimentary basin in Uruguay. It is situated between the San Jose and Santa Lucia river as well as the adyacent Rio de La Plata coast.

  19. Water quality and amphibian health in the Big Bend region of the Rio Grande Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bibek; Hu, F.; Carr, J.A.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2011-01-01

    Male and female Rio Grande leopard frogs (Rana berlandieri) were collected in May 2005 from the main stem and tributaries of the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas. Frogs were examined for (1) incidence of testicular ovarian follicles in males; (2) thyroid epithelial cell height, a potential index of exposure to thyroid-disrupting contaminants; and (3) incidence of liver melanomacrophage aggregates, a general index of exposure to contaminants. Standard parameters of surface water quality and concentrations of selected elements, including heavy metals, were determined at each frog collection site. Heavy metals also were measured in whole-frog composite extracts. Water cadmium concentrations in most sites and chloride concentrations in the main stem exceeded federal criteria for freshwater aquatic life. Mercury was detected in frogs from the two collection sites in Terlingua Creek. There was a seventeen percent incidence of testicular ovarian follicles in male frogs. Mean thyroid epithelial cell height was greater in frogs from one of the Terlingua Creek sites (Terlingua Abajo). No differences were observed in the incidence of hepatic macrophage aggregates among sites. In conclusion, although potential cause-effect relationships between indices of habitat quality and amphibian health could not be established, the results of this study raise concerns about the general quality of the aquatic habitat and the potential long-term consequences to the aquatic biota of the Big Bend region. The presence of ovarian follicles in male frogs is noteworthy but further study is necessary to determine whether this phenomenon is natural or anthropogenically induced.

  20. National Water-Quality Assessment Program— Pesticides in the Trinity River Basin study unit, Texas, 1968-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Trinity River Basin National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study-unit staff began assessment activities in 1991, and in 1992, undertook a retrospective review of existing data on pesticides. The main purpose of this review was to aid in the design of a pesticide-sampling network for the study unit. The review consisted of the compilation, screening, and analysis of available pesticide-sample information. In addition, important environmental factors, which influence the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the study unit, were identified and compiled. A report of this review and analysis will be released in 1995 (Ulery and Brown, in press). This fact sheet provides a brief overview of significant findings.

  1. BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN THE UPPER HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF CERNA RIVER IN RELATION TO WATER QUALITY (WEST AND SOUTH-WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORINA TUDORESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of an hydrographic basin may be reflected by the composition of benthic macroinvertebrates communities as they can be influenced by the quality degradations of physical and chemical water parameters. The structure of the benthic community in the upper basin of the Cerna river was characterized by the presence of 13 groups. Abundance and frequency values recorded for benthic communities varied according to the physical-chemical conditions specific to each sample collecting station. Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Amphipoda were influenced by changes in water quality, changes that were reflected in the composition and structure of such communities with low levels of abundance, reaching extinction in some areas of the basin.

  2. Ribeira do Iguape basin water quality assessment for drinking water supply; Avaliacao da qualidade da agua na bacia hidrografica do Ribeira de Iguape com vistas ao abastecimento publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza

    2006-07-01

    Ribeira do Iguape Basin, located in the Southeast region of Sao Paulo state, is the largest remaining area of Mata Atlantica which biodiversity as rich as Amazon forest , where the readiness of water versus demand is extremely positive. With sparse population density and economy almost dependent on banana agriculture, the region is still well preserved. To water supply SABESP (Sao Paulo State Basic Sanitation Company). Ribeira do Iguape Businesses Unit - RR, uses different types of water supplies. In the present work, in order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor elements were evaluated in various types of water supply (surface and groundwater's as well as the drinking water supplied). Forty three producing systems were monitored: 18 points of surface waters and treated distributed water, 10 points of groundwater and 15 points of surface water in preserved areas, analyzing 30 elements. Bottom sediments (fraction < 63 {mu}m) were also evaluated. The sampling period covered dry and wet seasons from March 2002 to February 2003. The descriptive analysis showed that Al, Fe and Mn, exceeding CONAMA 357 quality guideline. A comparison of the elemental concentrations with the Brazilian Drinking Water Legislation (Portaria 518/04) showed that with the exception of some violations, the levels of all the elements investigated were below the Brazilian Legislation maximum allowed concentrations. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used, showed different characteristics on Ca, Fe, Mn concentration. In bottom sediments (fraction <63 {mu}m), Al, Fe and Mg largest concentrations were found. Pb and Zn presents concentrations up to 142,0 {mu}g.g{sup -1} and 172 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively. Data revealed that trace elements concentration in the sediment were below PEL (Probable Effect Level - probable level of adverse effect to the biological community), exception for Pb in Sete Barras and

  3. Water-quality assessment of the Lower Grand River Basin, Missouri and Iowa, USA, in support of integrated conservation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of agricultural conservation programmes to adequately reduce nutrient exports to receiving streams and to help limit downstream hypoxia issues remains a concern. Quantifying programme success can be difficult given that short-term basin changes may be masked by long-term water-quality shifts. We evaluated nutrient export at stream sites in the 44 months that followed a period of increased, integrated conservation implementation within the Lower Grand River Basin. These short-term responses were then compared with export that occurred in the main stem and adjacent rivers in northern Missouri over a 22-year period to better contextualize any recent changes. Results indicate that short-term (October 2010 through May 2014) total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in the Grand River were 20% less than the long-term average, and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were 23% less. Nutrient reductions in the short term were primarily the result of the less-than-average precipitation and, consequently, streamflow that was 36% below normal. Therefore, nutrient concentrations measured in tributary streams were likely less than normal during the implementation period. Northern Missouri streamflow-normalized TN concentrations remained relatively flat or declined over the period 1991 through 2013 likely because available sources of nitrogen, determined as the sum of commercial fertilizers, available animal manures and atmospheric inputs, were typically less than crop requirement for much of that time frame. Conversely, flow-normalized stream TP concentrations increased over the past 22 years in northern Missouri streams, likely in response to many years of phosphorus inputs in excess of crop requirements. Stream nutrient changes were most pronounced during periods that coincided with the major tillage, planting and growth phases of row crops and increased streamflow. Nutrient reduction strategies targeted at the period February through June would likely have the

  4. Predicting impacts of increased CO2 and climate change on the water cycle and water quality in the semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Gallant, Alisa L.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 –N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO 2 , precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO 2 concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO 3 –N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO 3 –N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin. - Highlights: ► We used a modified version of SWAT to more accurately simulate the effects of CO 2 . ► Our sensitivity analysis indicated this basin is very responsive to climate change. ► Downscaled GCM outputs showed decreased precipitation and increased temperature. ► There may be large

  5. Predicting impacts of increased CO{sub 2} and climate change on the water cycle and water quality in the semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yiping, E-mail: ywu@usgs.gov [ASRC Research and Technology Solutions, contractor to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198 (United States); Liu, Shuguang, E-mail: sliu@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198 (United States); Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Gallant, Alisa L., E-mail: gallant@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198 (United States); Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO{sub 2}, precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO{sub 2} concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO{sub 3}-N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO{sub 3}-N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used a modified version of SWAT to more accurately simulate the effects of CO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our sensitivity analysis indicated this basin is very responsive to climate change. Black

  6. Surface-water-quality assessment of the lower Kansas River basin, Kansas and Nebraska; results of investigations, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    Surface-water-quality conditions and trends were assessed in the lower Kansas River Basin, which drains about 15,300 square miles of mainly agricultural land in southeast Nebraska and northeast Kansas. On the basis of established water-quality criteria, most streams in the basin were suitable for uses such as public-water supply, irrigation, and maintenance of aquatic life. However, most concerns identified from a previous analysis of available data through 1986 are substantiated by analysis of data for May 1987 through April 1990. Less-than-normal precipitation and runoff during 1987-90 affected surface-water quality and are important factors in the interpretation of results.Dissolved-solids concentrations in the main stem Kansas River during May 1987 through April 1990 commonly exceeded 500 milligrams per liter, which may be of concern for public-water supplies and for the irrigation of sensitive crops. Large concentrations of chloride in the Kansas River are derived from ground water discharging in the Smoky Hill River Basin west of the study unit. Trends of increasing concentrations of some dissolved major ions were statistically significant in the northwestern part of the study unit, which could reflect substantial increases in irrigated acreage.The largest concentrations of suspended sediment in streams during May 1987 through April 1990 were associated with high-density cropland in areas of little local relief and medium-density irrigated cropland in more dissected areas. The smallest concentrations were measured downstream from large reservoirs and in streams draining areas having little or no row-crop cultivation. Mean annual suspended-sediment transport rates in the main stem Kansas River increased substantially in the downstream direction. No conclusions could be reached concerning the relations of suspended-sediment transport, yields, or trends to natural and human factors.The largest sources of nitrogen and phosphorus in the study unit were fertilizer

  7. Geology, water-quality, hydrology, and geomechanics of the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin, California, 2008--12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Rhett; Gibbs, Dennis R.; Hanson, Randall T.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Brandt, Justin T.; Falk, Sarah E.; Harich, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the water resources of the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin in Santa Barbara County, California, a series of cooperative studies were undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Santa Barbara County Water Agency. Between 2008 and 2012, geologic, water-quality, hydrologic and geomechanical data were collected from selected sites throughout the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin. Geologic data were collected from three multiple-well groundwater monitoring sites and included lithologic descriptions of the drill cuttings, borehole geophysical logs, temperature logs, as well as bulk density and sonic velocity measurements of whole-core samples. Generalized lithologic characterization from the monitoring sites indicated the water-bearing units in the subsurface consist of unconsolidated to partly consolidated sand, gravel, silt, clay, and occasional cobbles within alluvial fan and stream deposits. Analysis of geophysical logs indicated alternating layers of finer- and coarser-grained material that range from less than 1 foot to more than 20 feet thick. On the basis of the geologic data collected, the principal water-bearing units beneath the monitoring-well sites were found to be composed of younger alluvium of Holocene age, older alluvium of Pleistocene age, and the Tertiary-Quaternary Morales Formation. At all three sites, the contact between the recent fill and younger alluvium is approximately 20 feet below land surface. Water-quality samples were collected from 12 monitoring wells, 27 domestic and supply wells, 2 springs, and 4 surface-water sites and were analyzed for a variety of constituents that differed by site, but, in general, included trace elements; nutrients; dissolved organic carbon; major and minor ions; silica; total dissolved solids; alkalinity; total arsenic and iron; arsenic, chromium, and iron species; and isotopic tracers, including the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, activities of tritium, and carbon-14 abundance. Of the 39

  8. An environmental fairness based optimisation model for the decision-support of joint control over the water quantity and quality of a river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sen; He, Li; Lu, Hongwei

    2016-04-01

    This paper presented a new environmental fairness based optimisation model (EFOM) for the decision-support of water resources management and water pollution control at the watershed scale. The model integrated three prediction modules for water consumption and pollutant discharge (WCPD), environmental Gini coefficient (EGC) and water quality (WASP). The model is capable of optimizing the total discharge quantity in the whole basin and controlling units both spatially and temporally, and addressing the conflicts between environmental fairness and efficiency. The model was applied to the Songhua River basin, attempting to support decision-making of joint control over the water quantity and quality. Validation of the WASP module showed that the simulation agreed well with water quality monitoring values (2013) in the Harbin section. Results from the EFOM model also indicated that the water environment in the Harbin section would be improved significantly by effectively controlling the total pollution discharge. The identified optimal strategy obtained from the EFOM showed that the percentage of water in good quality reaches 72% in 2020, suggesting that the strategy would guarantee the planning goals of The China Action Plan for Water Pollution Control to be satisfied. Hence, the modelling under the consideration of environmental fairness can be a new attempt, which is beneficial to optimal joint control of water quantity and water quality at the watershed scale.

  9. [The origin and quality of water for human consumption: the health of the population residing in the Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Malena; Cipponeri, Marcos; Angelaccio, Carlos; Gianuzzi, Leda

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the origin and quality of water used for consumption in a sample of households in Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. The results of drinking water by source indicated that 9% of water samples from the public water system, 45% of bottled water samples and 80% of well water samples were not safe for drinking due to excess content of coliforms, Escherichia coli or nitrates. Individuals living in households where well water is the main source of drinking water have a 55% higher chance of suffering a water-borne disease; in the cases of diarrheas, the probability is 87% higher and in the case of dermatitis, 160% higher. The water for human consumption in this region should be provided by centralized sources that assure control over the quality of the water.

  10. Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Analysis of available information on nutrients and suspended sediment, 1974-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Reutter, David C.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an assessment of water quality in the Trinity River Basin as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. During the planning phase of this study, existing information on nutrients and suspended sediment was compiled and analyzed. A total of about 5,700 water-quality samples were analyzed from local, State, and Federal agencies. Of these, about 4,200 were from streams and about 1,500 were from wells. Additionally, atmospheric deposition data for two locations were obtained and analyzed.

  11. Water-quality trends and basin activities and characteristics for the Albemarle-Pamlico estuarine system, North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, D.A.; Davenport, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Albemarle-Pamlico estuarine system has a total basin area of nearly 31,000 square miles and includes the Neuse, Tar, Pamlico, Roanoke, Chowan, and Alligator Rivers, and the Albemarle, Pamlico, Currituck, Croatan, and Roanoke Sounds. Albemarle Sound receives the greatest freshwater inflow of all the sounds in the estuarine system. Inflow to this sound averages about 13,500 cubic feet per second. Inflow to Pamlico Sound from the Pamlico River averages around 5,400 cubic feet per second, and average inflow into the Neuse River estuary is about 6,100 cubic feet per second. Approximately one-half of the inflow into the system is from ground-water discharge. The Neuse River basin has had the greatest increases in wastewater discharges (650 percent since the 1950's) and had the greatesttotal wastewater discharges of any of the basins in the study area, averaging about 200 million gallons per day in 1988. Wastewater discharges into the Neuse and Tar Rivers were nearly equal to the 7-day, 10-year low flows for these rivers. Land-use data compiled in 1973 for the lower parts of the Neuse River basin and lower part of the Tar-Pamlico River basin indicate that 25 percent of the area was evergreen forest, 25 percent was forested wetlands, 20 percent was cropland and pasture, 12 percent was mixed forest, 10 percent was nonforested wetland, and 4 percent was urban. The amount of nonforested wetland in the part of the study area along the Outer Banks declined 6.5 percent from 1973 to 1983. The numbers of farms and acreage in agricultural use in the study area have declined since the 1920's. A decrease of more than 60 percentin the number of farms was shown between the early 1950's and 1982. Fertilizer sales increased through the 1970's, but declined in the 1980's. Manufacturing employment has increased in the last 30 years, while agricultural employment has decreased. Data from seven stations of the U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network were used to

  12. seasonal variation in water quality of orle river basin, sw nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    chemical indices of pollution such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), and Dissolved Oxygen. (DO) vary ... Dix (1981) views water pollution as the condition in water .... garden watering.(ii) Industrial water supplies involves industrial processes which require large quantities of water for cooling , steam raising material.

  13. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Characterization and Modeling of the Onondaga Lake Basin, Onondaga County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Reddy, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Onondaga Lake in Onondaga County, New York, has been identified as one of the Nation?s most contaminated lakes as a result of industrial and sanitary-sewer discharges and stormwater nonpoint sources, and has received priority cleanup status under the national Water Resources Development Act of 1990. A basin-scale precipitation-runoff model of the Onondaga Lake basin was identified as a desirable water-resources management tool to better understand the processes responsible for the generation of loads of sediment and nutrients that are transported to Onondaga Lake. During 2003?07, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a model based on the computer program, Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF), which simulated overland flow to, and streamflow in, the major tributaries of Onondaga Lake, and loads of sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen transported to the lake. The simulation period extends from October 1997 through September 2003. The Onondaga Lake basin was divided into 107 subbasins and within these subbasins, the land area was apportioned among 19 pervious and impervious land types on the basis of land use and land cover, hydrologic soil group (HSG), and aspect. Precipitation data were available from three sources as input to the model. The model simulated streamflow, water temperature, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and concentrations and loads of sediment, orthophosphate, total phosphorus, nitrate, ammonia, and organic nitrogen in the four major tributaries to Onondaga Lake?Onondaga Creek, Harbor Brook, Ley Creek, and Ninemile Creek. Simulated flows were calibrated to data from nine USGS streamflow-monitoring sites; simulated nutrient concentrations and loads were calibrated to data collected at six of the nine streamflow-monitoring sites. Water-quality samples were collected, processed, and analyzed by personnel from the Onondaga County Department of Water Environment Protection. Several time series of flow, and sediment and nutrient loads

  14. Regional analysis of the effects of land use on stream-water quality; methodology and application in the Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lystrom, David J.; Rinella, F.A.; Rickert, D.A.; Zimmermann, Lisa

    1978-01-01

    A framework is presented for compiling available data for assessing statistical relationships between water quality and climate, physiography and land use. Seventeen water-quality characteristics studied represent annual mean concentrations or calculated annual yields of suspended sediment, dissolved solids and various chemical species of nitrogen and phosphorus. Usable multiple-linear regressions were developed relating water-quality characteristics to basin characteristics for 14 of the 17 water-quality characteristics with standard errors of estimate ranging from 17 to 75 percent. These models can be used to estimate water quality at specific stream sites or to simulate the generalized effect of land-use characteristics on water quality. For example, observed nitrate yields were up to 20 times greater than the simulated background yields. This increase is indicated to be the result of chemical fertilizers, animal wastes, and urbanization. It was concluded that this was a viable method of assessing the relationships between water quality and basin characteristics on a regional basis. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data (October 2009 through September 2010) and statistical summaries of data for streams in the Clark Fork basin, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kent A.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Water, bed sediment, and biota were sampled in streams from Butte to near Missoula, Montana, as part of a monitoring program in the upper Clark Fork basin. The sampling program was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to characterize aquatic resources in the Clark Fork basin of western Montana, with emphasis on trace elements associated with historic mining and smelting activities. Sampling sites were located on the Clark Fork and selected tributaries. Water samples were collected periodically at 20 sites from October 2009 through September 2010. Bed-sediment and biota samples were collected once at 13 sites during August 2010. This report presents the analytical results and quality-assurance data for water-quality, bed-sediment, and biota samples collected at sites from October 2009 through September 2010. Water-quality data include concentrations of selected major ions, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Turbidity was analyzed for water samples collected at the four sites where seasonal daily values of turbidity were being determined. Daily values of suspended-sediment concentration and suspended-sediment discharge were determined for four sites. Bed-sediment data include trace-element concentrations in the fine-grained fraction. Biological data include trace-element concentrations in whole-body tissue of aquatic benthic insects. Statistical summaries of water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data for sites in the upper Clark Fork basin are provided for the period of record since 1985.

  16. Water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data (October 2011 through September 2012) and statistical summaries of data for streams in the Clark Fork Basin, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kent A.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Water, bed sediment, and biota were sampled in streams from Butte to near Missoula, Montana, as part of a monitoring program in the upper Clark Fork Basin of western Montana. The sampling program was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to characterize aquatic resources in the Clark Fork Basin, with emphasis on trace elements associated with historic mining and smelting activities. Sampling sites were located on the Clark Fork and selected tributaries. Water samples were collected periodically at 20 sites from October 2011 through September 2012. Bed-sediment and biota samples were collected once at 13 sites during August 2012. This report presents the analytical results and quality-assurance data for water-quality, bed-sediment, and biota samples collected at sites from October 2011 through September 2012. Water-quality data include concentrations of selected major ions, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Turbidity was analyzed for water samples collected at the four sites where seasonal daily values of turbidity were being determined. Daily values of suspended-sediment concentration and suspended-sediment discharge were determined for four sites. Bed-sediment data include trace-element concentrations in the fine-grained fraction. Biological data include trace-element concentrations in whole-body tissue of aquatic benthic insects. Statistical summaries of water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data for sites in the upper Clark Fork Basin are provided for the period of record since 1985.

  17. Geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the lower Merrimack and coastal river basins, southeastern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekl, Peter J.; Flanagan, Sarah M.

    1992-01-01

    . Analyses of water samples from 30 wells indicate that the water quality in the basins studied is generally suitable for drinking and other domestic purposes. Concentrations of iron and manganese exceeded the U.S . Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) and the New Hampshire Water Supply Engineering Bureau's secondary maximum contaminant levels for drinking water in 20 samples. With one exception, concentrations of volatile organic compounds at all wells sampled met New Hampshire Water Supply and Engineering Bureau's drinking-water standards. At one well, trichloroethylene was detected at a concentration of 5.7 micrograms per liter. Ground-water contamination has been detected at several hazardous-waste sites in the study area. Currently, 5 sites are on the USEPA's National Priority List of superfund sites, 10 sites are Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 sites, and 1 site is a Department of Defense hazardous-waste site of stratigraphic layers is a product of a material's density and the velocity at which sound travels through that material . The reflected signals return to the hydrophones at the water surface and are then filtered, amplified, and displayed graphically on the chart recorder to allow interpretation of aquifer stratigraphy and bedrock depths. Lithologic data from nearby wells and test holes were used as control points to check the interpretation of the reflection profiles. Test drilling was done at 66 locations (pls . 1-3) to determine sediment grain size, stratigraphy, depth to water table, depth to bedrock, and ground water quality . A 6-inch-diameter, hollow-stem auger was used for test drilling . Split-spoon samples of subsurface materials collected at specific depths were used to evaluate the grain-size characteristics and identify the stratigraphic sequence of materials comprising the aquifers . Thirty-eight test holes cased with a 2-inch-diameter polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) pipe and slotted screens were used to make ground-water

  18. Groundwater Quality Studies: A Case Study of the Densu Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    farming) within the Densu basin culminated in a public outcry over the quality of water supplied from the Weija ... It is, therefore, imperative to carry out an extensive groundwater quality assess-ment of the basin, as well as water types of ...... environment (Evans et al., 1977) and often occurs with iron (Fe). Its concentrations in ...

  19. Water Quality Assessment and Pollution Source Identification of the Eastern Poyang Lake Basin Using Multivariate Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical methods including cluster analysis (CA, discriminant analysis (DA and component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA, were applied to explore the surface water quality datasets including 14 parameters at 28 sites of the Eastern Poyang Lake Basin, Jiangxi Province of China, from January 2012 to April 2015, characterize spatiotemporal variation in pollution and identify potential pollution sources. The 28 sampling stations were divided into two periods (wet season and dry season and two regions (low pollution and high pollution, respectively, using hierarchical CA method. Four parameters (temperature, pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N, and total nitrogen (TN were identified using DA to distinguish temporal groups with close to 97.86% correct assignations. Again using DA, five parameters (pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD, TN, Fluoride (F, and Sulphide (S led to 93.75% correct assignations for distinguishing spatial groups. Five potential pollution sources including nutrients pollution, oxygen consuming organic pollution, fluorine chemical pollution, heavy metals pollution and natural pollution, were identified using PCA/FA techniques for both the low pollution region and the high pollution region. Heavy metals (Cuprum (Cu, chromium (Cr and Zinc (Zn, fluoride and sulfide are of particular concern in the study region because of many open-pit copper mines such as Dexing Copper Mine. Results obtained from this study offer a reasonable classification scheme for low-cost monitoring networks. The results also inform understanding of spatio-temporal variation in water quality as these topics relate to water resources management.

  20. Using of zooplankton indicators in assessing the quality of waters in two lakes in the Gulf of Finland basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulakov Dmitry

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2012–2015 zooplankton studies were carried out and the quality of the waters of the Kopanskoe and the Gorovaldayskoe lakes belonging to the Gulf of Finland basin (Leningrad region was assessed. Under the frame of long-term monitoring studies on these waterbodies, such work has not previously been carried out. The sampling stations were located in the coastal part of the waterbodies. Zooplankton of the lakes included 46 taxons of species and subspecies ranks, it was typical of the North-West of Russia and represented mainly by eurybiontic species with high ecological plasticity. In Gorovaldayskoe lake most affected by the anthropogenic influence, in comparison with the Kopanskoe, showed the lowest species richness and the lowest values of the biodiversity index. Nevertheless, the mass development of Cladocera, which made the main contribution to the population and the biomass of the community, promoted the active development of the processes of biological self-purification of this lake, as evidenced by a decrease by coefficient trophicity. According to the saprobity index in the waters of the studied lakes belonged to the oligosaprobic – β-mesosaprobic zone.

  1. Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and West Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound Basin, North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound basin and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) West Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and West Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for West Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for West Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.

  2. WATER-QUALITY CONDITIONS DURING LOW FLOW IN THE LOWER YOUGHIOGHENY RIVER BASIN, PENNSYLVANIA, OCTOBER 5-7, 1998; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James I. Sams, III, Karl T. Schroeder; Terry E. Ackman; J. Kent Crawford; Kim L. Otto

    2001-01-01

    In October 1998, a chemical synoptic survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, in the Lower Youghiogheny River Basin in Pennsylvania to give a snap-shot of present (1998) water quality during low-flow conditions. Water samples from 38 sites-12 mainstem sites, 22 tributaries, and 4 mine discharges that discharge directly to the Youghiogheny River-were used to identify sources of contaminants from mining operations. Specific conductance, water temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field at each site and concentrations of major ions and trace elements were measured in the laboratory. Unaccounted for gains and losses in streamflow were measured during the study. Unaccounted for losses in streamflow might be attributed to water loss through streambed fractures. Extensive mine tunnels are present in the basin and loss of water to these tunnels seems likely. Unaccounted for gains in streamflow may be from unmeasured tributaries or surface seeps, but most of the gains are suspected to come from artesian flow through fractures in the streambed from underground mine pools. Influent flows of rust-colored water were noted in some river sections. The pH values for all the samples collected during this survey were above 5.8, and most (33 of 38 samples) were above 7.0. Samples from the four mine-discharge sites also had pH values between 6.3 and 6.7. The lowest pH (5.8) was in a tributary, Galley Run. All 38 sampling sites had net alkalinity. The alkalinity load in the Youghiogheny River increased between Connellsville and McKeesport from 35 to 79 tons per day. Above Smithton, the measured alkalinity load in the Lower Youghiogheny River agreed well with the estimated alkalinity load. Below Smithton, measured alkalinity loads in the Lower Youghiogheny River are greater than calculated loads, resulting in unaccounted for gains in alkalinity. These gains are

  3. Determination of the water quality and radon content in wells located at the Cuitzeo basin, Michoacan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, R.; Segovia, N.; Pena, P.; Lopez, M.B.E.; Martinez, V.; Armienta, M.A.; Rangel, J.; Seidel, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Major elements, trace elements, presence of microorganisms and, radon content in wells located in urban and rural zones around the Cuitzeo lake at the Lerma River basin in Mexico were determined. The techniques to determine the parameters were the liquid scintillation method for 222 Rn, Icp-Ms for trace elements, conventional chemical analysis for major components and the counting in slide for the bacteriological determination. The average concentration of radon oscillated between 0.88 and 4.75 Bq/lt which, indicated a fast transit from the reload toward the spring exit. The major components and trace elements are analysed considering the geological characteristics of the sites in study. Faecal coliforms were not found. (Author)

  4. Water-quality trends for selected sampling sites in the upper Clark Fork Basin, Montana, water years 1996-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Lorenz, David L.; Barnhart, Elliott P.

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale trend analysis was done on specific conductance, selected trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, and zinc), and suspended-sediment data for 22 sites in the upper Clark Fork Basin for water years 1996–2010. Trend analysis was conducted by using two parametric methods: a time-series model (TSM) and multiple linear regression on time, streamflow, and season (MLR). Trend results for 1996–2010 indicate moderate to large decreases in flow-adjusted concentrations (FACs) and loads of copper (and other metallic elements) and suspended sediment in Silver Bow Creek upstream from Warm Springs. Deposition of metallic elements and suspended sediment within Warm Springs Ponds substantially reduces the downstream transport of those constituents. However, mobilization of copper and suspended sediment from floodplain tailings and stream banks in the Clark Fork reach from Galen to Deer Lodge is a large source of metallic elements and suspended sediment, which also affects downstream transport of those constituents. Copper and suspended-sediment loads mobilized from within this reach accounted for about 40 and 20 percent, respectively, of the loads for Clark Fork at Turah Bridge (site 20); whereas, streamflow contributed from within this reach only accounted for about 8 percent of the streamflow at Turah Bridge. Minor changes in FACs and loads of copper and suspended sediment are indicated for this reach during 1996–2010. Clark Fork reaches downstream from Deer Lodge are relatively smaller sources of metallic elements than the reach from Galen to Deer Lodge. In general, small decreases in loads and FACs of copper and suspended sediment are indicated for Clark Fork sites downstream from Deer Lodge during 1996–2010. Thus, although large decreases in FACs and loads of copper and suspended sediment are indicated for Silver Bow Creek upstream from Warm Springs, those large decreases are not translated to the more downstream reaches largely

  5. Identifying Pollutants in the Siret River Basin by Applying New Assessment Tools on Monitoring Data: the Correlation of Land Use and Physicochemical Parameter of Water Quality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mănescu Andreea

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Siret River are used as raw water source for different municipal water supply systems, yet the Siret River are used as receiving bodies by some inhabitants and industry. In the study the quality of the Siret River water was determinate using a Water Quality Index (WQI. Results are presented from a field study performed on the Bistrita, Moldova, Suceava, Siret, Şomuzu Mare, Trotuş and Tributary River in the study area Siret Basin Romania. The main objective of this study was to determine is to find correlations land use to indicators physical-chemical of water quality, to investigate pollution source is more responsible for river water quality. This is of interest not only research context, but also for supporting and facilitating the application analysis postullend in the Water Framework Directive (WFD (2000/60/CE for the establishment of programmers of measures. For this purpose a slightly impact pollution source municipal wastewater treatment, land uses, urban, forest, agriculture and mining was selected and intensively monitored during six years January 2006 - December 2011, sampling was determined to meet the WFD standards for confidence in twenty two different control section of the Siret Basin. The main measures to reduce emissions to the Siret River were calcium, ammonium, sulfate, residue fixed (RF, sodium, chloride, free detergent and municipal wastewater treatment, concentrated on point emission. The main contributor to diffuse this parameters increased when more percentage of land was dedicated to industry and urban and less to forest and mining.

