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Sample records for basin southern carpathian

  1. Lower Badenian coarse-grained Gilbert deltas in the southern margin of the Western Carpathian Foredeep basin

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    Nehyba, Slavomír

    2018-02-01

    Two coarse-grained Gilbert-type deltas in the Lower Badenian deposits along the southern margin of the Western Carpathian Foredeep (peripheral foreland basin) were newly interpreted. Facies characterizing a range of depositional processes are assigned to four facies associations — topset, foreset, bottomset and offshore marine pelagic deposits. The evidence of Gilbert deltas within open marine deposits reflects the formation of a basin with relatively steep margins connected with a relative sea level fall, erosion and incision. Formation, progradation and aggradation of the thick coarse-grained Gilbert delta piles generally indicate a dramatic increase of sediment supply from the hinterland, followed by both relatively continuous sediment delivery and an increase in accommodation space. Deltaic deposition is terminated by relatively rapid and extended drowning and is explained as a transgressive event. The lower Gilbert delta was significantly larger, more areally extended and reveals a more complicated stratigraphic architecture than the upper one. Its basal surface represents a sequence boundary and occurs around the Karpatian/Badenian stratigraphic limit. Two coeval deltaic branches were recognized in the lower delta with partly different stratigraphic arrangements. This different stratigraphic architecture is mostly explained by variations in the sediment delivery and /or predisposed paleotopography and paleobathymetry of the basin floor. The upper delta was recognized only in a restricted area. Its basal surface represents a sequence boundary probably reflecting a higher order cycle of a relative sea level rise and fall within the Lower Badenian. Evidence of two laterally and stratigraphically separated coarse-grained Gilbert deltas indicates two regional/basin wide transgressive/regressive cycles, but not necessarily of the same order. Provenance analysis reveals similar sources of both deltas. Several partial source areas were identified (Mesozoic

  2. The Aquatic And Marshy Flora Of The Lotru River Basin (Southern Carpathians, Romania

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    Drăgulescu Constantin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper continues the series of floristic inventories of the main Romanian rivers in the Carpathian Mountains (from which have been published those of Mureş, Sadu, Olt, Someş, Criş, Târnave, Tisa. In this work the author lists 204 plant taxa (hydrophilic, meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic identified by the author or by other botanists in the Lotru Valley basin. Noted for each species were life form, floral element, ecological preferences for humidity (U, temperature (T, soil reaction (R, corology and coenology. Bibliographical sources are coded with numbers (see the references at the end of the paper. The sign “!” indicates that the author has seen the plant in that locality.

  3. Partial delamination of continental mantle lithosphere, uplift-related crust mantle decoupling, volcanism and basin formation: a new model for the Pliocene Quaternary evolution of the southern East-Carpathians, Romania

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    Chalot-Prat, F.; Girbacea, R.

    2000-11-01

    A geodynamic model is proposed for the Mid-Miocene to Quaternary evolution of the southern East-Carpathians in order to explain the relationships between shallow and deep geological phenomena that occurred synchronously during late-collision tectonics. In this area, an active volcanic zone cross-cuts since 2 My the suture between the overriding Tisza-Dacia and subducting European continental plates. Mafic calc-alkaline and alkaline magmas (south Harghita and Persani volcanoes) erupted contemporaneously. These magmas were supplied by partial melting of the mantle lithosphere of the subducting, and not of the overriding, plate. In an effort to decipher this geodynamically a-typical setting of magma generation, the spatial and temporal distribution of shallow and deep phenomena was successively examined in order to establish the degree of their interdependence. Our model indicates that intra-mantle delamination of the subducting European plate is the principal cause of a succession of events. It caused upwelling of the hot asthenosphere below a thinned continental lithosphere of the Carpathians, inducing the uplift of the lithosphere and its internal decoupling at the Moho level by isostatic and mostly thermal effects. During this uplift, the crust deformed flexurally whilst the mantle deformed in a ductile way. This triggered decompressional partial melting of the uppermost mantle lithosphere. Flexural deformation of the crust induced its fracturing, allowing for the rapid ascent of magmas to the surface, as well as reactivation of an older detachment horizon at the base of the Carpathian nappe stack above which the Brasov, Ciuc and Gheorghieni hinterland basins formed by extension and gravity spreading. The rapid subsidence of the Focsani foreland basin is controlled by the load exerted on the lithosphere by the delaminated mantle slab that is still attached to it. In this model, crust-mantle decoupling, magma genesis and volcanism, local near-surface hinterland

  4. Petrography and geochemistry of Oligocene bituminous coal from the Jiu Valley, Petrosani basin (southern Carpathian Mountains), Romania

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    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Stucker, J.D. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); University of Kentucky Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Morehead, KY, 40351 (United States); Tatu, Calin A. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Immunology, Clinical Laboratory No. 1, Pta. E. Murgu No. 2, RO-1900 Timisoara (Romania); Buia, Grigore [University of Petrosani, Department of Geology, University St. 20, RO-2675 Petrosani (Romania)

    2010-05-01

    Belt samples of Oligocene (Chattian) bituminous coal from 10 underground mines located in the Jiu Valley, Hunedoara County, Petrosani basin, Romania, have been examined and analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, major-, minor- and trace-element chemistry, organic petrography, and vitrinite reflectance. The mineral chemistry and mode of occurrence of trace elements also have been investigated using SEM and electron microprobe techniques. Twenty coal beds occur in the Jiu Valley and most of the samples are from bed no. 3, the most productive bed of the Dilja-Uricani Formation of Oligocene age. The Petrosani basin, oriented SW-NE, is 48-km long, 10-km wide at the eastern part and 2-km wide at the western part. The coal mines are distributed along the center of the valley generally following the Jiu de Vest River. Reflectance measurements indicate that the rank of the coals ranges from high-volatile B to high-volatile A bituminous. Overall, rank decreases from the southwest to the northeast. In bed no. 3, R{sub max} varies from 0.75% in the northeast to 0.93% in the southwest. Although, most Oligocene coals in Romania and adjacent countries are lignite in rank, the Jiu Valley bituminous coals have been affected by regional metamorphism and attending hydrothermal fluids related to the Alpine orogenic event. The coals are all dominated by vitrinite; resinite and funginite are important minor macerals in most of the coals. Pyrite and carbonate generally dominate the mineral assemblages with carbonate more abundant in the northwest. Siderite occurs as nodules and masses within the macerals (generally vitrinite). Dolomite and calcite occur as fracture fillings, plant-cell fillings, and in other authigenic forms. Late-stage fracture fillings are siderite, dolomite, calcite, and ankerite. In one instance, two populations of siderite ({proportional_to} 35 and {proportional_to} 45 wt.% FeO) plus ankerite fill a large fracture. Late-stage pyrite framboid alteration is Ni

  5. Crustal Structure Within the Southeastern Carpathian Arc, Transylvanian Basin, Romania from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

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    Stanciu, A. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Munteanu, L.

    2013-05-01

    We present new measurements of receiver functions at 4 broadband stations temporarily deployed in the Transylvanian Basin within the Carpathian Arc, Romania. Receiver functions can reveal depths to sharp crustal seismic velocity boundaries, which in complex tectonic environments such as the study area provide a good diagnostic for the regional tectonics. As a result of Africa (Adria) collision with Europe and subduction of a part of Tethys Ocean, Tisza-Dacia and Alcapa blocks escaped the collision and were emplaced in an embayment of this ocean, and form today the basement of the Transylvanian Basin. The collision of these terranes with the European continent culminated in the formation, in the Romanian part, of the Eastern Carpathians at the contact between the Transylvanian Basin and the East European Platform along the Tornquist-Teisseyre Suture zone, and of Southern Carpathians at the contact with Moesian Platform. In the foreland of the Carpathian Bend Zone, connecting the two mountain chains, in a very constrained area, a high velocity seismic body was contoured by hypocenters between 70 and 200 km depth. We constructed receiver functions using teleseismic P waves generated by events located between 30 and 95 degrees epicentral angle using the method of Ligorria and Ammon (1999) for individual measurements. We used the H-K method of Zhu and Kanamori (2000) to derive boundary interfaces depths and receiver function complexity from binned stacks. Preliminary results show a relatively shallow Moho depth beneath the Transylvanian Basin.

  6. Shear-Wave Splitting Within the Southeastern Carpathian Arc, Transylvanian Basin, Romania

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    Stanciu, A. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Munteanu, L.

    2012-12-01

    We present 75 new measurements of shear wave splitting at 4 temporary broadband seismic stations that we deployed in the Transylvanian Basin within the Carpathian Arc, Romania. The Tisza-Dacia terranes, which form the basement of this basin, were accommodated in the space between the thick, old, rigid and cold East European Platform and the Moesian Platform during the Miocene. This movement was driven by the subduction of a part of the Tethys Ocean, which led to the formation of Carpathian orogen system. In Romania, the mountains are divided into the Eastern Carpathians, at the limit of Transylvanian Basin and the East European Platform along the Tornquist-Teisseyre Suture Zone, and the Southern Carpathians, at the limit with Moesian Platform. They connect to the West of the Carpathian Bend Zone where a very active high velocity seismic body generates intermediate depth earthquakes between 70 and 200 km beneath the Vrancea seismogenic zone. We analyzed splitting of SKS and SKKS phases recorded at epicentral distances between 87 and 150 degrees using the method of Silver and Chan (1991). We estimated splitting parameters, fast shear polarization azimuth and delay time, using both weighted averages of individual splitting measurements (Helffrich et al., 1994) and simultaneous linearization of all clearly recorded SK(K)S waves (Wolfe and Silver, 1998). For COMD, located at the contact of the Carpathian Bend Zone and Transylvanian Basin, we obtained a fast shear polarization azimuth trending NE-SW, parallel to the contact and to the strike of the Vrancea seismic body. For 10 suitable events recorded at IACB, at the contact of the Neogene Volcanic zone with the Eastern Carpathians, we did not observe any splitting; we consider the station splitting to be null. The fast shear polarization azimuth for PMAR, at the limit between Tisza-Dacia block and Southern Carpathians thrust belt, and at CHDM, within the Transylvanian Basin, is NW-SE similar to a regional splitting

  7. Interdisciplinary cooperation and studies in geoscience in the Carpathian Basin

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    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field, as the more innovative studies are increasingly crossing discipline boundaries and thus benefitting from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by supporting and promoting the creation of “meeting places” able to provide a framework for researchers and scholars involved in geoscience research to find common grounds for discussion and collaboration. Most recently, this was achieved by organizing the 1st Workshop on “Interdisciplinarity in Geosciences in the Carpathian Basin” (IGCB held in the Department of Geography at the University of Suceava (Romania, between the 18th and 22nd October 2012. This event brought together both an international group of scientists and local researchers which created opportunities for collaboration in research topics such as geography, environment, geology and botany, biology and ecology in the Carpathian Basin.

  8. Crustal structure of the Western Carpathians and Pannonian Basin: Seismic models from CELEBRATION 2000 data and geological implications

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    Janik, Tomasz; Grad, Marek; Guterch, Aleksander; Vozár, Jozef; Bielik, Miroslav; Vozárova, Anna; Hegedűs, Endre; Kovács, Csaba Attila; Kovács, István; Keller, G. Randy; Celebration 2000 Working Group

    2011-08-01

    During the CELEBRATION 2000 seismic experiment, the Western Carpathians and Pannonian basin region was investigated by a dense system of deep seismic sounding profiles. In this paper, we present the results of modeling refracted and reflected waves employing 2D ray tracing for seven interlocking profiles that were jointly modeled and interpreted with the constraint that the models match at the crossing points of the profiles. The resulting P-wave velocity models reveal complex structures in the crust and large variations in the depth of the Moho discontinuity (˜25-45 km). In the southern part of the area, the relatively thin Pannonian basin crust consists of 3-7 km thick sediments and two crustal layers with velocities of 5.9-6.3 km/s in the upper crust and 6.3-6.6 km/s in the lower crust. In the central region, the upper crust of the ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) microplate contains a high velocity body of Vp ≥ 6.4 km/s, which spatially corresponds with the Bükk Composite Terrane. The total thickness of the ALCAPA crust is 1-2 km greater than in the adjacent Tisza-Dacia microplate. To the north in the area of the Trans-European suture zone (TESZ) and Carpathian foredeep, we observe a 10-20 km thick upper crust with low velocity ( Vp ≤ 6.0 km/s). Sub-Moho velocities have average values of 7.8-8.0 km/s for the Pannonian basin, while in the Western Carpathians, the TESZ and the East European Craton (EEC) area, they are slightly higher (8.0-8.1 km/s). Lower velocities beneath the ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates could be caused by compositional variations and the significantly higher surface heat flow. Beneath some profiles, reflectors in the lithospheric mantle were found sub-parallel to the Moho but 10-20 km below it. Our integrated geophysical and geological analysis indicates that the observed structure was created by collision of two lithospheric plates with only a moderate degree of convergence. The northern plate consists of older European

  9. Neogene palaeogeography and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas

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    Kováč, Michal; Márton, Emő; Oszczypko, Nestor; Vojtko, Rastislav; Hók, Jozef; Králiková, Silvia; Plašienka, Dušan; Klučiar, Tomáš; Hudáčková, Natália; Oszczypko-Clowes, Marta

    2017-08-01

    The data on the Neogene geodynamics, palaeogeography, and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas (ALCAPA Mega-unit) are summarized, re-evaluated, supplemented, and newly interpreted. The proposed concept is illustrated by a series of palinspastic and palaeotopographic maps. The Miocene development of the Outer Carpathians reflects the vanishing subduction of the residual oceanic and/or thinned continental crust. A compression perpendicular to the front of the orogenic system led to the closing of residual flysch troughs and to accretionary wedge growth, as well as to the development of a foredeep on the margin of the European Platform. Docking of the Outer Western Carpathians accretionary wedge, together with the Central Western Carpathians and Northern Pannonian domain, was accompanied by stretching of the overriding microplate. An orogen parallel and perpendicular extension was associated with the opening and subsidence of the Early and Middle Miocene hinterland (back-arc) basin system that compensated counter-clockwise rotations of the individual crustal fragments of ALCAPA. The Late Miocene development relates to the opening of the Pannonian Basin System. This process was coupled with common stretching of both ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia Mega-units due to the pull exerted by subduction rollback in front of the Eastern Carpathians. The filling up of the hinterland basin system was associated with thermal subsidence and was followed by the Pliocene tectonic inversion and consequent erosion of the basin system margins, as well as part of the interior.

  10. Neogene deformation of thrust-top Rzeszów Basin (Outer Carpathians, Poland)

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    Uroda, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    The Rzeszów Basin is a 220 km2 basin located in the frontal part of Polish Outer Carpathians fold-and-thrust belt. Its sedimentary succession consist of ca. 600 m- thick Miocene evaporates, litoral and marine sediments. This basin developed between Babica-Kąkolówka anticline and frontal thrust of Carpathian Orogen. Rzeszów thrust-top basin is a part of Carpathian foreland basin system- wedge-top depozone. The sediments of wedge -top depozone were syntectonic deformed, what is valuable tool to understand kinematic history of the orogen. Analysis of field and 3D seismic reflection data showed the internal structure of the basin. Seismic data reveal the presence of fault-bend-folds in the basement of Rzeszów basin. The architecture of the basin - the presence of fault-releated folds - suggest that the sediments were deformed in last compressing phase of Carpathian Orogen deformation. Evolution of Rzeszów Basin is compared with Bonini et.al. (1999) model of thrust-top basin whose development is controlled by the kinematics of two competing thrust anticlines. Analysis of seismic and well data in Rzeszów basin suggest that growth sediments are thicker in south part of the basin. During the thrusting the passive rotation of the internal thrust had taken place, what influence the basin fill architecture and depocentre migration opposite to thrust propagation. Acknowledgments This study was supported by grant No 2012/07/N/ST10/03221 of the Polish National Centre of Science "Tectonic activity of the Skole Nappe based on analysis of changes in the vertical profile and depocentre migration of Neogene sediments in Rzeszów-Strzyżów area (Outer Carpathians)". Seismic data by courtesy of the Polish Gas and Oil Company. References Bonini M., Moratti G., Sani F., 1999, Evolution and depocentre migration in thrust-top basins: inferences from the Messinian Velona Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy), Tectonophysics 304, 95-108.

  11. The significance of Gosau-type basins for the Late Cretaceous tectonic history of the Alpine-Carpathian Belt.

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    Willingshofer, E.; Neubauer, F.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    1999-01-01

    A key feature of Late Creataceous tectonics throughout the Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian (ALCAPA) region is the synchronous formation of sedimentary basins (Gosau basins) and exhumation of metamorphic domes. Initial subsidence, spatially varying in time (Cenomanian-Santonian), within Gosau-type basins

  12. Human impacts on river ice regime in the Carpathian Basin

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    Takács, Katalin; Nagy, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    examples from the Carpathian Basin represent some of the most common human impacts (engineering regulation, hydropower usage, water pollution), disturbing natural river ice regimes of mid-latitude rivers with densely populated or dynamically growing urban areas along their courses. In addition simple tests are also introduced to detect not only the climatic, but also the effect of anthropogenic impacts on river ice regime. As a result of river regulation on River Danube at Budapest a vanishing trend in river ice phenomena could be detected in the Danube records. The average ice-affected season shortened from 40 to 27 days, the average ice-covered season reduced greatly, from 27 to 7 days. In historical times the ice jams on the River Danube caused many times ice floods. The relative frequency of the break-up jam also decreased; moreover no ice flood occurred over the past 50 years. The changes due to hydropower usage are different upstream and downstream to the damming along the river. On Raba River upstream of the Nick dam at Ragyogóhíd, the ice-affected and ice-covered seasons were lengthened by 4 and 9 days, in contrast, downstream of the dam, the length of the ice-covered season was shortened by 7 days, and the number of ice-affected days decreased by 8 days at Árpás. During the observation period at Budapest on Danube River, the temperature requirements for river ice phenomena occurrence changed. Nowadays, much lower temperatures are needed to create the same ice phenomena compared to the start of the observations. For ice appearance, the mean winter air temperature requirements decreased from +2.39 °C to +1.71 °C. This investigation focused on anthropogenic effects on river ice regime, eliminating the impact of climatic conditions. Different forms of anthropogenic effects cause in most cases, a shorter length of ice-affected seasons and decreasing frequency of ice phenomena occurrence. Rising winter temperatures result the same changes in river ice regime

  13. Migration routes and stopover sites of the Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia between the Carpathian Basin and wintering areas

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    Pigniczki Csaba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the migration routes of the Central European Spoonbill population is important for their conservation. Here we analysed movements of 3186 individuals of Eurasian Spoonbills marked with colour rings in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary, Croatia and Serbia between 2003 and 2015, and a satellite tagged individual, which was equipped in Italy in 2013, and later moved to the Carpathian Basin. Migration routes of these Spoonbills predominantly followed the Adriatic Flyway, however, some birds were also found to both east and west from this flyway. We identified 59 stopover sites, 55 of which were located along the Adriatic Flyway. Colourringed juveniles (1cy, on average, spent 4.0±0.9 (SE days on the stopover sites along the Adriatic Flyway during autumn migration, while non-juveniles (> 1cy spent 2.6±1.0 (SE days during autumn and 2.1±0.4 (SE days during spring migration there. These durations were not significantly different. Duration of stops of the satellite tracked individual was between 7 and 15 days during autumn and between 1 and 12 days during spring migration. Our results indicate the existence of two alternative routes of the Adriatic Flyway between the Carpathian Basin and the wintering areas in southern Italy and the central part of coastal North-Africa. The North-Adriatic Flyway includes stopover sites in north-eastern Italy at the river mouth of River Isonzo, Lagunes of Venice and wetlands around River Po. The South Adriatic Flyway leads through the Balkan Peninsula, with stopover sites at the karst lakes of Bosnia and Herzegovina, mouth of the river Neretva (Croatia, Ulcinj Salinas (Montenegro and wetlands in Gulf of Manfredonia (Italy. This hypothesis was also supported by the migration of the satellite tagged individual, the paths of which was described here in detail. The average coordinates of spring and autumn stopover sites were located at different parts of the flyway: it was in south-western Italy during autumn

  14. Analysing the teleconnection systems affecting the climate of the Carpathian Basin

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    Kristóf, Erzsébet; Bartholy, Judit; Pongrácz, Rita

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, the increase of the global average near-surface air temperature is unequivocal. Atmospheric low-frequency variabilities have substantial impacts on climate variables such as air temperature and precipitation. Therefore, assessing their effects is essential to improve global and regional climate model simulations for the 21st century. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is one of the best-known atmospheric teleconnection patterns affecting the Carpathian Basin in Central Europe. Besides NAO, we aim to analyse other interannual-to-decadal teleconnection patterns, which might have significant impacts on the Carpathian Basin, namely, the East Atlantic/West Russia pattern, the Scandinavian pattern, the Mediterranean Oscillation, and the North-Sea Caspian Pattern. For this purpose primarily the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts' (ECMWF) ERA-20C atmospheric reanalysis dataset and multivariate statistical methods are used. The indices of each teleconnection pattern and their correlations with temperature and precipitation will be calculated for the period of 1961-1990. On the basis of these data first the long range (i. e. seasonal and/or annual scale) forecast ability is evaluated. Then, we aim to calculate the same indices of the relevant teleconnection patterns for the historical and future simulations of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models and compare them against each other using statistical methods. Our ultimate goal is to examine all available CMIP5 models and evaluate their abilities to reproduce the selected teleconnection systems. Thus, climate predictions for the 21st century for the Carpathian Basin may be improved using the best-performing models among all CMIP5 model simulations.

  15. HUMAN-INDUCED CHANGES IN ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE PETROŞANI DEPRESSION (SOUTHERN CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

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    ANDRA COSTACHE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the changes in ecosystem services in the most important coal field from the Southern Carpathians (Romania. The time horizon considered is the interval 1950-2010, characterized by two major processes: intensive development of the mining industry (1950-1989 and subsequent restructuring of mining, with significant consequences since 1996. Socio-economic phenomena associated with these two stages in the evolution of the region have generated major changes in ecosystem services, leading to increased human vulnerability, both to extreme events (natural hazards and pressure from economic factors.

  16. Crustal structure of the Western Carpathians and Pannonian Basin System: seismic models from CELEBRATION 2000 data and geological implication

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    Janik, Tomasz; Grad, Marek; Guterch, Aleksander; Vozár, Jozef; Bielik, Miroslav; Vozárova, Anna; Hegedżs, Endre; Attila Kovács, Csaba; Kovács, István.; Celebration 2000 Working Group

    2010-05-01

    During CELEBRATION 2000 experiment the area of the Western Carphathians and Pannonian Basin System on the territory of southeastern Poland, Slovak Republic and Hungary was investigated by dense system of the deep seismic sounding profiles. In this paper, we present results of modelling of refracted and reflected waves with use 2-D ray tracing technique for profiles CEL01, CEL04, CEL05, CEL06, CEL11, CEL12 and CEL28. All seven profiles were jointly interpreted with verification and control the models at crossing points. Obtained P-wave velocity models of the crust and uppermost mantle are very complex and show differentiation of the seismic structure, where the depth of the Moho discontinuity is changing from about 25 to about 45 km. In the southern part of the area the relatively thin Pannonian Basin System crust consists of 3-7 km thick sediments and two crustal layers with 5.9-6.3 km/s in the upper crust and 6.3-6.6 km/s in the lower crust. In the upper crust of ALCAPA beneath profile CEL05 a high velocity body of Vp≥ 6.4 km/s was detected in the uppermost 5 km, which corresponds to the Bükk Composite Terrane. The total thickness of the ALCAPA crust is 1-2 km bigger than in the Tisza-Dacia. In the northern part of the area we observe 10-20 km thick uppermost crust with low velocity (Vp≤6.0 km/s), connected with TESZ and Carpathian Foredeep. Together with ca. 6.2-6.5 km/s and 6.5-6.9 km/s crustal layers they have a total thickness of 30-45 km (north of the Pieniny Klippen Belt). A sub-Moho velocities have in average values of 7.8-8.0 km/s for the Pannonian basin System, while in the Western Carpathian, the Trans-European suture zone (TESZ) and the East European Craton (EEC) part they are slightly bigger, 8.0-8.1 km/s. Lower velocities beneath the microplates ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia could be caused by the different mineralogical and petrological compositions and the significant higher surface heat flow and temperature within the upper mantle. Beneath some

  17. Morphotectonic control of the Białka drainage basin (Central Carpathians: Insights from DEM and morphometric analysis.

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    Wołosiewicz Bartosz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Białka river valley is directly related to a deep NNW-SSE oriented fault zone. According to the results of previous morphometric analyses, the Białka drainage basin is one of the most tectonically active zones in the Central Carpathians. It is also located within an area of high seismic activity.

  18. 2D Seismic Velocity Modelling in the Southeastern Romanian Carpathians and its Foreland (Vrancea Zone and Focsani Basin)

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    Stephenson, R.; Bocin, A.; Tryggvason, A.

    2003-12-01

    The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining of new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappes and the architecture of Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the seismically-active Vrancea Zone, including the rapidly subsiding Focsani Basin. The DACIA-PLAN profile is about 140 km long, having a roughly NW-SE direction, from near the southeast Transylvanian Basin, across the mountainous southeastern Carpathians and their foreland to near the Danube Dalta. A high resolution 2D velocity model of the upper crust along the seismic profile has been determined from a first-arrival tomographic inversion of the DACIA-PLAN data. The shallowing of Palaeozoic-Mesozoic basement, and related structural heterogeneity within it, beneath the eastern flank of the Focsani Basin is clearly seen. Velocity heterogeneity within the Carpathian nappe belt is also evident and is indicative of internal structural complexity, including the presence of salt bodies and basement involvement in thrusting, thus favouring some current geological models over others. The presence of basement involvement implies the compressional reactivation of pre-existing basement normal faults. Members of the DACIA-PLAN/TomoSeis Working Group (see poster) should be considered as co-authors of this presentation.

  19. Synoptic climatological analysis of persistent cold air pools over the Carpathian Basin

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    Szabóné André, Karolina; Bartholy, Judit; Pongrácz, Rita

    2016-04-01

    A persistent cold air pool (PCAP) is a winter-time, anticyclone-related weather event over a relatively large basin. During this time the air is colder near the surface than aloft. This inversion near the surface can last even for weeks. As the cold air cools down, relative humidity increases and fog forms. The entire life cycle of a PCAP depends on the large scale circulation pattern. PCAP usually appears when an anticyclone builds up after a cold front passed over the examined basin, and it is usually destructed by a coming strong cold front of another midlatitude cyclone. Moreover, the intensity of the anticyclone affects the intensity of the PCAP. PCAP may result in different hazards for the population: (1) Temperature inversion in the surface layers together with weak wind may lead to severe air pollution causing health problems for many people, especially, elderly and children. (2) The fog and/or smog during chilly weather conditions often results in freezing rain. Both fog and freezing rain can distract transportation and electricity supply. Unfortunately, the numerical weather prediction models have difficulties to predict PCAP formation and destruction. One of the reasons is that PCAP is not defined objectively with a simple formula, which could be easily applied to the numerical output data. However, according to some recommendations from the synoptic literature, the shallow convective potential energy (SCPE) can be used to mathematically describe PCAP. In this study, we used the ERA-Interim reanalysis datasets to examine this very specific weather event (i.e., PCAP) over the Carpathian Basin. The connection between the mean sea level pressure and some PCAP measures (e.g., SCPE, energy deficit, etc.) is evaluated. For instance, we used logistic regression to identify PCAP periods over the Carpathian Basin. Then, further statistical analysis includes the evaluation of the length and intensity of these PCAP periods.

  20. Report on the 4th Conference on Environmental Science of the Carpathian Basin

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    Kiss, A.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The main organizers of the conference were the Faculty of Science and Technology of the University of Debrecen and the Sapientia - Hungarian University of Transylvania, Faculty of Science and Art, Cluj-Napoca, Romania (the proposer of this series of conferences). The Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI) took part in the organization as its Hertelendi Ede Environmental Research Laboratory and the Ion Beam Application Laboratory are engaged in the study of the environment of the Carpathian Basin. Moreover the Department of Environmental Physics, run jointly by the University of Debrecen and ATOMKI, plays an important role in teaching environmental physics at the university. The conference was held on 28-29 March, 2008, in the building of the Regional Committee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS) in Debrecen. The aim of the conference was to bring together scientists and students from different countries, involved in various aspects of environmental science and technology, since the common environmental problems of the Carpathian Basin to be solved make necessary the cooperation between them, living and working in different parts of the basin. The conference gave an opportunity to show the latest results in these fields, and in the same time it was an occasion for the young scientists to be introduced and to exchange experience. The scientific sections were the followings: environmental science and education, environmental chemistry, environmental physics, environmental geography, environmental protection and environmental technology, environmental biology and nature protection, landscape ecology and urban ecology. The number of registered participants (161) was the largest since the beginning (2005) of the conference series. They arrived from five countries (Hungary, Rumania, Slovakia, Croatia and Serbia), several institutions from 27 towns of the Carpathian Basin. The number of oral

  1. The Transylvanian Basin (Romania) and its relation to the Carpathian fold and thrust belt: Insights in gravitational salt tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krezsek, Csaba [SNGN ROMGAZ, 4 Unirii 551025 Medias (Romania); Bally, Albert W. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Rice, 6100 South Main Street, Houston, TX 77005-1892 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Interpretation of regional seismic profiles, stratigraphic and sedimentologic data improved insights in the evolution of the Transylvanian Basin. The basin evolution was coeval with the post-Mid-Cretaceous to recent deformation of the Carpathian Mts. Four tectonostratigraphic megasequences are differentiated: Upper Cretaceous (rift), Paleogene (sag), Lower Miocene (flexural basin) and Middle to Upper Miocene (backarc sequence dominated by gravitational tectonics). The Mid-Miocene continental collision in the Eastern Carpathians is associated with the rising Carpathians. This uplift enhanced the differential load, which, together with the high heat flow induced by Late Miocene to Pliocene arc volcanism, triggered large-scale Mio-Pliocene gravity spreading of the salt overburden. This 'mega-slide' comprises three structural domains, as follows: extensional weld (upslope), contractional folds (central) and contractional toe thrust (downslope). The diapirs in the east indicate a pre-shortening reactive/passive growth stage. The central folds are mostly the result of late shortening. Basement involved thrusting uplifted the toe thrust domain by the Late Pliocene. The Late Neogene to recent Carpathians uplift, backarc volcanism and gravity spreading are largely coeval. (author)

  2. Cretaceous sedimentation in the outer Eastern Carpathians: Implications for the facies model reconstruction of the Moldavide Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roban, R. D.; Krézsek, C.; Melinte-Dobrinescu, M. C.

    2017-06-01

    The mid Cretaceous is characterized by high eustatic sea-levels with widespread oxic conditions that made possible the occurrence of globally correlated Oceanic Red Beds. However, very often, these eustatic signals have been overprinted by local tectonics, which in turn resulted in Lower Cretaceous closed and anoxic basins, as in the Eastern Carpathians. There, the black shale to red bed transition occurs in the latest Albian up to the early Cenomanian. Although earlier studies discussed the large-scale basin configuration, no detailed petrography and sedimentology study has been performed in the Eastern Carpathians. This paper describes the Hauterivian to Turonian lithofacies and interprets the depositional settings based on their sedimentological features. The studied sections crop out only in tectonic half windows of the Eastern Carpathians, part of the Vrancea Nappe. The lithofacies comprises black shales interbedded with siderites and sandstones, calcarenites, marls, radiolarites and red shales. The siliciclastic muddy lithofacies in general reflects accumulation by suspension settling of pelagites and hemipelagites in anoxic (black shale) to dysoxic (dark gray and gray to green shales) and oxic (red shales) conditions. The radiolarites alternate with siliceous shales and are considered as evidence of climate changes. The sandstones represent mostly low and high-density turbidite currents in deep-marine lobes, as well as channel/levee systems. The source area is an eastern one, e.g., the Eastern Carpathians Foreland, given the abundance of low grade metamorphic clasts. The Hauterivian - lower Albian sediments are interpreted as deep-marine, linear and multiple sourced mud dominated systems deposited in a mainly anoxic to dysoxic basin. The anoxic conditions existed in the early to late Albian, but sedimentation changed to a higher energy mud/sand-dominated submarine channels and levees. This coarsening upwards tendency is interpreted as the effect of the

  3. Concurrent and opposed environmental trends during the last glacial cycle between the Carpathian Basin and the Black Sea coast: evidence from high resolution enviromagnetic loess records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, Ulrich; Zeeden, Christian; Veres, Daniel; Obreht, Igor; Bösken, Janina; Marković, Slobodan B.; Eckmeier, Eileen; Fischer, Peter; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Aeolian dust sediments (loess) are beside marine/lacustrine sediments, speleothemes and arctic ice cores the key archives for the reconstruction of the Quaternary palaeoenvironment in the Eurasian continental mid-latitudes. The Eurasian loess-belt has its western end in the Middle (Carpathian) and the Lower Danube Basin where one can find true loess plateaus dating back more than one million years and comprising a semi-continuous record of Pleistocene environmental change. The loess-palaeosol sequences (LPSS) of the region allow inter-regional and trans-regional comparison and, even more importantly, the analysis of temporal and spatial trends in Pleistocene environments, even on a hemispheric scale. However, the general temporal resolution of the LPSS seems mostly limited to the orbital scale patterns, enabling the general comparision of their well documented palaeoclimate record to the marine isotope stages (MIS) and thus to the course of the global ice volume with time. Following the widespread conventional wisdom in loess research, cold and more importantly dry conditions are generally assumed to lead to relatively high accumulation rates of loess, whereas during warmer and more humid environmental conditions the vegetation cover prevents ablation and clastic silt production. Moreover, synsedimentary pedogenesis prevails and hence, (embryonic) soils are formed which are rapidly buried by loess as soon as the climate returns to drier conditions. In the last decades, mineral magnetic parameters became fundamental palaeoclimate proxies in loess research. The magnetic susceptibility (χ) and its dependence on the frequency of the applied field (χfd) turned out to be beside grain size and geochemical indices a highly sensitive proxy especially for soil humidity during loess accumulation. Here we present the first results of an ongoing study on two Late Pleistocene LPSS from the southern Carpathian Basin (Titel-Plateau, Vojvodina, Serbia) and the eastern Lower

  4. National minorities and the question of the autonomy in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Szilágyi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century is the age of globa-lisation. It is also the time of minorities, identities moving back towards nationality-consciousness, minority rights and autonomies. These factors have a significant influence on the multinational state structures in both the developed and semi-peripheral areas of the world. The transformation of the unitarian centralised states and territorial systems carried out by devolutional, decentralised and region-regulatory processes as well as the development of the local councils and self-governing systems representing territorial autonomies of different levels indicate general tendencies. In the life of national minorities living in the territories of multinational states the mother tongue is the primary representative of national identity and serves as an increasingly powerful factor in the lives of national mi-norities. On the basis of the National Censuses in 2011, the study analyses the possible frame-work, circumstances and the demographic factors in the Carpathian Basin.Keywords: National minorities, National identities, self-government, Autonomy models, Spain, Federalism, Catalonian experiences, Carpathian Basin, Seklerland, Hungarian minorities, Rumania._________________El siglo XXI es la edad de la globalización. Es también el tiempo de las minorías, las identidades de nuevo en movimiento hacia la conciencia nacional, los derechos de las minorías y las autonomías. Estos factores tienen una influencia significativa en las estructuras estatales multinacionales, tanto en las zonas desarrolladas como en las periferias del mundo. La transformación de los Estados centralizados unitarios y los sistemas territoriales, llevados a cabo por procesos evolutivos, descentralizados y de cada región reguladora, así como el desarrollo de los consejos locales y los sistemas autónomos que representan a las autonomías territoriales de diferentes niveles indican tendencias generales. En la vida de las minor

  5. Extending the area of investigation of fine versus coarse quartz optical ages from the Lower Danube to the Carpathian Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timar-Gabor, Alida; Constantin, Daniela; Marković, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    mm) grains and coarse (63e90 mm) grains respectively. The current study aims at expanding these investigations, both by extending the area of study from the Lower Danube Basin to the Carpathian Basin and by applying time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence (TR-OSL) on quartz, in order to gain...... is observed for both continuous wave (CW-OSL) and pulsed OSL (POSL), where the dose response (up to 1000 Gy) is well described by a sum of two saturating exponential functions. TR-OSL measurements show one single, characteristic quartz lifetime for both natural as well as regenerative signals in the entire...

  6. The Mythical Power of the Dual River-System of the Carpathian Basin: The Notion of a Hungarian Mesopotamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Keményfi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gyula Prinz is responsible for the notion of “Magyar Mezopotámia” [Hungarian Mesopotamia]. The natural basis for this idea is that Hungarian culture developed on the surface of an alluvial plains area. This sort of natural environment was the precondition of great civilizations based on agriculture. In other words, the intrinsic Duna-Tisza [Danubius-Tibiscus] river structure, which is similar to that of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, would elevate Hungary to the status of a mesopotamic country. This is how the central Hungarian area could become the distributing core of culture and how this culture could be radiated towards the neighboring peoples who also lived together with us in the Carpathian Basin. Our “cultural power” therefore “elevated” the cultural level of other peoples who lived with us on the edges of the Carpathian Basin. Accordingly, the end, or the borderline, of the highbrow “core culture” is located where the territory populated by Hungarians ends, or where the plains area shifts into the Carpathian Mountains.

  7. Characterization of photoautotrophic picoplankton assemblages in turbid, alkaline lakes of the Carpathian Basin (Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos VÖRÖS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The photoautotrophic picoplankton (PPP of ten shallow, hyposaline soda lakes located in three different geographical regions in the Carpathian Basin (Central Europe was characterized. These lakes, which frequently dry out completely, are extremely rich in PPP. Epifluorescence microscopy was applied to determine picocyanobacterial and picoeukaryotic cell abundance and PCR-based molecular techniques (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and cloning with phylospecies delineation to identify the members of PPP. Most of these lakes were eu- and hypertrophic with varying contribution of picocyanobacteria to the total PPP cell number. We found an unusually high PPP abundance with peaks of 8.16 × 106 cells mL-1 for picoeukaryotes and 1.78 × 107 cells mL-1 for picocyanobacteria. The majority of the retrieved PPP sequences belonged to picocyanobacteria (nonmarine Synechococcus/ Cyanobium, while others showed similarity to eukaryotic algal plastids (close to Trebouxiophycean isolates. Molecular analysis revealed significant genetic diversity in the PPP fraction of these lakes and showed that the closest relatives of our picocyanobacterial clones were recovered from different habitats, indicating seemingly no correlation between the 'saline' ecotypes and their phylogenetic position. Our results also confirmed that PPP might exploit different aquatic ecosystems and be successful even in the case of abrupt changes of environmental parameters (in our case, salinity. According to our knowledge, this is the first survey focusing on the identification of the PPP community members in turbid and alkaline lakes with extraordinarily high picoplankton productivity.

  8. Luminescence dating of the lacustrine record of Vršac (Carpathian Basin, Serbia) - implications for a palaeoenvironmetal reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, N.; Zeeden, C.; Markovic, S.; Fischer, P.; Lehmkuhl, F.; Schulte, P.; Bösken, J.; Hambach, U.; Vött, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Carpathian Basin is one of the key areas to investigate the influence of the continental, Mediterranean and Atlantic climate interaction over Europe. The available Upper Pleistocene and Holocene geoarchives in the region are mainly loess-paleosol records. Long lacustrine records are sparse and do not always span the whole last glacial cycle. In the area around Vršac, we drilled a 10 m core to contribute to the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Carpathian Basin. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was used to find the best-suited drilling location. We applied luminescence and radiocarbon dating, because a robust chronology is important for the interpretation of the sedimentary record. Pulsed OSL measurements were carried out to identify the best sampling positions. We expect runoff from the catchment being the main source of the lacustrine sediments, because coarse fluvial input is absent. Knowledge about the depositional conditions is important in luminescence dating to evaluate partial bleaching prior to deposition, which may cause age overestimation. Therefore, we compared infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals with post infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIRIR) signals, which bleach at different rates. Estimation of a representative water content has major influence on the age estimate, but remains challenging in luminescence dating. We measured the present day water content as well as the saturation water content, to account for variations over time. Luminescence and radiocarbon ages differ greatly from each other. According to the laboratory experiments, luminescence dating was reliable and we conclude that radiocarbon ages were underestimated because of an intrusion of younger organic material. The initial results demonstrated the potential of the drill core. Integrating more proxy data will be useful to enhance the importance of the geoarchive at Vršac for a better understanding of the last glacial cycle in the Carpathian

  9. Simulated trends of extreme climate indices for the Carpathian basin using outputs of different regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongracz, R.; Bartholy, J.; Szabo, P.; Pieczka, I.; Torma, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Regional climatological effects of global warming may be recognized not only in shifts of mean temperature and precipitation, but in the frequency or intensity changes of different climate extremes. Several climate extreme indices are analyzed and compared for the Carpathian basin (located in Central/Eastern Europe) following the guidelines suggested by the joint WMO-CCl/CLIVAR Working Group on climate change detection. Our statistical trend analysis includes the evaluation of several extreme temperature and precipitation indices, e.g., the numbers of severe cold days, winter days, frost days, cold days, warm days, summer days, hot days, extremely hot days, cold nights, warm nights, the intra-annual extreme temperature range, the heat wave duration, the growing season length, the number of wet days (using several threshold values defining extremes), the maximum number of consecutive dry days, the highest 1-day precipitation amount, the greatest 5-day rainfall total, the annual fraction due to extreme precipitation events, etc. In order to evaluate the future trends (2071-2100) in the Carpathian basin, daily values of meteorological variables are obtained from the outputs of various regional climate model (RCM) experiments accomplished in the frame of the completed EU-project PRUDENCE (Prediction of Regional scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining EuropeaN Climate change risks and Effects). Horizontal resolution of the applied RCMs is 50 km. Both scenarios A2 and B2 are used to compare past and future trends of the extreme climate indices for the Carpathian basin. Furthermore, fine-resolution climate experiments of two additional RCMs adapted and run at the Department of Meteorology, Eotvos Lorand University are used to extend the trend analysis of climate extremes for the Carpathian basin. (1) Model PRECIS (run at 25 km horizontal resolution) was developed at the UK Met Office, Hadley Centre, and it uses the boundary conditions from the HadCM3 GCM. (2) Model Reg

  10. Main flood peaks in the medieval Carpathian Basin (1000-1500): Annual and decadal overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The analysis of over 140 reported floods is mainly based on contemporary legal evidence (charters), partly on other types of contemporary documentary evidence. Majority of sources contains data on individual flood events (i.e. occurrence, seasonality, magnitude). Concerning main flood peaks, evidence on annual and multi-annual (decadal, multi-decadal) level is also available. Despite data increase in the 13th century, only in the 14th-15th centuries documentation is representative enough to draw further conclusions. Apart from secondary flood peaks (probably in the mid-13th century and the turn of the 13th-14th centuries), three main periods with high flood frequencies are detected: 1330s-1350s, 1390s-1430s, and the late 1480s-1490s (continuing in the early 16th century). The first major flood peak was primarily reported in the eastern Carpathian Basin (the Tisa catchment), and can be characterised by a number of high-intensity flood events (with 1342-1343 in centre). During the second major, prolonged flood peak of 1390s-1430s, and that of the third, late 15th century one the importance of floods occurred on the Danube and in the Danube catchment area has to be as well highlighted. Moreover, in the first half of the 15th century long-term hydrological problems (prolonged high water-level and high flood frequency problems) can be identified. In some cases high flood-frequency periods were accompanied by documented hydromorphological impacts and some impacts on society can be also detected. Results show good agreement with the decadal precipitation reconstruction based on speleothem investigations carried out in North-Hungary.

  11. β-Estradiol and ethinyl-estradiol contamination in the rivers of the Carpathian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avar, Péter; Zrínyi, Zita; Maász, Gábor; Takátsy, Anikó; Lovas, Sándor; G-Tóth, László; Pirger, Zsolt

    2016-06-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), which are environmental estrogens, have been determined with LC-MS in freshwater. Their sensitive analysis needs derivatization and therefore is very hard to achieve in multiresidue screening. We analyzed samples from all the large and some small rivers (River Danube, Drava, Mur, Sava, Tisza, and Zala) of the Carpathian Basin and from Lake Balaton. Freshwater was extracted on solid phase and derivatized using dansyl chloride. Separation was performed on a Kinetex XB-C18 column. Detection was achieved with a benchtop orbitrap mass spectrometer using targeted MS analysis for quantification. Limits of quantification were 0.05 ng/L (MS1) and 0.1 ng/L (MS/MS) for E2, and 0.001 ng/L (MS1) and 0.2 ng/L (MS/MS) for EE2. River samples contained n.d.-5.2 ng/L E2 and n.d.-0.68 ng/L EE2. Average levels of E2 and EE2 were 0.61 and 0.084 ng/L, respectively, in rivers, water courses, and Lake Balaton together, but not counting city canal water. EE2 was less abundant, but it was still present in almost all of the samples. In beach water samples from Lake Balaton, we measured 0.076-0.233 E2 and n.d.-0.133 EE2. A relative high amount of EE2 was found in river Zala (0.68 ng/L) and in Hévíz-Páhoki canal (0.52 ng/L), which are both in the catchment area of Lake Balaton (Hungary).

  12. Contrasting Permo - Carboniferous Evolution of Resita and Sirinia - Presacina Basins (South Carpathians, Romania); an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, M.; Seghedi, I.; Nutu, L. M.; Nicolae, I.

    2009-04-01

    Two important Permo-Carboniferous molasses basins Resita and Sirinia - Presacina occur in Romanian Banat (south-western part of Carpathian chain), unconformable overlie the Getic and Danubian domains with different pre-Variscan and Variscan geodynamic history. They show differences in their lithology reflecting various geotectonic settings and evolutions. In the Resita domain the Upper Carboniferous deposits (Westphalian - Stephanian in age, according to the previous paleobotanic and palynological data) are important in volume and they contain terrigeneous siliciclastic rocks represented by sandy - conglomerate and argillaceous - sandy rocks variable in thickness with siltstone, carbonaceous shale and coal beds interlayering. There are not volcanic rocks present in Upper Carboniferous of Resita domain. In contrast with Resita in the Sirinia - Presacina basins the Upper Carboniferous deposits are volumetrically more restrictive. These deposits transgresively overlie pre-Sudetian formations and consist of continental - lacustrine terrigeneous formations, rarely associated with limnic carbonatic rocks. In this association the alternating conglomerate, siliceous sandstone, siltstone and clay with lens - like coal inter-layers prevails. In two small areas Dragosela - Tulinecea - Camenita (in the western part) and Baia Noua - Cucuiova (in the eastern part) the terrigeneous deposits are associated with basaltic andesite and andesite rocks with alkaline affinity. In both of these basins the Lower Permian deposits (according to the paleobotanic data) unconformably overlie the Upper Carboniferous formations and/or pre-Sudetian basements. The Lower Permian deposits in the Resita basin occur in two superposed formations (Nastaseanu, 1987): (1) Walchia Beds dominated by black argillaceous shales, slightly bituminous with rare sandy-conglomerate interlayers and (2) Red Beds composed by sandy-conglomerate deposits with some argillaceous intercalations, all red in color, with

  13. The significance of the Sun, Moon and celestial bodies to societies in the Carpathian basin during the Bronze Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, Emília

    2011-06-01

    Celestial events often exerted a great or even decisive influence on the life of ancient communities. They may provide some of the foundations on which an understanding of the deeper meaning of mythologies, religious systems and even folk tales can be based. These influences are reflected and may be detected in the archaeological material as well. There is good evidence that celestial (especially solar and perhaps lunar) phenomena played a particularly important rôle in the worldview of prehistoric Europe. To reveal the social and ideational significance of concepts relating to the celestial bodies in the prehistory of the Carpathian Basin, complex investigations on orientations of houses and graves, prestige archaeological finds and iconography have been accomplished. The results indicate ideological and/or social changes, which developed into a likely organized ideological system in large part of Central Europe including the Carpathian Basin by the Late Bronze Age. It might also be the first period in prehistory when people became really interested in celestial phenomena.

  14. Long-term monitoring of air pollution effects on selected forest ecosystems in the Bucegi-Piatra Craiului and Retezat Mountains, southern Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Badea; S. Neagu; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; D. Silaghi; I. Barbu; C. Iacoban; F. Popescu; M. Andrei; E. Preda; C. Iacob; I. Dumitru; H. Iuncu; C. Vezeanu; V. Huber

    2011-01-01

    The monitoring studies carried out in the southern Romanian Carpathians (Retezat and Bucegi - Piatra Craiului Mts) provide a scientific support for long term ecosystem research (LTER). Their general objective is to characterize the air pollution and its potential effects upon forest ecosystems' status and biodiversity in close connection with climatic changes. Two...

  15. The influence of the physico-geographical factors which determine floods in small basins from the Romanian Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovici, Felicia

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the influence of the climatic, physical and geographical factors (precipitations,geology, soil, vegetation, anthropogenic impact) to the maximum discharge, factors that generate the floods in small basins situated in the west part of Oriental Carpathians, Romania. For the period of study (1 975 - 2000), is very important to analyse: - the maximum discharge which are produced; - the more important elements of floods; - the characteristics of the precipitations and runoff coefficients which are produced in the basins considered.(Gurghiu, Tarnave, Sovata, Bistra, Hodos, Homorodul Mare si Homorodul Mic, Rastolita.) Tables and graphics are coming to illustrate with accuracy the relationships between the characteristics of the rainfalls and geographical conditions of the main floods produced in these basins. The reason of these analyse is to determine useful parameters for the prediction and forecast of the floods in small basins, because these basins have a high-speed reaction to the inputs elements (precipitations and its characteristics).(Author)

  16. Klippen Belt, Flysch Belt and Inner Western Carpathian Paleogene Basin Relations in the Northern Slovakia by Magnetotelluric Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majcin, D.; Bezák, V.; Klanica, Radek; Vozár, J.; Pek, Josef; Bilčík, D.; Telecký, Josef

    (2018) ISSN 0033-4553 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : magnetotellurics * Western Carpathians * Klippen Belt * Flysch Belt * Inner Carpathian Paleogene Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2016

  17. Stable isotope distribution in continental Maastrichtian vertebrates from the Haţeg Basin, South Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Csiki, Zoltan; Grigorescu, Dan

    2010-05-01

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of biogenic apatite from crocodiles, turtles and dinosaurs, and their relationship to climate and physiology have been evidenced by several studies (Barrick and Showers, 1995; Kolodny et al., 1996; Barrick et al., 1999; Fricke and Rogers, 2000; Stoskopf et al., 2001; Straight et al., 2004; Amiot et al., 2007). To date, few attempts have been made to correlate the enamel d13C to dietary resources of dinosaurs (Bocherens et al., 1988; Stanton Thomas and Carlson, 2004; Fricke and Pearson, 2008; Fricke, et al., 2008). One additional complication is that for dinosaurs, the d18O of enamel phosphate depends on both body water and variations in body temperature. Several studies addressed the issue of endothermy vs. ectothermy of fossil vertebrates by studying inter- and intra-bone and enamel isotopic variability (Barrick and Showers, 1994, 1995; Barrick et al., 1996; 1998; Fricke and Rogers, 2000). More recent investigations provided evidence for inter-tooth temporal variations and related them to seasonality and/or changes in physiology (Straight et al., 2004; Stanton Thomas and Carlson, 2004). The main objectives of this study are to extract palaeoclimatic information considering, beside lithofacial characteristics and the isotopic distribution of carbonates formed in paleosols, the stable isotope composition of vertebrate remains from the Haţeg Basin. We also sampled several teeth along their growth axis in order to get further information about growth rates and the amplitude of isotopic variation. Located in the South Carpathians in Romania, the Haţeg Basin contains a thick sequence of Maastrichtian continental deposits yielding a rich dinosaur and mammalian fauna. Stable isotope analyses of both calcretes and dinosaur, crocodilian and turtle remains from two localities (Tuştea and Sibişel) were integrated in order to reconstruct environmental conditions during the Maastrichtian time and to gain further insights into the metabolism

  18. On the formation and evolution of the Pannonian basin: constraints derived from the orogenic collapse recorded at the junction between Carpathians and Dinarides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenco, L. C.; Radivojevic, D.

    2012-04-01

    Formation and evolution of back-arc basins is related to the evolution of subduction zones, resulting geometries being dependent on the interplay between the velocity of retreating slabs and boundary conditions that often limit rapid subduction systems. Classical models of evolution in the Alps-Carpathians-Dinaridic domain assume that the formation of the Pannonian back-arc basin is related to the rapid roll-back of an European slab and the invasion of Tisza-Dacia and ALCAPA upper plate blocks into the so-called Carpathians embayment starting at ~20Ma. The general mechanism assumes a gradual evolution, an initial mechanical phase of extensional detachments being recognized near the transition between the Alps and the Pannonian basin was subsequently followed by upper crustal normal faulting and a thermal phase during the Middle-late Miocene times that affected the central part of the Pannonian basin. A key area of the entire system often neglected by kinematic studies is the connection between South Carpathians and Dinarides. Here, regional seismic lines traversing the entire Serbian part of the Pannonian basin were calibrated with well data in order to derive an evolutionary model. The deformation is dominantly expressed by the formation of extensional (half-)grabens that are the brittle expression of large-scale extensional detachments. In contrast with previous interpretation restricting the syn-rift phase to the Middle Miocene, the geometry of normal faults and the associated syn-kinematic sedimentation allows the definition of a continuous Early to Late Miocene extensional evolution that was followed by the formation of isolated uplifted areas during the subsequent Pliocene - Quaternary inversion. The orientation of these (half-)grabens changes gradually from W-E to NW-SE and then to N-S, suggesting that the present-day strike of faults is the effect of a clockwise rotational mechanism of South Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains in respect to Dinarides. The S

  19. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panea, I.; Stephenson, R.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-12-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the experiment was to obtain new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappes and the architecture of Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the seismically-active Vrancea zone, including the Focsani Basin. The seismic reflection line had a WNW-ESE orientation, running from internal East Carpathians units, across the mountainous south-eastern Carpathians, and the foreland Focsani Basin towards the Danube Delta. There were 131 shot points along the profile, with about 1 km spacing, and data were recorded with stand-alone RefTek-125s (also known as "Texans"), supplied by the University Texas at El Paso and the PASSCAL Institute. The entire line was recorded in three deployments, using about 340 receivers in the first deployment and 640 receivers in each of the other two deployments. The resulting deep seismic reflection stacks, processed to 20 s along the entire profile and to 10 s in the eastern Focsani Basin, are presented here. The regional architecture of the latter, interpreted in the context of abundant independent constraint from exploration seismic and subsurface data, is well imaged. Image quality within and beneath the thrust belt is of much poorer quality. Nevertheless, there is good evidence to suggest that a thick (˜10 km) sedimentary basin having the structure of a graben and of indeterminate age underlies the westernmost part of the Focsani Basin, in the depth range 10-25 km. Most of the crustal depth seismicity observed in the Vrancea zone (as opposed to the more intense upper mantle seismicity) appears to be associated with this sedimentary basin. The sedimentary successions within this basin and other horizons

  20. The impact of Outer Western Carpathian nappe tectonics on the recent stress-strain state in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Moravosilesian Zone, Bohemian Massif)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ptáček, Jiří; Grygar, R.; Koníček, Petr; Waclawik, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2012), s. 3-11 ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/08/1625 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Variscan orogeny * Upper Silesian Coal Basin * recent stress fields * Outer Western Carpathians * paleostress Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.143, year: 2012 http://versita.metapress.com/content/0326174t34663755/

  1. New constraints on the tectonic and thermal evolution of the Central-Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelluccio, Ada; Andreucci, Benedetta; Grigo, Domenico; Jankowski, Leszek; Ketcham, Richard A.; Mazzoli, Stefano; Szaniawski, Rafal; Zattin, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    The Central-Western Carpathians have been studied for long time but they are a still matter of discussion. In addition, they are one of the principal East European targets for oil and gas exploration. Understanding the tectonic evolution and the spatial and temporal variation of the thermal regime is crucial for this purpose. This orogene formed after the collision between the European Platform and the ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates from the Upper Jurassic to the Neogene. The widely accepted interpretation suggests the occurrence of the oceanic lithosphere subducting under the two microplates and the development of the oceanic suture in the Pieniny Klippen Belt area during the Paleocene. The subduction ends when the accretionary wedge reaches its present-day position on top of the southern border of the European Platform. The Carpathian arc can be subdivided into three tectonic domains: • Outer Carpathians made up of Upper Jurassic to Lower Miocene siliciclastic deposits intercalated with shales and sandstones; • Pieniny Klippen Belt formed by Mesozoic olistoliths and olistostromes in a sandy-clay Cretaceous sheared matrix; • Inner Carpathians consisting in Variscan allochthonous crystalline basement with its Mesozoic cover involved in the late Cretaceous folding and thrusting These deposits are unconformably overlain by the undeformed Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin successions. Cross-section balancing and sequential restoration integrated with low-temperature thermochronometry (apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He analysis) can better constrain the tectonic evolution of this area and, in particular, its exhumation history. Seven balanced sections have been constructed across the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians. The sequential restoration shows a thick-skinned tectonics during the Upper Cretaceous, involving the Inner Carpathian basin. The erosion of the Mesozoic basement cover and the sedimentation of these deposits in the foreland basin

  2. The lithospheric structure of the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region based on the CELEBRATION 2000 seismic experiment and gravity modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tašárová, Alasonati; Afonso, J. C.; Bielik, M.; Götze, H.-J.; Hók, J.

    2009-10-01

    The lithospheric structure of the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region was studied using 3-D modelling of the Bouguer gravity anomaly constrained by seismic models and other geophysical data. The thermal structure and density distribution in the shallow upper mantle were also estimated using a combination of petrological, geophysical, and mineral physics information (LitMod). This approach is necessary if the more complicated structure of the Pannonian Basin is to be better constrained. As a result, we have constructed the first 3-D gravity model of the region that combines various geophysical datasets and is consistent with petrological data. The model provides improved estimates of both the density distribution within the lithosphere and the depth to major density discontinuities. We present new maps of the thickness of major sedimentary basins and of the depth to the Moho and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. In our best-fitting model, the Pannonian Basin is characterised by extremely thin crust and lithospheric mantle, both of which have low density. A low-density uppermost asthenospheric mantle layer is also included at depths of 60-100 km. The Western Carpathians have only a thin crustal root and moderate densities. In contrast, the European Platform and Eastern Alps are characterised by lithosphere that is considerably thicker and denser. This inference is also supported by stripped gravity anomalies from which sediment, Moho and asthenospheric gravity contributions have been removed. These residual anomalies are characteristically low in the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region, which suggests that both the ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates are 'exotic terranes' that are markedly different to the European Platform.

  3. Reconstructing recent environmental change in the Carpathian Basin; advocating an interdisciplinary approach for 2020 environmental science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon HUTCHINSON

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to environmental science is particularly important in the field of palaeoenvironmental research. Indeed, while the majority of such studies employ a range of proxies in their investigation, the more innovative studies tend to truly cross discipline boundaries. The investigation of depositional environments (e.g., lake sediments and mires as archives of environmental history has a long tradition in the Carpathian region. However, glacial lakes across the region have also been described as under-investigated despite their potential for palaeolimnological study (Buczko et al. 2009. Studies have also largely focused on relatively early (Late Glacial and Early Holocene environmental change.  Nevertheless, there is an increasing interest in the reconstruction of more human-driven impacts on the environment and events in the very recent past on a century to decade timescale e.g., post Industrial Revolution and following political change from the mid 1940s and in the late 1980s. Furthermore, efforts have are also being made to inform the debate about future climate and environmental changes linking palaeoenvironmental records to predictive computer modelling.

  4. Seismic velocity model of the crust and upper mantle along profile PANCAKE across the Carpathians between the Pannonian Basin and the East European Craton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starostenko, V.; Janik, T.; Kolomiyets, K.

    2013-01-01

    the Transcarpathian Depression and the Carpathian Foredeep; and the south-western part of the EEC, including the Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ). Seismic data support a robust model of the Vp velocity structure of the crust. In the PB, the 22-23km thick crust consists of a 2-5km thick sedimentary layer (Vp=2......Results are presented of a seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction survey along a profile between the Pannonian Basin (PB) and the East European Craton (EEC) called PANCAKE. The P- and S-wave velocity model derived can be divided into three sectors: the PB; the Carpathians, including.......4-3.7km/s), 17-20km thick upper crystalline crust (5.9-6.3km/s) and an up to 3km thick lower crustal layer (Vp=6.4km/s). In the central part of the Carpathians, a 10-24km thick uppermost part of the crust with Vp≤6.0km/s may correspond to sedimentary rocks of different ages; several high velocity bodies...

  5. Antibacterial screening of Rumex species native to the Carpathian Basin and bioactivity-guided isolation of compounds from Rumex aquaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán-Gyapai, Orsolya; Liktor-Busa, Erika; Kúsz, Norbert; Stefkó, Dóra; Urbán, Edit; Hohmann, Judit; Vasas, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Rumex (family Polygonaceae) are used worldwide in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases caused by different microorganisms (e.g. bacteria-related dermatologic conditions, dysentery and enteritis). The present study focused on the antibacterial screening of Rumex species native to the Carpathian Basin, and isolation of compounds from one of the most efficient species, Rumex aquaticus. The antibacterial effects of n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous fractions of methanol extracts prepared from different parts of 14 Rumex species (R. acetosella, R. acetosa, R. alpinus, R. aquaticus, R. conglomeratus, R. crispus, R. hydrolapathum, R. obtusifolius subsp. obtusifolius, R. obtusifolius subsp. subalpinus, R. patientia, R. pulcher, R. scutatus, R. stenophyllus and R. thyrsiflorus) were investigated against Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, MRSA, Bacillus subtilis, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, S. agalactiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using the disc diffusion method. Mainly the n-hexane and chloroform extracts prepared from the roots of the plants displayed high antibacterial activity (inhibition zones>15mm) against one or more bacterial strains. The highly active extracts of the aerial part and root of R. aquaticus were subjected to a multistep separation procedure. 19 Compounds, among them naphthalenes (musizin, and its glucoside, torachrysone-glucoside, 2-methoxystypandrone), anthraquinones (emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, citreorosein, chrysophanol-8-O-glucoside), flavonoids (quercetin, quercetin-3,3'-dimethylether, isokaempferide, quercetin 3-O-arabinoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, catechin), stilbenes (resveratrol, piceid), and 1-stearoylglycerol were isolated from the plant. The antibacterial activities of isolated compounds were determined, and it was observed that especially naphthalenes exerted remarkable antibacterial effects against

  6. Alboran Basin, southern Spain - Part I: Geomorphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A. [Secretaria General de Pesca Maritima, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Ballesteros, M.; Rivera, J.; Acosta, J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Montoya, I. [Universidad Juan Carlos I, Campus de Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Uchupi, E. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Bathymetric, 3D relief and shaded relief maps created from multibeam echo-sounding data image the morphology of the Alboran Basin, a structural low along the east-west-trending Eurasian-African plates boundary. Topographic features in the basin are the consequence of volcanism associated with Miocene rifting, rift and post-rift sedimentation, and recent faulting resulting from the convergence of the African-Eurasian plates. Pleistiocene glacially induced regressions/transgressions when the sea level dropped to about 150 m below its present level gas seeps and bottom currents. Recent faulting and the Pleistocene transgressions/regressions led to mass-wasting, formation of turbidity currents and canyon erosion on the basin's slopes. Recent fault traces at the base of the northern basin slope have also served as passageways for thermogenic methane, the oxidation of which by bacteria led to the formation of carbonate mounds along the fault intercepts on the sea floor. Expulsion of thermogenic or biogenic gas has led to the formation of pockmarks; erosion by bottom currents has resulted in the formation of moats around seamounts and erosion of the seafloor of the Alboran Ridge and kept the southern edge of the 36 10'N high sediment free. (author)

  7. Controls of structural inheritance on orogenic curvature and foreland basin sedimentation: Insights from the Przemyśl area, Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaniawski, Rafał; Mazzoli, Stefano; Jankowski, Leszek

    2017-10-01

    Orogenic curvatures can have various origins and are widely debated worldwide. In the Poland-Ukraine border area, the Outer Western Carpathians are characterized by a marked curvature. The origin of this curvature was analysed by integrating stratigraphic information with structural constraints and anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data. Hangingwall frontal ramp domains are characterized by a relatively simple deformation dominated by layer-parallel shortening and folding around a regional NW-SE trending axis, recorded by an AMS lineation with a similar trend. On the other hand, the N-S trending hangingwall oblique ramp domain is characterized by maximum AMS axes recording transpressional strain either dominated by simple shear (sub-horizontal AMS lineation) or pure shear (steeply plunging AMS lineation) components. Early Miocene basin inversion with two distinct depocentres created a number of different detachment surfaces and thickness variations for the sedimentary successions involved in thrusting. The main depocentre of the Lower-Middle Miocene foredeep was originally located in the recess area of the curved Carpathian front. On the other hand, the occurrence of a salient to the west resulted in the axial zone of the foreland flexure being filled with allochthonous units, thereby dramatically reducing the accommodation space for foredeep sediments in this area. Our results suggest that thrust-belt geometry was controlled by the inherited Mesozoic extensional basin architecture.

  8. Ármin Vámbéry (1832-1913 as a Historian of Early Hungarian Settlement in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nándor Dreisziger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the English-speaking world Ármin Vámbéry is known as a traveler in Central Asia and a student of Turkic cultures and languages. In his native Hungary he is also known for his disagreement with linguists who believed that Hungarian belonged to the Ugric branch of the Finno-Ugric languages—a part of the Uralic linguistic family. Rather than accepting this theory, Vámbéry contended that Hungarian was largely a Turkic language that belonged more to the Altaic family. Few people know that Vámbéry also expressed strong opinions about the genesis of the Hungarian nation. The most important aspect of Vámbéry’s theory about Hungarian origins is the thesis that Hungarian ethnogenesis took place—beginning with late Roman times or even earlier—in the Carpathian Basin. A corollary of this proposition is that the nomadic tribes that conquered the Carpathian Basin at the end of the ninth century were Turkic peoples who were few in numbers and were assimilated by the region’s autochthonous—and by then Hungarian-speaking—population. This paper outlines Vámbéry’s arguments and describes to what extent research on this subject in the century since Vámbéry’s death has confirmed or contradicted his unconventional ideas.