  6. An Ecotoxicological Approach to Assess the Environmental Quality of Freshwater Basins: A Possible Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettinetti Roberta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of the Water Framework Directive, the need to identify new monitoring tools in support of the traditional chemical monitoring process is emerging. Chemical characterization by itself does not provide specific biological information about potential hazards to organisms, in particular when facing cocktails of contaminants. Therefore, ecotoxicity tests can represent a useful tool supporting the chemical information. In the present work, the value of ecotoxicity tests as an effect-based tool for monitoring freshwater and sediment quality of the south-western basin of Lake Como (Northern Italy was evaluated, assessing the potential risk of pollutants. Results obtained from D. magna toxicity tests showed a temporal variation of toxic response in relation to the variability of organic micropollutant load characteristics of urban rivers. Sediment ecotoxicity test data showed the spatial variability of the sediments’ contamination within the lake, confirmed by chemical analysis of two classes of pollutants (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and polychlorobiphenyls (PCB. The observed effects on organisms in laboratory tests caused by a mixture of almost unknown chemicals underline the importance of integrating effect-based tools into monitoring efforts.

  7. [Dynamic coupling and spatial disparity of economic development and water environmental quality in Songhua River Basin of Jilin Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Hua; Tong, Lian-Jun

    2013-02-01

    By using coupling model, this paper analyzed the relationships between the economic development and water environment quality in Songhua River Basin of Jilin Province from 1991 to 2010. During the study period, both the economic development index and the water environment index in the Basin showed an uptrend, basically in a coordination state. From the perspective of coupling coordination degree, the economic development and the water environment system were in interactive coupling, with the features of complexity, nonlinearity, and time-variation. As a whole, the coupling experienced three stages, i.e., low level stage, antagonistic stage, and breaking-in stage. As for the coupling degree, the coupling of the economic development and the water environment system was in the first quadrant, i.e., at a development stage of basic coordination. From the perspective of spatial disparity, the coupling degree of the economic development and the water environment system was higher in the upper reaches of the Songhua River Basin, including Changchun and Jilin, than in the lower reaches, including Songyuan and Baicheng. The coupling degree was not only significantly positively correlated with regional economic development, but also affected by the links between the regions as well as the industrial structure within the regions. The economic development of the cities in the upper reaches of the Songhua River Basin was obviously higher than that in the lower reaches, and, due to the adopting of more strict and effective measures for environmental protection and pollution emissions reduction, the water environment quality in the upper reaches of the Songhua River Basin was better.

  8. Effects of catchment and riparian landscape setting on water chemistry and seasonal evolution of water quality in the upper Han River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyue; Xia, Xiaoling; Tan, Xiang; Zhang, Quanfa

    2013-01-01

    Six-year (2005-2010) evolution of water chemistry (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), HCO(3)(-), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and their interactions with morphological properties (i.e., slope and area), land cover, and hydrological seasonality were examined to identify controlling factors and processes governing patterns of stream water quality in the upper Han River, China. Correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression models revealed significant correlations between ions (i.e., Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), Na(+) and K(+)) and land cover (i.e., vegetation and bare land) over the entire catchment in both high- and low-flow periods, and in the buffer zone the correlation was much more stronger in the low-flow period. Catchment with steeper slope (>15°) was negatively correlated with major ions, largely due to multicollinearity of basin characteristics. Land cover within the buffer zone explained slightly less of major elements than at catchment scale in the rainy season, whereas in the dry season, land cover along the river networks in particular this within 100 m riparian zone much better explained major elements rather than this over the entire catchment. Anthropogenic land uses (i.e., urban and agriculture) however could not explain water chemical variables, albeit EC, TDS, anthropogenic markers (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2)), Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) significantly increased during 2005-2010, which was corroborated by principal component analyses (PCA) that indicated anthropogenic inputs. Observations demonstrated much higher solute concentrations in the industrial-polluted river. Our results suggested that seasonal evolution of water quality in combined with spatial analysis at multiple scales should be a vital part of identifying the controls on spatio-temporal patterns of water quality.

  9. Assessment of surface water quality using a growing hierarchical self-organizing map: a case study of the Songhua River Basin, northeastern China, from 2011 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingcen; Wang, Yeyao; Yang, Qi; Meng, Fansheng; Yao, Zhipeng; Cheng, Peixuan

    2018-03-30

    The analysis of a large number of multidimensional surface water monitoring data for extracting potential information plays an important role in water quality management. In this study, growing hierarchical self-organizing map (GHSOM) was applied to a water quality assessment of the Songhua River Basin in China using 22 water quality parameters monitored monthly from 13 monitoring sites from 2011 to 2015 (14,782 observations). The spatial and temporal features and correlation between the water quality parameters were explored, and the major contaminants were identified. The results showed that the downstream of the Second Songhua River had the worst water quality of the Songhua River Basin. The upstream and midstream of Nenjiang River and the Second Songhua River had the best. The major contaminants of the Songhua River were chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N), total phosphorus (TP), and fecal coliform (FC). In the Songhua River, the water pollution at downstream has been gradually eased in years. However, FC and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) showed growth over time. The component planes showed that three sets of parameters had positive correlations with each other. GHSOM was found to have advantages over self-organizing maps and hierarchical clustering analysis as follows: (1) automatically generating the necessary neurons, (2) intuitively exhibiting the hierarchical inheritance relationship between the original data, and (3) depicting the boundaries of the classification much more clearly. Therefore, the application of GHSOM in water quality assessments, especially with large amounts of monitoring data, enables the extraction of more information and provides strong support for water quality management.

  10. Water-quality and algal conditions in the North Umpqua River basin, Oregon, 1992-95, and indications for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chauncey W.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the results of a synoptic water-quality and algal investigation during July 1995 at 36 stream sites in a 1,350 square-mile area of the North Umpqua River Basin, Oregon. The study area includes a headwaters hydroelectric project area, a Wild and Scenic reach in the main stem immediately downstream, and the watersheds of several major tributaries. Additional data from previous investigations are reviewed, and impacts on water quality in the Wild and Scenic reach from resource management, including forestry and reservoir operations, are inferred where sufficient data exist.

  11. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia; characterization of suspended sediment, nutrients, and pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Douglas; McMahon, Gerard; Spruill, T.B.; Woodside, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The 28,000-square-mile Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin includes the Roanoke, Dan, Chowan Tar, and Neuse Rivers. The basin extends through four physiographic provinces in North Carolina and Virginia-Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge, Piedmont and Coastal Plain. The spatial and temporal trends in ground-water and riverine water quality in the study area were characterized by using readily available data sources The primary data sources that were used included the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) database, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Storage and Retrieval System (STORET) database, and results of a few investigations of pesticide occurrence. The principal water-quality constituents examined were suspended sediment, nutrients, and pesticides. The data examined generally spanned the period from 1950 to 1993. The only significant trends in suspended sediment were detected at three Chowan River tributary sites which showed long-term decreases. Suspended- and total-solids concentrations have decreased throughout the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin. The decreases are probably a result of (1) construction of new lakes and ponds in the basin, which trap solids, (2) improved agricultural soil management, and (3) improved wastewater treatment. Nutrient point sources are much less than nonpoint nutrient sources at the eight NASQAN basins examined for nutrient loads. The greatest nitrogen inputs are associated with crop fertilizer and biological nitrogen fixation by soybeans and peanuts, whereas atmospheric and animal-related nitrogen inputs are comparable in magnitude. The largest phosphorus inputs are associated with animal wastes. The most commonly detected pesticides in surface water in the STORET database were atrazine and aldrin.Intensive organonitrogen herbicide sampling of Chicod Creek in 1992 showed seasonal variations in pesticide concentration. The most commonly detected herbicides were atrazine, alachlor

  12. Water-quality trends in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin using sediment cores from reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, B.J.; Callender, Edward C.

    1997-01-01

    Water-quality trends reflect the relation between water quality and human activities, chronicling changes in concentrations of environmental contaminants, introduction of new contaminants, and successful efforts in environmental pollution remediation. Historical data available for analyzing trends often have severe limitations, from questionable accuracy to unknown sampling and analytic methodologies. Where data are unavailable or have such limitations, water-quality trends sometimes can be reconstructed using sediment cores from lakes and reservoirs.

  13. Water Quality in the Halawa, Haiku, and Kaneohe Drainage Basins Before, During, and After H-3 Highway Construction, Oahu, Hawaii, 1983-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Selected water-quality data collected before, during, and after construction of the H-3 Highway at 13 water-quality stations were compared to the State of Hawaii Department of Health water-quality standards to determine the effects of highway construction on the water quality of the affected streams. Highway construction had no effect on the high concentrations of total nitrogen and nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen observed except for increased nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen concentrations at one station on Hooleinaiwa Stream. Exceedences of the 10- and 2-percent-of-the-time concentration standards for total phosphorus, total suspended solids, and turbidity, all constituents associated with sediment, occurred more commonly and at more stations during construction than either before or after. These exceedences may be, in part, due to land disturbance caused by highway construction. Highway construction had no effect on the physical water-quality properties of pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and specific conductance except at North Halawa and Kuou Streams, where specific-conductance values increased throughout the study period, most likely due to highway construction. No effects on selected trace metals and organic chemical compounds were observed due to highway construction. No effects due to highway construction were observed in the water quality of Waimaluhia Reservoir. Runoff from areas of urban land use in the Kaneohe drainage basin contributed more to the higher loads of selected water-quality constituents than did runoff from areas affected by highway construction.

  14. Water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data (October 2010 through September 2011) and statistical summaries of data for streams in the Clark Fork basin, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kent A.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Water, bed sediment, and biota were sampled in streams from Butte to near Missoula, Montana, as part of a monitoring program in the upper Clark Fork basin of western Montana; additional water samples were collected from near Galen to near Missoula at select sites as part of a supplemental sampling program. The sampling program was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to characterize aquatic resources in the Clark Fork basin, with emphasis on trace elements associated with historic mining and smelting activities. Sampling sites were located on the Clark Fork and selected tributaries. Water samples were collected periodically at 20 sites from October 2010 through September 2011. Bed-sediment and biota samples were collected once at 14 sites during August 2011. This report presents the analytical results and quality-assurance data for water-quality, bed-sediment, and biota samples collected at sites from October 2010 through September 2011. Water-quality data include concentrations of selected major ions, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Turbidity was analyzed for water samples collected at the four sites where seasonal daily values of turbidity were being determined. Daily values of suspended-sediment concentration and suspended-sediment discharge were determined for four sites. Bed-sediment data include trace-element concentrations in the fine-grained fraction. Biological data include trace-element concentrations in whole-body tissue of aquatic benthic insects. Statistical summaries of water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data for sites in the upper Clark Fork basin are provided for the period of record since 1985.

  15. Water resources during drought conditions and postfire water quality in the upper Rio Hondo Basin, Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2010-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherson, Lauren R.; Rice, Steven E.

    2015-07-16

    Stakeholders and water-resource managers in Lincoln County, New Mexico, have had long-standing concerns over the impact of population growth and groundwater withdrawals. These concerns have been exacerbated in recent years by extreme drought conditions and two major wildfires in the upper Rio Hondo Basin, located in south-central New Mexico. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Lincoln County, initiated a study in 2006 to assess and characterize water resources in the upper Rio Hondo Basin. Data collected during water years 2010–13 are presented and interpreted in this report. All data presented in this report are described in water years unless stated otherwise.

  16. Stream water quality in coal mined areas of the lower Cheat River Basin, West Virginia and Pennsylvania, during low-flow conditions, July 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald R.; Clark, Mary E.; Brown, Juliane B.

    1999-01-01

    IntroductionThe Cheat River Basin is in the Allegheny Plateau and Allegheny Mountain Sections of the Appalachian Plateau Physiographic Province (Fenneman, 1946) and is almost entirely within the state of West Virginia. The Cheat River drains an area of 1,422 square miles in Randolph, Tucker, Preston, and Monongalia Counties in West Virginia and Fayette County in Pennsylvania. From its headwaters in Randolph County, W.Va., the Cheat River flows 157 miles north to the Pennsylvania state line, where it enters the Monongahela River. The Cheat River drainage comprises approximately 19 percent of the total Monongahela River Basin. The Cheat River and streams within the Cheat River Basin are characterized by steep gradients, rock channels, and high flow velocities that have created a thriving white-water rafting industry for the area. The headwaters of the Cheat River contain some of the most pristine and aesthetic streams in West Virginia. The attraction to the area, particularly the lower part of the Cheat River Basin (the lower 412 square miles of the basin), has been suppressed because of poor water quality. The economy of the Lower Cheat River Basin has been dominated by coal mining over many decades. As a result, many abandoned deep and surface mines discharge untreated acid mine drainage (AMD), which degrades water quality, into the Cheat River and many of its tributary streams. Approximately 60 regulated mine-related discharges (West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, 1996) and 185 abandoned mine sites (U.S. Office of Surface Mining, 1998) discharge treated and untreated AMD into the Cheat River and its tributaries.The West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) Office of Abandoned Mine Lands and Reclamation (AML&R) has recently completed several AMD reclamation projects throughout the Cheat River Basin that have collectively improved the mainstem water quality. The AML&R office is currently involved in acquiring grant funds and

  17. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin for...

  18. Water-quality data for the Russian River Basin, Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Robert; Davidek, Karl; Stoeckel, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sonoma County Water Agency, has been collecting chemical, microbiological, and isotopic data from surface-water and groundwater sites in Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California. The investigation is being conducted to determine water-quality baseline conditions for the Russian River during the summer months and to characterize the water-quality in the area of the Sonoma County Water Agency's water-supply facility where Russian River water is diverted and treated by riverbank filtration. This report is a compilation of the hydrologic and water-quality data collected from 14 Russian River sites, 8 tributary sites, 1 gravel-terrace pit site, 14 groundwater wells, and a wastewater treatment plant between the city of Ukiah and the town of Duncans Mills for the period August 2005 through October 2010.

  19. Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Review and analysis of available pesticide information, 1968-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, R.L.; Brown, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    In 1991 the Trinity River Basin study unit was among the first 20 study units in which work began under full-scale program implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. A retrospective assessment was undertaken to review and analyze existing pesticide data and related environmental factors. Population and land-use data indicate human modifications to the landscape and hydrologic system of the study area during the period 1968–91. A variety of crops treated with pesticides were identified, with wheat and cotton accounting for the largest number of acres treated annually (541,250 and 519,870 acres, respectively). Agricultural-use estimates for the later period covered by this report (1988–90) indicate that 105 different pesticides were used and that 24 pesticides accounted for 75 percent of average agricultural use in the study area. Sorghum was treated by the largest number of the 24 mostused pesticides, and cotton was treated by the second largest number of those pesticides. Dimethoate and methyl parathion were the most heavily used of the organophosphate class pesticides. The herbicide 2,4–D was the most heavily used chlorophenoxy pesticide. Carbamate pesticides are used extensively in the study area, with carbaryl, carbofuran, methomyl, and thiodicarb accounting for the majority of the use of this class of pesticide. Miscellaneous pesticides included alachlor, arsenic acid, picloram, and glyphosate, among others. The data indicate that herbicide use generally is proportionally higher in the study area than in the Nation, and that insecticide use in the study area generally is proportionally lower than in the Nation.

  20. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the White Clay Creek subbasin of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware. Water from the basin is used for recreation, drinking water supply, and to support aquatic life. The Christina River Basin includes the major subbasins of Brandywine Creek, White Clay Creek, and Red Clay Creek. The White Clay Creek is the second largest of the subbasins and drains an area of 108 mi2. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the streams. A multi-agency water-quality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpoint-source contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in non point-source evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the three major subbasins and for the Christina River, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program—Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in smaller subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base- flow samples were collected during 1998 at two sites in the White Clay Creek subbasin and at nine sites in the other subbasins.The HSPF model for the White Clay Creek Basin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into 17 reaches draining areas that ranged from 1.37 to 13 mi2. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the White Clay Creek Basin are agricultural, forested

  1. Influences of the land use pattern on water quality in low-order streams of the Dongjiang River basin, China: A multi-scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiao; Jiang, Yuan; Liu, Qi; Hou, Zhaojiang; Liao, Jianyu; Fu, Lan; Peng, Qiuzhi

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the relationships between land use patterns and water quality in low-order streams is useful for effective landscape planning to protect downstream water quality. A clear understanding of these relationships remains elusive due to the heterogeneity of land use patterns and scale effects. To better assess land use influences, we developed empirical models relating land use patterns to the water quality of low-order streams at different geomorphic regions across multi-scales in the Dongjiang River basin using multivariate statistical analyses. The land use pattern was quantified in terms of the composition, configuration and hydrological distance of land use types at the reach buffer, riparian corridor and catchment scales. Water was sampled under summer base flow at 56 low-order catchments, which were classified into two homogenous geomorphic groups. The results indicated that the water quality of low-order streams was most strongly affected by the configuration metrics of land use. Poorer water quality was associated with higher patch densities of cropland, orchards and grassland in the mountain catchments, whereas it was associated with a higher value for the largest patch index of urban land use in the plain catchments. The overall water quality variation was explained better by catchment scale than by riparian- or reach-scale land use, whereas the spatial scale over which land use influenced water quality also varied across specific water parameters and the geomorphic basis. Our study suggests that watershed management should adopt better landscape planning and multi-scale measures to improve water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data (October 2015 through September 2016) and statistical summaries of data for streams in the Clark Fork Basin, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kent A.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Turner, Matthew A.

    2018-03-30

    Water, bed sediment, and biota were sampled in selected streams from Butte to near Missoula, Montana, as part of a monitoring program in the upper Clark Fork Basin of western Montana. The sampling program was led by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to characterize aquatic resources in the Clark Fork Basin, with emphasis on trace elements associated with historic mining and smelting activities. Sampling sites were on the Clark Fork and selected tributaries. Water samples were collected periodically at 20 sites from October 2015 through September 2016. Bed-sediment and biota samples were collected once at 13 sites during August 2016.This report presents the analytical results and quality-assurance data for water-quality, bed-sediment, and biota samples collected at sites from October 2015 through September 2016. Water-quality data include concentrations of selected major ions, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Samples for analysis of turbidity were collected at 13 sites, whereas samples for analysis of dissolved organic carbon were collected at 10 sites. In addition, samples for analysis of nitrogen (nitrate plus nitrite) were collected at two sites. Daily values of mean suspended-sediment concentration and suspended-sediment discharge were determined for three sites. Seasonal daily values of turbidity were determined for five sites. Bed-sediment data include trace-element concentrations in the fine-grained (less than 0.063 millimeter) fraction. Biological data include trace-element concentrations in whole-body tissue of aquatic benthic insects. Statistical summaries of water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data for sites in the upper Clark Fork Basin are provided for the period of record.

  3. Evaluation of the impact of farming activity in the water quality in surface catchment areas in hydrographic basin from Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuoka, Lidia

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed in 10 small basins located in the Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, in the Northeastern area of Sao Paulo State. The land belonging of these basins is used to grow row crops of potato, coffee and pasture areas. This study aimed to characterize small basins, to evaluate water and sediment quality and to correlate basic aspects of climatology, hydrology, toxicology and land uses to the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of the water in the streams. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a tool of evaluation of land uses and risk assessment was performed for a final evaluation. The samplings were carried out from June/1999 to June/2000 in the 13 collecting points. It was verified that water quality is dependent upon the rainy and dry periods and the harvest periods. In the beginning of rainy periods were found large concentrations of metals and traces of herbicides leachate from soil and, in the dry period the same event was verified, caused by concentration of the water. In August, September and October phosphorus concentrations were very low getting an improvement in the water quality. Al, Fe and Mn are majority elements of chemical compositions of rocks of the study area, and exceed the Brazilian Guidelines. The stream waters were classified as 44% oligotrophic, 42% mesotrophic and 14% eutrophic. Jaguari-Mirim River presented the largest values of Trophic Index (TI). Sediment analyses showed a great variety of organic compounds coming from anthropogenic activities (industrial and farming activity). Toxicity tests with hyalella azteca in the sediments presented toxicity for sediments from Sao Joao da Boa Vista and Divinolandia. A methodology was developed for organochlorinated pesticides by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). The presence of organochlorinated pesticides was not verified. (author)

  4. Trends in surface-water quality during implementation of best-management practices in Mill Creek and Muddy Run Basins, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerkle, Edward H.

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of water samples collected over a 5-year period (1993-98) in the Mill Creek and Muddy Run Basins during implementation of agricultural best-management practices (BMP’s) indicate statistically significant trends in the concentrations of several nutrient species and in nonfilterable residue (suspended solids). The strongest trends identified were those indicated by a more than 50- percent decrease in the flow-adjusted concentrations of total and dissolved phosphorus and total residue in base flow in the two streams. Analyses of stormflow samples showed a 31-percent decrease in the flow-adjusted concentration of total phosphorus in Mill Creek and a 54-percent decrease in total nonfilterable residue in Muddy Run. A 58-percent increase in the flow-adjusted concentration of total ammonia nitrogen in stormflow was found at Muddy Run.Although the effects of a specific BMP on the indicated trends is uncertain, results of statistical trend tests of the data suggest that stream fencing, possibly in concert with other practices, such as stream crossings for livestock, barnyard runoff control, manure-storage facilities, and rotational grazing, was effective in improving water quality during base flow and probably low to moderate stormflow conditions. Additional improvements in water quality in the Mill Creek and Muddy Run Basins seems likely as the implementation of BMP’s is expected to continue. Thus, the full effect of BMP implementation in the two basins may not be observed for some time.

  5. Water and sediment quality of the Lake Andes and Choteau Creek basins, South Dakota, 1983-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven Kent; Neitzert, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation has proposed construction of the Lake Andes/Wagner Irrigation Demonstration Project to investigate environmental effects of irrigation of glacial till soils substantially derived from marine shales. During 1983-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic, water-quality, and sediment data in the Lake Andes and Choteau Creek Basins, and on the Missouri River upstream and downstream from Choteau Creek, to provide baseline information in support of the proposed demonstration project. Lake Andes has a drainage area of about 230 mi2 (square miles). Tributaries to Lake Andes are ephemeral. Water-level fluctuations in Lake Andes can be large, and the lake has been completely dry on several occasions. The outlet aqueduct from Lake Andes feeds into Garden Creek, which enters Lake Francis Case just upstream from Fort Randall Dam on the Missouri River. For Lake Andes tributary stations, calcium, magnesium, and sodium are approximately codominant among the cations, and sulfate is the dominant anion. Dissolved-solids concentrations typically range from about 1,000 mg/L (milligrams per liter) to about 1,700 mg/L. Major-ion concentrations for Lake Andes tend to be higher than the tributaries and generally increase downstream in Lake Andes. Proportions of major ions are similar among the different lake units (with the exception of Owens Bay), with calcium, magnesium, and sodium being approximately codominant among cations, and sulfate being the dominant anion. Owens Bay is characterized by a calcium sulfate water type. Dissolved-solids concentrations for Lake Andes typically range from about 1,400 to 2,000 mg/L. Whole-water nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are similar among the Lake Andes tributaries, with median whole-water nitrogen concentrations ranging from about 1.6 to 2.4 mg/L, and median whole-water phosphorus concentrations ranging from about 0.5 to 0.7 mg/L. Whole-water nitrogen concentrations in Lake Andes are similar among the

  6. Scale-dependence effects of landscape on seasonal water quality in Xitiaoxi catchment of Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Huihua; Xu, Youpeng; Han, Longfei; Zhou, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Further understanding the mechanisms of landscape-water interactions is of great importance to water quality management in the Xitiaoxi catchment. Pearson's correlation analysis, stepwise multiple regression and redundancy analysis were adopted in this study to investigate the relation between water quality and landscape at the sub-catchment and 200 m riparian zone scales during dry and wet seasons. Landscape was characterized by natural environmental factors, land use patterns and four selected landscape configuration metrics. The obtained results indicated that land use categories of urban and forest were dominant landscape attributes, which influenced water quality. Natural environment and landscape configuration were overwhelmed due to land management activities and hydrologic conditions. In general, the landscape of the 200 m riparian zone appeared to have slightly greater influence on water than did the sub-catchment, and water quality was slightly better explained by all landscape attributes in the wet season than in the dry season. The results suggested that management efforts aimed at maintaining and restoring river water quality should currently focus on the protection of riparian zones and the development of an updated long-term continuous data set and higher resolution digital maps to discuss the minimum width of the riparian zone necessary to protect water quality.

  7. Quality of water and chemistry of bottom sediment in the Rillito Creek basin, Tucson, Arizona, 1986-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid; Smith, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    Data were collected on physical properties and chemistry of 4 surface water, l4 ground water, and 4 bottom sediment sites in the Rillito Creek basin where artificial recharge of surface runoff is being considered. Concentrations of suspended sediment in streams generally increased with increases in streamflow and were higher during the summer. The surface water is a calcium and bicarbonate type, and the ground water is calcium sodium and bicarbonate type. Total trace ek=nents in surface water that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary maximum contaminant levels for drinking-water standards were barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and nickel. Most unfiltered samples for suspended gross alpha as uranium, and unadjusted gross alpha plus gross beta in surface water exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Arizona drinking-water standards. Comparisons of trace- element concentrations in bottom sediment with those in soils of the western conterminous United States generally indicate similar concentrations for most of the trace elements, with the exceptions of scandium and tin. The maximum concentration of total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen in three ground- samples and total lead in one ground-water sample exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary maximum contaminant levels for drinking- water standards, respectively. Seven organochlorine pesticides were detected in surface-water samples and nine in bottom-sediment samples. Three priority pollutants were detected in surface water, two were detected in ground water, and eleven were detected in bottom sediment. Low concentrations of oil and grease were detected in surface-water and bottom- sediment samples.

  8. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in three different land-use areas, 1996-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Alison L.

    2000-01-01

    The surficial sand and gravel aquifer is susceptible to effects from land-use in the Upper Mississippi River Basin study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The purpose of this report is to describe the ground-water quality and the assessment of how different land-uses affect the shallow ground-water quality in the surficial sand and gravel aquifer. Ground-water quality was compared in three different land-use areas; an urban residential/commercial area on the edge of the Anoka Sand Plain in a portion of the Twin Cities metropolitan area (urban study), an intensive agricultural area in the Anoka Sand Plain (agricultural study), and a forested area in the Bemidji-Bagley Sand Plain (forested study). Ground water was sampled and analyzed for about 200 constituents, including physical parameters, major ions, selected trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, selected pesticides, selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and tritium. The urban study wells were sampled during June and July 1996. The agricultural study wells were sampled during May and September 1998. The forested study wells were sampled during June 1998.

  9. Water-quality data from 2002 to 2003 and analysis of data gaps for development of total maximum daily loads in the Lower Klamath River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.; Curry, Debra S.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Doyle, Micelis C.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected water-quality data during 2002 and 2003 in the Lower Klamath River Basin, in northern California, to support studies of river conditions as they pertain to the viability of Chinook and Coho salmon and endangered suckers. To address the data needs of the North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board for the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs), water temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH were continuously monitored at sites on the Klamath, Trinity, Shasta, and Lost Rivers. Water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for selected nutrients, organic carbon, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin-a, and trace elements. Sediment oxygen demand was measured on the Shasta River. Results of analysis of the data collected were used to identify locations in the Lower Klamath River Basin and periods of time during 2002 and 2003 when river conditions were more likely to be detrimental to salmonid or sucker health because of occasional high water temperatures, low dissolved oxygen, and conditions that supported abundant populations of algae and aquatic plants. The results were also used to assess gaps in data by furthering the development of the conceptual model of water flow and quality in the Lower Klamath River Basin using available data and the current understanding of processes that affect water quality and by assessing needs for the develoment of mathematical models of the system. The most notable gap in information for the study area is in sufficient knowledge about the occurrence and productivity of algal communities. Other gaps in data include vertical water-quality profiles for the reservoirs in the study area, and in an adequate understanding of the chemical oxygen demands and the sediment oxygen demands in the rivers and of the influence of riparian shading on the rivers. Several mathematical models are discussed in this report for use in characterizing the river systems in the study area; also

  10. Effects of streambank fencing of pasture land on benthic macroinvertebrates and the quality of surface water and shallow ground water in the Big Spring Run basin of Mill Creek watershed, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Low, Dennis J.; O'Brien, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Streambank fencing along stream channels in pastured areas and the exclusion of pasture animals from the channel are best-management practices designed to reduce nutrient and suspended-sediment yields from drainage basins. Establishment of vegetation in the fenced area helps to stabilize streambanks and provides better habitat for wildlife in and near the stream. This study documented the effectiveness of a 5- to 12-foot-wide buffer strip on the quality of surface water and near-stream ground water in a 1.42-mi2 treatment basin in Lancaster County, Pa. Two miles of stream were fenced in the basin in 1997 following a 3- to 4-year pre-treatment period of monitoring surface- and ground-water variables in the treatment and control basins. Changes in surface- and ground-water quality were monitored for about 4 years after fence installation. To alleviate problems in result interpretation associated with climatic and hydrologic variation over the study period, a nested experimental design including paired-basin and upstream/downstream components was used to study the effects of fencing on surface-water quality and benthic-macroinvertebrate communities. Five surface-water sites, one at the outlet of a 1.77-mi2 control basin (C-1), two sites in the treatment basin (T-3 and T-4) that were above any fence installation, and two sites (one at an upstream tributary site (T-2) and one at the outlet (T-1)) that were treated, were sampled intensively. Low-flow samples were collected at each site (approximately 25-30 per year at each site), and stormflow was sampled with automatic samplers at all sites except T-3. For each site where stormflow was sampled, from 35 to 60 percent of the storm events were sampled over the entire study period. Surface-water sites were sampled for analyses of nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal streptococcus (only low-flow samples), with field parameters (only low-flow samples) measured during sample collection. Benthic-macroinvertebrate samples

  11. Geology and ground-water resources of the upper Lodgepole Creek drainage basin, Wyoming, with a section on chemical quality of the water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Louis Jay; Krieger, R.A.; Jochens, E.R.