  9. Influence of the Palaeo-Landslides on the Project of Rehabilitation of a National Road in the Southern Carpathian Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Daniel; Milutinovici, Emilia

    2017-12-01

    The mountain Paduchiosu is a part of the Southern Carpathians, in the South-Eastern Bucegi National Park. Significant palaeo-landslides occur on the Eastern slope of the mountain Paduchiosu, affecting the DN 71 alignment, between Valea Dorului and Valea Carpinis, on a length of approx. 10 km [1]. The palaeo-landslides occur along the tectonic contacts of various cretaceous formations. The landslides occur both at the level of Quaternary deposits, forming the alteration layer of the old geological formations (alluvial, deluvial and colluvial soil deposits), and at the level of Pre-Quaternary geological formations, whose structure is clayey-marl, or within the harder rocky formations, with seams of clayey - marl nature also. Two large palaeo-landslides can be distinguished: landslide I, affecting the national road alignment between pk 96 and 101+500, with sliding orientation towards South and South-West and landslide II, affecting the analysed alignment between pk 102+500 and 106 (with sliding orientation towards East and North-East). The landslides are significant and very old. The main cause of occurrence of these landslides is the tectonic nature of the area. The two main landslides occur on large surfaces. Generally, the sliding plan is under the „fissure clay” level, so it tends to be 12 to15 m deep. Numerous reactivations occur within their congestion, on narrow or large surfaces. Many of the reactivations occur due to the malfunctions of the systems of rainfall draining and taking over from the national road that runs South to North on the Southern slope of the mountain Paduchiosu. There are no underground waters, but considering the change of the natural water drainage due to the existing road works, there are areas where the drainage is impeded or slowed, leading to the water infiltration and rocks moistening under the deluvial formation. The local reactivations may also be influenced by the unarranged torrential valleys. The project of rehabilitation of

  10. Ecological studies in the Ratanica catchment (Carpathian foothills, southern Poland) - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinska, K.; Szarek, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of ecological studies conducted since 1986 in the Ratanica pine-beech forested catchment located in the polluted, high populated southern part of Poland. General characteristics of the catchment (including soil and vegetation, air pollution, input/output of nutrients and pollutants, element budget data and forest health assessment) are presented. Based on biogeochemical and bioindication results, the Ratanica catchment has been classified as a moderately to heavily deteriorated area. Predictions for this forested catchment for various deposition of anthropogenic pollutants, are also discussed. 22 refs., 1 fig

  11. New large-scale lithospheric model of the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region based on the 3-D gravity modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasonati Tasarova, Zuzana; Bielik, Miroslav; Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Afonso, Jaun Carlos; Fullea, Javier

    2010-05-01

    A 3-D forward modelling of the Bouguer gravity field was performed for the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region. The gravity model extends to depth of 220 km and includes also the surrounding units (the Eastern Alps, Bohemian Massif, Trans-European Suture Zone and East European Craton). It is constrained by seismic models, mainly from the CELEBRATION 2000 seismic experiment, and other geophysical data. Additionally, the density distribution and thermal structure in the shallow upper mantle were estimated using a combination of petrological, geophysical, and mineral physics information (LitMod). This approach is necessary in order to better constrain the more complicated structure of the Pannonian Basin. As a result, we present the first 3-D gravity model of the region that combines various geophysical datasets and is consistent with petrological data. Realistic density values within the uppermost mantle provide a better control on the regional gravity signal. In turn, this generates a model with refined and enhanced crustal structure. This means that deeper parts of the model are better accounted for, which helps to better constrain the nature of shallower crustal layers. Although not commonly applied in potential field modelling, we find that this approach is advantageous when modelling large areas with insufficient near-surface constraints. Also, a density distribution within the crust and uppermost mantle that is consistent with petrological data allows better estimates of the depth to the Moho (where it is not constrained by seismic data) and to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Hence, our model provides improved estimates of both the density distribution within the crust and uppermost mantle and the depth to major density discontinuities (sediments, Moho, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary). The results of the modelling reveal a markedly different nature of the Western Carpathian-Pannonian region (ALACAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates) from the

  12. Kinematic evolution of the Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzer, Hans-Gert; Frisch, Wolfgang; Zweigel, Peter; Girbacea, Radu; Hann, Horst-Peter; Moser, Franz

    1998-11-01

    The regional pattern of contraction and extension directions and the evolution of the strain field from Paleogene to Neogene times enabled a reconstruction of the migration path of the Carpathian collision front. The Carpathian nappes were thrust around the Moesian Plate during Paleogene and Early Neogene times and protruded into a small oceanic embayment between the Moesian and European plates. The arc structure of the Carpathian fold-thrust belt was formed in Late Neogene times as a result of the eastward-escaping Tisza-Dacia block, due to N-directed convergence of the Adriatic plate and the retreating subduction of an oceanic slab. Brittle deformation structures in the Romanian Carpathians suggest three tectonic events related to major plate motions: (1) Paleogene to Middle Miocene NE to ENE contraction caused right-lateral curved strike-slip faults; (2) Middle Miocene to Pliocene fan-shaped orientations of contraction directions were caused by right-lateral oblique convergence in the Southern Carpathians, frontal convergence in the southern Eastern Carpathians and left-lateral convergence in the northern Eastern Carpathians; (3) Pleistocene to Holocene general E-W extension and N-S contraction in the Carpathian arc and local ESE-WNW contraction in the Vrancea area is related to the late roll back stage and break-off of the subducted slab in the bend area.

  13. Miocene volcanism in the Oaş-Gutâi Volcanic Zone, Eastern Carpathians, Romania: Relationship to geodynamic processes in the Transcarpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Marinel; Seghedi, Ioan; Yamamoto, Masatsugu; Fülöp, Alexandrina; Pécskay, Zoltán; Jurje, Maria

    2017-12-01

    We present the first comprehensive study of Miocene volcanic rocks of the Oaş-Gutâi Volcanic Zone (OGVZ), Romania, which are exposed in the eastern Transcarpathian Basin (TB), within the Eastern Alpine-Western Carpathian-Northern Pannonian (ALCAPA) block. Collision between the ALCAPA block and Europe at 18-16 Ma produced the Carpathian fold-and-thrust belt. This was followed by clockwise rotation and an extensional regime forming core complexes of the separated TB fragment. Based on petrographic and geochemical data, including Srsbnd Nd isotopic compositions and Ksbnd Ar ages, we distinguish three types of volcanic activity in the OGVZ: (1) early Miocene felsic volcanism that produced caldera-related ignimbrites in the Gutâi Mountains (15.4-14.8 Ma); (2) widespread middle-late Miocene intermediate/andesitic volcanism (13.4-7.0 Ma); and (3) minor late Miocene andesitic/rhyolitic volcanism comprising the Oraşu Nou rhyolitic volcano and several andesitic-dacitic domes in the Oaş Mountains (11.3-9.5 Ma). We show that magma evolution in the OGVZ was controlled by assimilation-fractional crystallization and magma-mixing processes within an interconnected multi-level crustal magmatic reservoir. The evolution of volcanic activity within the OGVZ was controlled by the geodynamics of the Transcarpathian Basin. The early felsic and late intermediate Miocene magmas were emplaced in a post-collisional setting and were derived from a mantle source region that was modified by subduction components (dominantly sediment melts) and lower crust. The style of volcanism within the eastern TB system exhibits spatial variations, with andesitic composite volcanoes (Gutâi Mountains) observed at the margins, and isolated andesitic-rhyolitic monogenetic volcanoes (Oaş Mountains) in the center of the basin.

  14. Assessment of Aero-radiometric Data of Southern Anambra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Potassium and Thorium) were used and processed independently to investigate the Southern. Anambra basin for the .... Based on the Rybach equation (1) above, Uranium produces the .... Geothermal Exploration: State of the Art. Techniques.

  15. Environmental Conditions in a Carpathian Deep Sea Basin During the Period Preceding Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 - A Case Study from the Skole Nappe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemipelagic green clayey shales and thin muddy turbidites accumulated in a deep sea environment below the CCD in the Skole Basin, a part of the Outer Carpathian realm, during the Middle Cenomanian. The hemipelagites contain numerous radiolarians, associated with deep-water agglutinated foraminifera. These sediments accumulated under mesotrophic conditions with limited oxygen concentration. Short-term periodic anoxia also occurred during that time. Muddy turbidity currents caused deposition of siliciclastic and biogenic material, including calcareous foramini-fers and numerous sponge spicules. The preservation and diversity of the spicules suggests that they originate from disarticulation of moderately diversified sponge assemblages, which lived predominantly in the neritic-bathyal zone. Analyses of radiolarian ecological groups and pellets reflect the water column properties during the sedimentation of green shales. At that time, surface and also intermediate waters were oxygenated enough and sufficiently rich in nutri-ents to enable plankton production. Numerous, uncompacted pellets with nearly pristine radiolarian skeletons inside show that pelletization was the main factor of radiolarian flux into the deep basin floor. Partly dissolved skeletons indicate that waters in the Skole Basin were undersaturated in relation to silica content. Oxygen content might have been depleted in the deeper part of the water column causing periodic anoxic conditions which prevent rapid bacterial degra-dation of the pellets during their fall to the sea floor.

  16. On the origin of the southern Permian Basin, Central Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wees, J.D.A.M.; Stephenson, R.A.; Ziegler, P.A.; Bayer, U.; McCann, T.; Dadlez, R.; Gaupp, R.; Narkiewicz, M.; Bitzer, F.; Scheck, M.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed study of the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Southern Permian Basin during latest Carboniferous to Early Jurassic times, supported by quantitative subsidence analyses and forward basin modelling for 25 wells, leads us to modify the conventional model for the

  17. Crustal investigations of the earthquake-prone Vrancea region in Romania - Part 2: Novel deep seismic reflection experiment in the southeastern Carpathian belt and its foreland basin - survey target, design, and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, V. I.; Stephenson, R. A.; Diaconescu, C. C.; Knapp, J. H.; Matenco, L.; Dinu, C.; Harder, S.; Prodehl, C.; Hauser, F.; Raileanu, V.; Cloetingh, S. A.; Leever, K.

    2001-12-01

    Seismic studies of the outer Carpathian Orogen and its foreland (Focsani Basin) in the vicinity of the Vrancea Zone and Danube Delta (Romania) forms one component of a new multidisciplinary initiative of ISES (Netherlands Centre for Integrated Solid Earth Sciences) called DACIA PLAN ("Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics"). The study area, at the margin of the European craton, constitutes one of the most active seismic zones in Europe, yet has remained a geological and geodynamic enigma within the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Intermediate depth (50-220 km) mantle earthquakes of significant magnitude occur in a geographically restricted area in the south-east Carpathians bend. The adjacent, foreland Focsani Basin appears to exhibit recent extensional deformation in what is otherwise understood to be a zone of convergence. The deep seismic reflection component of DACIA PLAN comprises a ~140-km near-vertical profile across the Vrancea Zone and Focsani Basin. Data acquisition took place in August-September 2001, as part of the integrated refraction/reflection seismic field programme "Vrancea-2001" co-ordinated at Karlsruhe University (cf. Abstract, Part 1), utilising 640 independently deployed recorders provided by UTEP and IRIS/PASSCAL ("Texans"). Station spacing was every 100-m with shots every 1-km. These data are to be integrated with industry seismic as well as planned new medium-high resolution seismic reflection profiling across key neotectonically active structures in the Focsani Basin. Particular goals of DACIA PLAN include: (1) the architecture of the Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to this zone, including the foreland Focsani Basin; (2) the presence and geometry of structural detachment(s) in relation with foreland basin development, including constraints for balanced cross-sections and geodynamic modelling of basin origin and evolution; (3) the relationship between crustal

  18. Flowage differentiation in an andesitic dyke of the Motru Dyke Swarm (Southern Carpathians, Romania) inferred from AMS, CSD and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkono, Collin; Féménias, Olivier; Diot, Hervé; Berza, Tudor; Demaiffe, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    Two dykes of different thickness (5.5 m for TJ31 and 23 m for TJ34) from the late Pan-African calc-alkaline Motru Dyke Swarm (S. Carpathians, Romania) have been studied by electron microprobe (mineral chemistry), crystal size distribution (CSD), anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and whole-rock geochemistry. All the physical and chemical variations observed across the dyke's width point to concordant results and show that the variations of both modal abundance and size of the amphibole and biotite microphenocrysts inside the dykes (deduced from the classical CSD measurements) are the result of a mechanical segregation of suspended crystals during magmatic transport. Despite a pene-contemporaneous regional tectonic, the flow-induced differentiation in the thicker dyke is characterized by the concentration of pre-existing Ti-rich pargasite-tschermakite, clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystals in the core of the dyke and of the extracted differentiated liquid near the walls. This mechanical differentiation induces a chemical differentiation with a basaltic andesite composition for the core of the dyke whereas the margins are andesitic. Thus the chilled margins appear as a slightly more evolved liquid with a Newtonian behaviour when compared to the average composition of the dyke. The localization of the liquid on both sides of the dyke has certainly facilitated the ascent of the central part of the dyke that behaved as a Binghamian mush.

  19. Distal turbidite fan/lobe succession of the Late Oligocene Zuberec Fm. - architecture and hierarchy (Central Western Carpathians, Orava-Podhale basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, Dušan; Fuksi, Tomáš

    2017-08-01

    A part of the Upper Oligocene sand-rich turbidite systems of the Central Carpathian Basin is represented by the Zuberec Formation. Sand/mud-mixed deposits of this formation are well exposed in the northern part of the basin, allowing us to interpret the turbidite succession as terminal lobe deposits of a submarine fan. This interpretation is based on the discrimination of three facies associations that are comparable to different components of distributive lobe deposits in deep-water fan systems. They correspond to the lobe off-axis, lobe fringe and lobe distal fringe depositional subenvironments, respectively. The inferences about the depositional paleoenvironment based on sedimentological observations are verified by statistical analyses. The bed-thickness frequency distributions and vertical organization of the facies associations show cyclic trends at different hierarchical levels that enable us to reconstruct architectural elements of a turbidite fan. First, small-scale trends correspond with shift in the lobe element centroid between successive elements. Differences in the distribution and frequency of sandstone bed thicknesses as well as differences in the shape of bed-thickness frequency distributions between individual facies associations reflect a gradual fining and thinning in a down-dip direction. Second, meso-scale trends are identified within lobes and they generally correspond to the significant periodicity identified by the time series analysis of the bed thicknesses. The meso-scale trends demonstrate shifts in the position of the lobe centroid within the lobe system. Both types of trends have a character of a compensational stacking pattern and could be linked to autogenic processes. Third, a largescale trend documented by generally thickening-upward stacking pattern of beds, accompanied by a general increase of the sandstones/mudstones ratio and by a gradual change of percentage of individual facies, could be comparable to lobe-system scale. This

  20. Assessment of Aero-radiometric Data of Southern Anambra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High-resolution aero-radiometric data from three radio-elements (Uranium, Potassium and Thorium) were used and processed independently to investigate the Southern Anambra basin for the prospect of producing radiogenic heat. The rock types in the study area were outlined while processing the elements in each rock ...

  1. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  2. Andes Hantavirus Variant in Rodents, Southern Amazon Basin, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M. Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A. Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  3. Hydrogeophysical investigation of Southern Anambra Basin Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analytical relationship between the Dar Zarrouk parameters and the hydraulic characteristics were used to assess the hydrogeological condition of the basin. These have led to inferences about the aquifer hydraulic conductivities and transmissivities and K product across the area. Consequently favourable areas have ...

  4. Exotic clasts, debris flow deposits and their significance for reconstruction of the Istebna Formation (Late Cretaceous - Paleocene, Silesian Basin, Outer Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzeboński, Piotr; Kowal-Kasprzyk, Justyna; Olszewska, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    The different types of calcareous exotic clasts (fragments of pre-existing rocks), embedded in the Paleocene siliciclastic deposits of the Istebna Formation from the Beskid Mały Mountains (Silesian Unit, Western Outer Carpathians), were studied and differentiated through microfacies-biostratigraphical analysis. Calcareous exotics of the Oxfordian- Kimmeridgian age prevail, representing a type of sedimentation comparable to that one documented for the northern Tethyan margin. The Tithonian exotic clasts (Štramberk-type limestones), which are much less common, were formed on a carbonate platform and related slope. The sedimentary paleotransport directions indicate the Silesian Ridge as a main source area for all exotics, which were emplaced in the depositional setting of the flysch deposits. The exotics constitute a relatively rare local component of some debrites. Proceedings of the sedimentological facies analysis indicate that these mass transport deposits were accumulated en-masse by debris flows in a deep-water depositional system in the form of a slope apron. Exotics prove that clasts of the crystalline basement and, less common, fragments of the sedimentary cover, originated from long-lasting tectonic activity and intense uplift of the source area. Mass transport processes and mass accumulation of significant amounts of the coarse-grained detrital material in the south facial zone of the Silesian Basin during the Early Paleogene was due to reactivation of the Silesian Ridge and its increased denudation. Relative regression and erosion of the emerged older flysch deposits were also forced by this uplift. These processes were connected with the renewed diastrophic activity in the Alpine Tethys.

  5. Screening of Luzula species native to the Carpathian Basin for anti-inflammatory activity and bioactivity-guided isolation of compounds from Luzula luzuloides (Lam.) Dandy & Wilmott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Barbara; Chang, Fang-Rong; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Szappanos, Ádám; Mándi, Attila; Hunyadi, Attila; Kurtán, Tibor; Jakab, Gusztáv; Hohmann, Judit; Vasas, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The present study focused on the anti-inflammatory screening of Luzula species native to the Carpathian Basin and bioactivity-guided isolation of compounds of Luzula luzuloides (Lam.) Dandy & Wilmott. The anti-inflammatory properties of extracts with different polarity prepared from Luzula species were determined. Among them, the CH 2 Cl 2 -soluble fraction of L. luzuloides possessed strong inhibitory effects on superoxide anion generation (99.39±0.37%) and elastase release (114.22±3.13%) in fMLP/CB-induced human neutrophils at concentration of 10μg/mL. From this fraction, six compounds (1-6) were isolated by the combination of different chromatographic methods. The structures of the compounds were determined by means of MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The results allowed the identification of the new 1,6-dihydroxy-2-keto-1,7-dimethyl-8-vinyl-1,2-dihydrophenanthrene (1) from the plant, named luzulin A. Chiral HPLC and HPLC-ECD analysis revealed that 1 possesses low enantiomeric excess and TDDFT-ECD calculations afforded the configurational assignment of the separated enantiomers. Three known phenanthrenes [juncuenin B (2), dehydrojuncuenin B (3) and juncusol (4)] and two flavonoids [apigenin (5) and luteolin (6)] were also isolated. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compounds was tested and IC 50 values were determined. This was the first time that phenanthrenes were detected in a Luzula species. The oxidative transformation of juncuenin B (3) led to the isolation of its possible biometabolites, namely luzulin A (1), dehydrojuncuenin B (4), and juncuenin D (7). The isolated compounds (1-4) confirm that besides flavonoids, phenanthrenes could also serve as chemotaxonomic markers for Luzula species and prove the close relationship of Juncus and Luzula genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Distal turbidite fan/lobe succession of the Late Oligocene Zuberec Fm. – architecture and hierarchy (Central Western Carpathians, Orava–Podhale basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starek Dušan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A part of the Upper Oligocene sand-rich turbidite systems of the Central Carpathian Basin is represented by the Zuberec Formation. Sand/mud-mixed deposits of this formation are well exposed in the northern part of the basin, allowing us to interpret the turbidite succession as terminal lobe deposits of a submarine fan. This interpretation is based on the discrimination of three facies associations that are comparable to different components of distributive lobe deposits in deep-water fan systems. They correspond to the lobe off-axis, lobe fringe and lobe distal fringe depositional subenvironments, respectively. The inferences about the depositional paleoenvironment based on sedimentological observations are verified by statistical analyses. The bed-thickness frequency distributions and vertical organization of the facies associations show cyclic trends at different hierarchical levels that enable us to reconstruct architectural elements of a turbidite fan. First, small-scale trends correspond with shift in the lobe element centroid between successive elements. Differences in the distribution and frequency of sandstone bed thicknesses as well as differences in the shape of bed-thickness frequency distributions between individual facies associations reflect a gradual fining and thinning in a down-dip direction. Second, meso-scale trends are identified within lobes and they generally correspond to the significant periodicity identified by the time series analysis of the bed thicknesses. The meso-scale trends demonstrate shifts in the position of the lobe centroid within the lobe system. Both types of trends have a character of a compensational stacking pattern and could be linked to autogenic processes. Third, a largescale trend documented by generally thickening-upward stacking pattern of beds, accompanied by a general increase of the sandstones/mudstones ratio and by a gradual change of percentage of individual facies, could be comparable to lobe

  7. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panea, I; Stephenson, R.A.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.I.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.C.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-01-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the

  8. Siliciclastics in the Upper Triassic dolomite formations of the Krizna Unit (Maid Fatra Mountains, Western Carpathians): constraints for the Carnian Pluvial Event in the Fatric Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkora, M.; Siblík, Miloš; Soták, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2011), s. 121-138 ISSN 1335-0552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Carnian event * Upper Triassic dolomites * Western Carpathians * Krizna Unit * shaly interbeds * lingulids * conchostracans Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.787, year: 2011

  9. Paleoenvironmental change as derived from loess sediment properties: Examples of last glacial loess sites from the Carpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Frank; Zeeden, Christian; Bösken, Janina; Eckmeier, Eileen; Hambach, Ulrich; Hauck, Thomas; Klasen, Nicole; Markovic, Slobodan; Obreht, Igor; Schulte, Philipp; Sümegi, Pal; Chu, Wei; Timar-Gabor, Alida; Veres, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The project B1 within the CRC 806 "Our way to Europe" focuses on the "Eastern Trajectory" of modern human migration from Africa into Europe. The Middle East, and SE Europe constitute the principal areas to be investigated. SE Europe has become a special research focus since two early Homo sapiens individuals have been found at Oase Cave in the southern Banat. The fossils lack any stratigraphic context; cultural and environmental circumstances of these findings have remained unclear. In the neighbourhood of Oase Cave, however, several early Upper Palaeolithic sites, embedded in loess sequences were known since the 1950's. Some sites were re-investigated by our research team. Conceptionally we are following the idea of upland-lowland interaction, which combines parameters as sedimentary transport, sediment distribution, and paleosol development in different altitudes, all influenced by paleoclimate in space and time. Furthermore, some detailed studies concerning site-formation processes and the quality of open-air sites (sedimentary development, paleoecology, multilayering, reworking, human impact on soils and sediments) are being conducted at selected localities. Recent investigations of the loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) in SE Europe provided important environmental information which differ from "classical" ecological approaches derived from other European loess provinces. New luminescence dating results provide a sensitive chronology of environmental changes recorded in the LPS from both upland and lowland positions, giving the potential to link these.

  10. Tertiary stratigraphy and basin evolution, southern Sabah (Malaysian Borneo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguru, Allagu; Nichols, Gary

    2004-08-01

    New mapping and dating of strata in the southern part of the Central Sabah Basin in northern Borneo has made it possible to revise the lithostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy of the area. The recognition in the field of an Early Miocene regional unconformity, which may be equivalent to the Deep Regional Unconformity recognised offshore, has allowed the development of a stratigraphic framework of groups and formations, which correspond to stages in the sedimentary basin development of the area. Below the Early Miocene unconformity lies ophiolitic basement, which is overlain by an accretionary complex of Eocene age and a late Paleogene deep water succession which formed in a fore-arc basin. The late Paleogene deposits underwent syn-depositional deformation, including the development of extensive melanges, all of which can be demonstrated to lie below the unconformity in this area. Some localised limestone deposition occurred during a period of uplift and erosion in the Early Miocene, following which there was an influx of clastic sediments deposited in delta and pro-deltaic environments in the Middle Miocene. These deltaic to shallow marine deposits are now recognised as forming two coarsening-upward successions, mapped as the Tanjong and Kapilit Formations. The total thickness of these two formations in the Central Sabah Basin amounts to 6000 m, only half of the previous estimates, although the total stratigraphic thickness of Cenozoic clastic strata in Sabah may be more than 20,000 m.

  11. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Becker

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.

  12. Active stress field and seismotectonic features in Intra-Carpathian region of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Eugen; Popa, Mihaela; Diaconescu, Mihai; Radulian, Mircea

    2017-04-01

    The Romanian Intra-Carpathian Region is located on the eastern half of Tisa-Dacia geodynamic block from the Neogene Carpathian-Pannonian Basin. The distribution of seismicity displays clear clusters and narrower zones with seismogenic potential confirmed by the damaging earthquakes recoded in the region, e.g. July 01, 1829 (Mw=6.2), October 10, 1834 (Mw=5.6), January 26, 1916 (Mw=6.4), July 12, 1991 (Mw=5.7), December 2, 1991 (Mw=5.5). The state of recent stress and deformation appears to be controlled by the interaction of plate-boundary and intraplate forces, which include the counterclockwise rotation and N-NE-directed indentation of the Adria microplate and buoyancy forces associated with differential topography and lithospheric heterogeneities. The stress field and tectonic regime are investigated at regional and local scales by the formal inversion of focal mechamisms. There can be observed short-scale lateral changes of i) tectonic regimes from compressive (reverse and strike-slip faultings) to pure extensive (normal faultings) and ii) variation of stress directions (SHmax) from NE-SW to EW and WNW-ESE towards Southern Carpathians and NS within Easter Carpathians. The changes in stress directions occur over a distance that is comparable to or smaller than the thickness of the lithosphere. A comparative analysis of stress tensor with GPS velocity/displacememt vectors shows variations from paralellism to orthogonality, suggesting different mechanisms of crustal deformations.The major seismic activity (Mw≥5.0) appears to be generally concentrated along the faults systems bordering de Tisa-Dacia Block, intersections of faults of different ages, internal shear zones and with the border of the former structural terrains, old rifts and neostructures.

  13. Evaluation of site effects in Loja basin (southern Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guartán, J.; Navarro, M.; Soto, J.

    2013-05-01

    Site effect assessment based on subsurface ground conditions is often crucial for estimating the urban seismic hazard. In order to evaluate the site effects in the intra-mountain basin of Loja (southern Ecuador), geological and geomorphological survey and ambient noise measurements were carried out. A classification of shallow geologic materials was performed through a geological cartography and the use of geotechnical data and geophysical surveys. Seven lithological formations have been analyzed, both in composition and thickness of existing materials. The shear-wave velocity structure in the center of the basin, composed by alluvial materials, was evaluated by means of inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion data obtained from vertical-component array records of ambient noise. VS30 structure was estimated and an average value of 346 m s-1 was obtained. This value agrees with the results obtained from SPT N-value (306-368 m s-1). Short-period ambient noise observations were performed in 72 sites on a 500m × 500m dimension grid. The horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method was applied in order to determine a ground predominant period distribution map. This map reveals an irregular distribution of predominant period values, ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 s, according with the heterogeneity of the basin. Lower values of the period are found in the harder formation (Quillollaco formation), while higher values are predominantly obtained in alluvial formation. These results will be used in the evaluation of ground dynamic properties and will be included in seismic microzoning of Loja basin. Keywords: Landform classification, Ambient noise, SPAC method, Rayleigh waves, Shear velocity profile, Ground predominant period. ;

  14. Numerical modelling of Quaternary terrace staircase formation in the Ebro foreland basin, southern Pyrenees, NE Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Balen, R.T.; Stange, K.M.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.

    2016-01-01

    The southern foreland basin of the Pyrenees (Ebro basin) is an exorheic drainage basin since Late Miocene times. Remnants of an early exorheic Ebro drainage system are not preserved, but morphology provides evidence for the Pliocene–Quaternary drainage development. The incision history of the Ebro

  15. A multi-proxy record from the Quaternary Vienna Basin: Chronology, climate and environmental change at the Alpine-Carpathian transition during the last 250,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcher, Bernhard; Lomax, Johanna; Frank, Christa; Preusser, Frank; Scholger, Robert; Ottner, Franz; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Dated multi-proxy records of terrestrial sequences in the Quaternary of the circum-Alpine realm are sparse. This is especially true for those exceeding the time span of the last glacial maximum as extensive glaciers eroded substantial parts of potential records. Outside formerly glaciated regions, preservation space is low in the absence of tectonic subsidence. Foreland terraces forming as a consequence of mountain range uplift may partly account for this gap but are typically dominated by coarse-grained fluvial sediments commonly reflecting only short pulses during cold stage periods. Here we analyze a terrestrial record in the Vienna Basin in order to derive regional climatic and environmental changes of the last c. 250 ka. The Vienna Basin forms as a classical pull-apart feature showing a length of almost 200 km and a width of c. 55 km. Quaternary subsidence is focused along the active Vienna Basin Transfer Fault leading to the formation of a series of narrow strike-slip (sub-) basins and grabens with the Mitterndorf sub-basin being the largest (c. 270 km²) and deepest (c.175 m). The southern part of the basin is confined by the alpine mountain front and fed by two alluvial fans highlighting up to several tens of meters thick coarse grained, massive sediments intercalated by up to few meters thick fine clastic sediments. We investigated the fan's sequence development through core and outcrop sampling applying luminescence dating, magnetostratigraphy, soil and lithofacies classification as well as malacological analysis. The latter comprise the determination and distribution of species and individuals as well as coenological analysis. Data suggest a distinct sequence development with coarse-grained massive sediments abundantly deposited during cold periods (MIS 2 and 6) and fine, overbank sediments and soils, dominantly forming during warmer, Interstadial or Interglacial periods (MIS 5 and 7). Overbanks and soils are generally rich in terrestrial mollusk

  16. Soil moisture monitoring in Candelaro basin, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, C.; Gigante, V.; Iacobellis, V.

    2012-04-01

    The signature of the hydrologic regime can be investigated, in principle, by recognizing the main mechanisms of runoff generation that take place in the basin and affect the seasonal behavior or the rainfall-driven events. In this framework, besides the implementation of hydrological models, a crucial role should be played by direct observation of key state variables such as soil moisture at different depths and different distances from the river network. In fact, understanding hydrological systems is often limited by the frequency and spatial distribution of observations. Experimental catchments, which are field laboratories with long-term measurements of hydrological variables, are not only sources of data but also sources of knowledge. Wireless distributed sensing platforms are a key technology to address the need for overcoming field limitations such as conflicts between soil use and cable connections. A stand-alone wireless network system has been installed for continuous monitoring of soil water contents at multiple depths along a transect located in Celone basin (sub-basin of Candelaro basin in Puglia, Southern Italy). The transect consists of five verticals, each one having three soil water content sensors at multiple depths: 0,05 m, 0,6 m and 1,2 m below the ground level. The total length of the transect is 307 m and the average distance between the verticals is 77 m. The main elements of the instrumental system installed are: fifteen Decagon 10HS Soil Moisture Sensors, five Decagon Em50R Wireless Radio Data Loggers, one Rain gauge, one Decagon Data Station and one Campbell CR1000 Data Logger. Main advantages of the system as described and presented in this work are that installation of the wireless network system is fast and easy to use, data retrieval and monitoring information over large spatial scales can be obtained in (near) real-time mode and finally other type of sensors can be connected to the system, also offering wide potentials for future

  17. Granitic rocks from the southern Gyeongsang basin, southeastern Korea, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon-Jong

    1980-01-01

    In southern Gyeongsang basin, southeastern Korea, there are many granitic rock masses. They were divided into 7 groups according to their geological evidences. K-Ar age was determined on 36 samples obtained from the respective groups. Group A: pre-Gyeongsang granitic rock (Pre-Cretaceous), A 1 220 m.y., A 2 166 m.y.; group B: outer zone granitic rock (Cretaceous), 115-72 m.y.; group C: ditto (ditto), 97-70 m.y.; group D: ditto (ditto), 89-68 m.y.; group E: ditto (ditto), 82-68 m.y.; group F: inner zone granitic rock (Cretaceous), 75-74 m.y.; group G: Tertiary granitic rock, 63-41 m.y. The large part of the Cretaceous granitic masses show the double elongated ring form. Most of the Tertiary granitic rocks were probably emplaced in close relation with the Eonyang fault line and Ulsan fault line/or their extension line of the area. (J.P.N.)

  18. Hydrological Modeling in temporary streams: A case study in Pardiela basin, Southern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    PEDRO, A.; MORAIS, M.; ROSADO, J.; SILVA, H.; SERAFIM, A.; NEVES, R.; BRITO, D.; POTES, M.; SALGADO, R.; LILLEBØ, I.; CHAMBEL, A.

    2011-01-01

    The project “Conservation and rehabilitation strategies for temporary Mediterranean river corridors: a case study on Pardiela basin, southern Portugal (Guadiana basin)", is being carried out,with the collaboration of researchers from diverse scientific areas, in order to increase the knowledge on temporary streams. The project includes different approaches at reach and basin scales, regarding the study of temporal interactions among different ecological components such as climate, morph...

  19. Contribution to the lichen biota of the Romanian Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíček, J.; Bouda, F.; Liška, Jiří; Palice, Zdeněk; Peksa, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2015), s. 713-735 ISSN 0018-0971 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV025 Keywords : The Balkans * biodiversity * Southern and Eastern Carpathians Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.821, year: 2015

  20. Avalonian crustal controls on basin evolution: implications for the Mesozoic basins of the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the Southern North Sea Basin's (SNSB) Pre-Permian basement due to a lack of outcrop and cores. The nature and structure of the East Avalonian crust and lithosphere remain even less constrained in the absence of deep seismic (refraction) lines. However, various studies have hinted at the importance of the Reactivation of the Early Carboniferous fault network during each consecutive Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic phase, demonstrating the key role of weak zones from the Early Carboniferous structural grain in partitioning of structural deformation and vertical basin motions at various scales. Although the older basin history and the basement attract increasing attention, the Pre-Permian tectonics of the SNSB remains little studied with most attention focused on the Permian and younger history. The strong dispersal of existing constraints requires a comprehensive study from Denmark to the UK, i.e. the East Avalonian microplate, bordered by the Variscan Rheïc suture, the Atlantic and Baltica. Based on an extensive literature study and the reinterpretation of publicly available data, linking constraints from the crust and mantle to stratigraphic-sedimentological information, we complement the map of Early Carboniferous rifting of East Avalonia and propose a new tectonic scenario. From the reinterpretation of the boundary between Avalonia and Baltica we propose a new outline for the Avalonian microplate with implications for the tectonics of the North German Basin. Furthermore, we highlight the nature and extent of the major crustal/lithospheric domains with contrasting structural behaviour and the major boundaries that separate them. Results shed light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric that are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints

  1. Geologic and Isotopic Models for the Carpathian Crystalline Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Coriolan Balintoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Carpathian metamorphics protoliths have TDM model Sm/Nd ages between 1.6 and 2.0 Ga. This suggests an important episode of continental crust formation after the 2.0 Ga. The Biharia lithogroup (Apuseni Mountains and the Tulghes lithogroup (East Carpathians furnished Zircon U/Pb ages from metagranitoids and acid metavolcanics, respective, around 500 Ma; this is a sign of existence of some Lower Proterozoic protoliths among Carpathian metamorphics. The bimodal intrusions which are piercing the volcano-sedimentary sequence of Paiuseni lithogroup in Highiş Massif (Apuseni Mountains have given Permian ages on Zircon U/Pb data. The Paiuseni lithogroup probably represents the fill of a rift basin of the same age. The Arieseni, Muntele Mare and Vinta granitoid intrusions from Apuseni Mountains, with U/Pb ages between Lower Devonian and Permian, indicates some contractional and extensional processes, in connection with Variscan Orogeny.

  2. End Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ju

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the end Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin by interpreting stress-response structures (dykes, folds, faults with slickenside and conjugate joints. The direction of the maximum principal stress axes is interpreted to be NW–SE (about 325°, and the accommodated motion among plates is assigned as the driving force of this tectonic stress field. The average value of the stress index R′ is about 2.09, which indicates a variation from strike-slip to compressive tectonic stress regime in the study area during the end Late Paleozoic period. The reconstruction of the tectonic field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin provides insights into the tectonic deformation processes around the southern Junggar Basin and contributes to the further understanding of basin evolution and tectonic settings during the culmination of the Paleozoic.

  3. Petroleum geological atlas of the southern permian basin area -Overview SPB-atlas project-organisation and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornenbal, J.C.; Abbink, O.A.; Pagnier, H.J.M.; Wees, J.D. van

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Permian Basin (also referred to as Central European Basin) is Europe s largest sedimentary basin. It is a typical intracontinental basin that evolved from latest Carboniferous to recent times and extends from eastern England to the Belarussian-Polish border and from Denmark to South

  4. USING SRTM TO QUANTIFY SIZE PARAMETERS AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ENDORHEIC BASINS IN SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hesse

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The SRTM data set is the highest resolution DEM with global or continental coverage. It is therefore theDEM of choice for continental-scale geomorphological mapping and quantitative analysis. In this study,SRTM data are used for the identification and characterisation of endorheic basins in southern SouthAmerica (south of 19°S. The results show the feasibility of continental-scale quantitative geomorphologybased on SRTM data and provide insights into the distribution of closed basins. The largest endorheicbasin is located in the Puna region and consists of several interconnected sub-basins. This basin accountsfor 38.6 % (7877 km3 of the total volume of the endorheic basins identified in this study. Analyses of thegeographic distribution show a narrow longitudinal distribution between 64.5 and 71.5° W and a multimodallatitudinal distribution which is characterised by two groups of basins at 22.5–27.5°S and 37.5–50.0° Sand an almost complete absence of basins between 27.5 and 37.5° S. Problems and sources ofmisinterpretation arising from data quality and resolution are discussed. Further research, targeting in particularthe genesis and potential for paleoenvironmental reconstruction of closed basins in southern Argentina, iscalled for.

  5. Plate tectonic reconstruction of the Carpathian-Pannonian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, L.; Vörös, A.

    2003-04-01

    Plate tectonics of the Carpathian area is controlled by microcontinents between the European and African margins and the relative movements of these margins. Beside the generally accepted Apulian (Austroalpine, West Carpathian, Dinaric) microcontinents two others: the Bihor-Getic (Tisza) and Drina-Ivanjica are introduced. The first was attached to the European margin, the second to the Apulian microcontinent. During Permian a major ocean was obliquely subducted south of the Apulian microcontinents. Drina-Ivanjica rifted off the Apulian microcontinent in the Late Permian-Middle Triassic, as a consequence of back-arc rifting. Short-lived oceans subducted by the end of Jurassic, causing Drina-Ivanjica to collide with the internal Dinaric-West Carpathian and Bihor-Getic margins. An external Penninic-Váhic ocean tract began opening in the Early Jurassic, separating the East Alpine-West Carpathian microcontinent (and its fauna) from the European shelf. Further south, the Severin-Ceahlau-Magura also began opening in the Early Jurassic, but final separation of the Bihor-Getic (and its fauna) from the European shelf did not take place until the Middle-Late Jurassic. Two oroclinal bends: the Alcapa on the Dinaric margin and the Tisza-Dacia on the South Carpathian-Getic margin are essential elements of these reconstructions. Their bending (Aptian and Albian-Maastrichtian, respectively) are suggested by paleomagnetic and tectonic transport data. The two oroclinal bends are finally opposed and pushed into the Carpathian embayment by the Paleogene. In Miocene a back-arc basin develops on older tectonic elements. Differential rotations affect the wealded microcontinents.

  6. A Middle Triassic pachypleurosaur (Diapsida: Eosauropterygia) from a restricted carbonate ramp in the Western Carpathians (Gutenstein Formation, Fatric Unit): paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čerňanský, Andrej; Klein, Nicole; Soták, Ján; Olšavský, Mário; Šurka, Juraj; Herich, Pavel

    2018-02-01

    An eosauropterygian skeleton found in the Middle Triassic (upper Anisian) Gutenstein Formation of the Fatric Unit (Demänovská dolina Valley, Low Tatra Mountains, Slovakia) represents the earliest known occurrence of marine tetrapods in the Western Carpathians. The specimen represents a partly articulated portion of the postcranial skeleton (nine dorsal vertebrae, coracoid, ribs, gastral ribs, pelvic girdle, femur and one zeugopodial element). It is assigned to the Pachypleurosauria, more precisely to the Serpianosaurus-Neusticosaurus clade based on the following combination of features: (1) small body size; (2) morphology of vertebrae, ribs and femur; (3) tripartite gastral ribs; and (4) microanatomy of the femur as revealed by μCT. Members of this clade were described from the epicontinental Germanic Basin and the Alpine Triassic (now southern Germany, Switzerland, Italy), and possibly from Spain. This finding shows that pachypleurosaur reptiles attained a broader geographical distribution during the Middle Triassic, with their geographical range reaching to the Central Western Carpathians. Pachypleurosaurs are often found in sediments formed in shallow, hypersaline carbonate-platform environments. The specimen found here occurs in a succession with vermicular limestones in a shallow subtidal zone and stromatolitic limestones in a peritidal zone, indicating that pachypleurosaurs inhabited hypersaline, restricted carbonate ramps in the Western Carpathians.

  7. A Middle Triassic pachypleurosaur (Diapsida: Eosauropterygia from a restricted carbonate ramp in the Western Carpathians (Gutenstein Formation, Fatric Unit: paleogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čerňanský Andrej

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An eosauropterygian skeleton found in the Middle Triassic (upper Anisian Gutenstein Formation of the Fatric Unit (Demänovská dolina Valley, Low Tatra Mountains, Slovakia represents the earliest known occurrence of marine tetrapods in the Western Carpathians. The specimen represents a partly articulated portion of the postcranial skeleton (nine dorsal vertebrae, coracoid, ribs, gastral ribs, pelvic girdle, femur and one zeugopodial element. It is assigned to the Pachypleurosauria, more precisely to the Serpianosaurus–Neusticosaurus clade based on the following combination of features: (1 small body size; (2 morphology of vertebrae, ribs and femur; (3 tripartite gastral ribs; and (4 microanatomy of the femur as revealed by μCT. Members of this clade were described from the epicontinental Germanic Basin and the Alpine Triassic (now southern Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and possibly from Spain. This finding shows that pachypleurosaur reptiles attained a broader geographical distribution during the Middle Triassic, with their geographical range reaching to the Central Western Carpathians. Pachypleurosaurs are often found in sediments formed in shallow, hypersaline carbonate-platform environments. The specimen found here occurs in a succession with vermicular limestones in a shallow subtidal zone and stromatolitic limestones in a peritidal zone, indicating that pachypleurosaurs inhabited hypersaline, restricted carbonate ramps in the Western Carpathians.

  8. The Pindiro Group (Triassic to Early Jurassic Mandawa Basin, southern coastal Tanzania): Definition, palaeoenvironment, and stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, W. E.; Nicholas, C. J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper defines the Pindiro Group of the Mandawa Basin, southern coastal Tanzania based on studies conducted between 2006 and 2009 with the objective of understanding the evolution of this basin. This work draws upon field data, hydrocarbon exploration data, unconventional literature, and the scant published materials available. The paper focuses on the evolution, depositional environments, and definition of the lowermost sedimentary package, which overlies unconformably the metamorphic basement of Precambrian age. The package is described here as the Pindiro Group and it forms the basal group of the Mandawa Basin stratigraphy.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Susitna Basin, southern Alaska, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Potter, Christopher J.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Shah, Anjana K.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Valin, Zenon C.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Haines, Seth S.; Higley, Debra K.; Houseknecht, David W.; Le, Phuong A.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.

    2018-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Susitna Basin of southern Alaska. Using a geology-based methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of about 2 million barrels of oil and nearly 1.7 trillion cubic feet of gas may be found in this area.

  10. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  11. Alps, Carpathians and Dinarides-Hellenides: about plates, micro-plates and delaminated crustal blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Before the onset of Europe-Africa continental collision in the Dinarides-Hellenides (around 60Ma) and in the Alps and Western Carpathians (around 35 Ma), and at a large scale, the dynamics of orogenic processes in the Mediterranean Alpine chains were governed by Europe-Africa plate convergence leading to the disappearance of large parts of intervening oceanic lithosphere, i.e. the northern branch of Neotethys along the Sava-Izmir-Ankara suture and Alpine Tethys along the Valais-Magura suture (Schmid et al. 2008). In spite of this, two major problems concerning the pre-collisional stage are still poorly understood: (1) by now we only start to understand geometry, kinematics and dynamics of the along-strike changes in the polarity of subduction between Alps-Carpathians and Dinarides-Hellenides, and (2) it is not clear yet during exactly which episodes and to what extent intervening rifted continental fragments such as, for example, Iberia-Briançonnais, Tisza, Dacia, Adria-Taurides moved independently as micro-plates, and during which episodes they remained firmly attached to Europa or Africa from which they broke away. As Europe-Africa plate convergence slowed down well below 1 cm/yr at around 30 Ma ago these pre-collisional processes driven by plate convergence on a global scale gave way to more local processes of combined roll-back and crustal delamination in the Pannonian basin of the Carpathian embayment and in the Aegean (as well as in the Western Mediterranean, not discussed in this contribution). In the case of the Carpathian embayment E-directed roll back totally unrelated to Europe-Africa N-S-directed convergence, started at around 20 Ma ago, due to the presence relict oceanic lithosphere in the future Pannonian basin that remained un-subducted during collision. Due to total delamination of the crust from the eastward rolling back European mantle lithosphere the anticlockwise rotating ALCAPA crustal block, consisting of Eastern Alps and Western Carpathian

  12. Evaluation of water quality at the source of streams of the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Benvenuti

    Full Text Available The Sinos River Basin (SRB is located in the northeastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º20' to 30º10'S and 50º15' to 51º20'W, southern Brazil, and covers two geomorphologic provinces: the southern plateau and the central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin, has an area of approximately 800 km2 and contains 32 counties. The basin provides drinking water for 1.6 million inhabitants in one of the most important industrial centres in Brazil. This study describes different water quality indices (WQI used for the sub-basins of three important streams in the SRB: Pampa, Estância Velha/Portão and Schmidt streams. Physical, chemical and microbiological parameters assessed bimonthly using samples collected at each stream source were used to calculate the Horton Index (HI, the Dinius Index (DI and the water quality index adopted by the US National Sanitation Foundation (NSF WQI in the additive and multiplicative forms. These indices describe mean water quality levels at the streams sources. The results obtained for these 3 indexes showed a worrying scenario in which water quality has already been negatively affected at the sites where three important sub-basins in the Sinos River Basin begin to form.

  13. [Vegetation change of Yamzho Yumco Basin in southern Tibet based on SPOT-VGT NDVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shu-Mei; Liu, Jing-Shi; Yuan, Jin-Guo

    2010-06-01

    The area we studied is Lake Yamzho Yumco Basin (28 degrees 27'-29 degrees 12'N, 90 degrees 08'-91 degrees 45'E), the largest inland lake basin in southern Tibetan Plateau, China. Using the SPOT-VGT NDVI vegetation index from 1998 to 2007 in the basin, the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of NDVI and its correlation with the major climatic factors (air temperature, precipitation) were analyzed. The results show that the average NDVI of the lake basin ranges from 0.12 to 0.31 and its seasonal change is obvious; the NDVI begins to rise rapidly in May and reaches the maximum value in early September. The average NDVI of the basin shows the slow increasing trend during 1998 to 2007, and it indicates that the eco-environment of the basin is recovering. The high value of NDVI has close relationships with water supply, altitude and vegetation types, so NDVI is relatively high near water sources and is the highest in meadow grassland. The summer air temperature and precipitation are the important climate elements that influence the vegetation in the basin, and the linear correlation coefficients between NDVI and air temperature and precipitation are 0.7 and 0.71, respectively. In recent years, warm and humid trend of the local climate is prevailing to improve the ecological environment in Yamzho Yumco Basin.

  14. Understanding strain transfer and basin evolution complexities in the Salton pull-apart basin near the Southern San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, A. M.; Sahakian, V. J.; Kent, G. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.; Baskin, R. L.; Barth, M.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Active source seismic data in the Salton Sea provide insight into the complexity of the pull-apart system development. Seismic reflection data combined with tomographic cross sections give constraints on the timing of basin development and strain partitioning between the two dominant dextral faults in the region; the Imperial fault to the southwest and the Southern San Andreas fault (SSAF) to the northeast. Deformation associated with this step-over appears young, having formed in the last 20-40 k.a. The complexity seen in the Salton Sea is similar to that seen in pull-apart basins worldwide. In the southern basin of the Salton Sea, a zone of transpression is noted near the southern termination of the San Andreas fault, though this stress regime quickly transitions to a region of transtension in the northern reaches of the sea. The evolution seen in the basin architecture is likely related to a transition of the SSAF dying to the north, and giving way to youthful segments of the Brawley seismic zone and Imperial fault. Stratigraphic signatures seen in seismic cross-sections also reveal a long-term component of slip to the southwest on a fault 1-2 km west of the northeastern Salton Sea shoreline. Numerous lines of evidence, including seismic reflection data, high-resolution bathymetry within the Salton Sea, and folding patterns in the Borrego Formation to the east of the sea support an assertion of a previously unmapped fault, the Salton Trough fault (STF), parallel to the SAF and just offshore within the Salton Sea. Seismic observations are seen consistently within two datasets of varying vertical resolutions, up to depths of 4-5 km, suggesting that this fault strand is much longer-lived than the evolution seen in the southern sub-basin. The existence of the STF unifies discrepancies between the onshore seismic studies and data collected within the sea. The STF likely serves as the current bounding fault to the active pull-apart system, as it aligns with the "rung

  15. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterisation of Western Bredasdorp Basin, Southern Offshore of South Africa: Insights from a 3d Crust-Scale Basin Model - (Phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonibare, W. A.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.; Mikeš, D.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, construction of 3D geological models and their subsequent upscaling for reservoir simulation has become an important tool within the oil industry for managing hydrocarbon reservoirs and increasing recovery rate. Incorporating petroleum system elements (i.e. source, reservoir and trap) into these models is a relatively new concept that seems very promising to play/prospect risk assessment and reservoir characterisation alike. However, yet to be fully integrated into this multi-disciplinary modelling approach are the qualitative and quantitative impacts of crust-scale basin dynamics on the observed basin-fill architecture and geometries. The focus of this study i.e. Western Bredasdorp Basin constitutes the extreme western section of the larger Bredasdorp sub-basin, which is the westernmost depocentre of the four southern Africa offshore sub-basins (others being Pletmos, Gamtoos and Algoa). These basins, which appear to be initiated by volcanically influenced continental rifting and break-up related to passive margin evolution (during the Mid-Late Jurassic to latest Valanginian), remain previously unstudied for crust-scale basin margin evolution, and particularly in terms of relating deep crustal processes to depo-system reconstruction and petroleum system evolution. Seismic interpretation of 42 2D seismic-reflection profiles forms the basis for maps of 6 stratigraphic horizons which record the syn-rift to post-rift (i.e. early drift and late drift to present-day seafloor) successions. In addition to this established seismic markers, high quality seismic profiles have shown evidence for a pre-rift sequence (i.e. older than Late Jurassic >130 Ma). The first goal of this study is the construction of a 3D gravity-constrained, crust-scale basin model from integration of seismics, well data and cores. This basin model is constructed using GMS (in-house GFZ Geo-Modelling Software) while testing its consistency with the gravity field is performed using IGMAS

  16. Lithofacies control in detrital zircon provenance studies: Insights from the Cretaceous Methow basin, southern Canadian Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraaff-Surpless, K.; Mahoney, J.B.; Wooden, J.L.; McWilliams, M.O.

    2003-01-01

    High-frequency sampling for detrital zircon analysis can provide a detailed record of fine-scale basin evolution by revealing the temporal and spatial variability of detrital zircon ages within clastic sedimentary successions. This investigation employed detailed sampling of two sedimentary successions in the Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin of the southern Canadian Cordillera to characterize the heterogeneity of detrital zircon signatures within single lithofacies and assess the applicability of detrital zircon analysis in distinguishing fine-scale provenance changes not apparent in lithologic analysis of the strata. The Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin contains two distinct stratigraphic sequences of middle Albian to Santonian clastic sedimentary rocks: submarine-fan deposits of the Harts Pass Formation/Jackass Mountain Group and fluvial deposits of the Winthrop Formation. Although both stratigraphic sequences displayed consistent ranges in detrital zircon ages on a broad scale, detailed sampling within each succession revealed heterogeneity in the detrital zircon age distributions that was systematic and predictable in the turbidite succession but unpredictable in the fluvial succession. These results suggest that a high-density sampling approach permits interpretation of finescale changes within a lithologically uniform turbiditic sedimentary succession, but heterogeneity within fluvial systems may be too large and unpredictable to permit accurate fine-scale characterization of the evolution of source regions. The robust composite detrital zircon age signature developed for these two successions permits comparison of the Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin age signature with known plutonic source-rock ages from major plutonic belts throughout the Cretaceous North American margin. The Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin detrital zircon age signature matches best with source regions in the southern Canadian Cordillera, requiring that the basin developed in close proximity to the

  17. Breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age: Transcultural warriorhood and a Carpathian crossroad in the 16th century BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandkilde, Helle

    2014-01-01

    The breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age (NBA) c. 1600 bc as a koiné within Bronze Age Europe can be historically linked to the Carpathian Basin. Nordic distinctiveness entailed an entanglement of cosmology and warriorhood, albeit represented through different media in the hotspot zone (bronze) ...... momentous creativity that drew upon Carpathian originals, contacts and a pool of Carpathian ideas, but ultimately drawing on emergent Mycenaean hegemonies in the Aegean. This provided the incentive for a cosmology-rooted resource from which the NBA could take its starting point....

  18. Paleozoic evolution of active margin basins in the southern Central Andes (northwestern Argentina and northern Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlburg, H.; Breitkreuz, C.

    The geodynamic evolution of the Paleozoic continental margin of Gondwana in the region of the southern Central Andes is characterized by the westward progression of orogenic basin formation through time. The Ordovician basin in the northwest Argentinian Cordillera Oriental and Puna originated as an Early Ordovician back-arc basin. The contemporaneous magmatic arc of an east-dipping subduction zone was presumably located in northern Chile. In the back-arc basin, a ca. 3500 meter, fining-up volcaniclastic apron connected to the arc formed during the Arenigian. Increased subsidence in the late Arenigian allowed for the accomodation of large volumes of volcaniclastic turbidites during the Middle Ordovician. Subsidence and sedimentation were caused by the onset of collision between the para-autochthonous Arequipa Massif Terrane (AMT) and the South American margin at the Arenigian-Llanvirnian transition. This led to eastward thrusting of the arc complex over its back-arc basin and, consequently, to its transformation into a marine foreland basin. As a result of thrusting in the west, a flexural bulge formed in the east, leading to uplift and emergence of the Cordillera Oriental shelf during the Guandacol Event at the Arenigian-Llanvirnian transition. The basin fill was folded during the terminal collision of the AMT during the Oclóyic Orogeny (Ashgillian). The folded strata were intruded post-tectonically by the presumably Silurian granitoids of the "Faja Eruptiva de la Puna Oriental." The orogeny led to the formation of the positive area of the Arco Puneño. West of the Arco Puneño, a further marine basin developed during the Early Devonian, the eastern shelf of which occupied the area of the Cordillera Occidental, Depresión Preandina, and Precordillera. The corresponding deep marine turbidite basin was located in the region of the Cordillera de la Costa. Deposition continued until the basin fill was folded in the early Late Carboniferous Toco Orogeny. The basin

  19. Geodynamics of the Carpathian-Pannonian region: Insights from low temperature thermochronology of the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreucci, Benedetta; Zattin, Massimiliano; Castelluccio, Ada; Mazzoli, Stefano; Szaniawski, Rafal; Jankowski, Leszek

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the geodynamic evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian region has been the subject of a heated scientific debate. This orogenic system formed between the Late Jurassic and the Neogene by the collision of the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia microplates with the European Platform, and assumed its present-day configuration mainly during the Miocene, when the extensional Pannonian Basin formed in a retro wedge position, while compression was still active along the Carpathian front. The most common and widely accepted interpretation for the Miocene evolution of this region is based on a classical back-arc extension model and subsequent astenospheric upwelling and slab break-off. Nonetheless several authors proposed other possible driving mechanisms for the formation of the Pannonian Basin, such as lithosphere delamination or lithospheric gravitational instability. Thermochronometry provides important constrains to the depths of burial and to the timing and rates of exhumation. Each geodynamic scenario proposed for the Carpathian-Pannonian region implies a different spatial distribution of burial and a different timing of exhumation. In this work we use a compilation of several low-temperature thermochronometric datasets, referred to the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians, to evaluate their compatibility with the different geodynamic models proposed so far. In order to achieve this goal we examine the spatial distribution of burial depths and of ages and rates of exhumation and we put them in relation with (i) the spatial trend of the relief, (ii) heat flow, (iii) crustal and lithospheric thickness, and (iv) structural setting. We propose a subdivision of the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians in three different tectonic domains, based on geophysical and structural parameters. Each single area is characterized also by different burial-exhumation history and requires a specific explanation in terms of driving processes. In particular, we infer that exhumation occurred

  20. Geology, Water, and Wind in the Lower Helmand Basin, Southern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John W.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the geology, hydrology, and climate of the lower Helmand Basin, a large, closed, arid basin in southern Afghanistan. The basin is drained by the Helmand River, the only perennial desert stream between the Indus and Tigris-Euphrates Rivers. The Helmand River is the lifeblood of southern Afghanistan and has supported desert civilizations in the Sistan depression for over 6,000 years. The Helmand Basin is a structurally closed basin that began to form during the middle Tertiary as a consequence of the collision of several Gondwanaland fragments. Aeromagnetic studies indicate the basin is 3-5 kilometers deep over basement rocks. Continued subsidence along basin-bounding faults in Iran and Pakistan throughout the Neogene has formed the Sistan depression in the southwest corner of the basin. Lacustrine, eolian, and fluvial deposits are commonly exposed in the basin and were intruded by latest Miocene-middle Quaternary volcanoes, which indicates that depositional environments in the lower Helmand Basin have not substantially changed for nearly 10 million years. Lakes expanded in the Sistan depression during the Quaternary; however, the size and extent of these pluvial lakes are unknown. Climate conditions in the lower Helmand Basin likely mirrored climate changes in the Rajasthan Desert to the east and in Middle Eastern deserts to the west: greater aridity during global episodes of colder temperatures and increased available moisture during episodes of warmer temperatures. Eolian processes are unusually dominant in shaping the landscape in the basin. A strong wind blows for 120 days each summer, scouring dry lakebeds and creating dune fields from annual flood deposits. Nearly one-third of the basin is mantled with active or stabilized dunes. Blowing winds combined with summer temperatures over 50? Celsius and voluminous insect populations hatched from the deltaic wetlands create an environment referred to as the 'most odious place on

  1. Insights on the evolution of mid-ocean basins: the Atlantis Basin of southern Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, T.; Bouriak, S.; Volkonskaya, A.; Monteiro, J.; Ivanov, M.

    2003-04-01

    Single-channel seismic reflection and sidescan (OKEAN) data acquired in an unstudied region of the North Atlantic give important insights on the evolution of mid-ocean basins. Located on the eastern flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, south of the Azores Islands, the study area contains more than 1,000 ms two-way travel-time of sediments with a similar seismic stratigraphy to that of ODP sites 950-952 in the Madeira Abyssal Plain. Processed thickness values correspond to a maximum thickness of about 1450 m and an average thickness of more than 500 m based on velocity data from ODP sites 950-952. The structure of the surveyed area and its location in relation to the Madeira Abyssal Plain and Mid-Atlantic Ridge indicate the existence, south of Azores, of two distinct sedimentary basins separated by major structural lineaments (Azores-Gibraltar and Atlantis Fracture Zones) and by seamount chains (Cruiser-Great Meteor Chain, Plato-Atlantis Chain). The basement of the sedimentary basins is irregular, showing multiple dome-shaped volcanic structures identical to those in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and Madeira Abyssal Plain. However, half-graben/graben basement blocks predominate east of 30ºW underneath a moderately deformed overburden. The complex structure observed most likely reflects changes in the direction and velocity of ocean spreading plus variations in the regional thermal gradients induced by local hot spots. In parallel, some of the sub-surface structures identified next to basin-bounding Fracture Zones may have resulted from transtensional and transpressional tectonism.

  2. MIDDLE TRIASSIC PLATFORM AND BASIN EVOLUTION OF THE SOUTHERN BAKONY MOUNTAINS (TRANSDANUBIAN RANGE, HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMÁS BUDAI

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Middle Triassic history of the Southern Bakony Mts. is outlined on the base of horizontal and vertical facies changes of the formations. During the Pelsonian (Balatonicus Chron the evolution of the basins and platforms was determined basically by synsedimentary tectonics. The Felsõörs basin of the Balaton Highland opened due to the block-faulting of the Bithynian carbonate ramp (Megyehegy Dolomite. Above the drowning blocks „halfgraben” basins were formed (Felsõörs Formation, while isolated platforms developed on the uplifted ones in the middle part of the Balaton Highland and on the Veszprém plateau (Tagyon Formation. Due to the relative sea-level fall in the early Illyrian, the platforms became subaerially exposed and karstified. As a consequence of the late Illyrian tectonic subsidence (manifested by neptunian dykes the central platform of the Balaton Highland has been drowned (Camunum Subchron. On the contrary, the Anisian platform of the Veszprém plateau was totally flooded only during the latest Illyrian (Reitzi Subchron due to eustatic sea-level rise. It was followed by a short highstand period (Secedensis Chron, characterised by the first progradation of the Budaörs platform on the Veszprém plateau and highstand shedding in the basins and on the submarine high (Vászoly Limestone in the centre of the Balaton Highland basin. Due to the following rapid sea-level rise, carbonate sedimentation continued in eupelagic basin from the Fassanian (Buchenstein Formation. At the beginning of the late Longobardian highstand period (Regoledanus Chron the Budaörs platform intensively prograded from the Veszprém plateau to the southwest, causing highstand shedding in the Balaton Highland basin (Füred Limestone. 

  3. The Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system: correlation and evolution of tectonic units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, S.M.; Bernoulli, D.; Fügenschuh, B.; Matenco, L.C.; Schefer, S.; Schuster, R.; Tischler, M.; Ustaszewski, K.

    2008-01-01

    A correlation of tectonic units of the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic system of orogens, including the substrate of the Pannonian and Transylvanian basins, is presented in the form of a map. Combined with a series of crustal-scale cross sections this correlation of tectonic units yields a clearer

  4. Paleobasin analysis and tectonic framework development of southern Zagros basin, interpreted from Landsat 4 thematic mapper image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranpanah, A.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed lineament maps produced with the digitally enhanced Landsat 4 thematic mapper in conjunction with field data provide new information on structural relations to the southern Zagros basin. Three major parallel lineaments are from north to south, Qatar-Kazern, Razak, and Oman. These lineaments trend approximately N17/sup 0/E and subdivide the Zagros basin into northern, central, and southern segments. The study area is enclosed by the Razak and Oman lineaments. Piercement salt domes (Precambrian salt) are abundant within the southern Zagros basin, absent east of the Oman lineament, and scarce in the area west of the Razak lineament. This salt dome distribution and the N17/sup 0/E trend suggest that these lineaments are surface manifestations of boundaries of basement crustal blocks that have been reactivated periodically since the Precambrian. The northern extension of this Precambrian basin is marked by salt domes (Precambrian salt) along the Oman lineament, located in the Kerman region 400 km north of Minab. Along the eastern boundary, at the juncture of the southern Zagros basin and western Makran Ranges, the trend of fold axes changes from east-west to north-south. The western basin boundary is characterized by a gradual change in the trend of the fold axis from east-west to northwest-southeast. This study provides useful information for subsurface interpretations, which will benefit hydrocarbon exploration. The Razak and Oman lineaments enclose a highly productive area, and separate the southern Zagros basin from less productive areas to the west and from a nonproductive region to the east where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that lineaments may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of the southern Zagros basin.

  5. Study of southern CHAONAN sag lower continental slope basin deposition character in Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Northern South China Sea Margin locates in Eurasian plate,Indian-Australia plate,Pacific Plates.The South China Sea had underwent a complicated tectonic evolution in Cenozoic.During rifting,the continental shelf and slope forms a series of Cenozoic sedimentary basins,including Qiongdongnan basin,Pearl River Mouth basin,Taixinan basin.These basins fill in thick Cenozoic fluviolacustrine facies,transitional facies,marine facies,abyssal facies sediment,recording the evolution history of South China Sea Margin rifting and ocean basin extending.The studies of tectonics and deposition of depression in the Southern Chaonan Sag of lower continental slope in the Norther South China Sea were dealt with,based on the sequence stratigraphy and depositional facies interpretation of seismic profiles acquired by cruises of“China and Germany Joint Study on Marine Geosciences in the South China Sea”and“The formation,evolution and key issues of important resources in China marginal sea",and combining with ODP 1148 cole and LW33-1-1 well.The free-air gravity anomaly of the break up of the continental and ocean appears comparatively low negative anomaly traps which extended in EW,it is the reflection of passive margin gravitational effect.Bouguer gravity anomaly is comparatively low which is gradient zone extended NE-SW.Magnetic anomaly lies in Magnetic Quiet Zone at the Northern Continental Margin of the South China Sea.The Cenozoic sediments of lower continental slope in Southern Chaonan Sag can be divided into five stratum interface:SB5.5,SB10.5,SB16.5,SB23.8 and Hg,their ages are of Pliocene-Quaternary,late Miocene,middle Miocene,early Miocene,paleogene.The tectonic evolution of low continental slope depressions can be divided into rifting,rifting-depression transitional and depression stages,while their depositional environments change from river to shallow marine and abyssa1,which results in different topography in different stages.The topographic evolvement in the study

  6. Seismic Structural Setting of Western Farallon Basin, Southern Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero-Lajas, D.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Lopez-Martinez, M.; Lonsdale, P.