    1959-01-01

    The principal sources of ground-water supply in the upper Lodgepole Creek drainage basin-the part of the basin west of the Wyoming-Nebraska State line-are the Brule formation of Oligocene age, the Arikaree formation of Miocene age, the Ogallala formation of Pliocene age, and the unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age. The Brule formation is a moderately hard siltstone that generally is not a good aquifer. However, where it is fractured or where the upper part consists of pebbles of reworked siltstone, it will yield large quantities of water to wells. Many wells in the Pine Bluffs lowland, at the east end of the area, derive water from the Brule. The Arikaree formation, which consists of loosely to moderately cemented fine sand, will yield small quantities of water to wells but is not thick enough or permeable enough to supply sufficient water for irrigation. Only a few wells derive water from it. The Ogallala formation consists of lenticular beds of clay, silt, sand, and gravel which, in part, are cemented with calcium carbonate. Only the lower part of the formation is saturated. Nearly all the wells in the upland part of the area tap the Ogallala, but they supply water in amounts sufficient for domestic and stock use only. Two of the wells have a moderately large discharge, and other wells of comparable discharge probably could be drilled in those parts of the upland where the saturated part of the Ogallala is fairly thick. Most of the unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age are very permeable and, where a sufficient thickness is saturated, will yield large quantities of water to wells. These deposits are a significant source of water supply in the southeastern part of the area. The Chadron formation of Oligocene age, which underlies the Brule formation, is a medium- to coarse-grained sandstone where it crops out in the Islay lowland. No wells tap the Chadron, but it probably would yield small quantities of water to wells. It lies at a relatively shallow

  12. Environmental impact of coal mining and coal seam gas production on surface water quality in the Sydney basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Strezov, V; Davies, P; Wright, I

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of coal and coal seam gas (CSG) will generate produced water that, if not adequately treated, will pollute surface and groundwater systems. In Australia, the discharge of produced water from coal mining and related activities is regulated by the state environment agency through a pollution licence. This licence sets the discharge limits for a range of analytes to protect the environment into which the produced water is discharged. This study reports on the impact of produced water from coal mine activities located within or discharging into high conservation environments, such as National Parks, in the outer region of Sydney, Australia. The water samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from six mines were taken, and 110 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against a water quality index (WQI) which accounts for pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and E .coli. The water quality assessment based on the trace metal contents against various national maximum admissible concentration (MAC) and their corresponding environmental impacts was also included in the study which also established a base value of water quality for further study. The study revealed that impacted water downstream of the mine discharge points contained higher metal content than the upstream reference locations. In many cases, the downstream water was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international water quality guidelines for freshwater stream. The major outliers to the guidelines were aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The WQI of surface water at and downstream of the discharge point was lower when compared to upstream or reference conditions in the majority of cases. Toxicology indices of metals present in industrial discharges were used as an additional tool to assess water quality, and the newly

  13. Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  14. Effects of Land-use/Land-cover and Climate Changes on Water Quantity and Quality in Sub-basins near Major US Cities in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, L.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Barik, M.

    2017-12-01

    Land-cover change over time to urbanized, less permeable surfaces, leads to reduced water infiltration at the location of water input while simultaneously transporting sediments, nutrients and contaminants farther downstream. With an abundance of agricultural fields bordering the greater urban areas of Milwaukee, Detroit, and Chicago, water and nutrient transport is vital to the farming industry, wetlands, and communities that rely on water availability. Two USGS stream gages each located within a sub-basin near each of these Great Lakes Region cities were examined, one with primarily urban land-cover between 1992 and 2011, and one with primarily agriculture land-cover. ArcSWAT, a watershed model and soil and water assessment tool used in extension with ArcGIS, was used to develop hydrologic models that vary the land-covers to simulate surface runoff during a model run period from 2004 to 2008. Model inputs that include a digital elevation model (DEM), Landsat-derived land-use/land-cover (LULC) satellite images from 1992, 2001, and 2011, soil classification, and meteorological data were used to determine the effect of different land-covers on the water runoff, nutrients and sediments. The models were then calibrated and validated to USGS stream gage data measurements over time. Additionally, the watershed model was run based on meteorological data from an IPCC CMIP5 high emissions climate change scenario for 2050. Model outputs from the different LCLU scenarios were statistically evaluated and results showed that water runoff, nutrients and sediments were impacted by LULC change in four out of the six sub-basins. In the 2050 climate scenario, only one out of the six sub-basin's water quantity and quality was affected. These results contribute to the importance of developing hydrologic models as the dependence on the Great Lakes as a freshwater resource competes with the expansion of urbanization leading to the movement of runoff, nutrients, and sediments off the

  15. Effects of uranium-mining releases on ground-water quality in the Puerco River Basin, Arizona and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wirt, Laurie; Lopes, T.J.; Ferguson, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Shallow ground water beneath the Puerco River of Arizona and New Mexico was studied to determine the effects of uranium-mining releases on water quality. Ground-water samples collected from 1989 to 1991 indicate that concentrations of dissolved uranium have decreased. Most samples from the alluvial aquifer downstream from Gallup, New Mexico, met with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels for gross alpha, gross beta, and radium and the proposed maximum contaminant level for uranium.

  16. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Red Clay Creek subbasin of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania and Delaware and includes the major subbasins of Red Clay Creek, White Clay Creek, Brandywine Creek, and Christina River. The Red Clay Creek is the smallest of the subbasins and drains an area of 54 mi2. Streams in the Christina River Basin are used for recreation, drinking-water supply, and to support aquatic life. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the stream. A multi-agency, waterquality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpointsource contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in nonpointsource evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the four main subbasins of the Christina River Basin, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in smaller subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base-flow samples were collected during 1998 at 1 site in the Red Clay Creek subbasin and at 10 sites elsewhere in the Christina River Basin.The HSPF model for the Red Clay Creek subbasin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into nine reaches draining areas that ranged from 1.7 to 10 mi2. One of the reaches contains a regulated reservoir. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the Red Clay Creek

  17. Elements of an environmental decision support system for seasonal wetland salt management in a river basin subjected to water quality regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-06-01

    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin on the west-side of California's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratory wildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during the annual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetlands contain salt which, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdown period, can negatively impact water quality and cause concern to downstream agricultural riparian water diverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinity to the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-point sources, now also targets return flows from seasonally managed wetlands. Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means of continuously matching salt loads discharged from agricultural, wetland and municipal operations to the assimilative capacity of the San Joaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring and decision support systems (EDSS's) to implement this concept have enjoyed limited success for reasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed in the context of more general challenges facing the successful implementation of a comprehensive environmental monitoring, modelling and decision support system for the San Joaquin River Basin.

  18. Spatio-Temporal Impacts of Biofuel Production and Climate Variability on Water Quantity and Quality in Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Deb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact of climate change on the water resources of the United States exposes the vulnerability of feedstock-specific mandated fuel targets to extreme weather conditions that could become more frequent and intensify in the future. Consequently, a sustainable biofuel policy should consider: (a how climate change would alter both water supply and demand; and (b in turn, how related changes in water availability will impact the production of biofuel crops; and (c the environmental implications of large scale biofuel productions. Understanding the role of biofuels in the water cycle is the key to understanding many of the environmental impacts of biofuels. Therefore, the focus of this study is to model the rarely explored interactions between land use, climate change, water resources and the environment in future biofuel production systems. Results from this study will help explore the impacts of the US biofuel policy and climate change on water and agricultural resources. We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT to analyze the water quantity and quality consequences of land use and land management related changes in cropping conditions (e.g., more use of marginal lands, greater residue harvest, increased yields, plus management practices due to biofuel crops to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard target on water quality and quantity.

  19. Long-term agroecosystem research in the central Mississippi river basin: hyperspectral remote sensing of reservoir water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudduth, Kenneth A; Jang, Gab-Sue; Lerch, Robert N; Sadler, E John

    2015-01-01

    In situ methods for estimating water quality parameters would facilitate efforts in spatial and temporal monitoring, and optical reflectance sensing has shown potential in this regard, particularly for chlorophyll, suspended sediment, and turbidity. The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate relationships between hyperspectral remote sensing and lake water quality parameters-chlorophyll, turbidity, and N and P species. Proximal hyperspectral water reflectance data were obtained on seven sampling dates for multiple arms of Mark Twain Lake, a large man-made reservoir in northeastern Missouri. Aerial hyperspectral data were also obtained on two dates. Water samples were collected and analyzed in the laboratory for chlorophyll, nutrients, and turbidity. Previously reported reflectance indices and full-spectrum (i.e., partial least squares regression) methods were used to develop relationships between spectral and water quality data. With the exception of dissolved NH, all measured water quality parameters were strongly related ( ≥ 0.7) to proximal reflectance across all measurement dates. Aerial hyperspectral sensing was somewhat less accurate than proximal sensing for the two measurement dates where both were obtained. Although full-spectrum calibrations were more accurate for chlorophyll and turbidity than results from previously reported models, those previous models performed better for an independent test set. Because extrapolation of estimation models to dates other than those used to calibrate the model greatly increased estimation error for some parameters, collection of calibration samples at each sensing date would be required for the most accurate remote sensing estimates of water quality. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Water Quality Degradation and Management Strategies for Swine and Rice Farming Wastewater in the Tha Chin River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Henderson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Water quality in the Tha Chin River regularly exceeds biological oxygen demand (BOD standards of Thailand’s Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act. This study quantified the BOD loading from rice cultivation and swine farming to the Tha Chin River using effluent data and procedures from the Pollution Control Department (PCD, geospatial land-use maps from the Land Development Department, and water quality data from the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment. It was determined that the BOD loading was 12 tons/day from swine farming in 2015 and 52 tons/day, on average, from rice farming between 2002 and 2011. Technology-specific, community-scale wastewater management strategies were recommended for both industries: feasibility studies revealed 66 potential sites for constructed wetland implementation and 7 subdistricts suitable for biogas network pipelines. It was determined that if these projects are implemented in conjunction, the BOD would be reduced by 6% (0.3 mg/L in the entire river or 11% (0.5 mg/L at the three water quality monitoring stations proximate to swine farms. These reductions would have a substantial effect on the water quality of the Tha Chin River, and governmental agencies such as the PCD should strongly consider subsidization and implementation of these projects.

  1. Water Quality of the Snake River and Five Eastern Tributaries in the Upper Snake River Basin, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 1998-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Sadler, Wilfrid J.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling in the upper Snake River Basin. Routine sampling of the Snake River was conducted during water years 1998-2002 to monitor the water quality of the Snake River through time. A synoptic study during 2002 was conducted to supplement the routine Snake River sampling and establish baseline water-quality conditions of five of its eastern tributaries?Pilgrim Creek, Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork, Spread Creek, and Ditch Creek. Samples from the Snake River and the five tributaries were collected at 12 sites and analyzed for field measurements, major ions and dissolved solids, nutrients, selected trace metals, pesticides, and suspended sediment. In addition, the eastern tributaries were sampled for fecal-indicator bacteria by the National Park Service during the synoptic study. Major-ion chemistry of the Snake River varies between an upstream site above Jackson Lake near the northern boundary of Grand Teton National Park and a downstream site near the southern boundary of the Park, in part owing to the inputs from the eastern tributaries. Water type of the Snake River changes from sodium bicarbonate at the upstream site to calcium bicarbonate at the downstream site. The water type of the five eastern tributaries is calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved solids in samples collected from the Snake River were significantly higher at the upstream site (p-valueconcentrations in 43 samples ranged from 62 to 240 milligrams per liter, compared to the downstream site where concentrations in 33 samples ranged from 77 to 141 milligrams per liter. Major-ion chemistry of Pilgrim Creek, Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork, Spread Creek, and Ditch Creek generally did not change substantially between the upstream sites near the National Park Service boundary with the National Forest and the

  2. Changes in biological communities of the Fountain Creek Basin, Colorado, 2003–2016, in relation to antecedent streamflow, water quality, and habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James J.; Bruce, James F.; Zuellig, Robert E.

    2018-01-08

    The analysis described in this report is part of a longterm project monitoring the biological communities, habitat, and water quality of the Fountain Creek Basin. Biology, habitat, and water-quality data have been collected at 10 sites since 2003. These data include annual samples of aquatic invertebrate communities, fish communities, water quality, and quantitative riverine habitat. This report examines trends in biological communities from 2003 to 2016 and explores relationships between biological communities and abiotic variables (antecedent streamflow, physical habitat, and water quality). Six biological metrics (three invertebrate and three fish) and four individual fish species were used to examine trends in these data and how streamflow, habitat, and (or) water quality may explain these trends. The analysis of 79 trends shows that the majority of significant trends decreased over the trend period. Overall, 19 trends before adjustments for streamflow in the fish (12) and invertebrate (7) metrics were all decreasing except for the metric Invertebrate Species Richness at the most upstream site in Monument Creek. Seven of these trends were explained by streamflow and four trends were revealed that were originally masked by variability in antecedent streamflow. Only two sites (Jimmy Camp Creek at Fountain, CO and Fountain Creek near Pinon, CO) had no trends in the fish or invertebrate metrics. Ten of the streamflow-adjusted trends were explained by habitat, one was explained by water quality, and five were not explained by any of the variables that were tested. Overall, from 2003 to 2016, all the fish metric trends were decreasing with an average decline of 40 percent, and invertebrate metrics decreased on average by 9.5 percent. A potential peak streamflow threshold was identified above which there is severely limited production of age-0 flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis).

  3. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Mahanoy Creek Basin, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    species in Mahanoy Creek decreased progressively upstream from 13 species at Gowen City to only 2 species each at Ashland and Girardville. White sucker (Catostomus commersoni), a pollution-tolerant species, was present at each of the surveyed reaches. The presence of fish at Girardville was unexpected because of the poor water quality and iron-encrusted streambed at this location. Generally, macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance at these sites were diminished compared to Schwaben Creek and other tributaries draining unmined basins, consistent with the observed quality of streamwater and streambed sediment. Data on the flow rate and chemistry for 35 AMD sources and 31 stream sites throughout the Mahanoy Creek Basin were collected by the USGS during high base-flow conditions in March 2001 and low base-flow conditions in August 2001. A majority of the base-flow streamwater samples met water-quality standards for pH (6.0 to 9.0); however, few samples downstream from AMD sources met criteria for acidity less than alkalinity (net alkalinity = 20 milligrams per liter as CaCO3) and concentrations of dissolved iron (0.3 milligram per liter) and total manganese (1.0 milligram per liter). Iron, aluminum, and various trace elements including cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, were present in many streamwater samples at concentrations at which continuous exposure can not be tolerated by aquatic organisms without an unacceptable effect. Furthermore, concentrations of sulfate, iron, manganese, aluminum, and (or) beryllium in some samples exceeded drinking-water standards. Other trace elements, including antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, selenium, silver, and thallium, did not exceed water-quality criteria for protection of aquatic organisms or human health. Nevertheless, when considered together, concentrations of iron, manganese, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in a majority of the streambed sediment samples from Mahanoy Creek and

  4. Impact of Livestock in the Water Quality of Pinhal River Sub-Basin, Santa Catarina State-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil is one of the largest producers of animal protein in the world. Productions are concentrated in certain regions of the country. Intensification of animal production may provide constant threat to the quantity and quality of water resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impa...

  5. A multi-approach and multi-scale study on water quantity and quality changes in the Tapajós River basin, Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra Nóbrega, Rodolfo Luiz; Lamparter, Gabriele; Hughes, Harold; Chenjerayi Guzha, Alphonce; Santos Silva Amorim, Ricardo; Gerold, Gerhard

    2018-04-01

    We analyzed changes in water quantity and quality at different spatial scales within the Tapajós River basin (Amazon) based on experimental fieldwork, hydrological modelling, and statistical time-trend analysis. At a small scale, we compared the river discharge (Q) and suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) of two adjacent micro-catchments ( model (SWAT) and land-use change scenario in order to quantify the changes in the water balance components due to deforestation. At the Tapajós' River basin scale, we investigated trends in Q, sediments, hydrochemistry, and geochemistry in the river using available data from the HYBAM Observation Service. The results in the micro-catchments showed a higher runoff coefficient in the pasture (0.67) than in the forest catchment (0.28). At this scale, the SSC were also significantly greater during stormflows in the pasture than in the forest catchment. At the Jamanxim watershed scale, the hydrological modelling results showed a 2 % increase in Q and a 5 % reduction of baseflow contribution to total Q after a conversion of 22 % of forest to pasture. In the Tapajós River, however, trend analysis did not show any significant trend in discharge and sediment concentration. However, we found upward trends in dissolved organic carbon and NO3- over the last 20 years. Although the magnitude of anthropogenic impact has shown be scale-dependent, we were able to find changes in the Tapajós River basin in streamflow, sediment concentration, and water quality across all studied scales.

  6. Geologic setting and water quality of selected basins in the active coal-mining areas of Ohio, 1989-91, with a summary of water quality for 1985-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedam, A.C.; Francy, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents streamwater- and ground-water-quality data collected to characterize the baseline water quality for 21 drainage basins in the coal-mining region of eastern Ohio. The study area is mostly within the unglaciated part of eastern Ohio along the western edge of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province. The data collected from 1989-91 and presented in this report represent the third and final phase of a 7-year study to assess baseline water quality in Ohio's coal region during 1985-1991. During 1989-91, 246 samples from 41 streamwater sites were collected periodically from a long-term site network. Ranges and medians of measurements made at the long-term streamwater sites were following: specific conductance, 270 to 5,170 and 792 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius; pH, 2.7 to 9.1 and 7.8; alkalinity, 1 to 391 and 116 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Ranges and medians of laboratory analyses of the same samples were the following: dissolved sulfate, 13 to 2,100 and 200 mg/L; dissolved aluminum, coal mining.

  7. A multi-approach and multi-scale study on water quantity and quality changes in the Tapajós River basin, Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. B. Nóbrega

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed changes in water quantity and quality at different spatial scales within the Tapajós River basin (Amazon based on experimental fieldwork, hydrological modelling, and statistical time-trend analysis. At a small scale, we compared the river discharge (Q and suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC of two adjacent micro-catchments ( <  1 km2 with similar characteristics but contrasting land uses (forest vs. pasture using empirical data from field measurements. At an intermediary scale, we simulated the hydrological responses of a sub-basin of the Tapajós (Jamanxim River basin, 37 400 km2, using a hydrological model (SWAT and land-use change scenario in order to quantify the changes in the water balance components due to deforestation. At the Tapajós' River basin scale, we investigated trends in Q, sediments, hydrochemistry, and geochemistry in the river using available data from the HYBAM Observation Service. The results in the micro-catchments showed a higher runoff coefficient in the pasture (0.67 than in the forest catchment (0.28. At this scale, the SSC were also significantly greater during stormflows in the pasture than in the forest catchment. At the Jamanxim watershed scale, the hydrological modelling results showed a 2 % increase in Q and a 5 % reduction of baseflow contribution to total Q after a conversion of 22 % of forest to pasture. In the Tapajós River, however, trend analysis did not show any significant trend in discharge and sediment concentration. However, we found upward trends in dissolved organic carbon and NO3− over the last 20 years. Although the magnitude of anthropogenic impact has shown be scale-dependent, we were able to find changes in the Tapajós River basin in streamflow, sediment concentration, and water quality across all studied scales.

  8. Effects of land use, stream habitat, and water quality on biological communities of wadeable streams in the Illinois River Basin of Arkansas, 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.; Meredith, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    The Illinois River Basin includes an area of diverse land use in northwestern Arkansas. Land-use data collected in 2006 indicate that most of the land in the basin is agricultural. The agricultural land is used primarily for production of poultry and cattle. Eighteen sites were selected from the list of candidate sites based on drainage area, land use, presence or absence of an upstream wastewater-treatment plant, water quality, and other information gathered during the reconnaissance. An important consideration in the process was to select sites along gradients of forest to urban land use and forest to agricultural land use. Water-quality samples were collected for analysis of nutrients, and a multiparameter field meter was used to measure water temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Streamflow was measured immediately following the water-quality sampling. Macroalgae coverage was estimated and periphyton, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities were sampled at each site. Stream habitat also was assessed. Many types of land-use, water-quality, and habitat factors affected one or more aspects of the biological communities. Several macroinvertebrate and fish metrics changed in response to changes in percent forest; sites that would be considered most disturbed, based on these metrics, are sites with the highest percentages of urban land use in their associated basins. The presence of large mats of macroalgae was one of the most noticeable biological characteristics in several streams within the Illinois River Basin. The highest macroalgae percent cover values were recorded at four sites downstream from wastewater-treatment plants. Macroalgae percent cover was strongly correlated only with bed substrate size, canopy closure, and specific conductance. Periphyton metrics were most often and most strongly correlated with riparian shading, specific conductance, substrate turbidity, percent agriculture, poultry house density, and unpaved road density

  9. Evaluation and trends of land cover, streamflow, and water quality in the North Canadian River Basin near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1968–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Oklahoma City, collected water-quality samples from the North Canadian River at the streamflow-gaging station near Harrah, Oklahoma (Harrah station), since 1968, and at an upstream streamflow-gaging station at Britton Road at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (Britton Road station), since 1988. Statistical summaries and frequencies of detection of water-quality constituent data from water samples, and summaries of water-quality constituent data from continuous water-quality monitors are described from the start of monitoring at those stations through 2009. Differences in concentrations between stations and time trends for selected constituents were evaluated to determine the effects of: (1) wastewater effluent discharges, (2) changes in land-cover, (3) changes in streamflow, (4) increases in urban development, and (5) other anthropogenic sources of contamination on water quality in the North Canadian River downstream from Oklahoma City. Land-cover changes between 1992 and 2001 in the basin between the Harrah station and Lake Overholser upstream included an increase in developed/barren land-cover and a decrease in pasture/hay land cover. There were no significant trends in median and greater streamflows at either streamflow-gaging station, but there were significant downward trends in lesser streamflows, especially after 1999, which may have been associated with decreases in precipitation between 1999 and 2009 or construction of low-water dams on the river upstream from Oklahoma City in 1999. Concentrations of dissolved chloride, lead, cadmium, and chlordane most frequently exceeded the Criterion Continuous Concentration (a water-quality standard for protection of aquatic life) in water-quality samples collected at both streamflow-gaging stations. Visual trends in annual frequencies of detection were investigated for selected pesticides with frequencies of detection greater than 10 percent in all water samples

  10. Detailed study of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Klamath Basin, California and Oregon, 1990-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileanis, Peter D.; Schwarzbach, S.E.; Bennett, Jewel

    1996-01-01

    The effect of irrigation drainage on the water quality and wildlife of the Klamath Basin in California and Oregon was evaluated during 1990-92 as part of the National Irrigation Water Quality Program of the U.S. Department of the Interior. The study focused on land serviced by the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, which supplies irrigation water to agricultural land in the Klamath Basin and the Lost River Basin. The Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are in the study area. These refuges provide critical resting and breeding habitat for waterfowl on the Pacific flyway and are dependent on irrigation drainwater from upstream agriculture for most of their water supply. Water-quality characteristics throughout the study area were typical of highly eutrophic systems during the summer months of 1991 and 1992. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations and pH tended to fluctuate each day in response to diurnal patterns of photosynthesis, and frequently exceeded criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were generally at or above threshold levels characteristic of eutrophic lakes and streams. At most sites the bulk of dissolved nitrogen was organically bound. Elevated ammonia concentrations were common in the study area, especially down- stream of drain inputs. High pH of water increased the toxicity of ammonia, and concentrations exceeded criteria at sites upstream and downstream of irrigated land. Concentrations of ammonia in samples from small drains on the Tule Lake refuge leaseland were higher than those measured in the larger, integrating drains at primary monitoring sites. The mean ammonia concentration in leaseland drains [1.21 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] was significantly higher than the mean concentration in canals delivering water to the leaseland fields (0.065 mg/L) and higher than concentrations reported to be lethal to Daphnia magna (median lethal

  11. Analyzing the extents of Basaka Lake expansion and soil and water quality status of Matahara irrigation scheme, Awash Basin (Ethiopia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olumana Dinka, M.

    2010-01-01

    Basaka Lake, unlike most of the other terminal Lakes in Main Ethiopian Rift, is expanding at substantial rate. Its expansion is particular concern owing to its poor water quality. Different studies were conducted on Basaka Lake, but none of them addressed the complex Lake water balance components at different hydrologic periods and come up with decisive backgrounds for the cause and its potential damaging effect. The current study attempted to analyze the expansion of Basaka Lake since 1960s from Landsat images and other ancillary data and then assess the potential cause through conceptual water balance modeling. The work required combined use of remote sensing, GIS and hydrologic models. The decadal land use-land cover change (LUCC) was mapped and its effects on the hydrologic processes (runoff, soil loss and sedimentation) of the lake catchment were estimated. A conceptual Lake water balance model was systematically formulated, solved, calibrated and validated. Groundwater flux model was then developed as function of the other water balance components. Generally, a tremendous expansion of Basaka Lake, degradation of soil and water quality status at Matahara Sugar Estate (MSE), rapid LUCC and the resulting changes in the regimes of hydrologic processes in the Lake catchment are observed. These problems revealed the need for urgent mitigation measures. Therefore, sustainable Lake management measures that could minimize its potential environmental threats are suggested. Moreover, correcting measures that could reduce, if not prevented, the potential impacts of waterlogging and its allied problems at MSE are suggested. (author) [de

  12. Water resources of Wisconsin--Lake Superior basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.L.; Skinner, Earl L.

    1974-01-01

    This report describes the physical environment, availability, distribution, movement, quality, and use of water in the upper Wisconsin River basin as an aid in planning and water management. The report presents general information on the basin derived from data obtained from Federal, State, and local agencies, New field data were collected in areas where information was lacking. More detailed studies of problem areas may be required in the future, as water needs and related development increase.

  13. Water resources of Wisconsin: lower Wisconsin River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindall, S.M.; Borman, Ronald G.

    1974-01-01

    This report describes the physical environment, availability, distribution, movement, quality, and use of water in the upper Wisconsin River basin as an aid in planning and water management. The report presents general information on the basin derived from data obtained from Federal, State, and local agencies, New field data were collected in areas where information was lacking. More detailed studies of problem areas may be required in the future, as water needs and related development increase.

  14. Water quality of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and Ocmulgee river basins related to flooding from Tropical Storm Alberto; pesticides in urban and agricultural watersheds, and nitrate and pesticides in ground water, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippe, D.J.; Wangsness, D.J.; Frick, E.A.; Garrett, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents preliminary water-quality information from three studies that are part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basin and the adjacent Ocmulgee River basin. During the period July 3-7, 1994, heavy rainfall from tropical storm Alberto caused record flooding on the Ocmulgee and Flint Rivers and several of their tributaries. Much of the nitrogen load transported during the flooding was as organic nitrogen generally derived from organic detritus, rather than nitrate derived from other sources, such as fertilizer. More than half the mean annual loads of total phosphorus and organic nitrogen were trans- ported in the Flint and Ocmulgee Rivers during the flood. Fourteen herbicides, five insecticides, and one fungicide were detected in floodwaters of the Ocmulgee, Flint, and Apalachicola Rivers. In a second study, water samples were collected at nearly weekly intervals from March 1993 through April 1994 from one urban and two agricultural watersheds in the ACF River basin, and analyzed for 84 commonly used pesticides. More pesticides were detected and at generally higher concentrations in water from the urban watershed than the agricultural water- sheds, and a greater number of pesticides were persistent throughout much of the year in the urban watershed. Simazine exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking-water standards in one of 57 samples from the urban watershed. In a third study, 38 wells were installed in surficial aquifers adjacent to and downgradient of farm fields within agricultural areas in the southern ACF River basin. Even though regional aquifers are generally used for irrigation and domestic- and public-water supplies, degradation of water quality in the surficial aquifers serves as an early warning of potential contamination of regional aquifers. Nitrate concentrations were less than 3 mg/L as N (indicating minimal effect of human activities) in water

  15. Environmental monitoring of Micro Prespa Lake basin (Western Macedonia, Greece): hydrogeochemical characteristics of water resources and quality trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziritis, Evangelos P

    2014-07-01

    The Micro Prespa basin is a trilateral catchment area of significant importance with a unique ecosystem closely related to the homonymous lake. In this frame, a fully operational monitoring project was carried out including continuous real-time measurements in Micro Prespa Lake with the use of a multi-sensor probe, as well as periodical sampling and analyses of all available water systems for an extended set of 85 parameters. Four main interacting water systems were identified, including alluvial and karstic aquifers, Micro Prespa Lake and adjacent drainage network. The results outlined that general environmental conditions are satisfying in respect to the relative legislation and the hydrogeochemical signatures. However, trends of environmental pressures were ascertained as a result of natural (geogenic) factors, embracing seasonal peaks for Ni, Pb, and NH4 mainly in groundwater systems. Based on chlorophyll a records, Micro Prespa is classified as oligotrophic to slightly mesotrophic, subjected to seasonal variations. Heavy metal concentrations are low, except Ni which appears to have elevated values during the dry hydrological period. Finally, the hydrogeochemistry of drainage network is primarily influenced by surface runoff of the surrounding mountainous areas, hence elevated phosphorus values of the Aghios Germanos stream are possibly linked with the leaching of the granitic formations on the east.

  16. Summary of biological and contaminant investigations related to stream water quality and environmental setting in the Upper Colorado River basin, 1938-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Stephens, Verlin C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, an inventory of the biological and contaminant investigations for the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit was conducted. To enhance the sampling design for the biological component of the program, previous studies about the ecology of aquatic organisms and contaminants were compiled from computerized literature searches of biological data bases and by contacting other Federal, State, and local agencies. Biological and contaminant investigations that have been conducted throughout the basin since 1938 were categorized according to four general categories of biological investigations and two categories of contaminant investigations: algal communities, macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, habitat characterization, contaminants in organism tissue, and contaminants in bed sediment. The studies were identified by their locations in two physiographic provinces, the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau, and by the predominant land use in the area of the investigation. Studies on algal communities and contaminants in organism tissue and in bed sediment are limited throughout the basin. Studies on macroinvertebrate and fish communities and habitat characterization are the most abundant in the study unit. Natural and human factors can affect biological communities and their composition. Natural factors that affect background water-quality conditions are physiography, climate, geology, and soils. Algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish that are present in the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces vary with altitude and physical environment. Green algae and diatoms are predominant in the higher altitude streams, and blue-green, golden-brown, and green algae are predominant in the lower altitude streams. Caddisflies, mayflies, and stoneflies are the dominant macroinvertebrates in the higher altitudes, whereas aquatic worms, leeches

  17. Determination of surface and groundwater quality in the Orontes basin (Syria) and the negative effect of some pollutants on the water, soil, and plants at this area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.

    2005-01-01

    This work deals with the physical/chemical characteristics and quality of surface and ground water in the basin of the Orontes river in Syria. It also deals with concentration of basic elements and trace elements in water, soil and some plant leaves in that area. The internationally acknowledged methods were used to determine the physical constituents and to analyze elements of the most important basic and sub compounds in 95 water samples (77 ground samples and 18 surface samples). The instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was used to analyze some major elements and trace elements in 18 soil samples and 9 plant leave samples. Evaluation of analysis results of those samples shows the great geo-ecological and geographic effect and the effect of human activities on polluting the water, soil and plants according to quality of irrigation water, effect of air, liquid and solid rejects of the industrial and municipal sites, nature and repetition of plantations and type of fertilizers and pesticides used in the studied area.(author)

  18. Development of urban runoff model FFC-QUAL for first-flush water-quality analysis in urban drainage basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sungchul; Nam, Kisung; Kim, Jungsoo; Kwak, Changjae

    2018-01-01

    An urban runoff model that is able to compute the runoff, the pollutant loadings, and the concentrations of water-quality constituents in urban drainages during the first flush was developed. This model, which is referred to as FFC-QUAL, was modified from the existing ILLUDAS model and added for use during the water-quality analysis process for dry and rainy periods. For the dry period, the specifications of the coefficients for the discharge and water quality were used. During rainfall, we used the Clark and time-area methods for the runoff analyses of pervious and impervious areas to consider the effects of the subbasin shape; moreover, four pollutant accumulation methods and the washoff equation for computing the water quality each time were used. According to the verification results, FFC-QUAL provides generally similar output as the measured data for the peak flow, total runoff volume, total loadings, peak concentration, and time of peak concentration for three rainfall events in the Gunja subbasin. In comparison with the ILLUDAS, SWMM, and MOUSE models, there is little difference between these models and the model developed in this study. The proposed model should be useful in urban watersheds because of its simplicity and its capacity to model common pollutants (e.g., biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, Escherichia coli, suspended solids, and total nitrogen and phosphorous) in runoff. The proposed model can also be used in design studies to determine how changes in infrastructure will affect the runoff and pollution loads. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of selected low-impact-development (LID) techniques on water quality and quantity in the Ipswich River Basin, Massachusetts-Field and modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Sorenson, Jason R.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2010-01-01

    During the months of August and September, flows in the Ipswich River, Massachusetts, dramatically decrease largely due to groundwater withdrawals needed to meet increased residential and commercial water demands. In the summer, rates of groundwater recharge are lower than during the rest of the year, and water demands are higher. From 2005 to 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in a cooperative funding agreement with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, monitored small-scale installations of low-impact-development (LID) enhancements designed to diminish the effects of storm runoff on the quantity and quality of surface water and groundwater. Funding for the studies also was contributed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Targeted Watersheds Grant Program through a financial assistance agreement with Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation. The monitoring studies examined the effects of (1) replacing an impervious parking lot surface with a porous surface on groundwater quality, (2) installing rain gardens and porous pavement in a neighborhood of 3 acres on the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff, and (3) installing a 3,000-square foot (ft2) green roof on the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff. In addition, the effects of broad-scale implementation of LID techniques, reduced water withdrawals, and water-conservation measures on streamflow in large areas of the basin were simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey's Ipswich River Basin model. From June 2005 to 2007, groundwater quality was monitored at the Silver Lake town beach parking lot in Wilmington, MA, prior to and following the replacement of the conventional, impervious-asphalt surface with a porous surface consisting primarily of porous asphalt and porous pavers. Changes in the concentrations of the water-quality constituents, phosphorus, nitrogen, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc, and total petroleum hydrocarbons, were monitored

  20. Land use effects on quality and quantity aspects of water resources in headwater areas of the Jaguari River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, R. D. O.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zuccari, M. L.; Ferracini, V. L.; Cruz, P. P. N. D.; Green, T. R.; Costa, C. F. G. D.; Reis, L. D. C.

    2015-12-01

    In the context of the recent drought conditions in southeastern Brazil, EMBRAPA (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) in partnership with two Brazilian universities (USP/CENA and UNIFAL) planned a research project, called BaCaJa, to understand the hydrobiogeochemistry processes that occur in small catchments (management of water resources in this region. Sampling stations were established on rivers and streams ranging from one to five order channels as well as selected small catchments to conduct studies on overland flow, soil solution, soil quality, aquatic biota and pesticide dynamic. The research team is huge and their goals are specific, diverse and complementary, being summed up as: characterize land use, topography and soils; evaluate erosive potential in agriculture areas; measure soil carbon and nitrogen contents; characterize hydrogeochemistry fluxes; apply hydrological modeling and simulate different land use and management scenarios; monitor possible pesticides contamination; and survey macro invertebrates as indicators of water quality. Based on a synthesis of the results, the project team intends to point out the environmental impacts and contribute recommendations of management for the focused region to conserve water resources in terms of quality and quantity.

  1. Engaging Remote Sensing and Citizen Science into Water Quality Monitoring: A Case Study in Nhue-Day River Basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Van Le, Khoa; Minkman, Ellen; Nguyen Thi Phuong, Thuy; Rutten, Martine; Bastiaanssen, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing and citizen science can be utilized to fulfill the gap of conventional monitoring methods. However, how to engage these techniques, principally taking advantage of local capacities and of globally accessible data for satisfying the continuous data requirements and uncertainties are exciting challenges. Previous studies in Vietnam showed that official documents regulated towards responding the vital need of upgrading national water monitoring infrastructures do not put the huge potentials of free satellite images and crowd-based data collection into account, this factor also limits publications related to these techniques. In this research, a new water monitoring approach will be developed friendly with areas suffering poor quality monitoring works. Particularly, algorithms respecting to the relationship between temperature, total suspended sediment (TSS), chlorophyll and information collected by sensors onboard Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 MSI satellites are built in the study area in Northern Vietnam; additionally, undergraduate student volunteers were sent to the sites with all the measurement activities are designed to coincide with the time when the study area captured by the satellites to compare the results. While conventional techniques are proving their irreplaceable role in the water monitoring network, the utilization of remote sensing techniques and citizen science in this study will demonstrate highly supportive values, saving monitoring costs and time; advantaging local human resources to science; providing an inclusive assessment of water quality changes along with land-use change in the study area, these approaches are excellent alternatives to meet the demand of real-time, continuous data nationwide.

  2. Assessing dam development, land use conversion, and climate change pressures on tributary river flows and water quality of the Mekong's Tonle Sap basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Oeurng, C.; Arnaiz, M.; Piman, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Tonle Sap Lake is Southeast Asia's most productive freshwater fishery, but the productivity of this valuable ecosystem is under threat from extensive development in the lower Mekong. With dams potentially blocking all major tributaries along the lower Mekong River, the role of local Tonle Sap basin tributaries for maintaining environmental flows, sediment loads, and fish recruitment is becoming increasingly critical. Development within the Tonle Sap basin, however, is not stagnant. Developers are proposing extensive dam development in key Tonle Sap tributaries (see Figure). Some dams will provide hydroelectricity and others will provide opportunities for large-scale irrigation resulting in agro-industrial expansion. There is thus an immediate need to assess the current situation and understand future effects of dam development and land use conversion under climate change on local riverine ecosystems. A combination of remote sensing, field visits, and hydro-meteorological data analyses enabled an assessment of water infrastructure and agricultural development in the basin. The application of SWAT for modelling flows and water quality combined with HEC-RESSIM for reservoir operations enabled for a holistic modelling approach. Initial results show that dams and land use change dominate flow and water quality responses, when compared to climate change. Large ongoing dam and irrigation development in the Pursat and Battambang subbasins will critically alter the natural river flows to the Tonle Sap Lake. Some of the observed dams did not have provisions for sediment flushing, clearing of flooded areas, fish passages, or other environmental protection measures. Poor planning and operation of this infrastructure could have dire consequences on the fragile riverine ecosystem of Tonle Sap tributaries, resulting in fish migration barriers, losses in aquatic habitats, and ecological degradation. The seemingly chaotic development in the Tonle Sap basin induces a great level

  3. A water quality index model using stepwise regression and neural networks models for the Piabanha River basin in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Boas, M. D.; Olivera, F.; Azevedo, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The evaluation of water quality through 'indexes' is widely used in environmental sciences. There are a number of methods available for calculating water quality indexes (WQI), usually based on site-specific parameters. In Brazil, WQI were initially used in the 1970s and were adapted from the methodology developed in association with the National Science Foundation (Brown et al, 1970). Specifically, the WQI 'IQA/SCQA', developed by the Institute of Water Management of Minas Gerais (IGAM), is estimated based on nine parameters: Temperature Range, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Fecal Coliforms, Nitrate, Phosphate, Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen, pH and Electrical Conductivity. The goal of this study was to develop a model for calculating the IQA/SCQA, for the Piabanha River basin in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), using only the parameters measurable by a Multiparameter Water Quality Sonde (MWQS) available in the study area. These parameters are: Dissolved Oxygen, pH and Electrical Conductivity. The use of this model will allow to further the water quality monitoring network in the basin, without requiring significant increases of resources. The water quality measurement with MWQS is less expensive than the laboratory analysis required for the other parameters. The water quality data used in the study were obtained by the Geological Survey of Brazil in partnership with other public institutions (i.e. universities and environmental institutes) as part of the project "Integrated Studies in Experimental and Representative Watersheds". Two models were developed to correlate the values of the three measured parameters and the IQA/SCQA values calculated based on all nine parameters. The results were evaluated according to the following validation statistics: coefficient of determination (R2), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Final Prediction Error (FPE). The first model was a linear stepwise regression between three independent variables

  4. Water quality of the Pannonian basin rivers the Danube, the Sava and the Tisa (Serbia and its correlation with air temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Milana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Danube, the Sava and the Tisa rivers belong to the Black Sea river basin and they flow through many European countries, while in Serbia they flow through the Pannonian flatland. The water quality of these rivers, which is affected by complex anthropogenic activities and natural factors, is one of important factors that are taken into account in the evaluation of development sustainability of this region. Using the correlation analysis in this paper we tested the impact of air temperature as a natural factor on certain parameters indicating the water quality. A significant correlation was found between air temperature and total nitrogen oxides in the Danube of up to -0.744, namely of -0.740 on the Tisa and -0.299 on the Sava. A significant correlation was found in electrical conductivity - up to -0.793 on the Danube, -0.226 on the Tisa, and 0.380 on the Sava. Correlation links were found between air temperature and O2, BOD, as well as suspended matters saturation percentage, but their correlation values are significantly lower. Based on the results of the research it was concluded that air temperature had low effect on changes in water quality during the year and that anthropogenic impact was far more dominant.

  5. Study design, water quality, morphometrics and age of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, in sub-watersheds of the Yamaska River drainage basin, Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Philip A; Boily, Monique; Giroux, Isabelle; Deblois, Christian; Leclair, Maria Helena; Levasseur, Marc; Leclair, Raymond

    2009-01-31

    The Yamaska River basin is renowned for its poor water quality, which has been attributed to intensive agriculture (corn, soya, high-density pork and poultry production). Six locations within the Yamaska watershed were selected to evaluate the impact of agriculture on water habitats and study the bullfrog as a sentinel species of potential exposure and effects. The selected sub-watersheds were chosen according to the percentage of surface area under cultivation and classified as low (0-19%), moderate (20-59%) or high (>60%). In 2004 and 2005, analysis of surface water samples demonstrated that pesticide concentrations and most water quality parameters increased with increasing agricultural activity. Sixteen adult bullfrogs were sampled from each site. Animals were weighed, measured for length (total, snout-vent, tibia, tympanum), sexed, and evaluated for the colour of the throat. Skeletochronology was used to estimate the growth and age of the frogs. Cross-sections of decalcified phalanges and femurs were treated in order to count LAGs (lines of arrest growth) and for the observations of other parameters related to bone growth. The bullfrogs from highly contaminated sites had the lowest mean age and the smallest snout-vent length compared to sites of low contamination.

  6. Water quality and environmental isotopic analyses of ground-water samples collected from the Wasatch and Fort Union Formations in areas of coalbed methane development : implications to recharge and ground-water flow, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Ogle, Kathy Muller

    2002-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ground-water samples were evaluated as part of an investigation of lower Tertiary aquifers in the eastern Powder River Basin where coalbed methane is being developed. Ground-water samples were collected from two springs discharging from clinker, eight monitoring wells completed in the Wasatch aquifer, and 13 monitoring or coalbed methane production wells completed in coalbed aquifers. The ground-water samples were analyzed for major ions and environmental isotopes (tritium and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen) to characterize the composition of waters in these aquifers, to relate these characteristics to geochemical processes, and to evaluate recharge and ground-water flow within and between these aquifers. This investigation was conducted in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer's Office and the Bureau of Land Management. Water quality in the different aquifers was characterized by major-ion composition. Samples collected from the two springs were classified as calcium-sulfate-type and calcium-bicarbonate-type waters. All ground-water samples from the coalbed aquifers were sodium-bicarbonate-type waters as were five of eight samples collected from the overlying Wasatch aquifer. Potential areal patterns in ionic composition were examined. Ground-water samples collected during this and another investigation suggest that dissolved-solids concentrations in the coalbed aquifers may be lower south of the Belle Fourche River (generally less than 600 milligrams per liter). As ground water in coalbed aquifers flows to the north and northwest away from an inferred source of recharge (clinker in the study area), dissolved-solids concentrations appear to increase. Variation in ionic composition in the vertical dimension was examined qualitatively and statistically within and between aquifers. A relationship between ionic composition and well depth was noted and corroborates similar observations by earlier investigators in the Powder River

  7. Columbia Basin residents' view on water : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronalds, L.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is no strategic plan for water management in the Columbia Basin to ensure that long-term water quality and quantity issues are addressed according to residents' values and views. The Columbia Basin Trust was therefore created to address water management issues. It devised a comprehensive water information questionnaire and sent it to a broad range of respondents that fell within the Canadian portion of the Columbia Basin. These included municipal, regional, provincial and federal government agencies; community and watershed groups; industry and agriculture groups; recreation and tourism groups; and, First Nations groups. The most prevalent concern among the respondents pertained to issues surrounding domestic water consumption, and the most widespread water issue in the Columbia Basin was that of water conservation. The state of aquatic ecosystems was also of significant importance to respondents. Respondents also expressed concern for the cost of providing potable water and for the sustainability of rivers and their tributaries within the Basin. The survey also found a concern for the fluctuating reservoir levels within the Basin and the protection of drinking water from contamination. In order to address the wide range of water related issues, respondents indicated that an education program should be implemented to address the general nature of the hydrologic cycle; how much water is being used for toilets, lawn watering, and showers; the cost of potable water; the importance of water on a local and global level; the importance and nature of watersheds; the ways people influence and pollute water; the challenges of cleaning up contaminated water sources; the community's water sources; the role of water in sustaining food growth; and, challenges and consequences of other communities that experience severe water quality and quantity issues. It was suggested that the education program should address a water conservation plan, including conservation

  8. Monitoring Impacts of Long-Term Drought on Surface Water Quantity and Quality in Middle Rio Grande Basin Reservoirs Using Multispectral Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Hargrove, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Elephant Butte and Caballo dams form the largest surface water reservoirs in the Middle Rio Grande basin. The basin supports more than 2 million people, including the major urban centers of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, El Paso, Texas, and Las Cruces, New Mexico, plus more than 70,000 ha of land with water rights for irrigated agriculture. However, this region has experienced severe droughts and growing water demand over the past few decades. This study applied GIS and remote sensing techniques to (1) quantify the shrinking and expansion of the reservoirs for the 44-year period 1973-2017; (2) demonstrate the use of multispectral satellite imagery for qualitative assessment of reservoir water turbidity; and (3) investigate and compare annual and seasonal variability of reservoir temperature. Our preliminary results show apparent shrinkage and recovery cycles of both reservoirs, depending on annual inflow and diversion cycles. For example, the period 1981 to 1993 was unusually `wet' on average, in contrast to the period around September 2002 when the Elephant Butte reservoir shrinked to less than 11 percent of its capacity due to drought. Water in the reservoirs appears more turbid in the fall compared to the summer season, and satellite images showed distinctive zones of deep and shallow water, with evident sedimentation near the in-flow of each reservoir. Examination of image digital numbers revealed the following three distinct temperature zones: scrub environment around the reservoirs, very shallow water around reservoir edges, and deeper reservoir water. The zones were represented by a higher range of digital numbers in the summer in comparison to the fall season, indicating greater surface temperature variability in the summer season. The distinction between high summer temperatures and low fall temperatures was especially prominent along the shallow edges of each reservoir. The fluctuating thermal patterns can be explained by variations in depth

  9. Water-quality characteristics and trend analyses for the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins, Wyoming and Montana, for selected periods, water years 1991 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.

    2012-01-01

    The Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is an area of ongoing coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development. Waters produced during CBNG development are managed with a variety of techniques, including surface impoundments and discharges into stream drainages. The interaction of CBNG-produced waters with the atmosphere and the semiarid soils of the Powder River structural basin can affect water chemistry in several ways. Specific conductance and sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of CBNG-produced waters that are discharged to streams have been of particular concern because they have the potential to affect the use of the water for irrigation. Water-quality monitoring has been conducted since 2001 at main-stem and tributary sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins in response to concerns about CBNG effects. A study was conducted to summarize characteristics of stream-water quality for water years 2001–10 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2010) and examine trends in specific conductance, SAR, and primary constituents that contribute to specific conductance and SAR for changes through time (water years 1991–2010) that may have occurred as a result of CBNG development. Specific conductance and SAR are the focus characteristics of this report. Dissolved calcium, magnesium, and sodium, which are primary contributors to specific conductance and SAR, as well as dissolved alkalinity, chloride, and sulfate, which are other primary contributors to specific conductance, also are described. Stream-water quality in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins was variable during water years 2001–10, in part because of variations in streamflow. In general, annual runoff was less than average during water years 2001–06 and near or above average during water years 2007–10. Stream water of the Tongue River had the smallest specific conductance values, sodium adsorption ratios

  10. Alien invasive species and biological pollution of the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem[Great Lakes Water Quality Board : Report to the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The displacement of important native species in the Great Lakes is a result of an invasion by a succession of non indigenous aquatic species. These invasion also resulted in interference with the proper human water uses and cost billions of dollars. The problem was considered serious enough that the International Joint Commission asked the Great Lakes Water Quality Board in 1999 to review the regulations in place and make recommendations, if necessary, for the implementation of additional measures that could be considered to keep control over the introduction of alien invasive species. Escapes from aquaria, aquaculture, research and educational facilities, canal and diversion water flows, and release of live bait are all sources of this invasion. The effectiveness of alternative technologies to control the invasion was to be examined by the Board. Other efforts taking place to address the situation in the basin are being complemented by the publication of this report. It is considered that the most important source of alien invasive species (AIS) to the Great Lakes is the discharge of ballast water from shipping vessels coming from outside the United States and Canada. A major concern is the role played by vessels reporting no ballast on board (NOBOB) upon entering the basin. A number of recommendations were made concerning: (1) implementation and enforcement of the ballast water discharge standards agreed upon by both countries, (2) the evaluation of the effectiveness of alternative technologies to achieve ballast water discharge standards over the long term, combined with the use of chemical treatment while the evaluation is being performed, (3) the implementation of optimal management practices to control sediments in shipping vessels, (4) modifications to the design of shipping vessels, and (5) the monitoring and contingency plans in the event of a repeat scenario in the future. Composed of an equal number representatives from the United States and Canada, at

  11. [Physicochemical and biological characterization of the water quality in the Piedras Blancas basin, Antioquia, Colombia] [In Process Citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada; Roldan; Ramirez

    2000-03-01

    From April to December 1996 a limnological study was carried out in 17 streams near Medellin, in order to stablish their water quality. The area is located in Piedras Blancas Park (6 degrees 8' 20"N, 75 degrees 30' 20"W) SE of Medellin at 2,400 m altitude. Three sampling periods, encompasing wet and dry season were selected: April-May, August-September and October-December. For qualitative collection methods hand screen and D-net were used. Each station was intensively sampled to collect most macroinvertebrates in all types of habitat. The area sampled in each station was 6 m2. Physicochemical variables in general showed small fluctuations along the study; only conductivity and total dissolved solids exhibited significant changes, all related with high precipitation in the wet season. Macroinvertebrate community consisted of 113 genera, 63 families and seven phyla. Trichoptera was the most abundant group. The results indicate that the freshwater ecosystems in the study area present a high water quality corresponding to a oligo-mesotrophic system.

  12. Riverine Nutrient Trends in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Basins, California: A Comparison to State and Regional Water Quality Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Schlegel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/1015447/sfews.2015v13iss4art2Non-point source (NPS contaminant control strategies were initiated in California in the late 1980s under the authority of the State Porter–Cologne Act and eventually for the development of total maximum daily load (TMDL plans, under the federal Clean Water Act. Most of the NPS TMDLs developed for California’s Central Valley (CV region were related to pesticides, but not nutrients. Efforts to reduce pesticide loads and concentrations began in earnest around 1990. The NPS control strategies either encouraged or mandated the use of management practices (MPs. Although TMDLs were largely developed for pesticides, the resultant MPs might have affected the runoff of other potential contaminants (such as nutrients. This study evaluates the effect of agricultural NPS control strategies implemented in California’s CV before and between 1990 and 2013, on nutrients, by comparing trends in surface-water concentrations and loads. In general, use of MPs was encouraged during a “voluntary” period (1990 to 2004 and mandated during an “enforcement” period (2004 to 2013. Nutrient concentrations, loads, and trends were estimated by using a recently developed Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS model. Sufficient total phosphorus (TP, total nitrogen (TN, and nitrate (NO3 data were available to compare the voluntary and enforcement periods for twelve sites within the lower Sacramento and San Joaquin basins. Ammonia concentrations and fluxes were evaluated at a subset of these sites. For six of these sites, flow-normalized mean annual concentrations of TP or NO3 decreased at a faster rate during the enforcement period than during the voluntary period. Concentration changes during similar years and ranges of flow conditions suggest that MPs designed for pesticides may also have reduced nutrient loads. Results show that enforceable NPS policies, and accelerated MP implementation

  13. Water-quality assessment of the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames river basins study unit; analysis of available data on nutrients, suspended sediments, and pesticides, 1972-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc James; Grady, S.J.; Trench, E.C.; Flanagan, S.M.; Nielsen, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    This retrospective report examines available nutrient, suspended sediment, and pesticide data in surface and ground water in the Connecticut, Housatonic and Thames Rivers Study Unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purpose of this study is to improve the under- standing of natural and anthropogenic factors affecting water quality in the study unit. Water-quality data were acquired from various sources, primarily, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report examines data for water years 1972-92, focusing on 1980-92, although it also includes additional data from as early as 1905. The study unit lies within the New England Physiographic Province and altitudes range from sea level in coastal Connecticut to 6,288 feet above sea level at Mount Washington, New Hampshire. Two major aquifer types underlie the study unit--unconsolidated glacial deposits and fractured bedrock. The climate generally is temperate and humid, with four distinct seasons. Average annual precipitation ranges from 34 to 65 inches. The study unit has a population of about 4.5 million, which is most highly concentrated in southwestern Connecticut and along the south-central region of the Connecticut River Valley. Surface-water-quality data were screened to provide information about sites with adequate numbers of analyses (50) over sufficiently long periods (1980-90) to enable valid statistical analyses. In order to compare effects of different types of land use on surface-water quality, examination of data required application of several statistical and graphical techniques, including mapping, histograms, boxplots, concentration-discharge plots, trend analysis, and load estimation. Spatial and temporal analysis of surface-water-quality data indicated that, with a single exception, only/stations in the Connecticut water-quality network had sufficient data collected over adequately long time periods to use in detailed analyses. Ground-water

  14. Quality of surface water and ground water in the proposed artificial-recharge project area, Rillito Creek basin, Tucson, Arizona, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid

    1995-01-01

    Controlled artificial recharge of surface runoff is being considered as a water-management technique to address the problem of ground-water overdraft. The planned use of recharge facilities in urban areas has caused concern about the quality of urban runoff to be recharged and the potential for ground-water contamination. The proposed recharge facility in Rillito Creek will utilize runoff entering a 1-mile reach of the Rillito Creek between Craycroft Road and Swan Road for infiltration and recharge purposes within the channel and excavated overbank areas. Physical and chemical data were collected from two surface-water and two ground-water sites in the study area in 1994. Analyses of surface-water samples were done to determine the occurrence and concentration of potential contaminants and to determine changes in quality since samples were collected during 1987-93. Analyses of ground-water samples were done to determine the variability of ground-water quality at the monitoring wells throughout the year and to determine changes in quality since samples were collected in 1989 and 1993. Surface-water samples were collected from Tanque Verde Creek at Sabino Canyon Road (streamflow-gaging station Tanque Verde Creek at Tucson, 09484500) and from Alamo Wash at Fort Lowell Road in September and May 1994, respectively. Ground-water samples were collected from monitoring wells (D- 13-14)26cbb2 and (D-13-14)26dcb2 in January, May, July, and October 1994. In surface water, calcium was the dominant cation, and bicarbonate was the dominant anion. In ground water, calcium and sodium were the dominant cations and bicarbonate was the dominant anion. Surface water in the area is soft, and ground water is moderately hard to hard. In surface water and ground water, nitrogen was found predominantly as nitrate. Concentrations of manganese in ground-water samples ranged from 60 to 230 micrograms per liter and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant

  15. Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Bauder

    2008-09-30

    when water supplies sourced from coalbed methane extraction are plentiful. Constructed wetlands, planted to native, salt tolerant species demonstrated potential to utilize substantial volumes of coalbed methane product water, although plant community transitions to mono-culture and limited diversity communities is a likely consequence over time. Additionally, selected, cultured forage quality barley varieties and native plant species such as Quail bush, 4-wing saltbush, and seaside barley are capable of sustainable, high quality livestock forage production, when irrigated with coalbed methane product water sourced from the Powder River Basin. A consequence of long-term plant water use which was enumerated is elevated salinity and sodicity concentrations within soil and shallow alluvial groundwater into which coalbed methane product water might drain. The most significant conclusion of these investigations was the understanding that phytoremediation is not a viable, effective technique for management of coalbed methane product water under the present circumstances of produced water within the Powder River Basin. Phytoremediation is likely an effective approach to sodium and salt removal from salt-impaired sites after product water discharges are discontinued and site reclamation is desired. Coalbed methane product water of the Powder River Basin is most frequently impaired with respect to beneficial use quality by elevated sodicity, a water quality constituent which can cause swelling, slaking, and dispersion of smectite-dominated clay soils, such as commonly occurring within the Powder River Basin. To address this issue, a commercial-scale fluid-bed, cationic resin exchange treatment process and prototype operating treatment plant was developed and beta-tested by Drake Water Technologies under subcontract to this award. Drake Water Technologies secured U.S. Patent No. 7,368,059-B2, 'Method for removal of benevolent cations from contaminated water', a beta

  16. Changing Water Environment in the Greater Jakarta Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawitan, H.; Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent rapid economic development in the greater Jakarta areas has caused not only increased water resources demands but also affects the water environment due to population increase and land use changes, that further causes land degradation, and changes in hydrologic regimes and environmental qualities. In the present study, the water environmental capacities as indicated by the changing landscapes in the greater Jakarta basins were investigated to understand the role of land use management and its impact on water resources, ecosystem and environmental services. The Ciliwung river basin where rapid population increases and progresses of the land use/cover changes occurring was selected as a representative basin, and 41 water samplings were taken at different time of Jan. 08, Apr. 08, Jul. 08, and Oct. 08 during 2009 to understand the effect of rainfall variation on water quality, and clarify the characteristics of hydrological cycle. Landuse changes of the upper basins as can be seen for the upper basin indicated the expansion of settlements during 1990 to 2004 from 4.1% to 17.6% or in acreage increased almost five times, not only converting forested area, but mostly taking place from paddy fields that contributed about 50% of the additional land for new settlements. Urbanization expanding around the greater Jakarta basins, is closely related to the increased fluctuations of river discharges in recent years, with recurrence floods quickly after heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, the study results indicated that water quality of Ciliwung river, especially the loading concentrations of nitric acid closely reflects the population densities of the watershed. These results suggest that the land use/cover changes of the greater Jakarta basins affect largely the change of water environment of the areas and resulting a deteriorated factor for water resources, ecosystems and environmental services in both of quantity and quality

  17. Water security evaluation in Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guiqin; He, Liyuan; Jing, Juan

    2018-03-01

    Water security is an important basis for making water security protection strategy, which concerns regional economic and social sustainable development. In this paper, watershed water security evaluation index system including 3 levels of 5 criterion layers (water resources security, water ecological security and water environment security, water disasters prevention and control security and social economic security) and 24 indicators were constructed. The entropy weight method was used to determine the weights of the indexes in the system. The water security index of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 in Yellow River basin were calculated by linear weighting method based on the relative data. Results show that the water security conditions continue to improve in Yellow River basin but still in a basic security state. There is still a long way to enhance the water security in Yellow River basin, especially the water prevention and control security, the water ecological security and water environment security need to be promoted vigorously.