    2007-05-01

    Data from a number of high resolution 2D multichannel seismic (MCS) lines were used to investigate the structure and stratigraphy of the western Farallon basin in the southern Gulf of California. A Generator-Injector air gun provided a clean seismic source shooting each 12 s at a velocity of 6 kts. Each signal was recorded during 6- 8 s, at a sampling interval of 1 ms, by a 600 m long digital streamer with 48 channels and a spacing of 12.5 m. The MCS system was installed aboard CICESE's (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada) 28 m research vessel Francisco de Ulloa. MCS data were conventionally processed, to obtain post- stack time-migrated seismic sections. The MCS seismic sections show a very detailed image of the sub-bottom structure up to 2-3 s two-way travel time (aprox. 2 km). We present detailed images of faulting based on the high resolution and quality of these data. Our results show distributed faulting with many active and inactive faults. Our study also constrains the depth to basement near the southern Baja California eastern coast. The acoustic basement appears as a continuous feature in the western part of the study area and can be correlated with some granite outcrops located in the southern Gulf of California islands. To the East, near the center of the Farallon basin, the acoustic basement changes, it is more discontinuous, and the seismic sections show a number of diffracted waves.

  7. The Frasnian-Famennian boundary (Upper Devonian) in black shale sequences: US Southern Midcontinent, Illinois Basin, and northern Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Over, D.J. (State Univ. of New York, Geneseo, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-04-01

    The Frasnian-Famennian (F/F) boundary in the Woodford Shale of the US southern Midcontinent, Sweetland Creek Shale of the Illinois Basin, and the Hanover Shale of the northern Appalachian Basin is recognized to a discrete horizon. In each locality the boundary is marked by evidence of a disconformity: phosphate nodules, concentration of conodonts, or coated and corroded grains. The Woodford Shale consists of finely laminated pyritic organic-rich shale containing interbeds of greenish shale and chert. The F/F boundary horizon is marked by a concentration of conodonts and phosphatic nodules. The boundary lag horizon contains Pa. linguliformis, Pa. subperlobtata, Pa. delicatula delicatula, and Pa. triangularis. Underlying laminations contain Ancyrognathus ubiquitus and Pa. triangularis indicating that the disconformity is within the uppermost MN Zone 13 or Lower triangularis Zone. The upper portion of the Type Sweetland Creek Shale consists of dark organic-rich shales. The F/F boundary is located within an interval containing three green shale interbeds. Palmatolepis triangularis in the absence of Frasnian species first occurs in the middle green shale. In the thick Upper Devonian clastic sequence of the northern Appalachian Basin the F/F boundary is within an interval of interbedded pyritic green and organic-rich silty shales of the Hanover Shale. At Irish Gulf strata containing Pa. triangularis overlie finely laminated dark shales containing Pa. bogartensis, Pa. triangularis, Pa. winchell, Ancyrodella curvata, and Icriodus alternatus. The conodont fauna transition is below a conodont-rich laminae containing a Famennian fauna that marks the boundary horizon.

  8. Clustering and interpretation of local earthquake tomography models in the southern Dead Sea basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Klaus; Braeuer, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea transform (DST) marks the boundary between the Arabian and the African plates. Ongoing left-lateral relative plate motion and strike-slip deformation started in the Early Miocene (20 MA) and produced a total shift of 107 km until presence. The Dead Sea basin (DSB) located in the central part of the DST is one of the largest pull-apart basins in the world. It was formed from step-over of different fault strands at a major segment boundary of the transform fault system. The basin development was accompanied by deposition of clastics and evaporites and subsequent salt diapirism. Ongoing deformation within the basin and activity of the boundary faults are indicated by increased seismicity. The internal architecture of the DSB and the crustal structure around the DST were subject of several large scientific projects carried out since 2000. Here we report on a local earthquake tomography study from the southern DSB. In 2006-2008, a dense seismic network consisting of 65 stations was operated for 18 months in the southern part of the DSB and surrounding regions. Altogether 530 well-constrained seismic events with 13,970 P- and 12,760 S-wave arrival times were used for a travel time inversion for Vp, Vp/Vs velocity structure and seismicity distribution. The work flow included 1D inversion, 2.5D and 3D tomography, and resolution analysis. We demonstrate a possible strategy how several tomographic models such as Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs can be integrated for a combined lithological interpretation. We analyzed the tomographic models derived by 2.5D inversion using neural network clustering techniques. The method allows us to identify major lithologies by their petrophysical signatures. Remapping the clusters into the subsurface reveals the distribution of basin sediments, prebasin sedimentary rocks, and crystalline basement. The DSB shows an asymmetric structure with thickness variation from 5 km in the west to 13 km in the east. Most importantly, a well-defined body

  9. 2.5D seismic velocity modelling in the south-eastern Romanian Carpathians Orogen and its foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocin, Andrei; Stephenson, Randell; Tryggvason, Ari; Panea, Ionelia; Mocanu, Victor; Hauser, Franz; Matenco, Liviu

    2005-12-01

    The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappe system and the architecture of the Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the Vrancea zone, including the rapidly subsiding Focsani Basin. The DACIA-PLAN profile is about 140 km long, having a roughly WNW-ESE direction, from near the southeast Transylvanian Basin, across the mountainous south-eastern Carpathians and their foreland to near the Danube River. A high resolution 2.5D velocity model of the upper crust along the seismic profile has been determined from a tomographic inversion of the DACIA-PLAN first arrival data. The results show that the data fairly accurately resolve the transition from sediment to crystalline basement beneath the Focsani Basin, where industry seismic data are available for correlation, at depths up to about 10 km. Beneath the external Carpathians nappes, apparent basement (material with velocities above 5.8 km/s) lies at depths as shallow as 3-4 km, which is less than previously surmised on the basis of geological observations. The first arrival travel-time data suggest that there is significant lateral structural heterogeneity on the apparent basement surface in this area, suggesting that the high velocity material may be involved in Carpathian thrusting.

  10. TRANSGRESSIVE SEQUENCES ON FORELAND MARGINS: A CASE STUDY OF THE NEOGENE CENTRAL GUADALQUIVIR BASIN, SOUTHERN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GABRIEL PENDÓN

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Guadalquivir foreland basin, located between the Iberian basement northward and the Betic orogen to the South, represents the western sector of the earlier foredeep basin of the Betic Cordillera. Along the northern foreland margin, the sedimentary fill of this basin includes a Tortonian Basal Transgressive Complex (BTC, composed of five internal sequences bounded by transgressive surfaces. Two main parts are distinguished within each sequence: the lower transgressive lag deposits, and the upper stillstand/prograding sediments. Three facies associations were distinguished within this stratigraphic succession along the central sector of this basin margin: unfossiliferous conglomerates and coarse-grained sands (A, fossiliferous conglomerates and coarse-grained sands (B, and yellow medium-coarse-grained fossiliferous sands (C. A fourth facies association (D: blue silty marlstones and shales overlies the BTC. Deposits of alluvial sediments (facies association A and shallow-marine/foreshore sediments (facies association C, were recurrently interrupted by transgressive pulses (facies associations B and C. Every pulse is recorded by an erosional, cemented sandy-conglomerate bar with bivalves (Ostreidae, Isognomon, balanids, gastropods and other marine bioclasts; or their transgressive equivalents. The lateral facies changes in each individual sequence of the BTC are related to: (1 the influence on the northern foreland margin of the tectonic activity of the southern orogenic margin; (2 the palaeorelief formed by irregularities of the substrate which controls the sediment dispersal; and (3 the evolution stages of the sedimentary systems. 

  11. Chemical characteristics of Central Indian Basin waters during the southern summer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Sardessai, S.; RameshBabu, V.; Murty, V.S.N.; Gupta, G.V.M.

    aspects of oxygen deficient conditions and denitrification in the Arabian Sea. Journal of MarineResearch 45,1049–1072. Redfield,A.C.,Ketchum,B.H.,Richards,F.A.,1963.Theinfluenceoforganismsonthecompositionofseawater.In: Hill, M.N. (Ed.), The Sea: Ideas...-Sea Research II 48 (2001)3343–3352 Chemical characteristics of Central Indian Basin waters during the southern summer S.N. de Sousa*,S.D. Sardessai, V. Ramesh Babu, V.S.N. Murty, G.V.M. Gupta NationalInstituteofOceanography,DonaPaula,Goa403004,India Abstract...

  12. A new species of Ituglanis (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae from the rio Uruguai basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ferrer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of Ituglanis associated to the grasslands of the Pampa biome is described from the rio Uruguai basin, southern Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the low number of ribs and by a unique color pattern composed of an outer layer with scattered round black blotches equivalent in size to the eye circumference over a reddish brown background on the lateral surface of the body. We provide the genetic sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I (COI for three of the paratypes and discuss aspects about the recent discovery of the new species.

  13. Traveling Weather Disturbances in Mars Southern Extratropics: Sway of the Great Impact Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.

    2016-01-01

    ' transient barotropic/baroclinic eddies are significantly influenced by the great impact basins of this hemisphere (e.g., Argyre and Hellas). In addition, the occurrence of a southern storm zone in late winter and early spring is keyed particularly to the western hemisphere via orographic influences arising from the Tharsis highlands, and the Argyre and Hellas impact basins. Geographically localized transient-wave activity diagnostics are constructed that illuminate fundamental differences amongst such simulations and these are described.

  14. Study on integrated evaluation of sandstone-hosted uranium metallogenic potential in southern Yili basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shaoyang; Ke Dan; Xu Jianguo; Zheng Enjiu; Li Shengxiang

    2008-01-01

    Plenty of geological data have been accumulated during mineral resource survey in China; under the guidance of new metallogenic theories, it is an important task of how to use these data most effectively for the new cycle uranium survey. In this paper, the flow of establishing the integrated mineral deposits prospecting model for sandstone-hosted uranium deposits is put forward. Based on studying geologic, hydrogeologic and regional geophysical field characteristics of representative uranium deposits No. 512 in southern Yili basin, its multi-source information descriptive model has been established, from which 512-type integrated prospecting models of sandstone-hosted uranium orefield and deposits are summarized. According to the established integrated prospecting models, the metallogenic information extraction of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits has completed in the study area. Finally, the integrated quantitative evaluation of sandstone-hosted uranium metallogenic potential is performed by using the evidence weighing method to integrate middle scale multi-source metallogenic information in the southern Yili basin, and good prediction effect is obtained. (authors)

  15. Principal facts for gravity data collected in the southern Albuquerque Basin area and a regional compilation, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Cindy L.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Oshetski, Kim; Keller, Gordon R.

    2000-01-01

    Principal facts for 156 new gravity stations in the southern Albuquerque basin are presented. These data fill a gap in existing data coverage. The compilation of the new data and two existing data sets into a regional data set of 5562 stations that cover the Albuquerque basin and vicinity is also described. Bouguer anomaly and isostatic residual gravity data for this regional compilation are available in digital form from ftp://greenwood.cr.usgs.gov/pub/openfile- reports/ofr-00-490.

  16. Pore characteristics of shale gas reservoirs from the Lower Paleozoic in the southern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianqing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data was acquired from both the drillings and core samples of the Lower Paleozoic Qiongzhusi and Longmaxi Formations' marine shale gas reservoirs in the southern Sichuan Basin by means of numerous specific experimental methods such as organic geochemistry, organic petrology, and pore analyses. Findings helped determine the characteristics of organic matter, total porosity, microscopic pore, and pore structure. The results show that the Lower Paleozoic marine shale in the south of the Sichuan Basin are characterized by high total organic carbon content (most TOC>2.0%, high thermal maturity level (RO = 2.3%–3.8%, and low total porosity (1.16%–6.87%. The total organic carbon content and thermal maturity level of the Qiongzhusi Formation shale are higher than those of the Longmaxi Formation shale, while the total porosity of the Qiongzhusi Formation shale is lower than that of the Longmaxi Formation shale. There exists intergranular pore, dissolved pore, crystal particle pore, particle edge pore, and organic matter pore in the Lower Paleozoic Qiongzhusi Formation and Longmaxi Formation shale. There are more micro-nano pores developed in the Longmaxi Formation shales than those in the Qiongzhusi Formation shales. Intergranular pores, dissolved pores, as well as organic matter pores, are the most abundant, these are primary storage spaces for shale gas. The microscopic pores in the Lower Paleozoic shales are mainly composed of micropores, mesopores, and a small amount of macropores. The micropore and mesopore in the Qiongzhusi Formation shale account for 83.92% of the total pore volume. The micropore and mesopore in the Longmaxi Formation shale accounts for 78.17% of the total pore volume. Thus, the micropores and mesopores are the chief components of microscopic pores in the Lower Paleozoic shale gas reservoirs in the southern Sichuan Basin.

  17. Tectonic geomorphology of large normal faults bounding the Cuzco rift basin within the southern Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, C.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Cuzco basin forms a 80-wide, relatively flat valley within the High Andes of southern Peru. This larger basin includes the regional capital of Cuzco and the Urubamba Valley, or "Sacred Valley of the Incas" favored by the Incas for its mild climate and broader expanses of less rugged and arable land. The valley is bounded on its northern edge by a 100-km-long and 10-km-wide zone of down-to-the-south systems of normal faults that separate the lower area of the down-dropped plateau of central Peru and the more elevated area of the Eastern Cordillera foldbelt that overthrusts the Amazon lowlands to the east. Previous workers have shown that the normal faults are dipslip with up to 600 m of measured displacements, reflect north-south extension, and have Holocene displacments with some linked to destructive, historical earthquakes. We have constructed topographic and structural cross sections across the entire area to demonstrate the normal fault on a the plateau peneplain. The footwall of the Eastern Cordillera, capped by snowcapped peaks in excess of 6 km, tilts a peneplain surface northward while the hanging wall of the Cuzco basin is radially arched. Erosion is accelerated along the trend of the normal fault zone. As the normal fault zone changes its strike from east-west to more more northwest-southeast, normal displacement decreases and is replaced by a left-lateral strike-slip component.

  18. Soil erosion vulnerability in the verde river basin, southern minas gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Augusto de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental degradation processes. Mapping and assessment of soil erosion vulnerability is an important tool for planning and management of the natural resources. The objective of the present study was to apply the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE using GIS tools to the Verde River Basin (VRB, southern Minas Gerais, in order to assess soil erosion vulnerability. A annual rainfall erosivity map was derived from the geographical model adjusted for Southeastern Brazil, calculating an annual value for each pixel. The maps of soil erodibility (K, topographic factor (LS, and use and management of soils (C were developed from soils and their uses map and the digital elevation model (DEM developed for the basin. In a GIS environment, the layers of the factors were combined to create the soil erosion vulnerability map according to RUSLE. The results showed that, in general, the soils of the VRB present a very high vulnerability to water erosion, with 58.68% of soil losses classified as "High" and "Extremely High" classes. In the headwater region of VRB, the predominant classes were "Very High" and "Extremely High" where there is predominance of Cambisols associated with extensive pastures. Furthermore, the integration of RUSLE/GIS showed an efficient tool for spatial characterization of soil erosion vulnerability in this important basin of the Minas Gerais state.

  19. Availability of ground water in the middle Merrimack River basin, central and southern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Sufficient amounts of water to supply single family homes are available from the bedrock aquifer nearly everywhere in the middle Merrimack River basin in central and southern New Hampshire. Relatively this and narrow, unconsolidated aquifers of sand or sand and gravel commonly capable of yielding more than 200 gallons per minute to properly located and constructed wells are found only in major stream valleys. The map provides a preliminary assessment of the availability of ground water in the basin, as determined by estimating the capability of the aquifers to store and transmit water. On the map, aquifers are rated as having high, medium, or low potential to yield water. Ground water in the middle Merrimack River basin is generally of good chemical quality. Most of it is clear and colorless, contains no suspended matter and practically no bacteria, water may be affected by land-use practices. Degradation of water quality may occur in unsewered residential and village areas, near solid-waste-disposal sites, agricultural land, and major highways. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Soft sediment deformation structures in the Maastrichtian Ajali Formation Western Flank of Anambra Basin, Southern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabode, Solomon Ojo

    2014-01-01

    Soft sediment deformation structures were recognized in the Maastrichtian shallow marine wave to tide influenced regressive sediments of Ajali Formation in the western flank of Anambra basin, southern Nigerian. The soft sediment deformation structures were in association with cross bedded sands, clay and silt and show different morphological types. Two main types recognised are plastic deformations represented by different types of recumbent folds and injection structure represented by clastic dykes. Other structures in association with the plastic deformation structures include distorted convolute lamination, subsidence lobes, pillars, cusps and sand balls. These structures are interpreted to have been formed by liquefaction and fluidization mechanisms. The driving forces inferred include gravitational instabilities and hydraulic processes. Facies analysis, detailed morphologic study of the soft sediment deformation structures and previous tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main trigger agent for deformation is earthquake shock. The soft sediment deformation structures recognised in the western part of Anambra basin provide a continuous record of the tectonic processes that acted on the regressive Ajali Formation during the Maastrichtian.

  1. The deeper structure of the southern Dead Sea basin derived from neural network analysis of velocity and attenuation tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeuer, Benjamin; Haberland, Christian; Bauer, Klaus; Weber, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The Dead Sea basin is a pull-apart basin at the Dead Sea transform fault, the boundary between the African and the Arabian plates. Though the DSB has been studied for a long time, the available knowledge - based mainly on surface geology, drilling and seismic reflection surveys - gives only a partial picture of its shallow structure. Therefore, within the framework of the international DESIRE (DEad Sea Integrated REsearch) project, a dense temporary local seismological network was operated in the southern Dead Sea area. Within 18 month of recording 650 events were detected. In addition to an already published tomography study revealing the distribution of P velocities and the Vp/Vs ratios a 2D P-wave attenuation tomography (parameter Qp) was performed. The neural network technique of Self-organizing maps (SOM) is used for the joint interpretation of these three parameters (Vp, Vp/Vs, Qp). The resulting clusters in the petrophysical parameter space are assigned to the main lithological units below the southern part of the Dead Sea basin: (1) The basin sediments characterized by strong attenuation, high vp/vs ratios and low P velocities. (2) The pre-basin sediments characterized by medium to strong attenuation, low Vp/Vs ratios and medium P velocities. (3) The basement characterized by low to moderate attenuation, medium vp/vs ratios and high P velocities. Thus, the asymmetric southern Dead Sea basin is filled with basin sediments down to depth of 7 to 12 km. Below the basin sediments, the pre-basin sediments are extending to a depth between 13 and 18 km.

  2. Geomorphic evolution of the San Luis Basin and Rio Grande in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruleman, Chester A.; Machette, Michael; Thompson, Ren A.; Miggins, Dan M; Goehring, Brent M; Paces, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The San Luis Basin encompasses the largest structural and hydrologic basin of the Rio Grande rift. On this field trip, we will examine the timing of transition of the San Luis Basin from hydrologically closed, aggrading subbasins to a continuous fluvial system that eroded the basin, formed the Rio Grande gorge, and ultimately, integrated the Rio Grande from Colorado to the Gulf of Mexico. Waning Pleistocene neotectonic activity and onset of major glacial episodes, in particular Marine Isotope Stages 11–2 (~420–14 ka), induced basin fill, spillover, and erosion of the southern San Luis Basin. The combined use of new geologic mapping, fluvial geomorphology, reinterpreted surficial geology of the Taos Plateau, pedogenic relative dating studies, 3He surface exposure dating of basalts, and U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate supports a sequence of events wherein pluvial Lake Alamosa in the northern San Luis Basin overflowed, and began to drain to the south across the closed Sunshine Valley–Costilla Plain region ≤400 ka. By ~200 ka, erosion had cut through topographic highs at Ute Mountain and the Red River fault zone, and began deep-canyon incision across the southern San Luis Basin. Previous studies indicate that prior to 200 ka, the present Rio Grande terminated into a large bolson complex in the vicinity of El Paso, Texas, and systematic, headward erosional processes had subtly integrated discontinuously connected basins along the eastern flank of the Rio Grande rift and southern Rocky Mountains. We propose that the integration of the entire San Luis Basin into the Rio Grande drainage system (~400–200 ka) was the critical event in the formation of the modern Rio Grande, integrating hinterland basins of the Rio Grande rift from El Paso, Texas, north to the San Luis Basin with the Gulf of Mexico. This event dramatically affected basins southeast of El Paso, Texas, across the Chisos Mountains and southeastern Basin and Range province, including the Rio

  3. Weapons in the 10–11th century Carpathian Basin. Studies in weapon technology and methodology – rigid bow applications and southern import swords in the archaeological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Bíró

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract of PhD thesis submitted in 2014 to the Archaeology Doctoral Programme, DoctoralSchool of History, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest under the supervision of Tivadar Vida.

  4. The geological position, sedimentary record and composition of the Tylicz Conglomerate (Late Eocene-Oligocene): stratigraphical and paleogeographical implications (Magura Nappe, Polish Outer Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Barbara; Oszczypko, Nestor

    2010-02-01

    During the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene the Magura Basin was supplied with clastic material from, non-existing today, source areas situated on the northern and southern margins of the basin. The northern source area is traditionally connected with Silesian Ridge, whereas the position of the southern one is still under discussion. The Upper Eocene-Oligocene pebbly mudstones of the Tylicz/Krynica facies zone contain exotic material derived from the south-Magura source area. The studied pebbles and clasts contain fragments of crystalline rocks, derived from a continental type of crust, and frequent clasts of Mesozoic to Paleogene deep and shallow-water limestones. Volcanites, rarely granitoides as well as schists, gneisses, quartzites and cataclasites were found in the group of crystalline exotic pebbles. The isotopic ages of "exotic" pebbles from the Tylicz section document a Variscan age of plutonic and metamorphic rocks. The composition of the Tylicz exotic conglomerates occupied the transitional position between the Jarmuta/Proč (Maastrichtian-Lower Eocene) and Strihovce (Eocene) exotic pebbles. The provenance of these rocks could be connected with Eocene exhumation of the SE sector of the Magura Basin basement. Another possibility can be explain by supply of siliciclastic material from a SE source area (Dacia and Tisza Mega-Units) and carbonate material from a S source area (ALCAPA Mega-Unit: Central Carpathian Block and Pieniny Klippen Belt).

  5. The geometry of pull-apart basins in the southern part of Sumatran strike-slip fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribowo, Sonny

    2018-02-01

    Models of pull-apart basin geometry have been described by many previous studies in a variety tectonic setting. 2D geometry of Ranau Lake represents a pull-apart basin in the Sumatran Fault Zone. However, there are unclear geomorphic traces of two sub-parallel overlapping strike-slip faults in the boundary of the lake. Nonetheless, clear geomorphic traces that parallel to Kumering Segment of the Sumatran Fault are considered as inactive faults in the southern side of the lake. I demonstrate the angular characteristics of the Ranau Lake and Suoh complex pull-apart basins and compare with pull-apart basin examples from published studies. I use digital elevation model (DEM) image to sketch the shape of the depression of Ranau Lake and Suoh Valley and measure 2D geometry of pull-apart basins. This study shows that Ranau Lake is not a pull-apart basin, and the pull-apart basin is actually located in the eastern side of the lake. Since there is a clear connection between pull-apart basin and volcanic activity in Sumatra, I also predict that the unclear trace of the pull-apart basin near Ranau Lake may be covered by Ranau Caldera and Seminung volcanic products.

  6. Geophysical modeling across Inner and Outer Western Carpathians in Eastern Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozar, J.; Bezak, V.; Bielik, M.; Majcin, D.; Vajda, P.; Bilcik, D.

    2017-12-01

    We present a multidimensional geophysical modelling of Central and Eastern Slovakia in the area of contact zone between the Inner and Outer Western Carpathians, and the East Slovakian Basin. Our crustal and lithospheric studies are based on geophysical data collected during CELEBRATION 2000 project and project THERMES. The new magnetotelluric (MT) multidimensional modelling is combined with seismic 2D wide angle refraction profiles and gravimetric modelling. Together with thermal information gathered from the area we constructed new integrated geophysical models of structures included in the evolution of the Carpathian orogen. Preliminary results of MT modelling in Eastern Slovakia suggest more electrically conductive structures in the middle and lower crustal depths in comparison with Central Slovakia, where we observed structures dominated by resistive complexes overlaid by conductive sedimentary formations. The higher conductivities below the East Slovakian Basin restrict penetration depth of the geoelectrical images. The electrically conductive structures are connected with tectono-thermal development in Neogene and presence of volcanic activity. Another significant conductive anomaly is imaged along the contact zone between Inner and Outer Western Carpathians in depths of about 10 - 20km, which is known as the Carpathian Conductivity Anomaly (CCA). In order to improve the depth resolution of MT models we decided to combine geoelectrical images with density and velocity models of the area. We used integrated petrological and geophysical modeling code to obtain thermally consistent lithospheric scale models of the area. A possible preliminary geological interpretation of the northern segment of investigated area suggests a resistive European platform below conductive flysch sediments. The boundary between Inner and Outer Carpthians represented by the Klippen Belt on the surface is changed to the CCA in higher depths. In the direction to the south there are

  7. Peculiarities of the hydrological regime of the fishery water reservoirs at the basin of the Southern Bug of Vinnytsia region

    OpenAIRE

    V. Baban; I. Gamaliy.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with analysis of hydrological regime of the fishery water reservoirs at the basin of the Southern Bug of Vinnytsia region. Systematization of the investigated water bodies was performed by the authors on the basis of previously developed classification and typing of water reservoirs.

  8. Sedimentological and mineralogical characteristics of recent sediments at selected sites in the southern basin of Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisue, G.T.; Merk, G.

    1976-01-01

    During the 1976 field season, sediment traps and current meters were set out in the southern basin of Lake Michigan to study the relationship between suspended material and currents. The gross mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the bottom sediments at the locations of these experiments were determined

  9. Effects of uranium development on erosion and associated sedimentation in southern San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1979-01-01

    A reconnaissance was made of some of the effects of uranium development on erosion and associated sedimentation in the southern San Juan Basin, where uranium development is concentrated. In general, the effects of exploration on erosion are minor, although erosion may be accelerated by the building of access roads, by activities at the drilling sites, and by close concentration of drilling sites. Areas where the greatest effects on erosion and sedimentation from mining and milling operations have occurred are: (1) in the immediate vicinity of mines and mills, (2) near waste piles, and (3) in stream channels where modifications, such as changes in depth have been caused by discharge of excess mine and mill water. Collapse of tailings piles could result in localized but excessive erosion and sedimentation.

  10. Origin of marls from the Polish Outer Carpathians: lithological and sedimentological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górniak, Katarzyna

    2012-10-01

    Outcrops of marls, occurring within the sandstone-shaly flysch deposits of the Polish part of Outer Carpathians, considered to be locus typicus of these rocks, were described, measured and sampled. Lithologic features of marls, representing 15 complexes of different age and occurring in 15 complexes of various tectonic units, are presented (Fig. 1, 2). The present studies were concerning Jurassic marls from the Silesian Unit (Goleszów Marls), Upper Cretaceous marls from the Skole and Sub-Silesian Units (Siliceous-Fucoid and Węgierka Marls and Węglowka, Frydek, Jasienica and Zegocina Marls respectively), and Eocene-Oligocene marls from the Magura, Fore-Magura and Skole Units (Łącko, Zembrzyce, Budzów, Leluchów and Niwa, as well as Grybów and Sub-Cergowa and Dynów Marls respectively). The former opinions on lithology, age, formal subdivision, sedimentation conditions and genesis of these rocks are discussed (Table 1, 2; Fig. 1). Detailed description of the above mentioned marl-bearing complexes are presented and for each of them the typical lithological features are determined (Tables 3 - 20). The results of profiling are presented against the background of geological studies of the Carpathian marls. The results of lithologic studies are compared to form a classification scheme and are used as the basis of distinguishing genetic types of marls. Moreover, the interpretation of the conditions of sedimentation of these rocks is presented. According to the present author’s studies, in the outcrops of marls considered to be locus typicus of the above mentioned rocks, there are both monolithic and polylithic complexes exposed. The polylithic complexes contain apart from marls intercalations of arenaceous-shaly flysch (Table 19). Event sedimentation of marly facies, appearing at different times and in various parts of the Carpathian basin is the result of periodically repeating conditions favouring the sedimentation of marls. Carpathian marls seem to be

  11. Influences of structures on the interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-type uranium deposits on the southern margin of Yili basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mou; Li Shengfu

    2006-01-01

    Based on geology and the theory of hydromorphic origin uranium deposit, structural conditions of uranium formation on the southern margin of Yili Basin are analyzed from two aspects of structural movements and deformation. It is suggested that the subsidiary structures caused by the neotectonic movement are the major factor that control and reform the interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-type uranium deposit, and the differences lie in the tectonics at the eastern and western section on the southern margin of Yili Basin. At the western section, because Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata are tilted by the subsidiary structures, some strata on the margin of the basin outcrop at the surface and suffer from the weathering and erosion, which is favorable for the formation of large size uranium deposits. But at the eastern section, the fault and fold are predominant, outcropping at the surface, cause the redistribution of the uranium, which is favorable for the formation of small size uranium deposits. (authors)

  12. Neotectonic movement and its relation to uranium metallogenesis in central-southern Songliao basin and its adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Jisheng; Zhang Yongbao; Chen Weiyi

    2004-01-01

    The central-southern Songliao basin and its adjacent area ar located in the south of Inner Mongolian-Northeastern China neotectonic region of the circum-pacific neotectonic domain. Since Late Tertiary the neotectonic movement in the region has been being more intense, and the most obvious feature of the neotectonic movement was characterized by large-amplitude block-faulting and strong volcanic activity. The mega-scale basin-and-range tectonics and other micro-geomorphology created favourable tectonic and geomorphologic conditions for the ore-formation of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits. Neotectonic movement played both positive and negative roles in uranium ore-formation. Neotectonics are well developed at the eastern and the southern margins of the Songliao basin, and these areas are favourable for locating in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits

  13. Late Quaternary faulting in the Vallo di Diano basin (southern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, F.; Pierdominici, S.; Cinti, F. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Vallo di Diano is the largest Quaternary extensional basin in the southern Apennines thrust-belt axis (Italy). This portion of the chain is highly seismic and is currently subject to NE-extension, which triggers large (M> 6) normal-faulting earthquakes along NW-trending faults. The eastern edge of the Vallo di Diano basin is bounded by an extensional fault system featuring three main NW-trending, SW-dipping, right-stepping, ~15-17 km long segments (from north to south: Polla, Atena Lucana-Sala Consilina and Padula faults). Holocene activity has been documented so far only for the Polla segment. We have therefore focused our geomorphological and paleoseismological study on the southern portion of the system, particularly along the ~ 4 km long Atena Lucana-Sala Consilina and Padula faults overlap zone. The latter is characterized by a complex system of coalescent alluvial fans, Middle Pleistocene to Holocene in age. Here we recognized a > 4 km long and 0.5-1.4 km wide set of scarps (ranging in height between 1 m and 2.5 m) affecting Late Pleistocene - Holocene alluvial fans. In the same area, two Late Pleistocene volcanoclastic layers at the top of an alluvial fan exposed in a quarry are affected by ~ 1 m normal displacements. Moreover, a trench excavated across a 2 m high scarp affecting a Holocene fan revealed warping of Late Holocene debris flow deposits, with a total vertical throw of about 0.3 m. We therefore infer the overlap zone of the Atena Lucana-Sala Consilina and Padula faults is a breached relay ramp, generated by hard-linkage of the two fault segments since Late Pleistocene. This ~ 32 km long fault system is active and is capable of generating Mw ≥6.5 earthquakes.

  14. A Thermal Maturity Analysis of the Effective Cretaceous Petroleum System in the Southern Persian Gulf Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Alipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Commercial hydrocarbon discoveries in the Cretaceous of the southern Persian Gulf basin provide direct evidence that there is an effective petroleum system associated with the Cretaceous series. The revised models of thermal maturity in this region are needed to investigate lateral and stratigraphic variations of thermal maturity, which have not so far been addressed in detail for this part of the Persian Gulf. Such thermal maturity models are required to delineate the existing play assessment risks and to predict properties in more deeply buried undrilled sections. This study uses two dimensional basin modeling techniques to reconstruct maturity evolution of the Cenomanian Middle Sarvak source rock, presumably the most likely source for these hydrocarbons. The results indicate that an estimated 900 meter difference in the depth of burial between the southeastern high and the adjacent trough tends to be translated into noticeable variations at both temperature (135 °C versus 162 °C and vitrinite reflectance (0.91% versus 1.35%. Since the organic matter in the mentioned source rock is of reactive type II, these could cause a shift of about 18 million years in the onset of hydrocarbon generation over respective areas.

  15. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  16. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2012-12-15

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Biostratigraphy of a Paleocene–Eocene Foreland Basin boundary in southern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiao Wan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study of the Paleocene–Eocene boundary within a foreland basin of southern Tibet, which was dominated by a carbonate ramp depositional environment, documents more complex environmental conditions than can be derived from studies of the deep oceanic environment. Extinction rates for larger foraminiferal species in the Zongpu-1 Section apply to up to 46% of the larger foraminiferal taxa. The extinction rate in southern Tibet is similar to rates elsewhere in the world, but it shows that the Paleocene fauna disappeared stepwise through the Late Paleocene, with Eocene taxa appearing abruptly above the boundary. A foraminifera turnover was identified between Members 3 and 4 of the Zongpu Formation—from the Miscellanea–Daviesina assemblage to an Orbitolites–Alveolina assemblage. The Paleocene and Eocene boundary is between the SBZ 4 and SBZ 5, where it is marked by the extinction of Miscellanea miscella and the first appearance of Alveolina ellipsodalis and a large number of Orbitolites. Chemostratigraphically, the δ13C values from both the Zongpu-1 and Zongpu-2 Sections show three negative excursions in the transitional strata, one in Late Paleocene, one at the boundary, and one in the early Eocene. The second negative excursion of δ13C, which is located at the P–E boundary, coincides with larger foraminifera overturn. These faunal changes and the observed δ13C negative excursions provide new evidence on environmental changes across the Paleocene–Eocene boundary in Tibet.

  18. Complex local Moho topography in the Western Carpathians: Indication of the ALCAPA and the European Plate contact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubcová, Pavla; Środa, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 638, 7 January (2015), s. 63-81 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08971S Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Western Carpathians * seismic modelling * crustal structure * anomalous Moho * Bohemian Massif * Pannonian Basin Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.650, year: 2015

  19. Quantitative morphotectonic analysis of the South-Eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionuţ Cristea, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    South-Eastern Carpathians (Vrancea Region) have received an increasing scientific attention during the past years, mostly resulting in a detailed reconstruction of their exumation history. Moreover structural and thermocronological data suggest that the frontal part of the SE Carpathians conserves the youngest topography in the Romanian Carpathians resulting from a deformational process occurring during the late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene. This significant tectonic activity continues to the present time as it is confirmed by the geodetic measurements and by the frequency of crustal earthquakes. The specific effects of the Quaternary deformations on the regional fluvial system were associated so far with an increased incision and the formation of the degradational (strath) terraces, downstream tiling of terraces, the establishment of local drainage divides and young longitudinal river profiles. Our study further investigates the possible influence of the recent tectonic activity on the characteristics of the drainage basins in the area and the distribution of the over-steepened stream reaches using spatial autocorrelation techniques (Getis Ord Gi* statistics and Anselin's Local Moran's I). For the first, hypsometric integrals (Hi) and transverse topographic symmetry factor were analyzed. For the last, we used locally computed normalized channel steepness index (ksn). Due to the highly variable lithology in the region (specific to the Flysch areas), additional correlations of the determined values with the geological units and rock types have been made in order to assess the effects. The results show that the geographic clustering of the high Hi and ksn values is more significant than the lithological one, and, although the rock strength have local influences, this is not sufficient to explain the regional distribution of the values, generally between 26.5o and 26.66o E (p

  20. Jurassic sedimentary evolution of southern Junggar Basin: Implication for palaeoclimate changes in northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Li Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Junggar Basin, located in northern Xinjiang, presents continuous and multikilometer-thick strata of the Jurassic deposits. The Jurassic was entirely terrestrial fluvial and lacustrine deltaic sedimentation. Eight outcrop sections across the Jurassic strata were measured at a resolution of meters in southern Junggar Basin. Controlling factors of sedimentary evolution and palaeoclimate changes in Junggar Basin during the Jurassic were discussed based on lithology, fossils and tectonic setting. In the Early to Middle Jurassic, the warm and wide Tethys Sea generated a strong monsoonal circulation over the central Asian continent, and provided adequate moisture for Junggar Basin. Coal-bearing strata of the Badaowan, Sangonghe, and Xishanyao Formations were developed under warm and humid palaeoclimate in Junggar Basin. In the late Middle Jurassic, Junggar Basin was in a semi-humid and semi-arid environment due to global warming event. Stratigraphy in the upper part of the Middle Jurassic with less plant fossils became multicolor or reddish from dark color sediments. During the Late Jurassic, collision of Lhasa and Qiangtang Block obstructed monsoon from the Tethys Sea. A major change in climate from semi-humid and semi-arid to arid conditions took place, and reddish strata of the Upper Jurassic were developed across Junggar Basin.

  1. A thick lens of fresh groundwater in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot; Gingerich, Stephen

    2002-11-01

    A thick lens of fresh groundwater exists in a large region of low permeability in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. The conventional conceptual model for groundwater occurrence in Hawaii and other shield-volcano islands does not account for such a thick freshwater lens. In the conventional conceptual model, the lava-flow accumulations of which most shield volcanoes are built form large regions of relatively high permeability and thin freshwater lenses. In the southern Lihue Basin, basin-filling lavas and sediments form a large region of low regional hydraulic conductivity, which, in the moist climate of the basin, is saturated nearly to the land surface and water tables are hundreds of meters above sea level within a few kilometers from the coast. Such high water levels in shield-volcano islands were previously thought to exist only under perched or dike-impounded conditions, but in the southern Lihue Basin, high water levels exist in an apparently dike-free, fully saturated aquifer. A new conceptual model of groundwater occurrence in shield-volcano islands is needed to explain conditions in the southern Lihue Basin. Résumé. Dans le sud du bassin de Lihue (Kauai, Hawaii, USA), il existe une épaisse lentille d'eau souterraine douce dans une vaste région à faible perméabilité. Le modèle conceptuel conventionnel pour la présence d'eau souterraine à Hawaii et dans les autres îles de volcans en bouclier ne rend pas compte d'une lentille d'eau douce si épaisse. Dans ce modèle conceptuel, les accumulations de lave dont sont formés la plupart des volcans en bouclier couvrent de vastes régions à relativement forte perméabilité, avec des lentilles d'eau douce peu épaisses. Dans le sud du bassin de Lihue, les laves remplissant le bassin et les sédiments constituent une région étendue à faible conductivité hydraulique régionale, qui, sous le climat humide du bassin, est saturée presque jusqu'à sa surface; les surfaces pi

  2. Possible ecologically based ways of preserving and developing the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. І. Nikolaichuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine has transformed into one of the most environmentally dangerous countries in the world due to the high concentration of industrial production and agriculture and predatory use of natural resources. The current ecological situation in Ukraine is characterized by a deep ecological crisis, which is caused by the laws of operation of the command economy of the former USSR. The majority of the environmental and social indicators of Ukraine are among the worst in Europe. The Carpathian Mountains are among the most significant and interesting landscapes in Europe from the geological and geomorphological, scenic and biological perspectives. The giant arc of the Carpathians begins in southern Romania and passes through Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary to Austria, crosses all Eastern and Central Europe. A third of the forest reserves of Ukraine are located in the Ukrainian Carpathians, at 53.5% the percentage of forest cover of the area is among the highest in the country. About 50% of the gene pool of Ukraine’s plants, many species of trees and medicinal plants grows there. The geographical location and large area of the rich natural heritage of the Carpathians have multifaceted importance for the conservation of biological, phytocoenotic and landscape diversity and maintaining the ecological balance in the central part of our continent. As with the Alps mountain range, this is an important ecological corridor between Western, Central and Eastern Europe, which promotes the migration of species and their spread into lowland landscapes. In order to preserve biodiversity an inventory of virgin forest ecosystems should be made and strict measures for their protection should be enforced. It is necessary to continue the practice of establishing bilateral areas in cross-border protected areas in order to combine efforts to solve pressing environmental challenges. Conservation of the Carpathians Biodiversity is an urgent problem

  3. Two new species of Rineloricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the rio Iguaçu basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo F. S. Ingenito

    Full Text Available Rineloricaria langei and R. maacki, new species, are described from upper and middle regions of the rio Iguaçu basin, a left bank tributary of the rio Paraná basin, southern Brazil. Rineloricaria langei has narrow body and is similar to R. quadrensis, which is found in coastal rivers of Rio Grande do Sul State and is distinguishable by several morphometric characters. Rineloricaria maacki is distinguishable from all other congeners by the shape and extension of the naked area of the ventral region of pectoral girdle and other morphological characters. The presence of a naked region on the abdominal surface is shared with other species from the rio Paraná and rio Uruguay basins and coastal drainages from southeastern and southern Brazil. This may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship among these species. Similarities between the two new species and species from the aforementioned drainages also suggest close biogeographic relationship between the Paraná basin and other Brazilian coastal Atlantic drainages throughout the rio Iguaçu basin.

  4. Identifying needs for streamflow forecasting in the Incomati basin, Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Robert; Werner, Micha; Masih, Ilyas; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2013-04-01

    Despite being widely recognised as an efficient tool in the operational management of water resources, rainfall and streamflow forecasts are currently not utilised in water management practice in the Incomati Basin in Southern Africa. Although, there have been initiatives for forecasting streamflow in the Sabie and Crocodile sub-basins, the outputs of these have found little use because of scepticism on the accuracy and reliability of the information, or the relevance of the information provided to the needs of the water managers. The process of improving these forecasts is underway, but as yet the actual needs of the forecasts are unclear and scope of the ongoing initiatives remains very limited. In this study questionnaires and focused group interviews were used to establish the need, potential use, benefit and required accuracy of rainfall and streamflow forecasts in the Incomati Basin. Thirty five interviews were conducted with professionals engaged in water sector and detailed discussions were held with water institutions, including the Inkomati Catchment Management Agency (ICMA), Komati Basin Water Authority (KOBWA), South African Weather Service (SAWS), water managers, dam operators, water experts, farmers and other water users in the Basin. Survey results show that about 97% of the respondents receive weather forecasts. In contrast to expectations, only 5% have access to the streamflow forecast. In the weather forecast, the most important variables were considered to be rainfall and temperature at daily and weekly time scales. Moreover, forecasts of global climatic indices such as El Niño or La Niña were neither received nor demanded. There was limited demand and/or awareness of flood and drought forecasts including the information on their linkages with global climatic indices. While the majority of respondents indicate the need and indeed use the weather forecast, the provision, communication and interpretation were in general found to be with too

  5. Low flows and reservoir management for the Durance River basin (Southern France) in the 2050s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauquet, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The Durance River is one of the major rivers located in the Southern part of France. Water resources are under high pressure due to significant water abstractions for human uses within and out of the natural boundaries of the river basin through an extended open channel network. Water demands are related to irrigation, hydropower, drinking water, industries and more recently water management has included water needs for recreational uses as well as for preserving ecological services. Water is crucial for all these activities and for the socio-economic development of South Eastern France. Both socio-economic development and population evolution will probably modify needs for water supply, irrigation, energy consumption, tourism, industry, etc. In addition the Durance river basin will have to face climate change and its impact on water availability that may question the sustainability of the current rules for water allocation. The research project R²D²-2050 "Risk, water Resources and sustainable Development within the Durance river basin in 2050" aims at assessing future water availability and risks of water shortage in the 2050s by taking into account changes in both climate and water management. R²D²-2050 is partially funded by the French Ministry in charge of Ecology and the Rhône-Méditerranée Water Agency. This multidisciplinary project (2010-2014) involves Irstea, Electricité de France (EDF), the University Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris), LTHE (CNRS), the Société du Canal de Provence (SCP) and the research and consultancy company ACTeon. A set of models have been developed to simulate climate at regional scale (given by 330 projections obtained by applying three downscaling methods), water resources (provided by seven rainfall-runoff models forced by a subset of 330 climate projections), water demand for agriculture and drinking water, for different sub basins of the Durance River basin upstream of Mallemort under present day and under future conditions

  6. New Insights into the Provenance of the Southern Junggar Basin in the Jurassic from Heavy Mineral Analysis and Sedimentary Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T. Q.; Wu, C.; Zhu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Being a vital component of foreland basin of Central-western China, Southern Junggar Basin has observed solid evidences of oil and gas in recent years without a considerable advancement. The key reason behind this is the lack of systematic study on sedimentary provenance analysis of the Southern Junggar basin. Three parts of the Southern Junggar basin, including the western segment (Sikeshu Sag), the central segment (Qigu Fault-Fold Belt) and the eastern segment (Fukang Fault Zone), possess varied provenance systems, giving rise to difficulties for oil-gas exploration. In this study, 3468 heavy minerals data as well as the sedimentary environment analysis of 10 profiles and 7 boreholes were used to investigate the provenances of the deposits in the southern Junggar basin . Based on this research, it reveals that: Sikeshu sag initially shaped the foreland basin prototype in the Triassic and its provenance area of the sediments from the Sikeshu sag has primarily been situated in zhongguai uplift-chepaizi uplift depositional systems located in the northwestern margin of the Junggar Basin. From the early Jurassic, the key sources were likely to be late Carboniferous to early Permain post-collisional volcanic rocks from the North Tian Shan block to Centrao Tian Shan. In the Xishanyao formation, Abundant lithic metamorphic, epidote and garnet that suggests the source rocks were possibly late Carboniferous subduction-related arc volcanic rocks of the Central Tian Shan. In the Toutunhe formation, Bogda Mountains began uplifting and gradually becoming the major provenance. Moreover, the sedimentary boundaries of Junggar basin have also shifted towards the North Tian Shan again. In the late Jurassic, the conglomerates of the Kalazha formation directly overlie the fine-grained red beds of Qigu formation, which throw light on the rapid tectonic uplift of the North Tian Shan. In the eastern segment, meandering river delta and shore-lacustrine environments were fully developed

  7. The geochemistry of claystone-shale deposits from the Maastritchian Patti formation, Southern Bida basin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Okunlola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An inorganic geochemical study of a claystone and shale sequence from the Patti Formation around Ahoko in the Southern Bida basin, Nigeria, was carried out to determine the basin's depositional conditions,provenance and tectonics. Representative samples underwent mineralogical and geochemical analysis involving major, trace and rare earth element analysis.Mineralogical studies using X-ray diffraction analysis revealed prominent kaolinite, dickite and illite peaks; accessory minerals included quartz and microcline. Major element abundance showed thatthe shale samples had SiO2 (61.26%, Al2O3 (16.88% and Fe2O3 (3.75% constituting more than 79% of bulk chemical composition whilst claystone samples contained SiO2 (67.79%, Al2O3 (17.81% andFe2O3 (1.67%. Higher SiO2, Ba, Sr, V, and Nb concentrations were observed in claystone samples rather than shale whereas the shale samples were observed to be more Zr-, Ni- and Zn-enriched than theclaystone ones. The shale and claystone samples showed slightly light rare earth enrichment and slightly flat heavy rare earth depleted patterns having a negative Eu and Tm anomaly. High TiO2 and Rb/K2Ovalues also indicated that the shale and claystone samples were matured. Geochemical parameters such as U, U/Th, Ni/Co and Cu/Zn ratios indicated that these shales were deposited in oxic conditions; theAl2O3/TiO2 ratio suggested that intermediate igneous rocks were probable source rocks for the shales, while mafic rocks were suggested as being source rocks for the claystone. However, the La/Sc, Th/Sc, Th/Co ratios and shales and claystone plots revealed that they came within the range given for felsic rocks as provenance, thereby suggesting mixed provenace for the sediments. A passive-margin tectonic settingwas adduced for the sedimentary sequences.

  8. Provenance and paleogeography of the Devonian Durazno Group, southern Parana Basin in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriz, N. J.; Cingolani, C. A.; Basei, M. A. S.; Blanco, G.; Abre, P.; Portillo, N. S.; Siccardi, A.

    2016-03-01

    A succession of Devonian cover rocks occurs in outcrop and in the subsurface of central-northern Uruguay where they were deposited in an intracratonic basin. This Durazno Group comprises three distinct stratigraphic units, namely the Cerrezuelo, Cordobés and La Paloma formations. The Durazno Group does not exceed 300 m of average thickness and preserves a transgressive-regressive cycle within a shallow-marine siliciclastic shelf platform, and is characterized by an assemblage of invertebrate fossils of Malvinokaffric affinity especially within the Lower Devonian Cordobés shales. The sedimentary provenance of the Durazno Group was determined using petrography, geochemistry, and morphological studies of detrital zircons as well as their U-Pb ages. Sandstone petrography of Cerrezuelo and La Paloma sequences shows that they have a dominantly quartz-feldspathic composition with a minor contribution of other minerals. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that alteration was strong in each of the three formations studied; chondritic-normalized REE patterns essentially parallel to PAAS, the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly, and Th/Sc and La/Hf ratios point to an average source composition similar to UCC or slightly more felsic. Within the Cerrezuelo Formation, recycling of older volcano-metasedimentary sources is interpreted from Zr/Sc ratios and high Hf, Zr, and REE concentrations. U-Pb detrital zircon age populations of the Cerrezuelo and La Paloma formations indicate that the principal source terranes are of Neoproterozoic age, but include also minor populations derived from Mesoproterozoic and Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks. A provenance from the Cuchilla Dionisio-Dom Feliciano, Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes of Uruguay and southern Brazil is likely. This study establishes an intracratonic extensional tectonic setting during Durazno time. Considering provenance age sources, regional paleocurrent distributions and the established orogenic history recorded in SW

  9. Sedimentary provenance in the southern sector of the São Francisco Basin, SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Macedo de Paula-Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We present new Sm-Nd, U-Pb and Hf isotope geochronological data for the siliciclastic rocks in the southern sector of the São Francisco Basin. An abrupt change in the Sm-Nd data is observed from the Carrancas Formation’s oligomitic conglomerates (TDM ages between 2.7 and 3.3 Ga; εNd(550 Ma values between -25.09 and -17.98, its finer facies, and the finer facies of the the Moema Laminite (TDM ages from 1.4 to 2.1 Ga; εNd(550 Ma values between -9.46 and -5.59. No further significant changes in the Sm-Nd data occur farther upwards in the Bambuí Group (Sm-Nd TDM ages within the 1.3-2.0 Ga interval; εNd(550 Ma values from -9.53 to -4.09, showing a lack of reorganization in the source areas throughout the deposition of the basin. This is yet another argument to dismiss an unconformity within the Bambuí Group. The presence of the index fossil Cloudina sp. in the lower Sete Lagoas Formation makes the glaciation probably Late Ediacaran in age. U-Pb ages for detrital zircons of the Bambuí Group range from the Archean to the early Ediacaran, but the current data is insufficient to distinguish between the contribution from sources in the Brasília and Araçuaí belts.

  10. Natural gas qualities in the Southern Permian basin; Die Erdgasqualitaeten im suedlichen Permbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, P.; Kockel, F. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Lokhorst, A.; Geluk, M.C. [TNO, Haarlem (Netherlands); Nicholson, R.A. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Laier, T. [Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse, Kopenhagen (Denmark); Pokorski, J. [Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warsaw (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    There is a substantial amount of molecular and isotopic gas data in the literature but mostly in the archives of companies and geological services. As the geological services of most European countries traditionally contain (confidential and non-confidential) data on geology and resources these institutions from Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Germany decided to compile molecular and isotopic natural gas data from the area of the Southern European Permian basin. The partially EU-subsidised project was carried out between 1994 and 1997 (LOKHORST ed. 1998) The atlas is based on existing data and also on newly determined molecular and isotopic gas parameters. Ring analyses of national and international standard gases ensure the quality and comparability of the data thus obtained. The aim of the ``stocktaking`` of natural gas was to describe the gas qualities from the Southern North Sea in the West to the Eastern borders of Poland, to characterise them genetically and to relate the to the geological environment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein substantieller Anteil von molekularen und isotopischen Gasdaten existiert, teilweise in der Literatur, vor allem aber in den Archiven der Firmen und der geologischen Dienste. Da die geologischen Dienste der meisten europaeischen Laender traditionell (oeffentliche und vertrauliche) Daten ueber die Geologie und Rohstoffe vorhalten, haben sich diese Institutionen aus Grossbritanien, den Niederlanden, Daenemark, Polen und Deutschlands entschlossen, molekulare und isotopische Erdgasdaten aus dem Bereich des suedlichen europaeischen Permbeckens zu kompilieren. Das partiell von der EU gefoerderte Projekt wurde in den Jahren 1994 bis 1997 durchgefuehrt (LOKHORST ed. 1998). Ausser auf bereits vorhandenen Daten beruht der Atlas auf etwa 200 Neu-Bestimmungen molekularer und isotopischer Gasparameter. Ringanalysen nationaler und internationeler Standardgase gewaehrleisteten die Qualitaet und die Vergleichbarkeit der gewonnenen

  11. Water Quality and Soil Natural Salinity in the Southern Imera Basin (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Selvaggi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Imera river crosses one of the most arid part of Sicily. The geochemical composition of the river water is due to the solubilization processes of gypsum rocks, which accounts for the particularly low quality of resources in the areas in which the presence of evaporitics deposits is highest. The geochemical composition and hydraulic parameters of river was monitored with the aim of reaching a better understanding of the relationships between litology and water quality. The Imera river is a potential local hydric resource, but seasonal variability of salinity does not allow farmers to use its water. A geochemical monitoring of the Imera river water has been carried out in selected localities integrating a GIS analysis of the river hydrography basin and of the distribution of the evaporitic formation. During 2003 and 2005 we performed four monitoring surveys of water chemicophysical parameters (temperature, pH and electrical conductivity and of the main ionic concentrations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Cl-, SO4 2- . We also installed a multiparameter probe next to the hydrometrical station of Drasi, about 15 km from the river mouth. Such multiparameter probe was used to determine, continuously and simultaneously, temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, redox potenzial, water level. The geochemical composition of the water allowed to confirm the results of Roda (1971 and Favara (2000, who pointed out that the main cause of degrade of the Southern Imera river are the salt-rich waters of some tributaries flowing over gypsum rocks and halite deposits. We have been able to identify which specific areas are the main contributors to the degradation of the Imera river.

  12. Preliminary assessment of the risk of volcanism at a proposed nuclear-waste repository in the southern Great Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Carr, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Volcanic hazard studies of the southern Great Basin are being conducted on behalf of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations program. Current work is chiefly concerned with characterizing the geology, chronology, and tectonic setting of Pliocene and Quaternary volcanism in the Nevada Test Site region, and assessing volcanic risk through consequence and probability studies, particularly with respect to a potential site in the southwestern Nevada Test Site. Young ( - 6 volcanic events per year. Based on this rate, the annual probability of disruption of a 10-km 2 repository located within a 25-km radius circle centered at Yucca Mountain, southwestern Nevada Test Site, is 10 - 8 . A larger area, 50-km radius, yields a disruption probability of 10 - 9 per year. Current tectonic zonation studies of the southern Great Basin will reduce the calculated probabilities of basaltic eruption for certain areas. 21 references, 3 figures

  13. Ruiniform relief in sandstones: the examples of Vila Velha, Carboniferous of the Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    DE MELO, M.S.; COIMBRA, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Vila Velha is a remarkable group of natural sculptures in Palaeozoicsandstones of the Paraná. Basin in Southern Brazil. The sculptures,which resemble the ruins of an old stone city, have resulted from thecombination of Cenozoic weathering and erosive processes with the existing attributes of the sedimentary rocks (texture, cementing oxides,sedimentary and brittle structures). A particular geomorphologic settingwith eroded inselbergs, and a differential iron and manganese cementationduring lat...

  14. Coalbed methane recovery from multilateral horizontal wells in Southern Qinshui Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenggui Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006, more than 80 multilateral horizontal wells have been drilled in Panzhuang block, Southern Qinshui Basin. In this paper, 6 typical wells in a region are selected as an example. The thickness of coal, gas content, reservoir pressure, permeability, burial depth, and reservoir pressure conditions are analyzed. The practice shows that production by multilateral horizontal well declines from 43,111 m3/day per well in the 2nd year to 25,126 m3/day per well in the 4th year. The numerical simulation result shows that the lateral interference forms in Well QNP05 after two years of gas production, and the gas content is reduced to less than 8 m3/t within the controlled region after six years. The area of gas content was less than 8 m3/t after eight years of gas production is about 3.2 km2, which is about 76% of the controlled area of the six multilateral horizontal wells. The results indicate that multilateral horizontal wells contribute to high production rates at potentially profitable levels and can also serve as an effective tool for a high-rank CBM field drainage.

  15. Seasonality of macroalgal communities in a subtropical drainage basin in Paraná state, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, C C Z; Krupek, R A; Peres, C K

    2008-11-01

    Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities was analyzed monthly by samplings in three stream segments of the Pedras River Basin, mid-south region of Paraná State, southern Brazil, from April 2004 to March 2005. The seasonal fluctuations in macroalgal species richness and abundance were correlated with selected environmental variables. In general, the seasonal distribution patterns of these communities were distinct from those reported from other tropical and temperate regions, with higher macroalgal richness and abundance observed from late spring to late fall. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the stream variable most closely related with the temporal distribution pattern observed was temperature, which had a very similar seasonal pattern to the biological parameters. On the other hand, the floristic composition was quite diverse in the streams sampled. Among the 25 taxa identified, only two were common to the three streams whereas 15 were restricted to a single sampling site. These data indicate that, although temperature seems to be an effective relationship with global temporal pattern, particular characteristics of each stream can strongly influence the seasonal tendencies in local scale. The results of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Cluster Analysis corroborated this observation.

  16. Sedimentological Characteristics and Re-interpretation of the Paleoenvironment of Lokoja Sandstone, Southern Bida Basin, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, O. J.; Akande, S. O.

    2002-01-01

    Detail mapping of the Lokoja Formation consisting predominantly of sandstones exposed along Okene-Abuja highway near the confluence of Rivers Niger and Benue in the southern Bida Basin was undertaken in an attempt to reconstruct their depositional history. The analyses of the lithofacies characteristics, pebble morphogenesis and ichnofossil content of the Lokoja sandstones in the study area reveal their depositional environments which evolved from alluvial fans through braided stream into nearshore shallow marine conditions. The massive, immature, matrix to grain supported conglomerate subfacies can be interpreted as debris flow. The conglomeratic sandstone facies (massive, cross stratified and graded subfacies) reflect deposits of deep braided channels. The bioturbated and herringbone cross stratified conglomeratic sandstones indicate shallowing to marginal marine environments. The fine to medium grained sandstones, siltstones and claystones are interpreted as channel bars and floodplain deposits.Results of pebble morphogenesis analysis indicate predominance of fluvial processes. Minor high energy (probably beach) condition is indicated by some individual clasts from the conglomeratic sandstone facies with sphericity and OP index values less that 0.66 and -1.5 respectively.The study is significant because it represents the first sedimentological evidence of influence of shallow marine in the development of Lokoja sandstones during Campanian-Maastrichtian times

  17. Seasonality of macroalgal communities in a subtropical drainage basin in Paraná state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCZ. Branco

    Full Text Available Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities was analyzed monthly by samplings in three stream segments of the Pedras River Basin, mid-south region of Paraná State, southern Brazil, from April 2004 to March 2005. The seasonal fluctuations in macroalgal species richness and abundance were correlated with selected environmental variables. In general, the seasonal distribution patterns of these communities were distinct from those reported from other tropical and temperate regions, with higher macroalgal richness and abundance observed from late spring to late fall. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the stream variable most closely related with the temporal distribution pattern observed was temperature, which had a very similar seasonal pattern to the biological parameters. On the other hand, the floristic composition was quite diverse in the streams sampled. Among the 25 taxa identified, only two were common to the three streams whereas 15 were restricted to a single sampling site. These data indicate that, although temperature seems to be an effective relationship with global temporal pattern, particular characteristics of each stream can strongly influence the seasonal tendencies in local scale. The results of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Cluster Analysis corroborated this observation.

  18. SOME ASPECTS OF HYDROLOGICAL RISK MANIFESTATION IN JIJIA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. BURUIANĂ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Jijia river basin surface geographically fits in Moldavian Plateau, Plain of Moldavia subunit. Being lowered by 200 to 300 m compared to adjacent subunits, it appears as a depression with altitudes between 270-300 m.Through its position in the extra-Carpathian region, away from the influence of oceanic air masses, but wide open to the action of air masses of eastern, north-eastern and northern continental origin, Jijia basin receives precipitations which vary according to the average altitude differing from the northern to the southern part of the basin (564 mm in north, 529.4 mm in Iasi. A characteristic phenomenon to the climate is represented by the torrential rains in the hot season, under the form of rain showers with great intensity, fact that influences the drainage of basin rivers. Jijia hydrographic basin is characterized by frequent and sharp variations of flow volumes and levels which lead to floods and flooding throughout the basin. The high waters generally occur between March and June, when approximately 70% of the annual stock is transported. The paper analyzes the main causes and consequences of flooding in the studied area, also identifying some structural and non-structural measures of flood protection applied by authorities in Jijia hydrographic basin. As a case study, the flood recorded in Dorohoi in June 28-29, 2010 is presented.

  19. A review of the stratigraphy and sedimentary environments of the Karoo-aged basins of Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. M. H.; Eriksson, P. G.; Botha, W. J.

    1993-02-01

    The Karoo Basin of South Africa was one of several contemporaneous intracratonic basins in southwestern Gondwana that became active in the Permo-Carboniferous (280 Ma) and continued to accumulate sediments until the earliest Jurassic, 100 million years later. At their maximum areal extent, during the early Permian, these basins covered some 4.5 million km 2. The present outcrop area of Karoo rocks in southern Africa is about 300 000 km 2 with a maximum thickness of some 8000 m. The economic importance of these sediments lies in the vast reserves of coal within the Ecca Group rocks of northern and eastern Transvaal and Natal, South Africa. Large reserves of sandstone-hosted uranium and molybdenum have been proven within the Beaufort Group rocks of the southern Karoo trough, although they are not mineable in the present market conditions. Palaeoenvironmental analysis of the major stratigraphic units of the Karoo succession in South Africa demonstrates the changes in depositional style caused by regional and localized tectonism within the basin. These depocentres were influenced by a progressive aridification of climate which was primarily caused by the northward drift of southwestern Gondwana out of a polar climate and accentuated by the meteoric drying effect of the surrounding land masses. Changing palaeoenvironments clearly influenced the rate and direction of vertebrate evolution in southern Gondwana as evidenced by the numerous reptile fossils, including dinosaurs, which are found in the Karoo strata of South Africa, Lesotho, Namibia and Zimbabwe. During the Late Carboniferous the southern part of Gondwana migrated over the South Pole resulting in a major ice sheet over the early Karoo basin and surrounding highlands. Glacial sedimentation in upland valleys and on the lowland shelf resulted in the Dwyka Formation at the base of the Karoo Sequence. After glaciation, an extensive shallow sea covered the gently subsiding shelf, fed by large volumes of meltwater

  20. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Witch Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Witch Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  1. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Buckweed Fire, Los Angeles County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Buckweed Fire in Los Angeles County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  2. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Santiago Fire, Orange County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Santiago Fire in Orange County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  3. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Canyon Fire, Los Angeles County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Canyon Fire in Los Angeles County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  4. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Poomacha Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Poomacha Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  5. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Rice Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Rice Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  6. Emergency assessment of debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2007 Harris Fire, San Diego County, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    IntroductionThe objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Harris Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  7. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Ammo Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Ammo Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  8. Hydrologic assessment of three drainage basins in the Pinelands of southern New Jersey, 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard L.; Nicholson, Robert S.; Storck, Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    The New Jersey Pinelands is an ecologically diverse area in the southern New Jersey Coastal Plain, most of which overlies the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. The demand for groundwater from this aquifer system is increasing as local development increases. Because any increase in groundwater withdrawals has the potential to affect streamflows and wetland water levels, and ultimately threaten the ecological health and diversity of the Pinelands ecosystem, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Pinelands Commission, began a multi-phase hydrologic investigation in 2004 to characterize the hydrologic system supporting the aquatic and wetland communities of the New Jersey Pinelands area (Pinelands). The current investigation of the hydrology of three representative drainage basins in the Pinelands (Albertson Brook, McDonalds Branch, and Morses Mill Stream basins) included a compilation of existing data; collection of water-level and streamflow data; mapping of the water-table altitude and depth to the water table; and analyses of water-level and streamflow variability, subsurface gradients and flow patterns, and water budgets. During 2004-06, a hydrologic database of existing and new data from wells and stream sites was compiled. Methods of data collection and analysis were defined, and data networks consisting of 471 wells and 106 surface-water sites were established. Hydrographs from 26 water-level-monitoring wells and four streamflow-gaging stations were analyzed to show the response of water levels and streamflow to precipitation and recharge with respect to the locations of these wells and streams within each basin. Water-level hydrographs show varying hydraulic gradients and flow potentials, and indicate that responses to recharge events vary with well depth and proximity to recharge and discharge areas. Results of the investigation provide a detailed characterization of hydrologic conditions, processes, and relations among the components

  9. LITHOSPHERIC STRUCTURE OF THE CARPATHIAN-PANNONIAN REGION BASED ON THE GRAVITY MODELING BY INTEGRATING THE CELEBRATION2000 SEISMIC EXPERIMENT AND NEW GEOPHYSICAL RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielik, M.; Alasonati Tašárová, Z.; Zeyen, H. J.; Afonso, J.; Goetze, H.; Dérerová, J.

    2009-12-01

    Two different methods for the 3-D interpretation of the gravity field have been applied to the study of the structure and tectonics of the Carpathian-Pannonian lithosphere. The first (second) method provided a set of the different stripped gravity maps (the new lithosphere thickness map). The contribution presents the interpretation of the gravity field, which takes into account the CELEBRATION2000 seismic as well as new geophysical results. The sediment stripped gravity map is characterized by gravity minima in the Eastern Alps and Western Carpathians, and gravity maxima in the Pannonian Back-arc Basin system and the European platform. The gravity low in the Eastern Alps is produced by the thick crust (more than 45 km). The Western Carpathian gravity minimum is a result of the interference of two main gravitational effects. The first one comes from the low-density sediments of the Outer Western Carpathians and Carpathian Foredeep. The second one is due to the thick low-density upper and middle crust, reaching up to 25 km. In the Pannonian Back-arc Basin system can be observed the regional gravity high which is a result of the gravity effect of the anomalously shallow Moho. The most dominant feature of the complete 3-D stripped gravity map (crustal gravity effect map) is the abrupt change of the gravity field along the Klippen Belt zone. While the European platform is characterized by positive anomalies, the Western Carpathian orogen and the Pannonian Back-arc Basin system by relatively long-wavelength gravity low (several hundred kilometers). The lowest values are associated with the thick low-density upper and middle crust of the Inner Western Carpathians. That is why we suggest that the European Platform consists of the significantly denser crust with respect to the less dense crust of the microplates ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia. The contrast in the gravity fields over the European platform and microplates ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia reflect also their different crustal

  10. The bi-decadal rainfall cycle, Southern Annular Mode and tropical cyclones over the Limpopo River Basin, southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malherbe, J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available contribution to rainfall by tropical cyclones and depressions. The findings suggest that a broadening of the Hadley circulation underpinned by an anomalous anticyclonic pattern to the east of southern Africa altered tropospheric steering flow, relative...

  11. Aerosol emissions from forest and grassland burnings in the southern amazon basin and central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Alistair C. D.

    1981-03-01

    Forest and grassland clearing by means of prescribed fires in tropical areas of the world may be responsible for large inputs of fine particulates to the global atmosphere besides being a major source of trace gases. The major continents on which extensive biomass burning takes place are Africa and South America. Such agricultural practices of burning have been employed throughout man's existence, but the importance and significance of such burning relative to anthropogenic industrial emissions to the atmosphere has not until extremely recently been seriously studied. In August-September 1979 project "Brushfire 1979" took place based in Brasília, Brazil. The Air Quality Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research made ground level and aircraft measurements of trace gases (e.g. CO 2, CO, CH 4, N 2O, H 2, CH 3Cl, COS, NO, NO 2, O 3) and Florida State University sampled ground level aerosol emissions from grass and forest burnings. Aerosols were sampled using plastic 7-stage single orifice cascade impactors and FSU type linear and circular "streakers". Long term sampling was made of regional background for total particulates (8 μmad). Short term sampling within grass or forest fires was made using impactors incorporated into portable kits containing 4 miniature 12-18 V dc Brailsford pumps and a disposable dry cell power pack. Sampling times of 5-15 min were found optimal under these conditions. Grass fires were sampled in the savannah area northeast of Brasília and forest fires in the state of Mato Grosso on the southern edge of the dryland forest of the Amazon basin. Residual ash samples were collected. All of the samples were analyzed at Florida State University using PIXE for 15-20 elements including Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb and Sr. Computer reduction of the X-ray spectra was made using the "HEXB" program. One of the prominent features found was the large flux of small particles (<2.0 μm) from both fire

  12. Hydrogeologic investigations of the southern Española Basin, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earney, T.; Christensen, D.; Horton, A.; Folsom, M.; Kelley, S.

    2017-12-01

    For the past 5 years, students participating in the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) have been studying groundwater conditions in the southern Española Basin, in northern New Mexico, with a goal of developing a better understanding of both regional and local scale geothermal anomalies. A regional geothermal gradient map constructed over the study area indicates that there are two regions with anomalously high geothermal gradients, one associated with the Buckman municipal wellfield (BMWF) and the other in the vicinity of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field. Overproduction at the BMWF was responsible for a 100 meter drop in groundwater levels between 1989 and 2003, leading to a significant amount of land subsidence. Repeat measurements of thermal profiles for several monitoring wells at Buckman reveal incremental warming over a 5 year period from 2013 to 2017. Additionally, land elevation recovery was documented between 2007 and 2010 using InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar). These observations are inferred to be a response to decreased production rates in nearby wells Buckman 1 and 8. This suggests that the groundwater flow system at Buckman is still in a state of recovery from the years of overproduction. The proximity of the well field to a small mapped fault near Buckman 8 potentially explains why geothermal gradients are anomalously high at the BMWF. Monitoring well SF-2b received special attention in an attempt to explain a localized thermal anomaly between 200 and 230 meters down hole. Explanations including geology (faults and stratigraphy) and interference from nearby production wells do not seem to account for the anomaly. The anomaly is therefore interpreted as the result of a damaged casing. Elevated geothermal anomalies at the Cerros del Rio volcanic field could be explained by structural and textural changes to groundwater flow units that occurred when aligned plug and dikes feeding volcanic vents intruded along faults. A

  13. Permian salt dissolution, alkaline lake basins, and nuclear-waste storage, Southern High Plains, Texas and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, C.C. Jr.; Temple, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Areas of Permian salt dissolution associated with 15 large alkaline lake basins on and adjacent to the Southern High Plains of west Texas and eastern New Mexico suggest formation of the basins by collapse of strata over the dissolution cavities. However, data from 6 other alkaline basins reveal no evidence of underlying salt dissolution. Thus, whether the basins were initiated by subsidence over the salt dissolution areas or whether the salt dissolution was caused by infiltration of overlying lake water is conjectural. However, the fact that the lacustrine fill in Mound Lake greatly exceeds the amount of salt dissolution and subsidence of overlying beds indicates that at least Mound Lake basin was antecedent to the salt dissolution. The association of topography, structure, and dissolution in areas well removed from zones of shallow burial emphasizes the susceptibility of Permian salt-bed dissolution throughout the west Texas-eastern New Mexico area. Such evidence, combined with previous studies documenting salt-bed dissolution in areas surrounding a proposed high-level nuclear-waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas, leads to serious questions about the rationale of using salt beds for nuclear-waste storage

  14. The location and nature of the Telemzan High Ghadames basin boundary in southern Tunisia based on gravity and magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabtni, H.; Jallouli, C.; Mickus, K. L.; Zouari, H.; Turki, M. M.

    2006-03-01

    Gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to add constraints on the location and nature of the Telemzan-Ghadames boundary (TGB) and structure of the Ghadames basin in southern Tunisia. TGB is the boundary between the thick sedimentary cover of the intracratonic Ghadames basin to the south and the thin sedimentary cover of the Saharan platform to the north. The upward continuation of the Bouguer gravity anomalies showed that the TGB is a regional geophysical feature that may have controlled the amount of sediment being deposited both north and south of the boundary and the tectonic environment in the region since Paleozoic time. To emphasize the shorter wavelength gravity and magnetic anomalies, a series of gray scale images of the directional horizontal gradients were constructed that determined a series of previously unknown east-west-trending gravity and magnetic anomalies south of 31.6°N that correspond to lineaments seen on a Landsat 7 image and the location of the TGB. Also, an edge-enhancement analysis illustrated the same linear gravity anomalies and showed the subbasins and uplifts within the Ghadames basin had source depths of between 0.5 and 3.4 km. A north-south trending gravity model showed that the TGB is a relatively gradual feature (possibly basement stepped down by relatively low-displacement faulting) controlling the subsidence of the main Ghadames basin and confirms the edge-enhancement analysis that subbasin S3 and uplift U1 are the main structural features within the Ghadames basin. The knowledge of basement architecture of the Ghadames basin is important for future petroleum exploration within this intracratonic basin.

  15. Stratigraphic and tectonic control of deep-water scarp accumulation in Paleogene synorogenic basins: a case study of the Súľov Conglomerates (Middle Váh Valley, Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soták Ján

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Súľov Conglomerates represent mass-transport deposits of the Súľov-Domaniža Basin. Their lithosomes are intercalated by claystones of late Thanetian (Zones P3 - P4, early Ypresian (Zones P5 - E2 and late Ypresian to early Lutetian (Zones E5 - E9 age. Claystone interbeds contain rich planktonic and agglutinated microfauna, implying deep-water environments of gravity-flow deposition. The basin was supplied by continental margin deposystems, and filled with submarine landslides, fault-scarp breccias, base-of-slope aprons, debris-flow lobes and distal fans of debrite and turbidite deposits. Synsedimentary tectonics of the Súľov-Domaniža Basin started in the late Thanetian - early Ypresian by normal faulting and disintegration of the orogenic wedge margin. Fault-related fissures were filled by carbonate bedrock breccias and banded crystalline calcite veins (onyxites. The subsidence accelerated during the Ypresian and early Lutetian by gravitational collapse and subcrustal tectonic erosion of the CWC plate. The basin subsided to lower bathyal up to abyssal depth along with downslope accumulation of mass-flow deposits. Tectonic inversion of the basin resulted from the Oligocene - early Miocene transpression (σ1 rotated from NW-SE to NNW-SSE, which changed to a transpressional regime during the Middle Miocene (σ1 rotated from NNE-SSW to NE-SW. Late Miocene tectonics were dominated by an extensional regime with σ3 axis in NNW-SSE orientation.

  16. Basin geodynamics and sequence stratigraphy of Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic deposits of Southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Cédric; Hadouth, Suhail; Bouaziz, Samir; Lathuilière, Bernard; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2016-05-01

    Aims of this paper are to propose a geodynamic and sequential framework for the late Triassic and early Jurassic of and south Tunisia and to evidence the impact of local tectonics on the stratigraphic architecture. Facies of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic of Southern Tunisia have been interpreted in terms of depositional environments. A sequential framework and correlation schemes are proposed for outcrops and subsurface transects. Nineteen middle frequency sequences inserted in three and a half low frequency transgression/regression cycles were evidenced. Despite some datation uncertainties and the unknown durations of Lower Jurassic cycles, middle frequency sequences appear to be controlled by eustasy. In contrast the tectonics acted as an important control on low frequency cycles. The Carnian flooding was certainly favored by the last stages of a rifting episode which started during the Permian. The regression accompanied by the formation of stacked angular unconformities and the deposition of lowstand deposits during the late Carnian and Norian occured during the uplift and tilting of the northern basin margins. The transpressional activity of the Jeffara fault system generated the uplift of the Tebaga of Medenine high from the late Carnian and led to the Rhaetian regional angular Sidi Stout Unconformity. Facies analysis and well-log correlations permitted to evidence that Rhaetian to Lower Jurassic Messaoudi dolomites correspond to brecciated dolomites present on the Sidi Stout unconformity in the North Dahar area. The Early-cimmerian compressional event is a possible origin for the global uplift of the northern African margin and Western Europe during the late Carnian and the Norian. During the Rhaetian and the early Jurassic a new episode of normal faulting occured during the third low frequency flooding. This tectonosedimentary evolution ranges within the general geodynamic framework of the north Gondwana margin controlled by the opening of both

  17. STRATIGRAPHY OF THE CARNIAN - NORIAN CALCARI CON SELCE FORMATION IN THE LAGONEGRO BASIN, SOUTHERN APENNINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL RIGO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Triassic Calcari con Selce Formation, cropping out in the southern Apennines (S Italy, consists of 400 m of micritic limestones, often nodular, with chert beds and nodules, organized in dm to m beds intercalated with mm (rarely centimetric marly horizons. Three intervals characterized by higher siliciclastic content have been recognized within this formation, and stratigraphically ordered after an accurate conodont biostratigraphical investigation: 1 the green clay-radiolaritic horizon, previously named in literature with the informal expression of “livello argilloso ad Halobia superba”, Tuvalian (upper Carnian; 2 an interval of some tens of meters of limestones and brown shales with abundant chert beds, here informally termed the "brown member", Tuvalian/Lacian (upper Carnian/lower Norian; 3 the ca. 3 m thick red shale horizon, Sevatian (upper Norian in age. All these intervals are characterized by micritic limestones or marly limestones with bivalves, radiolarians and conodonts alternating with shales (green, brown or red having thicknesses of 50 cm or more. These intervals are also associated to an increase of calciturbidites, consisting of echinoderm fragments, isolated thin-shelled bivalves and reworked, partially lithified intraclasts of the Calcari con Selce Fm. The Carnian green clay-radiolaritic horizon and the Sevatian red siliciclastic interval are useful lithostratigraphic markers recognizable throughout the Lagonegro Basin and have been used as guide horizons to evaluate the lateral continuity of contiguous limestone beds. The green clay-radiolaritic horizon has been logged in 4 sections (Pignola 2, Mt. Armizzone, Pezza la Quagliara, San Michele. The sections are presently at approximately 50 km distance - but Tertiary thrusts occur between the sections, suggesting a larger separation at the time of the deposition of the Formation. Above the green clay-radiolaritic horizon, single carbonate beds or banks with the same

  18. Characterization of water quality for streams in the southern Yampa River basin, northwestern Colorado. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, the Yampa River basin in northwestern Colorado has been an area of coal-mining development. Coal mining generally has been developed in the southern part of the basin and at lower elevations. The purpose of the report is to characterize the stream water quality by summarizing selected major dissolved constituents for the streams that drain the southern part of the Yampa River basin. Characterization is done initially by providing a statistical summary of the constituents for individual water-quality sites in the study area. These statistical summaries can be used to help assess water-quality within specified stream reaches. Water-quality data are available for sites on most perennial streams in the study area, and these data provide the best information about the immediate stream reach. Water-quality data from all sites are combined into regions, and linear-regression equations between dissolved constituents and specific conductance are calculated. Such equations provide an estimate of the water-quality relations within these regions. The equations also indicate an increase in error as individual sites are combined

  19. Drought management plans and water availability in agriculture: A risk assessment model for a Southern European basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Dionisio Pérez-Blanco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Drought Management Plans (DMPs are regulatory instruments that establish priorities among the different water uses and define more stringent constraints to access to publicly provided water during droughts, especially for non-priority uses such as agriculture. These plans have recently become widespread across EU southern basins. However, in some of these basins the plans were approved without an assessment of the potential impacts that they may have on the economic activities exposed to water restrictions. This paper develops a stochastic methodology to estimate the expected water availability in agriculture that results from the decision rules of the recently approved DMPs. The methodology is applied to the particular case of the Guadalquivir River Basin in southern Spain. Results show that if DMPs are successfully enforced, available water will satisfy in average 62.2% of current demand, and this figure may drop to 50.2% by the end of the century as a result of climate change. This is much below the minimum threshold of 90% that has been guaranteed to irrigators so far.

  20. Tectono-sedimentary analysis using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility: a study of the terrestrial and freshwater Neogene of the Orava Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łoziński, Maciej; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Wysocka, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The Orava Basin is an intramontane depression filled with presumably fine-grained sediments deposited in river, floodplain, swamp and lake settings. The basin infilling constitutes a crucial record of the neoalpine evolution of the Inner/Outer Carpathian boundary area since the Neogene, when the Jurassic-Paleogene basement became consolidated, uplifted and eroded. The combination of sedimentological and structural studies with anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements provided an effective tool for recognition of terrestrial environments and deformations of the basin infilling. The lithofacies-oriented sampling and statistical approach to the large dataset of AMS specimens were utilized to define 12 AMS facies based on anisotropy degree (P) and shape (T). The AMS facies allowed a distinction of sedimentary facies ambiguous for classical methods, especially floodplain and lacustrine sediments, as well as revealing their various vulnerabilities to tectonic modification of AMS. A spatial analysis of facies showed that tuffites along with lacustrine and swamp deposits were generally restricted to marginal and southern parts of the basin. Significant deformations were noticed at basin margins and within two intrabasinal tectonic zones, which indicated the tectonic activity of the Pieniny Klippen Belt after the Middle Miocene. The large southern area of the basin recorded consistent N-NE trending compression during basin inversion. This regional tectonic rearrangement resulted in a partial removal of the southernmost basin deposits and shaped the basin's present-day extent.

  1. Present-day Horizontal Mobility in the Serbian Part of the Pannonian Basin; Inferences from the Geometric Analysis of Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušić, Zoran; Toljić, Marinko; Bulatović, Vladimir; Ninkov, Toša; Stojadinović, Uroš

    2016-10-01

    In tectonically complex environments, such as the Pannonian Basin surrounded by the Alps-Dinarides and Carpathians orogens, monitoring of recent deformations represents very challenging matter. Efficient quantification of active continental deformations demands the use of a multidisciplinary approach, including neotectonic, seismotectonic and geodetic methods. The present-day tectonic mobility in the Pannonian Basin is predominantly controlled by the northward movement of the Adria micro-plate, which has produced compressional stresses that were party accommodated by the Alps-Dinarides thrust belt and partly transferred towards its hinterland. Influence of thus induced stresses on the recent strain field, deformations and tectonic mobility in the southern segment of the Pannonian Basin has been investigated using GPS measurements of the horizontal mobility in the Vojvodina area (northern Serbia).

  2. Sedimentary record of subsidence pulse at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary interval in the Slovenian Basin (eastern Southern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rožič Boštjan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Alpine Realm the Early Jurassic is characterized by the disintegration and partial drowning of vast platform areas. In the eastern part of the Southern Alps (present-day NW Slovenia, the Julian Carbonate Platform and the adjacent, E-W extending Slovenian Basin underwent partial disintegration, drowning and deepening from the Pliensbachian on, whereas only nominal environmental changes developed on the large Dinaric (Friuli, Adriatic Carbonate Platform to the south (structurally part of the Dinarides. These events, however, were preceded by an earlier - and as yet undocumented extensional event - that took place near the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. This paper provides evidence of an accelerated subsidence from four selected areas within the Slovenian Basin, which show a trend of eastwardly-decreasing deformation. In the westernmost (Mrzli vrh section - the Upper Triassic platform-margin - massive dolomite is overlain by the earliest Jurassic toe-of-slope carbonate resediments and further, by basin-plain micritic limestone. Further east (Perbla and Liščak sections the Triassic-Jurassic transition interval is marked by an increase in resedimented carbonates. We relate this to the increasing inclination and segmentation of the slope and adjacent basin floor. The easternmost (Mt. Porezen area shows a rather monotonous, latest Triassic-Early Jurassic basinal sedimentation. However, changes in the thickness of the Hettangian-Pliensbachian Krikov Formation point to a tilting of tectonic blocks within the basin area. Lateral facies changes at the base of the formation indicate that the tilting occurred at and/or shortly after the Triassic/Jurassic boundary

  3. Sedimentary record of subsidence pulse at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary interval in the Slovenian Basin (eastern Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožič, Boštjan; Jurkovšek, Tea Kolar; Rožič, Petra Žvab; Gale, Luka

    2017-08-01

    In the Alpine Realm the Early Jurassic is characterized by the disintegration and partial drowning of vast platform areas. In the eastern part of the Southern Alps (present-day NW Slovenia), the Julian Carbonate Platform and the adjacent, E-W extending Slovenian Basin underwent partial disintegration, drowning and deepening from the Pliensbachian on, whereas only nominal environmental changes developed on the large Dinaric (Friuli, Adriatic) Carbonate Platform to the south (structurally part of the Dinarides). These events, however, were preceded by an earlier - and as yet undocumented extensional event - that took place near the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. This paper provides evidence of an accelerated subsidence from four selected areas within the Slovenian Basin, which show a trend of eastwardly-decreasing deformation. In the westernmost (Mrzli vrh) section - the Upper Triassic platform-margin - massive dolomite is overlain by the earliest Jurassic toe-of-slope carbonate resediments and further, by basin-plain micritic limestone. Further east (Perbla and Liščak sections) the Triassic-Jurassic transition interval is marked by an increase in resedimented carbonates. We relate this to the increasing inclination and segmentation of the slope and adjacent basin floor. The easternmost (Mt. Porezen) area shows a rather monotonous, latest Triassic-Early Jurassic basinal sedimentation. However, changes in the thickness of the Hettangian-Pliensbachian Krikov Formation point to a tilting of tectonic blocks within the basin area. Lateral facies changes at the base of the formation indicate that the tilting occurred at and/or shortly after the Triassic/Jurassic boundary

  4. Hydrologic analysis of the challenges facing water resources and sustainable development of Wadi Feiran basin, southern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayman A.; Diab, Maghawri S.

    2018-04-01

    Wadi Feiran basin is one of the most promising areas in southern Sinai (Egypt) for establishing new communities and for growth in agriculture, tourism, and industry. The present challenges against development include water runoff hazards (flash flooding), the increasing water demand, and water scarcity and contamination. These challenges could be mitigated by efficient use of runoff and rainwater through appropriate management, thereby promoting sustainable development. Strategies include the mitigation of runoff hazards and promoting the natural and artificial recharge of aquifers. This study uses a watershed modeling system, geographic information system, and classification scheme to predict the effects of various mitigation options on the basin's water resources. Rainwater-harvesting techniques could save more than 77% of the basin's runoff (by volume), which could be used for storage and aquifer recharge. A guide map is provided that shows possible locations for the proposed mitigation options in the study basin. Appropriate measures should be undertaken urgently: mitigation of groundwater contamination (including effective sewage effluent management); regular monitoring of the municipal, industrial and agricultural processes that release contaminants; rationalization and regulation of the application of agro-chemicals to farmland; and regular monitoring of contaminants in groundwater. Stringent regulations should be implemented to prevent wastewater disposal to the aquifers in the study area.

  5. Preliminary seismicity and focal mechanisms for the southern Great Basin of Nevada and California: January 1992 through September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmsen, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    The telemetered southern Great Basin seismic network (SGBSN) is operated for the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The US Geological Survey, Branch of Earthquake and Landslide Hazards, maintained this network until September 30, 1992, at which time all operational and analysis responsibilities were transferred to the University of Nevada at Reno Seismological Laboratory (UNRSL). This report contains preliminary earthquake and chemical explosion hypocenter listings and preliminary earthquake focal mechanism solutions for USGS/SGBSN data for the period January 1, 1992 through September 30, 1992, 15:00 UTC

  6. The Carpathians. Integrating nature and society towards sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, Jacek; Ostapowicz, Katarzyna [Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Geography and Spatial Management; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej [Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA (United States). USDA Forest Service; Wyzga, Bartlomiej (eds.) [Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Nature Conservation

    2013-06-01

    Provides an interdisciplinary approach. Explores ways to generate value for the Carpathian mountain region. Gives a new insight into the Carpathian mountain region. The Carpathians are a distinct mountain chain in the core of Central and Eastern Europe holding valuable biological resources and a rich cultural heritage. The last twenty years have witnessed an increasing awareness of the Carpathians' value for European society and strengthened research cooperation in the region, especially after the enlargement of the European Union in 2004 and 2007. This book presents a wide range of problems related to sustainable development in the Carpathian region that were discussed during the 1{sup st} Forum Carpaticum held in 2010 in Krakow, Poland. The four sections of the book deal with various issues related to the abiotic environment, forests and biodiversity, human activities, and research methods allowing a better understanding of the past, present and future of the Carpathians.

  7. Strike-slip tectonics and Quaternary basin formation along the Vienna Basin fault system inferred from Bouguer gravity derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salcher, B. C.; Meurers, B.; Smit, J.; Decker, K.; HöLzel, M.; Wagreich, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Vienna Basin at the transition between the Alpine and Carpathian belt hosts a number of large Pleistocene sub-basins forming along an active continental scale strike-slip fault (Vienna Basin strike-slip fault). We utilize first-order derivatives from industrial Bouguer gravity data to unravel

  8. Breaching of strike-slip faults and flooding of pull-apart basins to form the southern Gulf of California seaway from 8 to 6 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhoefer, P. J.; Skinner, L. A.; Oskin, M. E.; Dorsey, R. J.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Darin, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Studies from multiple disciplines delineate the development of the oblique-divergent Pacific - North America plate boundary in the southern Gulf of California. Integration of onshore data from the Loreto - Santa Rosalia margin with offshore data from the Pescadero, Farallon, and Guaymas basins provides a detailed geologic history. Our GIS-based paleotectonic maps of the plate boundary from 9 to 6 Ma show that evolution of pull-apart basins led to the episodic northwestward encroachment of the Gulf of California seaway. Because adjacent pull-apart basins commonly have highlands between them, juxtaposition of adjacent basin lows during translation and pull apart lengthening played a critical role in seaway flooding. Microfossils and volcanic units date the earliest marine deposits at 9(?) - 8 Ma at the mouth of the Gulf. By ca. 8 Ma, the seaway had flooded north to the Pescadero basin, while the Loreto fault and the related fault-termination basin was proposed to have formed along strike at the plate margin. East of Loreto basin, a short topographic barrier between the Pescadero and Farallon pull-apart basins suggests that the Farallon basin was either a terrestrial basin, or if breaching occurred, it may contain 8 Ma salt or marine deposits. This early southern seaway formed along a series of pull-apart basins within a narrow belt of transtension structurally similar to the modern Walker Lane in NV and CA. At ca. 7 Ma, a series of marine incursions breached a 75-100 km long transtensional fault barrier between the Farallon and Guaymas basins offshore Bahía Concepción. Repeated breaching events and the isolation of the Guaymas basin in a subtropical setting formed a 2 km-thick salt deposit imaged in offshore seismic data, and thin evaporite deposits in the onshore Santa Rosalia basin. Lengthening of the Guaymas, Yaqui, and Tiburon basins caused breaches of the intervening Guaymas and Tiburón transforms by 6.5-6.3 Ma, forming a permanent 1500 km-long marine seaway

  9. Phylogenetic status of brown trout Salmo trutta populations in five rivers from the southern Caspian Sea and two inland lake basins, Iran: a morphogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh Segherloo, I; Farahmand, H; Abdoli, A; Bernatchez, L; Primmer, C R; Swatdipong, A; Karami, M; Khalili, B

    2012-10-01

    Interrelationships, origin and phylogenetic affinities of brown trout Salmo trutta populations from the southern Caspian Sea basin, Orumieh and Namak Lake basins in Iran were analysed from complete mtDNA control region sequences, 12 microsatellite loci and morphological characters. Among 129 specimens from six populations, seven haplotypes were observed. Based on mtDNA haplotype data, the Orumieh and southern Caspian populations did not differ significantly, but the Namak basin-Karaj population presented a unique haplotype closely related to the haplotypes of the other populations (0·1% Kimura two-parameter, K2P divergence). All Iranian haplotypes clustered as a distinct group within the Danube phylogenetic grouping, with an average K2P distance of 0·41% relative to other Danubian haplotypes. The Karaj haplotype in the Namak basin was related to a haplotype (Da26) formerly identified in the Tigris basin in Turkey, to a Salmo trutta oxianus haplotype from the Aral Sea basin, and to haplotype Da1a with two mutational steps, as well as to other Iranian haplotypes with one to two mutational steps, which may indicate a centre of origin in the Caspian basin. In contrast to results of the mtDNA analysis, more pronounced differentiation was observed among the populations studied in the morphological and microsatellite DNA data, except for the two populations from the Orumieh basin, which were similar, possibly due to anthropogenic causes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Forage Options for Dairy Farms with Reduced Water Availability in the Southern Murray Darling Basin of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Jane Rogers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The dairy industry in the southern Murray Darling Basin region of Australia is a major consumer of irrigation water because rainfall is low relative to evapotranspiration and the industrys relies heavily on irrigated temperate pastures and fodder crops. Water reforms, and potential climate change scenarios for this region suggest that there will be an overall decline in rainfall and water available for irrigation in the future. For the irrigated dairy industry to remain economically viable, there is a need for dairy farmers to improve the water productivity (WP of their forage systems and to be able to respond to year-to-year, and within year, variation in water availability. Researchers and dairy farmers are evaluating strategies to increase WP. These include: (i selecting better-adapted species for current and predicted climatic conditions; (ii using species that can survive and still be productive under reduced irrigation and then recover when full irrigation is restored; (iii modifying irrigation strategies to reduce water use whilst maintaining WP; and (iv grazing management strategies that facilitate the survival during, and recovery after, periods of moisture stress. This review will examine these strategies and discusses their potential to optimise forage production from irrigation water inputs so that the dairy industry in the southern Murray Darling Basin remains viable in the future.

  11. Cenozoic structural evolution, thermal history, and erosion of the Ukrainian Carpathians fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakapelyukh, Mykhaylo; Bubniak, Ihor; Bubniak, Andriy; Jonckheere, Raymond; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2018-01-01

    The Carpathians are part of the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogen surrounding the Pannonian basin. Their Ukrainian part constitutes an ancient subduction-accretion complex that evolved into a foreland fold-thrust belt with a shortening history that was perpendicular to the orogenic strike. Herein, we constrain the evolution of the Ukrainian part of the Carpathian fold-thrust belt by apatite fission-track dating of sedimentary and volcanic samples and cross-section balancing and restoration. The apatite fission-track ages are uniform in the inner―southwestern part of the fold-thrust belt, implying post-shortening erosion since 12-10 Ma. The ages in the leading and trailing edges record provenance, i.e., sources in the Trans-European suture zone and the Inner Carpathians, respectively, and show that these parts of the fold-thrust were not heated to more than 100 °C. Syn-orogenic strata show sediment recycling: in the interior of the fold-thrust belt―the most thickened and most deeply eroded nappes―the apatite ages were reset, eroded, and redeposited in the syn-orogenic strata closer to the fore- and hinterland; the lag times are only a few million years. Two balanced cross sections, one constructed for this study and based on field and subsurface data, reveal an architecture characterized by nappe stacks separated by high-displacement thrusts; they record 340-390 km shortening. A kinematic forward model highlights the fold-thrust belt evolution from the pre-contractional configuration over the intermediate geometries during folding and thrusting and the post-shortening, erosional-unloading configuration at 12-10 Ma to the present-day geometry. Average shortening rates between 32-20 Ma and 20-12 Ma amounted to 13 and 21 km/Ma, respectively, implying a two-phased deformation of the Ukrainian fold-thrust belt.

  12. Biological characteristics of Central Indian Basin waters during the southern summer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Phytoplankton biomass, taxonomy, primary productivity, and photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) were studied as part of baseline data collection for prospective nodule mining in the Central Indian Basin during the ORV Sagar Kanya cruise SK...

  13. Assessment of radiation background level of Shandong basin in east line of northward rerouting of southern river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Daping; Xu Jiaang; Zhu Jianguo; Chen Yingmin; Lu Feng; Song Gang; Cao Jingli

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the radiation background levels of Shandong basin in east line of northward rerouting of southern river. Methods: The activity concentrations of gross-alpha, gross-beta, 137 Cs, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K, 226 Ra and 90 Sr in the samples were measured by national standard methods respectively. The values of the dose conversion factor given by UNSCEAR 2000 were adopted for dose estimation. Results: The average activity concentrations of gross-alpha, gross-beta, 137 Cs, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K, 226 Ra and 90 Sr in the samples were pooled in order to analyze dose estimation. The committed effective doses of the 226 Ra, 238 U, 90 Sr, 232 Th and 137 Cs from lake water for residents are 1.46, 4.95 x 10 -1 , 1.24 x 10 -1 , 2.58 x 10 -2 and 7.93 x 10 -3 μSv per year respectively. The committed effective doses of the 226 Ra, 238 U and 90 Sr from cyprinoid fish are 5.49 x 10 -2 , 3.69 x 10 -2 and 1.77 x 10 -2 μSv per year respectively. Conclusions: The results show that the average activity concentrations of gross-alpha, gross-beta, 137 Cs, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K, 226 Ra and 90 Sr in the samples from Shandong basin of northward rerouting of southern river are within the background levels. And in the main lake basin, the estimated exposures of public caused by the radionuclide in water and cyprinoid fish are so low that they can be ignored unless there ate some radioactive contamination in the future. (authors)

  14. Sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the southern Qiangtang basin: Implications for the Lhasa-Qiangtang collision timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Anlin; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo; Han, Zhong; Lai, Wen

    2017-07-01

    The Mesozoic stratigraphic record of the southern Qiangtang basin in central Tibet records the evolution and closure of the Bangong-Nujiang ocean to the south. The Jurassic succession includes Toarcian-Aalenian shallow-marine limestones (Quse Formation), Aalenian-Bajocian feldspatho-litho-quartzose to feldspatho-quartzo-lithic sandstones (shallow-marine Sewa Formation and deep-sea Gaaco Formation), and Bathonian outer platform to shoal limestones (Buqu Formation). This succession is truncated by an angular unconformity, overlain by upper Bathonian to lower Callovian fan-delta conglomerates and litho-quartzose to quartzo-lithic sandstones (Biluoco Formation) and Callovian shoal to outer platform limestones (Suowa Formation). Sandstone petrography coupled with detrital-zircon U-Pb and Hf isotope analysis indicate that the Sewa and Gaaco formations contain intermediate to felsic volcanic detritus and youngest detrital zircons (183-170 Ma) with ɛHf(t) ranging widely from +13 to -25, pointing to continental-arc provenance from igneous rocks with mixed mantle and continental-crust contributions. An arc-trench system thus developed toward the end of the Early Jurassic, with the southern Qiangtang basin representing the fore-arc basin. Above the angular unconformity, the Biluoco Formation documents a change to dominant sedimentary detritus including old detrital zircons (mainly >500 Ma ages in the lower part of the unit) with age spectra similar to those from Paleozoic strata in the central Qiangtang area. A major tectonic event with intense folding and thrusting thus took place in late Bathonian time (166 ± 1 Ma), when the Qiangtang block collided with another microcontinental block possibly the Lhasa block.

  15. Hydrological Responses to Changes in the Rainfall Regime are Less Pronounced in Forested Basins: an Analysis of Southern Brazil, 1975-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, V. B. P.; Chaffe, P. L. B.

    2017-12-01

    It is unknown to what extent the hydrological responses to changes in the rainfall regime vary across forested and non-forested landscapes. Southern Brazil is approximately 570000 km² and was naturally covered mostly by tropical and subtropical forests. In the last century, a large proportion of forests were replaced by agricultural activities. The rainfall regime has also changed substantially in the last decades. The annual rainfall, number and magnitude of extreme events, and number of non-rainy days have increased in most of the area. In this study, we investigated the changes in the regime of 142 streamflow gauges and 674 rainfall gauges in Southern Brazil, from 1975 to 2010. The changes in the regime were analyzed for forested basins (i.e., with more than 50% forest coverage) and non-forested basins (i.e., with less than 20% forest coverage). The area of the river basins ranged from 100 to 60000 km². We analyzed a total of six signatures that represent the regime, including annual averages, seasonality, floods, and droughts. The statistical trends of the signatures were calculated using the Mann-Kendall test and the Sen's slope. The results showed that the majority of basins with opposing signal trends for mean annual streamflow and rainfall are non-forested basins (i.e., basins with higher anthropogenic impacts). Forested basins had a lower correlation between trends in the streamflow and rainfall trends for the seasonality and the average duration of drought events. There was a lower variability in the annual maximum 1-day streamflow trends in the forested basins. Additionally, despite a decrease in the 31-day rainfall minima and an increase in the seasonality, in forested basins the 7-day streamflow minima increases were substantially larger than in non-forested basins. In summary, the forested basins were less responsive to the changes in the precipitation 1-day maxima, seasonality, number of dry days, and 31-day minima.

  16. Geopolitical consequences of Rusophilism of Carpathian Rusyns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Przemysław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rusophilism was an alternative for Carpathian Rusyns, including Lemkos, to Ukrainian nationalism. Russia used Interest in this ideology, for which the areas inhabited by Rusyns were geopolitically important. Positive attitude of this population could help to seize Central Europe and realize the imperial interests of Russia. The consequences are visible even today and are being used to destabilize the situation in Ukraine.

  17. Hieracium glabrescens (Asteraceae Rediscovered in the Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeląg Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Hieracium glabrescens (F. W. Schultz Murr in the Carpathians is confirmed after over a century by a new locality from the Apuseni Mountains in Romania. This locality, very significant from the phytogeographical point of view, is disjoined ca 500 km from the nearest Balkan localities of the species. The origin of H. glabrescens in the Apuseni Mountains is briefly discussed.

  18. IRETHERM: Multidimensional geophysical modeling of the southern margin of the Dublin Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozar, Jan; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker; Campanya, Joan; Pasquali, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    Multi-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) modelling of data from the Newcastle area west of Dublin, acquired as part of the geothermal potential of Ireland (IRETHERM) project, is presented. The Newcastle area, situated on the southern margin of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin, exhibits elevated geothermal gradient (>30 ° C/km) in the exploratory boreholes drilled by GT Energy. The MT soundings were carried out in the highly urbanized Dublin suburb and are heavily noise-contaminated and distorted due to EM noise from nearby industry and the DC tram system (LUAS). We obtained reliable and interpretable MT impedance and geomagnetic transfer functions at most sites by processing the 'quietest' 4-hour night time subsets of data using several robust codes and the ELICIT method. Tensor decomposition was applied at each site to ascertain if the data are suitable for 2-D modelling and to determine the appropriate geoelectric strike direction. The obtained 2-D models underwent examination using a new stability technique, and the final two 2-D profiles with reliability estimations, expressed through conductance and resistivity, were derived. 3-D models, including all usable MT data in the Newcastle area, have also been determined with and without resistivity constrains for shallow structures from resistivity measurements in one of the boreholes (borehole NGE1). The 3-D models exhibit structures with higher conductivity in comparison to the 2-D models, with similarly resistive background rocks. The shallow conductive structures, to a depth of 1 km, have north-south elongations correlated with the surface traces of faults that are perpendicular to the regional Blackrock to Newcastle Fault (BNF). Deeper structures become more oriented to a regional geoelectric strike similar to 2-D regional strike. To obtain superior characterization of the thermal transport properties of the investigated area, we used porosity and resistivity data from borehole NGE1 to estimate relation between

  19. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT surveys on glacial deposits in Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ZAMOSTEANU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study presents preliminary results regarding the use of electrical resistivity surveys in the assessment of the internal structure of the glacial deposits from the Romanian Carpathians.ERT is a geophysical method used to quantify changes in electrical resistivity of the ground towards passing electric current across an array of electrodes and simultaneous measurement of the induced potential gradient. Using specific software the measurements are further processed and correlated with the topography in order to obtain bedrock resistivity features. Therefore, the method is useful to evaluate the characteristics of geological strata and is widely used for mapping shallow subsurface geological structures. In the mountain regions ERT studies have been applied in different glacial and periglacial geomorphological studies - for permafrost detection (in Romanian Carpathians - Urdea et. al., 2008; Vespremeanu-Stroe et al., 2012, slope deformation analysis, the assessment of slip surface depths, sediment thickness, groundwater levels etc. One of the most commonly 2-D array used is the Wenner electrode configuration, which is moderately sensitive to both horizontal and vertical ground structures.Due to their elevations and Pleistocene’s climatic conditions, the Romanian Carpathians have been partially affected by Quaternary glaciations. The glaciers descended to about 1050-1200 m a.s.l. (Urdea and Reurther, 2009 in the Transylvanian Alps and Rodna Mountains (Eastern Carpathians carving a large number of U-shaped valleys and glacial cirques (Mîndrescu, 2006 and forming accumulations of unconsolidated glacial debris (moraines. Our study areas are two sites located in the northern (Rodna Mts. and southern (Iezer Păpuşa Mts. part of the mountain range.

  20. Late Pliocene Quaternary tectonics in the frontal part of the SE Carpathians: Insights from tectonic geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necea, Diana; Fielitz, W.; Matenco, L.

    2005-12-01

    The Romanian East Carpathians display large-scale heterogeneities along the mountain belt, unusual foredeep geometries, significant post-collisional and neotectonic activity, and major variations in topography, mostly developed in the aftermath of late Miocene (Sarmatian; ˜11 Ma) subduction/underthrusting and continental collision between the East European/Scythian/Moesian foreland and the inner Carpathians Tisza-Dacia unit. In particular, the SE corner of the arcuate orogenic belt represents the place of still active large-scale differential vertical movements between the uplifting mountain chain and the subsiding Focşani foredeep basin. In this key area, we have analysed the configuration of the present day landforms and the drainage patterns in order to quantify the amplitude, timing and kinematics of these post-collisional late Pliocene-Quaternary vertical movements. A river network is incising in the upstream a high topography consisting of the external Carpathians nappes and the Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene sediments of the foreland. Further eastwards in the downstream, this network is cross-cutting a low topography consisting of the Middle Pleistocene-Holocene sediments of the foreland. Geological observations and well-preserved geomorphic features demonstrate a complex succession of geological structures. The late Pliocene-Holocene tectonic evolution is generally characterised by coeval uplift in the mountain chain and subsidence in the foreland. At a more detailed scale, these vertical movements took place in pulses of accelerated motion, with laterally variable amplitude both in space and in time. After a first late Pliocene uplifting period, subsidence took place during the Earliest Pleistocene resulting in a basal Quaternary unconformity. This was followed by two, quantifiable periods of increased uplift, which affected the studied area at the transition between the Carpathians orogen and the Focşani foreland basin in the late Early Pleistocene and the

  1. Timing of the Cenozoic basins of Southern Mexico and its relationship with the Pacific truncation process: Subduction erosion or detachment of the Chortís block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Romo, Gilberto; Mendoza-Rosales, Claudia Cristina; Campos-Madrigal, Emiliano; Hernández-Marmolejo, Yoalli Bianii; de la Rosa-Mora, Orestes Antonio; de la Torre-González, Alam Israel; Bonifacio-Serralde, Carlos; López-García, Nallely; Nápoles-Valenzuela, Juan Ivan

    2018-04-01

    In the central sector of the Sierra Madre del Sur in Southern Mexico, between approximately 36 and 16 Ma ago and in the west to east direction, a diachronic process of the formation of ∼north-south trending fault-bounded basins occurred. No tectono-sedimentary event in the period between 25 and 20 Ma is recognized in the study region. A period during which subduction erosion truncated the continental crust of southern Mexico has been proposed. The chronology, geometry and style of the formation of the Eocene Miocene fault-bounded basins are more congruent with crustal truncation by the detachment of the Chortís block, thus bringing into question the crustal truncation hypothesis of the Southern Mexico margin. Between Taxco and Tehuacán, using seven new Laser Ablation- Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb ages in magmatic zircons, we refine the stratigraphy of the Tepenene, Tehuitzingo, Atzumba and Tepelmeme basins. The analyzed basins present similar tectono-sedimentary evolutions as follows: Stage 1, depocenter formation and filling by clastic rocks accumulated as alluvial fans and Stage 2, lacustrine sedimentation characterized by calcareous and/or evaporite beds. Based on our results, we propose the following hypothesis: in Southern Mexico, during Eocene-Miocene times, the diachronic formation of fault-bounded basins with general north-south trend occurred within the framework of the convergence between the plates of North and South America, and once the Chortís block had slipped towards the east, the basins formed in the cortical crust were recently left behind. On the other hand, the beginning of the basins' formation process related to left strike slip faults during Eocene-Oligocene times can be associated with the thermomechanical maturation cortical process that caused the brittle/ductile transition level in the continental crust to shallow.

  2. Deformation style and controlling geodynamic processes at the eastern Guadalquivir foreland basin (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Lechado, C.; Pedrera, A.; Peláez, J. A.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; González-Ramón, A.; Henares, J.

    2017-06-01

    The tectonic structure of the Guadalquivir foreland basin becomes complex eastward evolving from a single depocenter to a compartmented basin. The deformation pattern within the eastern Guadalquivir foreland basin has been characterized by combining seismic reflection profiles, boreholes, and structural field data to output a 3-D model. High-dipping NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending normal and reverse fault arrays deform the Variscan basement of the basin. These faults generally affect Tortonian sediments, which show syntectonic features sealed by the latest Miocene units. Curved and S-shaped fault traces are abundant and caused by the linkage of nearby fault segments during lateral fault propagation. Preexisting faults were reactivated either as normal or reverse faults depending on their position within the foreland. At Tortonian time, reverse faults deformed the basin forebulge, while normal faults predominated within the backbulge. Along-strike variation of the Betic foreland basin geometry is supported by an increasing mechanical coupling of the two plates (Alborán Domain and Variscan basement) toward the eastern part of the cordillera. Thus, subduction would have progressed in the western Betics, while it would have failed in the eastern one. There, the initially subducted Iberian paleomargin (Nevado-Filábride Complex) was incorporated into the upper plate promoting the transmission of collision-related compressional stresses into the foreland since the middle Miocene. Nowadays, compression is still active and produces low-magnitude earthquakes likely linked to NNE-SSW to NE-SW preexiting faults reactivated with reverse oblique-slip kinematics. Seismicity is mostly concentrated around fault tips that are frequently curved in overstepping zones.

  3. Holocene and latest Pleistocene oblique dextral faulting on the southern Inyo Mountains fault, Owens Lake basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, S.N.; Jayko, A.S.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Inyo Mountains fault (IMF) is a more or less continuous range-front fault system, with discontinuous late Quaternary activity, at the western base of the Inyo Mountains in Owens Valley, California. The southern section of the IMF trends ???N20??-40?? W for at least 12 km at the base of and within the range front near Keeler in Owens Lake basin. The southern IMF cuts across a relict early Pliocene alluvial fan complex, which has formed shutter ridges and northeast-facing scarps, and which has dextrally offset, well-developed drainages indicating long-term activity. Numerous fault scarps along the mapped trace are northeast-facing, mountain-side down, and developed in both bedrock and younger alluvium, indicating latest Quaternary activity. Latest Quaternary multiple- and single-event scarps that cut alluvium range in height from 0.5 to 3.0 m. The penultimate event on the southern IMF is bracketed between 13,310 and 10,590 cal years B.P., based on radiocarbon dates from faulted alluvium and fissure-fill stratigraphy exposed in a natural wash cut. Evidence of the most recent event is found at many sites along the mapped fault, and, in particular, is seen in an ???0.5-m northeast-facing scarp and several right-stepping en echelon ???0.5-m-deep depressions that pond fine sediment on a younger than 13,310 cal years B.P. alluvial fan. A channel that crosses transverse to this scarp is dextrally offset 2.3 ?? 0.8 m, providing a poorly constrained oblique slip rate of 0.1-0. 3 m/ k.y. The identified tectonic geomorphology and sense of displacement demonstrate that the southern IMF accommodates predominately dextral slip and should be integrated into kinematic fault models of strain distribution in Owens Valley.

  4. Hydrological modeling of the semi-arid Andarax river basin in Southern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming Hauge; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Sandholt, Inge

    as this it will lead to better estimate of the groundwater recharge and hereby of the groundwater availability in the delta region.   The hydrological behaviour of the Andarax river basin is simulated by the MIKE SHE code, which is a physically based, distributed and integrated hydrological model. In the first...... scenario we only use traditional meteorological data and standard values for the vegetation characteristics. The traditional meteorological data are rather sparse for the Andarax river basin and to improve the estimation of evapotranspiration we use an energy-based two-layer SVAT model and apply remote...

  5. Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernewski, Gerald; Hürdler, Jens; Neumann, Thomas; Stybel, Nardine; Venohr, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess and evaluate the effects of nutrient loads on coastal water quality as well as the efficiency of river basin management measures on surface waters and especially lagoons and estuaries. The Odra river basin, the Szczecin Lagoon and its coastal waters cover an area of about 150,000 km² and are an eutrophication hot-spot in the Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of an optimal nitrogen and phosphorus management scenario in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35 %) would have positive effects on coastal water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased

  6. Fluvial evolution of the Rhine during the last interglacial-glacial cycle in the southern North Sea basin : A review and look forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Jan; Busschers, Freek S.; Stouthamer, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the current state of knowledge on the evolution and depositional history of the River Rhine in the southern part of the North Sea basin during the upper Middle and Late Pleistocene, and its response to climate change, sea-level oscillation and glacio-isostasy. The study focuses

  7. Fluvial evolution of the Rhine during the last interglacial-glacial cycle in the southern North Sea basin: A review and look forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F.S.; Stouthamer, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the current state of knowledge on the evolution and depositional history of the River Rhine in the southern part of the North Sea basin during the upper Middle and Late Pleistocene, and its response to climate change, sea-level oscillation and glacio-isostasy. The study focuses

  8. Analysis on groundwater evolution and interlayer oxidation zone position at the southern margin of Yilin basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guanghui

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and evolution history of groundwater and its reworking to the interlayer oxidation zone, hydrogeochemical zonation of interlayer oxidation zone, mechanism of water-rock interaction and transportation pattern of uranium in the water in Yili Basin. It is suggested that groundwater is one of the important factors to control the development of interlayer oxidation zone and uranium mineralization. (authors)

  9. Lithostratigraphy, depositional history and sea level changes of the Cauvery Basin, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuvairvasamy Ramkumar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentary sequence exposed in the erstwhile Tiruchirapalli district hosts a more or less complete geological record of the Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary period. Systematic field mapping, collation of data on the micro-meso scale lithology, sedimentary structures, petrography, faunal assemblage and facies relationships of these rocks, in the light of modern stratigraphic concepts, helped to enumerate the lithostratigraphic setup and depositional history of the basin. Spatial and temporal variations of the lithologies and revised stratigraphic units are presented in this paper. Many high frequency sea level cycles (presumably fourth or higher order which stack up to form third order sea level cycles (six in number, which in turn form part of second order cycles (two in number, including seven eustatic sea level peaks, have been recorded in this basin. Trend analysis of sea level curves indicates a gradual increase of the sea level from Barremian to Coniacian and a gradual decrease from Coniacian to Danian. Such lasting sea level trends had their influence on the sedimentation pattern and facies association. It is inferred that depositional bathymetry was maintained at a shallow-moderate level, primarily influenced by a lack of major subsidence during the depositional history of this basin. The study also revealed a prevalent simple basin filling process and dominant control by sea level changes, rather than tectonic movements over the depositional regime.

  10. Analysis on the geological features and ore-forming conditions at the southern margin of Erdos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhongxian; Shen Pingxi; Chen Fenling

    2014-01-01

    At the southern margin of Erdos basin, the paleo-interlayer-oxidation was developed in the medium-coarse-grained sandstone of Middle Jurassic System. High content uranium was enriched which are favorable for sandstone-type uranium deposit. There had been found multiple sandstone-type uranium deposits (ore occurrences) in this area. Uranium mineralization occurs in the sand body of braided fluvial facies in the lower member of Zhiluo Formation of Middle Jurassic System. It was controlled by the paleo-interlayer-oxidation. Uranium mineralization was closely related with the permeability of sandstone and occurs generally in the sandstones where is loose cementation and water permeability better. The stratum of Middle Jurassic System was extensively developed in the work area. Therefore it has great prospecting potential for the sandstone-type uranium deposit. (authors)

  11. Proterozoic structure, cambrian rifting, and younger faulting as revealed by a regional seismic reflection network in the Southern Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.J.; Drahovzal, James A.; Sargent, M.L.; McBride, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Four high-quality seismic reflection profiles through the southern Illinois Basin, totaling 245 km in length, provide an excellent regional subsurface stratigraphic and structural framework for evaluation of seismic risk, hydrocarbon occurrence, and other regional geologic studies. These data provide extensive subsurface information on the geometry of the intersection of the Cambrian Reelfoot and Rough Creek rifts, on extensive Proterozoic reflection sequences, and on structures (including the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex and Hicks Dome) that underlie a transitional area between the well-defined New Madrid seismic zone (to the southwest) and a more diffuse area of seismicity in the southern Illinois Basin. Our principal interpretations from these data are listed here in order of geologic age, from oldest to youngest: 1. Prominent Proterozoic layering, possibly equivalent to Proterozoic (???1 Ga) Middle Run Formation clastic strata and underlying (1.3-1.5 Ga) volcanic rocks of the East Continent rift basin, has been strongly deformed, probably as part of the Grenville foreland fold and thrust belt. 2. A well-defined angular unconformity is seen in many places between Proterozoic and Cambrian strata; a post-Grenville Proterozoic sequence is also apparent locally, directly beneath the base of the Cambrian. 3. We infer a major reversal in Cambrian rift polarity (accommodation zone) in the Rough Creek Graben in western Kentucky. 4. Seismic facies analysis suggests the presence of basin-floor fan complexes at and near the base of the Cambrian interval and within parts of a Proterozoic post-Grenville sequence in several parts of the Rough Creek Graben. 5. There is an abrupt pinchout of the Mount Simon Sandstone against crystalline basement beneath the Dale Dome (near the Texaco no. 1 Cuppy well, Hamilton County) in southeastern Illinois, and a more gradual Mount Simon pinchout to the southeast. 6. Where crossed by the seismic reflection line in southeast Illinois, some

  12. Continental Delamination of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians: A Lower Crustal Origin of the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillerup, M. A.; Knapp, J. H.; Knapp, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    Two lithosphere-scale, explosive-source seismic reflection profiles (DRACULA I and DACIA PLAN), inclusive of the hinterland and foreland of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians, provide new evidence for the geodynamic origin of the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone (VSZ) of Romania. These data, collected to evaluate existing subduction-related and delamination geodynamic models proposed to explain the intermediate depth seismicity associated with the Vrancea zone, show evidence of continental crust extending continuously above the VSZ from the Carpathian foreland well into the Transylvanian hinterland. Crustal thicknesses inferred from these data based on reflectivity show a 40-45 km crust below the Transylvanian basin abruptly shallowing to 32 km for ~120 km beneath the fold and thrust belt of the main Carpathian orogen and thickening again to 38-42 km crust in the foreland. This thinned crust outlines an apparent lower crustal sub-orogenic cavity that is overlain by a relatively subhorizontal reflective fabric absent of dipping reflectivity. The northwest dipping Vrancea seismogenic body, a 30x70x200 km volume of intermediate depth earthquakes, is located on the eastern flank of the apparently thin crust beneath the Carpathian orogen. Amplitude decay curves show penetration of seismic energy to a depth of ~60 km in the vicinity of the sub-orogenic cavity, implying this non- reflective zone is a geologic signature. Rotation of the VSZ about a hinge beneath the foreland basin at a depth of ~50 km restores to fill the lower-crustal cavity under the orogen, suggesting the VSZ represents a portion of brittle lower crust delaminated during continental lithospheric delamination which may have caused regional uplift of the Transylvanian basin. The lack of through-going, dipping crustal-scale boundaries along this composite lithospheric transect would appear to preclude subduction as an explanation for seismicity in the VSZ, consistent with abundant surface geologic data. These

  13. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  14. Stratigraphic and structural relationships between Meso-Cenozoic Lagonegro basin and coeval carbonate platforms in southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescatore, Tullio; Renda, Pietro; Schiattarella, Marcello; Tramutoli, Mariano

    1999-12-01

    Stratigraphic studies and facies analysis integrated with a new geological and structural survey of the Meso-Cenozoic units outcropping in the Campania-Lucania Apennines, southern Italy, allowed us to restore the palaeogeographic pattern and the tectonic evolution of the chain during Oligo-Miocene times. The southern Apennines are a N150°-striking and NE-verging fold-and-thrust belt mainly derived from the deformation of the African-Apulian passive margin. Four wide belts with different features have been recognized in the chain area. From east to west the following units outcrop: (a) successions characterized by basinal to marginal facies, ranging in age from Cretaceous to Miocene, tectonically lying on Plio-Pleistocene foredeep deposits; (b) successions characterized by shallow-water, basinal and shelf-margin facies, ranging in age from middle Triassic to Miocene ('Lagonegro units'), overthrust on the previous ones; (c) Triassic to Miocene carbonate platform successions ('Apenninic platform units'), overthrust on the Lagonegro units; (d) Jurassic-Cretaceous to Miocene deep-water successions (ophiolite-bearing or 'internal' units and associated siliciclastic wedges), outcropping along the Tyrrhenian belt and the Calabria-Lucania boundary, overthrust on the Apenninic platform units. All these units tectonically lie on the buried Apulian platform which is covered, at least in the eastern sector of the chain, by Pliocene to Pleistocene foredeep deposits. Stratigraphic patterns of the Cretaceous to lower Miocene Lagonegro successions are coherent with the platform margin ones. Calcareous clastics of the Lagonegro basin are in fact supplied by an adjacent western platform, as inferred by several sedimentological evidences (slump and palaeocurrent directions and decreasing grain size towards the depocentre of the basin). Tectonic relationships among the different units of the chain — with particular emphasis on the Lagonegro and Apenninic platform units of the

  15. Decline of General Intelligence in Children Exposed to Manganese from Mining Contamination in Puyango River Basin, Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Óscar; Tapia, Marlene; Méndez, Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    Based on ecosystem approaches to health (Ecohealth), this study sought to identify neurobehavioral disorders in children exposed to several levels of toxic metal pollution from gold mining in the Puyango River Basin, Southern Ecuador. Ninety-three children born or living in the study area participated in the study. A neurobehavioral test battery consisting of 12 tests assessing various functions of the nervous system was applied as well as a questionnaire regarding events of exposure of children's mothers to contaminants during perinatal period. Hair samples were taken from children to determine manganese concentrations. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied in order to examine possible relationships between exposure events, hair manganese, and neurobehavioral disorders. Having controlled co-variables such as age and educational level, it was found that children with elevated levels of hair manganese (over 2 μg/g) had poor performance in the test of general intelligence (Raven's Progressive Color Matrices Scale PCM). The Ecohealth approach helped to identify that children in the lower Puyango Basin with very elevated levels of manganese in the river water (970 µg/L) are the ones who have the highest levels of hair manganese and the worst performance in the intelligence test.

  16. Regional gravity and magnetic surveys along southern margin of Indravati basin, Central India - a guide to unconformity related uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, I.; Ramesh Babu, V.; Chaturvedi, A.K.; Sreenivas, R.; Chari, M.N.; Dash, J.K.; Roy, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Geophysical methods play vital role at various stages in mineral exploration programme particularly in case of buried deposits. The unconformity related uranium deposits owing to their concealed nature are explored by geophysical methods as an indirect tool. Regional ground gravity and magnetic surveys have been conducted to decipher the basin configuration, presence of fault/ fractures and basic activity. These structural features may form favorable criteria for mineralisation. Qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the gravity and magnetic data along the southern margin of Mesoproterozoic Indravati basin has been correlated with ground follow up geological investigation. There exists a good correlation between interpreted faults, fracture zones and mafic activity from the magnetic and gravity surveys with available borehole data in the area. Further, 2D models generated from magnetic data have paved the way for planning boreholes and thereby reorienting the sub-surface exploration programme. Evidence of alteration and fracturing intercepted from the borehole correlates well with the low gravity and magnetic. Hence, gravity and magnetic surveys can be effectively utilized in delineating basement configuration and to estimate sediment thickness besides deciphering post sedimentary fault/fractures which are favorable factors for unconformity related uranium mineralisation. (author)

  17. 76 FR 10914 - Notice of Public Meetings: Mojave-Southern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Area (NCA) Visitor's Center, Las Vegas, Nevada; July 21, 2011, at the BLM Southern Nevada District... final meeting agenda that will be available two weeks prior to each meeting. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... be raised by RAC members. The final agendas with any additions/corrections to agenda topics...

  18. Geological factors controlling occurrence and distribution of arsenic in groundwaters from the southern margin of the Duero Basin, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Forcada, Elena; Smedley, Pauline L

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater from springs and boreholes on the southern edge of the Cenozoic Duero Basin (DB) of Spain has concentrations of arsenic (As) which are commonly above the EC drinking-water limit of 10 μg/L and reach observed values up to 241 μg/L. Groundwater compositions within the sedimentary aquifer vary from Ca-HCO3 type, variably affected by evaporation and agricultural pollution at shallow levels, to Na-HCO3 compositions in deeper boreholes of the basin. Groundwater conditions are mainly oxidising, but reducing groundwaters exist in sub-basins within the aquifer, localised flow paths likely being influenced by basement structure. Arsenic concentrations are spatially variable, reaching up to 38 μg/L in springs of the Spanish Central System (SCS) basement aquifer and up to 62 μg/L in springs from the DB. Highest As concentrations are associated with the Na-HCO3 compositions in deep boreholes (200-450 m depth) within the DB. These have high pH values (up to 9.6) which can give rise to associated elevated concentrations of V and U (up to 64 and 30 μg/L, respectively). In the deep borehole waters of the DB, oxidising flows derived from the mineralised igneous-metamorphic basement and discharging via major faults, and are considered the origin of the higher concentrations. Compositions are consistent with desorption of As and other anionic species from metal oxyhydroxides in an oxic environment. Under locally reducing conditions prevalent in some low-flow parts of the DB, an absence of detectable dissolved As is coincident with low or undetectable SO4 concentrations, and consistent with loss via formation of authigenic sulphide minerals. Mitigation measures are needed urgently in this semi-arid region where provision of alternative sources of safe drinking water is logistically difficult and expensive.

  19. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  20. Evaluation of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of water samples from the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Bianchi

    Full Text Available Some water bodies in the Sinos River Basin (SRB have been suffering the effects of pollution by residential, industrial and agroindustrial wastewater. The presence of cytotoxic and genotoxic compounds could compromise the water quality and the balance of these ecosystems. In this context, the research aimed to evaluate the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the water at four sites along the SRB (in the cities of Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Parobé, Campo Bom and Esteio, using bioassays in fish and cell culture. Samples of surface water were collected and evaluated in vitro using the Astyanax jacuhiensis fish species (micronucleus test and comet assay and the Vero lineage of cells (comet assay and cytotoxicity tests, neutral red - NR and tetrazolium MTT. The micronucleus test in fish showed no significant differences between the sampling sites, and neither did the comet assay and the MTT and NR tests in Vero cells. The comet assay showed an increase in genetic damage in the fish exposed to water samples collected in the middle and lower sections of the basin (Parobé, Campo Bom and Esteio when compared to the upper section of the basin (Santo Antônio da Patrulha. The results indicate contamination by genotoxic substances starting in the middle section of the SRB.

  1. Risk assessment of desertification using GIS in parts of Mond Basin, Southern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudi, M.; Asrari, E.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper attempts to evolve a new model by considering various indicators of different types of land degradation desertification, namely water erosion, soil salinity, vegetation degradation, and lowering of ground water table. the Mond river basin, located centrally to this zone, has been selected as a test area to assess the risk and kind of desertification. For this purpose two sub basins of the Payab and Quareh Aghaj have been chosen for detailed study. The thresholds for the severity classes of indicators have been established and then the hazards map for each indicator of types of desertification has been prepared in a GIS. The risk maps of water erosion, soil salinization, lowering of water table, vegetation degradation have been produced for each of the two sub basins. It was possible to distinguish the areas under actual risk from areas under potential risk of desertification types. Also areas under potential risk are classified to subclasses with different probability level to show a statistical picture of risk in future. (Author) 3 refs.

  2. Early evolution of the southern margin of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina: Tectono-stratigraphic implications for rift evolution and exploration of hydrocarbon plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Leandro; Bilmes, Andrés; Franzese, Juan R.; Veiga, Gonzalo D.; Hernández, Mariano; Muravchik, Martín

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived rift basins are characterized by a complex structural and tectonic evolution. They present significant lateral and vertical stratigraphic variations that determine diverse basin-patterns at different timing, scale and location. These issues cause difficulties to establish facies models, correlations and stratal stacking patterns of the fault-related stratigraphy, specially when exploration of hydrocarbon plays proceeds on the subsurface of a basin. The present case study corresponds to the rift-successions of the Neuquén Basin. This basin formed in response to continental extension that took place at the western margin of Gondwana during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic. A tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the initial successions of the southern part of the Neuquén Basin was carried out. Three syn-rift sequences were determined. These syn-rift sequences were located in different extensional depocentres during the rifting phases. The specific periods of rifting show distinctly different structural and stratigraphic styles: from non-volcanic to volcanic successions and/or from continental to marine sedimentation. The results were compared with surface and subsurface interpretations performed for other depocentres of the basin, devising an integrated rifting scheme for the whole basin. The more accepted tectono-stratigraphic scheme that assumes the deposits of the first marine transgression (Cuyo Cycle) as indicative of the onset of a post-rift phase is reconsidered. In the southern part of the basin, the marine deposits (lower Cuyo Cycle) were integrated into the syn-rift phase, implying the existence of different tectonic signatures for Cuyo Cycle along the basin. The rift climax becomes younger from north to south along the basin. The post-rift initiation followed the diachronic ending of the main syn-rift phase throughout the Neuquén Basin. Thus, initiation of the post-rift stage started in the north and proceeded towards the south, constituting a

  3. Geogenic arsenic and other trace elements in the shallow hydrogeologic system of Southern Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio; Wern, Hannes; Johnsson, Fredrick; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Thunvik, Roger; Quintanilla, Jorge; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Groundwater used as drinking water has elevated concentrations of arsenic and boron. • Sediments are potential sources of arsenic and boron in shallow groundwater. • Fe-oxides and hydroxides are important absorbents of arsenic. • Multiple geochemical processes drive mobilisation of arsenic in groundwater. -- Abstract: Environmental settings in the southern area of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian highlands, the Altiplano, have generated elevated amounts of arsenic (As) in the water. The area is characterised by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow and geologic formations of predominantly volcanic origin. The present study aimed at mapping the extent of the water contamination in the area and to investigate the geogenic sources and processes involved in the release of As to the groundwater. Ground- and surface-water samples were collected from 24 different sites, including drinking water wells and rivers, in the southern Poopó basin in two different field campaigns during the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed variable levels of As in shallow drinking water wells and average concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines value. Arsenic concentrations range from below 5.2 μg/L (the detection level) to 207 μg/L and averages 72 μg/L. Additionally, high boron (B) concentrations (average 1902 μg/L), and high salinity are further serious concerns for deteriorating the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Groundwater is predominantly of the Na–Cl–HCO 3 type or the Ca–Na–HCO 3 type with neutral or slightly alkaline pH and oxidising character. While farmers are seriously concerned about the water scarcity, and on a few occasions about salinity, there are no concerns about As and B present at levels exceeding the WHO guidelines, and causing negative long term effects on human health. Sediment samples from two soil profiles and a river bed along with fourteen rock samples were also collected and analysed

  4. Geogenic arsenic and other trace elements in the shallow hydrogeologic system of Southern Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio, E-mail: ormachea@kth.se [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Laboratorio de Hidroquímica, Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, 303, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Wern, Hannes; Johnsson, Fredrick; Bhattacharya, Prosun [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Sracek, Ondra [Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Thunvik, Roger [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Quintanilla, Jorge [Laboratorio de Hidroquímica, Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, 303, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Bundschuh, Jochen [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Groundwater used as drinking water has elevated concentrations of arsenic and boron. • Sediments are potential sources of arsenic and boron in shallow groundwater. • Fe-oxides and hydroxides are important absorbents of arsenic. • Multiple geochemical processes drive mobilisation of arsenic in groundwater. -- Abstract: Environmental settings in the southern area of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian highlands, the Altiplano, have generated elevated amounts of arsenic (As) in the water. The area is characterised by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow and geologic formations of predominantly volcanic origin. The present study aimed at mapping the extent of the water contamination in the area and to investigate the geogenic sources and processes involved in the release of As to the groundwater. Ground- and surface-water samples were collected from 24 different sites, including drinking water wells and rivers, in the southern Poopó basin in two different field campaigns during the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed variable levels of As in shallow drinking water wells and average concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines value. Arsenic concentrations range from below 5.2 μg/L (the detection level) to 207 μg/L and averages 72 μg/L. Additionally, high boron (B) concentrations (average 1902 μg/L), and high salinity are further serious concerns for deteriorating the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Groundwater is predominantly of the Na–Cl–HCO{sub 3} type or the Ca–Na–HCO{sub 3} type with neutral or slightly alkaline pH and oxidising character. While farmers are seriously concerned about the water scarcity, and on a few occasions about salinity, there are no concerns about As and B present at levels exceeding the WHO guidelines, and causing negative long term effects on human health. Sediment samples from two soil profiles and a river bed along with fourteen rock samples were also collected and

  5. Water resource planning and water quality in the Riu Cixerri Basin (Southern Sardinia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coni, M.; Ferralis, M; Madonia, P.; Sechi, C.; Verde, C.