  18. Community exposure and vulnerability to water quality and availability: a case study in the mining-affected Pazña Municipality, Lake Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano

    OpenAIRE

    French, Megan; Alem, Natalie; Edwards, Stephen J.; Blanco Coariti, Efraín; Cauthin, Helga; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Luyckx, Karen; Quintanilla, Jorge; Sánchez Miranda, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Assessing water sources for drinking and irrigation along with community vulnerability, especially in developing and rural regions, is important for reducing risk posed by poor water quality and limited water availability and accessibility. We present a case study of rural mining-agricultural communities in the Lake Poopó Basin, one of the poorest regions on the Bolivian Altiplano. Here, relatively low rainfall, high evaporation, salinization and unregulated mining activity have contributed t...

  19. KE Basin water dispositioning engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S.; Gahir, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    This engineering study is a feasibility study of KE Basin water treatment to an acceptable level and dispositioning the treated water to Columbia River, ground through ETF or to air through evaporation

  20. Surface-water resources of Polecat Creek basin, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, L.L.

    1956-01-01

    A compilation of basic data on surface waters in Polecat Creek basin is presented on a monthly basis for Heyburn Reservoir and for Polecat Creek at Heyburn, Okla. Chemical analyses are shown for five sites in the basin. Correlation of runoff records with those for nearby basins indicates that the average annual runoff of the basin above gaging station at Heyburn is 325 acre-feet per square mile. Estimated duration curves of daily flow indicate that under natural conditions there would be no flow in Polecat Creek at Heyburn (drainage area, 129 square miles) about 16 percent of the time on an average, and that the flow would be less than 3 cubic feet per second half of the time. As there is no significant base flow in the basin, comparable low flows during dry-weather periods may be expected in other parts of the basin. During drought periods Heyburn Reservoir does not sustain a dependable low-water flow in Polecat Creek. Except for possible re-use of the small sewage effluent from city of Sapulpa, dependable supplies for additional water needs on the main stem will require development of supplemental storage. There has been no regular program for collection of chemical quality data in the basin, but miscellaneous analyses indicate a water of suitable quality for municipal and agricultural uses in Heyburn Reservoir and Polecat Creek near Heyburn. One recent chemical analysis indicates the possibility of a salt pollution problem in the Creek near Sapulpa. (available as photostat copy only)

  1. Combined multivariate statistical techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI and Daniel Trend Test methods to evaluate temporal and spatial variations and trends of water quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Wang

    Full Text Available Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI, Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season. Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages.

  2. Combined multivariate statistical techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI) and Daniel Trend Test methods to evaluate temporal and spatial variations and trends of water quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Wu, Xianhua; Zhao, Bin; Qin, Jie; Peng, Tingchun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI), Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season). Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites) and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites) based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium) is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages.

  3. Combined Multivariate Statistical Techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI) and Daniel Trend Test Methods to Evaluate Temporal and Spatial Variations and Trends of Water Quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Wu, Xianhua; Zhao, Bin; Qin, Jie; Peng, Tingchun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI), Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season). Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites) and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites) based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium) is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages. PMID:25837673

  4. Underground water quality and contamination risk. The case of the basin of Chéria (NE Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage has become a key problem for all countries and particularly for those in development. In fact, the increase of the populations and the development of urbanism, industries and cultivated land lead to a degradation of the quality of the groundwater and a very significant reduction of the reserves that constitute at times the only source of water for human consumption. After the analisis of the situation of the land, the present work comes in an important moment to establish the characteristics of the complex aquifer of the plateau of Chéria in Algeria and the risks of contamination of the groundwater. This study, which relies in the recent causes of contamination takes into account several factors. We can mention the contamination by blackwaters (waste, the impact of livestock and the climatic conditions. The exploitation of the groundwater from carbonated aquifers, is today the only source that responds to the needs of water for the industrial, human, and agricultural comsumption in the region. In recent years there has been an increase in agricultural and agricultural-related activity. The first results show the existence of a lowering of the piezometric level, as well as important concentrations in nitrates due to anthropic activity which are leading to a deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Chéria.La escasez de agua se ha convertido en un problema crucial para toda la Sociedad y en particular para los paises en vias de desarrollo. En efecto, el crecimiento de la población y el urbanístico, de la industria y de los cultivos pueden conducir a una degradación de la calidad de las aguas subterráneas y una significativa reducción de las reservas que, a menudo, constituyen la única fuente de agua de consumo humano. En este trabajo se evalúan las características del complejo acuífero de la cuenca de Chéria (Argelia basado en un inventario de las fuentes de contaminación teniendo en cuenta diversos factores

  5. Evaluation of violations in water quality standards in the monitoring network of São Francisco River basin, the third largest in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Elizângela Pinheiro; Pinto, Carolina Cristiane; Soares, Ana Luiza Cunha; Melo, Livia Duarte Ventura; Oliveira, Sílvia Maria Alves Corrêa

    2017-10-30

    The São Francisco River is the largest river located entirely within Brazil, and water scarcity problems have been a major concern of Brazilian society and government. Water quality issues are also a concern and have worsened with the recent intensification of urbanization and industrialization. In this study, violations to water quality standards established by local legislation were calculated as a percentage for 26 selected parameters over a monitoring period of 14 years. The violation percentages were analyzed spatially using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by multiple comparison analysis. Temporal analysis was performed using the Mann-Kendall test and Spearman correlation. Some parameters could be identified as cause for concern due to high violation levels, such as the fecal coliform indicator (FCI) and phosphorus-both related to domestic and effluent disposal without treatment or with insufficient treatment-and color, turbidity, manganese, and total suspended solids-which can be affected by erosive processes of natural and anthropogenic causes. The study found that these violations are concentrated in the most urbanized and industrialized areas of the basin. Some metallic parameters, such as iron and arsenic violations, may be related to mining activities in the rich soil of the Iron Quadrangle area located within the Minas Gerais State. Trend analysis results indicated that most monitoring stations did not have significant modification (elevation or reduction) trends over time, which, together with the high violation percentages, might indicate the maintenance of a scenario of constant pressure upon water resources, in particular in those more urbanized areas.

  6. Assessing large spatial scale landscape change effects on water quality and quantity response in the lower Athabasca River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Nicole E; Westbrook, Cherie J; Dubé, Monique G; Squires, Allison J

    2013-07-01

    Increased land use intensity has been shown to adversely affect aquatic ecosystems. Multiple landscape stressors interact over space and time, producing cumulative effects. Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) is the process of evaluating the impact a development project may have on the ecological surroundings, but several challenges exist that make current approaches to cumulative effects assessment ineffective. The main objective of this study was to compare results of different methods used to link landscape stressors with stream responses in a highly developed watershed, where past work has shown that the river has experienced significant water quality and quantity changes to improve approaches to CEA. The study site was the lower reaches of the Athabasca River, Canada that have been subjected to a diverse range of intense anthropogenic developments since the late 1960s. Linkages between landscape change and river response were evaluated using correlation analyses, stepwise, multiple regression, and regression trees. Notable landscape changes include increased industrial development and forest cut-blocks, made evident from satellite imagery and supporting ancillary data sets. Simple regression analyses showed water use was closely associated with total phosphorus (TP) and Na(+) concentrations, as well as specific conductance. The regression trees for total organic carbon (TOC), TP, and Na(+) showed that the landscape variables that appear as the first characteristic were the same variables that showed significant relations for their respective simple regression models. Simple, stepwise, and multiple regressions in conjunction with regression trees were useful in this study for capturing the strongest associations between landscape stressors and river response variables. The results highlight the need for improved scaling methods and monitoring strategies crucial to managing cumulative effects to river systems. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  7. Primer on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fs-027-01.pdf--665KB A Primer on Water Quality What is in the water? Is it safe for drinking? Can fish and ... affect water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as ...

  8. Computeer-based decision support tools for evaluation of actions affecting flow and water quality in the San Joaquin Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a preliminary effort to draw together some of the important simulation models that are available to Reclamation or that have been developed by Reclamation since 1987. This document has also attempted to lay out a framework by which these models might be used both for the purposes for which they were originally intended and to support the analysis of other issues that relate to the hydrology and to salt and water quality management within the San Joaquin Valley. To be successful as components of a larger Decision Support System the models should to be linked together using custom designed interfaces that permit data sharing between models and that are easy to use. Several initiatives are currently underway within Reclamation to develop GIS - based and graphics - based decision support systems to improve the general level of understanding of the models currently in use, to standardize the methodology used in making planning and operations studies and to permit improved data analysis, interpretation and display. The decision support systems should allow greater participation in the planning process, allow the analysis of innovative actions that are currently difficult to study with present models and should lead to better integrated and more comprehensive plans and policy decisions in future years.

  9. Water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data (October 2008 through September 2009) and statistical summaries of long-term data for streams in the Clark Fork basin, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kent A.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Water, bed sediment, and biota were sampled in streams from Butte to near Missoula, Montana, as part of a long-term monitoring program in the upper Clark Fork basin; additional water samples were collected in the Clark Fork basin from sites near Missoula downstream to near the confluence of the Clark Fork and Flathead River as part of a supplemental sampling program. The sampling programs were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to characterize aquatic resources in the Clark Fork basin of western Montana, with emphasis on trace elements associated with historic mining and smelting activities. Sampling sites were located on the Clark Fork and selected tributaries. Water samples were collected periodically at 24 sites from October 2008 through September 2009. Bed-sediment and biota samples were collected once at 13 sites during August 2009. This report presents the analytical results and quality-assurance data for water-quality, bed-sediment, and biota samples collected at all long-term and supplemental monitoring sites from October 2008 through September 2009. Water-quality data include concentrations of selected major ions, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Turbidity was analyzed for water samples collected at the four sites where seasonal daily values of turbidity were being determined as well as at Clark Fork above Missoula. Nutrients also were analyzed at all the supplemental water-quality sites, except for Clark Fork Bypass, near Bonner. Daily values of suspended-sediment concentration and suspended-sediment discharge were determined for four sites. Bed-sediment data include trace-element concentrations in the fine-grained fraction. Biological data include trace-element concentrations in whole-body tissue of aquatic benthic insects. Statistical summaries of long-term water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data for sites in the upper Clark Fork basin are provided for the period of record

  10. National water-quality assessment of the Lake Erie-Lake St. Clair Basin, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York; environmental and hydrologic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, G.D.; Myers, Donna N.; Finnegan, D.P.; ,

    1998-01-01

    The Lake Erie-Lake St. Clair Basin covers approximately 22,300 mi ?(square miles) in parts of Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. Situated in two major physiographic provinces, the Appalachian Plateaus and the Central Lowland, the basin includes varied topographic and geomorphic features that affect the hydrology. As of 1990, the basin was inhabited by approximately 10.4 million people. Lake effect has a large influence on the temperature and precipitation of the basin, especially along the leeward southeast shore of Lake Erie. Mean annual precipitation generally increases from west to east, ranging from 31.8 inches at Detroit, Mich., to 43.8 inches at Erie, Pa. The rocks that underlie the Lake Erie-Lake St. Clair Basin range in age from Cambrian through Pennsylvanian, but only Silurian through Pennsylvanian rocks are part of the shallow ground-water flow system. The position of the basin on the edge of the Michigan and Appalachian Basins is responsible for the large range in geologic time of the exposed rocks. Rock types range from shales, siltstones, and mudstones to coarse-grained sandstones and conglomerates. Carbonate rocks consisting of limestones, dolomites, and calcareous shales also underlie the basin. All the basin is overlain by Pleistocene deposits- till, fine-grained stratified sediments, and coarse-grained stratified sediments-most of Wisconsinan age. A system of buried river valleys filled with various lacustrine, alluvial, and coarse glacial deposits is present in the basin. The soils of the Lake Erie-Lake St. Clair Basin consist of two dominant soil orders: Alfisols and Inceptisols. Four other soil orders in the basin (Mollisols, Histisols, Entisols, and Spodosols) are of minor significance, making up less than 8 percent of the total area. The estimated water use for the Lake Erie-Lake St. Clair Basin for 1990 was 10,649 Mgal/d (million gallons per day). Power generation accounted for about 77 percent of total water withdrawals for

  11. The Thames Science Plan: Suggested Hydrologic Investigations to Support Nutrient-Related Water-Quality Improvements in the Thames River Basin, Connecticut

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Todd Trench, Elaine C

    2005-01-01

    ... (CTDEP). The Science Plan outlines water-quality investigations that could provide information necessary for the CTDEP to develop water-quality management and restoration strategies for nutrient-related...

  12. Surface-water-quality assessment of the lower Kansas River basin, Kansas and Nebraska; project data November 1986 through April 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, J.D.; McChesney, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Surface-water-quality data were collected from the lower Kansas River Basin in Kansas and Nebraska. The data are presented in 17 tables consisting of physical properties, concentrations of dissolved solids and major ions, dissolved and total nutrients, dissolved and total major metals and trace elements, radioactivity, organic carbon, pesticides and other synthetic-organic compounds, bacteria and chlorophyll-a, in water; particle-size distributions and concentrations of major metals and trace elements in suspended and streambed sediment; and concentrations of synthetic-organic compounds in streambed sediment. The data are grouped within each table by sampling sites, arranged in downstream order. Ninety-one sites were sampled in the study area. These sampling sites are classified in three, non-exclusive categories (fixed, synoptic, and miscellaneous sites) on the basis of sampling frequency and location. Sampling sites are presented on a plate and in 3 tables, cross-referenced by downstream order, alphabetical order, U.S. Geological Survey identification number, sampling-site classification category, and types of analyses performed at each site. The methods used to collect, analyze, and verify the accuracy of the data also are presented. (USGS)

  13. Water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data (October 2012 through September 2013) and statistical summaries of data for streams in the Clark Fork Basin, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kent A.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Water, bed sediment, and biota were sampled in streams from Butte to near Missoula, Montana, as part of a monitoring program in the upper Clark Fork Basin of western Montana. The sampling program was led by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to characterize aquatic resources in the Clark Fork Basin, with emphasis on trace elements associated with historic mining and smelting activities. Sampling sites were located on the Clark Fork and selected tributaries. Water samples were collected periodically at 20 sites from October 2012 through September 2013. Bed-sediment and biota samples were collected once at 13 sites during August 2013.

  14. Water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data (October 2013 through September 2014) and statistical summaries of data for streams in the Clark Fork Basin, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kent A.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2015-12-24

    Water, bed sediment, and biota were sampled in streams from Butte to near Missoula, Montana, as part of a monitoring program in the upper Clark Fork Basin of western Montana. The sampling program was led by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to characterize aquatic resources in the Clark Fork Basin, with emphasis on trace elements associated with historic mining and smelting activities. Sampling sites were located on the Clark Fork and selected tributaries. Water samples were collected periodically at 20 sites from October 2013 through September 2014. Bed-sediment and biota samples were collected once at 14 sites during August 2014.

  15. Accelerate Water Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is committed to accelerating water quality improvement and minimizing negative impacts to aquatic life from contaminants and other stressors in the Bay Delta Estuary by working with California Water Boards to strengthen water quality improvement plans.

  16. Water scarcity in the Jordan River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civic, M A

    1999-03-01

    This article reports the problem on water scarcity in the Jordan River basin. In the Jordan River basin, freshwater scarcity results from multiple factors and most severely affects Israel, Jordan, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip. One of these multiple factors is the duration of rainfall in the region that only occurs in a small area of highlands in the northwest section. The varying method of water use parallels that of Israel that utilizes an estimated 2000 million cu. m. The national patterns of water usage and politically charged territorial assertions compound the competition over freshwater resources in the region. The combination of political strife, resource overuse, and contaminated sources means that freshwater scarcity in the Jordan River basin will reach a critical level in the near future. History revealed that the misallocation/mismanagement of freshwater from the Jordan River basin was the result of centuries of distinct local cultural and religious practices combined with historical influences. Each state occupying near the river basin form their respective national water development schemes. It was not until the mid-1990s that a shared-use approach was considered. Therefore, the critical nature of water resource, the ever-dwindling supply of freshwater in the Jordan River basin, and the irrevocability of inappropriate policy measures requires unified, definitive, and ecologically sound changes to the existing policies and practices to insure an adequate water supply for all people in the region.

  17. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... factors extracted by the Centroid method, rotated by Varimax rotation (Ahmed et al., 2005). Calculated eigenvalues, per cent. Figure 1. Sketch map of water quality monitoring stations in Buyuk. Menderes Basin in Turkey. TABLE 1. Descriptive statistics of water quality data under low-flow conditions. Variable.

  18. Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, David R.; Izbicki, John A.; Moran, Jean E.; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 μg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers.

  19. Land use changes under economic boom –impact on water quality (case study oft he Taihu lake basin, China)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, František; Deming, Z.; Heřman, Michal; Yuang, F.; Jiang, T.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2005), s. 124-138 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 622 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : agriculture * population growth * satellite data * urbanization * water pollution Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005

  20. Modeling the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality in a typical highly intensive agricultural small watershed, Dongting lake basin, south central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqing; Liu, Liming; Ji, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality is critically important for estimating pollution potential and reducing pollution risk. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality at both spatial and temporal scales. The study took place in the Jinjing River watershed in 2010; seven landscape types and four water quality pollutions were chosen as analysis parameters. Three different buffer areas along the river were drawn to analyze the relationship as a function of spatial scale. The results of a Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis suggest that "source" landscape, namely, tea gardens, residential areas, and paddy lands, have positive effects on water quality parameters, while forests exhibit a negative influence on water quality parameters because they represent a "sink" landscape and the sub-watershed level is identified as a suitable scale. Using the principal component analysis, tea gardens, residential areas, paddy lands, and forests were identified as the main landscape index. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was employed to model the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality for each season. The results demonstrate that both landscape composition and configuration affect water quality. In summer and winter, the landscape metrics explained approximately 80.7 % of the variance in the water quality variables, which was higher than that for spring and fall (60.3 %). This study can help environmental managers to understand the relationships between landscapes and water quality and provide landscape ecological approaches for water quality control and land use management.

  1. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ...; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, WA AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION... Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, established by the... future projects being funded with Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project funds. The CAG will also...

  2. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Shamokin Creek Basin, Northumberland and Columbia Counties, Pennsylvania, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.; Kirby, Carl S.

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the upper Shamokin Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The upper Shamokin Creek Basin encompasses an area of 54 square miles (140 square kilometers) within the Western Middle Anthracite Field, including and upstream of the city of Shamokin. Elevated concentrations of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground anthracite coal mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) piles degrade the aquatic ecosystem and water quality of Shamokin Creek to its mouth and along many of its tributaries within the upper basin. Despite dilution by unpolluted streams that more than doubles the streamflow of Shamokin Creek in the lower basin, AMD contamination and ecological impairment persist to its mouth on the Susquehanna River at Sunbury, 20 miles (32 kilometers) downstream from the mined area. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Bucknell University (BU) and the Northumberland County Conservation District (NCCD) at six stream sites in October 1999 and repeated in 2000 and 2001 on Shamokin Creek below Shamokin and at Sunbury. In 1999, fish were absent from Quaker Run and Shamokin Creek upstream of its confluence with Carbon Run; however, creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) were present within three sampled reaches of Carbon Run. During 1999, 2000, and 2001, six or more species of fish were identified in Shamokin Creek below Shamokin and at Sunbury despite elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and ironencrusted streambeds at these sites. Data on the flow rate and chemistry for 46 AMD sources and 22 stream sites throughout the upper basin plus 1 stream site at Sunbury were collected by the USGS with assistance from BU and the Shamokin Creek Restoration Alliance (SCRA) during low base-flow conditions in August 1999 and high baseflow

  3. Estimating and Predicting Metal Concentration Using Online Turbidity Values and Water Quality Models in Two Rivers of the Taihu Basin, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Zhuang, Wei; Qian, Yu; Xia, Bisheng; Yang, Yang; Qian, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity (T) has been widely used to detect the occurrence of pollutants in surface water. Using data collected from January 2013 to June 2014 at eleven sites along two rivers feeding the Taihu Basin, China, the relationship between the concentration of five metals (aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti), nickel (Ni), vanadium (V), lead (Pb)) and turbidity was investigated. Metal concentration was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The linear regression of metal concentration and turbidity provided a good fit, with R2 = 0.86–0.93 for 72 data sets collected in the industrial river and R2 = 0.60–0.85 for 60 data sets collected in the cleaner river. All the regression presented good linear relationship, leading to the conclusion that the occurrence of the five metals are directly related to suspended solids, and these metal concentration could be approximated using these regression equations. Thus, the linear regression equations were applied to estimate the metal concentration using online turbidity data from January 1 to June 30 in 2014. In the prediction, the WASP 7.5.2 (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program) model was introduced to interpret the transport and fates of total suspended solids; in addition, metal concentration downstream of the two rivers was predicted. All the relative errors between the estimated and measured metal concentration were within 30%, and those between the predicted and measured values were within 40%. The estimation and prediction process of metals’ concentration indicated that exploring the relationship between metals and turbidity values might be one effective technique for efficient estimation and prediction of metal concentration to facilitate better long-term monitoring with high temporal and spatial density. PMID:27028017

  4. Estimating and Predicting Metal Concentration Using Online Turbidity Values and Water Quality Models in Two Rivers of the Taihu Basin, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    Full Text Available Turbidity (T has been widely used to detect the occurrence of pollutants in surface water. Using data collected from January 2013 to June 2014 at eleven sites along two rivers feeding the Taihu Basin, China, the relationship between the concentration of five metals (aluminum (Al, titanium (Ti, nickel (Ni, vanadium (V, lead (Pb and turbidity was investigated. Metal concentration was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The linear regression of metal concentration and turbidity provided a good fit, with R(2 = 0.86-0.93 for 72 data sets collected in the industrial river and R(2 = 0.60-0.85 for 60 data sets collected in the cleaner river. All the regression presented good linear relationship, leading to the conclusion that the occurrence of the five metals are directly related to suspended solids, and these metal concentration could be approximated using these regression equations. Thus, the linear regression equations were applied to estimate the metal concentration using online turbidity data from January 1 to June 30 in 2014. In the prediction, the WASP 7.5.2 (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program model was introduced to interpret the transport and fates of total suspended solids; in addition, metal concentration downstream of the two rivers was predicted. All the relative errors between the estimated and measured metal concentration were within 30%, and those between the predicted and measured values were within 40%. The estimation and prediction process of metals' concentration indicated that exploring the relationship between metals and turbidity values might be one effective technique for efficient estimation and prediction of metal concentration to facilitate better long-term monitoring with high temporal and spatial density.

  5. Community exposure and vulnerability to water quality and availability: a case study in the mining-affected Pazña Municipality, Lake Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Megan; Alem, Natalie; Edwards, Stephen J; Blanco Coariti, Efraín; Cauthin, Helga; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A; Luyckx, Karen; Quintanilla, Jorge; Sánchez Miranda, Oscar

    2017-10-01

    Assessing water sources for drinking and irrigation along with community vulnerability, especially in developing and rural regions, is important for reducing risk posed by poor water quality and limited water availability and accessibility. We present a case study of rural mining-agricultural communities in the Lake Poopó Basin, one of the poorest regions on the Bolivian Altiplano. Here, relatively low rainfall, high evaporation, salinization and unregulated mining activity have contributed to environmental degradation and water issues, which is a situation facing many Altiplano communities. Social data from 72 households and chemical water quality data from 27 surface water and groundwater sites obtained between August 2013 and July 2014 were used to develop locally relevant vulnerability assessment methodologies and ratings with respect to water availability and quality, and Chemical Water Quality Hazard Ratings to assess water quality status. Levels of natural and mining-related contamination in many waters (CWQHR ≥ 6; 78% of assessed sites) mean that effective remediation would be challenging and require substantial investment. Although waters of fair to good chemical quality (CWQHR ≤ 5; 22% of assessed sites) do exist, treatment may still be required depending on use, and access issues remain problematic. There is a need to comply with water quality legislation, improve and maintain basic water supply and storage infrastructure, build and operate water and wastewater treatment plants, and adequately and safely contain and treat mine waste. This study serves as a framework that could be used elsewhere for assessing and mitigating water contamination and availability affecting vulnerable populations.

  6. Community exposure and vulnerability to water quality and availability: a case study in the mining-affected Pazña Municipality, Lake Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Megan; Alem, Natalie; Edwards, Stephen J.; Blanco Coariti, Efraín; Cauthin, Helga; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Luyckx, Karen; Quintanilla, Jorge; Sánchez Miranda, Oscar

    2017-10-01

    Assessing water sources for drinking and irrigation along with community vulnerability, especially in developing and rural regions, is important for reducing risk posed by poor water quality and limited water availability and accessibility. We present a case study of rural mining-agricultural communities in the Lake Poopó Basin, one of the poorest regions on the Bolivian Altiplano. Here, relatively low rainfall, high evaporation, salinization and unregulated mining activity have contributed to environmental degradation and water issues, which is a situation facing many Altiplano communities. Social data from 72 households and chemical water quality data from 27 surface water and groundwater sites obtained between August 2013 and July 2014 were used to develop locally relevant vulnerability assessment methodologies and ratings with respect to water availability and quality, and Chemical Water Quality Hazard Ratings to assess water quality status. Levels of natural and mining-related contamination in many waters (CWQHR ≥ 6; 78% of assessed sites) mean that effective remediation would be challenging and require substantial investment. Although waters of fair to good chemical quality (CWQHR ≤ 5; 22% of assessed sites) do exist, treatment may still be required depending on use, and access issues remain problematic. There is a need to comply with water quality legislation, improve and maintain basic water supply and storage infrastructure, build and operate water and wastewater treatment plants, and adequately and safely contain and treat mine waste. This study serves as a framework that could be used elsewhere for assessing and mitigating water contamination and availability affecting vulnerable populations.