    2000-01-01

    Present paper deals with a hydrogeological and biological study of the Riu Cixerri watershed (Southern Sardinia), carried out in order to evaluate volumes and quality of surface waters. Variables of hydrogeological balance have been derived by the use of a G.I.S. based method. The obtained results underline the low reliability of data used for past water resource planning and the good self purification capability of the Cixerri river [it

  6. Imaging 2D structures by the CSAMT method: application to the Pantano di S. Gregorio Magno faulted basin (Southern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troiano, Antonio; Di Giuseppe, Maria Giulia; Petrillo, Zaccaria; Patella, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    A controlled source audiofrequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) survey has been undertaken in the Pantano di San Gregorio Magno faulted basin, an earthquake prone area of Southern Apennines in Italy. A dataset from 11 soundings, distributed along a nearly N-S 780 m long profile, was acquired in the basin's easternmost area, where the fewest data are available as to the faulting shallow features. A preliminary skew analysis allowed a prevailing 2D nature of the dataset to be ascertained. Then, using a single-site multi-frequency approach, Dantzig's simplex algorithm was introduced for the first time to estimate the CSAMT decomposition parameters. The simplex algorithm, freely available online, proved to be fast and efficient. By this approach, the TM and TE mode field diagrams were obtained and a N35°W ± 10° 2D strike mean direction was estimated along the profile, in substantial agreement with the fault traces within the basin. A 2D inversion of the apparent resistivity and phase curves at seven almost noise-free sites distributed along the central portion of the profile was finally elaborated, reinforced by a sensitivity analysis, which allowed the best resolved portion of the model to be imaged from the first few meters of depth down to a mean depth of 300 m b.g.l. From the inverted section, the following features have been outlined: (i) a cover layer with resistivity in the range 3–30 Ω m ascribed to the Quaternary lacustrine clayey deposits filling the basin, down to an average depth of about 35 m b.g.l., underlain by a structure with resistivity over 50 Ω m up to about 600 Ω m, ascribed to the Mesozoic carbonate bedrock; (ii) a system of two normal faults within the carbonate basement, extending down to the maximum best resolved depth of the order of 300 m b.g.l.; (iii) two wedge-shaped domains separating the opposite blocks of the faults with resistivity ranging between 30 Ω m and 50 Ω m and horizontal extent of the order of some tens of metres, likely

  7. Origin of Boron and Brine Evolution in Saline Springs in the Nangqen Basin, Southern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-long Han

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nangqen Basin is a typical shearing-extensional basin situated in the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau. It contains abundant saline spring resources and abnormal trace element enrichments. The hydrochemical molar ratios (Na/Cl, B/Cl, and Br/Cl, H-O isotopes, and B isotopes of the saline spring were systematically measured to describe the evolution of brines and the origin of the boron. The sodium chloride coefficient of the water samples in this area is around 1.0 or slightly greater, which is characteristic of leached brines; the highest B/Cl value is 4.25 (greater than that of seawater. The Na/Cl, B/Cl, and Br/Cl values of the springs are clear indicators of a crustal origin. The δ18O values of the spring waters range from −12.88‰ to −16.05‰, and the δD values range from −100.91‰ to −132.98‰. Meanwhile the B content and B isotopes in the saline springs are in the ranges of 1.00 to 575.56 ppm and +3.55‰ to +29.59‰, respectively. It has been proven that the saline springs in the Nangqen Basin are a type of leached brine, suggesting that the saline springs have a terrestrial origin. The δ11B-B characteristics of the springs are similar to those observed in the Tibetan geothermal area, indicating that these two places have the same B source. Moreover, they have a crustal origin (marine carbonate rocks and volcanic rocks instead of a deep mantle source.

  8. Neogene paleoelevation of intermontane basins in a narrow, compressional mountain range, southern Central Andes of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Gregory D.; Giambiagi, Laura B.; Garzione, Carmala N.; Mahoney, J. Brian; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2014-11-01

    The topographic growth of mountain ranges at convergent margins results from the complex interaction between the motion of lithospheric plates, crustal shortening, rock uplift and exhumation. Constraints on the timing and magnitude of elevation change gleaned from isotopic archives preserved in sedimentary sequences provide insight into how these processes interact over different timescales to create topography and potentially decipher the impact of topography on atmospheric circulation and superposed exhumation. This study uses stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonates collected from seven different stratigraphic sections spanning different tectonic and topographic positions in the range today, to examine the middle to late Miocene history of elevation change in the central Andes thrust belt, which is located immediately to the south of the Altiplano-Puna Plateau, the world's second largest orogenic plateau. Paleoelevations are calculated using previously published local isotope-elevation gradients observed in modern rainfall and carbonate-formation temperatures determined from clumped isotope studies in modern soils. Calculated Neogene basin paleoelevations are between 1 km and 1.9 km for basins that today are located between 1500 and 3400 m elevation. Considering the modern elevation and δ18O values of precipitation at the sampling sites, three of the intermontane basins experienced surface uplift between the end of deposition during the late Miocene and present. The timing of elevation change cannot be linked to any documented episodes of large-magnitude crustal shortening. Paradoxically, the maximum inferred surface uplift in the core of the range is greatest where the crust is thinnest. The spatial pattern of surface uplift is best explained by eastward migration of a crustal root via ductile deformation in the lower crust and is not related to flat-slab subduction.

  9. Miocene Tectonics at the Pannonian - Carpathian Transition: The Bogdan Voda - Dragos Voda fault system, northern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, M.; Gröger, H.; Marin, M.; Schmid, S. M.; Fügenschuh, B.

    2003-04-01

    Tertiary tectonics in the Pannonian-Carpathian transition zone was dominated by opposed rotations of Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia, separated by the Mid-Hungarian lineament (MHL). While in the Pannonian basin the MHL is well known from geophysical and borehole data, its northeastern continuation remains a matter of discussion. Our field based study, located in the Maramures mountains of northern Romania, provides new kinematic data from the Bogdan Voda fault, a first order candidate for the prolongation of the MHL to the northeast. In the Burdigalian, the Pienides (unmetamorphic flysch nappes) were emplaced onto the autochthonous Paleogene flysch units. Kinematic data consistently indicate top to the SE-directed thrusting of the Pienides and selected imbrications in the autochthonous units. Between Langhian and Tortonian these thrust contacts were offset by the E-W trending Bogdan Voda fault and its eastern continuation, the Dragos-Voda fault. These two faults share a common polyphase history, at least since the Burdigalian. Kinematic data derived from mesoscale faults indicate sinistral strike-slip displacement, in good agreement with kinematics inferred from map view. The NE-SW trending Greben fault, another fault of regional importance, was coevally active as a normal fault. From stratigraphic arguments major activity of this fault system is constrained to the time interval between 16.4-10 Ma. While deformation is strongly concentrated in the sedimentary units, the easterly located basement units are affected by abundant minor faults of similar kinematics covering a wide area. These SW-NE trending strike slip faults feature a normal component and resemble an imbricate fan geometry. Since Burdigalian thrusting is consistently SE-directed on either side of the Bogdan-Dragos Voda fault, major post-Burdigalian differential rotations can be excluded for the northern and southern block respectively. Hydrothermal veins within Pannonian volcanic units are aligned along the

  10. Sedimentologic development of a Late Oligocene Miocene forearc embayment, Valdivia Basin Complex, southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, J. P.; Elgueta, Sara

    2000-01-01

    Deposition of Tertiary sediments in the southeastern part of the Valdivia Basin commenced during the Late Oligocene with the rapid incision of rivers draining the Palaeo-Coastal Range. Alluvial fans developing along the steep valley flanks joined gravelly braided streams transporting bedload to the coast. Tectonic and eustatic stability lasting into the Early Miocene subsequently allowed lateral erosion of the valley flanks and the development of extensive fluvial and estuarine peat swamps. This stable period was interrupted briefly by a volcanic eruption at 23.5 Ma. Shortly after 23 Ma, rapid uplift caused by an acceleration in plate convergence resulted in renewed erosion of the landscape, as reflected in the deposition of coarse river gravels. Basin subsidence and marine transgression proceeding up the river valleys subsequently formed still, deep embayments, occasionally disturbed by debris flows and turbidity currents originating on the steep, wooded valley flanks. At the upper limits of the inlets, bayhead deltas, tidal flats and beaches existed. In some areas, fan deltas prograded into the embayments, as reflected in the interfingering relationship between conglomerates and marine mudrocks. In the deeper parts of the embayments, the frequency of debris flows and turbidity currents increased markedly during periods of relative sea-level lowstand. The landscape was eventually inundated by continued subsidence and marine transgression, which lasted until a possibly eustatic sea-level fall in the early Tortonian.

  11. Consumptive Water Use Analysis of Upper Rio Grande Basin in Southern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Jonathan; Karunanithi, Arunprakash T

    2017-04-18

    Water resource management and governance at the river basin scale is critical for the sustainable development of rural agrarian regions in the West. This research applies a consumptive water use analysis, inspired by the Water Footprint methodology, to the Upper Rio Grande Basin (RGB) in south central Colorado. The region is characterized by water stress, high dessert conditions, declining land health, and a depleting water table. We utilize region specific data and models to analyze the consumptive water use of RGB. The study reveals that, on an average, RGB experiences three months of water shortage per year due to the unsustainable extraction of groundwater (GW). Our results show that agriculture accounts for 77% of overall water consumption and it relies heavily on an aquifer (about 50% of agricultural consumption) that is being depleted over time. We find that, even though potato cultivation provides the most efficient conversion of groundwater resources into economic value (m 3 GW/$) in this region, it relies predominantly (81%) on the aquifer for its water supply. However, cattle, another important agricultural commodity produced in the region, provides good economic value but also relies significantly less on the aquifer (30%) for water needs. The results from this paper are timely to the RGB community, which is currently in the process of developing strategies for sustainable water management.

  12. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  13. Four-thousand-year-old gold artifacts from the Lake Titicaca basin, southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldenderfer, Mark; Craig, Nathan M; Speakman, Robert J; Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel

    2008-04-01

    Artifacts of cold-hammered native gold have been discovered in a secure and undisturbed Terminal Archaic burial context at Jiskairumoko, a multicomponent Late Archaic-Early Formative period site in the southwestern Lake Titicaca basin, Peru. The burial dates to 3776 to 3690 carbon-14 years before the present (2155 to 1936 calendar years B.C.), making this the earliest worked gold recovered to date not only from the Andes, but from the Americas as well. This discovery lends support to the hypothesis that the earliest metalworking in the Andes was experimentation with native gold. The presence of gold in a society of low-level food producers undergoing social and economic transformations coincident with the onset of sedentary life is an indicator of possible early social inequality and aggrandizing behavior and further shows that hereditary elites and a societal capacity to create significant agricultural surpluses are not requisite for the emergence of metalworking traditions.

  14. Geology and geochemistry of endoroique basin case of Baghdad chott southern of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamini, Abdellah; Hacini, Messaoud

    2018-05-01

    Chott Baghdad is an inland saline lake of the type Na-(Mg)-CI-(SO4). It is situated in septontrional Algerian sahara basin (northern of Africa).these small depression is fall dawn about 31m below sea level. One of characteristic of this zone is dry climate in summer when temperature reach 45°C and decrease in winter 5 °C. Chott Baghdad irrigate with surface water zone, continental saharan aquifer and precipitated water. Evaporative lakes without river outlets are common and their chemical composition has been reported to exhibit a wide diversity (Hardie and Eugster, 1970; Eugster and Hardie, 1978). Geologics and gitologic characteristics of deposed evaporates in Baghdad basin, small closed lagon take place with brines rich in ions SO42 - , Ca2+, Na+, Cl- and under the effect of evaporation generate the rock salt and gypsum precipitation. The objective of this study is to simulate evolution the geochemical cycle inside of chott Baghdad, in addition try to interpreter behavior of major element which constructs this small depression. The most important thing is to calculate saturated index of evaporated mineral and compare it with DRX result. To reach this study, monthly brine samples were collected from January to December. Different analytic methods were used: physico-chemical analytic (PH, temperature and conductivity). In addition, spectrophotometer and titration, phlameemissions were done to calculate major element concentration. From this study, we can conclude that major element behavior (Na+, Cl-, SO42 - , Mg+, K+, HCO3-, and Ca2+) is as follow: Chlore and sodium was decreasing at end of geochemical cycle. In addition, Bicarbonate, potassium and magnesium have characteristic evolution, where they increase at the beginning of geochemical cycle till summer then decrease steadily at the end of cycle. Where us, Calcium is quit steady during one year cycle.

  15. Autumn crane migration and climate change in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Végvári Zsolt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Weekly counts of roosting cranes were conducted between 2006–2014 in all significant stopover sites of Common Cranes (Grus grus in Hungary, as an extension of the survey programme performed in Hortobágy National Park since 1994. As a result, I detected consistently asymmetrical migration phenologies in Hortobágy, indicating a superposition of several migration waves. Cranes used nearly 60 roost sites in Hortobágy with the largest ones situated in extensive fishponds. In contrast, cranes migrating in Körös-Maros National Park started to overwinter regularly, increasingly roosting in dry wetlands. In Kiskunság cranes tended to stage for shorter periods than in Körös-Maros, with the largest flocks to be observed in Lake Fehér of Szeged fishponds and additionally in a number of alkali lakes. Cranes observed in the Borsodi Mezőség region are considered satellite flocks staging in Hortobágy, as shown by irregular fluctuations.

  16. Salt exploitation in the later prehistory of the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Harding

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt is a necessity for humans and animals, today as in the ancient past. The ways in which salt was produced in ancient times vary from area to area, and could use briquetage, deep mining (as at Hallstatt, or the technique specific to Transylvania, based on wooden troughs, perforated in the base. How these troughs functioned is still uncertain. In the Iron Age a different technique was employed, involving deep shafts dug down to the rock salt surface. As well as technological considerations, it is crucial to understand the social and economic importance of salt in the ancient world.

  17. Distribution of natural radioactive elements in Western Carpathians granitoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katlovsky, V.

    1979-01-01

    The content of natural radioactive elements was determined using the 1024-channel analyser NTA-512 B with NaI(Tl) scintillators or with a Ge(Li) detector. The following groups of samples were processed: 1. granitoids, pegmatites and weathered rocks in the Small Carpathians; 2. acid magmatites of exotic rocks of the klippen zone; 3. granitoids of the Western Carpathians. The results of the measurements are summed up. (Ha)

  18. Simulation of Regional Ground-Water Flow in the Suwannee River Basin, Northern Florida and Southern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Suwannee River Basin covers a total of nearly 9,950 square miles in north-central Florida and southern Georgia. In Florida, the Suwannee River Basin accounts for 4,250 square miles of north-central Florida. Evaluating the impacts of increased development in the Suwannee River Basin requires a quantitative understanding of the boundary conditions, hydrogeologic framework and hydraulic properties of the Floridan aquifer system, and the dynamics of water exchanges between the Suwannee River and its tributaries and the Floridan aquifer system. Major rivers within the Suwannee River Basin are the Suwannee, Santa Fe, Alapaha, and Withlacoochee. Four rivers west of the Suwannee River are the Aucilla, the Econfina, the Fenholloway, and the Steinhatchee; all drain to the Gulf of Mexico. Perhaps the most notable aspect of the surface-water hydrology of the study area is that large areas east of the Suwannee River are devoid of channelized, surface drainage; consequently, most of the drainage occurs through the subsurface. The ground-water flow system underlying the study area plays a critical role in the overall hydrology of this region of Florida because of the dominance of subsurface drain-age, and because ground-water flow sustains the flow of the rivers and springs. Three principal hydrogeologic units are present in the study area: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system, and the Floridan aquifer system. The surficial aquifer system principally consists of unconsoli-dated to poorly indurated siliciclastic deposits. The intermediate aquifer system, which contains the intermediate confining unit, lies below the surficial aquifer system (where present), and generally consists of fine-grained, uncon-solidated deposits of quartz sand, silt, and clay with interbedded limestone of Miocene age. Regionally, the intermediate aquifer system and intermediate con-fining unit act as a confining unit that restricts the exchange of water between the over

  19. [US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal, fiscal year 1980:] Tectonics, seismicity, volcanism, and erosion rates in the southern Great Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, W.J.; Rogers, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective is to assess the potential for faulting, damaging earthquakes, recurrence of volcanism, and local acceleration of erosion in parts of the southern Great Basin. The following approaches are being used: (1) investigating the rate, intensity, and distribution of faulting during approximately the last 25 m.y., with emphasis on the last 10 m.y.; (2) monitoring and interpreting present seismicity; (3) studying the history of volcanism; and (4) evaluating past rates of erosion and deposition. Progress is reported

  20. Folded Basinal Compartments of the Southern Mongolian Borderland: A Structural Archive of the Final Consolidation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Cunningham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB records multiple Phanerozoic tectonic events involving consolidation of disparate terranes and cratonic blocks and subsequent reactivation of Eurasia’s continental interior. The final amalgamation of the CAOB terrane collage involved diachronous closure of the Permian-Triassic Solonker suture in northernmost China and the Jurassic Mongol-Okhotsk suture in northeast Mongolia and eastern Siberia. The distribution, style, and kinematics of deformation associated with these two terminal collision events is poorly documented in southern Mongolia and northernmost China because these regions were later tectonically overprinted by widespread Cretaceous basin and range-style crustal extension and Miocene-recent sinistral transpressional mountain building. These younger events structurally compartmentalized the crust into uplifted crystalline basement blocks and intermontane basins. Consequently, widespread Cretaceous and Late Cenozoic clastic sedimentary deposits overlie older Permian-Jurassic sedimentary rocks in most basinal areas and obscure the deformation record associated with Permian-Triassic Solonker and Jurassic Mongol-Okhotsk collisional suturing. In this report, satellite image mapping of basinal compartments that expose folded Permian-Jurassic sedimentary successions that are unconformably overlapped by Cretaceous-Quaternary clastic sediments is presented for remote and poorly studied regions of southern Mongolia and two areas of the Beishan. The largest folds are tens of kilometers in strike length, east-west trending, and reveal north-south Late Jurassic shortening (present coordinates. Late Jurassic fold vergence is dominantly northerly in the southern Gobi Altai within a regional-scale fold-and-thrust belt. Local refolding of older Permian north-south trending folds is also evident in some areas. The folds identified and mapped in this study provide new evidence for the regional distribution and

  1. Direct evidence of 1,900 years of indigenous silver production in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Carol A; Stanish, Charles; Scott, David A; Rehren, Thilo; Kuehner, Scott; Feathers, James K

    2009-10-13

    Archaeological excavations at a U-shaped pyramid in the northern Lake Titicaca Basin of Peru have documented a continuous 5-m-deep stratigraphic sequence of metalworking remains. The sequence begins in the first millennium AD and ends in the Spanish Colonial period ca. AD 1600. The earliest dates associated with silver production are 1960 + or - 40 BP (2-sigma cal. 40 BC to AD 120) and 1870 + or - 40 BP (2-sigma cal. AD 60 to 240) representing the oldest known silver smelting in South America. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of production debris indicate a complex, multistage, high temperature technology for producing silver throughout the archaeological sequence. These data hold significant theoretical implications including the following: (i) silver production occurred before the development of the first southern Andean state of Tiwanaku, (ii) the location and process of silverworking remained consistent for 1,500 years even though political control of the area cycled between expansionist states and smaller chiefly polities, and (iii) that U-shaped structures were the location of ceremonial, residential, and industrial activities.

  2. River-Basin Politics and the Rise of Ecological and Transnational Democracy in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Sneddon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, debates over 'deliberative', 'transnational' and 'ecological' democracy have proliferated, largely among scholars engaged in discussions of modernisation, globalisation and political identity. Within this broad context, scholars and practitioners of environmental governance have advanced the argument that a democratic society will produce a more environmentally conscious society. We want to make a volte-face of this argument and ask: to what extent does engagement with environmental politics and, specifically, water politics, contribute to processes of democratisation? After reviewing some of the contributions to debates over 'ecological' and 'transnational' democracy, we explore this question within the context of conflicts over river-basin development in Southeast Asia and southern Africa. We argue that there are multiple pathways to democratisation and that, in some cases, the environment as a political issue does constitute a significant element of democratisation. But notions of 'ecological' and 'transnational' democracy must embody how both 'environment' and 'the transnational', as mobilised by specific social movements in specific historical and geographical circumstances, are politically constructed.

  3. Soil response to long-term projections of extreme temperature and precipitation in the southern La Plata Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pántano, Vanesa C.; Penalba, Olga C.

    2017-12-01

    Projected changes were estimated considering the main variables which take part in soil-atmosphere interaction. The analysis was focused on the potential impact of these changes on soil hydric condition under extreme precipitation and evapotranspiration, using the combination of Global Climate Models (GCMs) and observational data. The region of study is the southern La Plata Basin that covers part of Argentine territory, where rainfed agriculture production is one of the most important economic activities. Monthly precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures were used from high quality-controlled observed data from 46 meteorological stations and the ensemble of seven CMIP5 GCMs in two periods: 1970-2005 and 2065-2100. Projected changes in monthly effective temperature and precipitation were analysed. These changes were combined with observed series for each probabilistic interval. The result was used as input variables for the water balance model in order to obtain consequent soil hydric condition (deficit or excess). Effective temperature and precipitation are expected to increase according to the projections of GCMs, with few exceptions. The analysis revealed increase (decrease) in the prevalence of evapotranspiration over precipitation, during spring (winter). Projections for autumn months show precipitation higher than potential evapotranspiration more frequently. Under dry extremes, the analysis revealed higher projected deficit conditions, impacting on crop development. On the other hand, under wet extremes, excess would reach higher values only in particular months. During December, projected increase in temperatures reduces the impact of extreme high precipitation but favours deficit conditions, affecting flower-fructification stage of summer crops.

  4. Hunter-gatherer adaptations and environmental change in the southern Great Basin: The evidence from Pahute and Rainier mesas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pippin, L.C.

    1998-06-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for fluctuations in past environments in the southern Great Basin and examines how these changes may have affected the strategies followed by past hunter and gatherers in their utilization of the resources available on a highland in this region. The evidence used to reconstruct past environments for the region include botanical remains from packrat middens, pollen spectra from lake and spring deposits, faunal remains recovered from archaeological and geologic contexts, tree-ring indices from trees located in sensitive (tree-line) environments, and eolian, alluvial and fluvial sediments deposited in a variety of contexts. Interpretations of past hunter and gatherer adaptive strategies are based on a sample of 1,311 archaeological sites recorded during preconstruction surveys on Pahute and Rainier mesas in advance of the US Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons testing program. Projectile point chronologies and available tree-ring, radiocarbon, thermoluminescence and obsidian hydration dates were used to assign these archaeological sites to specific periods of use.

  5. An organic geochemical correlation study of some Drmno depresssion crude oils (southern part of the Pannonian Basin, Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. VITOROVIC

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation of crude oils originating from the Sirakovo and Bradarac-Maljurevac localities (southern part of the Pannonian Basin are reported in this paper. The aim was to estimate the organic geochemical similarity of the crude oils from the Drmno (Kostolac depression oil fields. The nine selected samples originated from reservoir rocks of various depths. Reliable source and organic geochemical maturation parameters served as the basis for the correlation studies. The similar origin of the investigated Drmno depression crude oils was corroborated, characterized by a significant participation of terrestrial precursor biomass. They were shown to be of relatively low maturity and to have been formed during the earlier stages of the diagenet- ic-catagenetic sequence of processes leading to the formation of crude oils, most probably in source rocks ofTertiary age, corresponding to vitrinite reflectances between Ro = 0.70 % and Ro = 0.80 %. The crude oils from Bradarac-Maljurevac seemed to be somewhat less homogeneous with respect to organic geochemical parameters compared to Sirakovo crude oils.

  6. Historical Evolution of the Hydrological Functioning of the Old Lake Xochimilco, Southern Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, T.; Ruvalcaba, A.

    2012-12-01

    The lacustrian area of Xochimilco is one of the remnants of the old system of lakes located in the Basin of Mexico. After the Spanish conquest, began a series of actions including hydraulic-works that have changed the original landscape of this region. This region had important springs that for more than 50 years supplied water to the Mexico City. Since 1960, the excessive exploitation of the aquifer and urban growth in the region exhausted the springs. Using historical information we were able to characterize the major phenomena that have substantially changed the hydrogeological functioning of the region, in some more than 100 years. Currently, the exploitation of extraction wells has caused a gradual decrease in their static level and the existing remnant of the old lake is maintained with treated water. Observable effects are presented. The topographic gradient has been modified occurs subsidence and fractures are visible besides a severe reduction in the lake area which has been reduced to 15% of its original extent.

  7. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Furtado

    Full Text Available The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources.

  8. Late quaternary dynamics in the Madeira river basin, southern Amazonia (Brazil, as revealed by paleomorphological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericson H. Hayakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ancient drainage systems are being increasingly documented in the Amazon basin and their characterization is crucial for reconstructing fluvial evolution in this area. Fluvial morphologies, including elongate belts, are well preserved along the Madeira River. Digital Elevation Model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission favored the detection of these features even where they are covered by dense rainforest. These paleomorphologies are attributed to the shifting position of past tributaries of the Madeira River through avulsions. These radial paleodrainage networks produced fan-shaped morphologies that resemble distributary megafans. Distinguishing avulsive tributary systems from distributary megafans in the sedimentary record is challenging. Madeira´s paleodrainage reveals the superposition of tributary channels formed by multiple avulsions within a given time period, rather than downstream bifurcation of coexisting channels. Channel avulsion in this Amazonian area during the late Quaternary is related to tectonics due to features as: (i straight lineaments coincident with fault directions; (ii northeastward tilting of the terrain with Quaternary strata; and (iii several drainage anomalies, including frequent orthogonal drainage inflections. These characteristics altogether lead to propose that the radial paleodrainage present at the Madeira River margin results from successive avulsions of tributary channels over time due to tectonics.

  9. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Ranch Fire, Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Ranch Fire in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  10. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Slide and Grass Valley Fires, San Bernardino County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Slide and Grass Valley Fires in San Bernardino County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 3.50 inches (88.90 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  11. Tetrapod tracks in Permo–Triassic eolian beds of southern Brazil (Paraná Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Francischini

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetrapod tracks in eolianites are widespread in the fossil record since the late Paleozoic. Among these ichnofaunas, the ichnogenus Chelichnus is the most representative of the Permian tetrapod ichnological record of eolian deposits of Europe, North America and South America, where the Chelichnus Ichnofacies often occurs. In this contribution, we describe five sets of tracks (one of which is preserved in cross-section, representing the first occurrence of Dicynodontipus and Chelichnus in the “Pirambóia Formation” of southern Brazil. This unit represents a humid desert in southwestern Pangea and its lower and upper contacts lead us to consider its age as Lopingian–Induan. The five sets of tracks studied were compared with several ichnotaxa and body fossils with appendicular elements preserved, allowing us to attribute these tracks to dicynodonts and other indeterminate therapsids. Even though the “Pirambóia Formation” track record is sparse and sub-optimally preserved, it is an important key to better understand the occupation of arid environments by tetrapods across the Permo–Triassic boundary.

  12. Interannual variation of the South China Sea circulation during winter: intensified in the southern basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Tingting; Xue, Huijie; Wang, Dongxiao; Geng, Bingxu; Zeng, Lili; Liu, Qinyan; Chen, Ju; He, Yunkai

    2018-05-01

    Surface geostrophic current derived from altimetry remote sensing data, and current profiles observed from in-situ Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) mooring in the northern South China Sea (NSCS) and southern South China Sea (SSCS) are utilized to study the kinetic and energetic interannual variability of the circulation in the South China Sea (SCS) during winter. Results reveal a more significant interannual variation of the circulation and water mass properties in the SSCS than that in the NSCS. Composite ananlysis shows a significantly reduced western boundary current (WBC) and a closed cyclonic eddy in the SSCS at the mature phase of El Niño event, but a strong WBC and an unclosed cyclonic circulation in winter at normal or La Niña years. The SST is warmer while the subsurface water is colder and fresher in the mature phase of El Niño event than that in the normal or La Niña years in the SSCS. Numerical experiments and energy analysis suggest that both local and remote wind stress change are important for the interannual variation in the SSCS, remote wind forcing and Kuroshio intrusion affect the circulation and water mass properties in the SSCS through WBC advection.

  13. Amazon river basin evapotranspiration and its influence on the rainfall in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folegatti, M. V.; Wolff, W.

    2017-12-01

    Amazon river basin (ARB) presents a positive water balance, i.e. the precipitation is higher than evapotranspiration. Regarding the regional circulation, ARB evapotranspiration represents an important source of humidity for the South of Brazil. Thus, the aim of this work is to answer the question: how much is the correlation between ARB evapotranspiration and rainfall in South of Brazil? The shapefiles data of ARB and countries/states boundary were obtained through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), respectively. According to rasters data, the precipitation was obtained from study of Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) for images of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), under code MOD16A2, whereas rasters data for evapotranspiration were obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), under code 3B43_V7. The products MOD16A2 and 3B43_V7 have a respective spatial resolution of 0.5º and 0.25º, and a monthly temporal resolution from January/2000 to December/2014. For ARB and South region of Brazil was calculated the mean evapotranspiration and mean precipitation through the pixels within of the respective polygons. To answer the question of this work was performed the cross-correlation analysis between these time series. We observed the highest value for the lag that corresponds the begin of spring (October), being 0.3 approximately. As a result, the mean precipitation on South region of Brazil during spring and summer was in the order of 15% to 30 %, explained by ARB evapotranspiration. For this reason, the maintenance of ARB is extremely important for water resource grant in South of Brazil.

  14. Simulation-optimization aids in resolving water conflict: Temecula Basin, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Lear, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The productive agricultural areas of Pajaro Valley, California have exclusively relied on ground water from coastal aquifers in central Monterey Bay. As part of the Basin Management Plan (BMP), the Pajaro Valley Water Management Agency (PVWMA) is developing additional local supplies to replace coastal pumpage, which is causing seawater intrusion. The BMP includes an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) system, which captures and stores local winter runoff, and supplies it to growers later in the growing season in lieu of ground-water pumpage. A Coastal Distribution System (CDS) distributes water from the ASR and other supplemental sources. A detailed model of the Pajaro Valley is being used to simulate the coupled supply and demand components of irrigated agriculture from 1963 to 2006. Recent upgrades to the Farm Process in MODFLOW (MF2K-FMP) allow simulating the effects of ASR deliveries and reduced pumping for farms in subregions connected to the CDS. The BMP includes a hierarchy of monthly supply alternatives, including a recovery well field around the ASR system, a supplemental wellfield, and onsite farm supply wells. The hierarchy of delivery requirements is used by MF2K-FMP to estimate the effects of these deliveries on coastal ground-water pumpage and recovery of water levels. This integrated approach can be used to assess the effectiveness of the BMP under variable climatic conditions, and to test the impacts of more complete subscription by coastal farmers to the CDS deliveries. The model will help managers assess the effects of new BMP components to further reduce pumpage and seawater intrusion.

  15. Regional hydrology of the Blanding-Durango area, southern Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, M.S. Jr.; Thordarson, W.; Oatfield, W.J.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Rueger, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    Principal findings of this study that are pertinent to an assessment of suitability of the hydrogeologic systems to store and contain radioactive waste in salt anticlines of adjacent areas are: water in the upper ground-water flow system discharges to the San Juan River - a major tributary of the Colorado River. Discharge of water from the upper aquifer system to streambed channels of the San Juan River and its tributaries during low-flow periods primarily is through evapotranspiration from areas on flood plains and maintenance of streamflow; the lower ground-water system does not have known recharge or discharge areas within the study area; subsurface inflow to this system comes from recharge areas located north and northeast of the study area; the upper and lower ground-water systems are separated regionally by thick salt deposits in the Blanding-Durango study area of the Paradox basin; potential exists in mountainous areas for downward leakage between the upper and lower ground-water systems, where salt deposits are thin, absent, or faulted; no brines were found in this study area with outflow to the biosphere; water in the upper ground-water system generally is fresh. Water in the lower ground-water system generally is brackish or saline; and ground-water flow disruptions by contiguous faults probably are common in the upper ground-water system. These disruptions of flow are not apparent in the lower ground-water system, perhaps because available hydrologic data for the lower ground-water system are scarce. The above major findings do not preclude the potential for waste storage in salt; however, they do not allow the prediction of detailed ground-water flow rates and directions through this area. 55 references, 13 figures, 15 tables

  16. Monitoring and modelling of landslide and debris flow impact on transport and building infrasructure in the Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanik, Olena; Shevchuk, Viktor; Yahno, Evgen

    2016-04-01

    Mechanisms and factors of formation of landslide and debris flow processes are examined in terms of model objects in the Carpathians. The study area is within Eastern Carpathians and Transcarpathian depression (Tisa river basin). There were investigated more than 220 stabilized and active landslides. The analysis of water-gravitational processes in this region with complex heterogeneous geological structure confirmed the priority nature of occurrence of structural landslides in rheologically different geological environments, and made it possible to create a new classification of structural landslides and conditions of their formation with the decisive influence of destructive zones. This classification is the basis for constructing geological, physical and mathematical models of landslide slopes, and subsequent modeling of the landslide hazard based on the determination of the stress-strain state of slopes. Under the proposed mathematical model, the examined phenomenon is described as thermoelastic-plastic equilibrium of the isotropic matrix under effect of applied mass (gravitational field of the Earth) and surface efforts, inhomogeneous stationary temperature field. In addition, it is assumed that the Young modulus at each point of the matrix depends on the water saturation. Debris and mudflows in the Carpathians have a stage character, non-stationary and avalanche movements. The territory is prone to be affected by debris and mudflows, due to the geological, geomorphological and climatic conditions. Therefore the main conditions of the mudflow formation are as follows: the presence of the rock destruction products which could be a solid phase of debris mudflow; presence of the enough quantity of the rainfall runoff for the unconsolidated material removal; ruggedness of relief that provides simultaneous movement of the big values of the water-soil mass with the big velocities. The algorithm calculating the mudflow impact on infrastructure objects in Carpathians

  17. Surface waves tomography and non-linear inversion in the southeast Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raykova, R.B.; Panza, G.F.

    2005-11-01

    A set of shear-wave velocity models of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in the southeast Carpathians is determined by the non-linear inversion of surface wave group velocity data, obtained from a tomographic analysis. The local dispersion curves are assembled for the period range 7 s - 150 s, combining regional group velocity measurements and published global Rayleigh wave dispersion data. The lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity structure is reliably reconstructed to depths of about 250 km. The thickness of the lithosphere in the region varies from about 120 km to 250 km and the depth of the asthenosphere between 150 km and 250 km. Mantle seismicity concentrates where the high velocity lid is detected just below the Moho. The obtained results are in agreement with recent seismic refraction, receiver function, and travel time P-wave tomography investigations in the region. The similarity among the results obtained from different kinds of structural investigations (including the present work) highlights some new features of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in southeast Carpathians, as the relatively thin crust under Transylvania basin and Vrancea zone. (author)

  18. Architecture of a low-angle normal fault zone, southern Basin and Range (SE California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, J. A.; John, B. E.; Campbell-Stone, E.; Stunitz, H.; Heilbronner, R.; Pec, M.

    2009-12-01

    Exposures of the denuded Cenozoic detachment fault system in the southern Sacramento Mountains (SE California) delimit the architecture of a regional low-angle normal fault, and highlight the evolution of these enigmatic faults. The fault was initiated ~23 Ma in quartzo-feldspathic basement gneiss and granitoids at a low-angle (2km, and amplitudes up to 100m. These corrugations are continuous along their hinges for up to 3.6 km. Damage zone fracture intensity varies both laterally, and perpendicular to the fault plane (over an area of 25km2), decreasing with depth in the footwall, and varies as a function of lithology and proximity to corrugation walls. Deformation is concentrated into narrow damage zones (100m) are found in areas where low-fracture intensity horses are corralled by sub-horizontal zones of cataclasite (up to 8m) and thick zones of epidote (up to 20cm) and silica-rich alteration (up to 1m). Sub-vertical shear and extension fractures, and sub-horizontal shear fractures/zones dominate the NE side of the core complex. In all cases, sub-vertical fractures verge into or are truncated by low-angle fractures that dominate the top of the damage zone. These low-angle fractures have an antithetic dip to the detachment fault plane. Some sub-vertical fractures become curviplanar close to the fault, where they are folded into parallelism with the sub-horizontal fault surface in the direction of transport. These field data, corroborated by ongoing microstructural analyses, indicate fault activity at a low angle accommodated by a variety of deformation mechanisms dependent on lithology, timing, fluid flow, and fault morphology.

  19. Detrital events and hydroclimate variability in the Romanian Carpathians during the mid-to-late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Jack; Ersek, Vasile; Veres, Daniel; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    The Romanian Carpathians are located at the confluence of three major atmospheric pressure fields: the North Atlantic, the Mediterranean and the Siberian. Despite its importance for understanding past human impact and climate change, high-resolution palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of Holocene hydroclimate variability, and in particular records of extreme precipitation events in the area, are rare. Here we present a 7500-year-long high-resolution record of past climatic change and human impact recorded in a peatbog from the Southern Carpathians, integrating palynological, geochemical and sedimentological proxies. Natural climate fluctuations appear to be dominant until 4500 years before present (yr BP), followed by increasing importance of human impact. Sedimentological and geochemical analyses document regular minerogenic deposition within the bog, linked to periods of high precipitation. Such minerogenic depositional events began 4000 yr BP, with increased depositional rates during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and during periods of societal upheaval (e.g. the Roman conquest of Dacia). The timing of minerogenic events appears to indicate a teleconnection between major shifts in North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and hydroclimate variability in southeastern Europe, with increased minerogenic deposition correlating to low NAO index values. By linking the minerogenic deposition to precipitation variability, we state that this link persists throughout the mid-to-late Holocene.

  20. Assessing sedimentation rates at Usumacinta and Grijalva river basin (Southern Mexico) using OSL and suspended sediment load analysis: A study from the Maya Classic Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Salinas, E.; Castillo, M.; Sanderson, D.; Kinnaird, T.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

    2013-12-01

    Studying sedimentation rates on floodplains is key to understanding environmental changes occurred through time in river basins. The Usumacinta and Grijalva rivers flow most of their travel through the southern part of Mexico, forming a large river basin, crossing the states of Chiapas and Tabasco. The Usumacinta-Grijalva River Basin is within the 10 major rivers of North America, having a basin area of ~112 550 km2. We use the OSL technique for dating two sediment profiles and for obtaining luminescence signals in several sediment profiles located in the streambanks of the main trunk of the Usumacinta and Grijalva rivers. We also use mean annual values of suspended sediment load spanning ~50 years to calculate the sedimentation rates. Our OSL dating results start from the 4th Century, when the Maya Civilization was at its peak during the Classic Period. Sedimentation rates show a notable increase at the end of the 19th Century. The increase of the sedimentation rates seems to be related to changes in land uses in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Altos de Chiapas, based on deforestation and land clearing for developing new agrarian and pastoral activities. We conclude that the major environmental change in the basin of the Usumacinta and Grijalva Rivers since the Maya Classic Period was generated since the last Century as a result of an intense anthropogenic disturbance of mountain rain forest in Chiapas.

  1. Estimating background denudation rates and delivery of landslide sediment from a time series of 10Be concentrations in landslide dominated basins in the southern Central Range of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; Willett, S.; West, A. J.; Dadson, S. J.; Hovius, N.; Christl, M.; Shyu, J. B. H.

    2017-12-01

    The southern Central Range of Taiwan is located at a tectonic transition zone between an oceanic subduction zone and the arc-continent collision forming the Taiwan orogen. The rapidly evolving tectonic setting, tropical climate and frequent typhoons result in a complex uplift pattern, transient landscapes and extensive landslides. For this study, we obtained a series of 10Be concentrations over the last decade for 13 major drainage basins in the southern Central Range, bracketing the occurrence of a major typhoon, Morakot, which hit Taiwan in 2009 and triggered thousands of landslides. This time series allows us to simultaneously estimate the background erosion rate and assess the impact of Morakot-triggered landslides on 10Be concentrations. The time series of 10Be concentrations shows temporally lower concentrations of 10Be indicating dilution following the Morakot event in most basins. The diluted 10Be concentrations imply erosion rates up to three times higher than the lowest measured rates in the same basins. We constructed a simple sediment-mixing model parameterized by a sudden input of sediment supplied from landslides superimposed on a background denudation rate. This model was calibrated to measured landslide inventories and the series of 10Be data. We obtain a range of permissible background erosion rate and fraction of landslide sediments over time for each basin. The inferred background erosion rate reveals a northward increasing trend, reflecting the initial stage of the mountain building and indicating tectonic forcing is the main driver of the landscape evolution in the southern Central Range. The temporal changes in fraction of landslide sediments show that the available landslide material generated by the Morakot event is decreasing over time with a timescale of several years.

  2. Jurassic onychites (arm hooks) from squid-like cephalopods from the Wessex Basin, southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Malcolm; Hughes, Zoe; Page, Kevin; Price, Gregory; Smart, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    of hook that are often arranged in pairs. Using the abundance of material available to us from the Wessex Basin, we are attempting to identify the host animals wherever this is possible. If this can be established then it may be possible, using micropalaeontological samples, to determine the stratigraphical and palaeoecological ranges of some of the host macro-fossils, many of which are otherwise rarely preserved outside known lagerstätte. A recently described specimen (Bristol Museum and Art Gallery, BRMSG Ce12385) of only the hooks associated with 4 arms can, therefore, be attributed to the Clarkeiteuthis lineage. Coming from the Lower Pliensbachian of the Dorset Coast this occurrence falls in the stratigraphical 'gap' between the known taxa of the Sinemurian (Clarkeiteuthis montefiore) and the Toarcian (Clarkeiteuthis conocauda). This specimen does, however, show paired hooks of different types, similar to another specimen in Manchester University Museum: this is not seen in C. conocauda and places the specimen in C. montefiore or a yet undescribed species of Clarkeiteuthis. Engeser, T.S. & Clarke, M.R. 1988. Cephalopod hooks, both recent and fossil. In: Clarke, M.R. & Trueman, E.R. (eds), Palaeontology and Neontology of Cephalopods, vol. 12,; Wilbur, K.M. (Ed.), The Mollusca, Academic press Inc., London, 133-151. Hart, M.B. & Hutchinson, D. in press. A newly described 'clarkeiteuthid' from the Lias Group of Dorset. Geoscience in South-West England. Hart, M.B., De Jonghe, A., Page, K.N., Price, G.D. & Smart, C.W. 2016. Exceptional accumulations of statoliths in association with the Christian Malford lagerstätte (Callovian, Jurassic) in Wiltshire, United Kingdom. Palaios, 31, 203-220. Kulicki, C. & Szaniawski, H. 1972. Cephalopod arm hooks from the Jurassic of Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 17, 379-419. Wilby, P.R., Hudson, J.D., Clements, R.G. & Hollingworth, N.T.J. 2004. Taphonomy and origin of an accumulate of soft-bodied cephalopods in the Oxford Clay

  3. A Study of the Connection Among Basin-Fill Aquifers, Carbonate-Rock Aquifers, and Surface-Water Resources in Southern Snake Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The Secretary of the Interior through the Southern Nevada Public Lands Management Act approved funding for research to improve understanding of hydrologic systems that sustain numerous water-dependent ecosystems on Federal lands in Snake Valley, Nevada. Some of the streams and spring-discharge areas in and adjacent to Great Basin National Park have been identified as susceptible to ground-water withdrawals (Elliott and others, 2006) and research has shown a high potential for ground-water flow from southern Spring Valley into southern Snake Valley through carbonate rocks that outcrop along a low topographic divide known as the Limestone Hills (Welch and others, 2007). Comprehensive geologic, hydrologic, and chemical information will be collected and analyzed to assess the hydraulic connection between basin-fill aquifers and surface-water resources, water-dependent ecological features, and the regional carbonate-rock aquifer, the known source of many high-discharge springs. Understanding these connections is important because proposed projects to pump and export ground water from Spring and Snake Valleys in Nevada may result in unintended capture of water currently supplying springs, streams, wetlands, limestone caves, and other biologically sensitive areas (fig. 1). The methods that will be used in this study may be transferable to other areas in the Great Basin. The National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and U.S. Forest Service submitted the proposal for funding this research to facilitate science-based land management. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources and Geologic Disciplines, and the University of Nevada, Reno, will accomplish four research elements through comprehensive data collection and analysis that are concentrated in two distinct areas on the eastern and southern flanks of the Snake Range (fig. 2). The projected time line for this research is from July 2008 through September 2011.

  4. Controls on large landslide distribution and implications for the geomorphic evolution of the southern interior Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, E.B.; Anderson, S.W.; Mills-Novoa, M.; House, P.K.; Ely, L.

    2011-01-01

    Large landslides (>0.1 km2) are important agents of geomorphic change. While most common in rugged mountain ranges, large landslides can also be widespread in relatively low-relief (several 100 m) terrain, where their distribution has been relatively little studied. A fuller understanding of the role of large landslides in landscape evolution requires addressing this gap, since the distribution of large landslides may affect broad regions through interactions with channel processes, and since the dominant controls on landslide distribution might be expected to vary with tectonic setting. We documented >400 landslides between 0.1 and ~40 km2 across ~140,000 km2 of eastern Oregon, in the semiarid, southern interior Columbia River basin. The mapped landslides cluster in a NW-SE-trending band that is 50-100 km wide. Landslides predominantly occur where even modest local relief (~100 m) exists near key contacts between weak sedimentary or volcaniclastic rock and coherent cap rock. Fault density exerts no control on landslide distribution, while ~10% of mapped landslides cluster within 3-10 km of mapped fold axes. Landslide occurrence is curtailed to the NE by thick packages of coherent basalt and to the SW by limited local relief. Our results suggest that future mass movements will localize in areas stratigraphically preconditioned for landsliding by a geologic history of fluviolacustrine and volcaniclastic sedimentation and episodic capping by coherent lava flows. In such areas, episodic landsliding may persist for hundreds of thousands of years or more, producing valley wall slopes of ~7??-13?? and impacting local channels with an evolving array of mass movement styles. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  5. Hydrologic Evaluation of Integrated Multi-satellite Retrivals for GPM over Nanliu River Basin in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenqing, L.; Sheng, C.; Chaoying, H.

    2017-12-01

    The core satellite of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched on 27 February2014 with two core sensors dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and microwave imager (GMI). The algorithm of Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission (IMERG) blends the advantages of currently most popular satellite-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) algorithms, i.e. TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) ADDIN EN.CITE ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA , Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS).Therefore, IMERG is deemed to be the state-of-art precipitation product with high spatio-temporal resolution of 0.1°/30min. The real-time and post real-time IMERG products are now available online at https://stormpps.gsfc.nasa.gov/storm. Early studies about assessment of IMERG with gauge observations or analysis products show that the current version GPM Day-1 product IMERG demonstrates promising performance over China [1], Europe [2], and United States [3]. However, few studies are found to study the IMERG' potentials of hydrologic utility.In this study, the real-time and final run post real-time IMERG products are hydrologically evaluated with gauge analysis product as reference over Nanliu River basin (Fig.1) in Southern China since March 2014 to February 2017 with Xinanjiang model. Statistics metrics Relative Bias (RB), Root-Mean-Squared Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CC), Probability Of Detection (POD), False Alarm Ratio (FAR), Critical Success Index (CSI), and Nash-Sutcliffe (NSCE) index will be used to compare the stream flow simulated with IMERG to the observed stream flow. This timely hydrologic evaluation is expected to offer insights into IMERG' potentials in hydrologic utility and thus provide useful feedback to the IMERG algorithm developers and

  6. A high resolution magnetostratigraphic profile across the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Southern Sydney Basin, eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belica, M. E.; Tohver, E.; Nicoll, R.; Denyszyn, S. W.; Pisarevsky, S.; George, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) is associated with the largest mass extinction in Phanerozoic geologic history. Despite several decades of intense study, there is ongoing debate regarding the exact timing of extinction and the global correlation of marine and terrestrial P-T sections. The terrestrial record is hampered by a lack of index fossils; however, magnetostratigraphy offers an opportunity for correlation because it relies on the global synchronicity of magnetic reversals. A magnetostratigraphic profile across the Permian-Triassic boundary has been obtained from a stratigraphically continuous terrestrial section in the Southern Sydney Basin of eastern Australia. The 60 m section is located within the Narrabeen Group, which consists of fluvial to lacustrine sandstones and mudstones. Paleomagnetic samples were collected at one meter intervals to determine a detailed reversal record. Samples were stepwise thermally demagnetized to isolate a primary remanence, and magnetic susceptibility was measured in the field at 30 cm intervals with values ranging from -0.047-2.50 (10-3 SI units). Three normal and three reverse magnetozones were detected after removal of a low temperature overprint, and the results show good agreement with the Global Magnetic Polarity Timescale as well as marine Permian-Triassic sections where the PTB is well constrained. Furthermore, a reverse polarity subchron has been identified within the normal magnetozone spanning the PTB similar to results published from the Netherlands and China. The magnetic stratigraphy suggests that the Narrabeen Group was deposited during the late Changhsingian to early Induan, and provides a revised placement of the PTB in the lower Wombarra Claystone. Integration of the magnetostratigraphy with existing isotopic datasets suggests that the terrestrial extinction in eastern Australia occurred 7.5 m below the PTB in the Changhsingian Coalcliff Sandstone. A tuff within a coal seam underlying the Coalcliff

  7. Diagenesis and reservoir quality of the Lower Cretaceous Quantou Formation tight sandstones in the southern Songliao Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Kelai; Cao, Yingchang; Jahren, Jens; Zhu, Rukai; Bjørlykke, Knut; Haile, Beyene Girma; Zheng, Lijing; Hellevang, Helge

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Quantou Formation in the southern Songliao Basin is the typical tight oil sandstone in China. For effective exploration, appraisal and production from such a tight oil sandstone, the diagenesis and reservoir quality must be thoroughly studied first. The tight oil sandstone has been examined by a variety of methods, including core and thin section observation, XRD, SEM, CL, fluorescence, electron probing analysis, fluid inclusion and isotope testing and quantitative determination of reservoir properties. The sandstones are mostly lithic arkoses and feldspathic litharenites with fine to medium grain size and moderate to good sorting. The sandstones are dominated by feldspar, quartz, and volcanic rock fragments showing various stages of disintegration. The reservoir properties are quite poor, with low porosity (average 8.54%) and permeability (average 0.493 mD), small pore-throat radius (average 0.206 μm) and high displacement pressure (mostly higher than 1 MPa). The tight sandstone reservoirs have undergone significant diagenetic alterations such as compaction, feldspar dissolution, quartz cementation, carbonate cementation (mainly ferrocalcite and ankerite) and clay mineral alteration. As to the onset time, the oil emplacement was prior to the carbonate cementation but posterior to the quartz cementation and feldspar dissolution. The smectite to illite reaction and pressure solution at stylolites provide a most important silica sources for quartz cementation. Carbonate cements increase towards interbedded mudstones. Mechanical compaction has played a more important role than cementation in destroying the reservoir quality of the K1q4 sandstone reservoirs. Mixed-layer illite/smectite and illite reduced the porosity and permeability significantly, while chlorite preserved the porosity and permeability since it tends to be oil wet so that later carbonate cementation can be inhibited to some extent. It is likely that the oil emplacement occurred

  8. When the waves of European Neolithization met: first paleogenetic evidence from early farmers in the southern Paris Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïté Rivollat

    Full Text Available An intense debate concerning the nature and mode of Neolithic transition in Europe has long received much attention. Recent publications of paleogenetic analyses focusing on ancient European farmers from Central Europe or the Iberian Peninsula have greatly contributed to this debate, providing arguments in favor of major migrations accompanying European Neolithization and highlighting noticeable genetic differentiation between farmers associated with two archaeologically defined migration routes: the Danube valley and the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of the present study was to fill a gap with the first paleogenetic data of Neolithic settlers from a region (France where the two great currents came into both direct and indirect contact with each other. To this end, we analyzed the Gurgy 'Les Noisats' group, an Early/Middle Neolithic necropolis in the southern part of the Paris Basin. Interestingly, the archaeological record from this region highlighted a clear cultural influence from the Danubian cultural sphere but also notes exchanges with the Mediterranean cultural area. To unravel the processes implied in these cultural exchanges, we analyzed 102 individuals and obtained the largest Neolithic mitochondrial gene pool so far (39 HVS-I mitochondrial sequences and haplogroups for 55 individuals from a single archaeological site from the Early/Middle Neolithic period. Pairwise FST values, haplogroup frequencies and shared informative haplotypes were calculated and compared with ancient and modern European and Near Eastern populations. These descriptive analyses provided patterns resulting from different evolutionary scenarios; however, the archaeological data available for the region suggest that the Gurgy group was formed through equivalent genetic contributions of farmer descendants from the Danubian and Mediterranean Neolithization waves. However, these results, that would constitute the most ancient genetic evidence of admixture between farmers

  9. [Spatial variation of soil carbon and stable isotopes in the southern margin desert of Junggar Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Xu, Wen Qiang; Xu, Hua Jun; Feng, Yi Xing; Li, Chao Fan

    2017-07-18

    The southern margin desert of Junggar Basin in the central arid region of Asia was selec-ted as the study area. To gain insight into the distribution characteristic of stable carbon isotope and the relationship between the change of soil carbon and the distance to oasis of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC), three belt transects were set according to the distance between the desert and the oasis in edge, middle and hinterland of the desert respectively, and collected the soil profile samples with depth of 2 m. The results indicated that the SOC content reduced with the soil depth, and the variation with the distance to oasis was the edge> the middle> the hinterland. The δ 13 C value of SOC varied in the range of -21.92‰ to -17.41‰, and decreased with the depth; the range in the middle and hinterland was -25.20‰ to -19.30‰, and increased then declined with the depth. Therefore, we could infer that the C3 plants played a dominant role in the central of desert, and had experienced the succession from C3 plants to C4 plants. The average content of SIC was 38.98 g·kg -1 in the edge of desert, which was about 6.01 folds as large as the content in the hinterland. This indicated that a large number of SIC with 0-2 m depth were clustered in the edge of the desert. The δ 13 C value of SIC increased first then decreased with the soil depth, and enriched in the bottom layer, which was mainly affected by the original carbonate content and soil carbon dioxide.

  10. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. performance of treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of passive and semi-passive treatment systems were constructed by state and local agencies to neutralize acidic mine drainage (AMD) and reduce the transport of dissolved metals in the upper Swatara Creek Basin in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield in eastern Pennsylvania. To evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment systems installed during 1995–2001, the US Geological Survey collected water-quality data at upstream and downstream locations relative to each system eight or more times annually for a minimum of 3 years at each site during 1996–2007. Performance was normalized among treatment types by dividing the acid load removed by the size of the treatment system. For the limestone sand, open limestone channel, oxic limestone drain, anoxic limestone drain (ALD), and limestone diversion well treatment systems, the size was indicated by the total mass of limestone; for the aerobic wetland systems, the size was indicated by the total surface area of ponds and wetlands. Additionally, the approximate cost per tonne of acid treated over an assumed service life of 20 years was computed. On the basis of these performance metrics, the limestone sand, ALD, oxic limestone drain, and limestone diversion wells had similar ranges of acid-removal efficiency and cost efficiency. However, the open limestone channel had lower removal efficiency and higher cost per ton of acid treated. The wetlands effectively attenuated metals transport but were relatively expensive considering metrics that evaluated acid removal and cost efficiency. Although the water-quality data indicated that all treatments reduced the acidity load from AMD, the ALD was most effective at producing near-neutral pH and attenuating acidity and dissolved metals. The diversion wells were effective at removing acidity and increasing pH of downstream water and exhibited unique potential to treat moderate to high flows associated with storm flow conditions.

  11. Comparison of peak discharges among sites with and without valley fills for the July 8-9, 2001 flood in the headwaters of Clear Fork, Coal River basin, mountaintop coal-mining region, southern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Brogan, Freddie D.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of mountaintop-removal mining practices on the peak discharges of streams were investigated in six small drainage basins within a 7-square-mile area in southern West Virginia. Two of the small basins had reclaimed valley fills, one basin had reclaimed and unreclaimed valley fills, and three basins did not have valley fills. Indirect measurements of peak discharge for the flood of July 8-9, 2001, were made at six sites on streams draining the small basins. The sites without valley fills had peak discharges with 10- to 25-year recurrence intervals, indicating that rainfall intensities and totals varied among the study basins. The flood-recurrence intervals for the three basins with valley fills were determined as though the peak discharges were those from rural streams without the influence of valley fills, and ranged from less than 2 years to more than 100 years.

  12. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy from outcrops of the Kribi-Campo sub-basin: Lower Mundeck Formation (Lower Cretaceous, southern Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntamak-Nida, Marie Joseph; Bourquin, Sylvie; Makong, Jean-Claude; Baudin, François; Mpesse, Jean Engelbert; Ngouem, Christophe Itjoko; Komguem, Paul Bertrand; Abolo, Guy Martin

    2010-08-01

    The Kribi-Campo sub-basin is composed of an Early to Mid Cretaceous series from West Africa's Atlantic coast and is located in southern Cameroon in the Central African equatorial rain forest. It is the smallest coastal basin in Cameroon and forms the southern part of the Douala/Kribi-Campo basin known as Douala basin ( s.l.). Until now, no detailed sedimentological studies have been carried out on the outcrops of this basin located in the Campo area. The aim of this study was to characterise the depositional environments, vertical evolution and tectonic context of these Lower Cretaceous series in order to make a comparison with adjacent basins and replace them in the geodynamic context. Facies analysis of the Lower Mundeck Formation (Lower Cretaceous) indicates the presence of four major, interfigered facies associations, that are inferred to represent elements of an alluvial to lacustrine-fan delta system. The clast lithologies suggest proximity of relief supplying coarse-grained sediment during the deposition of the Lower Mundeck Formation at Campo. The general dip and direction of the bedding is approximately 10°-12°NW, which also corresponds to the orientation of the foliations in the underlying metamorphic basement. The main sedimentary succession is characterised by a major retrogradational/progradational cycle of Late Aptian age, evaluated at about 3 Ma, with a well-developed progradational trend characterised by fluctuations of the recognised depositional environments. Fluctuations in lake level and sediment supply were possibly controlled by active faults at the basin margin, although climatic changes may have also played a role. The consistently W-WNW palaeoflow of sediments suggests that the palaeorelief was located to the east and could be oriented in a NNE-SSW direction, downthrown to the west. Local outcrops dated as Albian, both north and south of the main outcrop, display some marine influence. These deposits are cut by 040-060 faults parallel to

  13. The Quequén Salado river basin: Geology and biochronostratigraphy of the Mio-Pliocene boundary in the southern Pampean plain, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilinson, E.; Gasparini, G. M.; Tomassini, R. L.; Zárate, M. A.; Deschamps, C. M.; Barendregt, R. W.; Rabassa, J.

    2017-07-01

    The Quequén Salado river basin has been the focus of several contributions since the first decades of the XX century, namely dealing with the general geological features of the deposits and with the vertebrate remains. In this paper, the Neogene geological history documented by the Quequén Salado river exposures is reconstructed by means of stratigraphic, sedimentological and paleomagnetic studies along with the paleontological analysis of vertebrate remains. The study area is a crucial setting not only to better understand the evolution of the southern Pampas basin during the late Miocene-early Pliocene interval, but also to test the validity of the biochronologic and biostratigraphic schemes, especially the "Irenense". A geological model for the Quequén Salado river valley is proposed: a case of downcutting and headward erosion that contributes with a coherent interpretation to explain the spatial distribution of facies and fossil taxa: the younger in the distal sector of the Quequén Salado middle basin and the older in the lower basin. The sedimentary record is believed to represent the distal reaches of a distributary fluvial system that drained from the Ventania ranges. The stratigraphic section of Paso del Indio Rico results a key stratigraphic site to fully understand the stratigraphic nature of the boundary between the Miocene and the Pliocene (the Huayquerian and Montehermosan stages/ages). In this sense, two stratigraphically superposed range zones have been recognized in the area: Xenodontomys ellipticus Range Zone (latest Miocene-early Pliocene; late Huayquerian), and Eumysops laeviplicatus Range Zone (early Pliocene; Montehermosan). Taking into account the available geological and paleontological evidences, the "Irenense" would not represent a valid biostratigraphic unit, since, according to the geological model here proposed, it would be represented by elements of the Xenodontomys ellipticus Range Zone in the lower QS basin and by elements of the

  14. Tracking the source of mineralisation in the Tampere Basin (southern Finland), insights from structure, sedimentology and geophysics studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Torvela, Taija; Kalliomäki, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The ancient basins are of a wide interest to geoscientists as they archive the early development of plate tectonics, life, and ore-bearing systems. Several basins, especially those involving volcanic-derived materials, contain ore and mineral deposits. The formation of these ores is often related...... marginal basin, and the mechanics of and strain distribution during its subsequent closure. In order to investigate the deposition, the tectonic deformation and the fluid migration, geological mapping of a key area of the basin has been performed. In addition, georadar reflection profiles have been...... covered. This study highlighted several sulphide-rich horizon within the basal succession of the basin infill. The sulphides are either in relation with tectonic structures or with genuinely clay-rich deposits. The studied succession shows a progressive deepening of the basin through time with facies...

  15. Drivers of Holocene treeline and timberline changes in the Retezat Mountains (South Carpathians, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko VINCZE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Four high-altitude lake sediment sequences (Lake Brazi, 1740 m .as.l., Lake Gales 1990 m a.s.l., Lake Bucura, 2040 m a.s.l. and Lake Lia, 1910 m a.s.l. were analyzed using multi-proxy methods (pollen, stomata, plant macrofossil and micro- and macrocharcoal in order to study responses of treeline and alpine/subalpine vegetation to climate change and human impact during the last 15000 years. Observing and reconstructing the changes of the position and structure of the treeline can provide valuable information on biotic and other factors such as human activities. Sediment cores were taken from two lakes on the northern slope (Lake Brazi and Lake Gales and two lakes from the southern slope (Lake Lia and Lake Bucura in the Retezat Mountains, South Carpathians (Romania.

  16. Stratigraphy and paleogeographic significance of a Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian channeled slope sequence in the Darwin Basin, southern Darwin Hills, east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Magginetti, Robert T.; Ritter, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    The complex stratigraphy of late Paleozoic rocks in the southern Darwin Hills consists of regionally extensive Mississippian and Early to Middle Pennsylvanian rocks overlain by latest Pennsylvanian to Early Permian rocks, herein called the Darwin Hills sequence. Deposition of this latter sequence marked the beginning of the Darwin Basin. In Mississippian time, a carbonate platform prograded westward over slightly older slope deposits. In the Late Mississippian this platform was exposed to erosion and siliciclastic sediments were deposited. In Early to Middle Pennsylvanian time the area subsided, forming a west-facing ramp that was subjected to deformation and erosion in Middle or early Late Pennsylvanian time. Later this area was tilted westward and deep-water sediments were deposited on this slope. In latest Pennsylvanian to earliest Permian time, a major channel was cut through the older Pennsylvanian rocks and into the Upper Mississippian strata. This channel was gradually filled with increasingly finer grained, deep-water sediment as the area evolved into a basin floor by Early Permian (Sakmarian) time. Expansion of the Darwin Basin in Artinskian time led to a second phase of deposition represented by strata of the regionally extensive Darwin Canyon Formation. The geology in this small area thus documents tectonic events occurring during the early development of the Darwin Basin.

  17. Crust and upper-mantle structure of Wanganui Basin and southern Hikurangi margin, North Island, New Zealand as revealed by active source seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, B.; Stern, T. A.; Lamb, S. L.; Henrys, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Wide-angle reflection and refraction data recorded during the Seismic Array HiKurangi Experiment (SAHKE) are used to constrain the crustal P-wave velocity (Vp) structure along two profiles spanning the length and width of Wanganui Basin, located landwards of the southern Hikurangi subduction margin, New Zealand. These models provide high-resolution constraints on the structure and crustal thickness of the overlying Australian and subducted Pacific plates and plate interface geometry. Wide-angle reflections are modelled to show that the subducted oceanic Pacific plate crust is anomalously thick (∼10 km) below southern North Island and is overlain by a ∼1.5-4.0 km thick, low Vp (4.8-5.4 km s-1) layer, interpreted as a channel of sedimentary material, that persists landwards at least as far as Kapiti Island. Distinct near vertical reflections from onshore shots identify a ∼4 km high mound of low-velocity sedimentary material that appears to underplate the overlying Australian plate crust and is likely to contribute to local rock uplift along the Axial ranges. The overriding Australian plate Moho beneath Wanganui Basin is imaged as deepening southwards and reaches a depth of at least 36.4 km. The Moho shape approximately mirrors the thickening of the basin sediments, suggestive of crustal downwarping. However, the observed crustal thickness variation is insufficient to explain the large negative Bouguer gravity anomaly (-160 mGal) centred over the basin. Partial serpentinization within the upper mantle with a concomitant density decrease is one possible way of reconciling this anomaly.

  18. FOXO3 variants are beneficial for longevity in Southern Chinese living in the Red River Basin: A case-control study and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Liang; Hu, Caiyou; Zheng, Chenguang; Qian, Yu; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Zeping; Huang, Zezhi; Qi, KeYan; Gong, Huan; Zhang, Zheng; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Qin; Yang, Ze

    2015-01-01

    Forkhead box class O (FOXO) transcription factors play a crucial role in longevity across species. Several polymorphisms in FOXO3 were previously reported to be associated with human longevity. However, only one Chinese replication study has been performed so far. To verify the role of FOXO3 in southern Chinese in the Red River Basin, a community-based case-control study was conducted, and seven polymorphisms were genotyped in 1336 participants, followed by a meta-analysis of eight case-contr...

  19. The management of abandoned sites at the basin collieries of center and southern France and the procedure of stoppage of mining works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriere, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The basin collieries of center and southern France (HBCM) have launched since 1993 the procedures of stoppage of mining works as foreseen by the mining rights and which will lead to the renunciation of their 148 concessions once the remediation of the sites has been completed. In order to cope with the enormous work of file and work follow up, a rigorous procedure and organization has been implemented in order to obtain all necessary prefecture by-laws by the end of 2005. (J.S.)

  20. Black Mats, Spring-Fed Streams, and Late-Glacial-Age Recharge in the Southern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Jay; Forester, R.M.; Pratt, W.L.; Carter, C.

    1998-01-01

    Black mats are prominent features of the late Pleistocene and Holocene stratigraphic record in the southern Great Basin. Faunal, geochemical, and sedimentological evidence shows that the black mats formed in several microenvironments related to spring discharge, ranging from wet meadows to shallow ponds. Small land snails such as Gastrocopta tappaniana and Vertigo berryi are the most common mollusk taxa present. Semiaquatic and aquatic taxa are less abundant and include Catinellids, Fossaria parva, Gyraulus parvus, and others living today in and around perennial seeps and ponds. The ostracodes Cypridopsis okeechobi and Scottia tumida, typical of seeps and low-discharge springs today, as well as other taxa typical of springs and wetlands, are common in the black mats. Several new species that lived in the saturated subsurface also are present, but lacustrine ostracodes are absent. The ??13C values of organic matter in the black mats range from -12 to -26???, reflecting contributions of tissue from both C3 (sedges, most shrubs and trees) and C4 (saltbush, saltgrass) plants. Carbon-14 dates on the humate fraction of 55 black mats fall between 11,800 to 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. to modern. The total absence of mats in our sample between 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. likely reflects increased aridity associated with the mid-Holocene Altithermal. The oldest black mats date to 11,800-11,600 14C yr B.P., and the peak in the 14C black mat distribution falls at ???10,000 14C yr B.P. As the formation of black mats is spring related, their abundance reflects refilling of valley aquifers starting no later than 11,800 and peaking after 11,000 14C yrB.P. Reactivation of spring-fed channels shortly before 11,200 14C yr B.P. is also apparent in the stratigraphic records from the Las Vegas and Pahrump Valleys. This age distribution suggests that black mats and related spring-fed channels in part may have formed in response to Younger Dryas (YD)-age recharge in the region. However, the

  1. Sedimentology of the Early Jurassic terrestrial Steierdorf Formation in Anina, Colonia Cehă Quarry, South Carpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kędzior, Artur; Popa, Mihai E.

    2013-06-01

    Kędzior, A. and Popa, E.M. 2013. Sedimentology of the Early Jurassic terrestrial Steierdorf Formation in Anina, Colonia Cehă Quarry, South Carpathians, Romania. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (2), 175-199. Warszawa. The continental, coal bearing Steierdorf Formation, Hettangian - Sinemurian in age, is included in the Mesozoic cover of the Reşiţa Basin, Getic Nappe, South Carpathians, Romania. The Steierdorf Formation can be studied in Anina, a coal mining center and an exceptional locality for Early Jurassic flora and fauna, occurring in the middle of the Reşiţa Basin. This paper presents the results of sedimentological, stratigraphical and paleobotanical researches undertaken in Colonia Cehă open cast mine in Anina, where the Steierdorf Formation outcrops widely. Several sedimentary facies associations have been described, these associations permitting the reconstruction of various depositional systems such as alluvial fans, braided and meandering river systems, as well as lacustrine and coal generating marsh systems of the Steierdorf Formation. The sedimentary associations recorded within the Steierdorf Formation show a gradual fining upward trend, pointing to a rising marine water table and a decreasing relief within the source area.

  2. Climate change in the Carpathian-Balkan Area. Advancing research and cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains are considered to be one of Europe’s last “wilderness” areas, but are nevertheless under heavy pressure from human activities. Examples range from large-scale activities (e.g. metal and coal mining and ecological disasters (e.g. tailing dam failures in the Toroiaga and Baia Mare areas to cross-border pollution (e.g. Chernobyl nuclear accident. The current political thrust for economic development is accelerating the pace of industrial activities, exploitation of natural resources and tourism. Romania has just recently been integrated into the European Union and many community-based projects were initiated to evaluate problems related to climatic and anthropogenic impacts.The diversity of landforms that characterize the Carpathian region encompassing mountain ranges and large spans of adjacent lowlands and the dynamic interplay between North Atlantic, continental, and Mediterranean atmospheric circulation patterns in southeastern Europe, have resulted in extremely fragmented habitats and exceptional biodiversity (Veres and Mindrescu, 2013. However, the Carpathian Mountains remain the least studied mountain environment in Europe, as reflected for example by the low number of well-dated and high-resolution paleorecords (e.g. Buczkó et al. 2009. Rose et al. (2009 published a pollution history study from a lake in the Retezat Mountains at the western extremity of the Southern Carpathians, but no paleoenvironmental studies exist for the rest of the mountain range, despite the abundance of suitable sites (Akinyemi et al., 2013.An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field (geosciences, as innovative science is increasingly stimulated by studies that cross disciplinary boundaries and thus benefit from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by creating “meeting places” where geoscience

  3. New age constraints on the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the late Paleozoic back-arc basin along the western Gondwana margin of southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, F.; Reitsma, M. J.; Spikings, R.; Rodriguez, R.; Ulianov, A.; Gerdes, A.; Schaltegger, U.

    2018-03-01

    The tectonic evolution of the western Gondwana margin during Pangaea amalgation is recorded in variations in the Permo-Carboniferous back-arc basin sedimentation of Peru. This study provides the first radiometric age constraints on the volcanic and sedimentary sequences of south-central eastern Peru up to the western-most tip of Bolivia, and now permits the correlation of lateral facies variations to the late Paleozoic pre-Andean orogenic cycle. The two phases of Gondwanide magmatism and metamorphism at c. 315 Ma and c. 260 Ma are reflected in two major changes in this sedimentary environment. Our detrital U-Pb zircon ages demonstrate that the timing of Ambo Formation deposition corroborates the Late Mississipian age estimates. The transition from the Ambo to the Tarma Formation around the Middle Pennsylvanian Early Gondwanide Orogeny (c. 315 Ma) represents a relative deepening of the basin. Throughout the shallow marine deposits of the Tarma Formation evidence for contemporaneous volcanism becomes gradually more pronounced and culminates around 312 - 309 Ma. Continuous basin subsidence resulted in a buildup of platform carbonates of the Copacabana Formation. Our data highlights the presence of a previously unrecognized phase of deposition of mainly fluvial sandstones and localized volcanism (281-270 Ma), which we named ´Oqoruro Formation'. This sedimentary succession was previously miss-assigned to the so-called Mitu Group, which has recently been dated to start deposition in the Middle Triassic (∼245-240 Ma). The emersion of this marine basin coincides with the onset of a major plutonic pulse related to the Late Gondwanide Orogeny (c. 260). Exhumation lead to the consequent retreat of the epeiric sea to the present-day sub-Andean region, and the coeval accumulation of the fluvial Oqoruro Formation in south eastern Peru. These late Paleozoic palaeoenvironmental changes in the back-arc basins along the western Gondwana margin of southern reflect changes in

  4. Diagenetic and other highly mineralized waters in the Polish Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, Andrzej; Chowaniec, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    Highly mineralized waters of different chemical types and origin occur in the flysch formations and their bedrocks in the western part of the Polish Carpathians. The marine sedimentation water of the flysch formations is not preserved, as the most mineralized and the heaviest isotopic values of flysch waters are characterized by δ 18 O and δ 2 H values in the ranges of 5-7 per mille and -(20-30) per mille , respectively. Their origin is related to the dehydration of clay minerals during burial diagenesis, with molecules of marine water completely removed by molecules of released bound water. They are relatively enriched in Na + in respect to the marine water, supposedly due to the release of Na + during the illitization of smectites and preferable incorporation of other cations from the primary brine into newly formed minerals. In some parts of younger formations, i.e. in the Badenian sediments, brines occur with isotopic composition close to SMOW and Cl - contents greatly exceeding the typical marine value of about 19.6 g/L, supposedly due to ultrafiltration. Most probably, the marine water of the flysch formations was similarly enriched chemically in its initial burial stages. Final Cl - contents in diagenetic waters depend on different Cl - contents in the primary brines and on relationships between diagenetic and further ultrafiltration processes. In some areas, diagenetic waters migrate to the surface along fault zones and mix with young local meteoric waters becoming diluted, with the isotope composition scattering along typical mixing lines. In areas with independent CO 2 flow from great depths, they form chloride CO 2 -rich waters. Common CO 2 -rich waters are formed in areas without near-surface occurrences of diagenetic waters. They change from the HCO 3 -Ca type for modern waters to HCO 3 -Mg-Ca, HCO 3 -Na-Ca and other types with elevated TDS, Mg 2+ and/or Na - contents for old waters reaching even those of glacial age. Bedrocks of the flysch are

  5. Diagenetic and other highly mineralized waters in the Polish Carpathians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, Andrzej, E-mail: andrzej.zuber@pgi.gov.pl [Polish Geological Institute, Carpathian Branch, PL-31560 Krakow, ul. Skrzatow 1 (Poland); Chowaniec, Jozef [Polish Geological Institute, Carpathian Branch, PL-31560 Krakow, ul. Skrzatow 1 (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    Highly mineralized waters of different chemical types and origin occur in the flysch formations and their bedrocks in the western part of the Polish Carpathians. The marine sedimentation water of the flysch formations is not preserved, as the most mineralized and the heaviest isotopic values of flysch waters are characterized by {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H values in the ranges of 5-7 per mille and -(20-30) per mille , respectively. Their origin is related to the dehydration of clay minerals during burial diagenesis, with molecules of marine water completely removed by molecules of released bound water. They are relatively enriched in Na{sup +} in respect to the marine water, supposedly due to the release of Na{sup +} during the illitization of smectites and preferable incorporation of other cations from the primary brine into newly formed minerals. In some parts of younger formations, i.e. in the Badenian sediments, brines occur with isotopic composition close to SMOW and Cl{sup -} contents greatly exceeding the typical marine value of about 19.6 g/L, supposedly due to ultrafiltration. Most probably, the marine water of the flysch formations was similarly enriched chemically in its initial burial stages. Final Cl{sup -} contents in diagenetic waters depend on different Cl{sup -} contents in the primary brines and on relationships between diagenetic and further ultrafiltration processes. In some areas, diagenetic waters migrate to the surface along fault zones and mix with young local meteoric waters becoming diluted, with the isotope composition scattering along typical mixing lines. In areas with independent CO{sub 2} flow from great depths, they form chloride CO{sub 2}-rich waters. Common CO{sub 2}-rich waters are formed in areas without near-surface occurrences of diagenetic waters. They change from the HCO{sub 3}-Ca type for modern waters to HCO{sub 3}-Mg-Ca, HCO{sub 3}-Na-Ca and other types with elevated TDS, Mg{sup 2+} and/or Na{sup -} contents for

  6. Climate Change Adaptation in the Carpathian Mountain Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, Saskia Elisabeth; Szalai, Sándor; Zingstra, Henk; Kőpataki, Éva; Beckmann, Andreas; Bos, Ernst; Civic, Kristijan; Hlásny, Tomas; Hulea, Orieta; Jurek, Matthias; Koch, Hagen; Kondor, Attila Csaba; Kovbasko, Aleksandra; Lakatos, M.; Lambert, Stijn; Peters, Richard; Trombik, Jiří; De Velde, Van Ilse; Zsuffa, István

    2016-01-01

    The Carpathian mountain region is one of the most significant natural refuges on the European continent. It is home to Europe’s most extensive tracts of montane forest, the largest remaining virgin forest and natural mountain beech-fir forest ecosystems. Adding to the biodiversity are semi-natural

  7. Ticks (Ixodidae) from passerine birds in the Carpathian region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitalska, E.; Literák, I.; Sparagano, O. A .E.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Kocianová, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 118, 23/24 (2006), 759-764 ISSN 0043-5325 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Passerine birds * Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia * Rickettsia * Ehrlichia * Carpathians Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.804, year: 2006

  8. Large carnivores in the Carpathian Mountains: status and conservation problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Okarma, H.; Dovchanych, Y.; Findo, S.; Ionescu, O.; Koubek, Petr; Szemethy, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2002), s. 33-39 ISSN 0078-3250 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : carnivores * conservation * Carpathians Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  9. Western Carpathians in the territory of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skupien, P.; Vašíček, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 3/1 (2008), s. 139-149 ISSN 0138-0974 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/07/1365 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Outer Western Carpathians * nappes * localities Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  10. Risk and Geodynamically active areas of Carpathian lithosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomil Pospíšil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates an application of multidisciplinary data analysis to the Carpathian–Pannonian region and presents a verification of a Complex model of the Carpathian - Pannonian lithosphere by recent data sets and geophysical data analyses and its utilization for the determination of risk and active geodynamic and tectonic zones of Ist order . This model can be used for the analysing any Carpathian area from the point of view of the seismic risk, hazards and geodynamic activity, which is important to know for the building of a repository for the radioactive wasted material. Besides the traditionally used geological (sedimentological and volcanological data and geomorphological data (Remote Sensing, an emphasis was laid on geodetic, grav/mag data, seismic, seismological and other geophysical data (magnetotelluric, heat flow, paleomagnetic etc.. All available geonomic (geologic, geodetic, geophysical, geomorphological data were verified and unified on the basis of the same scale and in the Western Carpathians on the Remote Sensing data. The paper concentrates on two problematic areas – the so call “rebounding area” in the Eastern Carpathians and the Raba – Muran - Malcov tectonic systems.

  11. Selected examples of needs for long term pilot areas in Mediterranean catchments: a mountain traditional agricultural system and a large and regulated hydrographic basin in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Polo, María; Herrero, Javier; Millares, Agustín; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Aguilar, Cristina; Jurado, Alicia; Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Carpintero, Miriam; Gulliver, Zacarías

    2015-04-01

    Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) aims at planning water, land and other natural resources for an equitable and sustainable management, also capable of preserving or restoring freshwater ecosystems. Long term series of significant variables at different scales and a sound knowledge of the river basin processes are needed to establish the current state and past&future evolution of the hydrological system, soil use and vegetation distribution, and their social impacts and feedbacks. This is particularly crucial if future scenario analyses are to be performed to assess decision-making processes and adaptive plans. This work highlights the need for an adequate design and development of process-oriented monitoring systems at the basin scale in a decision-making framework. First, the hydrologic monitoring network of the Guadalfeo River Basin, in the southern face of Sierra Nevada Range (Spain), is shown, in a pilot catchment of 1300 km2 in which snow processes in Mediterranean conditions have been studied over the last ten years with a holistic approach. The network development and the main features of the dataset are described together with their use for different scientific and environmental applications; their benefits for assessing social and economic impact in the rural environment are shown from a study case in which the sustainability of ancient channels fed by snowmelt, in use since the XIIIth century for traditional irrigated crops in the mountainous area, was assessed in a future scenarios analyses. Secondly, the standard flow and water quality monitoring networks in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a large (57400 km2) and highly regulated agricultural catchment in southern Spain, are shown, and their strengths and weaknessess for an IRBM framework are analysed. Sediments and selected pollutants are used to trace soil erosion and agricultural/urban exports throughout the catchment, and the final loads to the river estuary in the Atlantic Ocean are assessed

  12. Contrasting isotopic mantle sources for proterozoic lamproites and kimberlites from the Cuddapah basin and eastern Dharwar craton: implication for proterozoic mantle heterogeneity beneath southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalapathi Rao, N.V.; Gibson, S.A.; Pyle, D.M.; Dickin, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Kimberlites intruding the Precambrian basement towards the western margin of the Cuddapah basin near Anantapur (1090 Ma) and Mahbubnagar (1360 Ma) in Andhra Pradesh have initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr between 0.70205 to 0.70734 and σNd between +0.5 to +4.68. Mesoproterozoic lamproites (1380 Ma) from the Cuddapah basin (Chelima and Zangamarajupalle) and its NE margin (Ramannapeta) have initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr between 0.70520 and 0.7390 and εNd from -6.43 to -8.29. Combined Sr- and Nd- isotopic ratios suggest that lamproites were derived from enriched sources which have time-averaged higher Rb/Sr and lower Sm/Nd ratios than the Bulk Earth whereas kimberlites were derived from depleted source with lower Rb/Sr and higher Sm/Nd ratios. Calculated T DM model ages suggest that the lamproite source enrichment (∼2 Ga) preceded that of kimberlites (∼1.37 Ga). Our work demonstrates the existence of isotopically contrasting upper mantle sources for southern Indian kimberlites and lamproites and provides evidence for a lateral, isotopically heterogeneous mantle beneath the Cuddapah basin and eastern Dharwar craton. The significance of our results in the context of diamond exploration is also highlighted. (author)

  13. U-Pb zircon constraints on the age of the Cretaceous Mata Amarilla Formation, Southern Patagonia, Argentina: Its relationship with the evolution of the Austral Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, Augusto N; Poire, Daniel G; Martin, Thomas; Gerdes, Axel; Goin, Francisco J; Gelfo, Javier N; Hoffmann, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant fossil content of the Mata Amarilla Formation (Southern Patagonia, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina), its age has always generated a considerable number of questions and debates. The chronological data provided by invertebrates, dinosaurs, fish, turtles, plesiosaurs and fossil flora are contradictory. In this work, twenty U-Pb spot analyses by laser ablation were carried out on the outer parts of the zoned zircon crystals from a tuff layer of the middle section of the Mata Amarilla Formation, yielding a U-Pb concordia age of 96.23±0.71 Ma, which corresponds to the middle Cenomanian. The deposition of the lower section of the Mata Amarilla Formation marks the onset of the foreland stage of the Austral Basin (also known as Magallanes Basin); this transition is characterized by the west-east shift of the depositional systems, which is consistent with the progradation of the Cretaceous fold-and-thrust belt. Thus, the onset of the foreland stage could have occurred between the upper Albian and lower Cenomanian, as the underlying Piedra Clavada Formation is lower Albian in age. On comparing the data obtained with information from the Ultima Esperanza Province in Chile, it can be suggested that the initiation of the closure of the Rocas Verdes Marginal Basin occurred simultaneously

  14. Tropical systems from the southwest Indian Ocean making landfall over the Limpopo River Basin, southern Africa: a historical perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malherbe, J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study provides perspective on the contribution of landfalling tropical systems (cyclones, depressions, storms and lows) from the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) towards rainfall over the eastern interior of southern Africa, over the period 1948...

  15. Pb/Pb isochron ages and Pb isotope geochemistry of Bambui Group carbonate rocks from the southern portion of the Sao Francisco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinski, M.

    1993-01-01

    This study involves the establishment of chemical and analytical procedure for Pb/Pb dating of Neo proterozoic carbonate rocks and their application to obtaining isochron ages of Bambui Group rocks from the southern portion of the Sao Francisco Basin, Minas Gerais State. The Pb isotopic compositions and U and Pb concentrations determined on more than 90 samples (≅ 600 analyses) from Sete Lagoas do Jacare formations, Bambui Group, from different parts of the basin, showed four distinct types of Pb, here called types I, II, III and IV. Type I Pb was found in samples with low Pb concentrations and relatively high U concentrations. Type II Pb is present in samples with relatively high Pb concentrations and low U concentrations it is non-radiogenic crustal Pb. Type III Pb is also found in samples with high Pb concentrations and low U concentrations but it is radiogenic crustal Pb. Type IV Pb occurs in samples with U/Pb ratios lower than 1 and is intermediate in composition between Type III and Type I Pb. According to the data presented in this paper it is suggested that carbonate rocks from Sete Lagoas Formations were deposited before 686±69 Ma. Rocks from the Lagoa do Jacare Formation, contained only Type II Pb, which does not permit determination of a Pb/Pb age. During the interval from 690 to 500 Ma, the Pb isotope system of the carbonate rocks from the Sao Francisco Basin was disturbed, and in some areas it was totally reset. The imprecise U/Pb ages of 550-600 Ma obtained from some of the carbonate rocks reflect this disturbance. The ages determined in this study are in agreement with most of the published ages of the tectonism from the Brasiliano fold belts marginal to Sao Francisco Craton, showing that the isotopic systems of Sao Francisco Basin rocks were largely affected by brasiliano tectonism. (author)

  16. Structuring of The Jurassic Basin of Chott in Gabes region (Southern Tunisia) associated to the Liassic rifting from geophysical and well data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassine, Mouna; Abbes, Chedly; Azaiez, Hajer; Gabtni, Hakim; Bouzid, Wajih

    2016-04-01

    The graben system of El Hamma, west of Gabes in Tunisia, corresponds to a pull apart basin developed in an extensive relay zone between two principal shear corridors (PSC) with a dextral sliding of N110-120 average direction. These PSC corresponds to two segments of the south-Atlasic shear corridor of NW-SE direction, which extends from Chott El Hodna in Algeria, to the NW, to the Libyan Djeferra to the SE (M.Hassine and al., 2015; M.Hassine and al., work in progress). This work aims to define the basin structuring during the Jurassic, especially from the Upper Lias during the Liassic rifting. For this, we performed seismic, gravity and well data analysis. Several wells situated in this basin and on its edges, which totally or partly crossed the Jurassic series which were described by several authors (J. Bonnefous, 1972 ; M. Soussi, 2002, 2004). These series corresponds to the Nara formation (PF Burollet, 1956) elevated to a group rank by M. Soussi (2003). It consists of two carbonate units separated by a marl-carbonate and sandstone member, dated successively of lower Lias (Hettangian- lower Pliensbachian.), Toarcian to Callovian and Upper Callovian-Tithonian. The correlation of this Jurassic formations along a North-South transect shows, from the South to the North, a significant variation in facies and thickness of the Jurassic series especially from the Upper Lias. Two resistant moles appears to the Northern and Southern edges of the pull-apart basin of El Hamma. The trend reversal of the lateral evolution of this series take place on the border NW-SE faults of the basin (PSC). The analysis of several seismic lines calibrated to well data, reveals a differentiated structuring inside the pull-apart basin itself, associated on the one hand, to the play of the N160 and N130-140 direction fault network which structure the basin in horsts and grabens of second order ( M. Hassine and al., 2015); and on the other hand, to the rise of the upper Triassic evaporates

  17. ANALYSIS OF PROJECTED FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY CHANGES OF PRECIPITATION IN THE CARPATHIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIS ANNA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is the major atmospheric source of surface water, thus, in order to build appropriate adaptation strategies for various economic sections related to water resources it is essential to provide projections for precipitation tendencies as exact as possible. Extreme precipitation events are especially important from this point of view since they may result in different environmental, economical, and/or even human health damages. Excessive precipitation for instance may induce floods, flash-floods, landslides, traffic accidents. On the other hand, lack of precipitation is not favorable either: long dry periods affect agricultural production quite negatively, and hence, food safety can be threatened. Several precipitation-related indices (i.e., describing drought or intensity, exceeding different percentile-based or absolute threshold values are analyzed for the Carpathian region for 1961–2100. For this purpose 11 completed regional climate model simulations are used from the ENSEMBLES database. Before the thorough analysis, a percentile-based bias correction method was applied to the raw data, for which the homogenized daily gridded CarpatClim database (1961–2010 served as a reference. Absolute and relative seasonal mean changes of climate indices are calculated for two future time periods (2021–2050 and 2071–2100 and for three subregions within the entire Carpathian region, namely, for Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. According to our results, longer dry periods are estimated for the summer season, mainly in the southern parts of the domain, while precipitation intensity is likely to increase. Heavy precipitation days and high percentile values are projected to increase, especially, in winter and autumn.

  18. The flux and recovery of bioactive substances in the surface sediments of deep basins off southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, R.A.

    1990-06-11

    Sediment microbial community biomass and activity in Santa Monica Basin, a nearshore basin in the California Continental Borderland, were examined in October 1985, 1986 and 1987, May 1986, April 1987 and January 1990. Millimeter-scale ATP profiles and incubation of intact cores with {sup 3}H-adenine indicated a high-biomass interface microbial population in the low-oxygen central basin, which was absent in samples from the basin slope sediments. A majority of microbial activity and organic matter mineralization occurred in the top cm of sediment. Comparison of measured ATP and total organic carbon profiles suggest that the C:ATP ratio (wt:wt) ranges between 47:1 and 77:1 in central basin interfacial populations, substantially lower than reported for other aquatic environments. Carbon production estimated from DNA synthesis measurements via {sup 3}H-adenine incorporation was compared with TCO{sub 2} fluxes measured by in situ benthic chamber experiments. Within the uncertainty of the C:ATP ratio, an overall microbial carbon assimilation efficiency of 75--90% was indicated. The low C:ATP ratios and high carbon assimilation efficiencies significantly affect estimates of microbial growth and respiration and are substantially different than those often assumed in the literature. These results suggest that without independent knowledge of these ratios, the uncertainty in tracer-derived microbial growth and respiration rates may be larger than previously reported. 66 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. The flux and recovery of bioactive substances in the surface sediments of deep basins off southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Sediment microbial community biomass and activity in Santa Monica Basin, a nearshore basin in the California Continental Borderland, were examined in October 1985, 1986 and 1987, May 1986, April 1987 and January 1990. Millimeter-scale ATP profiles and incubation of intact cores with 3 H-adenine indicated a high-biomass interface microbial population in the low-oxygen central basin, which was absent in samples from the basin slope sediments. A majority of microbial activity and organic matter mineralization occurred in the top cm of sediment. Comparison of measured ATP and total organic carbon profiles suggest that the C:ATP ratio (wt:wt) ranges between 47:1 and 77:1 in central basin interfacial populations, substantially lower than reported for other aquatic environments. Carbon production estimated from DNA synthesis measurements via 3 H-adenine incorporation was compared with TCO 2 fluxes measured by in situ benthic chamber experiments. Within the uncertainty of the C:ATP ratio, an overall microbial carbon assimilation efficiency of 75--90% was indicated. The low C:ATP ratios and high carbon assimilation efficiencies significantly affect estimates of microbial growth and respiration and are substantially different than those often assumed in the literature. These results suggest that without independent knowledge of these ratios, the uncertainty in tracer-derived microbial growth and respiration rates may be larger than previously reported. 66 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Late Neogene low-angle thrusting on the northwestern margin of the South Carpathians (Poiana Rusca, West Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczlon, Martin S.; Onescu, Dan

    2005-12-01

    Mineral exploration drillholes and geoelectric prospecting provide for the first time evidence for thrusting of the South Carpathian Paleozoic basement over northerly adjacent Middle Miocene sediments. Investigations were carried out in two locations, 30 km apart, along the northern margin of the Poiana Rusca Mountains, Romania, southwestern Carpathians. Drill holes in both locations encountered weakly consolidated Middle Miocene clay, sand, and fine gravel below Paleozoic low-grade metamorphic rocks. Intersections from various drill holes demonstrate the presence of low-angle thrusting. Kinematic indicators are so far lacking, but with a thrust direction oriented roughly normal to strike of the Poiana Rusca Mountains, minimum displacement is 1-1.4 km in northwestern or northern direction, respectively. Thrusting occurred most likely during the Late Miocene-Pliocene, whereafter Quaternary regional uplift dissected the thrust plane. In the tectonic framework of Neogene dextral translation of the Tisza-Dacia Block against the southerly adjacent Moesian Platform, transtension appears responsible for Middle Miocene basin formation along the northern margin of the Poiana Rusca region. Proceeding collision of the Tisza-Dacia Block with the East European Craton introduced stronger impingement of the Tisza-Dacia Block against the Moesian Platform, leading to a Late Miocene-Pliocene transpressional regime, in which the northern Poiana Rusca basement was thrust over its adjacent Middle Miocene sediments.

  1. Impact of farm dams on river flows; A case study in the Limpopo River basin, Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Querner, E.P.; Boesveld, H.

    2013-01-01

    The study analysed the impact of a farm dam on the river flow in the Limpopo River basin. Two methods are used to calculate the water inflow: one uses the runoff component from the catchment water balance; the other uses the drainage output of the SIMFLOW model. The impact on the flow in a

  2. The bright spot in the West Carpathian upper mantle: a trace of the Tertiary plate collision-and a caveat for a seismologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Środa, Piotr

    2010-07-01

    The 2-D full waveform modelling of the mantle arrivals from the CELEBRATION 2000 profiles crossing the Carpathian orogen suggests two possible tectonic models for the collision of ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) and the European Plate in the West Carpathians in southern Poland and Slovakia. Due to an oblique (NE-SW) convergence of plates, the character of the collision may change along the zone of contact of the plates: in the western part of the area an earlier collision might have caused substantial crustal shortening and formation of a crocodile-type structure, with the delaminated lower crust of ~100km length acting as a north-dipping reflecting discontinuity in the uppermost mantle. In the eastern part, a less advanced collision only involved the verticalization of the subducted slab remnant after a slab break-off. The lower crustal remnant of ~10km size in the uppermost mantle acts as a pseudo-diffractor generating observable mantle arrivals. Due to the similarity of synthetic data generated by both models, the question of the non-uniqueness of seismic data interpretation, that may lead to disparate tectonic inferences, is also discussed.

  3. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  4. Study of fault configuration related mysteries through multi seismic attribute analysis technique in Zamzama gas field area, southern Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabeer Ahmed Abbasi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Seismic attribute analysis approach has been applied for the interpretation and identification of fault geometry of Zamzama Gas Field. Zamzama gas field area, which lies in the vicinity of Kirthar fold and thrust belt, Southern Indus Basin of Pakistan. The Zamzama fault and its related structure have been predicted by applying the Average Energy Attribute, Instantaneous Frequency Attribute, relative Acoustic Impedance Attribute and Chaotic Reflection Attribute on the seismic line GHPK98A.34. The results have been confirmed by applying the spectral decomposition attribute on the same seismic line that reveal the geometric configuration of Zamzama structure. The fault is reverse and started from 0 s and ended at the depth of 2.5 s on the vertical seismic section. Hanging wall moves up along the fault plane under the action of eastward oriented stress, which formed a large north–south oriented and eastward verging thrusted anticline.

  5. FOXO3 variants are beneficial for longevity in Southern Chinese living in the Red River Basin: A case-control study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Hu, Caiyou; Zheng, Chenguang; Qian, Yu; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Zeping; Huang, Zezhi; Qi, KeYan; Gong, Huan; Zhang, Zheng; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Qin; Yang, Ze

    2015-04-27

    Forkhead box class O (FOXO) transcription factors play a crucial role in longevity across species. Several polymorphisms in FOXO3 were previously reported to be associated with human longevity. However, only one Chinese replication study has been performed so far. To verify the role of FOXO3 in southern Chinese in the Red River Basin, a community-based case-control study was conducted, and seven polymorphisms were genotyped in 1336 participants, followed by a meta-analysis of eight case-control studies that included 5327 longevity cases and 4608 controls. In our case-control study, we found rs2802288*A and rs2802292*G were beneficial to longevity after Bonferroni correction (pallele = 0.005, OR = 1.266; pallele = 0.026, OR = 1.207). In addition, in the longevity group, carriers with rs2802288*A and rs2802292*G presented reduced HbA1c (p = 0.001), and homozygotes of rs2802292*GG presented improved HOMA-IR (p = 0.014). The meta-analysis further revealed the overall contribution of rs2802288*A and rs2802292*G to longevity. However, our stratified analysis revealed that rs2802292*G might act more strongly in Asians than Europeans, for enhancement of longevity. In conclusion, our study provides convincing evidence for a significant association between the rs2802288*A and rs2802292*G gene variants in FOXO3 and human longevity, and adds the Southern Chinese in the Red River Basin to the growing number of human replication populations.

  6. Serological evidence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus in free-ranging New World monkeys and horses within the upper Paraná River basin region, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walfrido Kühl Svoboda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26 trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT. Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43, Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64, and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26 monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42 of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64 of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26 of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23 of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil.

  7. Heavy metal pollution and forest health in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shparyk, Y.S.; Parpan, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    The Ukrainian Carpathians are characterized by high air pollution caused by emissions from numerous industries. We have been monitoring the state of forests in this region since 1989. The highest levels of tree defoliation (>30%) are found close to industrial emission sources and in the upper mountain forests of the Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi regions. This is caused by a combination of strong anthropogenic influences (pollution, illegal uses, recreation) as well as poor site and climatic conditions. In the Ivano-Frankivsk region, Cd and Mo accumulate in forest soils; Cr, Mo and Zn soil concentrations are higher than their limit levels; and Pb concentrations exceed toxic levels close to industrial areas (10% of the region territory). Local background levels of heavy metals are greatly exceeded in snow close to industrial regions. Analysis of correlation matrices shows that the chemical elements Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn occur at pollution levels in natural ecosystems in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Maximum concentrations of toxic elements occur in the oak forest zone; the most industrially developed area of the region. Toxic heavy metals in the Ukrainian Carpathians forests enter with precipitation and dustfall, then become fixed in soil and accumulate in leaves, needles of vascular plants and mosses. Concentrations of these metals decrease with altitude: highest in the oak forests, less in beech, and lowest in the spruce forest zones. However, some chemical elements have the highest concentrations in spruce forests; V in needles, As in snow, and Ba and Al in soils. - Local industrial emissions of heavy metal pollution and the condition of Ukrainian Carpathians forests are examined

  8. The peculiarities of bear numbers dynamics in the Eastern Carpathians

    OpenAIRE

    Khoyetskyy, Pavlo

    2013-01-01

    There have been two periods of change in the dynamics of bear population in the Eastern Carpathians. The first period lasted over 50 years, starting in the late 1940s and ending in the year 2001. The second period started in the early 21st century. The bear population reached its maximum – of about 1100 individuals – in the early 1970s. Over 85% of recorded bear deaths have resulted from poaching.

  9. The peculiarities of bear numbers dynamics in the Eastern Carpathians

    OpenAIRE

    Khoyetskyy, Pavlo

    2013-01-01

    There have been two periods of change in the dynamics of bear population in the Eastern Carpathians. The first period lasted over 50 years, starting in the late 1940s and ending in the year 2001. The second period started in the early 21st century. The bear population reached its maximum- of about 1100 individuals - in the early 1970s. Over 85% of recorded bear deaths have resulted from poaching. Przemysław Szmit

  10. Total water content thresholds for shallow landslides, Outer Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bil, M.; Andrašík, R.; Zahradníček, Pavel; Kubeček, J.; Sedonik, J.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 337-347 ISSN 1612-510X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19831S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : data quality -control * debris flows * rainfall thresholds * equivalent * depth * failures * example * europe * model * Landslides * Threshold * Snowmelt * Time series * Antecedent rainfall * Outer Western Carpathians Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.657, year: 2016

  11. Cladonia metacorallifera, a lichen species new to the Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Osyczka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A rare lichen Cladonia metacorallifera was found in the Bieszczady Mts. and this is the first report of the species from the Eastern Carpathians. In Poland, its occurrence is probably limited to small populations scattered in high mountain situations. The data of distribution of the species in Poland, ecological characterization of the new locality and some taxonomical remarks concerning the recorded specimen, as well as a photograph of its habit are provided.

  12. Potential field studies of the central San Luis Basin and San Juan Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico, and southern and western Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, Benjamin John

    This dissertation includes three separate chapters, each demonstrating the interpretive utility of potential field (gravity and magnetic) geophysical datasets at various scales and in various geologic environments. The locations of these studies are the central San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, and southern and western Afghanistan. The San Luis Basin is the northernmost of the major basins that make up the Rio Grande rift, and interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data reveals patterns of rifting, rift-sediment thicknesses, distribution of pre-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and distribution of syn-rift volcanic rocks. Syn-rift Santa Fe Group sediments have a maximum thickness of ˜2 km in the Sanchez graben near the eastern margin of the basin along the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. Under the Costilla Plains, thickness of these sediments is estimated to reach ˜1.3 km. The Santa Fe Group sediments also reach a thickness of nearly 1 km within the Monte Vista graben near the western basin margin along the San Juan Mountains. A narrow, north-south-trending structural high beneath San Pedro Mesa separates the graben from the structural depression beneath the Costilla Plains. Aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to mainly reflect variations of remanent magnetic polarity and burial depth of the 5.3-3.7 Ma Servilleta basalt of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. Magnetic-source depth estimates indicate patterns of subsidence following eruption of the basalt and show that the Sanchez graben has been the site of maximum subsidence. One of the largest and most pronounced gravity lows in North America lies over the rugged San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. A buried, low-density silicic batholith related to an Oligocene volcanic field coincident with the San Juan Mountains has been the accepted interpretation of the source of the gravity low since the 1970s. However, this interpretation was

  13. Bentonites of the Irati Formation in the southern sector of the Parana Basin, Brazil; Bentonitas da Formacao Irati no setor sul da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aurelio Fagundes; Dani, Norberto; Remus, Marcus Vinicius Dornelles; Sommer, Margot Guerra, E-mail: norberto.dani@ufrgs.br, E-mail: marcus.remus@ufrgs.br, E-mail: margot.sommer@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Horn, Bruno Ludovico Dihl, E-mail: brunoldhorn@gmail.com [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Recife, PE (Brazil). Superintendencia Regional

    2017-01-15

    This paper aims to identify and to present mineralogical and chemical arguments that demonstrate the existence of bentonite levels in the Irati Formation, found in outcrops to the west Acegua in southern Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). These levels are thin, on average 4 cm thick, large in area, and are composed of grayish-white to greenish massive clay stones that contrast, in the field, with the shales of the Irati Formation. The bentonite levels of the Irati Formation are predominantly composed of Ca-montmorillonite, which constitutes the fine matrix of the rock; and scattered primary or magmatic crystals not larger than very fine sand. Among the main primary minerals representative of volcanic setting, it is possible to identify β-quartz paramorphs, sanidine, biotite, zircon, apatite and ilmenite, in addition to quartz and feldspar shards (splinters). More rarely, fragments of meso and macrocharcoals are found within the bentonite layers, which contrast with the maturity and type of non-vegetal organic matter of the Irati shale. Therefore, the nature of the precursor volcanism is inferred on the basis of rock geochemistry and crystal chemistry of the neoformed montmorillonite in the bentonite levels. Both methodologies indicate that during this period the volcanic ashes that reached the Parana Basin were generated by volcanism of intermediate composition, which is in accordance with what is known about the Lower Choiyoi Volcanic Province manifestations, which were synchronous with the sedimentation of the Irati Formation in the Parana Basin. (author)

  14. Web application to access U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works and Restoration Projects information for the Rio Grande Basin, southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2009-01-01

    The Rio Grande Civil Works and Restoration Projects Web Application, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Albuquerque District, is designed to provide publicly available information through the Internet about civil works and restoration projects in the Rio Grande Basin. Since 1942, USACE Albuquerque District responsibilities have included building facilities for the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force, providing flood protection, supplying water for power and public recreation, participating in fire remediation, protecting and restoring wetlands and other natural resources, and supporting other government agencies with engineering, contracting, and project management services. In the process of conducting this vast array of engineering work, the need arose for easily tracking the locations of and providing information about projects to stakeholders and the public. This fact sheet introduces a Web application developed to enable users to visualize locations and search for information about USACE (and some other Federal, State, and local) projects in the Rio Grande Basin in southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.

  15. Landslide activity as a threat to infrastructure in river valleys - An example from outer Western Carpathians (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuszczyńska, Katarzyna; Wistuba, Małgorzata; Malik, Ireneusz

    2017-11-01

    Intensive development of the area of Polish Carpathians increases the scale of landslide risk. Thus detecting landslide hazards and risks became important issue for spatial planning in the area. We applied dendrochronological methods and GIS analysis for better understanding of landslide activity and related hazards in the test area (3,75 km2): Salomonka valley and nearby slopes in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts., Outer Western Carpathians, southern Poland. We applied eccentricity index of radial growth of trees to date past landslide events. Dendrochronological results allowed us to determine the mean frequency of landsliding at each sampling point which were next interpolated into a map of landslide hazard. In total we took samples at 46 points. In each point we sampled 3 coniferous trees. Landslide hazard map shows a medium (23 sampling points) and low (20 sampling points) level of landslide activity for most of the area. The highest level of activity was recorded for the largest landslide. Results of the dendrochronological study suggest that all landslides reaching downslope to Salomonka valley floor are active. LiDAR-based analysis of relief shows that there is an active coupling between those landslides and river channel. Thus channel damming and formation of an episodic lake are probable. The hazard of flooding valley floor upstream of active landslides should be included in the local spatial planning system and crisis management system.

  16. Cenomanian and Cenomanian-Turonian boundary deposits in the southern part of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, S.; Hradecká, L.; Svobodová, Marcela; Švábenická, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 4 (2005), s. 321-354 ISSN 1210-3527 Grant - others:GA MŽP1(CZ) 1975/630/02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Cenomanian * biostratigraphy * Bohemian Cretaceous Basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/bulletin/contents/2005/vol80no4/321_cech.pdf

  17. Identification of hydrogeochemical processes and pollution sources of groundwater nitrate in Leiming Basin of Hainan island, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaowen, Y.; Zhan, Y., , Dr; Li, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying the evolution of groundwater quality is important for the control and management of groundwater resources. The main aims of the present study are to identify the major factors affecting hydrogeochemistry of groundwater resources and to evaluate the potential sources of groundwater nitrate in Leiming basin using chemical and isotopic methods. The majority of samples belong to Na-Cl water type and are followed by Ca-HCO3 and mixed Ca-Na-HCO3. The δ18O and δ2H values in groundwater indicate that the shallow fissure groundwater is mainly recharged by rainfall. The evaporated surface water is another significant origin of groundwater. The weathering and dissolution of different rocks and minerals, input of precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange and anthropogenic activities, especially agricultural activities, influence the hydrogeochemistry of the study area. NO- 3 concentration in the groundwater varies from 0.7 to 51.7 mg/L and high values are mainly occurred in the densely populated area. The combined use of isotopic values and hydrochemical data suggests that the NO- 3 load in Leiming basin is not only derived from agricultural activities but also from other sources such as waste water and atmospheric deposition. Fertilizer is considered as the major source of NO- 3 in the groundwater in Leiming basin.

  18. Distribution and transportation of mercury from glacier to lake in the Qiangyong Glacier Basin, southern Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiwei; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Li, Chengding; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Sun, Xuejun; Tripathee, Lekhendra

    2016-06-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is home to the largest aggregate of glaciers outside the Polar Regions and is a source of fresh water to 1.4 billion people. Yet little is known about the transportation and cycling of Hg in high-elevation glacier basins on Tibetan Plateau. In this study, surface snow, glacier melting stream water and lake water samples were collected from the Qiangyong Glacier Basin. The spatiotemporal distribution and transportation of Hg from glacier to lake were investigated. Significant diurnal variations of dissolved Hg (DHg) concentrations were observed in the river water, with low concentrations in the morning (8:00am-14:00pm) and high concentrations in the afternoon (16:00pm-20:00pm). The DHg concentrations were exponentially correlated with runoff, which indicated that runoff was the dominant factor affecting DHg concentrations in the river water. Moreover, significant decreases of Hg were observed during transportation from glacier to lake. DHg adsorption onto particulates followed by the sedimentation of particulate-bound Hg (PHg) could be possible as an important Hg removal mechanism during the transportation process. Significant decreases in Hg concentrations were observed downstream of Xiao Qiangyong Lake, which indicated that the high-elevation lake system could significantly affect the distribution and transportation of Hg in the Qiangyong Glacier Basin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.

    A three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate regional groundwater flow was used in the lower Palar River basin, in southern India. The study area is characterised by heavy ion of groundwater for agricultural, industrial and drinking water supplies. There are three major pumping stations on the riverbed apart from a number of wells distributed over the area. The model simulates groundwater flow over an area of about 392 km2 with 70 rows, 40 columns, and two layers. The model simulated a transient-state condition for the period 1991-2001. The model was calibrated for steady- and transient-state conditions. There was a reasonable match between the computed and observed heads. The transient model was run until the year 2010 to forecast groundwater flow under various scenarios of overpumping and less recharge. Based on the modelling results, it is shown that the aquifer system is stable at the present rate of pumping, excepting for a few locations along the coast where the groundwater head drops from 0.4 to 1.81 m below sea level during the dry seasons. Further, there was a decline in the groundwater head by 0.9 to 2.4 m below sea level in the eastern part of the area when the aquifer system was subjected to an additional groundwater withdrawal of 2 million gallons per day (MGD) at a major pumping station. Les modèles mathématiques en trois dimensions de l'écoulement souterrain régional sont très utiles pour la gestion des ressources en eau souterraine, car ils permettent une évaluation des composantes des processus hydrologiques et fournissent une description physique de l'écoulement de l'eau dans un aquifère. Une telle modélisation a été entreprise sur une partie du bassin inférieur de la rivière Palar, dans le sud de l'Inde. La zone d'étude est caractérisée par des prélèvements importants d'eau souterraine pour l'agriculture, l'industrie et l'eau potable. Il existe trois grandes stations de pompage sur la rivière en plus d'un certain nombre

  20. Early migration and estuary stopover of introduced chinook salmon population in the Lapataia River Basin, southern Tierra del Fuego Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalde, T.; Fernández, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Established populations of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have recently been reported in South America, at both Atlantic and Pacific basins. Several studies have evaluated different aspects of their life histories; however, little is known about the use of the estuaries by the juveniles of these populations. We examined spawning time, seaward migration timing, growth rate, scale patterns, diet, and geometric morphometric, contrasting the early life history during freshwater and estuary residence of a chinook population established in Lapataia Basin. Fall run spawning took place in March-April and the parr emerged in September. Two distinct seaward migration patterns were identified from sein net fishing records: one population segment migrating earlier to the estuary in October and a second group migrating later in February. The growth rate of fish captured at the estuary was significantly higher than the fish captured in freshwater. In addition, higher scale intercirculi distances were observed in estuary fish showing differences in growth rate. The feeding habitat in fish captured in both environments changed through time from bottom feeding to surface feeding and from significant diet overlap to no overlap. The morphology of the fish captured at the estuary was associated with the elongation of the caudal peduncle and a decrease in the condition factor index, both changes related to smolt transformation. The earlier migration and the higher growth rate of juveniles in the estuary together with fish of 1 + yo captured in this environment reveal that the estuary of Lapataia Basin is not only a stopover for the chinook salmon, but also a key habitat to reside and feed previous to the final seaward migration.

  1. The Mediterranean Basin and Southern Europe in a warmer world: what can we learn from the past?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eGuiot

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the late-nineteenth century, surface temperatures have non-uniformly increased worldwide. The repercussion of the global warming in drylands, such as in the Mediterranean, may become a main source of concern in a near future, as it is often accompanied by increased droughts, that will severely degrade water supply and quality. History shows that access to water resources has always presented a challenge for societies around the Mediterranean throughout the Holocene (roughly the last 10,000 years. Repeatedly, adverse climate shifts seem to have interacted with social, economic and political variables, exacerbating vulnerabilities in drier regions. We present a reconstruction of the Holocene climate in the Mediterranean Basin using an innovative method based on pollen data and vegetation modeling. The method consists in calculating the inputs of the vegetation model so that the outputs fit the pollen data, using a Bayesian framework. This model inversion is particularly suited to deal with increasing dissimilarities between past millennia and the last century, especially due to a direct effect of CO2 on vegetation. The comparison of fardistant past and last century shows that the intensity of century-scale precipitation fall, amplified by higher temperatures and then evapotranspiration, appears to be unmatched over the last 10,000 years and the comparison between west and east precipitation anomalies show a clear see-saw effect through all the Holocene, in particular during the dry episodes of Near and Middle East. As a consequence that Tthe recent climatic change seems thento have been unprecedented during the last 10,000 years in the Mediterranean Basin,.over the next few decades, Mediterranean societies will likely be more critically vulnerable to climate change, than at any dry period of the past. We show also that adverse climate shifts are often correlated with the decline or collapse of Mediterranean civiliszations, particularly in

  2. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil Peixes da bacia do rio Taquari-Antas (sistema da Laguna dos Patos, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Becker

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.Os ambientes aquáticos da Bacia do rio Taquari-Antas (Bacia da Laguna dos Patos, sul do Brasil vêm sofrendo considerável transformação, principalmente em razão da implantação de barragens para geração de energia elétrica. Com o objetivo de estabelecer um diagnóstico amplo da ictiofauna da Bacia do Taquari-Antas, realizou-se um inventário das espécies dessa bacia a partir de dados primários e secundários. Foram obtidos 5.299 registros válidos de espécies de peixe na bacia, representando 119 espécies e 519 localidades amostradas. Ocorrem, na bacia, 13 espécies não nativas, seis das quais são oriundas de outras bacias neotropicais. Cerca de 24% de todas as espécies carecem de descrição taxonômica no nível específico. Foram registradas três espécies nativas migradoras de longa distância (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus e Salminus brasiliensis e

  3. Volcanogenic-hydrothermal iron-rich materials from the southern part of the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S; Gupta, S; Charan, S; Mills, O.P.

    . This may further be corroborated by the E–W elongation of some of the N–S-oriented seamounts, caused by the addition of magmatic materials and are thus indicative of more than one episode of volcanism. There are additional evidences which indicate volcanic...-brown material from the Japan Basin. Mar. Geol. 129, 331–336. Aumento, F., Mitchell, W.S., 1975. Magnetic spherules from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Geology 3, 407–410. Barrett, T.J., Friedrichsen, H., 1982. Elemental and isotopic composition of some metalliferous...

  4. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR E. PAULIV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian, Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks.

  5. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin), Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliv, Victor E; Dias, Eliseu V; Sedor, Fernando A; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2014-03-01

    The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian), Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present) with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine) base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks.

  6. Hydrogeological behaviour of the Fuente-de-Piedra playa lake and tectonic origin of its basin (Malaga, southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Miguel; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Pedrera, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    Changes in the quantity of groundwater input due to water extraction for irrigation and urban supply has modified the water balance in the Fuente de Piedra playa lake. We have analysed the hydrogeology of the playa-lake system and developed a water-level model by means of a simple long-term water balance and piezometric analysis. In addition, a tectonic model is proposed to explain the endorheic basin development that led to the formation of the playa. Upright folds developed since the late Miocene and density-driven subsidence favoured the setting-up of and endorheic system located between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean basins in the Quaternary. The underlying low permeability rocks beneath the playa form a very stable aquitard with highly saline groundwater that prevents groundwater recharge of the lake into the aquitard. The hydrological modelling allowed us to simulate the evolution of the wáter level under a scenario of unaltered conditions during a 13-year period, showing that the percentage of days with dry conditions varies from 24.8% of the time under altered conditions to 14.9% as far as an unaltered scenario is concerned.

  7. Formation and deformation of the Pannonian Basin: constraints from observational data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, F.; Bada, G.; Szafian, P.; Tari, G.; Adam, A.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    2006-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed spectacular progress in the collection of observational data and their interpretation in the Pannonian Basin and the surrounding Alpine, Carpathian and Dinaric mountain belts. A major driving force behind this progress was the PANCARDI project of the EUROPROBE

  8. Connections between sedimentary basins during continental collision: how tectonic, surface and sedimentary processes shaped the Paratethys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Borgh, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to improve the understanding of source to sink systems in general and the Danube River Basin - Black Sea source to sink system in particular. The sediment sources of this system are formed by a number of mountain chains, including the Alps, Dinarides and Carpathians; a

  9. The character and causes of flash flood occurrence changes in mountainous small basins of Southern California under projected climatic change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Modrick

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: Small watersheds (O[25 km2] in the mountain regions of southern California comprise the study region. Study focus: This paper examines changes in flash flood occurrence in southern California resulting from projected climatic change. The methodology synthesizes elements of meteorological modeling, hydrology and geomorphology into an integrated modeling approach to define flash flood occurrence in a systematic and consistent way on a regional basis with high spatial and temporal resolution appropriate for flash flooding. A single climate model with three-dimensional atmospheric detail was used as input to drive simulations for historical and future periods. New hydrological insights for the region: Results indicate an increase in flash flood occurrence for the study region. For two distributed hydrologic models employed, the increase in flash flood occurrence frequency is on average between 30% and 40%. Regional flash flood occurrence is characterized by near saturation of the upper soil layer, and wider ranges in lower soil layer saturation and in precipitation. Overall, a decrease in the total number of precipitation events was found, although with increased precipitation intensity, increased event duration, and higher soil saturation conditions for the 21st century. This combination could signify more hazardous conditions, with fewer precipitation events but higher rainfall intensity and over soils with higher initial soil moisture saturation, leading to more frequent occurrence of flash floods. Keywords: Flash flooding, Climate change, Soil moisture, Precipitation, Distributed hydrologic modeling

  10. Can a primary remanence be retrieved from partially remagnetized Eocence volcanic rocks in the Nanmulin Basin (southern Tibet) to date the India-Asia collision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Guo, Zhaojie; Waldrip, Ross; Li, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaoran; Liu, Dongdong; Kapp, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Paleomagnetic dating of the India-Asia collision hinges on determining the Paleogene latitude of the Lhasa terrane (southern Tibet). Reported latitudes range from 5°N to 30°N, however, leading to contrasting paleogeographic interpretations. Here we report new data from the Eocene Linzizong volcanic rocks in the Nanmulin Basin, which previously yielded data suggesting a low paleolatitude ( 10°N). New zircon U-Pb dates indicate an age of 52 Ma. Negative fold tests, however, demonstrate that the isolated characteristic remanent magnetizations, with notably varying inclinations, are not primary. Rock magnetic analyses, end-member modeling of isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition curves, and petrographic observations are consistent with variable degrees of posttilting remagnetization due to low-temperature alteration of primary magmatic titanomagnetite and the formation of secondary pigmentary hematite that unblock simultaneously. Previously reported paleomagnetic data from the Nanmulin Basin implying low paleolatitude should thus not be used to estimate the time and latitude of the India-Asia collision. We show that the paleomagnetic inclinations vary linearly with the contribution of secondary hematite to saturation isothermal remanent magnetization. We tentatively propose a new method to recover a primary remanence with inclination of 38.1° (35.7°, 40.5°) (95% significance) and a secondary remanence with inclination of 42.9° (41.5°,44.4°) (95% significance). The paleolatitude defined by the modeled primary remanence—21°N (19.8°N, 23.1°N)—is consistent with the regional compilation of published results from pristine volcanic rocks and sedimentary rocks of the upper Linzizong Group corrected for inclination shallowing. The start of the Tibetan Himalaya-Asia collision was situated at 20°N and took place by 50 Ma.

  11. Oligosarcus jacuiensis (Characiformes: Characidae, a new species from the Uruguay and Jacuí River basins, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naércio Aquino Menezes

    Full Text Available The new species herein described, collected in the Jacuí and Uruguay River basins, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, can be distinguished from the already known species of the genus, but Oligosarcus jenynsii, O. perdido, O. acutirostris, O. solitarius and O. hepsetus, by the number of perforated lateral line scales. It shares with the first two species the absence of a premaxillary foramen, present in the last three species and differs from O. jenynsii by having a smaller orbital diameter and the tip of the pectoral fin failing to reach the pelvic-fin origin, and from O. perdido by the presence of more horizontal scale rows around the caudal peduncle.

  12. The depositional setting of the Late Quaternary sedimentary fill in southern Bannu basin, Northwest Himalayan fold and thrust belt, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Asam; Khalid, Perveiz; Jadoon, Khan Zaib; Jouini, Mohammed Soufiane

    2014-10-01

    Geostatistical variogram and inversion techniques combined with modern visualization tools have made it possible to re-model one-dimensional electrical resistivity data into two-dimensional (2D) models of the near subsurface. The resultant models are capable of extending the original interpretation of the data to depict alluvium layers as individual lithological units within the 2D space. By tuning the variogram parameters used in this approach, it is then possible to visualize individual lithofacies and geomorphological features for these lithologic units. The study re-examines an electrical resistivity dataset collected as part of a groundwater study in an area of the Bannu basin in Pakistan. Additional lithological logs from boreholes throughout the area have been combined with the existing resistivity data for calibration. Tectonic activity during the Himalayan orogeny uplifted and generated significant faulting in the rocks resulting in the formation of a depression which subsequently has been filled with clay-silt and dirty sand facies typical of lacustrine and flood plain environments. Streams arising from adjacent mountains have reworked these facies which have been eroded and replaced by gravel-sand facies along channels. It is concluded that the sediments have been deposited as prograding fan shaped bodies, flood plain, and lacustrine deposits. Clay-silt facies mark the locations of paleo depressions or lake environments, which have changed position over time due to local tectonic activity and sedimentation. The Lakki plain alluvial system has thus formed as a result of local tectonic activity with fluvial erosion and deposition characterized by coarse sediments with high electrical resistivities near the mountain ranges and fine sediments with medium to low electrical resistivities towards the basin center.

  13. The depositional setting of the Late Quaternary sedimentary fill in southern Bannu basin, Northwest Himalayan fold and thrust belt, Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Farid, Asam M.

    2014-07-10

    Geostatistical variogram and inversion techniques combined with modern visualization tools have made it possible to re-model one-dimensional electrical resistivity data into two-dimensional (2D) models of the near subsurface. The resultant models are capable of extending the original interpretation of the data to depict alluvium layers as individual lithological units within the 2D space. By tuning the variogram parameters used in this approach, it is then possible to visualize individual lithofacies and geomorphological features for these lithologic units. The study re-examines an electrical resistivity dataset collected as part of a groundwater study in an area of the Bannu basin in Pakistan. Additional lithological logs from boreholes throughout the area have been combined with the existing resistivity data for calibration. Tectonic activity during the Himalayan orogeny uplifted and generated significant faulting in the rocks resulting in the formation of a depression which subsequently has been filled with clay-silt and dirty sand facies typical of lacustrine and flood plain environments. Streams arising from adjacent mountains have reworked these facies which have been eroded and replaced by gravel-sand facies along channels. It is concluded that the sediments have been deposited as prograding fan shaped bodies, flood plain, and lacustrine deposits. Clay-silt facies mark the locations of paleo depressions or lake environments, which have changed position over time due to local tectonic activity and sedimentation. The Lakki plain alluvial system has thus formed as a result of local tectonic activity with fluvial erosion and deposition characterized by coarse sediments with high electrical resistivities near the mountain ranges and fine sediments with medium to low electrical resistivities towards the basin center. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  14. Lamprophyres from the Harohalli dyke swarm in the Halaguru and Mysore areas, Southern India: Implications for backarc basin magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjewar, Shubhangi; Randive, Kirtikumar

    2018-05-01

    The Bangalore and Harohalli dyke swarms occur in the eastern part of the Dharwar craton. The older Bangalore dyke swarm is made up of dolerites, trending east-west, and the younger contains alkaline dykes that trend approximately north-south. The lamprophyres of the Harohalli dyke swarm occur in the Halaguru and Mysore industrial areas where they are exposed as fresh porphyritic - panidiomorphic dykes, containing crustal xenoliths, and showing chilled contacts with the country rock charnokites. They are chiefly composed of amphiboles which form well-developed phenocrysts. Clinopyroxenes are present in some of the dykes. Compositional zoning is observed in clinopyroxenes and amphiboles; their zoning patterns indicate that the magma experienced cryptic variations and that fractional crystallization was a dominant process in the evolution of the Harohalli Lamprophyres (HRL). The HRL are calc-alkaline with shoshonitic affinity and exhibit a K2O/Na2O ratio of ∼1. They show primitive (MORB-like) trace-element characters. LILE and LREE both show marginally enriched patterns; whereas HFSE and HREE show strongly depleted patterns. In the regional geologic sense, HRL dykes are characterised by two major influences; namely, (i) primary source region characteristics, which are geochemically more primitive, roughly falling within fields of primitive - MORB and enriched- MORB and (ii) the continental lithosphere. The data points for the HRL distinctly show their proximity to N-MORB and scatter towards the continental crust. Moreover, features like xenolith assimilation might influence the trace-element characteristics of the HRL dykes. Such magmas with mixed characters can be formed in a backarc basin environment. Geochemical proxies such as Ba/Nb vs Nb/Yb, Ba/Th vs Th/Nb, and the water content of magmas; which have been effectively used for discriminating backarc basin magmas worldwide, also indicate that the HRL magmas were generated in a backarc environment with inputs from

  15. Vegetation Response to Climate Change in the Southern Part of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at Basinal Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Liu, C.; Kang, Q.; Yin, B.

    2018-04-01

    Global climate change has significantly affected vegetation variation in the third-polar region of the world - the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. As one of the most important indicators of vegetation variation (growth, coverage and tempo-spatial change), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is widely employed to study the response of vegetation to climate change. However, a long-term series analysis cannot be achieved because a single data source is constrained by time sequence. Therefore, a new framework was presented in this paper to extend the product series of monthly NDVI, taking as an example the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, one of the most important river basins in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. NDVI products were acquired from two public sources: Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS). After having been extended using the new framework, the new time series of NDVI covers a 384 months period (1982-2013), 84 months longer than previous time series of NDVI product, greatly facilitating NDVI related scientific research. In the new framework, the Gauss Filtering Method was employed to filter out noise in the NDVI product. Next, the standard method was introduced to enhance the comparability of the two data sources, and a pixel-based regression method was used to construct NDVI-extending models with one pixel after another. The extended series of NDVI fit well with original AVHRR-NDVI. With the extended time-series, temporal trends and spatial heterogeneity of NDVI in the study area were studied. Principal influencing factors on NDVI were further determined. The monthly NDVI is highly correlated with air temperature and precipitation in terms of climatic change wherein the spatially averaged NDVI slightly increases in the summer and has increased in temperature and decreased in precipitation in the 32 years period. The spatial heterogeneity of

  16. VEGETATION RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU AT BASINAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change has significantly affected vegetation variation in the third-polar region of the world – the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. As one of the most important indicators of vegetation variation (growth, coverage and tempo-spatial change, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is widely employed to study the response of vegetation to climate change. However, a long-term series analysis cannot be achieved because a single data source is constrained by time sequence. Therefore, a new framework was presented in this paper to extend the product series of monthly NDVI, taking as an example the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, one of the most important river basins in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. NDVI products were acquired from two public sources: Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR and Moderate-Resolution Imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS. After having been extended using the new framework, the new time series of NDVI covers a 384 months period (1982–2013, 84 months longer than previous time series of NDVI product, greatly facilitating NDVI related scientific research. In the new framework, the Gauss Filtering Method was employed to filter out noise in the NDVI product. Next, the standard method was introduced to enhance the comparability of the two data sources, and a pixel-based regression method was used to construct NDVI-extending models with one pixel after another. The extended series of NDVI fit well with original AVHRR-NDVI. With the extended time-series, temporal trends and spatial heterogeneity of NDVI in the study area were studied. Principal influencing factors on NDVI were further determined. The monthly NDVI is highly correlated with air temperature and precipitation in terms of climatic change wherein the spatially averaged NDVI slightly increases in the summer and has increased in temperature and decreased in precipitation in the 32 years period. The

  17. Stratigraphic record of Pliocene-Pleistocene basin evolution and deformation within the Southern San Andreas Fault Zone, Mecca Hills, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, James C.; Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Housen, Bernard A.; Dimitroff, Cassidy W.; Messé, Graham T.

    2017-11-01

    A thick section of Pliocene-Pleistocene nonmarine sedimentary rocks exposed in the Mecca Hills, California, provides a record of fault-zone evolution along the Coachella Valley segment of the San Andreas fault (SAF). Geologic mapping, measured sections, detailed sedimentology, and paleomagnetic data document a 3-5 Myr history of deformation and sedimentation in this area. SW-side down offset on the Painted Canyon fault (PCF) starting 3.7 Ma resulted in deposition of the Mecca Conglomerate southwest of the fault. The lower member of the Palm Spring Formation accumulated across the PCF from 3.0 to 2.6 Ma during regional subsidence. SW-side up slip on the PCF and related transpressive deformation from 2.6 to 2.3 Ma created a time-transgressive angular unconformity between the lower and upper members of the Palm Spring Formation. The upper member accumulated in discrete fault-bounded depocenters until initiation of modern deformation, uplift, and basin inversion starting at 0.7 Ma. Some spatially restricted deposits can be attributed to the evolution of fault-zone geometric complexities. However, the deformation events at ca. 2.6 Ma and 0.7 Ma are recorded regionally along 80 km of the SAF through Coachella Valley, covering an area much larger than mapped fault-zone irregularities, and thus require regional explanations. We therefore conclude that late Cenozoic deformation and sedimentation along the SAF in Coachella Valley has been controlled by a combination of regional tectonic drivers and local deformation due to dextral slip through fault-zone complexities. We further propose a kinematic link between the 2.6-2.3 Ma angular unconformity and a previously documented but poorly dated reorganization of plate-boundary faults in the northern Gulf of California at 3.3-2.0 Ma. This analysis highlights the potential for high-precision chronologies in deformed terrestrial deposits to provide improved understanding of local- to regional-scale structural controls on basin

  18. Seismic Velocity Structure and Improved Seismic Image of the Southern Depression of the Tainan Basin from Pre-Stack Depth Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunshu Tang Chan Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a velocity model of the Southern Depression of the Tainan Basin is obtained along with its migrated image from an iterative pre-stack depth migration approach. The Cenozoic strata are uniformly layered with velocities varying from ~1.8 to ~3.6 km s-1. However, the general velocity is slightly lower in the NW segment than the SE. Both fractures and burial depth might be the controls of their seismic velocities. There is an unconformable contact between the Cenozoic and underlying Mesozoic strata with an abrupt velocity jump from ~3.2 to ~4.3 km s-1. The Mesozoic strata are recognized with acoustically distinct reflection patterns (chaotic, deformed and discontinuous and complex internal structures (uplift, folds and faults. Their interval velocities range from ~4.3 to ~4.7 km s-1 within a depth from ~3.5 down to ~12.5 km, and the maximum depositional thickness reaches up to 6.5 km. Multiple tectonic events such as collision, subsidence and uplift might be responsible for the complexity of the Mesozoic strata.