  7. Assessment of Mine Water Quality Using Heavy Metal Pollution Index in a Coal Mining Area of Damodar River Basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Mukesh Kumar; Singh, Gurdeep; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar

    2017-07-01

    A total no. of 16 mine water (underground and opencast coal mine pump discharges) samples were collected from East Bokaro coalfield during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As, Se, Al, Cd and Cr were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the assessment of spatio-temporal variations, source apportionment and heavy metal pollution indexing. The results demonstrated that concentrations of the metals showed significant seasonality and most variables exhibited higher levels in the pre-monsoon season. The principle component analysis for ionic source identification was synthesized into three factors with eigen values cut off at greater than unity and explained about 64.8% of the total variance. The extracted factors seemed to be associated to the geogenic, extensive mining and allied transportation sources of the elements. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) of the mine water calculated for the individual locations varied from 7.1 to 49.5. Most of the locations fall under low to medium classes of HPI except few locations which are under the influence of surface mining and associated transportation.

  8. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  9. Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  10. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  11. Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Water Quality Monitoring Site identifies locations across the state of Vermont where water quality data has been collected, including habitat, chemistry, fish and/or...

  12. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 2: Shetucket River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mendall P.; Bednar, Gene A.; Thomas, Chester E.; Wilson, William E.

    1967-01-01

    The Shetucket River basin has a relatively abundant supply of water of generally good quality which is derived from precipitation that has fallen on the basin. Annual precipitation has ranged from about 30 inches to 75 inches and has averaged about 45 inches over a 35-year period. Approximately 20 inches of water are returned to the atmosphere each year by evaporation and transpiration; the remainder of the annual precipitation either flows overland to streams or percolates downward to the water table and ultimately flows out of the basin in the Shetucket River or as underflow through the deposits beneath. During the autumn and winter months precipitation normally is sufficient to cause a substantial increase in the amount of water stored underground and in surface reservoirs within the basins whereas in the summer most of the precipitation is lost through evaporation and transpiration, resulting in sharply reduced streamflow and lowered groundwater levels. The mean monthly storage of water in the basin on an average is 3.5 inches higher in November than it is in June.

  13. Water-quality assessment of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin- Polychlorinated biphenyls in common carp and walleye fillets, 1975-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Anderson, Jesse P.

    1998-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) fillets from rivers in the Upper Mississippi River Basin upstream of the outlet of Lake Pepin are summarized. PCB concentrations in common carp and walleye fillets collected from rivers in the UMIS during 1975-95 by the Minnesota Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program (MFCMP) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) were analyzed. PCBs in fish tissue are of concern because PCBs are potentially toxic, teratogenic, and are linked to poor fetal development and endocrine disruption in fish and other animals including humans, that consume fish. This summary was part of an analysis of historical data for the Upper Mississippi River (UMIS) study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The UMIS study unit is a 47,000 square-mile basin that includes the drainage of the Mississippi River upstream of the outlet of Lake Pepin and encompasses the Twin Cities metropolitan area. PCB concentrations for individual samples at all sites ranged from 0.07 to 33.0 milligrams per kilograms (mg/kg) for common carp and from 0.07 to 9.8 mg/kg for walleye during 1975-95. During 1975-79 and 1980-87, 10 and 4 percent of walleye samples and 45 and 36 percent of common carp samples, respectively, exceeded the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline of 2 mg/kg PCB in fish tissue. PCB concentrations in individual common carp and walleye samples were below 2 mg/kg after 1987. Median PCB concentrations at individual sites and within stream segments were generally greatest in common carp and walleye from Mississippi River segments in the TCMA during 1975-79 and 1980-87. There was a significant difference among lipid-normalized PCB (LNPCB) concentrations in common carp, considering all stream segments combined, during all three time periods (1975-79, 1980-87, and 1988-95). LNPCB concentrations in common carp and walleye at

  14. Water Quality Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

    2004-01-01

    Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

  15. Eco-environmental impact of inter-basin water transfer projects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The objective reality of uneven water resource distribution and imbalanced water demand of the human society makes it inevitable to transfer water. It has been an age-old method to adopt the inter-basin water transfers (IBTs) for alleviating and even resolving the urgent demand of the water-deficient areas. A number of countries have made attempts and have achieved enormous benefits. However, IBTs inevitably involve the redistribution of water resources in relevant basins and may cause changes of the ecological environment in different basins. Such changes are two-sided, namely, the positive impacts, including adding new basins for water-deficient areas, facilitating water cycle, improving meteorological conditions in the recipient basins, mitigating ecological water shortage, repairing the damaged ecological system, and preserving the endangered wild fauna and flora, as well as the negative impacts, including salinization and aridification of the donor basins, damage to the ecological environment of the donor basins and the both sides of the conveying channel system, increase of water consumption in the recipient basins, and spread of diseases, etc. Because IBTs have enormous ecological risk, it is necessary to comprehensively analyze the inter-basin water balance relationship, coordinate the possible conflicts and environmental quality problems between regions, and strengthen the argumentation of the ecological risk of water transfer and eco-compensation measures. In addition, there are some effective alternative measures for IBTs, such as attaching importance to water cycle, improving water use efficiency, developing sea water desalination, and rainwater harvesting technology, etc.

  16. Effects of uranium mining discharges on water quality in the Puerco River basin, Arizona and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Gray, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    From 1967 until 1986, uranium mine dewatering increased dissolved gross alpha, gross beta, uranium and radium activities and dissolved selenium and molybdenum concentrations in the Puerco River as indicated by time trends, areal patterns involving distance from the mines and stream discharge. Additionally, increased dissolved uranium concentrations were identified in groundwater under the Puerco River from where mine discharges entered the river to approximately the Arizona-New Mexico State line about 65 km downstream. Total mass of uranium and gross alpha activity released to the Puerco River by mine dewatering were estimated as 560 Mg (560 × 106 g) and 260 Ci, respectively. In comparison, a uranium mill tailings pond spill on 16 July 1979, released an estimated 1.5 Mg of uranium and 46 Ci of gross alpha activity. Mass balance calculations for alluvial ground water indicate that most of the uranium released did not remain in solution. Sorption of uranium on sediments and uptake of uranium by plants probably removed the uranium from solution.

  17. Water quality of groundwater and stream base flow in the Marcellus Shale Gas Field of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Kozar, Mark D.; Messinger, Terence; Mulder, Michon L.; Pelak, Adam J.; White , Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    The Marcellus Shale gas field underlies portions of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, Maryland, Tennessee, and West Virginia. Development of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technology led to extensive development of gas from the Marcellus Shale beginning about 2007. The need to identify and monitor changes in water-quality conditions related to development of the Marcellus Shale gas field prompted the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water and Waste Management, to document water quality for comparison with water quality in samples collected at a future date. The identification of change in water-quality conditions over time is more difficult if baseline water-quality conditions have not been documented.

  18. Conceptual model of water resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Geological Survey has been working with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resources investigations in the Kabul Basin under an agreement supported by the United States Agency for International Development. This collaborative investigation compiled, to the extent possible in a war-stricken country, a varied hydrogeologic data set and developed limited data-collection networks to assist with the management of water resources in the Kabul Basin. This report presents the results of a multidisciplinary water-resources assessment conducted between 2005 and 2007 to address questions of future water availability for a growing population and of the potential effects of climate change. Most hydrologic and climatic data-collection activities in Afghanistan were interrupted in the early 1980s as a consequence of war and civil strife and did not resume until 2003 or later. Because of the gap of more than 20 years in the record of hydrologic and climatic observations, this investigation has made considerable use of remotely sensed data and, where available, historical records to investigate the water resources of the Kabul Basin. Specifically, this investigation integrated recently acquired remotely sensed data and satellite imagery, including glacier and climatic data; recent climate-change analyses; recent geologic investigations; analysis of streamflow data; groundwater-level analysis; surface-water- and groundwater-quality data, including data on chemical and isotopic environmental tracers; and estimates of public-supply and agricultural water uses. The data and analyses were integrated by using a simplified groundwater-flow model to test the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to assess current (2007) and future (2057) water availability. Recharge in the basin is spatially and temporally variable and generally occurs near streams and irrigated areas in the late winter and early

  19. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality along a flow system in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Stark, James R.; Fong, Alison L.; Fallon, James D.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a national analysis of the effects of land use on ground-water quality for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled wells along a flow system in surficial glacial aquifers in the northwestern part of the Twin Cities metropolitan area during 1997 and 1998. In addition, a reconnaissance steady-state ground-water model was developed to estimate flowpaths and dates of ground-water recharge using a particle-tracking routine.

  20. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmission in Pet Shelters Protect Your Pets Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  1. Quality of water and sediment in streams affected by historical mining, and quality of Mine Tailings, in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin, Big Bend Area of the United States and Mexico, August 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Kolbe, Christine M.; Belzer, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the International Boundary and Water Commission - U.S. and Mexican Sections, the National Park Service, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales in Mexico, the Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Canon de Santa Elena in Mexico, and the Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Maderas del Carmen in Mexico, collected samples of stream water, streambed sediment, and mine tailings during August 2002 for a study to determine whether trace elements from abandoned mines in the area in and around Big Bend National Park have affected the water and sediment quality in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin of the United States and Mexico. Samples were collected from eight sites on the main stem of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, four Rio Grande/Rio Bravo tributary sites downstream from abandoned mines or mine-tailing sites, and 11 mine-tailing sites. Mines in the area were operated to produce fluorite, germanium, iron, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc during the late 1800s through at least the late 1970s. Moderate (relatively neutral) pHs in stream-water samples collected at the 12 Rio Grande/Rio Bravo main-stem and tributary sites indicate that water is well mixed, diluted, and buffered with respect to the solubility of trace elements. The highest sulfate concentrations were in water samples from tributaries draining the Terlingua mining district. Only the sample from the Rough Run Draw site exceeded the Texas Surface Water Quality Standards general-use protection criterion for sulfate. All chloride and dissolved solids concentrations in water samples were less than the general-use protection criteria. Aluminum, copper, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were detected in all water samples for which each element was analyzed. Cadmium, chromium, and lead were detected in samples less frequently, and silver was not detected in any of the samples. None of the sample concentrations of

  2. Concentrations and loads of cadmium, lead, and zinc measured near the peak of the 1999 snowmelt-runoff hydrographs for 42 water-quality stations, Coeur d'Alene River basin, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Paul F.

    2000-01-01

    The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the Spokane River Basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington included extensive data-collection activities to determine the nature and extent of trace-element contamination within the basin. The U.S. Geological Survey designed and implemented synoptic sampling of the 1999 snowmelt-runoff event at 42 water- quality stations during the 1999 water year. The distribution of the 42 stations was as follows: North Fork Coeur d’Alene River and tributaries, 4 stations; South Fork Coeur d’Alene River, 13 stations; Canyon, Ninemile, and Pine Creeks, 4 stations each; other tributaries to South Fork Coeur d’Alene River, 10 stations; and main stem Coeur d’Alene River, 3 stations. The objective was to synoptically collect discharge and water-quality data in order to significantly improve the estimation of trace-element loads from multiple contributing source areas during the snowmelt-runoff event. Discharge and water-quality data were collected near the peak discharge during late May 1999. Each station was sampled for whole-water recoverable and dissolved concentrations and loads of cadmium, lead, and zinc.

  3. Water resources planning for a river basin with recurrent wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pereira, M G; Cortes, R M V; Pacheco, F A L

    2015-09-01

    Situated in the north of Portugal, the Beça River basin is subject to recurrent wildfires, which produce serious consequences on soil erosion and nutrient exports, namely by deteriorating the water quality in the basin. In the present study, the ECO Lab tool embedded in the Mike Hydro Basin software was used for the evaluation of river water quality, in particular the dissolved concentration of phosphorus in the period 1990-2013. The phosphorus concentrations are influenced by the burned area and the river flow discharge, but the hydrologic conditions prevail: in a wet year (2000, 16.3 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 16.4 m(3)·s(-1) the maximum phosphorus concentration was as low as 0.02 mg·L(-1), while in a dry year (2005, 24.4 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 2 m(3)·s(-1) the maximum concentration was as high as 0.57 mg·L(-1). Phosphorus concentrations in the water bodies exceeded the bounds of good ecological status in 2005 and between 2009 and 2012, water for human consumption in 2009 and water for multiple uses in 2010. The River Covas, a right margin tributary of Beça River, is the most appropriate stream as regards the use of water for human consumption, because it presents the biggest water potential with the best water quality. Since wildfires in the basin result essentially from natural causes and climate change forecasts indicate an increase in their frequency and intensity in the near future, forestry measures are proposed to include as a priority the conversion of stands of maritime pine in mixed stands of conifer and hardwood species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, David R; Izbicki, John A; Moran, Jean E; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 µg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers. Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Observations on the quality of desalinated water in the Segura river basin. Irrigation and supply; Observaciones sobre la calidad del agua desalada en la Cuenca del Seguro. Riego y abastecimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latorre Carrion, M.; Camara Zapata, J. M.

    2004-07-01

    Desalination of seawater by reverse osmosis (RO) is an unconventional water resource that could help to maintain irrigation crops in the Segura river basin. Its suitability for irrigation purposes needs to be studied to prevent the soil from being harmed and the quality and yield of the crops from falling. This article describes a simulation of the functioning of a RO desalination plant based on actual seawater data (Mazarron). The results show that desalinated water has an ionic balance giving rise to a high specific absorption rate of Na+ and low electrical conductivity, which means that its quality for agricultural purposes is deficient. The article sets out the requirements for irrigation water and the problems they pose for desalination plants. The suitability of desalinated water for agricultural purposes is ecaminaed, corrective measures proposed and the cost involved quantified. (Author) 5 refs.

  6. Water-quality assessment of the Albermarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia; a summary of selected trace element, nutrient, and pesticide data for bed sediments, 1969-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrobialowski, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial distributions of metals and trace elements, nutrients, and pesticides and polychiorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in bed sediment were characterized using data collected from 1969 through 1990 and stored in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval (WATSTORE) system and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Storage and Retrieval (STORET) system databases. Bed-sediment data from WATSTORE and STORET were combined to form a single database of 1,049 records representing 301 sites. Data were examined for concentrations of 16 metals and trace elements, 4 nutrients, 10 pesticides, and PCB's. Maximum bed-sediment concentrations were evaluated relative to sediment-quality guidelines developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, and the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. Sites were not selected randomly; therefore, results should not be interpreted as representing average conditions. Many sites were located in or around lakes and reservoirs, urban areas, and areas where special investigations were conducted. Lakes and reservoirs function as effective sediment traps, and elevated concentrations of some constituents occurred at these sites. High concentrations of many metals and trace elements also occurred near urban areas where streams receive runoff or inputs from industrial, residential, and municipal activities. Elevated nutrient concentrations occurred near lakes, reservoirs, and the mouths of major rivers. The highest concentrations of arsenic, beryllium, chromium, iron. mercury, nickel, and selenium occurred in the Roanoke River Basin and may be a result of geologic formations or accumulations of bed sediment in lakes and reservoirs. The highest concentrations of cadmium, lead, and thallium were detected in the Chowan River Basin; copper and zinc were reported highest in the Neuse River Basin. Total phosphorus and total ammonia plus organic nitrogen

  7. Groundwater quality in the Genesee River Basin, New York, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples collected from eight production wells and eight private residential wells in the Genesee River Basin from September through December 2010 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality in the basin. Eight of the wells were completed in sand and gravel aquifers, and eight were finished in bedrock aquifers. Three of the 16 wells were sampled in the first Genesee River Basin study during 2005-2006. Water samples from the 2010 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although concentrations of the following constituents exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards at each of the 16 wells sampled: color (one sample), sodium (three samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (four samples), aluminum (one sample), arsenic (two samples), copper (one sample), iron (nine samples), manganese (eight samples), radon-222 (nine samples), and total coliform bacteria (six samples). Existing drinking-water standards for pH, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides and VOCs analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.

  8. Groundwater quality in the Mohawk River Basin, New York, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Scott, Tia-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 21 production and domestic wells in the Mohawk River Basin in New York in July 2011 to characterize groundwater quality in the basin. The samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. The Mohawk River Basin covers 3,500 square miles in New York and is underlain by shale, sandstone, carbonate, and crystalline bedrock. The bedrock is overlain by till in much of the basin, but surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel are present in some areas. Nine of the wells sampled in the Mohawk River Basin are completed in sand and gravel deposits, and 12 are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Mohawk River Basin was typically neutral or slightly basic; the water typically was very hard. Bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, and sodium were the major ions with the greatest median concentrations; the dominant nutrient was nitrate. Methane was detected in 15 samples. Strontium, iron, barium, boron, and manganese were the trace elements with the highest median concentrations. Four pesticides, all herbicides or their degradates, were detected in four samples at trace levels; three VOCs, including chloroform and two solvents, were detected in four samples. The greatest radon-222 activity, 2,300 picocuries per liter, was measured in a sample from a bedrock well, but the median radon activity was higher in samples from sand and gravel wells than in samples from bedrock wells. Coliform bacteria were detected in five samples with a maximum of 92 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters. Water quality in the Mohawk River Basin is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards. The standards

  9. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Stacie T; Ball, Marcael T

    2005-01-01

    .... For this program, rainfall data were collected at two stations, continuous streamflow data at two stations and water-quality data at five stations, which include the two continuous streamflow stations...

  10. Water Quality Data from Two Agricultural Drainage Basins in Northwestern Indiana and Northeastern Illinois: I. Lagrangian and Synoptic Data, 1999-2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antweiler, Ronald C; Smith, Richard L; Voytek, Mary A; Boehlke, John-Karl; Richards, Kevin D

    2004-01-01

    Methods of data collection and results of analyses are presented for Lagrangian and synoptic water-quality data collected from two agricultural drainages, the Iroquois River in northwestern Indiana...

  11. 76 FR 16285 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware... or ``Commission'') approved amendments to its Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive...

  12. Effect of watershed land use on water quality: a case study in Córrego da Olaria Basin, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simedo, M B L; Martins, A L M; Pissarra, T C T; Lopes, M C; Costa, R C A; Valle-Junior, R F; Campanelli, L C; Rojas, N E T; Finoto, E L

    2018-02-05

    The water quality is related to the hydrologic and limnologic properties of ground and surface water, and significant efforts have been made to monitor water sources to understand the effects of land use changes in agricultural areas, with significant socioeconomic activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the qualitative aspects of surface water in subbasins related to land use. Samples were analyzed in terms of physical and chemical parameters on monthly discrete water quality sampling in four representative sites at first order subbasin streams, located at the Polo Regional Centro Norte, Pindorama County, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The land use classification was made by visual detection technique in a multispectral satellite data obtained from LandSat8- spectral bands of the OLI sensor. The watershed was classified into major land cover/use classes and overlay maps generated in ArcGIS 10 indicated a significant shift from natural vegetation to agriculture activities. Water quality monitoring was according to the brazilian protocol and the results were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA). The values obtained differ significantly at each sampling point - subbasins, reflecting the effects of land use on water quality. Soil conservation management is important to optimize soil use in order to contribute to the control of water pollution and the formulation of a public policy is necessary for the conservation of water and soil resources.

  13. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  14. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  15. Surface-water hydrology and quality, and macroinvertebrate and smallmouth bass populations in four stream basins in southwestern Wisconsin, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Lillie, Richard A.; Schlesser, Roger A.; Mason, John W.; Lyons, John D.; Kerr, Roger A.; Graczyk, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data on streamflow, water quality, and macroinvertebrate and smallmouth bass (microptercus dolomieni) populations were collected from July 1987 through September 1990, in four streams in southwestern Wisconsin to determine the effect of surface-water hydrology and quality on populations of macroinvertebrates and smallmouth bass. The study was a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  16. Surface-water quality and suspended-sediment quantity and quality within the Big River Basin, southeastern Missouri, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.

    2016-01-28

    Missouri was the leading producer of lead in the United States—as well as the world—for more than a century. One of the lead sources is known as the Old Lead Belt, located in southeast Missouri. The primary ore mineral in the region is galena, which can be found both in surface deposits and underground as deep as 200 feet. More than 8.5 million tons of lead were produced from the Old Lead Belt before operations ceased in 1972. Although active lead mining has ended, the effects of mining activities still remain in the form of large mine waste piles on the landscape typically near tributaries and the main stem of the Big River, which drains the Old Lead Belt. Six large mine waste piles encompassing more than 2,800 acres, exist within the Big River Basin. These six mine waste piles have been an available source of trace element-rich suspended sediments transported by natural erosional processes downstream into the Big River.

  17. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Christina River subbasin and overview of simulations in other subbasins of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania and Delaware and includes the major subbasins of Brandywine Creek, Red Clay Creek, White Clay Creek, and Christina River. The Christina River subbasin (exclusive of the Brandywine, Red Clay, and White Clay Creek subbasins) drains an area of 76 mi2. Streams in the Christina River Basin are used for recreation, drinking water supply, and support of aquatic life. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the stream. A multi-agency water-quality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point- and nonpoint-source contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in nonpoint-source evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the four main subbasins of the Christina River Basin, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in small subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint- source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base-flow samples were collected during 1998 at two sites in the Christina River subbasin and nine sites elsewhere in the Christina River Basin.The HSPF model for the Christina River subbasin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into nine reaches draining areas that ranged from 3.8 to 21.9 mi2. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the Christina

  18. LAND USE AS A MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR THE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING: A SCENARIO ANALYSIS ON TWO WATERSHEDS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study uses an integrative approach to study the water quality impacts of future global climate and land use changes. In this study, changing land use types were used as a mitigation strategy to reduce the adverse impacts of global climate change on water resources. The Thorn...

  19. LAND USE AS A MITIGATON STRATEGY FOR THE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING: A SCENARIO ANALYSIS ON TWO WATERSHEDS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study uses an integrative approach to study the water quality impacts of future global climate and land use changes. Changing land use types was used as a nitigation strategy to reduce the adverse impacts of global climate change on water resources. The climate scenarios wer...

  20. Arsenic occurrence in water bodies in Kharaa river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzaya T

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of arsenic (As and its compound and related toxicology are serious concerns nowadays. Gold mining activity is one of the anthropogenic sources of environmental contamination regarding As and other heavy metals. In Mongolia, the most productive gold mining sites are placed in the Kharaa river basin. A hundred water samples were collected from river, spring and deep wells in this river basin. Along with total As and its species-As(III and As(V, examination of concentration levels of other key parameters, 21 heavy metals with pH, total hardness, electric conductivity, anion and cations, was also carried out. In respect to the permissible limit formulated by the Mongolian National Drinking water quality standard (MNS 0900:2005, As10 µg/l, the present study showed that most of samples were found no contamination. In Kharaa river basin, an average concentration of total As in surface water was 4.04 µg/l with wide range in 0.07−30.30 µg/l whereas it was 2.24 µg/l in groundwater. As analysis in surface water in licensed area of Gatsuurt gold mining showed a mean concentration with 24.90 µg/l presenting higher value than that of value in river basin by 6 orders of magnitude and it was 2 times higher than permissible level as well. In Boroo river nearby Boroo gold mining area, As concentration in water was ranged in 6.05−6.25 µg/l. Ammonia pollution may have present at estuary of Zuunmod river in Mandal sum with above the permissible level described in national water quality standard. Geological formation of the rocks and minerals affected to change of heavy metal concentration, especially As and uranium (U at spring water nearby Gatsuurt-Boroo improved road.

  1. Assessment of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2002-01-01

    Water is the most essential component of all living things and it supports the life process. Without water, it would not have been possible to sustain life on this planet. The total quantity of water on earth is estimated to be 1.4 trillion cubic meter. Of this, less than 1 % water, present in rivers and ground resources is available to meet our requirement. These resources are being contaminated with toxic substances due to ever increasing environmental pollution. To reduce this contamination, many countries have established standards for the discharge of municipal and industrial waste into water streams. We use water for various purposes and for each purpose we require water of appropriate quality. The quality of water is assessed by evaluating the physical chemical, biological and radiological characteristics of water. Water for drinking and food preparation must be free from turbidity, colour, odour and objectionable tastes, as well as from disease causing organisms and inorganic and organic substances, which may produce adverse physiological effects, Such water is referred to as potable water and is produced by treatment of raw water, involving various unit operations. The effectiveness of the treatment processes is checked by assessing the various parameters of water quality, which involves sampling and analysis of water and comparison with the National Quality Standards or WHO standards. Water which conforms to these standards is considered safe and palatable for human consumption. Periodic assessment of water is necessary, to ensure the quality of water supplied to the public. This requires proper sampling at specified locations and analysis of water, employing reliable analytical techniques. (author)

  2. Characterization (environmental Signature) and Function of the Main Instrumented (monitoring Water Quality Network in Real Time) Rivers Atoyac and Zahuapan in High Atoyac Basin; in Dry, Rain and Winter Season 2013-2014; Puebla-Tlaxcala Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera, E. M.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, P. F.; Morales-Garcia, S. S.; Muñoz-Sevilla, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Zahuapan and Atoyac rivers were characterized in the Upper Atoyac through the integration of physical and chemical parameters (environmental firm) determining the behavior and function of the basin as a tool for measuring and monitoring the quality and management of water resources of the water in one of the most polluted rivers in Mexico. For the determination of the environmental signature proceeded to characterize the water through 11 physicochemical parameters: temperature (T), potential hydrogen (pH), dissolved oxygen (DO), spectral absorption coefficient (SAC), the reduction of oxide potential (ORP), turbidity (Turb), conductivity (l), biochemical oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS ), which were evaluated in 49 sites in the dry season, 47 for the rainy season and 23 for the winter season in the basin and Atoyac Zahuapan Alto Atoyac, Puebla-Tlaxcala, Mexico river; finding a mathematical algorithm to assimilate and better represent the information obtained. The algorithm allows us to estimate correlation greater than 0.85. The results allow us to propose the algorithm used in the monitoring stations for purposes of processing information assimilated form.This measurement and monitoring of water quality supports the project, the monitoring network in real time and the actions to clean up Atoyac River, in the urban area of the city of Puebla.

  3. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley study unit was investigated from July through October 2005 as part of the California Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 94 public-supply wells and 3 monitoring wells in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. Ninety-one of the public-supply wells sampled were selected to provide a spatially distributed, randomized monitoring network for statistical representation of the study area. Six wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry: three wells along a ground-water flow path were sampled to evaluate lateral changes, and three wells at discrete depths from land surface were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry with depth from land surface. The ground-water samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, pesticide degradates, nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, radioactivity, microbial indicators, and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, helium-4, and the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. In total, 270 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated for this study. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. In addition, regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. In this study, only six constituents, alpha radioactivity, N

  4. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the middle Green River basin, Utah, 1986-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D.W.; Waddell, Bruce; Miller, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Reconnaissance of wildlife areas in the middle Green River basin of Utah was conducted during 1986 and 1987 to determine whether irrigation drainage has caused, or has the potential to cause significant harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Studies at Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area and Ouray National Wildlife Refuge indicated that concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissue were sufficiently large to be harmful to fish and wildlife, and to adversely affect beneficial uses of water. Selenium is the principal element of concern in both areas. Concentrations of dissolved selenium in irrigation drain water entering Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area ranged from 14-140 micrograms/L (ug/L) and consistently exceeded Utah standards for wildlife protection in water in two of the four drains. Concentrations of boron and zinc exceeded Utah standards only occasionally in the drain waters. Concentrations of total selenium in sediments collected where the drains discharge into the lake were 10-85 ug/gm. Liver tissue collected from American coots at Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area contained concentrations of selenium from 4.9-26 ug/gm (dry weight), and whole body samples of carp contained as much as 31 ug/gm (dry weight). Concentrations of selenium in Potamogeton and blue-green algae ranged from 2.1-27 ug/gm. Concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc were also measured in water from Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Liver tissue of American coots from the North Roadside Pond, which receives irrigation tailwater, contained a geometric-mean concentration of selenium of 32 ug/gm (dry weight). Five water-bird eggs collected from the North and South Roadside Ponds contained selenium concentrations of 63-120 ug/gm (dry weight). (Lantz-PTT)

  5. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  6. 75 FR 41106 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to Update Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware... hold a public hearing to receive comments on proposed amendments to the Commission's Water Quality...

  7. Putting people into water quality modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickert, G. E.; Hassanzadeh, E.; Noble, B.; Baulch, H. M.; Morales-Marin, L. A.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Water quality in the Qu'Appelle River Basin, Saskatchewan is under pressure due to nutrient pollution entering the river system from major cities, industrial zones and agricultural areas. Among these stressors, agricultural activities are basin-wide; therefore, they are the largest non-point source of water pollution in this region. The dynamics of agricultural impacts on water quality are complex and stem from decisions and activities of two distinct stakeholder groups, namely grain farmers and cattle producers, which have different business plans, values, and attitudes towards water quality. As a result, improving water quality in this basin requires engaging with stakeholders to: (1) understand their perspectives regarding a range of agricultural Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) that can improve water quality in the region, (2) show them the potential consequences of their selected BMPs, and (3) work with stakeholders to better understand the barriers and incentives to implement the effective BMPs. In this line, we held a series of workshops in the Qu'Appelle River Basin with both groups of stakeholders to understand stakeholders' viewpoints about alternative agricultural BMPs and their impact on water quality. Workshop participants were involved in the statement sorting activity (Q-sorts), group discussions, as well as mapping activity. The workshop outcomes show that stakeholder had four distinct viewpoints about the BMPs that can improve water quality, i.e., flow and erosion control, fertilizer management, cattle site management, as well as mixed cattle and wetland management. Accordingly, to simulate the consequences of stakeholder selected BMPs, a conceptual water quality model was developed using System Dynamics (SD). The model estimates potential changes in water quality at the farm, tributary and regional scale in the Qu'Appelle River Basin under each and/or combination of stakeholder selected BMPs. The SD model was then used for real

  8. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  9. Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit is 633 square miles and consists of 35 groundwater basins and subbasins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Mathany and Belitz, 2015). These basins and subbasins were grouped into two study areas based primarily on locality. The groundwater basins and subbasins located inland, not adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, were aggregated into the Interior Basins (NOCO-IN) study area. The groundwater basins and subbasins adjacent to the Pacific Ocean were aggregated into the Coastal Basins (NOCO-CO) study area (Mathany and others, 2011).

  10. General equilibrium modelling of the direct and indirect economic impacts of water quality improvements in the Netherlands at national and river basin scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.; Hofkes, M.W.; Linderhof, V.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this paper is to estimate the direct and indirect economic impacts of water quality policy scenarios in the Netherlands focusing on the reduction of emission levels of nutrients and a number of eco-toxicological substances. For this purpose, an Applied

  11. Water quality and water rights in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonnell, L.J.

    1989-07-01

    The report begins with a review of early Colorado water quality law. The present state statutory system of water quality protection is summarized. Special attention is given to those provisions of Colorado's water quality law aimed at protecting water rights. The report then addresses several specific issues which involve the relationship between water quality and water use. Finally, recommendations are made for improving Colorado's approach to integrating quality and quantity concerns

  12. Water and Fisheries: The Sensitivity of Water Supply in the Tana River Basin to Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inima, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    Wether climatic change would cause water supply in the dry areas of the earth to diminish or not is a major question. The main objective of this study was to determine wether the water supply in the Tana river Basin of Kenya would diminish in quality as a result of climate change. The Tana River Basin is the immense economic importance to Kenya and is the lifeline of Kenya's electricity supply, accounting for about 70% of the country's electricity supply. The basin houses about 30% of the country's population and 38% of the total irrigable land. A diminished water supply in this content would, therefore, hamper the economic development of the country.Kenya receives, on average, an annual rainfall of 600 mm, and hence classified as arid to semi-arid. This makes it vulnerable to adverse effects of climate change

  13. Water Quality Data (WQX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  14. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia; trace elements in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) livers, 1992-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, P.M.; Smith, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of potential contaminants in biological tissues is an important part of many water-quality assessment programs, including the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Tissue analyses often are used to provide information about (1) direct threats to ecosystem integrity, and (2) the occurrence and distribution of potential contaminants in the environment. During 1992-93, trace elements in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) livers were analyzed to obtain information about the occurrence and distribution of trace element contaminants in the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin of North Carolina and Virginia. The investigation was conducted as part of the NAWQA Program. All but 3 of the 22 trace elements that were analyzed were detected. Although all 10 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants were detected in the tissues sampled, they were present in relatively low concentrations. Concentrations of U.S. EPA priority pollutants in Asiatic clams collected in the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin are similar to concentrations observed in other NAWQA study units in the southeastern United States. Mercury (a U.S. EPA priority pollutant) was widely detected, being present in 29 of 30 tissue samples, but concentrations did not exceed the FDA action level for mercury of a risk-based screening value for the general public. Mercury concentrations in Asiatic clams were similar to concentrations in other NAWQA study areas in the Southeast.

  15. Modeling Effects of Groundwater Basin Closure, and Reversal of Closure, on Groundwater Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauloo, R.; Guo, Z.; Fogg, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    Population growth, the expansion of agriculture, and climate uncertainties have accelerated groundwater pumping and overdraft in aquifers worldwide. In many agricultural basins, a water budget may be stable or not in overdraft, yet disconnected ground and surface water bodies can contribute to the formation of a "closed" basin, where water principally exits the basin as evapotranspiration. Although decreasing water quality associated with increases in Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) have been documented in aquifers across the United States in the past half century, connections between water quality declines and significant changes in hydrologic budgets leading to closed basin formation remain poorly understood. Preliminary results from an analysis with a regional-scale mixing model of the Tulare Lake Basin in California indicate that groundwater salinization resulting from open to closed basin conversion can operate on a decades-to-century long time scale. The only way to reverse groundwater salinization caused by basin closure is to refill the basin and change the hydrologic budget sufficiently for natural groundwater discharge to resume. 3D flow and transport modeling, including the effects of heterogeneity based on a hydrostratigraphic facies model, is used to explore rates and time scales of groundwater salinization and its reversal under different water and land management scenarios. The modeling is also used to ascertain the extent to which local and regional heterogeneity need to be included in order to appropriately upscale the advection-dispersion equation in a basin scale groundwater quality management model. Results imply that persistent managed aquifer recharge may slow groundwater salinization, and complete reversal may be possible at sufficiently high water tables.

  16. Data quality objectives summary report for the 105-n basin liquid disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, G.M.; Miller, M.S.; Carlson, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    During stabilization of the 105-N Basin, basin waters (1 million gallons) will be filtered and transported to the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for treatment and disposal. Hazardous chemicals are not considered to be present in the water; filtration is planned to reduce the suspended solids load and radionuclide concentrations. ETF has provided the Environmental Restoration Contractor with a list of constituents that must be analyzed in the 105-N Basin water; however, there are no specific concentration criteria established for these constituents. Analysis is required primarily to establish treatment parameters and to monitor radionuclide activity. A sampling program is required that will: (1) characterize the water quality in the 105-N Basin for the identified parameters, and (2) verifies that water quality does not change due to intrusive activities being performed concurrent with water drawdown. The Data Quality Objectives Process for the 105-N Basin water is being used to establish an approach for characterizing the water and monitoring the parameters of concern for water sent to the ETF

  17. Purified water quality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals

  18. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  19. Water quality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conio, O.

    1998-01-01

    By involving institutions and rules, and technology as well, water resources management presents remarkable complexity. In institutions such a complexity is due to division of competence into monitoring activities, quality control, water utility supply and water treatment. As far as technology goes, complexity results from a wide range of physical, chemical and biological requisites, which define water quality according to specific water uses (for populations, farms, factories). Thus it's necessary to have reliable and in-time environmental data, so to fulfil two complementary functions: 1) the control of any state of emergency, such as floods and accidental pollution, in order to take immediate measures by means of timely available information; 2) the mid- and long-term planning of water resources, so to achieve their reclamation, conservation and exploitation. An efficient and reliable way to attain these goals is to develop integrated continuous monitoring systems, which allow to control the quality of surface and underground water, the flow of bodies of water and those weather conditions that directly affect it. Such systems compose an environmental information network, which enables to collect and process data relative to the state of the body of water, its aquifer, and the weather conditions

  20. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of Belford Roxo industrial plant effluent and its contribution in water quality of downstream of Sarapui River, Iguacu River sub-basin, Baia da Guanabara Basin, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz Eduardo Botelho

    2006-01-01

    The quality of Belford Roxo Industrial Plant effluent and water from Sarapui River were evaluated with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio acute and chronic toxicity tests. In association with the ecotoxicological monitoring, the Toxicity Identification Evaluation procedure were performed and the identification of the toxic compounds was possible. The Chloride ion was identified as the major toxic compound in the effluent with additional effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. For the Sarapui River, the compounds of Phosphorus and Nitrogen were identified as the major toxic compounds with addictive effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. Although the environmental impact estimation based on the effluent toxicity suggests a minor impact on the water quality of Sarapui River, this was already sufficiently contaminated to make impracticable the establishment of an aquatic community. The constant discharge of untreated sludge promotes the eutrophication of this water body and makes impossible the equilibrium of this ecosystem. (author)

  1. The Study of Water Quality of Several Local Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ábrám Zoltán; Tarcea Monica; Finta Hajnal; Moldovan H; Moldovan Geanina; Nădășan V

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the water quality of several local sources from the Toplița-Deda region, as well as from the Gheorgheni basin, in order to inform the population about the water quality and about the importance of the drinking water control.

  2. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis | Boyacioglu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the factor analysis technique is applied to surface water quality data sets obtained from the Buyuk Menderes River Basin, Turkey, during two different hydrological periods. Results show that the indices which changed the quality of water in two seasons and locations differed. During low-flow conditions, water ...

  3. Quality of groundwater in the Denver Basin aquifer system, Colorado, 2003-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Beck, Jennifer A.; Paschke, Suzanne; Bauch, Nancy J.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater resources from alluvial and bedrock aquifers of the Denver Basin are critical for municipal, domestic, and agricultural uses in Colorado along the eastern front of the Rocky Mountains. Rapid and widespread urban development, primarily along the western boundary of the Denver Basin, has approximately doubled the population since about 1970, and much of the population depends on groundwater for water supply. As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted groundwater-quality studies during 2003–5 in the Denver Basin aquifer system to characterize water quality of shallow groundwater at the water table and of the bedrock aquifers, which are important drinking-water resources. For the Denver Basin, water-quality constituents of concern for human health or because they might otherwise limit use of water include total dissolved solids, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, iron, manganese, selenium, radon, uranium, arsenic, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. For the water-table studies, two monitoring-well networks were installed and sampled beneath agricultural (31 wells) and urban (29 wells) land uses at or just below the water table in either alluvial material or near-surface bedrock. For the bedrock-aquifer studies, domestic- and municipal-supply wells completed in the bedrock aquifers were sampled. The bedrock aquifers, stratigraphically from youngest (shallowest) to oldest (deepest), are the Dawson, Denver, Arapahoe, and Laramie-Fox Hills aquifers. The extensive dataset collected from wells completed in the bedrock aquifers (79 samples) provides the opportunity to evaluate factors and processes affecting water quality and to establish a baseline that can be used to characterize future changes in groundwater quality. Groundwater samples were analyzed for inorganic, organic, isotopic, and age-dating constituents and tracers. This report discusses spatial and statistical distributions of chemical constituents

  4. Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, “Southwest”) since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality.The synthesis consists of three major components:1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report).2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants.3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination.Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in

  5. Reconnaissance of the chemical quality of water in western Utah, Part I: Sink Valley area, drainage basins of Skull, Rush, and Government Creek Valleys, and the Dugway Valley-Old River Bed area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.

    1967-01-01

    This report presents data collected during the first part of an investigation that was started in 1963 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey. The investigation has the purpose of providing information about the chemical quality of water in western Utah that will help interested parties to evaluate the suitability of the water for various uses in a broad area of Utah where little information of this type previously has been available. The area studied includes the Sink Valley area, the drainage basins of Skull, Rush, and Government Creek Valleys, and the Dugway Valley-Old River Bed area (fig. 1). Osamu Hattori and G. L. Hewitt started the investigation, and the author completed it and prepared the report.

  6. The main factors of water pollution in Danube River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gasparotti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed herewith aims to give an overview on the pollution along the Danube River. Water quality in Danube River basin (DRB is under a great pressure due to the diverse range of the human activities including large urban center, industrial, agriculture, transport and mining activities. The most important aspects of the water pollution are: organic, nutrient and microbial pollution, , hazardous substances, and hydro-morphological alteration. Analysis of the pressures on the Danube River showed that a large part of the Danube River is subject to multiple pressures and there are important risks for not reaching good ecological status and good chemical status of the water in the foreseeable future. In 2009, the evaluation based on the results of the Trans National Monitoring Network showed for the length of water bodies from the Danube River basin that 22% achieved good ecological status or ecological potential and 45% river water bodies achieved good chemical status. Another important issue is related to the policy of water pollution.

  7. An Integrated Environmental and Water Accounting and Analytical Framework for Accountable water Governance: a Case Study for Haihe Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, C.

    2009-04-01

    Water is a critical issue in China for a variety of reasons. This is especially urgent in Haihe basin with poor water availability of 305 m3 per capita basis. With the rapid economic development and associated increases in water demand, the river basin has been enduring increasing water stress. Water for the ecosystem use has been compromised and the environment has been deteriorating. Water shortage and environmental degradation have become a bottleneck to the further development of the economy and society. On one side, previous water resource managers have emphasized the amount of water withdrawn but rarely take water quality into consideration. On the other side, environmental managers have usually ignored the importance of pollutant assimilating capacity of water flows for the wastewater control. It is especially important to measure the impacts of both water withdrawn and wastewater discharge on the hydro-ecosystem. Thus, water consumption should not only account for the amount of water inputs but also the amount of water contaminated in the hydro-ecosystem by the discharged wastewater. Water quantity and quality of return flows should also become the important components of such an environmental and water account. Because return flow from upstream sites represents an externality to downstream uses, which can be positive as an additional source and negative as a pollutant source. In this paper we present an integrated environmental and water accounting and analytical approach based on a distributed hydrological model WEP-L (Water and Energy transfer Process in Large river basins) combined with a simple water quality model. Our environmental and water accounting framework and analysis tool allows tracking water consumption on the input side, water pollution from the human system and water flows passing the hydrological system thus enabling us to deal with water resources of different qualities. Keywords: Environmental accounting; Water accounting; Water

  8. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 8: Quinnipiac River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaferro, David L.; Handman, Elinor H.; Thomas, Mendall P.

    1978-01-01

    The Quinnipiac River basin area in southcentral Connecticut covers 363 square miles, and includes all drainage basins that enter Long Island Sound from the Branford to the Wepawaug Rivers. Its population in 1970 was estimated at 535,000. Precipitation averages 47 inches per year and provides an abundant supply of water. Twenty-one inches returns to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration; the remainder flows directly to streams or percolates to the water table and discharges to Long Island Sound. Small amounts of water are exported from the basin by the New Britain Water Department, and small amounts are imported to the basin by the New Haven Water Company. The amount of water that can be developed at a given place depends upon precipitation, variability of streamflow, hydraulic properties and areal extent of the aquifers, and hydraulic connection between the aquifers and major streams. The quality of the water is determined by the physical environment and the effects of man. Stratified drift is the only aquifer capable of large sustained yields of water to individual wells. Yields of 64 screened wells tapping stratified drift range from 17 to 2,000 gpm (gallons per minute); their median yield is 500 gpm. Till is widespread and generally provides only small amounts of water. Wells in till normally yield only a few hundred gallons of water daily and commonly are inadequate during dry periods. Till is generally used only as an emergency or secondary source of water. Bedrock aquifers underlie the entire report area and include sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rock types. These aquifers supply small but reliable quantities of water to wells throughout the basin and are the chief source for many nonurban homes and farms. About 90 percent of the wells tapping bedrock yield at least 2 pgm, and much larger yields are occasionally reported. Maximum well yields of 305 gpm for sedimentary, 75 gpm for igneous, and 200 gpm for metamorphic bedrock have been reported. Water

  9. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 9: Farmington River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handman, Elinor H.; Haeni, F. Peter; Thomas, Mendall P.

    1986-01-01

    large sustained yields of water to individual wells. Based on hydrologic characteristics and available recharge, sixteen stratified-drift areas are selected as the most favorable for large-scale development. Potential yields can be estimated by several methods. Small water supplies can be obtained from all aquifers. Wells in bedrock yield at least one to two gallons per minute at most sites. The probability of adequate yields for domestic supply is greater from sedimentary than from crystalline bedrock and is also greater from stratified-drift overburden than from till. The quality of water from all sources in the basin is good except where adversely affected by swamp drainage, aquifer composition or human activities. The water is generally low in dissolved-solids concentration and is soft to moderately hard. Surface water is less mineralized than ground water, especially during high-flow conditions when it is primarily direct runoff. Samples of water collected from 20 streams during high flow had 34 mg/L median dissolved-solids concentration and 16 mg/L median hardness. Samples collected from the same sites at low flow had 52 mg/L median dissolved solids and 28 mg/L median hardness. In contrast, water from wells had 112 mg/L median dissolved-solids concentration and 60 mg/L median hardness. Iron and manganese occur in objectionable concentrations ~n a few parts of the basin where streams drain swamps and aquifers are rich in iron- and manganese-bearing minerals. Five percent of streams at high flow, 21 percent at low flow, and 7 percent of ground-water samples contained iron in sufficient concentration to cause stains on plumbing fixtures and laundry. Human activities have modified the quality of water in parts of the basin. The high bacterial content of the Pequabuck River. and the high nitrate and chloride concentrations in some ground-water samples, are evidence of man’s influence. The quantity and quality of water in the basin’s streams and aquifers are

  10. Integrated assessment of chemical quality and genotoxicity of the water of the Luiz Rau Stream in the lower stretch of the Sinos River Basin, in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Tamires Petry

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the chemical quality and genotoxicity of the water of the Luiz Rau Stream in Novo Hamburgo (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and investigated the relationship between the genetic damage observed in Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea and the chemical parameters analyzed. Water samplings were collected bimonthly from September 2012 to March 2013 from two sites, near the headspring (S1 and near the mouth (S2. Cuttings with flower buds were exposed to water from the sites and distilled water (negative control. Micronuclei (MCN frequencies were determined in pollen mother cells. The chemical parameters analyzed were pH, total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand (DBO5, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus (TP and the trace elements cadmium, lead, copper, total chromium and zinc. In all samplings, the MCN frequencies observed in buds exposed to water from both sites were significantly higher (S1: 2.48 to 3.38, S2: 3.24 to 5.19 than those observed in the respective negative controls (1.33 to 1.62. The TP was above the legal limit throughout the monitored period and DBO5 presented concentrations higher than those established by legislation in two months at S1 and three months at S2. The principal component analysis showed a relationship between MCN frequency, DBO5 and TP, pointing to the negative influence of pollutants present in water on the bioindicator species and reinforcing the importance of considering the environmental factors in an integrated way in water-body monitoring programs.

  11. Modeling the combined impacts of climate and socio-economic change on water quality, availability and consumption in a multi-purpose reservoir: an application to the Xarrama basin, southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Rita; Nunes, João Pedro; Santos, Juliana

    2014-05-01

    The water resources sector is one of the most vulnerable to climate change. In southern Europe, an increase of water scarcity is expected, combined with a higher frequency and length of severe droughts. Water management in these regions is already a challenge, and several severe droughts occurred there during the last decades, such as the severe droughts of 2005 and 2012 in Portugal, which have highlighted existing vulnerabilities and led to the disruption of part of water supplies. Furthermore, the evolution of socio-economic conditions and even climate change could cause changes to population and land-uses, with the potential to increase pressures on existing resources. The threat of scarcer water resources highlights the need to understand these vulnerabilities and act to reduce them, adapting to the impacts of future climate and land use changes. In fact, water resources governance has been pointed as a key challenge in the present and in the future, as it builds capacity on how to deal with stress and uncertainties generated by climatic variability and global change. Project ERLAND is focused on assessing the eco-hydrological impacts of climate change in Portugal, and therefore water scarcity and droughts are an important focal point on this research. One of the study areas is the Xarrama river basin in southern Portugal, which feeds the multi-purpose Vale do Gaio reservoir used for irrigation and urban water supplies, coupled with a small hydroelectric generating capacity. Currently it experiences some water quality problems and there is already the need of water transfers from other reservoirs to maintain supplies and quality. This is combined with ongoing land-use changes, where irrigated vineyards and olive groves have started to replace traditional rainfed pastures and cereal cultivation. The exposition and vulnerability of the Xarrama basin and the Vale do Gaio reservoir is being addressed for present and future conditions. Future climate scenarios were

  12. Groundwater quality studies: A Case study of the Densu Basin, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater samples from 68 communities within the Densu basin were sampled and analysed over a period of 1 year for various physico-chemical water quality parameters using appropriate certified and acceptable international procedures, in order to assess the water types as well as the suitability of groundwater within ...

  13. Basin scale management of surface and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.C.; Al-Sharif, M.

    1993-01-01

    An important element in the economic development of many regions of the Great Plains is the availability of a reliable water supply. Due to the highly variable nature of the climate through out much of the Great Plains region, non-controlled stream flow rates tend to be highly variable from year to year. Thus, the primary water supply has tended towards developing ground water aquifers. However, in regions where shallow ground water is extracted for use, there exists the potential for over drafting aquifers to the point of depleting hydraulically connected stream flows, which could adversely affect the water supply of downstream users. To prevent the potential conflict that can arise when a basin's water supply is being developed or to control the water extractions within a developed basin requires the ability to predict the effect that water extractions in one region will have on water extractions from either surface or ground water supplies else where in the basin. This requires the ability to simulate ground water levels and stream flows on a basin scale as affected by changes in water use, land use practices and climatic changes within the basin. The outline for such a basin scale surface water-ground water model has been presented in Tracy (1991) and Tracy and Koelliker (1992), and the outline for the mathematical programming statement to aid in determining the optimal allocation of water on a basin scale has been presented in Tracy and Al-Sharif (1992). This previous work has been combined into a computer based model with graphical output referred to as the LINOSA model and was developed as a decision support system for basin managers. This paper will present the application of the LINOSA surface-ground water management model to the Rattlesnake watershed basin that resides within Ground Water Management District Number 5 in south central Kansas

  14. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood River Wetland, Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon, 2003-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Snyder, Daniel T.; Duff, John H.; Triska, Frank J.; Lee, Karl K.; Avanzino, Ronald J.; Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Restoring previously drained wetlands is a strategy currently being used to improve water quality and decrease nutrient loading into Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. In this 2003-05 study, ground- and surface-water quality and hydrologic conditions were characterized in the Wood River Wetland. Nitrogen and phosphorus levels, primarily as dissolved organic nitrogen and ammonium (NH4) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), were high in surface waters. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations also were elevated in surface water, with median concentrations of 44 and 99 milligrams of carbon per liter (mg-C/L) in the North and South Units of the Wood River Wetland, respectively, reaching a maximum of 270 mg-C/L in the South Unit in late autumn. Artesian well water produced NH4 and SRP concentrations of about 6,000 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of 36,500 ug-N/L NH4 and 4,110 ug-P/L SRP in one 26-28 ft deep piezometer well. Despite the high ammonium concentrations, the nitrate levels were moderate to low in wetland surface and ground waters. The surface-water concentrations of NH4 and SRP increased in spring and summer, outpacing those for chloride (a conservative tracer), indicative of evapoconcentration. In-situ chamber experiments conducted in June and August 2005 indicated a positive flux of NH4 and SRP from the wetland sediments. Potential sources of NH4 and SRP include diffusion of nutrients from decomposed peat, decomposing aquatic vegetation, or upwelling ground water. In addition to these inputs, evapoconcentration raised surface-water solute concentrations to exceedingly high values by the end of summer. The increase was most pronounced in the South Unit, where specific conductance reached 2,500 uS/cm and median concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus reached 18,000-36,500 ug-N/L and about 18,000-26,000 ug-P/L, respectively. Water-column SRP and total phosphorus levels decreased during autumn and winter following inputs of irrigation

  15. Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Nutrients in streams draining an agricultural and an urban area, 1993-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Larry F.; Shipp, Allison A.

    1996-01-01

    Water samples collected from streams draining an agricultural area in the west-central part of the Trinity River Basin upstream from the Richland-Chambers Reservoir and from streams draining an urban area in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area during March 1993 - September 1995 were analyzed for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds). A comparison of the data for agricultural and urban streams shows the maximum concentration of total nitrogen is from an urban stream and the maximum concentration of total phosphorus is from an agricultural stream. One-half of the samples have total nitrogen concentrations equal to or less than 1.1 and 1.0 milligrams per liter in the agricultural and urban streams, respectively; and one-half of the samples have total phosphorous concentrations equal to or less than 0.04 and 0.05 milligram per liter in the agricultural and urban streams, respectively. The highest concentrations of total nitrogen in both types of streams are in the spring. The minimum concentrations of total nitrogen are during the summer in the agricultural streams and during the winter in the urban streams. Concentrations of total phosphorus in agricultural streams show negligible seasonal variability. The highest concentrations of total phosphorus are in spring and possibly late summer in the urban streams. In the midrange of streamflow in the urban streams and throughout the range of streamflow in the agricultural streams, concentrations of total nitrogen increase. Concentrations of total phosphorus increase with streamflow in the middle and upper ranges of streamflow in both agricultural and urban streams.

  16. EVALUATION OF WATER POLLUTION STATUS IN SIRET HYDROGRAPHICAL BASIN (SUCEAVA REGION DUE TO AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Zaharia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data concerning the water pollution status of Siret hydrographical basin (i.e. surface and ground waters, lakes in Suceava County area (different controlling/monitoring sections due to agricultural productive activities, especially regarding some quality indicators (nitrogen-based nutrient concentrations evaluated for 2008. These data are recommending the necessity of continuous monitoring of water quality in the Siret River hydrographical basin, in all existing control sections, for identification of any pollution episodes, non-reported by polluters to the local environmental regulators.

  17. Quality matters for water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Flörke, Martina; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-11-01

    Quality requirements for water differ by intended use. Sustainable management of water resources for different uses will not only need to account for demand in water quantity, but also for water temperature and salinity, nutrient levels and other pollutants.

  18. Groundwater quality in the Delaware and St. Lawrence River Basins, New York, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 10 production and domestic wells in the Delaware River Basin in New York and from 20 production and domestic wells in the St. Lawrence River Basin in New York from August through November 2010 to characterize groundwater quality in the basins. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria.

  19. Groundwater quality in the Chemung River Basin, New York, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risen, Amy J.; Reddy, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The second groundwater quality study of the Chemung River Basin in south-central New York was conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 305(b) water-quality-monitoring program. Water samples were collected from five production wells and five private residential wells from October through December 2008. The samples were analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of the groundwater. Five of the wells are screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and five are finished in bedrock aquifers. Two of these wells were also sampled for the first Chemung River Basin study of 2003. Samples were analyzed for 6 physical properties and 217 constituents, including nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and four types of bacterial analyses. Results of the water-quality analyses for individual wells are presented in tables, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. Water quality in the study area is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards; these were: sodium (one sample), total dissolved solids (one sample), aluminum (one sample), iron (one sample), manganese (four samples), radon-222 (eight samples), trichloroethene (one sample), and bacteria (four samples). The pH of all samples was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.5); the median water temperature was 11.0 degrees Celsius (?C). The ions with the highest median concentrations were bicarbonate (median 202 milligrams per liter [mg/L]) and calcium (median 59.0 mg/L). Groundwater in the study area is moderately hard to very hard, but more samples were hard or very hard (121 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or greater) than were moderately hard (61-120 mg/L as Ca

  20. Summarized water quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempster, P.L.; Hattingh, W.H.J.; Van Vliet, H.R.

    1980-08-01

    The available world literature from 27 sources on existing water quality criteria are summarized for the 15 main uses of water. The minimum, median and maximum specified values for 96 different determinands are included. Under each water use the criteria are grouped according to the functional significance of the determinands e.g. aesthetic/physical effects, high toxic potential, low toxic potential etc. A synopsis is included summarizing salient facts for each determinand such as the conditions under which it is toxic and its relationship to other determinands. The significance of the criteria is briefly discussed and the importance of considering functional interactions between determinands emphasized in evaluating the potential for toxic or beneficial effects. From the source literature it appears that the toxic potential, in addition to being determined by concentration, is also affected by the origin of the substance concerned, i.e. whether from natural sources or from anthropogenic pollution

  1. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin, North Carolina and Virginia; organochlorine compounds in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbrest sunfish (Lepomis auritus) 1992-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.E.; Ruhl, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of potential contaminants in biological tissues is an important part of many water-quality assessment programs, including the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Tissue analyses often are used to provide information about (1) direct threats to ecosystem integrity, and (2) the occurrence and distribution of potential contaminants in the environment. During 1992-93, Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) samples were collected and analyzed to obtain information about the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage Basin of North Carolina and Virginia. The investigation was conducted as part of the NAWQA Program. Relatively few organochlorine compounds were detected and of the compounds detected, all were detected in relatively low concentrations. The organochlorine compounds detected were p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, trans-nonachlor, PCB's, and toxaphene. Multiple compounds were detected at 16 of 19 sites sampled. Compared to Asiatic clams, redbreast sunfish appear to be better bioindicators of organochlorine contamination in aquatic systems. Except for one detection of toxaphene, pesticide concentrations are well below the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering (NAS/NAE) guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife.

  2. Longitudinal patterns in fish and macrozoobenthos assemblages reflect degradation of water quality and physical habitat in the Bílina river basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Pavel; Adámek, Zdeněk; Janáč, Michal; Valová, Zdenka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2010), s. 123-136 ISSN 1212-1819 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : fish community * macroinvertebrates * pollution * channelization * Elbe basin Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.190, year: 2010 http://www. agriculture journals.cz/publicFiles/17674.pdf

  3. Geochemistry of spring water, southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Briant A.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical quality of water in the southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado, is important to the future development of the abundant oil-shale resources of the area. This report examines the observed changes in chemistry as water circulates in both shallow and deep ground-water systems. Mass-balance and mass- transfer calculations are used to define reactions that simulate the observed water chemistry in the mixed sandstone, siltstone, and carbonate lithology of the Green River Formation of Tertiary age.The mass-transfer calculations determine a reaction path particular to this system. The early dominance of calcite dissolution produces a calcium carbonate water. After calcite saturation, deeper circulation and further rock-water interaction cause the reprecipitation of calcite, the dissolution of dolomite and plagioclase, and the oxidation of pyrite; all combining to produce a calcium magnesium sodium bicarbonate sulfate water. The calculations suggest that silica concentrations are controlled by a kaolinite-Ca-montmorillonite phase boundary. Close agreement of mineral-saturation indices calculated by both an aqueous-equilibrium model and the mass-transfer model support the selection of reactions from the mass-transfer calculations.