  19. Regional Tectonic Control of Tertiary Mineralization and Recent Faulting in the Southern Basin-Range Province, an Application of ERTS-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, I. C.; Liggett, M. A.; Childs, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Research based on ERTS-1 MSS imagery and field work in the southern Basin-Range Province of California, Nevada and Arizona has shown regional tectonic control of volcanism, plutonism, mineralization and faulting. This paper covers an area centered on the Colorado River between 34 15' N and 36 45' N. During the mid-Tertiary, the area was the site of plutonism and genetically related volcanism fed by fissure systems now exposed as dike swarms. Dikes, elongate plutons, and coeval normal faults trend generally northward and are believed to have resulted from east-west crustal extension. In the extensional province, gold silver mineralization is closely related to Tertiary igneous activity. Similarities in ore, structural setting, and rock types define a metallogenic district of high potential for exploration. The ERTS imagery also provides a basis for regional inventory of small faults which cut alluvium. This capability for efficient regional surveys of Recent faulting should be considered in land use planning, geologic hazards study, civil engineering and hydrology.

  20. Mantle wedge structure beneath the Yamato Basin, southern part of the Japan Sea, revealed by long-term seafloor seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, M.; Nakahigashi, K.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamada, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Shiobara, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Japanese Islands are located at subduction zones where Philippine Sea (PHS) plate subducts from the southeast beneath the Eurasian plate and the Pacific plate descends from the east beneath the PHS and Eurasian plates and have a high density of seismic stations. Many seismic tomography studies using land seismic station data were conducted to reveal the seismic structure. These studies discussed the relationship between heterogeneous structures and the release of fluids from the subducting slab, magma generation and movement in the subduction zone. However, regional tomography using the land station data did not have a sufficient resolution to image a deep structure beneath the Japan Sea.To obtain the deep structure, observations of natural earthquakes within the Japan Sea are essential. Therefore, we started the repeating long-term seismic observations using ocean bottom seismometers(OBSs) in the Yamato Basin from 2013 to 2016. We apply travel-time tomography method to the regional earthquake and teleseismic arrival-data recorded by OBSs and land stations. In this presentation, we will report the P and S wave tomographic images down to a depth of 300 km beneath the southern part of the Japan Sea. This study was supported by "Integrated Research Project on Seismic and Tsunami Hazards around the Sea of Japan" conducted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) of Japan.

  1. Spatial data fusion and analysis for soil characterization: a case study in a coastal basin of south-western Sicily (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Sollitto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious problems confronting sustainable agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions. Accurate mapping of soil salinization and the associated risk represent a fundamental step in planning agricultural and remediation activities. Geostatistical analysis is very useful for soil quality assessment because it makes it possible to determine the spatial relationships between selected variables and to produce synthetic maps of spatial variation. The main objective of this paper was to map the soil salinization risk in the Delia-Nivolelli alluvial basin (south-western Sicily, southern Italy, using multivariate geostatistical techniques and a set of topographical, physical and soil hydraulic properties. Elevation data were collected from existing topographic maps and analysed preliminarily to improve the estimate precision of sparsely sampled primary variables. For interpolation multi-collocated cokriging was applied to the dataset, including textural and hydraulic properties and electrical conductivity measurements carried out on 128 collected soil samples, using elevation data as auxiliary variable. Spatial dependence among elevation and physical soil properties was explored with factorial kriging analysis (FKA that could isolate and display the sources of variation acting at different spatial scales. FKA isolated significant regionalised factors which give a concise description of the complex soil physical variability at the different selected spatial scales. These factors mapped, allowed the delineation of zones at different salinisation risk to be managed separately to control and prevent salinization risk. The proposed methodology could be a valid support for land use and soil remediation planning at regional scale.

  2. Formation mechanisms and sequence response of authigenic grain-coating chlorite: evidence from the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the southern Sichuan Basin, China

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    Yu Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Authigenic grain-coating chlorite is widely distributed in the clastic rocks of many sedimentary basins around the world. These iron minerals were mainly derived from flocculent precipitates formed when rivers flow into the ocean, especially in deltaic environments with high hydrodynamic conditions. At the same time, sandstone sequences with grain-coating chlorites also tend to have relatively high glauconite and pyrite content. EPMA composition analysis shows that glauconites with “high Al and low Fe” content indicate slightly to semi-saline marine environments with weak alkaline and weakly reducing conditions. By analyzing the chlorite-containing sandstone bodies of the southern Sichuan Xujiahe Formation, this study found that chlorite was mainly distributed in sedimentary microfacies, including underwater distributary channels, distributary channels, shallow lake sandstone dams, and mouth bars. Chlorite had a tendency to form in the upper parts of sandstone bodies with signs of increased base level, representing the influence of marine (lacustrine transgression. This is believed to be influenced by megamonsoons in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region during the Late Triassic Epoch. During periods of abundant precipitation, river discharges increased and more Fe particulates flowed into the ocean (lake. In the meantime, increases or decreases in lake level were only affected by precipitation for short periods of time. The sedimentary environment shifted from weakly oxidizing to weak alkaline, weakly reducing conditions as sea level increased, and Fe-rich minerals as authigenic chlorite and glauconite began to form and deposit.

  3. Permeability Prediction in Deep Coal Seam: A Case Study on the No. 3 Coal Seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The coal permeability is an important parameter in mine methane control and coal bed methane (CBM) exploitation, which determines the practicability of methane extraction. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam plays a significant role in evaluating the practicability of CBM exploitation. The coal permeability depends on the coal fractures controlled by strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature which change with depth. The effect of the strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature on the coal (the coal matrix and fracture) under triaxial stress and strain conditions was studied. Then we got the change of coal porosity with strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature and established a coal permeability model under tri-axial stress and strain conditions. The permeability of the No. 3 coal seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China was predicted, which is consistent with that tested in the field. The effect of the sorption swelling on porosity (permeability) firstly increases rapidly and then slowly with the increase of depth. However, the effect of thermal expansion and effective stress compression on porosity (permeability) increases linearly with the increase of depth. The most effective way to improve the permeability in exploiting CBM or extracting methane is to reduce the effective stress. PMID:24396293

  4. Radiogeochronologic data on rocks of crystalline massifs of Western Carpathians and their interpretation in radiogeochronologic dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, B.

    1979-01-01

    The results are summed up and evaluated of the measurement of the age of various crystalline rocks in the Western Carpathians using the method of isotope dating. The obtained results show that the rocks in the Western Carpathians were formed in the period of the Variscian and Alpine orogenesis, ie., 90 to 550 million years ago. A list of problems is given which must be resolved using radiogeochronological methods for age determination of geological processes and for specifying the stratigraphy of crystalline rocks in the Western Carpathians. (Ha)

  5. Late Archaic–Early Formative period microbotanical evidence for potato at Jiskairumoko in the Titicaca Basin of southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumold, Claudia Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this paper provide direct microbotanical evidence concerning the early use of potato (Solanum tuberosum) within its botanical locus of origin in the high south-central Andes. The data derive from Jiskairumoko, an early village site in the western Titicaca Basin dating to the Late Archaic to Early Formative periods (∼3,400 cal y BC to 1,600 cal y BC). Because the site reflects the transition to sedentism and food production, these data may relate to potato domestication and early cultivation. Of 141 starch microremains recovered from 14 groundstone tools from Jiskairumoko, 50 are identified as consistent with cultivated or domesticated potato, based on reference to published materials and a study of wild and cultivated potato starch morphology. Along with macro- and microbotanical evidence for chenopod consumption and grinding tool data reflecting intensive use of this technology throughout site occupation, the microbotanical data reported here suggest the intensive exploitation, if not cultivation, of plant resources at Jiskairumoko. Elucidating the details of the trajectory of potato domestication is necessary for an overall understanding of the development of highland Andean agriculture, as this crop is central to the autochthonous agricultural suite. A paucity of direct botanical evidence, however, has hindered research efforts. The results of the modern and archaeological starch analyses presented here underscore the utility of this method in addressing questions related to the timing, mode, and context of potato origins. PMID:27849582

  6. Late Archaic-Early Formative period microbotanical evidence for potato at Jiskairumoko in the Titicaca Basin of southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumold, Claudia Ursula; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2016-11-29

    The data presented in this paper provide direct microbotanical evidence concerning the early use of potato (Solanum tuberosum) within its botanical locus of origin in the high south-central Andes. The data derive from Jiskairumoko, an early village site in the western Titicaca Basin dating to the Late Archaic to Early Formative periods (∼3,400 cal y BC to 1,600 cal y BC). Because the site reflects the transition to sedentism and food production, these data may relate to potato domestication and early cultivation. Of 141 starch microremains recovered from 14 groundstone tools from Jiskairumoko, 50 are identified as consistent with cultivated or domesticated potato, based on reference to published materials and a study of wild and cultivated potato starch morphology. Along with macro- and microbotanical evidence for chenopod consumption and grinding tool data reflecting intensive use of this technology throughout site occupation, the microbotanical data reported here suggest the intensive exploitation, if not cultivation, of plant resources at Jiskairumoko. Elucidating the details of the trajectory of potato domestication is necessary for an overall understanding of the development of highland Andean agriculture, as this crop is central to the autochthonous agricultural suite. A paucity of direct botanical evidence, however, has hindered research efforts. The results of the modern and archaeological starch analyses presented here underscore the utility of this method in addressing questions related to the timing, mode, and context of potato origins.

  7. Rainfall Variability, Wetland Persistence, and Water–Carbon Cycle Coupling in the Upper Zambezi River Basin in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. L. Lowman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Zambezi River Basin (UZRB delineates a complex region of topographic, soil and rainfall gradients between the Congo rainforest and the Kalahari Desert. Satellite imagery shows permanent wetlands in low-lying convergence zones where surface–groundwater interactions are vigorous. A dynamic wetland classification based on MODIS Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance is developed to capture the inter-annual and seasonal changes in areal extent due to groundwater redistribution and rainfall variability. Simulations of the coupled water–carbon cycles of seasonal wetlands show nearly double rates of carbon uptake as compared to dry areas, at increasingly lower water-use efficiencies as the dry season progresses. Thus, wetland extent and persistence into the dry season is key to the UZRB’s carbon sink and water budget. Whereas groundwater recharge governs the expansion of wetlands in the rainy season under large-scale forcing, wetland persistence in April–June (wet–dry transition months is tied to daily morning fog and clouds, and by afternoon land–atmosphere interactions (isolated convection. Rainfall suppression in July–September results from colder temperatures, weaker regional circulations, and reduced instability in the lower troposphere, shutting off moisture recycling in the dry season despite high evapotranspiration rates. The co-organization of precipitation and wetlands reflects land–atmosphere interactions that determine wetland seasonal persistence, and the coupled water and carbon cycles.

  8. Economic Evaluation of Hydrological Ecosystem Services in Mediterranean River Basins Applied to a Case Study in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mastrorilli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Land use affects eco-hydrological processes with consequences for floods and droughts. Changes in land use affect ecosystems and hydrological services. The objective of this study is the analysis of hydrological services through the quantification of water resources, pollutant loads, land retention capacity and soil erosion. On the basis of a quantitative evaluation, the economic values of the ecosystem services are estimated. By assigning an economic value to the natural resources and to the hydraulic system, the hydrological services can be computed at the scale of catchment ecosystem. The proposed methodology was applied to the basin “Bonis” (Calabria Region, Italy. The study analyses four land use scenarios: (i forest cover with good vegetative status (baseline scenario; (ii modification of the forest canopy; (iii variation in forest and cultivated surfaces; (iv insertion of impermeable areas. The simulations prove that the variations of the state of forest areas has considerable influence on the water balance, and then on the provided economic value. Small economic changes derive from reducing the impermeable areas. Increasing the agricultural area to 50% of the total, and reducing the forest surface, affects soil erosion, reduces the storage capacity of the water, and consequently the water harvesting. The suggested methodology can be considered a suitable tool for land planning.

  9. Lacustrine Environment Reservoir Properties on Sandstone Minerals and Hydrocarbon Content: A Case Study on Doba Basin, Southern Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumery, N. F. Mohd; Lo, S. Z.; Salim, A. M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The contribution of lacustrine environment as the hydrocarbon reservoir has been widely known. However, despite its growing importance, the lacustrine petroleum geology has received far less attention than marine due to its sedimentological complexity. This study therefore aims in developing an understanding of the unique aspects of lacustrine reservoirs which eventually impacts the future exploration decisions. Hydrocarbon production in Doba Basin, particularly the northern boundary, for instance, has not yet succeeded due to the unawareness of its depositional environment. The drilling results show that the problems were due to the: radioactive sand and waxy oil/formation damage, which all are related to the lacustrine depositional environment. Detailed study of geological and petrophysical integration on wireline logs and petrographic thin sections analysis of this environment helps in distinguishing reservoir and non-reservoir areas and determining the possible mechanism causing the failed DST results. The interpretations show that the correlation of all types> of logs and rho matrix analysis are capable in identifying sand and shale bed despite of the radioactive sand present. The failure of DST results were due to the presence of arkose in sand and waxy oil in reservoir bed. This had been confirmed by the petrographic thin section analysis where the arkose has mineral twinning effect indicate feldspar and waxy oil showing bright colour under fluorescent light. Understanding these special lacustrine environment characteristics and features will lead to a better interpretation of hydrocarbon prospectivity for future exploration.

  10. Evaluation of landslide monitoring in the Polish Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Baum, Rex L.; Mrozek, Teresa; Nescieruk, Piotr; Perski, Zbigniew; Raczkowski, Wojciech; Graniczny, Marek

    2011-01-01

    In response to the June 15, 2010 request from the Polish Geological Institute (PGI) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for assistance and advice regarding real-time landslide monitoring, landslide specialists from the USGS Landslide Hazard Program visited PGI headquarters and field sites in September 2010. During our visit we became familiar with characteristics of landslides in the Polish Carpathians, reviewed PGI monitoring techniques, and assessed needs for monitoring at recently activated landslides. Visits to several landslides that are monitored by PGI (the Just, Hańczowa, Szymbark, Siercza and Łasńica landslides) revealed that current data collection (monthly GPS and inclinometer surveys, hourly piezometers readings) is generally sufficient for collecting basic information about landslide displacement, depth, and groundwater conditions. Large landslides are typically hydrologically complex, and we would expect such complexity in Carpathian landslides, given the alternating shale and sandstone stratigraphy and complex geologic structures of the flysch bedrock. Consequently groundwater observations could be improved by installing several piezometers that sample the basal shear zone of each landslide being monitored by PGI. These could be supplemented by additional piezometers at shallower depths to help clarify general flow directions and hydraulic gradients. Remedial works at Hańczowa

  11. Status of groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units, 2005-08: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study units are located in California's Central Valley and include parts of Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Placer, Sacramento, Shasta, Solano, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The three study units were designated to provide spatially-unbiased assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in three parts of the Central Valley hydrogeologic province, as well as to provide a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality regionally and statewide. Samples were collected in 2005 (Southern Sacramento Valley), 2006 (Middle Sacramento Valley), and 2007-08 (Northern Sacramento Valley). The GAMA studies in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley were designed to provide statistically robust assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer systems that are used for drinking-water supply. The assessments are based on water-quality data collected by the USGS from 235 wells in the three study units in 2005-08, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, referred to as primary aquifers) assessed in this study are defined by the depth intervals of the wells in the CDPH database for each study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The status of the current quality of the groundwater resource was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic

  12. Environmental risk assessment in five rivers of Parana River basin, Southern Brazil, through biomarkers in Astyanax spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ivaldete Tijolin; Ceccon, Juliana Parolin; Glinski, Andressa; Liebel, Samuel; Grötzner, Sonia Regina; Randi, Marco Antonio Ferreira; Benedito, Evanilde; Ortolani-Machado, Claudia Feijó; Filipak Neto, Francisco; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2017-07-01

    In the current study, water quality of five river sites in Parana River basin (Brazil), utilized for public water supply, was assessed through a set of biomarkers in fish Astyanax spp. Population growth and inadequate use of land are challenges to the preservation of biodiversity and resources such as water. Some physicochemical parameters as well as somatic indexes, gills and liver histopathology, genotoxicity, and biochemical biomarkers were evaluated. The highest gonadosomatic index (GSI) and antioxidant parameters (catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities, non-protein thiols), as well as the lowest damage to biomolecules (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, DNA damage) were observed in site 0 (Piava River), which is located at an environmental protected area. Site 1, located in the same river, but downstream site 0 and outside the protection area, presents some level of impact. Fish from site 2 (Antas River), which lack of riparian forest and suffer from silting, presented the highest micronucleus incidence and no melanomacrophages. Differently, individuals from site 3 (Xambrê River) and site 4 (Pinhalzinho River) which receive surface runoff from Umuarama city, urban and industrial sewage, have the highest incidences of liver and gill histopathological alterations, including neoplasia, which indicated the worst health conditions of all sites. In particular, site 4 had high levels of total nitrogen and ammonia, high turbidity, and very low oxygen levels, which indicate important chemical impact. Comparison of the biomarkers in fish allowed classification of the five sites in terms of environmental impact and revealed that sites 3 and 4 had particular poor water quality.

  13. Evaluation of the Tindouf Basin Region in Southern Morocco as an Analog Site for Soil Geochemistry on Noachian Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Elizabeth A; Claire, Mark W; Kounaves, Samuel P

    2018-02-09

    Locations on Earth that provide insights into processes that may be occurring or may have occurred throughout martian history are often broadly deemed "Mars analog environments." As no single locale can precisely represent a past or present martian environment, it is important to focus on characterization of terrestrial processes that produce analogous features to those observed in specific regions of Mars or, if possible, specific time periods during martian history. Here, we report on the preservation of ionic species in soil samples collected from the Tindouf region of Morocco and compare them with the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, the Atacama Desert in Chile, the martian meteorite EETA79001, and the in situ Mars analyses from the Phoenix Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL). The Moroccan samples show the greatest similarity with those from Victoria Valley, Beacon Valley, and the Atacama, while being consistently depleted compared to University Valley and enriched compared to Taylor Valley. The NO 3 /Cl ratios are most similar to Victoria Valley and Atacama, while the SO 4 /Cl ratios are similar to those from Beacon Valley, Victoria Valley, and the Atacama. While perchlorate concentrations in the Moroccan samples are typically lower than those found in samples of other analog sites, conditions in the region are sufficiently arid to retain oxychlorines at detectable levels. Our results suggest that the Tindouf Basin in Morocco can serve as a suitable analogue for the soil geochemistry and subsequent aridification of the Noachian epoch on Mars. Key Words: Mars analogues-Antarctica-Morocco-Oxyanions-Perchlorate-Nitrate. Astrobiology 18, xxx-xxx.

  14. Insights upon upper crustal arhitecture of a subduction zone and its surroundings - Vrancea Zone and Focsani Basin - substantiated by geophysical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.; Mocanu, V.

    2007-12-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the proposed objective of obtaining new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappes and the architecture of Tertiary/Quaternary basin developed within and adjacent to the Vrancea zone, including the rapidly subsiding Focsani Basin. The DACIA-PLAN profile is about 140 km long, having a roughly NW-SE direction, from near the southeast Transylvanian Basin, across the mountainous southeastern Carpathians and their foreland to near the Danube River. A high resolution 2.5D velocity model of the upper crust along the seismic profile has been determined from a tomographic inversion and a 2D ray tracing forward modelling of the DACIA PLAN first arrival data. Peculiar shallow high velocities indicate that pre-Tertiary basement in the Vrancea Zone (characterised by velocities greater than 5.6 km/s) is involved in Carpathian thrusting while rapid alternance, vertically or horizontally, of velocity together with narrowingly contemporary crustal events suggests uplifting. Further to the east, at the foreland basin-thrust belt transition zone (well defined within velocity values), the velocity model suggests a nose of the Miocene Subcarpathians nappe being underlain by Focsani Basin units. A Miocene and younger Focsani Basin sedimentary succession of ~10 km thickness is ascertained by a gradual increase of velocities and strongly defined velocity boundaries.

  15. Seismic velocities within the sedimentary succession of the Canada Basin and southern Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean: evidence for accelerated porosity reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeld, John; Li, Qingmou; Chian, Deping; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth; Mosher, David; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

    2016-01-01

    The Canada Basin and the southern Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex underlie a significant proportion of the Arctic Ocean, but the geology of this undrilled and mostly ice-covered frontier is poorly known. New information is encoded in seismic wide-angle reflections and refractions recorded with expendable sonobuoys between 2007 and 2011. Velocity–depth samples within the sedimentary succession are extracted from published analyses for 142 of these records obtained at irregularly spaced stations across an area of 1.9E + 06 km2. The samples are modelled at regional, subregional and station-specific scales using an exponential function of inverse velocity versus depth with regionally representative parameters determined through numerical regression. With this approach, smooth, non-oscillatory velocity–depth profiles can be generated for any desired location in the study area, even where the measurement density is low. Practical application is demonstrated with a map of sedimentary thickness, derived from seismic reflection horizons interpreted in the time domain and depth converted using the velocity–depth profiles for each seismic trace. A thickness of 12–13 km is present beneath both the upper Mackenzie fan and the middle slope off of Alaska, but the sedimentary prism thins more gradually outboard of the latter region. Mapping of the observed-to-predicted velocities reveals coherent geospatial trends associated with five subregions: the Mackenzie fan; the continental slopes beyond the Mackenzie fan; the abyssal plain; the southwestern Canada Basin; and, the Alpha-Mendeleev magnetic domain. Comparison of the subregional velocity–depth models with published borehole data, and interpretation of the station-specific best-fitting model parameters, suggests that sandstone is not a predominant lithology in any of the five subregions. However, the bulk sand-to-shale ratio likely increases towards the Mackenzie fan, and the model for this subregion compares

  16. Integrated geophysical studies on the area east of Abu Gharadig basin, southern Cairo, Egypt, using potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, Mohammed Mohamed; El-Badrawy, Hussein Tawfek; Abuo El-Ela, Amin Mohamed; Solimaan, Mohamed Refaat; Alrefaee, Hamed Abdelhamid; Elbowab, Mostafa

    2016-12-01

    Potential field data of the area east of Abu Gharadig basin were used to delineate the tectonic framework of probable economic interest and for future development plans for the area. To achieve this goal, the RTP and Bouguer gravity maps of the study area were subjected to several filtering and processing techniques. The regional magnetic map shows NE-SW high regional magnetic trends at the northwestern and southeastern parts as well as low magnetic trends at the central part reflecting thick non-magnetized sediments and/or deep highly magnetized basement rocks. Similarly, the regional gravity map shows NE-SW diagonal high and low gravity trends across the entire area of study as well as a distinct increase of gravity values toward the northwest corner reflecting thickening of sedimentary cover and/or deepening of denser basement rock at the central part. The residual maps reveal many anomalies of shallow sources with different polarities, amplitudes and extensions in the form of alternating high and low gravity and magnetic indicating that the basement rocks are dissected by faults forming uplifted and downthrown blocks. Edge detection techniques outlined effectively the boarders and extensions of the structural highs and lows through showing gravity and magnetic maxima over the edges of these tectonic features. Moreover, the River Nile course is controlled by shallow normal faults affecting the recent Nile sediments and is clearly shown by edge detection maps of gravity data. Euler deconvolution of magnetic and gravity data reveals clustering of solution along fault trends or causative bodies centers. The Euler depth estimate to the basement surface shows a good correlation with the depth determined by the power spectrum method where its value ranges around 4 km. The interpreted basement tectonic map of the study area is dominated by ENE-WSW Syrian Arc, NW-SE Gulf of Suez and Red Sea, NE-SW Aqaba, E-W Mediterranean and N-S East Africa tectonic trends. The older

  17. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units, 2006-2007--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The three study units are located in the Sierra Nevada region of California in parts of Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Madera, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems used for drinking water. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) for each study unit are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 132 wells in the three study units during 2006 and 2007 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those

  18. Basaltic lava flows covering active aeolian dunes in the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil: Features and emplacement aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waichel, Breno L.; Scherer, Claiton M. S.; Frank, Heinrich T.

    2008-03-01

    Burial of active aeolian dunes by lava flows can preserve the morphology of the dunes and generate diverse features related to interaction between unconsolidated sediments and lavas. In the study area, located in southern Brazil, burial of aeolian deposits by Cretaceous basaltic lava flows completely preserved dunes, and generate sand-deformation features, sand diapirs and peperite-like breccia. The preserved dunes are crescentic and linear at the main contact with basalts, and smaller crescentic where interlayered with lavas. The various feature types formed on sediment surfaces by the advance of the flows reflect the emplacement style of the lavas which are compound pahoehoe type. Four feature types can be recognized: (a) type 1 features are related to the advance of sheet flows in dune-interdune areas with slopes > 5°, (b) type 2 is formed where the lava flows advance in lobes and climb the stoss slope of crescentic dunes (slopes 8-12°), (c) type 3 is generated by toes that descend the face of linear dunes (slopes 17-23°) and (d) type 4 occurs when lava lobes descend the stoss slope of crescentic dunes (slopes 10-15°). The direction of the flows, the disposition and morphology of the dunes and the ground slope are the main factors controlling formation of the features. The injection of unconsolidated sand in lava lobes forms diapirs and peperite-like breccias. Sand diapirs occur at the basal portion of lobes where the lava was more solidified. Peperite-like breccias occur in the inner portion where lava was more plastic, favoring the mingling of the components. The generation of both features is related to a mechanical process: the weight of the lava causes the injection of sand into the lava and the warming of the air in the pores of the sand facilitates this process. The lava-sediment interaction features presented here are consistent with previous reports of basalt lavas with unconsolidated arid sediments, and additional new sand-deformation features

  19. Variability of snow line elevation, snow cover area and depletion in the main Slovak basins in winters 2001–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajčí Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variability of snow line (SL elevation, snow cover area (SCA and depletion (SCD in winters 2001–2014 is investigated in ten main Slovak river basins (the Western Carpathians. Daily satellite snow cover maps from MODIS Terra (MOD10A1, V005 and Aqua (MYD10A1, V005 with resolution 500 m are used.

  20. Facies analysis of the Balta Formation: Evidence for a large late Miocene fluvio-deltaic system in the East Carpathian Foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoshko, Anton; Matoshko, Andrei; de Leeuw, Arjan; Stoica, Marius

    2016-08-01

    Deposits of the Balta Fm are preserved in a large arcuate sediment body that covers about 60,000 km2 and is up to 350 m thick. The Balta Fm spans ca. 5 Ma as constrained by underlying Tortonian (Bessarabian) and overlying Messinian (early Pontian) Paratethys strata. It contains frequent terrestrial mammal fossils and fresh- as well as brackish-water (Paratethys) molluscs and ostracods. Over the past 140 years our understanding of the sedimentary architecture of the formation and its origins has remained in its infancy, which has limited insight into the evolution of the East Carpathian Foreland. Here, we provide the first modern sedimentary facies analysis of the Balta Fm, which is integrated with an extensive review of previously published local literature. It is supported with micropalaeontological results and a wealth of historical borehole information. We show that the Balta Fm has a tripartite vertical division. Its lowermost part is clay dominated and consists of subordinate delta front sand bodies interspersed between muds. The middle unit contains separate delta plain channels or channel belts encased in thick muds. These are overlain by a unit with amalgamated delta plain channel deposits with only minor amounts of associated mud. The abundance of upper flow regime sedimentary structures in channel sands, the absence of peats (or coals) and the presence of calcareous nodules suggest a strongly seasonal and relatively dry climate with a flashy discharge regime. Deposition of the Balta Fm in an area previously characterized by distal shelf and prodelta environments indicates large-scale progradation triggered by high sediment volume from the uplifting Carpathian Orogen and enhanced by a general lowering of Paratethys sea-level. The tripartite internal architecture of the Balta Fm indicates that progradation continued during deposition. Its wedge-shaped geometry suggests that tectonic activity in the Carpathians generated a 300 km wide foreland basin that

  1. Implementation of a subcanopy solar radiation model on a forested headwater basin in the Southern Appalachians to estimate riparian canopy density and stream insolation for stream temperature models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belica, L.; Petras, V.; Iiames, J. S., Jr.; Caldwell, P.; Mitasova, H.; Nelson, S. A. C.

    2016-12-01

    Water temperature is a key aspect of water quality and understanding how the thermal regimes of forested headwater streams may change in response to climatic and land cover changes is increasingly important to scientists and resource managers. In recent years, the forested mountain watersheds of the Southeastern U.S. have experienced changing climatic patterns as well as the loss of a keystone riparian tree species and anticipated hydrologic responses include lower summer stream flows and decreased stream shading. Solar radiation is the main source of thermal energy to streams and a key parameter in heat-budget models of stream temperature; a decrease in flow volume combined with a reduction in stream shading during summer have the potential to increase stream temperatures. The high spatial variability of forest canopies and the high spatio-temporal variability in sky conditions make estimating the solar radiation reaching small forested headwater streams difficult. The Subcanopy Solar Radiation Model (SSR) (Bode et al. 2014) is a GIS model that generates high resolution, spatially explicit estimates of solar radiation by incorporating topographic and vegetative shading with a light penetration index derived from leaf-on airborne LIDAR data. To evaluate the potential of the SSR model to provide estimates of stream insolation to parameterize heat-budget models, it was applied to the Coweeta Basin in the Southern Appalachians using airborne LIDAR (NCALM 2009, 1m resolution). The LIDAR derived canopy characteristics were compared to current hyperspectral images of the canopy for changes and the SSR estimates of solar radiation were compared with pyranometer measurements of solar radiation at several subcanopy sites during the summer of 2016. Preliminary results indicate the SSR model was effective in identifying variations in canopy density and light penetration, especially in areas associated with road and stream corridors and tree mortality. Current LIDAR data and

  2. Constraining the India-Asia collision by retrieving the paleolatitude from partially remagnetized Paleogene volcanics in the Nanmulin Basin (southern Tibet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Lippert, Peter; Dekkers, Mark; Guo, Zhaojie; Li, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaoran

    2014-05-01

    Determining paleolatitudes of the Lhasa terrane (southern Tibet) using paleomagnetic inclinations is key to constraining the paleogeography and timing of the collision between India and Asia. However, paleolatitude estimates vary widely from 5°N to 30°N due to unrecognized rock magnetic biases such as inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks or poor averaging of secular variation in volcanic rocks. Here, we investigated Paleogene volcanics of the Linzizong Group from southern Tibet in the Nanmulin Basin that had previously yielded low paleomagnetic inclinations ca. 10°N. Using proper paleomagnetic sampling and measurement protocols we observe similar shallow inclinations. However, sampled sections with different bedding attitudes yield a negative fold test indicating that the isolated remanent magnetizations do not have a primary origin. Detailed rock magnetic analysis, end-member modeling, and petrographic investigation reveal that most of the section has been variably remagnetized due to low-temperature alteration of magmatic titanomagnetite and formation of secondary hematite, which occurred after tilting of the strata. We show that the observed paleomagnetic inclinations vary according to a linear trend with the degree of remagnetization. Accordingly, we can estimate that the primary pre-tilting thermoremanent magnetization has an inclination of 38.1° ([35.7°, 40.5°] within 95% confidence limit), corresponding to a paleolatitude of 21.4° ([19.8°, 23.1°] within 95% confidence limit). This is consistent with results from pristine volcanic units and inclination-shallowing corrected sediments of the upper Linzizong Group ~200 km to the east [Dupont-Nivet et al., Geophysical Journal International, 182, 1189-1198; Huang et al., Geophysical Journal International, 194, 1390-1411]. Our results demonstrate that previously reported low paleolatitudes of the Lhasa terrane can be an artifact of unrecognized remagnetization. Furthermore, we show that original

  3. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  4. Kaolinite, illite and quartz dissolution in the karstification of Paleozoic sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mário Sérgio de; Guimarães, Gilson Burigo; Chinelatto, Adilson Luiz; Giannini, Paulo César Fonseca; Pontes, Henrique Simão; Chinelatto, Adriana Scoton Antonio; Atencio, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Karstification processes in sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Silurian to Devonian of the Paraná Basin, have been described since the mid-twentieth century. However, some geologists still doubt the idea of true karst in sandstones. Studies carried out in the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, aimed at investigating the nature of erosion processes in Furnas Formation and the role of the dissolution in the development of their notorious erosive features and underground cavities. These studies have led to the recognition of dissolution macro to micro features ('furnas', caves, ponds, sinks, ruiniform relief on cliffs and rocky surfaces, grain corrosion, speleothems, mineral reprecipitation and incrustation). The analysis (scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray diffractometry) of sandstones and their alterites has indicated significant dissolution of clay cement along with discrete quartz grain dissolution. This mesodiagenetic cement (kaolinite and illite) is dissolved and reprecipitated as clay minerals with poorly developed crystallinity along with other minerals, such as variscite and minerals of the alunite supergroup, suggesting organic participation in the processes of dissolution and incrustation. The mineral reprecipitation usually forms centimetric speleothems, found in cavities and sheltered rocky surfaces. The cement dissolution associated with other factors (fractures, wet weather, strong hydraulic gradient, antiquity of the landforms) leads to the rock arenisation, the underground erosion and the appearance of the karst features. Carbonate rocks in the basement may locally be increasing the karst forms in the overlying Furnas Formation. The recognition of the karst character of the Furnas Formation sandstones has important implications in the management of underground water resources (increasingly exploited in the region), in the use of the unique geological heritage and in the prevention of geo

  5. Temporal properties of seismicity and largest earthquakes in SE Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Byrdina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the hazard rate distribution of the largest seismic events in Vrancea, South-Eastern Carpathians, we study temporal properties of historical and instrumental catalogues of seismicity. First, on the basis of Generalized Extreme Value theory we estimate the average return period of the largest events. Then, following Bak et al. (2002 and Corral (2005a, we study scaling properties of recurrence times between earthquakes in appropriate spatial volumes. We come to the conclusion that the seismicity is temporally clustered, and that the distribution of recurrence times is significantly different from a Poisson process even for times largely exceeding corresponding periods of foreshock and aftershock activity. Modeling the recurrence times by a gamma distributed variable, we finally estimate hazard rates with respect to the time elapsed from the last large earthquake.

  6. New 3D Gravity Model of the Lithosphere and new Approach of the Gravity Field Transformation in the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielik, M.; Tasarova, Z. A.; Goetze, H.; Mikuska, J.; Pasteka, R.

    2007-12-01

    The 3-D forward modeling was performed for the Western Carpathians and the Pannonian Basin system. The density model includes 31 cross-sections, extends to depth of 220 km. By means of the combined 3-D modeling, new estimates of the density distribution of the crust and upper mantle, as well as depths of the Moho were derived. These data allowed to perform gravity stripping, which in the area of the Pannonian Basin is crucial for the signal analysis of the gravity field. In this region, namely, two pronounced features (i.e. the deep sedimentary basins and shallow Moho) with opposite gravity effects make it impossible to analyze the Bouguer anomaly by field separation or filtering. The results revealed a significantly different nature of the Western Carpathian- Pannonian region (ALACAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates) from the European Platform lithosphere (i.e. these microplates to be much less dense than the surrounding European Platform lithosphere). The calculation of the transformed gravity maps by means of new method provided the additional information on the lithospheric structure. The use of existing elevation information represents an independent approach to the problem of transformation of gravity maps. Instead of standard separation and transformation methods both in wave-number and spatial domains, this method is based on the estimating of really existing linear trends within the values of complete Bouguer anomalies (CBA), which are understood as a function defined in 3D space. An important assumption that the points with known input values of CBA lie on a horizontal plane is therefore not required. Instead, the points with known CBA and elevation values are treated in their original positions, i.e. on the Earth surface.

  7. Apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He dating of teschenite intrusions gives time constraints on accretionary processes and development of planation surfaces in the Outer Western Carpathians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danisik, Martin; Frisch, Wolfgang [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences; Panek, Tomas [Ostrava Univ. (Czech Republic). Dept. of Physical Geography and Geoecology; Matysek, Dalibor [Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geological Engineering; Dunkl, Istvan [Geoscience Center Goettingen (Germany). Sedimentology and Environmental Geology

    2008-09-15

    The age of planation surfaces in the Podbeskydska pahorkatina Upland in the Outer Western Carpathians (OWC, Czech Republic) is constrained by low-temperature thermochronological dating methods for the first time. Our apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/He data measured on teschenite intrusions show that planation surfaces in the study area formed in post-Pannonian time (>7.1 Ma) and are therefore younger than traditionally believed. This contradicts the classical concepts, which stipulate that a large regional planation surface of Pannonian age (the so-called ''midmountain level'') developed in the whole Western Carpathians. Geodynamic implications of our data are the following: (i) the investigated Tesin and Godula nappes of the OWC were buried and thermally overprinted in the accretionary wedge in different ways, and consequently experienced different cooling histories. This indicates a dynamic basin setting with an active accretionary process in a subduction zone; (ii) accretionary processes in the OWC were active already during Late Eocene times. (orig.)

  8. Heavy rainfalls, floods and landslides in the small catchment of the Bend Carpathians and Subcarpathians (Romania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balteanu, Dan; Serban, Mihaela

    2004-01-01

    The small catchments of the Bend Carpathians and of the adjacent hilly region are affected by a great diversity of geomorphic processes differing in terms of geological structure, terrain configuration, seismic activity and human pressure. The region is developed on Paleogene flysch and Neogene molasse deposits and is characterised by an intense tectonic mobility (neotectonic uplift movements, strong earthquakes). We have chosen two catchments with a surface of 20-30 km 2 in which we tried to evaluate the sediments transfers during extreme events on the slope, from the slope downwards the channels and along the channels. The two catchments are characterised by some of the highest sediment yield in the region. Long-term measurements carried out in the region have revealed that landslides and mud flows are the most common processes of sediment transfer on the slopes. The reactivation of the mass movements is related to heavy rainfalls (over 100 mm in 24 hours) to long lasting rainy periods and to combined rainfalls and rapid snow melting. The denudation rates through mass movements were estimated in 6 experimental plots, indicating values between 1-10 mm in the years with high amount of,precipitations with a return period of 5-7 years and 40-70 mm in extreme conditions with a return period of 50 years. Sediment delivery ratios are controlled by rock erodibility and the runoff regime. A sediment yield multivariate statistical analysis of 27 third order drainage basins on flysch and molasse deposits indicates that total erosion is four times higher in the hilly region than in the flysch mountains (Ichim, Raldoane, 1987).(Author)

  9. Examples of Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations in the central part of the Lower Beskids, (the Polish Flysch Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorski, Michał

    2016-04-01

    The Lower Beskids are located between the western and eastern parts of the Carpathian flysch belt, whereas the low altitudes of passes and ridges in this region have until now been identified mainly with the differences in bedrock resistance. In the light of contemporary information regarding the geology of this area, the hypothesis of the gravitational placement of large tectonic elements has become topical again. A particularly interesting area is the ridge and foreland of the Magura Wątkowska, bordering in the north with the Sanok-Jasło Pits (a denudation valley). This edge zone of the Lower Beskids has a complicated geological structure, i.e. it constitutes a tectonic contact of the Magura Unit and the Central Carpathian Depression (the depressed part of the Silesian nappe). During the field research and analyses regarding the identification of morphostructural elements, the important role of various kinds of lineaments was observed. Some of the inventoried lineaments were, e.g. large size faults or effects of the impact of tectonic processes on bedrock. Structures in the rock (cracks, faults) accompanying them are important in determining the type of macro scale gravitational movements. The outer part of fold structures in the foreland of the Magura Wątkowska shows the rotation around the longitudinal syncline axis, and is an excellent research field for a comprehensive analysis of gravitational movements, both of the basin type and the DSGSD (Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations) type. Determining the types of tectonic lineaments was based on a review of selected directions in the context of the course of tectonic structures in the study area. On that basis, lineaments were classified into two morphogenetic groups, i.e. structures that do not result in visible movements relative to the analyzed rock massif (cracks), and those causing the displacement of the rock massif (faults, overthrust). Using the directional and contour diagrams generated by

  10. Assessment of projected climate change in the Carpathian Region using the Holdridge life zone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelepcsényi, Zoltán; Breuer, Hajnalka; Kis, Anna; Pongrácz, Rita; Sümegi, Pál

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, expected changes in the spatial and altitudinal distribution patterns of Holdridge life zone (HLZ) types are analysed to assess the possible ecological impacts of future climate change for the Carpathian Region, by using 11 bias-corrected regional climate model simulations of temperature and precipitation. The distribution patterns of HLZ types are characterized by the relative extent, the mean centre and the altitudinal range. According to the applied projections, the following conclusions can be drawn: (a) the altitudinal ranges are likely to expand in the future, (b) the lower and upper altitudinal limits as well as the altitudinal midpoints may move to higher altitudes, (c) a northward shift is expected for most HLZ types and (d) the magnitudes of these shifts can even be multiples of those observed in the last century. Related to the northward shifts, the HLZ types warm temperate thorn steppe and subtropical dry forest can also appear in the southern segment of the target area. However, a large uncertainty in the estimated changes of precipitation patterns was indicated by the following: (a) the expected change in the coverage of the HLZ type cool temperate steppe is extremely uncertain because there is no consensus among the projections even in terms of the sign of the change (high inter-model variability) and (b) a significant trend in the westward/eastward shift is simulated just for some HLZ types (high temporal variability). Finally, it is important to emphasize that the uncertainty of our results is further enhanced by the fact that some important aspects (e.g. seasonality of climate variables, direct CO2 effect, etc.) cannot be considered in the estimating process.

  11. The upper lithostratigraphic unit of ANDRILL AND-2A core (Southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica): local Pleistocene volcanic sources, paleoenvironmental implications and subsidence in the southern Victoria Land Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carlo, P.; Panter, K. S.; Bassett, K. N.; Bracciali, L.; di Vincenzo, G.; Rocchi, S.

    2009-12-01

    We report results from the study of the uppermost 37 meters of the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) AND-2A drillcore, corresponding to the lithostratigraphic unit 1 (LSU 1), the most volcanogenic unit within the core. Nearly all of LSU 1 consists of volcanic breccia and sandstone that is a mixture of near primary volcanic material dominated by lava and vitric clasts with minor exotic material derived from distal basement sources. Lava clasts and glass are mafic and range from strongly alkaline (basanite, tephrite) to moderately alkaline (alkali basalt, hawaiite) compositions that are similar to nearby land deposits. 40Ar-39Ar laser step-heating analyses on groundmass separated from lava clasts yield Pleistocene ages (692±38 and 793±63, ±2σ internal errors). Volcanoes of the Dailey Island group, located ~13 km SW of the drillsite, are a possible source for the volcanic materials based on their close proximity, similar composition and age. A basanite lava flow on Juergens Island yields a comparable Pleistocene age of 775±22 ka. Yet there is evidence to suggest that the volcanic source is much closer to the drillsite and that the sediments were deposited in much shallower water relative to the present-day water depth of 384 mbsl. Evidence for local volcanic activity is based in part on the common occurrence of delicate vitriclasts (e.g. glass shards and Pele’s hair) and a minimally reworked ~2 meter thick monomict breccia that is interpreted to have formed by autobrecciating lava. In addition, conical-shaped seamounts and high frequency magnetic anomalies encompass the drillsite and extend south including the volcanoes of the Dailey Islands. Sedimentary features and structures indicate shallow water sedimentation for the whole of LSU 1. Rippled asymmetric cross-laminated sands and hummocky cross-stratification occur intermittently throughout LSU 1 and indicate water depths shallower than 100 meters. The occurrence of ooliths and layers containing siderite and Fe

  12. Digital model of the seabed geomorphology of southern-central Espirito Santo basin and northern Campos basin; Modelo digital da geomorfologia do fundo oceanico do centro-sul da bacia do Espirito Santo e norte da bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, Simone; Souza, Mariana Beatriz Ferraz Mendonca de; Migliorelli, Joana Paiva Robalo [Petroleo Brasileiro S. A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Servicos de Exploracao e Producao], Emails: schreiner@petrobras.com.br, mbfms.fototerra@petrobras.com.br, joanamigli.fototerra@petrobras.com.br

    2009-05-15

    That communication brings the result of a bathymetric mosaic of converted in a digital model of the ocean topography, consisting of 17 seismic projects 3D, besides 17 multibeam bathymetry surveys of South-Central Espirito Santo Basin and Northern Campos Basin.

  13. Gravity and magnetic modelling in the Vrancea Zone, south-eastern Carpathians: Redefinition of the edge of the East European Craton beneath the south-eastern Carpathians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.; Matenco, L.; Mocanu, V.

    2013-01-01

    A 2D gravity and magnetic data model has been constructed along a 71. km densely observed profile, called DACIA PLAN GRAV MAN's. The profile crosses part of the nappe pile of the south-eastern Carpathians and includes the seismically active Vrancea Zone and was acquired with the objective to

  14. Population structure and reproduction of Deuterodon langei travassos, 1957 (Teleostei, Characidae in a neotropical stream basin from the Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of D. langei were studied at different sites along a longitudinal gradient formed by the Ribeirão stream basin, a Neotropical stream of the Atlantic Forest, southern Brazil. Differences were observed in population structure and reproduction along the longitudinal gradient and during the study period. Juvenile fishes occurred in high abundance, mainly in the downstream site after the rainy months. Adults occurred mainly in the intermediate and upstream sites. During their life cycle, adults optimise their reproductive strategy by concentrating the reproductive period with total spawn in a short time interval before summer rains dragged the juvenile, larval forms and/or eggs downstream. The downstream site was characterized by a wide range of microhabitats (ex. submerged grass and shallow flooded area. Thus, the species used different portions of the basin in distinct stages of its life, being ecologically adapted to variation patterns in its temporal and physical environments.Aspectos da biologia de D. langei foram estudados em diferentes locais da bacia do rio Ribeirão, um riacho litorâneo da Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil. Foram observadas diferenças na estrutura da população e na reprodução, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal da bacia e do período de estudo. Os peixes juvenis ocorreram em grande abundância, principalmente no trecho a jusante da bacia, após os meses mais chuvosos. Adultos ocorreram principalmente nos trechos intermediários e a montante. Não houve diferença significativa na relação sexual entre os locais amostrados, estações do ano, meses e classes de comprimento. O comprimento médio de primeira maturação (L50 foi o mesmo para machos e fêmeas, entre 6,1 e 7,0 cm de comprimento total (Lt. O período reprodutivo foi curto (entre o final da primavera e início do verão, antes dos meses mais chuvosos, com desova total. O Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva (IAR indicou que D

  15. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the two southern San Joaquin Valley study units, 2005-2006 - California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the southern San Joaquin Valley was investigated from October 2005 through March 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. There are two study units located in the southern San Joaquin Valley: the Southeast San Joaquin Valley (SESJ) study unit and the Kern County Subbasin (KERN) study unit. The GAMA Priority Basin Project in the SESJ and KERN study units was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifers. The status assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 and 2006 by the USGS from 130 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Data was collected from an additional 19 wells for the understanding assessment. The aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the SESJ and KERN study units. The status assessment of groundwater quality used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources within the primary aquifers in the SESJ and KERN study units, not the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers. Although the status assessment applies to untreated groundwater, Federal and California regulatory and non-regulatory water-quality benchmarks that apply to drinking water are used

  16. New insight on the recent tectonic evolution and uplift of the southern Ecuadorian Andes from gravity and structural analysis of the Neogene-Quaternary intramontane basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamay, J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Ruano, P.; Soto, J.; Lamas, F.; Azañón, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    The sedimentary basins of Loja, Malacatos-Vilcabamba and Catamayo belong to the Neogene-Quaternary synorogenic intramontane basins of South Ecuador. They were formed during uplift of the Andes since Middle-Late Miocene as a result of the Nazca plate subduction beneath the South American continental margin. This E-W compressional tectonic event allowed for the development of NNE-SSW oriented folds and faults, determining the pattern and thickness of sedimentary infill. New gravity measurements in the sedimentary basins indicate negative Bouguer anomalies reaching up to -292 mGal related to thick continental crust and sedimentary infill. 2D gravity models along profiles orthogonal to N-S elongated basins determine their deep structure. Loja Basin is asymmetrical, with a thickness of sedimentary infill reaching more than 1200 m in the eastern part, which coincides with a zone of most intense compressive deformation. The tectonic structures include N-S, NW-SE and NE-SW oriented folds and associated east-facing reverse faults. The presence of liquefaction structures strongly suggests the occurrence of large earthquakes just after the sedimentation. The basin of Malacatos-Vilcabamba has some folds with N-S orientation. However, both Catamayo and Malacatos-Vilcabamba basins are essentially dominated by N-S to NW-SE normal faults, producing a strong asymmetry in the Catamayo Basin area. The initial stages of compression developed folds, reverse faults and the relief uplift determining the high altitude of the Loja Basin. As a consequence of the crustal thickening and in association with the dismantling of the top of the Andes Cordillera, extensional events favored the development of normal faults that mainly affect the basins of Catamayo and Malacatos-Vilcabamba. Gravity research helps to constrain the geometry of the Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary infill, shedding some light on its relationship with tectonic events and geodynamic processes during intramontane basin

  17. Asymmetrical, inversely graded, upstream-migrating cyclic steps in marine settings: Late Miocene-early Pliocene Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chenglin; Chen, Liuqin; West, Logan

    2017-10-01

    Cyclic steps are ubiquitous in modern sedimentary environments, yet their recognition remains sparse in the rock record. Here, we interpret three sets of undulating backsets (1 to 3) recognized in the late Miocene-early Pliocene Latrania Formation in the Anza-Borrego Desert, the Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin, southern California, USA as the first cm- to dm-scale outcrop record of cyclic steps, based on asymmetrical cross-sections, upstream migration, and inversely graded laminae. Upstream migration and asymmetrical cross-sections of backsets and concomitant backset laminae are attributed to supercritical-to-subcritical flow transitions through weak hydraulic jumps, which are composed of: (i) thin (tens of centimetres) and slower (reported as flow velocities (Ū) of 0.45 to 1.45 m s- 1, with mean value of Ū = 0.89 m s- 1) subcritical (represented by internal Froude numbers (Fr) of 0.67 to 0.99, with mean value of Fr = 0.84) turbidity currents on the stoss sides, and (ii) thin (tens of centimetres) and faster (reported as Ū of 0.99 to 4.03 m s- 1, with mean value of Ū = 2.24 m s- 1) supercritical (represented by Fr of 1.84 to 3.07, with mean value of Fr = 2.42) turbidity flows on the lee sides. The inversely graded laminae in the troughs of backsets are 2 to 5 cm thick, and consist of two discrete divisions: (i) 1 to 2 cm thick, lower finer-grained divisions made up of parallel laminated siltstones, overlain by very fine- to fine-grained sandstones, and (ii) 2 to 3 cm thick, upper divisions composed of medium- to coarse-grained sandstones, with sporadic occurrence of subrounded pebbles. These inversely graded laminae are related to stratified, collisional and/or frictional traction carpets under conditions of high fall-out rates. Due to the poor preservation potential of cyclic steps, the rock record of cyclic steps is generally considered to be rare. The present outcrop-based study presents a detailed analysis of sedimentary facies, growth patterns, and flow

  18. 2.5D seismic velocity modelling in the south-eastern Romanian Carpathians Orogen and its foreland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.A.; Tryggvason, A.; Panea, I; Mocanu, V.I.; Hauser, F

    2005-01-01

    The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappe system and the

  19. Burial history, thermal history and hydrocarbon generation modelling of the Jurassic source rocks in the basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep and Outer Carpathians (SE Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakowski, Paweł; Wróbel, Magdalena

    2012-08-01

    Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of hydrocarbon generation were modelled for the Jurassic source rocks in the basement of the Carpathian Foredeep and marginal part of the Outer Carpathians. The area of investigation was bounded to the west by Kraków, to the east by Rzeszów. The modelling was carried out in profiles of wells: Będzienica 2, Dębica 10K, Góra Ropczycka 1K, Goleszów 5, Nawsie 1, Pławowice E1 and Pilzno 40. The organic matter, containing gas-prone Type III kerogen with an admixture of Type II kerogen, is immature or at most, early mature to 0.7 % in the vitrinite reflectance scale. The highest thermal maturity is recorded in the south-eastern part of the study area, where the Jurassic strata are buried deeper. The thermal modelling showed that the obtained organic matter maturity in the initial phase of the "oil window" is connected with the stage of the Carpathian overthrusting. The numerical modelling indicated that the onset of hydrocarbon generation from the Middle Jurassic source rocks was also connected with the Carpathian thrust belt. The peak of hydrocarbon generation took place in the orogenic stage of the overthrusting. The amount of generated hydrocarbons is generally small, which is a consequence of the low maturity and low transformation degree of kerogen. The generated hydrocarbons were not expelled from their source rock. An analysis of maturity distribution and transformation degree of the Jurassic organic matter shows that the best conditions for hydrocarbon generation occurred most probably in areas deeply buried under the Outer Carpathians. It is most probable that the "generation kitchen" should be searched for there.

  20. Some regularities in the distribution of kenophytes in the Polish Carpathians and their foreland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zając Maria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Carpathians and their northern foreland are a rewarding object for the kenophyte distribution research. The study, using the cartogram method, showed that the number of kenophyte species decreases with increasing altitude. Only few kenophytes were found in the lower forest zone. This regularity concerns also the species that reach higher altitudes in the mountains of their native lands. A number of species migrated into the Carpathians through rivers and streams. River valleys generate many open habitats, which are easily colonized by kenophytes due to the lack of competition. In the Carpathians, towns used to be founded in the mountain valleys and this was also a favouring factor of kenophyte propagation. The arrangement of mountain ranges in the Polish Carpathians, including their foreland, hindered the migration of some species and allowed to discover the possible migration routes into the area covered by research. Tracing these migration routes was possible only for those species that have not occupied the whole available area yet. Additionally, the study indicated the most dangerous invasive species in the Polish Carpathians and their foreland.

  1. The role of post-collisional strike-slip tectonics in the geological evolution of the late Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Guaratubinha Basin, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão, Leonardo M.; Trzaskos, Barbara; Vesely, Fernando F.; de Castro, Luís Gustavo; Ferreira, Francisco J. F.; Vasconcellos, Eleonora M. G.; Barbosa, Tiago C.

    2017-12-01

    The Guaratubinha Basin is a late Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary basin included in the transitional-stage basins of the South American Platform. The aim of this study is to investigate its tectonic evolution through a detailed structural analysis based on remote sensing and field data. The structural and aerogeophysics data indicate that at least three major deformational events affected the basin. Event E1 caused the activation of the two main basin-bounding fault zones, the Guaratubinha Master Fault and the Guaricana Shear Zone. These structures, oriented N20-45E, are associated with well-defined right-lateral to oblique vertical faults, conjugate normal faults and vertical flow structures. Progressive transtensional deformation along the two main fault systems was the main mechanism for basin formation and the deposition of thick coarse-grained deposits close to basin-borders. The continuous opening of the basin provided intense intermediate and acid magmatism as well as deposition of volcaniclastic sediments. Event E2 characterizes generalized compression, recorded as minor thrust faults with tectonic transport toward the northwest and left-lateral activation of the NNE-SSW Palmital Shear Zone. Event E3 is related to the Mesozoic tectonism associated with the South Atlantic opening, which generated diabase dykes and predominantly right-lateral strike-slip faults oriented N10-50W. Its rhomboidal geometry with long axis parallel to major Precambrian shear zones, the main presence of high-angle, strike-slip or oblique faults, the asymmetric distribution of geological units and field evidence for concomitant Neoproterozoic magmatism and strike-slip movements are consistent with pull-apart basins reported in the literature.

  2. Widespread Distribution of Trypodendron laeve in the Carpathian Mountains (Romania

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    Nicolai Olenici

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Trypodendron laeve Eggers, 1939 is a species of ambrosia beetle much less known than the other three Trypodendron species occurring in Europe. Its status (native or alien in Central Europe has been a subject of debate over the past two decades. In Romania, the species was discovered in 2008 and the aim of the research presented in this paper was to investigate its distribution in the Carpathians, mainly at high altitudes (>800 m, in tree stands with Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] H. Karst. Panel intercept traps baited with synthetic pheromone for Trypodendron lineatum (Olivier, 1795 were used in the spring of 2015, at 31 locations. Adults of T. laeve were caught in 20 of them. Additional observations were made within some studies using similar baits and T. laeve specimens were caught in eight locations. T. laeve was always trapped together with T. lineatum, and at some locations also together with T. domesticum (Linnaeus, 1758 and T. signatum (Fabricius, 1787. In all traps, fewer specimens of T. laeve were caught compared to T. lineatum. The species has a widespread distribution in the mountain regions, within forests composed of native tree species and generally located far away from commercial routes. There, it occurs together with other native species of the same taxonomic genus. It seems to be more abundant at high altitudes, but overall its populations are less abundant than those of T. lineatum.

  3. Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the

  4. Palaeofluid evolution in a fractured basalt hosted reservoir in the Ulles-Ruzsa-Bordany area, southern sector of the Pannonian Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, B.; Schubert, F.; Toth, T.M.; Steinbach, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 3 (2016), s. 281-293 ISSN 1330-030X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : fractured basalt reservoir * Pannonian Basin * zeolite minerals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.595, year: 2016

  5. Extreme precipitation in the Polish Carpathians in the 20th century in the context of last 500 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowka, Danuta; Cebulak, Elzbieta; Pyrc, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Extreme weather phenomena together with their exceptional course and intensity have always been dangerous for people. In the historical documents such phenomena were marked as basic disasters. First notes about weather phenomena were made in Polish lands in the 10th century. Most information concerns floods caused by intensive rains. Using the data base created within the Millennium project, extreme precipitation cases exceeding 100 mm were analysed. In each case, the intensive precipitation was followed by a summer flood in the Polish Carpathians in the Upper Vistula River basin. Data from the period of instrumental measurements in the 20th century were studied in detail by the analysis of the frequency of occurrence and the spatial and temporal distribution. The results were referred to last 500 years. The information obtained gives approximate image of extreme precipitation in the historical times in Polish lands. All available multi-proxy data were used. Newspapers' notes concerning described phenomena from 1848-1850 published in Kraków were used to complete and verify the quality of data from the early instrumental period and also to complete the data from the period of the Second World War.

  6. Vertical Profiles Of 226Ra, 232Th And 40K Activities In Rocks From The Irati Formation Of The Paraná Sedimentary Basin, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ademar de O.; Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioisotopes are present in different concentrations in sedimentary rocks, reflecting the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment, and more recent events such as weathering and erosion. Using a high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry methodology, sedimentary rocks were measured to assess the concentration activities of the natural radioisotopes. The surveyed rocks are from the Irati formation in the Paraná sedimentary basin, which are exposed by an abandoned, open-pit limestone mine, in the city of Sapopema, southern Brazil. The exposed vertical profile is 5 m, and its stratigraphy is represented by an alternation of limestone and bituminous shale (layers being a few decimeters thick), and some millimeter rhythm layers with limestone and bituminous shale laminas. Eleven samples were collected along this profile, each of them dried in the open air during 48 hours, sieved through 4 mm mesh and sealed in cylindrical recipients. Measurements were accomplished using a 66% relative efficiency HPGE detector connected to a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain. The detector efficiency in the range of 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with the certified IAEA-385 sediment sample. The Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) to the system is 2.40 Bqṡkg-1 for 226Ra, 1.84 Bqṡkg-1 for 232Th and 4.20 Bqṡkg-1 for 40K. Activity concentrations were determined for 226Ra (from 16.22 to 151.55 Bqṡkg-1), 232Th (from 2.93 to 56.12 Bqṡkg-1) and 40K (from 38.45 to 644.63 Bqṡkg-1). The layers enriched with organic matter presented the higher values of activity. The measured concentrations of the natural radioisotopes were lower for limestone samples (average values and respective deviations were 22.81±0.22 Bqṡkg-1 for 226Ra, 4.21±0.07 Bqṡkg-1 for 232Th, and 50.11±0.82 Bqṡkg-1 for 40K). Higher concentrations were measured for the bituminous shale samples (average values and respective deviations were 108.10±12.17 Bqṡkg-1 for 226Ra, 43.69

  7. Vertical Profiles Of 226Ra, 232Th And 40K Activities In Rocks From The Irati Formation Of The Parana Sedimentary Basin, Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Ademar de O.; Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioisotopes are present in different concentrations in sedimentary rocks, reflecting the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment, and more recent events such as weathering and erosion. Using a high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry methodology, sedimentary rocks were measured to assess the concentration activities of the natural radioisotopes. The surveyed rocks are from the Irati formation in the Parana sedimentary basin, which are exposed by an abandoned, open-pit limestone mine, in the city of Sapopema, southern Brazil. The exposed vertical profile is 5 m, and its stratigraphy is represented by an alternation of limestone and bituminous shale (layers being a few decimeters thick), and some millimeter rhythm layers with limestone and bituminous shale laminas. Eleven samples were collected along this profile, each of them dried in the open air during 48 hours, sieved through 4 mm mesh and sealed in cylindrical recipients. Measurements were accomplished using a 66% relative efficiency HPGE detector connected to a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain. The detector efficiency in the range of 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with the certified IAEA-385 sediment sample. The Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) to the system is 2.40 Bq·kg -1 for 226 Ra, 1.84 Bq·kg -1 for 232 Th and 4.20 Bq·kg -1 for 40 K. Activity concentrations were determined for 226 Ra (from 16.22 to 151.55 Bq·kg -1 ), 232 Th (from 2.93 to 56.12 Bq·kg -1 ) and 40 K (from 38.45 to 644.63 Bq·kg -1 ). The layers enriched with organic matter presented the higher values of activity. The measured concentrations of the natural radioisotopes were lower for limestone samples (average values and respective deviations were 22.81±0.22 Bq·kg -1 for 226 Ra, 4.21±0.07 Bq·kg -1 for 232 Th, and 50.11±0.82 Bq·kg -1 for 40 K). Higher concentrations were measured for the bituminous shale samples (average values and respective deviations were 108.10±12.17 Bq·kg -1 for

  8. Heavy Metals in Brown Bears from the Central European Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Čelechovská

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess heavy metal load in the brown bear (Ursus arctos living in the central European Carpathians. Between 2002 and 2004, fifteen bears were examined to evaluate the distribution of cadmium, lead, mercury and copper in the animals' muscles (diaphragm, spleen, liver and kidney. The highest content of cadmium, lead and mercury was found in the kidney (17.4 ± 5.2 mg kg-1, 1.16 ± 0.39 mg kg-1, 0.39 ± 0.25 mg kg-1, whereas the lowest content of the metals was observed in the muscles (0.017 ± 0.009 mg kg-1, 0.299 ± 0.308 mg kg-1, 0.013 ± 0.011 mg kg-1. Second highest concentration of cadmium, lead and mercury was detected in the liver (0.83 ± 0.24 mg kg-1, 0.99 ± 0.61 mg kg-1, 0.11 ± 0.05 mg kg-1. Copper distributions and concentrations in bear tissues were as follows (in descending order: liver (23.9 ± 6.7 mg kg-1, > kidneys (9.0 ± 3.3 mg kg-1, > muscles (1.9 ± 1.6 mg kg-1 and > spleen (1.0 ± 0.2 mg kg-1. As compared with heavy metal load observed in bear tissues between 1988 and 1990, the concentration of cadmium in the muscles and liver was significantly lower (p p p < 0.01. Lead and copper tissue concentrations did not change substantially.