  4. Water Quality Records in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    The quality-of-water investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey are concerned with the chemical and physical characteristics of surface and ground water supplies of the Nation in conjunction with water usage and its availability. The basic records for the 1964 water year for quality of surface waters within the State of California are given in this report. For convenience and interest there are also records for a few water quality stations in bordering States. The data were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, under the direction of Eugene Brown, district chemist, Quality of Water Branch.

  5. Quality of waters in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1963-01-01

    The quality-of-water investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey are concerned with the chemical and physical characteristics of surface and ground water supplies of the nation in conjunction with water usage and its availability. The basic records for the 1963 water year for quality of surface waters within the State of California are given in this report. For convenience and interest there are also records for a few water quality stations in bordering states. The data were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, under the direction of Eugene Brown, district chemist, Quality of Water Branch.

  6. 78 FR 47241 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Revise the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Revise the Human Health Water Quality Criteria for PCBs in Zones 2... hold a public hearing to receive comments on proposed amendments to the Commission's Water Quality...

  7. Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Economics

    1997-12-01

    The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

  8. Hemodialysis and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulliette, Angela D; Arduino, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  10. Estimation of Water Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrinskaya, N.I.; Manasbayeva, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Water has a particular ecological function and it is an indicator of the general state of the biosphere. In relation with this summary, the toxicological evaluation of water by biologic testing methods is very actual. The peculiarity of biologic testing information is an integral reflection of all totality properties of examination of the environment in position of its perception by living objects. Rapid integral evaluation of anthropological situation is a base aim of biologic testing. If this evaluation has deviations from normal state, detailed analysis and revelation of dangerous components could be conducted later. The quality of water from the Degelen gallery, where nuclear explosions were conducted, was investigated by bio-testing methods. The micro-organisms (Micrococcus Luteus, Candida crusei, Pseudomonas algaligenes) and water plant elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich) were used as test-objects. It is known that the transporting functions of cell membranes of living organisms are violated the first time in extreme conditions by difference influences. Therefore, ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells, which contained in the examination water with toxicants, were used as test-function. Alteration of membrane penetration was estimated by measurement of electrolytes electrical conductivity, which gets out from living objects cells to distillate water. Index of water toxic is ratio of electrical conductivity in experience to electrical conductivity in control. Also, observations from common state of plant, which was incubated in toxic water, were made. (Chronic experience conducted for 60 days.) The plants were incubated in water samples, which were picked out from gallery in the years 1996 and 1997. The time of incubation is 1-10 days. The results of investigation showed that ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells changed very much with influence of radionuclides, which were contained in testing water. Changes are taking place even in

  11. Sand, salt and water in the Stampriet Basin, Namibia: Calculating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sand, salt and water in the Stampriet Basin, Namibia: Calculating unsaturated zone (Kalahari dunefield) .... prior to the deposition of the Kalahari Basin formed chan- nels, which in the south-eastern region of the .... Whitehill formation, and elsewhere this directly overlies the. Upper Rietmond member. The Upper Rietmond ...

  12. Effects of stormwater infiltration on quality of groundwater beneath retention and detention basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D.; Charles, E.G.; Baehr, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Infiltration of storm water through detention and retention basins may increase the risk of groundwater contamination, especially in areas where the soil is sandy and the water table shallow, and contaminants may not have a chance to degrade or sorb onto soil particles before reaching the saturated zone. Groundwater from 16 monitoring wells installed in basins in southern New Jersey was compared to the quality of shallow groundwater from 30 wells in areas of new-urban land use. Basin groundwater contained much lower levels of dissolved oxygen, which affected concentrations of major ions. Patterns of volatile organic compound and pesticide occurrence in basin groundwater reflected the land use in the drainage areas served by the basins, and differed from patterns in background samples, exhibiting a greater occurrence of petroleum hydrocarbons and certain pesticides. Dilution effects and volatilization likely decrease the concentration and detection frequency of certain compounds commonly found in background groundwater. High recharge rates in storm water basins may cause loading factors to be substantial even when constituent concentrations in infiltrating storm water are relatively low.

  13. An appraisal of the ground-water resources of the Juniata River Basin, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaber, Paul R.; Hollyday, Este F.

    1966-01-01

    This report describes the availability, quantity, quality, variability, and cost of development of the ground-water resources in the Juniata River basin, one of the larger sub-basins of the Susquehanna River basin. The report has been prepared for and under specifications established by the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, and the Public Health Service, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.A comprehensive study of the water and related land resources of the Susquehanna River basin was authorized by the Congress of the United States in October 1961, and the task of preparing a report and of coordinating the work being done by others in support of the study was assigned to the Corps of Engineers. The comprehensive study is being conducted by several Federal departments and independent agencies in cooperation with the States of New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland. The Public Health Service under its authority in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (P. L. 660) initiated a comprehensive water quality control program for the Chesapeake drainage basin, which includes the Susquehanna River basin.

  14. Water stress in global transboundary river basins : Significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H A; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has

  15. Preliminary analysis of ERTS-relayed water resources data in the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of ERTS-DCS data from water-resources stations in the Delaware River Basin indicates that the Data-Collection System is performing well. Data-Collections Platforms have been successfully interfaced with five stream-gaging station and three ground-water observation wells and are being interfaced with 12 water-quality monitors in the basin. Data are being relayed during four or five ERTS orbital passes per day, which is within the design specifications of the ERTS-DCS.

  16. Status of groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, 2006-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara; Fram, Miranda S.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile (2,227-square-kilometer) Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is located in southern California in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA CLAB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2006 by the USGS from 69 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the CLAB study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the CLAB study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. A relative

  17. Water and Benefit Sharing in Transboundary River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, D.; Tilmant, A.; Herrmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Growing water scarcity underlies the importance of cooperation for the effective management of river basins, particularly in the context of international rivers in which unidirectional externalities can lead to asymmetric relationships between riparian countries. Studies have shown that significant economic benefits can be expected through basin-wide cooperation, however, the equitable partitioning of these benefits over the basin is less well studied and tends to overlook the importance of stakeholder input in the definition of equitability. In this study, an institutional arrangement to maximize welfare and then share the scarcity cost in a river basin is proposed. A river basin authority plays the role of a bulk water market operator, efficiently allocating bulk water to the users and collecting bulk water charges which are then equitably redistributed among water users. This highly regulated market restrains the behaviour of water users to control externalities and to ensure basin-wide coordination, enhanced efficiency, and the equitable redistribution of the scarcity cost. The institutional arrangement is implemented using the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The importance of this arrangement is that it can be adopted for application in negotiations to cooperate in trans-boundary river basins. The benefit sharing solution proposed is more likely to be perceived as equitable because water users help define the sharing rule. As a result, the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as it would be if existing rules, such as bankruptcy rules or cooperative game theory solutions, are applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness. Results of the case study show that the sharing rule is predictable. Water users can expect to receive between 93.5% and 95% of their uncontested benefits (benefits that they expect to receive if water was not rationed), depending on the hydrologic scenario.

  18. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile (1,639-square-kilometer) Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The study unit is composed of two study areas (Interior Basins and Coastal Basins) and is located in northern California in Napa, Sonoma, Lake, Colusa, Mendocino, Glenn, Humboldt, and Del Norte Counties. The GAMA-PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the USGS and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  19. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2014-05-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  20. The water footprint of hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Li, Jian; Kondash, Andrew; Coyte, Rachel; Lauer, Nancy; Cui, Huiying; Liao, Fengrong; Vengosh, Avner

    2018-02-23

    Shale gas is likely to play a major role in China's transition away from coal. In addition to technological and infrastructural constraints, the main challenges to China's sustainable shale gas development are sufficient shale gas production, water availability, and adequate wastewater management. Here we present, for the first time, actual data of shale gas production and its water footprint from the Weiyuan gas field, one of the major gas fields in Sichuan Basin. We show that shale gas production rates during the first 12 months (24 million m 3 per well) are similar to gas production rates in U.S. shale basins. The amount of water used for hydraulic fracturing (34,000 m 3 per well) and the volume of flowback and produced (FP) water in the first 12 months (19,800 m 3 per well) in Sichuan Basin are also similar to the current water footprints of hydraulic fracturing in U.S. basins. We present salinity data of the FP water (5000 to 40,000 mgCl/L) in Sichuan Basin and the treatment operations, which include sedimentation, dilution with fresh water, and recycling of the FP water for hydraulic fracturing. We utilize the water use data, empirical decline rates of shale gas and FP water productions in Sichuan Basin to generate two prediction models for water use for hydraulic fracturing and FP water production upon achieving China's goals to generate 100 billion m 3 of shale gas by 2030. The first model utilizes the current water use and FP production data, and the second assumes a yearly 5% intensification of the hydraulic fracturing process. The predicted water use for hydraulic fracturing in 2030 (50-65 million m 3 per year), FP water production (50-55 million m 3 per year), and fresh water dilution of FP water (25 million m 3 per year) constitute a water footprint that is much smaller than current water consumption and wastewater generation for coal mining, but higher than those of conventional gas production in China. Given estimates

  1. Water Availability for Shale Gas Development in Sichuan Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengjun; Weinthal, Erika; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Deshusses, Marc A; Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-03-15

    Unconventional shale gas development holds promise for reducing the predominant consumption of coal and increasing the utilization of natural gas in China. While China possesses some of the most abundant technically recoverable shale gas resources in the world, water availability could still be a limiting factor for hydraulic fracturing operations, in addition to geological, infrastructural, and technological barriers. Here, we project the baseline water availability for the next 15 years in Sichuan Basin, one of the most promising shale gas basins in China. Our projection shows that continued water demand for the domestic sector in Sichuan Basin could result in high to extremely high water stress in certain areas. By simulating shale gas development and using information from current water use for hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin (20,000-30,000 m(3) per well), we project that during the next decade water use for shale gas development could reach 20-30 million m(3)/year, when shale gas well development is projected to be most active. While this volume is negligible relative to the projected overall domestic water use of ∼36 billion m(3)/year, we posit that intensification of hydraulic fracturing and water use might compete with other water utilization in local water-stress areas in Sichuan Basin.

  2. Water quality management for Lake Mariout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Donia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A hydrodynamic and water quality model was used to study the current status of the Lake Mariout subject to the pollution loadings from the agricultural drains and the point sources discharging directly to the Lake. The basic water quality modelling component simulates the main water quality parameters including the oxygen compounds (BOD, COD, DO, nutrients compounds (NH4, TN, TP, and finally the temperature, salinity and inorganic matter. Many scenarios have been conducted to improve the circulation and the water quality in the lake and to assess the spreading and mixing of the discharge effluents and its impact on the water quality of the main basin. Several pilot interventions were applied through the model in the Lake Mariout together with the upgrades of the East and West Waste Water Treatment Plants in order to achieve at least 5% reduction in the pollution loads entering the Mediterranean Sea through Lake Mariout in order to improve the institutional mechanisms for sustainable coastal zone management in Alexandria in particular to reduce land-based pollution to the Mediterranean Sea.

  3. Santa Lucia River basin. Development of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to orient the development of water resources of the Santa Lucia River basin to maximum benefit in accordance with the priorities established by Government in relation to the National Development Plans

  4. Quantity and quality of urban storm runoff from the Chester Creek basin Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Urbanization has affected both the flow characteristics and water quality of streams in the Chester Creek basin, of Anchorage, Alaska. Peak flows are higher in the urban rather than rural parts of the basin, and the percent of effective impervious area has a significant effect on storm runoff volumes and peaks. Water quality in the Chester Creek basin varies according to season and flow conditions. During low or base-flow conditions, concentrations of most water quality constituents measured are within State of Alaska drinking water standards, except for fecal coliform bacteria. During periods of high flow due to snowmelt or rainfall, concentrations of trace metal lead usually exceed recommended maximum levels. The primary sources of trace metal lead and suspended sediments are commercial areas , while the primary source of nutrients and fecal coliform bacteria is residential areas. Streamflow and water quality data collected at five sites representing different land-use categories were used to calibrate and verify three U.S. Geological Survey computer-based models: the Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model-Version II (DR3M-II), the Multi-Event Urban Runoff Quality Model (DR3M-QUAL), and the Precipitation Runoff Modeling Systems (PRMS). The PRMS can be used to simulate the effects of increased urbanization on daily flows. The DR3M-II can be used to simulate storm effects on small basins of < 40 acres. The DR3M-QUAL can be used to estimate seasonal loads of suspended sediment from basins of < 40 acres. (Lantz-PTT)

  5. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 105-N Basin Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.O. Mahood

    1997-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan defines the strategy, and field and laboratory methods that will be used to characterize 105-N Basin water. The water will be shipped to the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and disposal as part of N Reactor deactivation. These analyses are necessary to ensure that the water will meet the acceptance criteria of the ETF, as established in the Memorandum of Understanding for storage and treatment of water from N-Basin (Appendix A), and the characterization requirements for 100-N Area water provided in a letter from ETF personnel (Appendix B)

  6. Composite measures of watershed health from a water quality perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallya, Ganeshchandra; Hantush, Mohamed; Govindaraju, Rao S

    2018-05-15

    Water quality data at gaging stations are typically compared with established federal, state, or local water quality standards to determine if violations (concentrations of specific constituents falling outside acceptable limits) have occurred. Based on the frequency and severity of water quality violations, risk metrics such as reliability, resilience, and vulnerability (R-R-V) are computed for assessing water quality-based watershed health. In this study, a modified methodology for computing R-R-V measures is presented, and a new composite watershed health index is proposed. Risk-based assessments for different water quality parameters are carried out using identified national sampling stations within the Upper Mississippi River Basin, the Maumee River Basin, and the Ohio River Basin. The distributional properties of risk measures with respect to water quality parameters are reported. Scaling behaviors of risk measures using stream order, specifically for the watershed health (WH) index, suggest that WH values increased with stream order for suspended sediment concentration, nitrogen, and orthophosphate in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Spatial distribution of risk measures enable identification of locations exhibiting poor watershed health with respect to the chosen numerical standard, and the role of land use characteristics within the watershed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Caracterização da água da microbacia do córrego rico avaliada pelo índice de qualidade de água e de estado trófico Water quality of rico stream micro-basin evalueted by water quality index and trophic state index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. H. T. Zanini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação do índice de qualidade da água (IQA e do índice de estado trófico médio (IETm pode subsidiar a formulação de planos de manejo e gestão de sistemas aquáticos. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a qualidade da água da microbacia do Córrego Rico, que abastece a cidade de Jaboticabal (SP, utilizando o IQA e IETm. As amostragens de água foram realizadas entre setembro-2007 e agosto-2008, em três pontos: a em uma das nascentes; b após a Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto de Monte Alto, e c na captação de água para abastecimento público de Jaboticabal. As amostras foram analisadas quanto aos parâmetros físicos, químicos e microbiológicos: temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, DBO5, nitrogênio total, fósforo total, turbidez, resíduo total, ortofosfato, clorofila-a e Escherichia coli. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: a as atividades antrópicas às margens do Córrego Rico reduzem a qualidade de sua água, durante os diferentes períodos do ano; b os valores médios de IQA nos três pontos analisados apresentaram relação direta com os valores médios de IETm, porém ocorreu maior discriminação da qualidade da água pelo IETm, identificando diferentes graus de trofia para os pontos e períodos de amostragens; c o IQA apresentou melhor diferenciação da qualidade da água entre pontos no período seco e o IETm diferenciou melhor no período chuvoso; d o processo de autodepuração e/ou a confluência do Córrego Tijuco com o Córrego Rico contribuem para melhor qualidade da água, tornando-a adequada ao abastecimento urbano após tratamento convencional.The evaluation of water quality index (WQI and mean trophic state index (mTSI may be useful for management and administration projects of water systems. Quality of water from the stream Rico micro-basin that supplies the town of Jaboticabal - SP, Brazil, with fresh water has been evaluated, using WQI and mTSI. Collects were undertaken between

  8. Water quality assessment and catchment-scale nutrient flux modeling in the Ramganga River Basin in north India: An application of INCA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Devanshi; Whitehead, Paul G; Futter, Martyn N; Sinha, Rajiv

    2018-03-07

    The present study analyzes the water quality characteristics of the Ramganga (a major tributary of the Ganga river) using long-term (1991-2009) monthly data and applies the Integrated Catchment Model of Nitrogen (INCA-N) and Phosphorus (INCA-P) to the catchment. The models were calibrated and validated using discharge (1993-2011), phosphate (1993-2010) and nitrate (2007-2010) concentrations. The model results were assessed based on Pearson's correlation, Nash-Sutcliffe and Percentage bias statistics along with a visual inspection of the outputs. The seasonal variation study shows high nutrient concentrations in the pre-monsoon season compared to the other seasons. High nutrient concentrations in the low flows period pose a serious threat to aquatic life of the river although the concentrations are lowered during high flows because of the dilution effect. The hydrological model is satisfactorily calibrated with R 2 and NS values ranging between 0.6-0.8 and 0.4-0.8, respectively. INCA-N and INCA-P successfully capture the seasonal trend of nutrient concentrations with R 2 >0.5 and PBIAS within ±17% for the monthly averages. Although, high concentrations are detected in the low flows period, around 50% of the nutrient load is transported by the monsoonal high flows. The downstream catchments are characterized by high nutrient transport through high flows where additional nutrient supply from industries and agricultural practices also prevail. The seasonal nitrate (R 2 : 0.88-0.94) and phosphate (R 2 : 0.62-0.95) loads in the catchment are calculated using model results and ratio estimator load calculation technique. On average, around 548tonnes of phosphorus (as phosphate) and 77,051tonnes of nitrogen (as nitrate) are estimated to be exported annually from the Ramganga River to the Ganga. Overall, the model has been able to successfully reproduce the catchment dynamics in terms of seasonal variation and broad-scale spatial variability of nutrient fluxes in the

  9. Assessment of the hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality of the Tarim River Basin in an extreme arid region, NW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca(2+)-HCO3(-) water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na(+)-Cl(-) water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B(3+), F(-), and SO4(2-) and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future.

  10. Macrophyte abundance and water quality status of three impacted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of macrophyte abundance and water quality of three impacted inlet streams along Ikpa River Basin were investigated. A 5m x 5m quadrat through systematic sampling was used to sample the vegetation for density and frequency of species. Sediment and water samples were collected and analyzed using ...

  11. Communicating water quality risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Technology for detecting and understanding water quality problems and the impacts of activities on long-range groundwater quality has advanced considerably. In the past a technical solution was considered adequate but today one must consider a wide range of both technical and social factors in evaluating technical alternatives that are also acceptable social solutions. Policies developed and implemented with limited local participation generally are resisted and become ineffective if public cooperation is necessary for effective implementation. The public, the experts and the policymakers all must understand and appreciate the different perspectives present in risk policymaking. The typical model used to involve the public in policy decisions is a strategy described as the decide-announce-defend-approach. Much more acceptable to the public, but also more difficult to implement, is a strategy that calls for free flow of information within the community about the problem, policies and potential solutions. Communication about complex issues will be more successful if the communication is substantial; if it takes advantage of existing interpersonal networks and mass media; if it pays particular attention to existing audience knowledge, interest and behaviors; and if it clearly targets messages to various segments of the audience

  12. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  13. Waterbird habitat in California's Central Valley basins under climate, urbanization, and water management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Elliott L.; Fleskes, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    California's Central Valley provides critical, but threatened habitat and food resources for migrating and wintering waterfowl, shorebirds, and other waterbirds. The Central Valley is comprised of nine basins that were defined by the Central Valley Joint Venture (CVJV) to assist in conservation planning. Basins vary in composition and extent of habitats, which primarily include croplands and wetlands that rely on water supplies shared with other competing human and environmental uses. Changes in climate, urban development, and water supply management are uncertain and could reduce future availability of water supplies supporting waterbird habitats and limit effectiveness of wetland restoration planned by the CVJV to support wintering waterbirds. We modeled 17 plausible scenarios including combinations of three climate projections, three urbanization rates, and five water supply management options to promote agricultural and urban water uses, with and without wetland restoration. Our research examines the reduction in quantity and quality of habitats during the fall migration-wintering period by basin under each scenario, and the efficacy of planned wetland restoration to compensate reductions in flooded areas of wetland habitats. Scenario combinations of projected climate, urbanization, and water supply management options reduced availability of flooded cropland and wetland habitats during fall-winter and degraded the quality of seasonal wetlands (i.e., summer-irrigation for improved forage production), though the extent and frequency of impacts varied by basin. Planned wetland restoration may substantially compensate for scenario-related effects on wetland habitats in each basin. However, results indicate that Colusa, Butte, Sutter, San Joaquin, and Tulare Basins may require additional conservation to support summer-irrigation of seasonal wetlands and winter-flooding of cropland habitats. Still further conservation may be required to provide sufficient areas of

  14. Water reform in the Murray-Darling Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Daniel; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2011-12-01

    In Australia's Murray-Darling Basin the Australian and state governments are attempting to introduce a system of water management that will halt ongoing decline in environmental conditions and resource security and provide a robust foundation for managing climate change. This parallels similar efforts being undertaken in regions such as southern Africa, the southern United States, and Spain. Central to the project is the Australian government's Water Act 2007, which requires the preparation of a comprehensive basin plan expected to be finalized in 2011. This paper places recent and expected developments occurring as part of this process in their historical context and examines factors that could affect implementation. Significant challenges to the success of the basin plan include human resource constraints, legislative tensions within the Australian federal system, difficulties in coordinating the network of water-related agencies in the six jurisdictions with responsibilities in the Murray-Darling Basin, and social, economic, and environmental limitations that restrict policy implementation.

  15. Accumulation of heavy metals with water quality parameters in Kızılırmak River Basin (Delice River) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Nuray Emir; Tuncer, A Murat

    2011-02-01

    Kızılırmak River has been used as Ankara's drinking water source for approximately 1.5 years. Therefore, this region's water, sediment, and fish samples are measured for detecting the heavy metals. This is important for the current situation as well as the future in terms of potential impact. The amount of heavy metals in drinking water should be within the limited values; otherwise, the accumulation of heavy metals will cause many problems to living organisms. Especially high levels of arsenic, cadmium, nickel, mercury, etc. are very dangerous to freshwater ecosystems as for human if the water is being use as drinking water. In this study, water, sediment samples, muscle, and gills of three fish species (Capoeta tinca, Capoeta capoeta, Leuciscus cephalus) were analyzed for the presence of heavy metals such as (Al, Fe, As, Cd, Ni, Mn, Se, Si) to determine present accumulation levels and possible toxic effect. The accumulation pattern of heavy metals in the water, sediment, and fish tissue follows the sequence: Si>Fe>Al>Mn>As>Ni>Se>Cd, Fe>Al>Mn>Ni>As>Se>Cd, and Fe>Al>Mn>As>Ni>Si>Cd. In addition, the detected concentrations of heavy metals in the Kızılırmak and Delice Rivers are compared with other heavy metal studies in the other main rivers and lakes in Turkey.

  16. Shedding the waters : institutional change and water control in the Lerma-Chapala Basin, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, P.

    2008-01-01

    Water resources development has led to water overexploitation in many river basins around the world. This is clearly the case in the Lerma-Chapala Basin in central Mexico, where excessive surface water use nearly resulted in the drying up of Lake Chapala, one of the world’s largest shallow lakes. It

  17. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KK. Blume

    Full Text Available The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W, Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS. Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  18. Hydrologic conditions and water-quality conditions following underground coal mining in the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek drainage basin, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkowske, C.D.; Cillessen, J.L.; Brinton, P.N.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, reassessed the hydrologic system in and around the drainage basin of the North Fork of the Right Fork (NFRF) of Miller Creek, in Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah. The reassessment occurred 13 years after cessation of underground coal mining that was performed beneath private land at shallow depths (30 to 880 feet) beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study is a follow-up to a previous USGS study of the effects of underground coal mining on the hydrologic system in the area from 1988 to 1992. The previous study concluded that mining related subsidence had impacted the hydrologic system through the loss of streamflow over reaches of the perennial portion of the stream, and through a significant increase in dissolved solids in the stream. The previous study also reported that no substantial differences in spring-water quality resulted from longwall mining, and that no clear relationship between mining subsidence and spring discharge existed.During the summers of 2004 and 2005, the USGS measured discharge and collected water-quality samples from springs and surface water at various locations in the NFRF of Miller Creek drainage basin, and maintained a streamflow-gaging station in the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study also utilized data collected by Cyprus–Plateau Mining Corporation from 1992 through 2001.Of thirteen monitored springs, five have discharge levels that have not returned to those observed prior to August 1988, which is when longwall coal mining began beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. Discharge at two of these five springs appears to fluctuate with wet and dry cycles and is currently low due to a drought that occurred from 1999–2004. Discharge at two other of the five springs did not increase with increased precipitation during the mid-1990s, as was observed at other monitored springs. This suggests that flowpaths to these springs may have been altered by

  19. Water Budget Closure Based on GRACE Measurements and Reconstructed Evapotranspiration Using GLDAS and Water Use Data over the Yellow River and Changjiang River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, M.; Ma, Z.; Yuan, X.

    2017-12-01

    It is important to evaluate the water budget closure on the basis of the currently available data including precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, and GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage change (TWSC) before using them to resolve water-related issues. However, it remains challenging to achieve the balance without the consideration of human water use (e.g., inter-basin water diversion and irrigation) for the estimation of other water budget terms such as the ET. In this study, the terrestrial water budget closure is tested over the Yellow River Basin (YRB) and Changjiang River Basin (CJB, Yangtze River Basin) of China. First, the actual ET is reconstructed by using the GLDAS-1 land surface models, the high quality observation-based precipitation, naturalized streamflow, and the irrigation water (hereafter, ETrecon). The ETrecon, evaluated using the mean annual water-balance equation, is of good quality with the absolute relative errors less than 1.9% over the two studied basins. The total basin discharge (Rtotal) is calculated as the residual of the water budget among the observation-based precipitation, ETrecon, and the GRACE-TWSC. The value of the Rtotal minus the observed total basin discharge is used to evaluate the budget closure, with the consideration of inter-basin water diversion. After the ET reconstruction, the mean absolute imbalance value reduced from 3.31 cm/year to 1.69 cm/year and from 15.40 cm/year to 1.96 cm/year over the YRB and CJB, respectively. The estimation-to-observation ratios of total basin discharge improved from 180.8% to 86.8% over the YRB, and from 67.0% to 101.1% over the CJB. The proposed ET reconstruction method is applicable to other human-managed river basins to provide an alternative estimation.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF MONK EQUIPPED PONDS ON THE QUALITY OF BASIN HEAD STREAMS, THE EXAMPLE OF WATER TEMPERATURE IN LIMOUSIN AND BERRY (FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent TOUCHART

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the centre-west regions of France, the deep water outlet system known as a “monk” is used in 13% of bodies of water. The authorities are strongly encouraging this to increase, arguing that this system would reduce pond induced warming of the hydrographical network. We have measured the water temperature in four monk equipped ponds for 13 years to such an extent that this paper draws on an analysis of 142,200 original measurements. Compared to a surface outflow, a monk is a system which shifts the warming of the emissary water course to the end of summer and the autumn which reduces average annual warming by about 1°C. This reduces the heating of diurnal maxima but increases warming of the minima. A monk equipped pond warms the river with deep water which has acquired its heat by mechanical convection generated by the wind, as opposed to a weir equipped pond which provides surface water warmed by insolation. In winter the monk equipped pond does not damage the thermal living conditions for Fario trout embryos and larvae under the gravel. In summer, the monk prevents night time cooling of the emissary and increases the temperature of the minima excessively for sensitive species.

  1. Forecasting in an integrated surface water-ground water system: The Big Cypress Basin, South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, M. B.; Feng, K.; Klinting, A.; Stewart, K.; Nath, A.; Manning, P.; Hazlett, T.; Jacobsen, T.

    2009-04-01

    The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) manages and protects the state's water resources on behalf of 7.5 million South Floridians and is the lead agency in restoring America's Everglades - the largest environmental restoration project in US history. Many of the projects to restore and protect the Everglades ecosystem are part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). The region has a unique hydrological regime, with close connection between surface water and groundwater, and a complex managed drainage network with many structures. Added to the physical complexity are the conflicting needs of the ecosystem for protection and restoration, versus the substantial urban development with the accompanying water supply, water quality and flood control issues. In this paper a novel forecasting and real-time modelling system is presented for the Big Cypress Basin. The Big Cypress Basin includes 272 km of primary canals and 46 water control structures throughout the area that provide limited levels of flood protection, as well as water supply and environmental quality management. This system is linked to the South Florida Water Management District's extensive real-time (SCADA) data monitoring and collection system. Novel aspects of this system include the use of a fully distributed and integrated modeling approach and a new filter-based updating approach for accurately forecasting river levels. Because of the interaction between surface- and groundwater a fully integrated forecast modeling approach is required. Indeed, results for the Tropical Storm Fay in 2008, the groundwater levels show an extremely rapid response to heavy rainfall. Analysis of this storm also shows that updating levels in the river system can have a direct impact on groundwater levels.

  2. Water stress in global transboundary river basins: significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world’s transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. We found that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  3. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.