  9. Grassland communities of traditional orchards in the Western Carpathians (Slovakia

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    Hubert Zarnovican

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional orchards are a valuable feature of the rural landscape and they are specific for regions with scattered settlement such as the Myjava hilly land and White Carpathians. Here, the permanent species-rich grasslands beneath trees were regularly managed in the traditional manner until some were replaced in the 1970’s and 80’s by intensively managed orchards, some of which were abandoned in the early 1990’s. Our 2011–2015 phytosociological research followed the standard Braun-Blanquet approach. We classified 178 phytosociological relevés recorded in orchard meadows (156 relevés, former intensively managed orchards (16 relevés, and two relevés from a semi-intensively grazed orchard. Traditionally managed orchard meadows were classified in the following five units: (i Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris – thermophilous variant, (ii Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris – transitional variant to Alchemillo-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, (iii Ranunculo bulbosi-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, (iv Onobrychido viciifoliae-Brometum erecti, and (v Brachypodio pinnati-Molinietum arundinaceae. Formerly intensively managed large-scale orchards were classified as Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris association and the semi-intensively grazed orchard as Lolio perennis-Cynosuretum cristati association. The species composition varies considerably due to tree-shading and different management treatments applied in the orchards, so the relevés of the delimited syntaxonomic units are not typical and have transitional character. Moisture, soil nutrients, and soil reaction were identified as the main environmental gradients influencing species composition. We tested four management treatments in direct gradient analysis and found that abandonment has the strongest effect on species composition. Comparison of grassland vegetation in the studied traditional orchards with that described in Germany reveals differences in species

  10. [Tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Euro region Eastern Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadarko, Emilian; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Barabasz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Publisher in February 2008 WHO M-POWER report indicates that every year on the world tobacco epidemics kills 5.4 million of people and the analysis of tobacco smoking prevalence change shows great differences between European countries. It is estimated that in Poland 29% of adult people smokes, and 24% in Slovakia. However tobacco smoking among academic youth is still a big problem. The aim of the study was an attempt to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Poland and Slovakia. The study was conducted with the framework of science project: "Physical activity for the whole life". The aim of the project are multidirectional activities addressed to Polish-Slovakian students to create a system of taking care about health based on health education among students, selected modifying cardiovascular risk factors monitoring, as well as creating Internet portal to serve those goals. Project was co-fund by European Union from European Regional Development Fund - ERDF, as well as from the government budget by Euro Region Carpathians with the framework of Cross-border Co-operation Programme Republic of Poland - Slovakia Republic 2007-2013. Analysis considered 4584 group of students from University of Rzeszow and University of Presov, Technical University in Rzeszow and State Higher Vocational School in Krosno. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. The participation in the study was voluntary. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Based on results it was claimed that the majority of the studied group of students have never smoked and do not smoke cigarettes. Place of residence was a factor influencing the fact of tobacco smoking. Slovakian students were characterized by more frequent tobacco smoking. Far more often smoke man, both in Polish and Slovakian group. Among Polish students there was a relation between subjective health state assessment and

  11. How disturbances and management practices affect bird communities in a Carpathian river ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacko, Jozef; Topercer, Ján; Súľovský, Marek

    2018-04-01

    We studied how interactions between disturbances, succession, human alterations and other habitat and landscape attributes affect bird community patterns in a lower reach of a large West Carpathian river Váh with complex disturbance and alteration histories. Breeding-bird communities, their habitats (54 variables) and surrounding landscapes (11 metrics) were sampled using standardized point counts with limited distances at 40 riparian sites divided among two transects along a 12.9 km river stretch. The most frequent and abundant birds were generalists typically associated with forest edge habitats, such as Parus major, Sylvia atricapilla, Fringilla coelebs, Oriolus oriolus, Phylloscopus collybita, Sturnus vulgaris, Turdus merula and Luscinia megarhynchos. Abundances show significant increase at the lower transect responding apparently to greater size and heterogeneity of riparian habitats and more abundant food supply linked to more diverse and intense human influences in a suburban zone. Both indirect (NMDS) and direct ordination (CCA) revealed remarkably large number of evenly important factors underlying riparian bird-habitat interactions. It suggests considerable environmental heterogeneity and complexity of these interactions as a likely outcome of long and complex disturbance and alteration histories of the area. Yet structure and relative importance of first two gradients (longitudinal and lateral linkages) remains simple and stable, complying well with predictions of river continuum concept and stream ecosystem theory. Of the nine statistically significant variables most strongly correlated with first two CCA axes, percentages of Helianthus tuberosus, footpaths, fields, Calystegia sepium and steep banks uphold our hypotheses predicting significant effects of invasive species, visitor disturbances, agricultural land use and unaltered river banks/bed on bird community composition and structure. A small but significant contribution of patch size standard

  12. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Milevskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis of birch young stands in this area.The object of the study was age class I saplings growing in the mountainous part of Pokuttya, particularly in the basin of the Lutshka River. The conceptual basis of our study is the modern dynamic vision that every forest type is a consecutive series of forest plant communities within each type of homogeneous growing conditions. We apply methods of ecological-floristic research of the Brown-Blanke school in the interpretation of the Polish school phytosociology. However we also take into account both syntaxonomy generalizations of the Ukrainian scientists. The actual material comprises the original geobotanical studies with fixation of the vast majority of species in plant communities. Mainly the species having diagnostic value to separate syntaxons were taken into account in the analytical processing. Young forest stands (with the height of 8–12 m and crown cover of 70% together form the trees Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Fairly numerous admixture is formed by trees Alnus incana; besides, there are Fagus sylvatica, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Padus avium. For dominants, they can be called “grey-alder birch blackberry sedge bracken fern” – Betula pendula+Alnus incana–Rubus caesius–Carex brizoides+Pteridium aquilinum. It is rich in floristic composition of the plant communities. They contain at least 12 species of trees, 3 species of shrubs, 4 species of bushes and 89 species of herbs. Diagnostic

  13. Results of isotopic geochemical and mineralogical investigations of crystalline rocks of the Carpathian Massif in 1973-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbak, N.P.; Bartnitskij, E.N.; Eliseeva, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    The most frequent accesory mineral in crystalline rocks in the Czechoslovak and Ukrainian Carpathians is zircon, the least frequent is monazite. The differences are described in the mineralogical properties of zircon of different origin. For dating volcanism, the content and the isotope composition was determined of U and Pb in zircon and of U, Pb and Th in monazite. The earliest volcanic processes occurred in the Eastern Carpathians approximately 600 to 640 million years ago, in the Western Carpathians approximately 400 million years ago. (Ha)

  14. Gravity and magnetic modelling in the Vrancea Zone, south-eastern Carpathians: Redefinition of the edge of the East European Craton beneath the south-eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.; Matenco, L.; Mocanu, V.

    2013-11-01

    A 2D gravity and magnetic data model has been constructed along a 71 km densely observed profile, called DACIA PLAN GRAV MAN's. The profile crosses part of the nappe pile of the south-eastern Carpathians and includes the seismically active Vrancea Zone and was acquired with the objective to illuminate the basement structure and affinity in this area. The modelling approach was to create an initial model from well constrained geological information, integrate it with previous seismic ray tracing and tomographic models and then alter it outside the a priori constraints in order to reach the best fit between observed and calculated potential field anomalies. The results support a realignment of the position of the TTZ (Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone), the profound tectonic boundary within Europe that separates Precambrian cratonic lithosphere of the East European Craton (EEC) from younger accreted lithosphere of Phanerozoic mobile belts to its west. The TTZ is shown to lie further to the south-west than was previously inferred within Romania, where it is largely obscured by the Carpathian nappes. The crust of the EEC beneath the south-eastern Carpathians is inferred to terminate along a major crustal structure lying just west of the Vrancea seismogenic zone. The intermediate depth seismicity of the Vrancea Zone therefore lies within the EEC lithosphere, generally supporting previously proposed models invoking delamination of cratonic lithosphere as the responsible mechanism.

  15. The sea-air exchange of mercury (Hg) in the marine boundary layer of the Augusta basin (southern Italy): concentrations and evasion flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, E; Sproveri, M; Barra, M; Bitetto, M; Bonsignore, M; Calabrese, S; Di Stefano, V; Oliveri, E; Parello, F; Mazzola, S

    2013-11-01

    The first attempt to systematically investigate the atmospheric mercury (Hg) in the MBL of the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, Italy) has been undertaken. In the past the basin was the receptor for Hg from an intense industrial activity which contaminated the bottom sediments of the Bay, making this area a potential source of pollution for the surrounding Mediterranean. Three oceanographic cruises have been thus performed in the basin during the winter and summer 2011/2012, where we estimated averaged Hgatm concentrations of about 1.5±0.4 (range 0.9-3.1) and 2.1±0.98 (range 1.1-3.1) ng m(-3) for the two seasons, respectively. These data are somewhat higher than the background Hg atm value measured over the land (range 1.1±0.3 ng m(-3)) at downtown Augusta, while are similar to those detected in other polluted regions elsewhere. Hg evasion fluxes estimated at the sea/air interface over the Bay range from 3.6±0.3 (unpolluted site) to 72±0.1 (polluted site of the basin) ng m(-2) h(-1). By extending these measurements to the entire area of the Augusta basin (~23.5 km(2)), we calculated a total sea-air Hg evasion flux of about 9.7±0.1 g d(-1) (~0.004 tyr(-1)), accounting for ~0.0002% of the global Hg oceanic evasion (2000 tyr(-1)). The new proposed data set offers a unique and original study on the potential outflow of Hg from the sea-air interface at the basin, and it represents an important step for a better comprehension of the processes occurring in the marine biogeochemical cycle of this element. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mesozoic architecture of a tract of the European-Iberian continental margin: Insights from preserved submarine palaeotopography in the Longobucco Basin (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santantonio, Massimo; Fabbi, Simone; Aldega, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The sedimentary successions exposed in northeast Calabria document the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous tectonic-sedimentary evolution of a former segment of the European-Iberian continental margin. They are juxtaposed today to units representing the deformation of the African and Adriatic plates margins as a product of Apenninic crustal shortening. A complex pattern of unconformities reveals a multi-stage tectonic evolution during the Early Jurassic, which affected the facies and geometries of siliciclastic and carbonate successions deposited in syn- and post-rift environments ranging from fluvial to deep marine. Late Sinemurian/Early Pliensbachian normal faulting resulted in exposure of the Hercynian basement at the sea-floor, which was onlapped by marine basin-fill units. Shallow-water carbonate aprons and reefs developed in response to the production of new accommodation space, fringing the newborn islands which represent structural highs made of Paleozoic crystalline and metamorphic rock. Their drowning and fragmentation in the Toarcian led to the development of thin caps of Rosso Ammonitico facies. Coeval to these deposits, a thick (> 1 km) hemipelagic/siliciclastic succession was sedimented in neighboring hanging wall basins, which would ultimately merge with the structural high successions. Footwall blocks of the Early Jurassic rift, made of Paleozoic basement and basin-margin border faults with their onlapping basin-fill formations, are found today at the hanging wall of Miocene thrusts, overlying younger (Middle/Late Jurassic to Late Paleogene) folded basinal sediments. This paper makes use of selected case examples to describe the richly diverse set of features, ranging from paleontology to sedimentology, to structural geology, which are associated with the field identification of basin-margin unconformities. Our data provide key constraints for restoring the pre-orogenic architecture of a continental margin facing a branch of the Liguria-Piedmont ocean in the

  17. Discussion on the genesis and mineralization of sandstone type uranium deposit in the southern-central Longchuanjiang basin, western Yunnan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yuqi; Li Mangen

    2002-01-01

    The author mainly discusses the character of the depositional systems, geological structures and ore-bearing series in the south-central Longchuanjiang basin, and points out that the uranium mineralization is closely related to the two depositional discontinuities caused by the tectonic evolution. Based on the characteristics of uranium mineralization in the area, pitchblende, uranium blacks and phosphuranylite are discovered in No. 382 uranium deposit and radiometric super-micro-minerals in No. 381 deposit. The research on the uranium mineralization age in No. 382 deposit shows that the mineralization in the south-central part of the basin has genetically multi-staged

  18. A toadfish (Batrachoidiformes) from the Oligocene of the Eastern Carpathians (Piatra Neamt, Romania)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Grădianu, I.; Georgescu, V.; Carnevale, G.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 2 (2018), s. 241-248 ISSN 0077-7749 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-21523S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Batrachoidiformes * toadfish * Bituminous Marls Formation * Eastern Carpathians * Oligocene Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2016

  19. Ozone air pollution in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains and Kiev region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg Blum; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; William Manning; Ludmila Popovicheva

    1998-01-01

    Ambient concentrations of ozone (O3) were measured at five highland forest locations in the Ukrainian Carpathians and in two lowland locations in the Kiev region during August to September 1995 by using O3 passive samplers. The ozone passive samplers were calibrated against a Thermo Environmental Model 49 ozone monitor...

  20. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  1. Granitoids of the Mala Fatra and Velka Fatra Mts.: Rb/Sr isochron geochronology (Western Carpathians)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, G.P.; Gukasyan, R.C.; Cambel, B.; Kamenicky, L.; Macek, J.

    1992-01-01

    New data formerly lacking (with exceptions - Dubna Skala, 1990) were gained from the Western Carpathian core mountain - Mala Fatra and Velka Fatra - by the Rb/Sr method. The isochron based on 13 samples gave the age of 361±10 Ma for Mala Fatra and Velka Fatra intrusions. (author) 4 tabs., 4 figs., 8 refs

  2. Rock glaciers in the Western and High Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uxa, Tomáš; Mida, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2017), s. 844-857 ISSN 1744-5647 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : rock glaciers * inventory * Western and High Tatra Mts * Carpathians * Slovakia * Poland Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016

  3. Some new Eocene elasmobranch reports from the outer Western Carpathians (Moravia, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Skupien, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 268, č. 1 (2013), s. 113-123 ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Elasmobranchii * Leidybatis jugossus * Centrophorus * Eocene * Western Carpathian Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2013

  4. Fractal dimension estimations of drainage network in the Carpathian-Pannonian system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dombradi, E.; Timar, G.; Bada, G.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Horvath, F.

    2007-01-01

    The development of drainage network in the intra-Carpathian realm is influenced by a complex Quaternary tectonic evolution manifested with differential vertical motions. The present-day configuration of the left-hand side tributary system of the Tisza river was studied by means of fractal analysis.

  5. Banatitic magmatic and metallogenetic belt: metallogeny of the Romanian Carpathians segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S̡erban-Nicolae Vlad

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Carpathians sector of the Late Cretaceous Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenetic belt (BMMB contains 1 plutons and volcano-plutonic complexes, i. e. calc-alkaline, I-type granitoids, with related ores; 2 shoshonitic plutons that lack economic interest. Two provinces have been delineated: the Apuseni Mts. Province in the North and the Western South Carpathians in the South. Apuseni Mts. Province is a non-porphyry environment related to more evolved (granodioritic-granitic magmatism. It is subdivided into three zones: Vlădeasa (Pb-Zn ores of restricted metallogenetic potential; Gilău-Bihor (Fe, Bi, Mo, Cu, W, Au, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Ag, U, B ores / conspicuous peri-batholitic arrangement and South Apuseni (only one minor Fe-skarn occurrence. Western South Carpathians Province occurs in Romania and extends in Eastern Serbia. It is subdivided into South Banat Mts.–Timok Zone (SBTZ and Poiana Ruscă Mts.– North Banat Mts.– Ridanj-Krepoljin Zone (PR-NB-RKZ. SBTZ is a typical porphyry environment of high metallogenetic potential (Cu, Au, Pb, Zn, while PR-NB-RKZ is a non-porphyry environment with small to medium size Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu deposits/prospects exhibiting commonly a peri-plutonic zoning. The metallogenetic model of the Romanian Carpathians segment of BMMB is conceived based on correlating magma composition/level of emplacement and ore types.

  6. Carpathian Shear Corridor – A strike-slip boundary of an extruded crustal segment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marko, F.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Tomek, Č.; Bezák, V.; Fojtíková, Lucia; Bošanský, M.; Piovarči, M.; Reichenwalder, P.

    703-704, APR 22 (2017), s. 119-134 ISSN 0040-1951 Grant - others:Slovak Foundation Grant(SK) VEGA 2/0188/15 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : extrusion * Neo-alpine evolution * strike-slip faulting * uplift history * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2016

  7. Water bird fauna in the Carpathian Basin from the beginnings through historical times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Jenő (Eugen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to summarize the knowledge about the evolution and fossil remains of avian fauna near waterbodies, since ornithologists, who rarely come across or research the paleontology of birds, do not possess significantly detailed knowledge about the evolution and evidence of the current avian fauna.

  8. Water bird fauna in the Carpathian Basin from the beginnings through historical times

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler Jenő (Eugen)

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to summarize the knowledge about the evolution and fossil remains of avian fauna near waterbodies, since ornithologists, who rarely come across or research the paleontology of birds, do not possess significantly detailed knowledge about the evolution and evidence of the current avian fauna.

  9. Status of the Southern Carpathian forests in the long-term ecological research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovidiu Badea; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Diana Silaghi; Stefan Neagu; Ion Barbu; Carmen Iacoban; Corneliu Iacob; Gheorghe Guiman; Elena Preda; Ioan Seceleanu; Marian Oneata; Ion Dumitru; Viorela Huber; Horia Iuncu; Lucian Dinca; Stefan Leca; Ioan Taut

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution, bulk precipitation, throughfall, soil condition, foliar nutrients, as well as forest health and growth were studied in 2006–2009 in a long-term ecological research (LTER) network in the Bucegi Mountains, Romania. Ozone (O 3 ) was high indicating a potential for phytotoxicity. Ammonia (NH 3 ) concentrations rose to levels that could contribute to...

  10. PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT OF GIFTED STUDENTS FROM CARPATHIAN MOUNTAIN AREAS BY MEANS OF FOLK ART CRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kozlovska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, presented at the Conference Plenary the possibilities of pedagogical support of gifted students from vocational schools, living in the mountainous areas of the Carpathians. Education of talented and gifted students requires pedagogical support. The specific conditions, in which Carpathian students live, require the development of pedagogical support of their abilities. New approaches to teaching science, which led to the selection of topics of this article are described. Gifted personalities differ from their peers by same criterias. The social aspect of the problem remains in the shadow: not to be ashamed of your talent and not to compare it with cliches. And goals of educators and psychologists have to be slightly different as is common. Widespread  Carpathian crafts include: embroidery, artistic textiles producing, carpet manufacture, carving, pottery, metalworking, fabric painting, knitting, lace, artistic weaving, artistic working of  leather, stones, bones and horns. Nowadays, some detachment of mountainous regions has significantly reduced due to new means of communication, including the Internet. The possibilities of colleges in mountainous regions still cannot reach the level of the colleges in capital. In Carpathian and Prykrpattya regions there is a number of vocational schools of art direction. During the execution of creative work in class industrial training necessary for students to comply with the rules of relationships form and decoration in various ways: decorative motif obeys the functional form, enriching it artistic and creative solutions, utilitarian function obeys the decorative motif Products, the form of the product can be extremely decorative, artistic and creative product solutions focused on practical value and decorative value of the product. Pedagogical support of gifted students from art colleges in the Carpathian region has extremely wide range of opportunities. The problem of finding and nurturing

  11. Chemical and morphological characteristics of key tree species of the Carpathian Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankovska, Blanka; Godzik, Barbara; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuri; Moravcik, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, S and Zn in the foliage of white fir (Abies alba), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) from 25 sites of the Carpathian Mts. forests (Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine) are discussed in a context of their limit values. S/N ratio was different from optimum in 90% of localities when compared with the European limit values. Likewise we found increase of Fe and Cu concentrations compared with their background levels in 100% of locations. Mn concentrations were increased in 76% of localities. Mn mobilization values indicate the disturbance of physiological balance leading to the change of the ratio with Fe. SEM-investigation of foliage waxes from 25 sites in the Carpathian Mts. showed, that there is a statistically significant difference in mean wax quality. Epistomatal waxes were damaged as indicated by increased development of net and amorphous waxes. The most damaged stomata in spruce needles were from Yablunitsa, Synevir and Brenna; in fir needles from Stoliky, and in beech leaves from Mala Fatra, Morske Oko and Beregomet. Spruce needles in the Carpathian Mts. had more damaged stomata than fir needles and beech leaves. Spruce seems to be the most sensitive tree species to environmental stresses including air pollution in forests of the Carpathian Mountains. Foliage surfaces of three forest tree species contained Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Cl, Mn, Na, Ni and Ti in all studied localities. Presence of nutrition elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, K and Mn) on foliage surface hinders opening and closing stomata and it is not physiologically usable for tree species. - Chemical composition of foliage and structure of epicuticular waxes indicated phytotoxic effects of air pollution in many forest sites of the Carpathian Mountains

  12. Assessment of hydrochemical trends in the highly anthropised Guadalhorce River basin (southern Spain) in terms of compliance with the European groundwater directive for 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urresti-Estala, Begoña; Gavilán, Pablo Jiménez; Pérez, Iñaki Vadillo; Cantos, Francisco Carrasco

    2016-08-01

    One of the key aspects introduced by the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) and developed by Groundwater Directive 2006/118/EC was the need to analyse pollution trends in groundwater bodies in order to meet the environmental objectives set in Article 4 WFD. According to this Directive, the main goal of "good status" should be achieved by the year 2015, and having reached this horizon, now is a suitable time to assess the changes that have taken place with the progressive implementation of the WFD. An extensive database is available for the Guadalhorce River basin, and this was used not only to identify in groundwater but also to draw real conclusions with respect to the degree of success in meeting the targets established for this main deadline (2015) The geographic and climate context of the Guadalhorce basin has facilitated the development of a variety of economic activities, but the one affecting the largest surface area is agriculture (which is practised on over 50 % of the river basin). The main environmental impacts identified in the basin aquifers arise from the widespread use of fertilisers and manures, together with the input of sewage from population centres. In consequence, some of the groundwater bodies located in the basin have historically had very high nitrate concentrations, often exceeding 200 mg/L. In addition, return flows, the use of fertilisers and other pressures promote the entry of other pollutants into the groundwater, as well as the salinisation of the main aquifers in the basin. In order to assess the hydrochemical changes that have taken place since the entry into force of the WFD, we performed a detailed trends analysis, based on data from the official sampling networks. In some cases, over 35 years of water quality data are available, but these statistics also present significant limitations, due to some deficiencies in the design or management; thus, data are missing for many years, the results are subject to

  13. The age of volcanic tuffs from the Upper Freshwater Molasse (North Alpine Foreland Basin) and their possible use for tephrostratigraphic correlations across Europe for the Middle Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocholl, Alexander; Schaltegger, Urs; Gilg, H. Albert; Wijbrans, Jan; Böhme, Madelaine

    2018-03-01

    The Middle Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse sediments represent the last cycle of clastic sedimentation during the evolution of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. They are characterized by small-scale lateral and temporal facies changes that make intra-basin stratigraphic correlations at regional scale difficult. This study provides new U-Pb zircon ages as well as revised 40Ar/39Ar data of volcanic ash horizons in the Upper Freshwater Molasse sediments from southern Germany and Switzerland. In a first and preliminary attempt, we propose their possible correlation to other European tephra deposits. The U-Pb zircon data of one Swiss (Bischofszell) and seven southern German (Zahling, Hachelstuhl, Laimering, Unterneul, Krumbad, Ponholz) tuff horizons indicate eruption ages between roughly 13.0 and 15.5 Ma. The stratigraphic position of the Unterneul and Laimering tuffs, bracketing the ejecta of the Ries impact (Brockhorizon), suggests that the Ries impact occurred between 14.93 and 15.00 Ma, thus assigning the event to the reversed chron C5Bn1r (15.032-14.870 Ma) which is in accordance with paleomagnetic evidence. We combine our data with published ages of tuff horizons from Italy, Switzerland, Bavaria, Styria, Hungary, and Romania to derive a preliminary tephrochronological scheme for the Middle Miocene in Central Europe in the age window from 13.2 to 15.5 Ma. The scheme is based on the current state of knowledge that the Carpathian-Pannonian volcanic field was the only area in the region producing explosive calc-alkaline felsic volcanism. This preliminary scheme will require verification by more high-quality ages complemented by isotopic, geochemical and paleomagnetic data.

  14. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  15. Cenozoic sedimentation and exhumation of the foreland basin system preserved in the Precordillera thrust belt (31-32°S), southern central Andes, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Mariya; Horton, Brian K.; Fuentes, Facundo; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2014-09-01

    Andean retroarc compression associated with subduction and shallowing of the oceanic Nazca plate resulted in thin-skinned thrusting that partitioned and uplifted Cenozoic foreland basin fill in the Precordillera of west-central Argentina. Evolution of the central segment of the Precordillera fold-thrust belt is informed by new analyses of clastic nonmarine deposits now preserved in three intermontane regions between major east directed thrust faults. We focus on uppermost Oligocene-Miocene basin fill in the axial to frontal Precordillera at 31-32°S along the Río San Juan (Albarracín and Pachaco sections) and the flank of one of the leading thrust structures (Talacasto section). The three successions record hinterland construction of the Frontal Cordillera, regional arc volcanism, and initial exhumation of Precordillera thrust sheets. Provenance changes recorded by detrital zircon U-Pb age populations suggest that initial shortening in the Frontal Cordillera coincided with an early Miocene shift from eolian to fluvial accumulation in the adjacent foreland basin. Upward coarsening of fluvial deposits and increased proportions of Paleozoic clasts reflect cratonward (eastward) advance of deformation into the Precordillera and resultant structural fragmentation of the foreland basin into isolated intermontane segments. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry of basin fill constrains to 12-9 Ma the most probable age of uplift-induced exhumation and cooling of Precordillera thrust sheets. This apparent pulse of exhumation is evident in each succession, suggestive of rapid, large-scale exhumation by synchronous thrusting above a single décollement linking major structures of the Precordillera.

  16. Late Pliocene-Quaternary tectonics in the frontal part of the SE Carpathians: Insights from tectonic geomorphology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Necea, D.; Fielitz, W.; Matenco, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Romanian East Carpathians display large-scale heterogeneities along the mountain belt, unusual foredeep geometries, significant post-collisional and neotectonic activity, and major variations in topography, mostly developed in the aftermath of late Miocene (Sarmatian; ∼11 Ma)

  17. Seasonally warmer and humid climates in a lower paleolatitude position of southern Brazil (Paraná Basin): new findings of the Lueckisporites virkkiae zone (late Cisuralian-Guadalupian) in the Serra do Rio do Rastro and neighboring localities

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Pasquo, Mercedes; Souza, Paulo A.; Kavali, Pauline Sabina; Felix, Cristina

    2018-03-01

    First palynological information from surface samples of the Serra Alta and Rio do Rasto formations (Passa Dois Group, Paraná Basin), exposed in the Serra do Rio do Rastro (White's Column) and Urubici regions in Santa Catarina State (Brazil) is presented. The Serra Alta Formation is transitionally deposited over the Irati Formation, which is constrained to the late Artinskian/Kungurian by different paleontological and radiometric data. Twelve productive samples (of forty) yielded fairly well preserved palynomorphs, dominated by striate and non striate bisaccate and asaccate pollen grains and subordinated trilete and monolete spores, monosaccate pollen grains and Botryococcus. Diagnostic species of the Lueckisporites virkkiae Zone (Artinskian-Guadalupian) in the Paraná Basin are recorded along with few species of Guadalupian-Lopingian age (e.g. Cladaitina veteadensis, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lophotriletes parryensis, Protohaploxypinus microcorpus, Staurosaccites quadrifidus, Weylandites cincinnatus). They support a Kungurian-?Roadian age for the Serra Alta, and a Capitanian (?Lopingian) age for the Rio do Rasto formations. Four samples from the Sete Quedas outcrop yielded scarce and poorly preserved specimens of Lueckisporites likely due to weathering. A statistic comparison among our assemblages and selected Permian palynozones and palynofloras from South America supports a closer correlation with the La Veteada Formation (Guadalupian-Lopingian) from western Argentina due to common occurrence of all the species, and with the Striatites Zone (late Artinskian-Kungurian) of the Chacoparaná Basin, and the I-S Zone Melo Formation in Uruguay. The botanical affinities of the palynomorphs from both assemblages indicate the presence of spores of hygro-mesophytic affinities along with meso-xerophyle pollen grains, which is in agreement with seasonally warmer and humid climates favored by a lower paleolatitude position. The presence of pyrite in some of the miospore

  18. 2D compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration in the Southern compartment of the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Modelisation compositionnelle 2D de la genese, expulsion et migration du petrole dans le compartiment sud du Bassin de Reconcavo, Bresil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroz Penteado, H.L. de

    1999-01-07

    The Reconcavo Basin is part of a rift formed between the Late Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this thesis was the compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration along a cross-section in the Southern Compartment of the basin with the Temispack basin simulation software. A geochemical study of the lacustrine shales of the Gomo Member (Candelas Fm.) has been performed to determine their petroleum potential, the evolution of maturation with depth and changes in petroleum composition. Hydrogen indices of immature kerogens (400-850 mg/g TOC) were shown to be higher than those of whole rocks, thus indicating a retention of Rock-Eval pyrolysis products in the mineral matrix of these type I source rocks. Saturates (30-50% of organic extracts in the immature zone) increase both in absolute and in relative (60-80%) terms in the oil window (2000-2600 m) because of a partial secondary cracking of NSOs and aromatics. After having tested several scenarios of geodynamic evolution between the Aptian and the Oligocene, a variable thickness of post-rift sediments (maximum of 1200 m) has been shown to be necessary to calibrate maturity parameters. Petroleum migration has been modeled to understand migration pathways as well as the role of faults as drains. Thus, two petroleum migration systems have been identified for the Dom Joao and Cexis accumulations. Petroleum compositional variations have been modeled by coupling the processes of retention and secondary cracking. A good calibration of compositions was obtained with secondary cracking parameters for NSOs and aromatics which are close to those of the main primary cracking reaction of a type I kerogen, coupled with a retention of 50% of NSOs within the source rocks. (author)

  19. A new species of Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the upper rio Paraná basin, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Jerep

    Full Text Available A new species of Hypostomus with large and spaced light roundish spots is described from the upper rio Paraná basin. Hypostomus multidens new species is distinguished from all remaining congeners with light spots on a darker background by two independent characters: the presence of teeth with two symmetrical cusps, and a high tooth number in each dentary (122267, mean 196.8 and premaxilla (115-260, mean 190.8.

  20. Fault-related CO2 degassing, geothermics, and fluid flow in southern California basins---Physiochemical evidence and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, James R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Garven, Grant [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    2015-08-04

    Our studies have had an important impact on societal issues. Experimental and field observations show that CO2 degassing, such as might occur from stored CO2 reservoir gas, can result in significant stable isotopic disequilibrium. In the offshore South Ellwood field of the Santa Barbara channel, we show how oil production has reduced natural seep rates in the area, thereby reducing greenhouse gases. Permeability is calculated to be ~20-30 millidarcys for km-scale fault-focused fluid flow, using changes in natural gas seepage rates from well production, and poroelastic changes in formation pore-water pressure. In the Los Angeles (LA) basin, our characterization of formation water chemistry, including stable isotopic studies, allows the distinction between deep and shallow formations waters. Our multiphase computational-based modeling of petroleum migration demonstrates the important role of major faults on geological-scale fluid migration in the LA basin, and show how petroleum was dammed up against the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in a “geologically fast” interval of time (less than 0.5 million years). Furthermore, these fluid studies also will allow evaluation of potential cross-formational mixing of formation fluids. Lastly, our new study of helium isotopes in the LA basin shows a significant leakage of mantle helium along the Newport Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), at flow rates up to 2 cm/yr. Crustal-scale fault permeability (~60 microdarcys) and advective versus conductive heat transport rates have been estimated using the observed helium isotopic data. The NIFZ is an important deep-seated fault that may crosscut a proposed basin decollement fault in this heavily populated area, and appears to allow seepage of helium from the mantle sources about 30 km beneath Los Angeles. The helium study has been widely cited in recent weeks by the news media, both in radio and on numerous web sites.

  1. Fault-Related CO2 Degassing, Geothermics, and Fluid Flow in Southern California Basins--Physiochemical Evidence and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garven, Grant [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    2015-08-11

    Our studies have had an important impact on societal issues. Experimental and field observations show that CO2 degassing, such as might occur from stored CO2 reservoir gas, can result in significant stable isotopic disequilibrium. In the offshore South Ellwood field of the Santa Barbara channel, we show how oil production has reduced natural seep rates in the area, thereby reducing greenhouse gases. Permeability is calculated to be ~20-30 millidarcys for km-scale fault-focused fluid flow, using changes in natural gas seepage rates from well production, and poroelastic changes in formation pore-water pressure. In the Los Angeles (LA) basin, our characterization of formation water chemistry, including stable isotopic studies, allows the distinction between deep and shallow formations waters. Our multiphase computational-based modeling of petroleum migration demonstrates the important role of major faults on geological-scale fluid migration in the LA basin, and show how petroleum was dammed up against the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in a “geologically fast” interval of time (less than 0.5 million years). Furthermore, these fluid studies also will allow evaluation of potential cross-formational mixing of formation fluids. Lastly, our new study of helium isotopes in the LA basin shows a significant leakage of mantle helium along the Newport Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), at flow rates up to 2 cm/yr. Crustal-scale fault permeability (~60 microdarcys) and advective versus conductive heat transport rates have been estimated using the observed helium isotopic data. The NIFZ is an important deep-seated fault that may crosscut a proposed basin decollement fault in this heavily populated area, and appears to allow seepage of helium from the mantle sources about 30 km beneath Los Angeles. The helium study has been widely cited in recent weeks by the news media, both in radio and on numerous web sites.

  2. Seismic investigations of the Earth's lithosphere and asthenosphere in two unique convergent margin settings: The Carpathians, Romania, and U.S. Cordillera, Idaho-Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Adrian Christian

    Proposed mechanisms for the unusual seismicity ~100 km southeast of the contact between the Transylvanian Basin and the Eastern Carpathians in Romania have included tearing and rollback of a subducted slab of oceanic lithosphere and gravitational instability and delamination of continental lithosphere. We examined the upper mantle fabrics using shear wave splitting of SK(K)S phases recorded at four broadband seismic stations in the Transylvanian Basin. Our results indicate a regional NW-SE splitting trend, with measurements that reflect an abrupt change from this regional flow field in the vicinity of the Vrancea body to a NE-SW trend that is consistent with redirection of mantle flow. Crustal thickness measurements show 28-30 km in the western part of the Transylvanian Basin, 34-39 km at the contact with the Eastern Carpathians, and 40-45 km further east. These results, along with previous estimates, constrain the locus of the inferred Miocene suture between the southeastern-most portion of the Tisza-Dacia terrane and the East European Platform. The second convergent margin system represented here is in the North American Cordillera in Idaho and Oregon, where subduction and accretion of exotic terranes have modified the western margin of North America. We used teleseismic receiver functions from 85 broadband stations to analyze the geometry of the Salmon River suture zone, the western Idaho shear zone, and the Grouse Creek-Farmington zone boundary. Results show a clear break in crustal thickness from ~28 km beneath the accreted terranes to 36 km east of the surface expression of the WISZ. A strong mid-crustal converter at ~20 km depth is consistent with tectonic wedging during accretion of the Blue Mountains terranes. An eastern Moho offset of ~6 km is consistent with the Archean Grouse Creek-Farmington zone boundary. We used deep converted phases generated beneath the study area to image the mantle transition zone. We observe a continuous high amplitude P410s

  3. APPLICATION OF WELL LOG ANALYSIS IN ASSESSMENT OF PETROPHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF WELLS IN THE “OTH” FIELD, ANAMBRA BASIN, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene URORO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the Anambra basin one of Nigeria’s inland basins has recorded significant level of hydrocarbon exploration activities. The basin has been confirmed by several authors from source rock analyses to have the potential for generating hydrocarbon. For the hydrocarbon to be exploited, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of the reservoir. Computer-assisted log analyses were employed to effectively evaluate the petrophysical parameters such as the shale volume (Vsh, total porosity (TP, effective porosity (EP, water saturation (Sw, and hydrocarbon saturation (Sh. Cross-plots of the petrophysical parameters versus depth were illustrated. Five hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs were delineated in well 1, four in well 2. The reservoirs in well 3 do not contain hydrocarbon. The estimated reservoir porosity varies from 10% to 21% while their permeability values range from 20md to 1400md. The porosity and permeability values suggest that reservoirs are good enough to store and also permit free flow of fluid. The volume of shale (0.05% to 0.35% analysis reveals that the reservoirs range from shaly sand to slightly shaly sand to clean sand reservoir. On the basis of petrophysics data, the reservoirs are interpreted a good quality reservoir rocks which has been confirmed with high effective porosity range between 20% and high hydrocarbon saturation exceeding 55% water saturation in well 1 and well 2. Water saturation 3 is nearly 100% although the reservoir properties are good.  

  4. Evidence for Cenozoic extensional basin development and tectonic inversion south of the flat-slab segment, southern Central Andes, Chile (33° 36°S.L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, R.; Baeza, O.; Elgueta, S.; Flynn, J. J.; Gans, P.; Kay, S. M.; Muñoz, N.; Wyss, A. R.; Zurita, E.

    2002-04-01

    The mainly volcanic Cenozoic deposits that make up much of the western part of the Principal Cordillera in Central Chile are generally subdivided into two major units: an older Abanico or Coya-Machalí Formation and a younger Farellones Formation. Difficulty in differentiating these units has led to considerable debate. On the basis of the wide distribution, great thickness, and presence of sedimentary intercalations, it has been postulated that these arc volcanics were deposited in an intermontane basin; more recently, it has been proposed that this basin developed under extensional conditions and underwent subsequent tectonic inversion. We present field, geochronologic, geochemical, and thermal maturity data that support the latter interpretation. Collectively, this new information clarifies the stratigraphic, tectonic, and paleogeographic evolution of these deposits. The vast geographic extent of the Abanico Formation and lateral equivalents, which reach from at least 32°30' to 44°S along the Principal Cordillera, its great thickness, and the presence of repeated thick fluvial and lacustrine intercalations all indicate deposition in a large, strongly subsident, and probably north-south oriented basin, developed between middle to late Eocene and Oligocene. The unconformable contact with underlying Mesozoic units observed at several localities indicates that deposition followed a substantial erosional episode during late Cretaceous and/or early Cenozoic time. Basal deposits of the Abanico Formation near Termas del Flaco increase rapidly in thickness to the west. Still further to the west, a thick Abanico section contains, in its upper part, mammal fossils older than those found in the basal deposits near Termas. This evidence indicates a major space of deposition west of this locality, which had been filled before deposition took place at Termas. The east-vergent, high-angle El Fierro thrust fault on the east side of the westward-growing deposits is interpreted

  5. RUNOFF POTENTIAL OF MUREŞ RIVER UPPER BASIN TRIBUTARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. SOROCOVSCHI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Runoff Potential of Mureş River Upper Basin Tributaries. The upper basin of the Mureş River includes a significant area of the Eastern Carpathians central western part with different runoff formation conditions. In assessing the average annual runoff potential we used data from six gauging stations and made assessments on three distinct periods. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on geographical units. The potential average runoff is also assessed on altitude intervals of the mentioned areas. The runoff potential analysis on hydrographic basins, geographical units and altitude intervals highlights the variant spatial distribution of this general water resources indicator in the different studied areas.

  6. Paleomagnetic and chronostratigraphic constraints on the Middle to Late Miocene evolution of the Transylvanian Basin (Romania): Implications for Central Paratethys stratigraphy and emplacement of the Tisza-Dacia plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Arjan; Filipescu, Sorin; Maţenco, Liviu; Krijgsman, Wout; Kuiper, Klaudia; Stoica, Marius

    2013-04-01

    constrained between the first occurrence (FO) of Orbulina suturalis at 14.56 Ma and 14.38 ± 0.06 Ma. During the subsequent Badenian Salinity Crisis (BSC) up to 300 m of salt accumulate in the basin center. The faunal turnover that marks the Badenian-Sarmatian Boundary is dated at 12.80 ± 0.05 Ma. A second phase of intense volcanism occurs at 12.4 Ma and leads to deposition of the middle Sarmatian tuff complex (Ghiriş, Hădăreni, Turda and Câmpia Turzii tuffs). Rates of sediment accumulation strongly diminish in the basin center at the onset of the Pannonian stage coincident with an approximately 20° CW tectonic rotation of the Tisza-Dacia plate. Concurrent enhanced uplift in the Eastern a'nd Southern Carpathians leads to the isolation of the Central Paratethys and triggers the transition from marine to freshwater conditions. An additional Pannonian to post-Pannonian 6° of CW rotation is related to the creation of antiform geometries in the Eastern Carpathians which are notably larger in the north than in the south. An 8.4 Ma age is determined for the uppermost Pannonian sediments preserved in the central part of the Transylvanian Basin. Two sections belonging to middle Pannonian Zone D, and the lower part of Zone E (Subzone E1) are found to cover the 10.6-9.9 Ma time-interval.

  7. Changes in the channel-bed level of the western Carpathian rivers over the last 40years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijowska-Strugała, Małgorzata; Bucała-Hrabia, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Channel-bed level is constantly changing in time and space, and the process is dependent on both natural and anthropogenic factors. In mountain areas this is one of the more visible morphological processes. The main aim of the research was to analyze the dynamics of the position of river channel beds. Three rivers located within the western part of Polish Carpathians were chosen for the analysis: the Ropa river, the Kamienica Nawojowska river and the Ochotnica river. They are typical rivers for the Beskidy Mountains, medium Flysch mountains. To assess changes in the position of channel bed long-term series of data of minimum water stages in the river were used. The Ropa river is the biggest left tributary of the Wisłoka river (basin a of the upper Vistula River). The total length of the river amounts to 80 km, its gradient equals 58.9‰ and the water basin area amounts to 974 km2. The Kamienica Nawojowska river, with a length of 32.2 km is a right tributary of Dunajec river. The average decrease for the entire watercourse is 18.1‰. The catchment area is 238 km2. The Ochotnica river is 22.7 km long and it is a left tributary of the Dunajec river. The average slope for the entire watercourse is 36.1‰. The Ochotnica river characterized by deep valleys (catchment area 107.6 km2). Analysis of trends in minimum annual water stages in the alluvial Ropa river channel throughout the multi-year period of 1995-2014 shows an increasing trend amounting to 0.8 cm/year. In the Kamienica Nawojowska river the tendency of incision was observed starting from the 1960 to 2014. Average annual rate of increase of the minimum stages was between 0.4 to 1.2 cm/year. On the basis of the analysis of the minimum water levels in the years 1972-2011 two periods can be seen with different tendencies to change the position of the Ochotnica channel bottom. The first covers the years 1972-1996, where aggradation (3.9 cm/year) was the predominant process while in the period 1997-2011 incision

  8. Recharge sources and hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in semiarid and karstic environments: A field study in the Granada Basin (Southern Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohfahl, Claus; Sprenger, Christoph; Herrera, Jose Benavente; Meyer, Hanno; Chacon, Franzisca Fernandez; Pekdeger, Asaf

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to refine the understanding of recharge processes in watersheds representative for karstic semiarid areas by means of stable isotope analysis and hydrogeochemistry. The study focuses on the Granada aquifer system which is located in an intramontane basin bounded by high mountain ranges providing elevation differences of almost 2900 m. These altitude gradients lead to important temperature and precipitation gradients and provide excellent conditions for the application of stable isotopes of water whose composition depends mainly on temperature. Samples of rain, snow, surface water and groundwater were collected at 154 locations for stable isotope studies (δ 18 O, D) and, in the case of ground- and surface waters, also for major and minor ion analysis. Thirty-seven springs were sampled between 2 and 5 times from October 2004 to March 2005 along an altitudinal gradient from 552 masl in the Granada basin to 2156 masl in Sierra Nevada. Nine groundwater samples were taken from the discharge of operating wells in the Granada basin which are all located between 540 and 728 masl. The two main rivers were monitored every 2-3 weeks at three different altitudes. Rainfall being scarce during the sampling period, precipitation could only be sampled during four rainfall events. Calculated recharge altitudes of springs showed that source areas of mainly snowmelt recharge are generally located between 1600 and 2000 masl. The isotope compositions of spring water indicate water sources from the western Mediterranean as well as from the Atlantic without indicating a seasonal trend. The isotope pattern of the Quaternary aquifer reflects the spatial separation of different sources of recharge which occur mainly by bankfiltration of the main rivers. Isotopic signatures in the southeastern part of the aquifer indicate a considerable recharge contribution by subsurface flow discharged from the adjacent carbonate aquifer. No evaporation effects due to

  9. Recharge sources and hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in semiarid and karstic environments: A field study in the Granada Basin (Southern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohfahl, Claus [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, D-12249 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: kohfahl@zedat.fu-berlin.de; Sprenger, Christoph [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, D-12249 Berlin (Germany); Herrera, Jose Benavente [Instituto del Agua de la Universidad de Granada, Ramon y Cajal, 4, 18071 Granada (Spain); Meyer, Hanno [Isotope Laboratory of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Research Unit Potsdam, Telegrafenberg A 43, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Chacon, Franzisca Fernandez [Dpto. Hidrogeologia y Aguas Subterraneas, Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana, Oficina de Proyectos, Urb. Alcazar del Genil 4, Edificio Zulema bajo, 18006 Granada (Spain); Pekdeger, Asaf [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, D-12249 Berlin (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    The objective of this study is to refine the understanding of recharge processes in watersheds representative for karstic semiarid areas by means of stable isotope analysis and hydrogeochemistry. The study focuses on the Granada aquifer system which is located in an intramontane basin bounded by high mountain ranges providing elevation differences of almost 2900 m. These altitude gradients lead to important temperature and precipitation gradients and provide excellent conditions for the application of stable isotopes of water whose composition depends mainly on temperature. Samples of rain, snow, surface water and groundwater were collected at 154 locations for stable isotope studies ({delta}{sup 18}O, D) and, in the case of ground- and surface waters, also for major and minor ion analysis. Thirty-seven springs were sampled between 2 and 5 times from October 2004 to March 2005 along an altitudinal gradient from 552 masl in the Granada basin to 2156 masl in Sierra Nevada. Nine groundwater samples were taken from the discharge of operating wells in the Granada basin which are all located between 540 and 728 masl. The two main rivers were monitored every 2-3 weeks at three different altitudes. Rainfall being scarce during the sampling period, precipitation could only be sampled during four rainfall events. Calculated recharge altitudes of springs showed that source areas of mainly snowmelt recharge are generally located between 1600 and 2000 masl. The isotope compositions of spring water indicate water sources from the western Mediterranean as well as from the Atlantic without indicating a seasonal trend. The isotope pattern of the Quaternary aquifer reflects the spatial separation of different sources of recharge which occur mainly by bankfiltration of the main rivers. Isotopic signatures in the southeastern part of the aquifer indicate a considerable recharge contribution by subsurface flow discharged from the adjacent carbonate aquifer. No evaporation effects due

  10. Spatial terroir characterization and grape composition in the Southern Côtes-du-Rhône vineyard (Nyons-Valreas Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Vaudour

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In order for the characterization of terroir in vineyard situations to benefit both viticultural and wine making practices, it is necessary to consider the spatial aspect of the vineyard environment. An exploratory approach at characterising terroir in the Nyons-Valreas Basin (figure 1 considers both the spatial analysis and frequency analysis of the harvest. Data gathered from stereoscopic aerial photographic examination, satellite image processing, land surveys, and the Digital Elevation Model are combined and structured within a Geographic Information System along with the existing soil and geological data (figure 2. The result is a comprehensive soils model applicable to a relatively large area (11,340 ha. The Nyons-Valreas Basin is a neogene and quaternary sedimentary basin, and the soils found there are described by 21 soil landscape units which integrate 15 variables (table I. The area examined is considered to be representative of the surrounding regional diversity. The variables used in characterising terroir include soil types, geomorphology, lithology, stratigraphy, vegetation, land form, and land use. The various viticultural terroirs are regarded as parts of agricultural land consistent with both soil landscapes and harvest/wine responses. Multivariate clustering of the soil landscape units indicates that there exists 7 distinct viticultural terroirs, essentially on the basis of geomorphology and soils (figures 3 and 4, table II. Four distinct terroirs were compared (figures 5 and 6 using data gathered from 14 sites over the course of 15 vintages (1982-1996. Grenache is the grape variety planted at each site, and the variables measured at harvest (pH, sugar content, titratable acidity, the weight of 200 berries, and the sugar/acidity ratio appear to significantly discriminate the sites examined according to the terroir modeling performed (tables III, IV and V.

  11. Sensitivity of the hypsometric integral (HI and its connections with lithology and neotectonics in the Rodna Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ZAMOSTEANU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the sensitivity of the hypsometric integral (HI and its connections with lithology and neotectonics from northern Romanian Carpathians, Rodna Mountains. Two types of DEM was used in analysis (a 30m DEM resolution with specific grid size and a non-gridded 30m DEM resolution. Several methods have been applied in order to calculate HI as: the CalHypso GIS extension was used to automatically extract multiple hypsometric curves from digital elevation model (DEM and to calculate the main statistics related to the HI by applying polynomial fits; local indices of spatial autocorrelation were applied using Anselin Local Moran’s I and Getis-Ord Gi* in order to see if HI distribution has spatial patterns values and selection of valid squares (500m2 grid using 30m DEM using ArcMap 10.1 for the lithological analysis. The values of the hypsometric kurtosis density, kurtosis, skew and density skew are increasing eastwards. Values of hypsometric skewness for the northern slope are in range between 0.290 – 0.816 and sowthern part between 0.414 – 0.507. The results show that HI values are higher than 0.5 in the areas with recent tectonic influences especially in northern part near Dragoş Vodă fault system. The formations with a Oligocene, Miocene, Pleistocene and Holocene age have low values (<0.5 wile the other ones from Precambrian, Cambrian, Silurian, Eocene, Miocene and Pliocene age have higher values (>0.5. Comparing HI values from these two analysis (500m grid size DEM and the DEM without grid size of the DEM we find some slightly differences in HI values specially in the northern part of the range on Repedea, Negoiescu Mare, Fântâna and Lala basins

  12. [Genetic polymorphism of Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae) populations from Chornohora Ridge of Ukrainian Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosula, M Z; Konvaliuk, I I; Mel'nyk, V M; Drobyk, N M; Tsaryk, I V; Nesteruk, Iu I; Kunakh, V A

    2014-01-01

    The features of genetic structure and level of diversity were investigated for G. lutea populations from Chornohora Ridge of Ukrainian Carpathians using RAPD- and ISSR-PCR. We have shown a high level of genetic diversity for investigated populations. The differences between populations account for 59-72% of the total genetic variation, whereas intrapopulation polymorphism makes up 28-41%. The relationships among genetic variability level and ecological-geographical conditions as well as biological features of the species were assumed to be possible. The obtained results indicate the genetic isolation of G. lutea Chornohora populations from Ukrainian Carpathians. Pozhyzhevska agropopulation was characterized by a high level of polymorphism that means the possibility to use artificial plantings of the investigated species for its conservation.

  13. Assessment of Groundwater Resources in the Context of Climate Change and Population Growth: Case of the Klela Basin in Southern Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Toure

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater in the Klela basin in Mali, a subbasin of the Bani basin (one of the main tributaries of the Niger River, is required for domestic use, irrigation and livestock. Furthermore, water supply of the city of Sikasso directly depends on the groundwater resources, which are under pressure caused by increased water demand as well as climate variability and climate change. As a consequence, freshwater availability is being threatened which can have a direct negative impact on irrigation agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate future behavior of groundwater resources in the context of climate change and population growth using socio-economic and population growth scenarios for water demand and the Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 data for calculating groundwater recharge using the Thornthwaite model. The WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning system model was applied to balance water availability and demand and to compute changes in groundwater storage up to 2050. The overall results show that groundwater recharge as well as storage is decreasing over time, especially in the 2030s which can lead to severe agricultural droughts in this period. Recharge declined by approximatively 49% and stored groundwater by 24% over the study period.

  14. Late Cenozoic basin evolution and fold-thrust deformation in the southern Central Andes: Initial constraints from synorogenic deposits of the Precordillera, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, M.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Stockli, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    In the Precordillera region of the Argentine Andes, Cenozoic shortening associated with flattening of the Pampean segment of the subducting Nazca plate has resulted in a series of thin skinned fold-thrust systems that partitioned and uplifted Cenozoic foreland basin deposits. The kinematic and temporal evolution of the Andean Precordillera can be approached through detailed analyses of the sedimentary fill now preserved in intermontane regions and the bedrock low-temperature thermochronology of the fold-thrust belt. In this project, we focus on Neogene foreland basin fill exposed in the central and eastern Precordillera along the San Juan River (Quebrada Albarracín and Pachaco regions), on the western flank of the Sierra Talacasto, and in the Loma de las Tapias area near the Ullum dam. The sedimentary successions exposed in these regions record the hinterland development of the Frontal Cordillera (detrital zircon provenance and composition of sandstone and conglomeratic units), regional volcanism (pyroclastic flows and tuffaceous sandstone units), and initial construction of the Precordillera (fault cutoff relationships, growth strata, and paleocurrent changes). We investigate the development and subsequent partitioning and deformation of these synorogenic sections using sediment provenance (detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, conglomerate clast counts, sandstone petrography, and paleocurrent measurements), facies analysis of measured stratigraphic successions, and initial apatite (U-Th)/He cooling histories to constrain the age of uplift-induced exhumation of successive thrust sheets in the Andean Precordillera.

  15. Ages of detrital zircon from siliciclastic sucessions of the Brasilia belt, southern border of Sao Francisco craton: Implications for the evolution of proterozoic basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, C.S; Machado, N; Ribeiro, A.; Paciullo, F.V.P; Heilbron, M; Gauthier, G

    2001-01-01

    The determination of the age distribution of detrital zircon suites from greenschist and amphibolite facies metassedimentary rocks using 207 Pb/ 206 Pb laser-ablation inductively couple plasma mass spectometry (LA-ICPMS) was previously discussed by Machado and Gauthier (1996) and is an useful tool on determinating the ages interval of the source area. Although 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ages are, in principle, mimimum ages, Feng et al. (1993) and Machado and Gauthier (1996) showed that these ages are identical within error to U-Pb ages. The advantage of the method for sedimentary provenance studies is that the number of grains that can be analysed per day (ca. 50) on the same sample, providing a stastically meaningful age distribution. The most significant limitations of the method used in this work are the inability to yield reliable U-Pb values and the large analytical error of, at least, 1-10%. Neverthless, in provenance studies high precision are not required. In this work we report ages of detrital zircon from from lower greenschist metamorphic facies quartzites from the Proterozoic Sao Joao del Rei and Andrelandia basin successions. The data yield information about the ages of the source areas and provide an approach for constraining sedimentation ages in these basins (au)

  16. Dating of retrograde metamorphism in Western Carpathians by K-Ar analysis of muscovites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, B.; Korikovskij, S.P.; Krasivskaya, I.S.; Arakelyants, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Using the K-Ar isotope dating method of muscovites it was found that many retrogradely metamorphosed rocks are the results of Variscan retrograde metamorphism and are not pre-Cambrian or Alpine metamorphites (diaphthorites). Samples for dating were taken from the Western Carpathian crystalline formation. The content of radiogenic argon was determined by mass spectrometry using the method of isotope dilution. (M.D.)

  17. Potassium-argon age determination of crystalline complexes of West Carpathians and preliminary result interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, G.P.; Gukasyan, P.Kh.; Veselsky, I.

    1977-01-01

    Results obtained using the K-Ar method and comparing them with the results obtained by radiometric and palaeontological methods in general confirm the palaeozoic age of crystalline rocks in the Western Carpathians. The existence of Precambrian rocks in this region may be assumed although there is still no geochronological evidence to this. The solution of this problem will reguire also Rb-Sr isochronous and U-Th-Pb absolute dating. (author)

  18. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian Mts. )

    OpenAIRE

    MILEVSKAYA S.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis...

  19. Large Late Pleistocene landslides from the marginal slope of the Flysch Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, T.; Hartvich, Filip; Jankovská, Vlasta; Klimeš, Jan; Tábořík, Petr; Bubík, M.; Smolková, V.; Hradecký, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2014), s. 981-992 ISSN 1612-510X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : fossil landslide * radiocarbon dating * electrical resistivity tomography * pollen analysis * Late Pleistocene * Flysch Carpathians * Marine Isotope Stage 3 Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography; EF - Botanics (BU-J) Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2014

  20. The metamorphic basement of the southern Sierra de Aconquija, Eastern Sierras Pampeanas: Provenance and tectonic setting of a Neoproterozoic back-arc basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna, Clara Eugenia; Altenberger, Uwe; Mon, Ricardo; Günter, Christina; Gutiérrez, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampeanas are mainly composed of Neoproterozoic-early Palaeozoic metamorphic complexes whose protoliths were sedimentary sequences deposited along the western margin of Gondwana. South of the Sierra de Aconquija, Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, a voluminous metamorphic complex crops out. It is mainly composed of schists, gneisses, marbles, calk-silicate schists, thin layers of amphibolites intercalated with the marbles and granitic veins. The new data correlate the Sierra de Aconquija with others metamorphic units that crop out to the south, at the middle portion of the Sierra de Ancasti. Bulk rock composition reflects originally shales, iron rich shales, wackes, minor litharenites and impure limestones as its protoliths. Moreover, comparisons with the northern Sierra de Aconquija and from La Majada (Sierra de Ancasti) show similar composition. Amphibolites have a basaltic precursor, like those from the La Majada (Sierra de Ancasti) ones. The analyzed metamorphic sequence reflects low to moderate weathering conditions in the sediments source environment and their chemical composition would be mainly controlled by the tectonic setting of the sedimentary basin rather than by the secondary sorting and reworking of older deposits. The sediments composition reveal relatively low maturity, nevertheless the Fe - shale and the litharenite show a tendency of minor maturity among them. The source is related to an acid one for the litharenite protolith and a more basic to intermediate for the other rocks, suggesting a main derivation from intermediate to felsic orogen. The source of the Fe-shales may be related to and admixture of the sediments with basic components. Overall the composition point to an upper continental crust as the dominant sediment source for most of the metasedimentary rocks. The protolith of the amphibolites have basic precursors, related to an evolving back-arc basin. The chemical data in combination with the specific sediment association

  1. The Mormon Peak and Tule Springs Detachments of Southern Nevada and Their Role in Interpreting the Subsurface Structure of the Sevier Desert Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicke, B.; Axen, G. J.

    2007-12-01

    The eastern Sevier front is commonly overprinted by west-dipping normal faults that have been active through much of Cenozoic time. Although examples of disparate age and geometry abound, the Sevier Desert detachment stands out as being: (1) a very large, low-angle structure, (2) probably still active, and (3) at drillable depth, and hence is a prime target for scientific drilling. Among the closest surface-exposed analogs of the detachment are the Miocene Mormon Peak and Tule Springs detachments in southern Nevada, about 250 km SSW of the Sevier Desert. In both areas, the detachments developed within a few km of the basal Sevier thrust. The few traces of the southern Nevada detachments that were identified by reconnaissance mapping in the 1950s were first interpreted as underlying "rootless" gravity-slide masses. Detailed stratigraphic and structural mapping in the 1980s revealed the full extent of these detachments and their close relationship to the basal Sevier thrust. Construction and retrodeformation of cross sections through the two detachments demonstrated that neither fault could represent the base of a surficial slide mass. The key field relationship is the structural contiguity of the hanging walls of the detachments with large mountain range blocks in their down-dip directions. "Rootless" gravity-driven masses of equivalent or larger scale are widely documented, and in contrast to the southern Nevada detachments show clear evidence along their down-dip portions of either riding over the earth's surface (e.g. Heart Mountain, WY; Shadow Valley, CA) or having been internally shortened (e.g. Bearpaw Mountains, MT; Louisiana shelf). A rootless slide origin for the Mormon Peak detachment has been revived based on meso- and microstructural analysis of the fault surface (refs. 1, 2, and 3), but the hypothesis still fails the retrodeformation test at macroscopic scale. The retrodefomed sections indicate that the footwalls of the southern Nevada detachments

  2. The BioREGIO Carpathians project: aims, methodology and results from the “Continuity and Connectivity” analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Favilli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BioREGIO Carpathians is a transnational cooperation project, co-financed under the second call of the EU South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme, priority area “Protection and Improvement of the Environment”. BioREGIO Carpathians run for three years (2011–2013 and is a flagship project for the Carpathian Convention (article four dealing with landscape and biological diversity, its Biodiversity Protocol and the Biodiversity Working Group. The project is built on the conservation, restoration and valorisation of the Carpathians ecological continuum to enable large herbivores and carnivores to live in coexistence with modern society. The Carpathian countries are expecting a massive pressure to modernize and extend their road infrastructures. If not considering the requirements of ecological network, this run-to-development will enhance landscape fragmentation, limit dispersal and genetic exchange of wildlife species. BioREGIO applied a multi-disciplinary approach (physical, legal and socio-economic in order to identify the most influencing barriers regarding connectivity throughout the Carpathians. Using two ArcGIS 10.0 tools in a three-step approach and a series of site visits, the continuity and connectivity analysis identified not only physical barriers but also legal aspects and socio-economic behaviour that are influencing ecological connectivity and playing a major role to conserve wildlife population. The investigation on the ground together with local experts and stakeholders enabled the adaptation of the GIS results and the development of feasible solutions to overcome the detected barriers with recommended priorities for implementing appropriate measurements to maintain connectivity and to sustain large carnivores, herbivores and biodiversity in the Carpathians.

  3. Revised crustal architecture of the southeastern Carpathian foreland from active and passive seismic data

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    Enciu, Dana M.; Knapp, Camelia C.; Knapp, James H.

    2009-08-01

    Integration of active and passive source seismic data is employed in order to study the nature of the relationships between crustal seismicity and geologic structures in the southeastern (SE) Carpathian foreland of Romania and the possible connection with the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone (VSZ) of intermediate-depth seismicity, one of the most active earthquake-prone areas in Europe. Crustal epicenters and focal mechanisms are correlated with four deep industry seismic profiles, the reprocessed Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics (DACIA PLAN) profile and the Deep Reflection Acquisition Constraining Unusual Lithospheric Activity II and III (DRACULA) profiles in order to understand the link between neotectonic foreland deformation and Vrancea mantle seismicity. Projection of crustal foreland hypocenters onto deep seismic profiles identifies several active crustal faults in the SE Carpathian foreland and suggests a mechanical coupling between the mantle located VSZ and the overlying foreland crust. The coupled associated deformation appears to take place on the Trotus Fault, the Sinaia Fault, and the newly detected Ialomita Fault. Seismic reflection imaging reveals the absence of west dipping reflectors in the crystalline crust and a slightly east dipping to horizontal Moho in the proximity of the Vrancea area. These findings argue against previously purported mechanisms to generate mantle seismicity in the VSZ including oceanic lithosphere subduction in place and oceanic slab break off, furthermore suggesting that the Vrancea seismogenic body is undetached from the overlying crust in the foreland.

  4. Exploitation Contradictions Concerning Multi-Energy Resources among Coal, Gas, Oil, and Uranium: A Case Study in the Ordos Basin (Western North China Craton and Southern Side of Yinshan Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Feng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The particular “rich coal, meager oil, and deficient gas” energy structure of China determines its high degree of dependence on coal resources. After over 100 years of high-intensity mining activities in Northeast China, East Region, and the Southern Region, coal mining in these areas is facing a series of serious problems, which force China’s energy exploitation map to be rewritten. New energy bases will move to the western and northern regions in the next few years. However, overlapping phenomena of multiple resources are frequently encountered. Previous exploitation mainly focused on coal mining, which destroys many mutualistic and accompanying resources, such as uranium, gas, and oil. Aiming at solving this unscientific development mode, this research presents a case study in the Ordos Basin, where uranium, coal, and gas/oil show a three-dimensional overlapping phenomenon along the vertical downward direction. The upper uranium and lower coal situation in this basin is remarkable; specifically, coal mining disturbs the overlaying aquifer, thus requiring the uranium to be leached first. The technical approach must be sufficiently reliable to avoid the leakage of radioactive elements in subsequent coal mining procedures. Hence, the unbalanced injection and extraction of uranium mining is used to completely eradicate the discharged emissions to the environment. The gas and oil are typically not extracted because of their deep occurrence strata and their overlapping phenomenon with coal seams. Use of the integrated coal and gas production method is recommended, and relevant fracturing methods to increase the gas migrating degree in the strata are also introduced. The results and recommendations in this study are applicable in some other areas with similarities.

  5. Superimposed extension and shortening in the southern Salinas Basin and La Panza Range, California: A guide to Neogene deformation in the Salinian block of the central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; McPhee, Darcy K.; McDougall, Kristin; Hourigan, Jeremy K.

    2013-01-01

    We synthesized data from geologic maps, wells, seismic-reflection profiles, potential-field interpretations, and low-temperature thermochronology to refine our understanding of late Cenozoic extension and shortening in the Salinian block of the central California Coast Ranges. Data from the La Panza Range and southern Salinas Basin document early to middle Miocene extension, followed by Pliocene and younger shortening after a period of little deformation in the late Miocene. Extension took place on high-angle normal faults that accommodated ∼2% strain at the scale of the ∼50-km-wide Salinian block (oriented perpendicular to the San Andreas fault). Shortening was accommodated by new reverse faults, reactivation of older normal faults, and strike-slip faulting that resulted in a map-view change in the width of the Salinian block. The overall magnitude of shortening was ∼10% strain, roughly 4–5 times greater than the amount of extension. The timing and magnitude of deformation in our study area are comparable to that documented in other Salinian block basins, and we suggest that the entire block deformed in a similar manner over a similar time span. The timing and relative magnitude of extension and shortening may be understood in the context of central Coast Range tectonic boundary conditions linked to rotation of the western Transverse Ranges at the south end of the Salinian block. Older models for Coast Range shortening based on balanced fault-bend fold-style cross sections are a poor approximation of Salinian block deformation, and may lead to mechanically improbable fault geometries that overestimate the amount of shortening.

  6. Preliminary results of chronostratigraphic field work, OSL-dating and morphogenetic reconstruction of an alluvial apron at Alborz southern foothill, Damghan basin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büdel, Christian; Fuchs, Markus; Majid Padashi, Seyed; Baumhauer, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Here we present preliminary results of a chronostratigraphic study of an alluvial fan in the Damghan Basin, northern Iran. The basin sediments date back to the Mio- and Pliocene and therefore represent the starting point of alluvial fan aggradation. Today, the still active alluvial fans prograde from the Albors Mountain ranges and sit on the older sediment bodies. In this study, our focus is on the late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial fan sedimentation history. The upper stratigraphy of the alluvial fans and intercalated lake deposits is characterized by six individual layers of gravels and fines, representing six different stratigraphic units. These units are described and classified by detailed geomorphological and stratigraphic mapping. To establish an alluvial fan chronology, six profiles were sampled for OSL dating. As expected, due to the high-energy transport system of alluvial fan aggradation in semi-desert environments, OSL dating of these sediments is challenging due to the problem of insufficient bleaching. Consequently, most of the samples are interpreted as maximum ages. However, the measurements show a consistent internal age structure and the overall OSL-based chronology is in agreement with the age model derived from our geomorphological analysis. As a first interpretation, based on surveyed geomorphological features and chronological analysis, we could identify seven morphodynamic phases, leading to a genetic model of alluvial fan aggradation. The oldest Pleistocene age estimate is derived from a former lake terrace. The following ages represent ongoing lake sediment deposition and the development of a proximal and mid-fan gravel cover. After the youngest lake deposits were accumulated within the Holocene, the lake starts to retreat and small alluvial fans are filling up the former lake bottom. This last sedimentation phase can be divided in at least two sub-phases, probably coupled to a lateral shifting of the active depositional lobe and to the

  7. Production potential of photosynthesis in forest ecosystems of the low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathians