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Sample records for basin southeastern canada

  1. Synchronous egress and ingress fluid flow related to compressional reactivation of basement faults: the Phoenix and Gryphon uranium deposits, southeastern Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zenghua; Chi, Guoxiang; Bethune, Kathryn M.; Eldursi, Khalifa; Thomas, David; Quirt, David; Ledru, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies on unconformity-related uranium deposits in the Athabasca Basin (Canada) suggest that egress flow and ingress flow can develop along single fault systems at different stages of compressional deformation. This research aims to examine whether or not both ingress and egress flow can develop at the same time within an area under a common compressional stress field, as suggested by the reverse displacement of the unconformity surface by the basement faults. The study considers the Phoenix and Gryphon uranium deposits in the Wheeler River area in the southeastern part of the Athabasca Basin. Two-dimensional numerical modeling of fluid flow, coupled with compressional deformation and thermal effects, was carried out to examine the fluid flow pattern. The results show that local variations in the basement geology under a common compressional stress field can result in both egress and ingress flow at the same time. The fault zone at Phoenix underwent a relatively low degree of deformation, as reflected by minor reverse displacement of the unconformity, and egress flow developed, whereas the fault zone at Gryphon experienced a relatively high degree of deformation, as demonstrated by significant reverse displacement of the unconformity, and ingress flow was dominant. The correlation between strain development and location of uranium mineralization, as exemplified by Gryphon and Phoenix uranium deposits, suggests that the localization of dilation predicted by numerical modeling may represent favourable sites for uranium mineralization in the Athabasca Basin.

  2. Canada Basin revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  3. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE...about Arctic acoustics during the Cold War is now obsolete. The goal of the Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE) is to determine the...Canada Basin (McLaughlin et al., 2011). These changing conditions make the Canada Basin an ideal location to test the hypothesis put forward by P

  4. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  5. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  6. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, Arthur; Hart, Patrick E.

    2012-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a >700,000 sq. km. remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed across the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-83.5 Ma. Canada Basin was filled by Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Beaufort-Mackenzie Deltaic System, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. The basin contains roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. Three fourths or more of this volume generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemipelagic deposits, which contain lenses to extensive interbeds of moderate amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits.Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin is correlative with stratigraphic sequences in these areas that contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks. In addition, worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas windows. Structural, stratigraphic and combined structural and stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin, and at least one of these contains bright spots. However, deep water (to almost 4000 m), remoteness from harbors and markets, and thick accumulations of seasonal to permanent sea ice (until its possible removal by global warming later this century) will require the discovery of very large deposits for commercial success in most parts of Canada Basin. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Climate change impacts on southeastern U.S. basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakos, Aris P.; Yao, Huaming

    2000-01-01

    The work described herein aims to assess the impacts of potential climate change on the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) and Alabama-Coosa-Talapoosa (ACT) river basins in the Southeastern US. The assessment addresses the potential impacts on watershed hydrology (soil moisture and streamflow) and on major water uses including water supply, drought management, hydropower, environmental and ecological protection, recreation, and navigation. This investigation develops new methods, establishes and uses an integrated modeling framework, and reaches several important conclusions that bear upon river basin planning and management. Although the specific impacts vary significantly with the choice of the GCM scenario, some general conclusions are that (1) soil moisture and streamflow variability is expected to increase, and (2) flexible and adaptive water sharing agreements, management strategies, and institutional processes are best suited to cope with the uncertainty associated with future climate scenarios.

  8. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed on the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-75 Ma. Canada Basin is filled with Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Mackenzie River system, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. Except for the absence of a salt- and shale-bearing mobile substrate Canada Basin is analogous to the Mississippi Delta and the western Gulf of Mexico. Canada Basin contains about 7 to >14 km of sediment beneath the Mackenzie Prodelta on the southeast, 6 to 7 km of sediment beneath the abyssal plain on the west, and roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. About three fourths of the basin fill generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemiplegic deposits, and a fourth of the fill generates interbedded lenses to extensive layers of moderate to high amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits. Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin may contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks and the apparent age of the basin suggests that it contains three of the six stratigraphic intervals that together provided >90?? of the World's discovered reserves of oil and gas.. Worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas window. At least five types of structural or stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin. These consist of 1) a belt of late Eocene to Miocene shale-cored detachment folds containing with at least two anticlines that are capped by beds with bright spots, 2) numerous moderate to high amplitude reflection packets

  9. Geochemistry of spring water, southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Briant A.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical quality of water in the southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado, is important to the future development of the abundant oil-shale resources of the area. This report examines the observed changes in chemistry as water circulates in both shallow and deep ground-water systems. Mass-balance and mass- transfer calculations are used to define reactions that simulate the observed water chemistry in the mixed sandstone, siltstone, and carbonate lithology of the Green River Formation of Tertiary age.The mass-transfer calculations determine a reaction path particular to this system. The early dominance of calcite dissolution produces a calcium carbonate water. After calcite saturation, deeper circulation and further rock-water interaction cause the reprecipitation of calcite, the dissolution of dolomite and plagioclase, and the oxidation of pyrite; all combining to produce a calcium magnesium sodium bicarbonate sulfate water. The calculations suggest that silica concentrations are controlled by a kaolinite-Ca-montmorillonite phase boundary. Close agreement of mineral-saturation indices calculated by both an aqueous-equilibrium model and the mass-transfer model support the selection of reactions from the mass-transfer calculations.

  10. Ground water in the southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Walter F.; Kimball, Briant A.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for developing oil-shale resources in the southeastern Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado has created the need for information on the quantity and quality of water available in the area. This report describes the availability and chemical quality of ground water, which might provide a source or supplement of water supply for an oil-shale industry. Ground water in the southeastern Uinta Basin occurs in three major aquifers. Alluvial aquifers of small areal extent are present i n val ley-f i 11 deposits of six major drainages. Consolidated-rock aquifers include the birds's-nest aquifer i n the Parachute Creek Member of the G reen River Formation, which is limited to the central part of the study area; and the Douglas Creek aquifer, which includes parts of the Douglas Creek Member of the Green River Formation and parts of the intertonguing Renegade Tongue of the Wasatch Formation; this aquifer underlies most of the study area.The alluvial aquifers are recharged by infiltration of streamflow and leakage from consolidated-rock aquifers. Recharge is estimated to average about 32,000 acre-feet per year. Discharge from alluvial aquifers, primarily by evapotranspiration, also averages about 32,000 acre-feet per year. The estimated volume of recoverable water in storage in alluvial aquifers is about 200,000 acre-feet. Maximum yields to individual wells are less than 1,000 gallons per minute.Recharge to the bird's-nest aquifer, primarily from stream infiltration and downward leakage from the overlying Uinta Formation, is estimated to average 670 acre-feet per year. Discharge from the bird's-nest aquifer, which is primarily by seepage to Bitter Creek and the White River, is estimated to be at 670 acre-feet per year. The estimated volume of recoverable water in storage in the bird's-nest aquifer is 1.9 million acre-feet. Maximum yields to individual wells in some areas may be as much as 5,000 gallons per minute. A digital-computer model of the flow system was used

  11. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: introduction.

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    Chris Maser; Jack Ward. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    The need for a way by which rangeland managers can account for wildlife in land-use planning, in on-the-ground management actions, and in preparation of environmental impact statements is discussed. Principles of range-land-wildlife interactions and management are described along with management systems. The Great Basin of southeastern Oregon was selected as a well-...

  12. Conventional natural gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, B.

    1999-01-01

    The use of decline curve analysis to analyse and extrapolate the production performance of oil and gas reservoirs was discussed. This mathematical analytical tool has been a valid method for estimating the conventional crude oil resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). However, it has failed to provide a generally acceptable estimate of the conventional natural gas resources of the WCSB. This paper proposes solutions to this problem and provides an estimate of the conventional natural gas resources of the basin by statistical analysis of the declining finding rates. Although in the past, decline curve analysis did not reflect the declining finding rates of natural gas in the WCSB, the basin is now sufficiently developed that estimates of conventional natural gas resources can be made by this analytical tool. However, the analysis must take into account the acceleration of natural gas development drilling that has occurred over the lifetime of the basin. It was concluded that ultimate resources of conventional marketable natural gas of the WCSB estimated by decline analysis amount to 230 tcf. It was suggested that further research be done to explain why the Canadian Gas Potential Committee (CGPC) estimate for Alberta differs from the decline curve analysis method. 6 refs., 35 figs

  13. Nonstationary frequency analysis of extreme daily precipitation amounts in Southeastern Canada using a peaks-over-threshold approach

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    Thiombiano, Alida N.; El Adlouni, Salaheddine; St-Hilaire, André; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; El-Jabi, Nassir

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a statistical inference of Southeastern Canada extreme daily precipitation amounts is proposed using a classical nonstationary peaks-over-threshold model. Indeed, the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) is fitted to excess time series derived from annual averages of independent precipitation amount events above a fixed threshold, the 99th percentile. Only the scale parameter of the fitted distribution is allowed to vary as a function of a covariate. This variability is modeled using B-spline function. Nonlinear correlation and cross-wavelet analysis allowed identifying two dominant climate indices as covariates in the study area, Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Pacific North American (PNA). The nonstationary frequency analysis showed that there is an east-west behavior of the AO index effects on extreme daily precipitation amounts in the study area. Indeed, the higher quantiles of these events are conditional to the AO positive phase in Atlantic Canada, while those in the more southeastern part of Canada, especially in Southern Quebec and Ontario, are negatively related to AO. The negative phase of PNA also gives the best significant correlation in these regions. Moreover, a regression analysis between AO (PNA) index and conditional quantiles provided slope values for the positive phase of the index on the one hand and the negative phase and on the other hand. This statistic allows computing a slope ratio which permits to sustain the nonlinear relation assumption between climate indices and precipitation and the development of the nonstationary GPD model for Southeastern Canada extremes precipitation modeling.

  14. Waterford Formation in the south-eastern Karoo: Implications for basin development

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    Richard Mason

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research on the rocks of the Karoo Supergroup has shown that this sequence, which contains an unsurpassed record of Permian–Jurassic tetrapods, records a largely unbroken stratigraphic succession from 300 Ma to 180 Ma. This Gondwanan succession was deposited in a changing environmental setting reflecting glacial marine through deltaic to fluvial and aeolian desert conditions. The contact between the Ecca and Beaufort Groups (at the top of the Waterford Formation of the Ecca Group in the southern and western Karoo represents a change in depositional environment from a subaqueous to a subaerial delta plain. By contrast, the Waterford Formation has not yet been recognised in the south-eastern Karoo Basin, which might imply that a major unconformity is present between the Fort Brown Formation of the Ecca Group, deposited in a prodelta environment, and the overlying fluvially deposited Koonap Formation of the Beaufort Group. From careful documentation of lithofacies and sedimentological data, it can be demonstrated that the Waterford Formation is indeed present in the south-eastern part of the basin and that no major unconformity is present – a fact that has implications for the mapping of Karoo rocks in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, for understanding the depositional environment of ’reptilian‘ fossils from the lowermost Beaufort in this part of the Karoo basin, and for basin development models.

  15. Late Tertiary and Quaternary geology of the Tecopa basin, southeastern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-12-31

    Stratigraphic units in the Tecopa basin, located in southeastern California, provide a framework for interpreting Quaternary climatic change and tectonism along the present Amargosa River. During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, a climate that was appreciably wetter than today`s sustained a moderately deep lake in the Tecopa basin. Deposits associated with Lake Tecopa consists of lacustrine mudstone, conglomerate, volcanic ash, and shoreline accumulations of tufa. Age control within the lake deposits is provided by air-fall tephra that are correlated with two ash falls from the Yellowstone caldera and one from the Long Valley caldera. Lake Tecopa occupied a closed basin during the latter part, if not all, of its 2.5-million-year history. Sometime after 0.5 m.y. ago, the lake developed an outlet across Tertiary fanglomerates of the China Ranch Beds leading to the development of a deep canyon at the south end of the basin and establishing a hydrologic link between the northern Amargosa basins and Death Valley. After a period of rapid erosion, the remaining lake beds were covered by alluvial fans that coalesced to form a pediment in the central part of the basin. Holocene deposits consist of unconsolidated sand and gravel in the Amargosa River bed and its deeply incised tributaries, a small playa near Tecopa, alluvial fans without pavements, and small sand dunes. The pavement-capped fan remnants and the Holocene deposits are not faulted or tilted significantly, although basins to the west, such as Death Valley, were tectonically active during the Quaternary. Subsidence of the western basins strongly influenced late Quaternary rates of deposition and erosion in the Tecopa basin.

  16. Significance of Northeast-Trending Features in Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

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    Hutchinson, D. R.; Jackson, H. R.; Houseknecht, D. W.; Li, Q.; Shimeld, J. W.; Mosher, D. C.; Chian, D.; Saltus, R. W.; Oakey, G. N.

    2017-11-01

    Synthesis of seismic velocity, potential field, and geological data from Canada Basin and its surrounding continental margins suggests that a northeast-trending structural fabric has influenced the origin, evolution, and current tectonics of the basin. This structural fabric has a crustal origin, based on the persistence of these trends in upward continuation of total magnetic intensity data and vertical derivative analysis of free-air gravity data. Three subparallel northeast-trending features are described. Northwind Escarpment, bounding the east side of the Chukchi Borderland, extends ˜600 km and separates continental crust of Northwind Ridge from high-velocity transitional crust in Canada Basin. A second, shorter northeast-trending zone extends ˜300 km in northern Canada Basin and separates inferred continental crust of Sever Spur from magmatically intruded crust of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province. A third northeast-trending feature, here called the Alaska-Prince Patrick magnetic lineament (APPL) is inferred from magnetic data and its larger regional geologic setting. Analysis of these three features suggests strike slip or transtensional deformation played a role in the opening of Canada Basin. These features can be explained by initial Jurassic-Early Cretaceous strike slip deformation (phase 1) followed in the Early Cretaceous (˜134 to ˜124 Ma) by rotation of Arctic Alaska with seafloor spreading orthogonal to the fossil spreading axis preserved in the central Canada Basin (phase 2). In this model, the Chukchi Borderland is part of Arctic Alaska.

  17. Significance of northeast-trending features in Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah; Jackson, H.R.; Houseknecht, David W.; Li, Q.; Shimeld, J.W.; Mosher, D.C.; Chian, D.; Saltus, Richard; Oakey, G.N.

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of seismic velocity, potential field, and geological data from Canada Basin and its surrounding continental margins suggests that a northeast-trending structural fabric has influenced the origin, evolution, and current tectonics of the basin. This structural fabric has a crustal origin, based on the persistence of these trends in upward continuation of total magnetic intensity data and vertical derivative analysis of free-air gravity data. Three subparallel northeast-trending features are described. Northwind Escarpment, bounding the east side of the Chukchi Borderland, extends ∼600 km and separates continental crust of Northwind Ridge from high-velocity transitional crust in Canada Basin. A second, shorter northeast-trending zone extends ∼300 km in northern Canada Basin and separates inferred continental crust of Sever Spur from magmatically intruded crust of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province. A third northeast-trending feature, here called the Alaska-Prince Patrick magnetic lineament (APPL) is inferred from magnetic data and its larger regional geologic setting. Analysis of these three features suggests strike slip or transtensional deformation played a role in the opening of Canada Basin. These features can be explained by initial Jurassic-Early Cretaceous strike slip deformation (phase 1) followed in the Early Cretaceous (∼134 to ∼124 Ma) by rotation of Arctic Alaska with seafloor spreading orthogonal to the fossil spreading axis preserved in the central Canada Basin (phase 2). In this model, the Chukchi Borderland is part of Arctic Alaska.

  18. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: plant communities and their importance to wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Edward Dealy; Donavin A. Leckenby; Diane M. Concannon

    1981-01-01

    Plant communities in the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon are described, and a field key is provided. The value of a plant community’s vertical and horizontal structure and the seasonal availability of its forage are examined in relation to wildlife habitat in managed rangelands. Further, the importance of individual and combined plant communities to wildlife in...

  19. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: management practices and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Hall

    1985-01-01

    Management practices and options to provide habitat for wildlife in the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon deal with both vegetation treatment and protection, livestock management, maintenance or distribution of water developments, protection of wildlife areas through road closures or fencing, and direct manipulation of wildlife through hunting, trapping, or other...

  20. Chapter 50: Geology and tectonic development of the Amerasia and Canada Basins, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.; Childers, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    Amerasia Basin is the product of two phases of counterclockwise rotational opening about a pole in the lower Mackenzie Valley of NW Canada. Phase 1 opening brought ocean-continent transition crust (serpentinized peridotite?) to near the seafloor of the proto-Amerasia Basin, created detachment on the Eskimo Lakes Fault Zone of the Canadian Arctic margin and thinned the continental crust between the fault zone and the proto-Amerasia Basin to the west, beginning about 195 Ma and ending prior to perhaps about 160 Ma. The symmetry of the proto-Amerasia Basin was disrupted by clockwise rotation of the Chukchi Microcontinent into the basin from an original position along the Eurasia margin about a pole near 72??N, 165 Wabout 145.5-140 Ma. Phase 2 opening enlarged the proto-Amerasia Basin by intrusion of mid-ocean ridge basalt along its axis between about 131 and 127.5 Ma. Following intrusion of the Phase 2 crust an oceanic volcanic plateau, the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge LIP (large igneous province), was extruded over the northern Amerasia Basin from about 127 to 89-75 Ma. Emplacement of the LIP halved the area of the Amerasia Basin, and the area lying south of the LIP became the Canada Basin. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  1. Chapter 50 Geology and tectonic development of the Amerasia and Canada Basins, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, Arthur; Hart, Patrick E.; Childers, Vicki A

    2011-01-01

    Amerasia Basin is the product of two phases of counterclockwise rotational opening about a pole in the lower Mackenzie Valley of NW Canada. Phase 1 opening brought ocean–continent transition crust (serpentinized peridotite?) to near the seafloor of the proto-Amerasia Basin, created detachment on the Eskimo Lakes Fault Zone of the Canadian Arctic margin and thinned the continental crust between the fault zone and the proto-Amerasia Basin to the west, beginning about 195 Ma and ending prior to perhaps about 160 Ma. The symmetry of the proto-Amerasia Basin was disrupted by clockwise rotation of the Chukchi Microcontinent into the basin from an original position along the Eurasia margin about a pole near 72°N, 165 W about 145.5–140 Ma. Phase 2 opening enlarged the proto-Amerasia Basin by intrusion of mid-ocean ridge basalt along its axis between about 131 and 127.5 Ma. Following intrusion of the Phase 2 crust an oceanic volcanic plateau, the Alpha–Mendeleev Ridge LIP (large igneous province), was extruded over the northern Amerasia Basin from about 127 to 89–75 Ma. Emplacement of the LIP halved the area of the Amerasia Basin, and the area lying south of the LIP became the Canada Basin.

  2. Suspended particles in the Canada Basin from optical and bottle data, 2003–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. McLaughlin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that coastal erosion, upwelling, and increased river runoff from Arctic warming will increase the concentration of suspended particles in the Arctic Ocean. Here we analyze in situ transmissometer and fluorometer data from the summers of 2003 through 2008 and bottle-derived particulate organic carbon (POC and total suspended solids (TSS measurements sampled in the summers of 2006 and 2007 from the Canada Basin and surrounding shelves. We divided our study area into five regions to account for the significant spatial variability and found that the highest attenuation, POC and TSS values were observed along the Beaufort shelf and the lowest values were located along the eastern shelf of the Canada Basin. We then explored the correlation of POC and TSS with beam attenuation coefficients to assess the viability of estimating POC concentrations from archived transmissometer data. POC (but not TSS and attenuation were well-correlated over the Northwind Ridge, in the Canada Basin interior, and along the eastern shelf of the Canada Basin. Neither TSS nor POC were well-correlated with attenuation along the entire Beaufort shelf. An interannual comparison of the attenuation and fluorescence data was done. We found no evidence of increasing attenuation from the summers of 2003 through 2008 and, although not statistically significant, it even appeared that attenuation decreased over time in the upper 25 m of the Northwind Ridge and in the 25–100 m layer (that includes the chlorophyll maximum of the eastern Beaufort shelf and within the Canada Basin. In the Canada Basin interior, the subsurface chlorophyll maximum deepened at a rate of 3.2 m per year from an average of 45 m in 2003 to 61 m in 2008, an example of how changes to the Arctic climate are impacting its ecology.

  3. Prediction in ungauged basins: approaches for Canada's cold regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pietroniro, Alain; Pomeroy, John Willard; Spence, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In March, 2004, Water Survey of Canada and the Canadian Society for Hydrological Sciences co-hosted a workshop in Yellowknife to discuss how to improve our community's abilities to predict streamflow...

  4. Prediction in ungauged basins: approaches for Canada's cold regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pietroniro, Alain; Pomeroy, John Willard; Spence, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    ... in the Mackenzie Valley and similar cold regions of Canada. The workshop's objectives were to: 1) provide outreach to practitioners of the results of recent studies in cold water regions hydrological regimes in the context of predicting streamflow...

  5. The nature of the Dakota-Morrison boundary, Southeastern San Juan basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubrey, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    A thin, discontinuous, fluvial locally conglomeratic sandstone at the vase of the Dakota Sandstone in the vicinity of the southeastern San Juan basin, New Mexico has been named the Encinal Canyon Member of the Dakota Sandstone. In the past, the sandstone beds, placed here in the Encinal Canyon, have been included in the Jackpile sandstone, (an economic unit in the Morrison Formation), in the Burro Canyon Formation, or in the Oak Canyon Member of the Dakota Sandstone. Distinction between the Encinal Canyon Member and the Jackpile sandstone, which are separated by an unconformity that probably spans most of the Early Cretaceous, is economically important. The Jackpile is a primary uranium exploration target, whereas the Dakota contains little known uranium. In the past, the sub-Dakota erosional surface in the southeastern San Juan basin generally was thought to be at the base of the marine and paralic Oak Canyon Member of the Dakota Sandstone, which overlies the Encinal Canyon Member. The unconformity is shown here to be at the base of the fluvial rocks of the Encinal Canyon Member. Local relief at the base of the Encinal Canyon indicates that the sub-Dakota erosional surface formed during a time of regional degradation. Easterly flowing streams scoured underlying units and in some places cut completely through the Jackpile sandstone and the Burro Canyon Formation. The Encinal Canyon was deposited in response to the initial transgression of the Dakota sea. As the sea inundated the area, a transgressive erosional surface formed, and the overlying paralic and marine sediments of the Oak Canyon Member were deposited

  6. Sources, distributions and dynamics of dissolved organic matter in the Canada and Makarov Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuan; Benner, Ronald; Robbins, Lisa L.; Wynn, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was conducted in the Canada and Makarov Basins and adjacent seas during 2010–2012 to investigate the dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Arctic Ocean. Sources and distributions of DOM in polar surface waters were very heterogeneous and closely linked to hydrological conditions. Canada Basin surface waters had relatively low DOC concentrations (69 ± 6 μmol L−1), CDOM absorption (a325: 0.32 ± 0.07 m−1) and CDOM-derived lignin phenols (3 ± 0.4 nmol L−1), and high spectral slope values (S275–295: 31.7 ± 2.3 μm−1), indicating minor terrigenous inputs and evidence of photochemical alteration in the Beaufort Gyre. By contrast, surface waters of the Makarov Basin had elevated DOC (108 ± 9 μmol L−1) and lignin phenol concentrations (15 ± 3 nmol L−1), high a325 values (1.36 ± 0.18 m−1), and low S275–295 values (22.8 ± 0.8 μm−1), indicating pronounced Siberian river inputs associated with the Transpolar Drift and minor photochemical alteration. Observations near the Mendeleev Plain suggested limited interactions of the Transpolar Drift with Canada Basin waters, a scenario favoring export of Arctic DOM to the North Atlantic. The influence of sea-ice melt on DOM was region-dependent, resulting in an increase (Beaufort Sea), a decrease (Bering-Chukchi Seas), and negligible change (deep basins) in surface DOC concentrations and a325 values. Halocline structures differed between basins, but the Canada Basin upper halocline and Makarov Basin halocline were comparable in their average DOC (65–70 μmol L−1) and lignin phenol concentrations (3–4 nmol L−1) and S275–295 values (22.9–23.7 μm−1). Deep-water DOC concentrations decreased by 6–8 μmol L−1 with increasing depth, water mass age, nutrient concentrations, and apparent oxygen utilization. Maximal estimates of DOC degradation rates (0.036–0.039 μmol L−1

  7. Shelf-basin Exchange in the Bering Canyon in Southeastern Bering Sea: Role of Unimak Pass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W.; Ladd, C. A.; Hermann, A. J.; Stabeno, P. J.

    2016-02-01

    Shelf-basin exchanges in the southeastern Bering Sea have significant implications for primary production on the Bering Sea shelf; yet, the mechanisms controlling such exchange are not well understood. One area with potentially enhanced cross-shelf transport is the Bering Canyon, where flow through the relatively shallow Unimak Pass meets and interacts with the Aleutian North Slope Current (ANSC). As a result, the ocean circulation and water properties in the area are influenced by local as well as remote wind forcing, ocean bathymetry, tides, and exhibit high spatial and temporal variability on multiple scales. In this study, we use ocean in situ measurement and numerical modeling to examine processes influencing shelf-basin exchange in the Bering Canyon. Results thus far suggest that on seasonal and longer time scales, the onshore flow across the Bering Canyon left rim is influenced by the Unimak pass transport, and to a lesser extent by the transport associated with the ANSC. Both Unimak Pass transport and ANSC transport are highly correlated with the along-shore wind stress south of the Aleutian Island Chain, but the Unimak Pass transport responds faster to the along-shore wind forcing by a month. These results highlight the importance of Unimak Pass in influencing the regional circulation and on-shelf transport. Numerical experimentation will be used to further elucidate the effects of tidal mixing and advection associated with Unimak Pass.

  8. Paleobiogeography of the Onondaga Limestone in southeastern New York: A second shelf to basin ramp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, R.H. (Skidmore Coll., Saratoga Springs, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology); Feldman, H.R. (Touro Coll., New York, NY (United States). Biology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    As a logical consequence of outcrop pattern and density, research on the Middle Devonian Onondaga Limestone has concentrated on the formation in an essentially east-west transect between the mid-Hudson Valley and Buffalo. Paleogeographic analysis reveals a symmetrical pattern, with the axis of the Appalachian Basin in central New York and the Edgecliff reefs flourishing in the eastern and western shelf regions. The subsurface reef trend of western New York and Pennsylvania is consistent with this model and is suggestive of a parallel reef trend in the east. However, recent examination of the formation in the southeastern part of the state has led to a pronounced reinterpretation of Onondaga paleobiogeography in that area. The authors have determined that there was a shallow carbonate shelf in the Helderberg-Coxsackie areas, a thick accumulation of shelf-margin bryozoan bafflestone between Leeds and Saugerties, and an even thicker accumulation of sparse to packed biocalcisiltites deposited on a carbonate ramp dipping southward into the Port Jervis area. It appears that this ramp occupied the northern margin of a structural base depocenter, located to the east of and not directly related to the topographic basin of central New York, which was centered in the Tristates vicinity from the Late Silurian until the early Middle Devonian.

  9. Hydrogeologic characteristics of domains of sparsely fractured rock in the granitic Lac Du Bonnet Batholith, southeastern Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, D.R.; Kozak, E.T.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.; Broadfoot, R.A.

    1996-06-01

    The hydrogeologic characteristics of the granitic Lac du Bonnet batholith in southeastern Manitoba have been studied since 1978, as part of AECL's program to assess the concept of disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste deep within plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield (Davison et al. 1994a). These studies have included an extensive program of drilling, logging, testing, sampling and monitoring in 19 deep surface boreholes drilled at Grid areas located across the Lac du Bonnet batholith, at the Whiteshell Laboratory (WL), and in surface and underground boreholes at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). Based on these investigations domains of low permeability, sparsely fractured rock (SFR) have been identified in the Lac du Bonnet batholith

  10. Cooperative and adaptive transboundary water governance in Canada's Mackenzie River Basin: status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada's Mackenzie River Basin (MRB is one of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in North America. Home to indigenous peoples for millennia, the basin is also the site of increasing resource development, notably fossil fuels, hydroelectric power resources, minerals, and forests. Three provinces, three territories, the Canadian federal government, and Aboriginal governments (under Canada's constitution, indigenous peoples are referred to as "Aboriginal" have responsibilities for water in the basin, making the MRB a significant setting for cooperative, transboundary water governance. A framework agreement that provides broad principles and establishes a river basin organization, the MRB Board, has been in place since 1997. However, significant progress on completing bilateral agreements under the 1997 Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement has only occurred since 2010. We considered the performance of the MRB Board relative to its coordination function, accountability, legitimacy, and overall environmental effectiveness. This allowed us to address the extent to which governance based on river basin boundaries, a bioregional approach, could contribute to adaptive governance in the MRB. Insights were based on analysis of key documents and published studies, 19 key informant interviews, and additional interactions with parties involved in basin governance. We found that the MRB Board's composition, its lack of funding and staffing, and the unwillingness of the governments to empower it to play the role envisioned in the Master Agreement mean that as constituted, the board faces challenges in implementing a basin-wide vision. This appears to be by design. The MRB governments have instead used the bilateral agreements under the Master Agreement as the primary mechanism through which transboundary governance will occur. A commitment to coordinating across the bilateral agreements is needed to enhance the prospects for

  11. Hydrology of a Basin Fen Complex in Northeastern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, C. M.; Ketcheson, S. J.; Price, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Western Boreal Plains (WBP) landscape is a mosaic of wetlands, lakes, and forested uplands, of which wetlands comprise nearly half. Along wetland-forestland transitions, dynamic ground/surface water interactions can have a strong influence on the quantity and chemistry of runoff to downstream basins. In a region affected by large-scale industrial development, there exists the need to better understand the hydrology of wetland-forestland complexes and their interactions, particularly over the long-term in order to capture inter-year climate variability. Pauciflora Basin (750 masl) is a 43 ha basin comprised of a poor fen bordered by forested uplands located on a prominent topographic high ~40 km SE of Fort McMurray (250 masl). Over the four-year study (April-Sept), the basin received 67% more precipitation (P) per month on average compared to 30-year climate normals and an average of 100 mm more P per season than the nearby regional weather station (360 masl). Wetland-forestland connectivity was highly dynamic both spatially and temporally but typically followed a trend of (1) upland water tables (UWT) sloping towards the wetland during spring and early summer and (2) a steady decline in UWT as the season progressed leading to flow reversals and decoupling. Runoff generation from the catchment was typically greatest in the spring and early summer when wetland and forestlands were coupled. However, runoff remained sensitive to P throughout the season for most years due to frequent rain events in excess of 20 mm d-1. Inter-year variability in storage on UWT appeared to be driven by slope characteristics, and upland runoff to the fen was high when UWT was within the more hydrologically active soil layer, which may influence solute and runoff processes downstream. Headwater catchments with above average P and significant wetland-upland connectivity may represent an important water supply for downstream catchments in an otherwise subhumid climate.

  12. A water system model for exploring electric energy alternatives in southeastern US basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-López, F; Yates, D

    2013-01-01

    Electric power generation often involves the use of water for power plant cooling and steam generation, which typically involves the release of cooling water to nearby rivers and lakes. The resulting thermal pollution may negatively impact the ecosystems of these water bodies. Water resource systems models enable the examination of the implications of alternative electric generation on regional water resources. This letter documents the development, calibration, and validation of a climate-driven water resource systems model of the Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint, the Alabama–Coosa–Tallapoosa, and the Tombigbee River basins in the states of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, in the southeastern US. The model represents different water users, including power plants, agricultural water users, and municipal users. The model takes into account local population, per-capita use estimates, and changes in population growth. The water resources planning model was calibrated and validated against the observed, managed flows through the river systems of the three basins. Flow calibration was performed on land cover, water capacity, and hydraulic conductivity of soil horizons; river water temperature calibration was performed on channel width and slope properties. Goodness-of-fit statistics indicate that under 1980–2010 levels of water use, the model robustly represents major features of monthly average streamflow and water temperatures. The application of this integrated electricity generation–water resources planning model can be used to explore alternative electric generation and water implications. The implementation of this model is explored in the companion paper of this focus issue (Yates et al 2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 035042). (letter)

  13. Plate interior polyphase fault systems and sedimentary basin evolution: A case study of the East Gobi Basin and East Gobi Fault Zone, southeastern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, Matthew J.; Johnson, Cari L.; Webb, Laura E.

    2018-01-01

    Structural interpretation of 2-D seismic reflection data and subsurface-outcrop correlations reveal six distinct phases of deformation recorded in the Paleozoic basement rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill of the East Gobi Basin (EGB), southeastern Mongolia. These phases include arc accretion and arc-continent collision in late Paleozoic time, Late Triassic sinistral shear-zone development, Early Jurassic fold and thrust belt style shortening, Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous extension and rift basin development, middle Cretaceous shortening with basin inversion and regional unconformity development, and Late Cretaceous-Oligocene thermal subsidence with renewed Paleogene left-lateral strike slip faulting across the fault zone. The five post-amalgamation deformation phases are localized along the East Gobi Fault Zone, suggesting that preexisting structures and boundary conditions exert fundamental controls on the long term evolution of intracontinental basins such as the EGB. Subsurface geophysical data and outcrop correlations demonstrate that the main subbasins of the EGB contain major differences in basement metamorphic and structural fabrics, basin fill patterns, and distinct Mesozoic-Cenozoic fault generations. Potential causes related to far-field boundary conditions and other driving factors are suggested for each of the major deformation phases.

  14. Variation of Annual ET Determined from Water Budgets Across Rural Southeastern Basins Differing in Forest Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, S. E.; Jackson, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    In the Southeastern United States, evapotranspiration (ET) typically accounts for 60-70% of precipitation. Watershed and plot scale experiments show that evergreen forests have higher ET rates than hardwood forests and pastures. However, some plot experiments indicate that certain hardwood species have higher ET than paired evergreens. The complexity of factors influencing ET in mixed land cover watersheds makes identifying the relative influences difficult. Previous watershed scale studies have relied on regression to understand the influences or low flow analysis to indicate growing season differences among watersheds. Existing studies in the southeast investigating ET rates for watersheds with multiple forest cover types have failed to identify a significant forest type effect, but these studies acknowledge small sample sizes. Trends of decreasing streamflow have been recognized in the region and are generally attributed to five key factors, 1.) influences from multiple droughts, 2.) changes in distribution of precipitation, 3.) reforestation of agricultural land, 4.) increasing consumptive uses, or 5.) a combination of these and other factors. This study attempts to address the influence of forest type on long term average annual streamflow and on stream low flows. Long term annual ET rates were calculated as ET = P-Q for 46 USGS gaged basins with daily data for the 1982 - 2014 water years, >40% forest cover, and no large reservoirs. Land cover data was regressed against ET to describe the relationship between each of the forest types in the National Land Cover Database. Regression analysis indicates evergreen land cover has a positive relationship with ET while deciduous and total forest have a negative relationship with ET. Low flow analysis indicates low flows tend to be lower in watersheds with more evergreen cover, and that low flows increase with increasing deciduous cover, although these relationships are noisy. This work suggests considering forest

  15. Fish fauna from Sapucaí-Mirim River, tributary of Grande River, upper Paraná River basin, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Alexandre Kannebley de; Garavello,Julio Cesar; Cesario,Vinicius Vendramini; Cardoso,Rodrigo Torres

    2016-01-01

    The fish species composition of Sapucaí-Mirim River is herein reported and discussed in the faunistic context of Grande and Paranaíba river basins, both formers of the Paraná River. The Sapucaí-Mirim is an important tributary of this hydrographic system, flowing to the left bank of Grande River in a region occupied by the reservoir of the Porto Colombia hydroelectric power plant, at São Paulo state northeastern region, in southeastern Brazil. The poorly known fish diversity of the Sapucaí-Mir...

  16. Controls on large landslide distribution in the southeastern interior Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, E. B.; Anderson, S. W.; Ely, L.; House, P. K.; O'Connor, J. E.; Grant, G.; Beebee, R. A.; Fenton, C.; Brossy, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    Valley-wall landslides episodically deliver large caliber material to channels and sometimes dam rivers entirely, creating potential for high-magnitude outburst floods. These episodic events have persistent impacts on local channel morphology and may affect broader-scale bedrock incision patterns, especially in semi-arid, relatively low-gradient environments where meteorologically generated floods only infrequently mobilize large, landslide- delivered boulders. A first step in evaluating the influence of large landslides on channel incision processes is to map and understand their spatial distribution. We mapped approximately 300 landslides or landslide complexes ranging in area from 0.1 to 40 km2 in the uplifted volcanic plateaus of the southeastern interior Columbia River basin, primarily in central and eastern Oregon. Anecdotal reports and/or analyses of individual landslides in the region suggest that exposures of key contacts between dense, coherent rock and weak underlying materials exert a dominant control on landslide occurrence. We performed a suite of spatial analyses to test this hypothesis. Our analyses reveal that 82% of landslides mapped contain at least one combination of coherent and weak rocktypes. In 85% of these, the coherent unit(s) cap the weak unit(s). Overall, the fractional area of terrain involved in a landslide within a 1 km buffer of all coherent-weak unit contacts is relatively small: about 1%. Local relief is an important secondary control on landslide occurrence. Of all terrain supporting >200 m local relief, about 2% by area is involved in landslides. This figure is 200 m of local relief but >1 km from key contacts and approximately 4% for areas supporting >200 m of local relief within 1 km of key contacts. Several key contacts between coherent and weak rock exist throughout the study region; we have identified those most conducive to landsliding per unit length of contact. On average, valley walls involved in landslides have slopes

  17. Shale Gas Content Calculation of the Triassic Yanchang Formation in the Southeastern Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Su

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas content is the key parameter for shale gas potential evaluation and favorable area prediction. Therefore, it is very important to determine shale gas content accurately. Generally, we use the US Bureau of Mines (USBM method for coal reservoirs to calculate the gas content of shale reservoirs. However, shale reservoirs are different from coal reservoirs in depth, pressure, core collection, etc. This method would inevitably cause problems. In order to make the USBM method more suitable for shale reservoirs, an improved USBM method is put forward on the basis of systematic analysis of core pressure history and temperature history during shale gas degassing. The improved USBM method modifies the calculation method of the gas loss time, and determines the temperature balance time of water heating. In addition, we give the calculation method of adsorption gas content and free gas content, especially the new method of calculating the oil dissolved gas content and water dissolved gas content that are easily neglected. We used the direct method (USBM and the improved USBM and the indirect method (including the calculation of adsorption gas, free gas and the dissolved gas method to calculate the shale gas content of 16 shale samples of the Triassic Yanchang Formation in the Southeastern Ordos Basin, China. The results of the improved USBM method show that the total shale gas content is high, with an average of 3.97 m3/t, and the lost shale gas content is the largest proportion with an average of 62%. The total shale gas content calculated by the improved USBM method is greater than that of the USBM method. The results of the indirect method show that the total shale gas content is large, with an average of 4.11 m3/t, and the adsorption shale gas content is the largest proportion with an average of 71%. The oil dissolved shale gas content which should be paid attention to accounts for about 7.8%. The discrepancy between the direct method and

  18. Genetic models and their impact on uranium exploration in the Athabasca sandstone basin, Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strnad, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    While the Beaverlodge area of Northern Saskatchewan became an important uranium-producing district during the 1950s, the Athabasca sandstone basin, located in the immediate vicinity, was considered to be non-prospective in Canada's regional assessment. Twenty years later, with the introduction of the supergene model into the basin's exploration strategy, the favourability of the host-rock for uranium deposits was shown. However, in some instances the search for local targets was enriched by implementing non-supergene models. Most geologists originally favoured the Middle Proterozoic (sub-Helikian) unconformity as a unique ore-controlling feature. Later, the concept of Lower Proterozoic (Aphebian) syngenetic protore, as represented by graphite-bearing strata in Archaean proximity, was added. In the author's view the combination of these factors is productive only within specialized segments of Archaean-Lower Proterozoic (Archaean-Aphebian) contact zones. (author)

  19. 2D Seismic Velocity Modelling in the Southeastern Romanian Carpathians and its Foreland (Vrancea Zone and Focsani Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, R.; Bocin, A.; Tryggvason, A.

    2003-12-01

    The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining of new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappes and the architecture of Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the seismically-active Vrancea Zone, including the rapidly subsiding Focsani Basin. The DACIA-PLAN profile is about 140 km long, having a roughly NW-SE direction, from near the southeast Transylvanian Basin, across the mountainous southeastern Carpathians and their foreland to near the Danube Dalta. A high resolution 2D velocity model of the upper crust along the seismic profile has been determined from a first-arrival tomographic inversion of the DACIA-PLAN data. The shallowing of Palaeozoic-Mesozoic basement, and related structural heterogeneity within it, beneath the eastern flank of the Focsani Basin is clearly seen. Velocity heterogeneity within the Carpathian nappe belt is also evident and is indicative of internal structural complexity, including the presence of salt bodies and basement involvement in thrusting, thus favouring some current geological models over others. The presence of basement involvement implies the compressional reactivation of pre-existing basement normal faults. Members of the DACIA-PLAN/TomoSeis Working Group (see poster) should be considered as co-authors of this presentation.

  20. Applying Binary Forecasting Approaches to Induced Seismicity in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahue, R.; Shcherbakov, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin has been chosen as a focus due to an increase in the recent observed seismicity there which is most likely linked to anthropogenic activities related to unconventional oil and gas exploration. Seismicity caused by these types of activities is called induced seismicity. The occurrence of moderate to larger induced earthquakes in areas where critical infrastructure is present can be potentially problematic. Here we use a binary forecast method to analyze past seismicity and well production data in order to quantify future areas of increased seismicity. This method splits the given region into spatial cells. The binary forecast method used here has been suggested in the past to retroactively forecast large earthquakes occurring globally in areas called alarm cells. An alarm cell, or alert zone, is a bin in which there is a higher likelihood for earthquakes to occur based on previous data. The first method utilizes the cumulative Benioff strain, based on earthquakes that had occurred in each bin above a given magnitude over a time interval called the training period. The second method utilizes the cumulative well production data within each bin. Earthquakes that occurred within an alert zone in the retrospective forecast period contribute to the hit rate, while alert zones that did not have an earthquake occur within them in the forecast period contribute to the false alarm rate. In the resulting analysis the hit rate and false alarm rate are determined after optimizing and modifying the initial parameters using the receiver operating characteristic diagram. It is found that when modifying the cell size and threshold magnitude parameters within various training periods, hit and false alarm rates are obtained for specific regions in Western Canada using both recent seismicity and cumulative well production data. Certain areas are thus shown to be more prone to potential larger earthquakes based on both datasets. This has implications

  1. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 3: lower Thames and southeastern coastal river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chester E.; Cervione, Michael A.; Grossman, I.G.

    1968-01-01

    The lower Thames and southeastern coastal river basins have a relatively abundant supply of water of generally good quality which is derived from streams entering the area and precipitation that has fallen on the area. Annual precipitation has ranged from about 32 inches to 65 inches and has averaged about 48 inches over a 30-year period. Approximately 22 inches of water are returned to the atmosphere each year by evaporation and transpiration; the remainder of the annual precipitation either flows overland to streams or percolates downward to the water table and ultimately flows out of the report area through estuaries and coastal streams or as underflow through the deposits beneath. During the autumn and winter months precipitation normally is sufficient to cause a substantial increase in the amount of water stored underground and in surface reservoirs within the report area, whereas in the summer most of the precipitation is lost through evaporation and transpiration, resulting in sharply reduced stream-flow and lowered ground-water levels. The mean monthly storage of water on an average is about 3.8 inches higher in November than it is in June. The amount of water that flows through and out of the report area represents the total amount of water potentially available for use by man. For the 30-year period 1931 through 1960, the annual runoff from the report area has averaged nearly 26 inches (200 billion gallons), from the entire Thames River basin above Norwich about 24 inches (530 billion gallons), and from the Pawcatuck River basin about 26 inches (130 billion gallons). A total average annual runoff of 860 billion gallons is therefore available. Although runoff indicates the total amount of water potentially available, it is usually not economically feasible for man to use all of it. On the other hand, with increased development, it is possible that some water will be reused several times. The water available may be tapped as it flows through the area or is

  2. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: the relationship of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities and structural conditions (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ralph G. Anderson

    1984-01-01

    The relationships of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities, structural conditions, and special habitats in the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon are described in a series of appendices. The importance of habitat components to wildlife and the predictability of management activities on wildlife are examined in terms of managed rangelands. ...

  3. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: the relationship of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities and structural conditions (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ralph G. Anderson

    1984-01-01

    The relationships of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities, structural conditions, and special habitats in the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon are described. The importance of habitat components to wildlife and the predictability of management activities on wildlife are examined in terms of managed rangelands. The paper does not provide guidelines but rather...

  4. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: native trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Bowers; Bill Hosford; Art Oakley; Carl. Bond

    1979-01-01

    Southeastern Oregon has a variety of fish habitats which include major rivers, tributary streams, large and small reservoirs, lakes, and springs. These habitats are directly related to and highly dependent on the conditions of the surrounding rangeland watersheds. Satterlund (1975, p. 22) put it this way: "Rangelands may yield little water, but they are second...

  5. Structural characteristics of an active fold-and-thrust system in the southeastern Atacama Basin, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Sheng; Chuang, Yi-Rung; Shyu, J. Bruce H.; González, Gabriel; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Lo, Ching-Hua; Liou, Ya-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    The western South American margin is one of the most active plate boundaries in the world. Using various remote sensing data sets, we mapped the neotectonic characteristics of an area at the southeastern corner of the Atacama Basin, northern Chile, in the Andean forearc. There, one major N-S trending ridge is clearly visible both in the satellite images and in the field. This ridge reaches 250 m above the basin floor in its middle part and is asymmetrical, with a steep eastern slope and a much gentler western slope. The geometry of the ridge indicates that it formed as an asymmetrical anticline. This anticline is likely formed as a shear fault-bend fold, with a major décollement at a depth of about 2.5 km in the Naranja Formation. We suggest that this décollement is a major structure of the Atacama Basin area. From the ages of the ignimbrites and lake deposits that were deformed by this anticline, we obtained a long-term shortening rate of the major underlying structure at about 0.2 mm/yr. This thin-skinned fold-and-thrust system appears to be active since at least about 3 Ma, and could be as long as since middle Miocene. Therefore, crustal structures may play important roles in the Neogene development of the western Andean margin.

  6. Mechanical Erosion in a Tropical River Basin in Southeastern Brazil: Chemical Characteristics and Annual Fluvial Transport Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the mechanical erosion processes that occur in a tropical river basin, located in the São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, through the chemical characterization of fine suspended sediments and the transport mechanisms near the river mouth, from March 2009 to September 2010. The chemical characterization indicated the predominance of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 and showed no significant seasonal influences on the major element concentrations, expressed as oxides. The concentration variations observed were related to the mobility of chemical species. The evaluation of the rock-alteration degree indicated that the physical weathering was intense in the drainage basin. The fine suspended sediments charge was influenced by the variation discharges throughout the study period. The solid charge estimate of the surface runoff discharge was four times higher in the rainy season than the dry season. The transport of fine suspended sediments at the Sorocaba River mouth was 55.70 t km−2 a−1, corresponding to a specific physical degradation of 37.88 m Ma−1, a value associated with the mechanical erosion rate that corresponds to the soil thickness reduction in the drainage basin.

  7. Arsenic, Boron, and Fluoride Concentrations in Ground Water in and Near Diabase Intrusions, Newark Basin, Southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    During an investigation in 2000 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) of possible contaminant releases from an industrial facility on Congo Road near Gilbertsville in Berks and Montgomery Counties, southeastern Pennsylvania, concentrations of arsenic and fluoride above USEPA drinking-water standards of 10 ?g/L and 4 mg/L, respectively, and of boron above the USEPA health advisory level of 600 ?g/L were measured in ground water in an area along the northwestern edge of the Newark Basin. In 2003, the USEPA requested technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help identify sources of arsenic, boron, and fluoride in the ground water in the Congo Road area, which included possible anthropogenic releases and naturally occurring mineralization in the local bedrock aquifer, and to identify other areas in the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania with similarly elevated concentrations of these constituents. The USGS reviewed available data and collected additional ground-water samples in the Congo Road area and four similar hydrogeologic settings. The Newark Basin is the largest of the 13 major exposed Mesozoic rift basins that stretch from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. Rocks in the Newark Basin include Triassic through Jurassic-age sedimentary sequences of sandstones and shales that were intruded by diabase. Mineral deposits of hydrothermal origin are associated with alteration zones bordering intrusions of diabase and also occur as strata-bound replacement deposits of copper and zinc in sedimentary rocks. The USGS review of data available in 2003 showed that water from about 10 percent of wells throughout the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania had concentrations of arsenic greater than the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 ?g/L; the highest reported arsenic concentration was at about 70 ?g/L. Few data on boron were available, and the highest reported boron concentration in well-water samples was 60 ?g/L in contrast

  8. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: manmade habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ira David Luman; Ralph. Anderson

    1979-01-01

    Manmade structures on rangelands provide specialized habitats for some species. These habitats and how they function as specialized habitat features are examined in this publication. The relationships of the wildlife of the Great Basin to such structures are detailed.

  9. Swatara Creek basin of southeastern Pennsylvania--An evaluation of its hydrologic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Wilbur Tennant; Schneider, William J.; Crooks, James W.

    1967-01-01

    Local concentrations of population in the Swatara Creek basin of Pennsylvania find it necessary to store, transport, and treat water because local supplies are either deficient or have been contaminated by disposal of wastes in upstream areas. Water in the basin is available for the deficient areas and for dilution of the coal-mine drainage in the northern parts and the sewage wastes in the southern parts.

  10. Current and future water issues in the Oldman River Basin of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J; Kienzle, S; Johnson, D; Duke, G; Gannon, V; Selinger, B; Thomas, J

    2006-01-01

    Long-term trends in alpine and prairie snow pack accumulation and melt are affecting streamflow within the Oldman River Basin in southern Alberta, Canada. Unchecked rural and urban development also has contributed to changes in water quality, including enhanced microbial populations and increased waterborne pathogen occurrence. In this study we look at changing environment within the Oldman River Basin and its impact on water quality and quantity. The cumulative effects include a decline in net water supplies, and declining quality resulting in increased risk of disease. Our data indicates that decreases in the rate of flow of water can result in sedimentation of bacterial contaminants within the water column. Water for ecosystems, urban consumption, recreation and distribution through irrigation is often drawn from waterholding facilities such as dams and weirs, and concern must be expressed over the potential for contaminate build-up and disproportionate potential of these structures to pose a risk to human and animal health. With disruption of natural flow rates for water resulting from environmental change such as global warming and/or human intervention, increased attention needs to be paid to use of best management practices to protect source water supplies.

  11. Fracture overprinting history using Markov chain analysis: Windsor-Kennetcook subbasin, Maritimes Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Morgan E.; Waldron, John W. F.

    2018-03-01

    The deformation history of the Upper Paleozoic Maritimes Basin, Atlantic Canada, can be partially unraveled by examining fractures (joints, veins, and faults) that are well exposed on the shorelines of the macrotidal Bay of Fundy, in subsurface core, and on image logs. Data were collected from coastal outcrops and well core across the Windsor-Kennetcook subbasin, a subbasin in the Maritimes Basin, using the circular scan-line and vertical scan-line methods in outcrop, and FMI Image log analysis of core. We use cross-cutting and abutting relationships between fractures to understand relative timing of fracturing, followed by a statistical test (Markov chain analysis) to separate groups of fractures. This analysis, previously used in sedimentology, was modified to statistically test the randomness of fracture timing relationships. The results of the Markov chain analysis suggest that fracture initiation can be attributed to movement along the Minas Fault Zone, an E-W fault system that bounds the Windsor-Kennetcook subbasin to the north. Four sets of fractures are related to dextral strike slip along the Minas Fault Zone in the late Paleozoic, and four sets are related to sinistral reactivation of the same boundary in the Mesozoic.

  12. Crustal Structure Within the Southeastern Carpathian Arc, Transylvanian Basin, Romania from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, A. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Munteanu, L.

    2013-05-01

    We present new measurements of receiver functions at 4 broadband stations temporarily deployed in the Transylvanian Basin within the Carpathian Arc, Romania. Receiver functions can reveal depths to sharp crustal seismic velocity boundaries, which in complex tectonic environments such as the study area provide a good diagnostic for the regional tectonics. As a result of Africa (Adria) collision with Europe and subduction of a part of Tethys Ocean, Tisza-Dacia and Alcapa blocks escaped the collision and were emplaced in an embayment of this ocean, and form today the basement of the Transylvanian Basin. The collision of these terranes with the European continent culminated in the formation, in the Romanian part, of the Eastern Carpathians at the contact between the Transylvanian Basin and the East European Platform along the Tornquist-Teisseyre Suture zone, and of Southern Carpathians at the contact with Moesian Platform. In the foreland of the Carpathian Bend Zone, connecting the two mountain chains, in a very constrained area, a high velocity seismic body was contoured by hypocenters between 70 and 200 km depth. We constructed receiver functions using teleseismic P waves generated by events located between 30 and 95 degrees epicentral angle using the method of Ligorria and Ammon (1999) for individual measurements. We used the H-K method of Zhu and Kanamori (2000) to derive boundary interfaces depths and receiver function complexity from binned stacks. Preliminary results show a relatively shallow Moho depth beneath the Transylvanian Basin.

  13. The effect of seasonal drying on sulphate dynamics in streams across southeastern Canada and the northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.G. Kerr; M.C. Eimers; I.F. Creed; M.B. Adams; F. Beall; D. Burns; J.L. Campbell; S.F. Christopher; T.A. Clair; F. Courchesne; L. Duchesne; I. Fernandez; D. Houle; D.S. Jeffries; G.E. Likens; M.J. Mitchell; J. Shanley; H. Yao

    2012-01-01

    Within the southeast Canada and northeast USA region, a peak in sulphate (SO42-) concentration has been reported for some streams following periods of substantial catchment drying during the summer months (ON, Canada; VT, NH and NY, USA). However, it is currently unclear if a SO42-...

  14. Three-dimensional geologic model of the southeastern Espanola Basin, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Michael P.; Hudson, Mark R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This multimedia model and report show and describe digital three-dimensional faulted surfaces and volumes of lithologic units that confine and constrain the basin-fill aquifers within the Espanola Basin of north-central New Mexico. These aquifers are the primary groundwater resource for the cities of Santa Fe and Espanola, six Pueblo nations, and the surrounding areas. The model presented in this report is a synthesis of geologic information that includes (1) aeromagnetic and gravity data and seismic cross sections; (2) lithologic descriptions, interpretations, and geophysical logs from selected drill holes; (3) geologic maps, geologic cross sections, and interpretations; and (4) mapped faults and interpreted faults from geophysical data. Modeled faults individually or collectively affect the continuity of the rocks that contain the basin aquifers; they also help define the form of this rift basin. Structure, trend, and dip data not previously published were added; these structures are derived from interpretations of geophysical information and recent field observations. Where possible, data were compared and validated and reflect the complex relations of structures in this part of the Rio Grande rift. This interactive geologic framework model can be used as a tool to visually explore and study geologic structures within the Espanola Basin, to show the connectivity of geologic units of high and low permeability between and across faults, and to show approximate dips of the lithologic units. The viewing software can be used to display other data and information, such as drill-hole data, within this geologic framework model in three-dimensional space.

  15. Simulations of hydrologic response in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFontaine, Jacob H.; Jones, L. Elliott; Painter, Jaime A.

    2017-12-29

    A suite of hydrologic models has been developed for the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACFB) as part of the National Water Census, a U.S. Geological Survey research program that focuses on developing new water accounting tools and assessing water availability and use at the regional and national scales. Seven hydrologic models were developed using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a deterministic, distributed-parameter, process-based system that simulates the effects of precipitation, temperature, land cover, and water use on basin hydrology. A coarse-resolution PRMS model was developed for the entire ACFB, and six fine-resolution PRMS models were developed for six subbasins of the ACFB. The coarse-resolution model was loosely coupled with a groundwater model to better assess the effects of water use on streamflow in the lower ACFB, a complex geologic setting with karst features. The PRMS coarse-resolution model was used to provide inputs of recharge to the groundwater model, which in turn provide simulations of groundwater flow that were aggregated with PRMS-based simulations of surface runoff and shallow-subsurface flow. Simulations without the effects of water use were developed for each model for at least the calendar years 1982–2012 with longer periods for the Potato Creek subbasin (1942–2012) and the Spring Creek subbasin (1952–2012). Water-use-affected flows were simulated for 2008–12. Water budget simulations showed heterogeneous distributions of precipitation, actual evapotranspiration, recharge, runoff, and storage change across the ACFB. Streamflow volume differences between no-water-use and water-use simulations were largest along the main stem of the Apalachicola and Chattahoochee River Basins, with streamflow percentage differences largest in the upper Chattahoochee and Flint River Basins and Spring Creek in the lower Flint River Basin. Water-use information at a shorter time step and a fully coupled simulation in

  16. Groundwater flow and solute transport at the Mourquong saline-water disposal basin, Murray Basin, southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Craig; Narayan, Kumar; Woods, Juliette; Herczeg, Andrew

    2002-03-01

    Saline groundwater and drainage effluent from irrigation are commonly stored in some 200 natural and artificial saline-water disposal basins throughout the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia. Their impact on underlying aquifers and the River Murray, one of Australia's major water supplies, is of serious concern. In one such scheme, saline groundwater is pumped into Lake Mourquong, a natural groundwater discharge complex. The disposal basin is hydrodynamically restricted by low-permeability lacustrine clays, but there are vulnerable areas in the southeast where the clay is apparently missing. The extent of vertical and lateral leakage of basin brines and the processes controlling their migration are examined using (1) analyses of chloride and stable isotopes of water (2H/1H and 18O/16O) to infer mixing between regional groundwater and lake water, and (2) the variable-density groundwater flow and solute-transport code SUTRA. Hydrochemical results indicate that evaporated disposal water has moved at least 100 m in an easterly direction and that there is negligible movement of brines in a southerly direction towards the River Murray. The model is used to consider various management scenarios. Salt-load movement to the River Murray was highest in a "worst-case" scenario with irrigation employed between the basin and the River Murray. Present-day operating conditions lead to little, if any, direct movement of brine from the basin into the river. Résumé. Les eaux souterraines salées et les effluents de drainage de l'irrigation sont stockés dans environ 200 bassins naturels ou artificiels destinés à retenir les eaux salines dans tout le bassin de Murray-Darling, en Australie. Leur impact sur les aquifères sous-jacents et sur la rivière Murray, l'une des principales ressources en eau d'Australie, constitue un problème grave. Dans une telle situation, les eaux souterraines salines sont pompées dans le lac Mourquong, complexe dans lequel les nappes se d

  17. Petroleum system modeling of the western Canada sedimentary basin - isopach grid files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.; Henry, Mitchell E.; Roberts, Laura N.R.

    2005-01-01

    This publication contains zmap-format grid files of isopach intervals that represent strata associated with Devonian to Holocene petroleum systems of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) of Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan, Canada. Also included is one grid file that represents elevations relative to sea level of the top of the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group. Vertical and lateral scales are in meters. The age range represented by the stratigraphic intervals comprising the grid files is 373 million years ago (Ma) to present day. File names, age ranges, formation intervals, and primary petroleum system elements are listed in table 1. Metadata associated with this publication includes information on the study area and the zmap-format files. The digital files listed in table 1 were compiled as part of the Petroleum Processes Research Project being conducted by the Central Energy Resources Team of the U.S. Geological Survey, which focuses on modeling petroleum generation, 3 migration, and accumulation through time for petroleum systems of the WCSB. Primary purposes of the WCSB study are to Construct the 1-D/2-D/3-D petroleum system models of the WCSB. Actual boundaries of the study area are documented within the metadata; excluded are northern Alberta and eastern Saskatchewan, but fringing areas of the United States are included.Publish results of the research and the grid files generated for use in the 3-D model of the WCSB.Evaluate the use of petroleum system modeling in assessing undiscovered oil and gas resources for geologic provinces across the World.

  18. Evaluation of Petroleum Source Rock Potentials of Imo Shale Southern Anambra Basin, Southeastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushie, F. A.; Uzoho, N. C.

    2002-01-01

    In order to search economically for oil and gas resources a detailed assessment of the petroleum potential of sedimentary basins is necessary. To achieve this, most explorationists aim to obtain information about the abundance and type of organic matter in the source rock, and to ascertain its maturity. This is usually done using cores and cuttings from wells but sometimes the work must be with samples form a single wall,Initially, this assessment in Nigeria had been restricted mainly to the Niger delta with the resultant discovery of large petroleum deposits both onshore and offshore of the delta. Recently, some oil companies like Agip, Elf and even individuals became interested in the Anambra basin and have studied the source rock potential of some of its formation. An analysis applying geochemical techniques was used to determine the origin of the absorbed bitumen as well as distribution of he organic facies in the Palcocene Imo shale in the Anambra basin, Nigeria. The soluble organic matter (SOM) was examined for the quantity, type, distribution and thermal evolution of the organic matter. AS a basic preliminary screening method all sample were subjected to total organic carbon (TOC) measurement. Sample had TOC values between 0.5-0.6% which proved them to be fair sources. Maturation test using SOM/TOC (transformation ratio) gave a mean value of 0.01 pointing to immaturity of samples. The dominate of aromatics over saturates indicate a gas source for the shales encountered in the locations

  19. Assessing climate change impacts on fresh water resources of the Athabasca River Basin, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Narayan Kumar; Du, Xinzhong; Wang, Junye

    2017-12-01

    Proper management of blue and green water resources is important for the sustainability of ecosystems and for the socio-economic development of river basins such as the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) in Canada. For this reason, quantifying climate change impacts on these water resources at a finer temporal and spatial scale is often necessary. In this study, we used a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess climate change impacts on fresh water resources, focusing explicitly on the impacts to both blue and green water. We used future climate data generated by the Canadian Center for Climate Modelling and Analysis Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4) with a spatial resolution of 0.22°×0.22° (~25km) for two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). Results projected the climate of the ARB to be wetter by 21-34% and warmer by 2-5.4°C on an annual time scale. Consequently, the annual average blue and green water flow was projected to increase by 16-54% and 11-34%, respectively, depending on the region, future period, and emission scenario. Furthermore, the annual average green water storage at the boreal region was expected to increase by 30%, while the storage was projected to remain fairly stable or decrease in other regions, especially during the summer season. On average, the fresh water resources in the ARB are likely to increase in the future. However, evidence of temporal and spatial heterogeneity could pose many future challenges to water resource planners and managers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Shear-Wave Splitting Within the Southeastern Carpathian Arc, Transylvanian Basin, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, A. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Munteanu, L.

    2012-12-01

    We present 75 new measurements of shear wave splitting at 4 temporary broadband seismic stations that we deployed in the Transylvanian Basin within the Carpathian Arc, Romania. The Tisza-Dacia terranes, which form the basement of this basin, were accommodated in the space between the thick, old, rigid and cold East European Platform and the Moesian Platform during the Miocene. This movement was driven by the subduction of a part of the Tethys Ocean, which led to the formation of Carpathian orogen system. In Romania, the mountains are divided into the Eastern Carpathians, at the limit of Transylvanian Basin and the East European Platform along the Tornquist-Teisseyre Suture Zone, and the Southern Carpathians, at the limit with Moesian Platform. They connect to the West of the Carpathian Bend Zone where a very active high velocity seismic body generates intermediate depth earthquakes between 70 and 200 km beneath the Vrancea seismogenic zone. We analyzed splitting of SKS and SKKS phases recorded at epicentral distances between 87 and 150 degrees using the method of Silver and Chan (1991). We estimated splitting parameters, fast shear polarization azimuth and delay time, using both weighted averages of individual splitting measurements (Helffrich et al., 1994) and simultaneous linearization of all clearly recorded SK(K)S waves (Wolfe and Silver, 1998). For COMD, located at the contact of the Carpathian Bend Zone and Transylvanian Basin, we obtained a fast shear polarization azimuth trending NE-SW, parallel to the contact and to the strike of the Vrancea seismic body. For 10 suitable events recorded at IACB, at the contact of the Neogene Volcanic zone with the Eastern Carpathians, we did not observe any splitting; we consider the station splitting to be null. The fast shear polarization azimuth for PMAR, at the limit between Tisza-Dacia block and Southern Carpathians thrust belt, and at CHDM, within the Transylvanian Basin, is NW-SE similar to a regional splitting

  1. Flux and distribution of methane (CH4) in the Gunsan Basin of the southeastern Yellow Sea, off the Western Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Woo, Han Jun; Son, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Moonkoo; Lee, Dong-Hun; Tsunogai, Urumu; Jeong, Kap-Sik

    2018-04-16

    The flux and distribution of methane (CH 4 ) was investigated in the seawater column at 14 stations in the Gunsan Basin, the southeastern part of Yellow Sea from 2013 to 2015. Here CH 4 is concentrated 2.4-4.7 (3.4 ± 0.7) nM in the surface and 2.5-7.4 (5.2 ± 1.7) nM in the bottom layer. The CH 4 saturation ratios ranged from 65.5% to 295.5% (162.6 ± 68.7), comprising the mean sea-to-air CH 4 flux of 3.8 to 25.3 (15.6 ± 5.5) µM m -2 d -1 . Methane concentration was largely different in the upper and the lower seawater layers that is separated by the thermocline of which depth is variable (20-60 m) depending on the time of sampling. The concentration of seawater dissolved CH 4 is high between the bottom surface of the thermocline layer and the sea floor. Generally it tends to decrease from the south-westernmost part of the basin toward the west coast of Korea. This distribution pattern of CH 4 seems to result from the CH 4 supply by decomposition of organic matters produced in the upper seawater layer that is superimposed by the larger supply from the underlying sediment layer especially beneath the thermocline. The latter is manifested by ubiquitous CH 4 seeps from the seafloor sediments.

  2. Reservoir storage and hydrologic responses to droughts in the Paraná River basin, south-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. C. D. Melo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are particularly critical for Brazil because of impacts on water supply and because most (70 % of its electricity is derived from hydroelectric generation. The Paraná basin (PB, a major hydroelectric producing region with 32 % (60 million people of Brazil's population, recently experienced the most severe drought since the 1960s, compromising the water supply for 11 million people in São Paulo. The objective of this study is to quantify linkages between meteorological and hydrological droughts based on remote sensing, modelling, and monitoring data using the Paraná River basin in south-eastern Brazil as a case study. Two major meteorological droughts were identified in the early 2000s and 2014, with precipitation 20–50 % below the long-term mean. Total water storage change estimated from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites declined by 150 km3 between April 2011 and April 2015. Simulated soil moisture storage declined during the droughts, resulting in decreased runoff into reservoirs. As a result, reservoir storage decreased by 30 % relative to the system's maximum capacity, with negative trends ranging from 17 (May 1997–April 2001 to 25 km3 yr−1 (May 2011–April 2015. Storage in upstream reservoirs is mostly controlled by natural climate forcing, whereas storage in downstream reservoirs also reflects dam operations. This study emphasizes the importance of integrating remote sensing, modelling, and monitoring data to evaluate droughts and to establish a preliminary understanding of the linkages between a meteorological and hydrological drought for future management.

  3. Dryness of ephemeral lakes and consequences for dust activity: the case of the Hamoun drainage basin, southeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashki, A; Kaskaoutis, D G; Goudie, A S; Kahn, R A

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the influence of changes in the water coverage in the Hamoun dry-bed lakes on visibility, dust outbreaks, aerosol loading and land-atmospheric fluxes over the region covering the period 1985-2005. The Hamoun basin, located on the southeastern Iran and western Afghanistan borders, has been recognized as one of the major dust source regions in south Asia and is covered by shallow, marshy lakes that are fed by the Helmand and Farahrood rivers. When the water in watersheds that support the lakes is drawn down for natural or human-induced reasons, the end result is a decrease in the water coverage in the basin, or even complete dryness as occurred in 2001. Then, strong seasonal winds, mainly in summer, blow fine sand and silt off the exposed lakebed, enhancing dust activity and aerosol loading over the region. Satellite (Landsat) and meteorological observations reveal that the water levels in the Hamoun lakes exhibit considerable inter-annual variability during the period 1985-2005 strongly related to anomalies in precipitation. This is the trigger for concurrent changes in the frequency of the dusty days, aerosol loading and deterioration of visibility over the region, as satellite (TOMS, MODIS, MISR) observations reveal. On the other hand, soil moisture and latent heat, obtained via model (GLDAS_noah-10) simulations are directly linked with water levels and precipitation over the region. The desiccation of the Hamoun lakes in certain years and the consequent increase in frequency and intensity of dust storms are serious concerns for the regional climate, ecosystems and human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Low pCO2 under sea-ice melt in the Canada Basin of the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Naohiro; Sasano, Daisuke; Ishii, Masao; Nishino, Shigeto; Uchida, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa-Inoue, Hisayuki

    2017-12-01

    In September 2013, we observed an expanse of surface water with low CO2 partial pressure (pCO2sea) (Ocean. The large undersaturation of CO2 in this region was the result of massive primary production after the sea-ice retreat in June and July. In the surface of the Canada Basin, salinity was low ( 20 µmol kg-1) in the subsurface low pCO2sea layer in the Canada Basin indicated significant net primary production undersea and/or in preformed condition. If these low pCO2sea layers surface by wind mixing, they will act as additional CO2 sinks; however, this is unlikely because intensification of stratification by sea-ice melt inhibits mixing across the halocline.

  5. The Great Basin Canada goose in southcentral Washington: A 40-year nesting history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Gray, R.H.

    1991-04-01

    Overall, the nesting population of Great Basin Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State is doing well and appears to be increasing. The average annual total nests for the period 1981 through 1990 was 215 nests, which is slightly above the average reported for the period 1950 through 1970. The nesting population has shifted its nucleus from upriver islands (1--10) to the lower river islands (11--20) with over 70% of the present-day nesting occurring on Islands 17, 18, 19, 20. The annual percent-successful nests from 1981 through 1990 was 80%. This is above the 71% reported for 1950 to 1970, but is below the 82% reported for 1971 to 1980. Average annual clutch size for 1981 to 1990 was 6.05, which is above the 1971-to-1980 average of 5.6 and the 1950-to-70 average of 5.5. Next desertions for 1981 to 1990 averaged 8%. This rate is well below the 14% reported for 1950 to 1970. Predators were responsible for an annual predation rate of 9% from 1981 to 1990. This is below the 1950-to-1970 annual average predation rate of 14%. Flooding losses to nests were low during the 1980s, except for 1989 and 1990 when 6% and 9% of the total nests, respectively, were destroyed by flooding. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Monitoring Aquifer-Storage Change and Land Subsidence Related to Groundwater Withdrawal in the Willcox and Douglas Groundwater Basins in Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, R. L.; Conway, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater is the primary source of water in the Willcox and Douglas Basins in southeastern Arizona and about 90 percent of the groundwater withdrawal is for agriculture. It is estimated that current groundwater production exceeds recharge by at least a factor of two in the Douglas Basin and by a factor of three to eight in the Willcox Basin. The groundwater mining has resulted in groundwater declines of as much as 105 feet in the Willcox Basin between 2006 and the present and 52 feet in the Douglas Basin between 2005 and the present. The U.S. Geological Survey collected repeat absolute gravity measurements at 8 sites in the Willcox Basin and at 4 sites in the Douglas Basin for the purpose of measuring the change in aquifer storage between 2008 and 2014. All sites in the Willcox Basin showed aquifer-storage loss between 2008 and 2014, with values ranging from 0.5 to 8.5 feet of water. In the Douglas Basin, two sites showed aquifer-storage loss of 0.8 feet and 3.0 feet, respectively. Additionally, two sites in the Douglas Basin showed storage increases of 2.0 feet and 2.9 feet of water in storage. The storage increases are attributed to the sites being close to ephemeral streams where two large precipitation and associated runoff events (remnant East Pacific hurricanes) occurred shortly before the gravity measurements in 2014. The Arizona Department of Water Resources has identified three major areas of land subsidence using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data - two in the Willcox Basin and one in the Douglas Basin. Land subsidence of as much as 29 inches in the Willcox Basin and 18 inches in the Douglas Basin has occurred between 2006 and the present—the magnitude and rates of human-induced subsidence have caused earth fissures and impacted roads, a power generation facility, and a railway. The declining groundwater levels, decrease in aquifer storage, and land subsidence are a challenge for future groundwater availability in the Willcox and

  7. Microlepidogaster discus, a new species of Hypoptopomatinae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the rio Jequitinhonha basin, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Fernanda O; Rosa, Alaina C; Langeani, Francisco

    2014-10-20

    A new Hypoptopomatinae is described from the upper rio Jequitinhonha basin. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by having the ventral laminar expansions of cleithrum and coracoid bearing only 1-30 odontodes, restricted to the area near the pectoral-fin insertion; the anterior plates of mid-ventral lateral series reduced, not ventrally elongated, the first or the second markedly round; pectoral-fin unbranched ray distinctly divided distally, with 7-15 ossified segments, reaching almost half of its length; and accessory process on first epibranchial present. Microlepidogaster discus is further distinguished from its congeners by several other osteological features. The problems concerning the taxonomy of Microlepidogaster, as well as the pattern of distribution of the genus, are discussed.

  8. Iron sulfide precipitation sequence in Albian coals from the Maestrazgo Basin, southeastern Iberian Range, Northeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Chinchon, S.; Lopez-Soler, A.

    1989-03-01

    Deposition of important coal accumulations in the proximal areas of a delta-estuary, occurred in the Maestrazgo Basin during the middle Albian (late Lower Cretaceous). These coals are characterized by high sulfur contents: 4.18% in coal from the Castellote subbasin, and 7.16% in coal from the Calanda subbasin (dry basis). A petrographic study of iron sulfide was carried out on the subject coals, to deduce an iron sulfide precipitation sequence for five principal stages: (a) early syngenetic stage; (b) late syngenetic stage; (c) syngenetic-diagenetic stage; (d) early epigenetic stage; and (e) late epigenetic stage. A sulfide precipitation control during the syngenetic stage, carried out by different compounds liberated from organic matter during its coalification stages, is deduced from the confrontation with other studies on coal differing in rank, depositional environment and geographical location. 16 refs., 19 figs.

  9. Future ocean acidification in the Canada Basin and surrounding Arctic Ocean from CMIP5 earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, N. S.; Christian, J. R.; Six, K. D.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.

    2014-01-01

    Six Earth system models that include an interactive carbon cycle and have contributed results to the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are evaluated with respect to Arctic Ocean acidification. Projections under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 consistently show reductions in the bidecadal mean surface pH from about 8.1 in 1986-2005 to 7.7/7.9 by 2066-2085 in the Canada Basin, closely linked to reductions in the calcium carbonate saturation state ΩA,C from about 1.4 (2.0) to 0.7 (1.0) for aragonite (calcite) for RCP8.5. The large but opposite effects of dilution and biological drawdown of DIC and dilution of alkalinity lead to a small seasonal amplitude change in Ω, as well as intermodel differences in the timing and sign of the summer minimum. The Canada Basin shows a characteristic layering in Ω: affected by ice melt and inflowing Pacific water, shallow undersaturated layers form at the surface and subsurface, creating a shallow saturation horizon which expands from the surface downward. This is in addition to the globally observed deep saturation horizon which is continuously expanding upward with increasing CO2 uptake. The Eurasian Basin becomes undersaturated much later than the rest of the Arctic. These CMIP5 model results strengthen earlier findings, although large intermodel differences remain: Below 200 m ΩA varies by up to 1.0 in the Canada Basin and the deep saturation horizon varies from 2000 to 4000 m among the models. Differences of projected acidification changes are primarily related to sea ice retreat and responses of wind mixing and stratification.

  10. Evolution and diagenesis of Pennsylvanian phylloid algal bioherms in the Paradox basin of southeastern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gournay, J.P. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Three lower Ismay (Paradox Formation) bioherms, were examined at Honaker Trail, Soda Basin, and Eight Foot Rapids along the San Juan River. Approximately 150 samples were collected at approximately 0.5 m vertically spaced intervals. Samples of unique lithologies were also collected. The lower Ismay bioherms studied lie along an east-west traverse with respect to each other and display slight differences in internal facies composition. Phylloid algae generally dominate the bioherms, but associated biota include: fusulinids, crinoids, bryozoans, ostracods, minor trilobites, and rugose corals. Facies changes and the presence of numerous stylolitized layers within the bioherms suggest distinct growth phases. Additionally, the phylloid-rich layers appear to exhibit vertical variations in total micrite. Variations in facies and micrite composition may be controlled by sea level fluctuation or may reflect microbial activity. Consistent variation in porosity and permeability within bioherms may reflect high order cyclical events, possibly sixth order. Throughout the bioherms studied, variations in porosity and permeability correspond to variations in lithology. The bioherms are homogenous laterally, but heterogeneous vertically and the porosity zones reflect this. The zones are characterized by moldic porosity, increased abundances of phylloid algae, and each is capped by a mud-rich unit. Many of the porous zones are about 2 m thick with two or three associated smaller bands. The smaller bands are completely compartmentalized from the major bands. This information is of significant importance to production from phylloid algal reservoir systems.

  11. Evolution and diagenesis of Pennsylvanian phylloid algal bioherms in the Paradox basin of southeastern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gournay, J.P. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Three lower Ismay (Paradox Formation) bioherms, were examined at Honaker Trail, Soda Basin, and Eight Foot Rapids along the San Juan River. Approximately 150 samples were collected at approximately 0.5 m vertically spaced intervals. Samples of unique lithologies were also collected. The lower Ismay bioherms studied lie along an east-west traverse with respect to each other and display slight differences in internal facies composition. Phylloid algae generally dominate the bioherms, but associated biota include: fusulinids, crinoids, bryozoans, ostracods, minor trilobites, and rugose corals. Facies changes and the presence of numerous stylolitized layers within the bioherms suggest distinct growth phases. Additionally, the phylloid-rich layers appear to exhibit vertical variations in total micrite. Variations in facies and micrite composition may be controlled by sea level fluctuation or may reflect microbial activity. Consistent variation in porosity and permeability within bioherms may reflect high order cyclical events, possibly sixth order. Throughout the bioherms studied, variations in porosity and permeability correspond to variations in lithology. The bioherms are homogenous laterally, but heterogeneous vertically and the porosity zones reflect this. The zones are characterized by moldic porosity, increased abundances of phylloid algae, and each is capped by a mud-rich unit. Many of the porous zones are about 2 m thick with two or three associated smaller bands. The smaller bands are completely compartmentalized from the major bands. This information is of significant importance to production from phylloid algal reservoir systems.

  12. Basin-wide erosion rates of a relict surface in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau from in-situ produced 10Be in fluvial sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ping; Stroeven, Arjen; Harbor, Jonathan; Heyman, Jakob; Caffee, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Over geological time Earth's surface undergoes radical changes. Few regions display these changes more than the Tibetan Plateau, a dynamic region undergoing changes brought about by tectonic and climatic forcing. Our goal is to quantify surface erosion rates on the Tibetan Plateau. Characterizing the surficial changes and the underlying causes are significant goals that require quantitative tools. With the development of AMS and improved understanding of nuclide production rates, in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclide dating has become increasingly effective for quantifying surface exposure age and erosion rates. Likewise, in-situ cosmogenic 10Be has been successfully to determine basin-wide erosion rates in many geological setting. However, quantifying fluvial erosion rates from glaciated basins using cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in fluvial sediments has limitations because burial by ice and glacial erosion can strongly reduce concentrations or entirely reset the cosmogenic nuclide clock in a landscape, which in turn leads to overestimation of fluvial erosion rates. In this study, we measured 10Be concentrations in river sand samples from both previously glaciated basins and non-glaciated basins, on a low-relief relict surface and the surrounding mountain area, respectively, in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. The results show that fluvial sediments from glaciated basins have higher cosmogenic nuclide concentrations than expected given the deglaciation ages for these basins. Derived basin wide erosion rates are therefore significantly lower for glaciated basins than for non-glaciated basins. We interpret the high cosmogenic nuclide concentrations as a result of nuclide inheritance from before the last glaciation. In contrast to others studies indicating that overestimation of fluvial erosion rates can occur due to glacial erosion, our results suggest that in the case of a formerly glaciated relict surface in southeastern Tibet (largely preserved under non

  13. Sedimentary record from the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean: implications for late to middle Pleistocene glacial history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Linsen; Liu, Yanguang; Shi, Xuefa; Polyak, Leonid; Huang, Yuanhui; Fang, Xisheng; Liu, Jianxing; Zou, Jianjun; Wang, Kunshan; Sun, Fuqiang; Wang, Xuchen

    2017-05-01

    Sediment core ARC4-BN05 collected from the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean, covers the late to middle Quaternary (Marine Isotope Stage - MIS - 1-15, ca. 0.5-0.6 Ma) as estimated by correlation to earlier proposed Arctic Ocean stratigraphies and AMS14C dating of the youngest sediments. Detailed examination of clay and bulk mineralogy along with grain size, content of Ca and Mn, and planktic foraminiferal numbers in core ARC4-BN05 provides important new information about sedimentary environments and provenance. We use increased contents of coarse debris as an indicator of glacier collapse events at the margins of the western Arctic Ocean, and identify the provenance of these events from mineralogical composition. Notably, peaks of dolomite debris, including large dropstones, track the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) discharge events to the Arctic Ocean. Major LIS inputs occurred during the stratigraphic intervals estimated as MIS 3, intra-MIS 5 and 7 events, MIS 8, and MIS 10. Inputs from the East Siberian Ice Sheet (ESIS) are inferred from peaks of smectite, kaolinite, and chlorite associated with coarse sediment. Major ESIS sedimentary events occurred in the intervals estimated as MIS 4, MIS 6 and MIS 12. Differences in LIS vs. ESIS inputs can be explained by ice-sheet configurations at different sea levels, sediment delivery mechanisms (iceberg rafting, suspension plumes, and debris flows), and surface circulation. A long-term change in the pattern of sediment inputs, with an apparent step change near the estimated MIS 7-8 boundary (ca. 0.25 Ma), presumably indicates an overall glacial expansion at the western Arctic margins, especially in North America.

  14. Tree-ring reconstruction of streamflow in the Snare River Basin, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. P.; Pisaric, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Drought is a component of many ecosystems in North America causing environmental and socioeconomical impacts. In the ongoing context of climatic and environmental changes, drought-related issues are becoming problematic in northern Canada, which have not been associated with drought-like conditions in the past. Dryer than average conditions threatens the energy security of northern canadian communities, since this region relies on the production of hydroelectricity as an energy source. In the North Slave Region of Northwest Territory (NWT), water levels and streamflows were significantly lower in 2014/2015. The Government of the NWT had to spend nearly $50 million to purchase diesel fuel to generate enough electricity to supplement the reduced power generation of the Snare River hydroelectric system, hence the need to better understand the multi-decadal variability in streamflow. The aims of this presentation are i) to present jack pine and white spruce tree-ring chronologies of Southern NWT; ii) to reconstruct past streamflow of the Snare River Basin; iii) to evaluate the frequency and magnitude of extreme drought conditions, and iv) to identify which large-scale atmospheric or oceanic patterns are teleconnected to regional hydraulic conditions. Preliminary results show that the growth of jack pine and white spruce populations is better correlated with precipitation and temperature, respectively, than hydraulic conditions. Nonetheless, we present a robust streamflow reconstruction of the Snare River that is well correlated with the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, albeit the strength of the correlation is non-stationary. Spectral analysis corroborate the synchronicity between negative NAO conditions and drought conditions. From an operational standpoint, considering that the general occurrence of positive/negative NAO can be predicted, it the hope of the authors that these results can facilitate energetic planning in the Northwest Territories through

  15. Estimating Historical Land Subsidence and Monitoring Aquifer-Storage Change Related to Groundwater Withdrawal in the Willcox Groundwater Basin in Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, B. D.; Carruth, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is the primary source of water in the Willcox Basin in southeastern Arizona and about 90 percent of the groundwater withdrawal is for agriculture. It is estimated that current groundwater production exceeds recharge by a factor of three to eight in the Willcox Basin. The groundwater mining has resulting in historical groundwater declines of more than 100 meters. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected repeat absolute gravity measurements at 8 sites for the purpose of measuring the change in aquifer storage between 2008 and 2014. All sites showed aquifer-storage loss between 2008 and 2014, with values ranging from 0.2 to 2.6 meters of water. The Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) has identified two major areas of land subsidence using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data in the Willcox Basin. Land subsidence of as much as 89 centimeters in the Willcox Basin has occurred between 2006 and the present—the magnitude and rates of human-induced subsidence have caused earth fissures and impacted roads, a power generation facility, a railway, and a gas line. ADWR conducted a GNSS survey in the summer of 2016 to determine historical land subsidence throughout the Willcox Basin. The GNSS data, InSAR data, and historical leveling data were then compiled to extrapolate historical land subsidence in the Willcox basin between 1937 and 2016. Land subsidence as much as 1.8 meters was estimated in several areas of the groundwater basin. The declining groundwater levels, decrease in aquifer storage, and land subsidence are a challenge for future groundwater availability in the Willcox Basin. Continued monitoring by the USGS and the ADWR will provide 1) the temporal data needed to understand and evaluate how the hydrogeologic system in the basin is responding through time to groundwater overdraft and 2) provide a scientific basis for future mitigation efforts such as redistribution of pumping and/or a reduction of groundwater withdrawal.

  16. Analysis of hydrogeochemical facies in groundwater of upper part of Cross River Basin, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ukpai N.; Celestine, Okogbue O.; Solomon, Onwuka O.

    2017-07-01

    Upper Cross River Hydrogeological Basin lies within latitudes 60 021N to 60 241N and longitudes 80 001E to 80 161E, and is generally underlain by shales of Asu River group of Albian age. The area has Histories of intensive mineralization which influenced groundwater system, resulting to occurrence of different water types. This study determines the various water types via evaluation of major ion concentration from representative water samples collected across the area. Twenty (20) water samples were analyzed using Spectrophotometer of HACH DR/2010 series, and results showed that groundwater in the area is generally hard and polluted with TDS in some places. Statistical inspection was performed on the results using aqua-chem, and it delineated five hydro-chemical facies, namely: Ca-Mg-Cl-S04, Ca-Mg-HCO3-Cl-SO4, Ca-Mg-HCO3, Na-K-HCO3 and Na-K-Cl-SO4; all lie between slight acidic and weak alkaline water. These chemical facies (water types) diffused from non-point sources in urban area and point source from south of Abakaliki town. The dispersion of the facies plumes is possibly controlled by advection process through structural weak zones such as fractures. Hydraulic heads determined from hand-dug wells indicate local potentiometric surfaces, hence, showed local groundwater flow system which is possibly controlled by the underlying low permeable aquicludes formed by shales. The protective capacity of the aquitards was somewhat reduced by the permeating fractures which exposed the aquifers to polluting effects of mineralized water-types.

  17. Past and future changes of streamflow in Poyang Lake Basin, Southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Sun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To understand the causes of the past water cycle variations and the influence of climate variability on the streamflow, lake storage, and flood potential, we analyze the changes in streamflow and the underlying drivers in four typical watersheds (Gaosha, Meigang, Saitang, and Xiashan within the Poyang Lake Basin, based on the meteorological observations at 79 weather stations, and datasets of streamflow and river level at four hydrological stations for the period of 1961-2000. The contribution of different climate factors to the change in streamflow in each watershed is estimated quantitatively using the water balance equations. Results show that in each watershed, the annual streamflow exhibits an increasing trend from 1961–2000. The increases in streamflow by 4.80 m3 s−1 yr−1 and 1.29 m3 s−1 yr−1 at Meigang and Gaosha, respectively, are statistically significant at the 5% level. The increase in precipitation is the biggest contributor to the streamflow increment in Meigang (3.79 m3 s−1 yr−1, Gaosha (1.12 m3 s−1 yr−1, and Xiashan (1.34 m3 s−1 yr−1, while the decrease in evapotranspiration is the major factor controlling the streamflow increment in Saitang (0.19 m3 s−1 yr−1. In addition, radiation and wind contribute more than actual vapor pressure and mean temperature to the changes in evapotranspiration and streamflow for the four watersheds.

    For revealing the possible change of streamflow due to the future climate change, we also investigate the projected precipitation and evapotranspiration from of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3 under three greenhouse gases emission scenarios (SRESA1B, SRESA2 and SRESB1 for the period of 2061–2100. When the future changes in the soil water storage

  18. Using technology for E and P success - the practices of leader companies in Western Canada Sedimentary Basin strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynon, G.

    1997-01-01

    The technologies that create a competitive advantage for the leaders in various exploration and production (E and P) strategies were demonstrated. The western Canadian E and P industry has evolved since the oil price shock of 1986 and the gas price shock of 1990-92. Performance of the leaders in broadly defined E and P strategy areas in the western Canada Sedimentary Basin are compared. Success of the industry as a whole was evaluated based on measurement of one of the most critical success factors, technology utilization

  19. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panea, I.; Stephenson, R.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-12-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the experiment was to obtain new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappes and the architecture of Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the seismically-active Vrancea zone, including the Focsani Basin. The seismic reflection line had a WNW-ESE orientation, running from internal East Carpathians units, across the mountainous south-eastern Carpathians, and the foreland Focsani Basin towards the Danube Delta. There were 131 shot points along the profile, with about 1 km spacing, and data were recorded with stand-alone RefTek-125s (also known as "Texans"), supplied by the University Texas at El Paso and the PASSCAL Institute. The entire line was recorded in three deployments, using about 340 receivers in the first deployment and 640 receivers in each of the other two deployments. The resulting deep seismic reflection stacks, processed to 20 s along the entire profile and to 10 s in the eastern Focsani Basin, are presented here. The regional architecture of the latter, interpreted in the context of abundant independent constraint from exploration seismic and subsurface data, is well imaged. Image quality within and beneath the thrust belt is of much poorer quality. Nevertheless, there is good evidence to suggest that a thick (˜10 km) sedimentary basin having the structure of a graben and of indeterminate age underlies the westernmost part of the Focsani Basin, in the depth range 10-25 km. Most of the crustal depth seismicity observed in the Vrancea zone (as opposed to the more intense upper mantle seismicity) appears to be associated with this sedimentary basin. The sedimentary successions within this basin and other horizons

  20. Evaluating uncertainties in modelling the snow hydrology of the Fraser River Basin, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Siraj Ul; Déry, Stephen J.

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluates predictive uncertainties in the snow hydrology of the Fraser River Basin (FRB) of British Columbia (BC), Canada, using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model forced with several high-resolution gridded climate datasets. These datasets include the Canadian Precipitation Analysis and the thin-plate smoothing splines (ANUSPLIN), North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), University of Washington (UW) and Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (PCIC) gridded products. Uncertainties are evaluated at different stages of the VIC implementation, starting with the driving datasets, optimization of model parameters, and model calibration during cool and warm phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The inter-comparison of the forcing datasets (precipitation and air temperature) and their VIC simulations (snow water equivalent - SWE - and runoff) reveals widespread differences over the FRB, especially in mountainous regions. The ANUSPLIN precipitation shows a considerable dry bias in the Rocky Mountains, whereas the NARR winter air temperature is 2 °C warmer than the other datasets over most of the FRB. In the VIC simulations, the elevation-dependent changes in the maximum SWE (maxSWE) are more prominent at higher elevations of the Rocky Mountains, where the PCIC-VIC simulation accumulates too much SWE and ANUSPLIN-VIC yields an underestimation. Additionally, at each elevation range, the day of maxSWE varies from 10 to 20 days between the VIC simulations. The snow melting season begins early in the NARR-VIC simulation, whereas the PCIC-VIC simulation delays the melting, indicating seasonal uncertainty in SWE simulations. When compared with the observed runoff for the Fraser River main stem at Hope, BC, the ANUSPLIN-VIC simulation shows considerable underestimation of runoff throughout the water year owing to reduced precipitation in the ANUSPLIN forcing dataset. The NARR-VIC simulation yields more winter and spring runoff and earlier decline

  1. Use of major ion and stable isotope geochemistry to delineate natural and anthropogenic sources of nitrate and sulfate in the Kettle River Basin, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Leslie; Hutcheon, Ian; Mayer, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    The Kettle River Basin in South central British Columbia (Canada) is under increasing anthropogenic pressures affecting both water quantity and quality of surface waters and aquifers. We investigated water quality and sources and processes influencing NO3- and SO42- in the Kettle River Basin using a combination of chemical and isotopic techniques. The dominant water type in the Kettle River Basin is Ca-HCO3 with surface waters having total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations of Kettle River Basin. The presented data will serve as an excellent baseline against which future impacts can be assessed.

  2. Comparison of Three Key Marine Shale Reservoirs in the Southeastern Margin of the Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study performs a comprehensive comparison of three key marine shale reservoirs in the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin, and explains why commercial gas production was only achieved in the Lower Silurian Longmaxi (LSL and Upper Ordovician Wufeng (UOW formations, but not in the Lower Cambrian Niutitang (LCN formation. The experimental methods included in situ gas content and gas composition tests, methane adsorption analysis, low-pressure N2 adsorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, and total organic carbon (TOC and vitrinite reflectance (Ro analyses to evaluate the lithology, mineralogy, physical properties of the reservoir, organic geochemistry, in situ gas content and methane adsorption capacity characteristics of the three shales. The LCN shale has lower quartz and clay mineral contents and a low brittleness index, but higher contents of feldspar, pyrite and carbonate minerals than the LSL and UOW shales. The porosity and permeability of the LSL and UOW shales are higher than those of the LCN shale. The primary contributions to the high permeability in the LSL shale are its well-developed fractures and organic matter pores. In contrast, the over-mature LCN shale is unfavorable for the development of organic pores and fractures. Although the LCN shale has a higher methane sorption capacity than the LSL and UOW shales, the gas content and methane saturation of the LCN shale are distinctly lower than those of the LSL and UOW shales. This is primarily due to gas migration from the LCN shale, resulting from the activities of tectonic uplift and the unconformable contact between the LCN shale and the Dengying formation. When compared with gas shale in North America, the LSL shale is the most favorable shale reservoir out of the three Sichuan shales, while the combination of the LSL and UOW shales is also potentially productive. However, the individual single layer production of the UOW or LCN shales is still

  3. Hydrological Responses to Various Land Use, Soil and Weather Inputs in Northern Lake Erie Basin in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Daggupati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, Lake Erie, one of the great lakes bordering Canada and the USA has been under serious threat due to increased phosphorus levels originating from agricultural fields. Large scale watersheds contributing to Lake Erie from the USA side are being simulated using hydrological and water quality (H/WQ models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and the results from the model are being used by policy and decision makers to implement better management decisions to solve emerging phosphorus issues. On the Canadian side, modeling applications are limited to either small watersheds or one major watershed contributing to Lake Erie. To the best of our knowledge, no efforts have been made to model the entire contributing watersheds to Lake Erie from Canada. This study applied the SWAT model for Northern Lake Erie Basin (NLEB; entire contributing basin to Lake Erie. Various provincial, national and global inputs of weather, land use and soil at various resolutions was assessed to evaluate the effects of input data types on the simulation of hydrological processes and streamflows. Twelve scenarios were developed using the input combinations and selected scenarios were evaluated at selected locations along the Grand and Thames Rivers using model performance statistics, and graphical comparisons of time variable plots and flow duration curves (FDCs. In addition, various hydrological components such as surface runoff, water yield, and evapotranspiration were also evaluated. Global level coarse resolution weather and soil did not perform better compared to fine resolution national data. Interestingly, in the case of land use, global and national/provincial land use were close, however, fine resolution provincial data performed slightly better. This study found that interpolated weather data from Environment Canada climate station observations performed slightly better compared to the measured data and therefore could be a good choice

  4. Synthesis and model of formation-water flow, Alberta Basin, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, S. [Alberta Geological Survey (Canada)

    1995-08-01

    Based on a large amount of publicly available data, several studies have previously examined the flow of formation waters in different parts of the Alberta basin, offering various interpretations as to the causes of the observed pressure regime and flow pattern; however, there has been no synthesis of these diverse studies on a basin-wide basis. Accordingly, these studies are critically reviewed in this paper and synthesized in a new basin-scale model of the flow of formation waters in the Alberta basin. The proposed regional-scale model has significant implications for understanding hydrocarbon migration pathways, ore genesis, the geothermal regime, and deep waste disposal in the Alberta basin. Several flow systems, each one driven by a different mechanism, are identified, together with the main processes leading to the nonhydrostatic pressures observed in the basin. Two megahydrostratigraphic successions and associated flow systems are recognized. The first succession corresponds to the pre-Cretaceous passive-margin stage of basin development, and consists of thick, carbonate-dominated aquifer systems separated by shaly aquitards and evaporitic aquicludes. A northeastward basin-scale flow system is driven by basin topography, with recharge in Montana and discharge in northeastern Alberta. Southwest-to-northeast regional-scale flow adjacent to the fold and thrust belt is probably the result of past tectonic processes. As a result of salinity variations, flow-retarding buoyancy effects can be important. The second megahydrostratigraphic succession corresponds to the post-Jurassic foreland stage of basin evolution, and consists of thick, shaly aquitard systems and relatively thin sandstone aquifers.

  5. Geochemical elements mobility during the history of a paleo-Proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kister, P.

    2003-10-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of migration and deposition of ore elements, it is essential to determine the timing, source, and destination of the geochemical element mass transfers and/or transportation on a scale encompassing the great sedimentary. The purpose of this study was to trace and to date the element migrations that occurred during the history of a Paleo-proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin, which hosts the world's largest and richest uranium deposits. As this geological environment was proved to be efficient to preserve high grade ore deposits for over more than one billion years, it provides an opportunity to study the mobility of some elements in a context that shows analogies with deep geological nuclear waste disposals. The natural analogies of interest include (i) uranium oxide and spent nuclear fuel; (ii) clay alteration halo and near field barrier, (iii) Athabasca sandstone cover and far-field barrier. Five research axis: (1) 3D modelling of the distribution of the main minerals and of some trace elements (U, Pb, Zr, Th, REE, Y, Rb, Sr) on a basin-wide scale and in the U mineralized zones, using the Gocad software. The models have been compared with detailed mineralogical studies performed on selected samples. (2) Pb-Pb and Rb-Sr systematics by TIMS (3) Mass balance calculation of the average Pb/U ratio at the scale of the deposit to evaluate whether the present day amount of radiogenic lead is sufficient to explain a U deposition in one or several episodes (geostatistical tools on Gocad) (4) Thermodynamic modelling of the mineralogical evolution of the Athabasca basin, considering the main mineral present in the sandstone (Phreeqc and Supcrt softwares) (5) U-Pb geochronology of uranium oxides using a 3 step approach: (i) optical and scanning electron microscopy; (ii) electron microprobe; (iii) ion microprobe (SIMS). The purpose was to study the long term stability of the uranium oxides and to characterise the

  6. Characteristics of source rocks of the Datangpo Fm, Nanhua System, at the southeastern margin of Sichuan Basin and their significance to oil and gas exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengye Xie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much attention has been paid to the development environment, biogenetic compositions and hydrocarbon generation characteristics of ancient source rocks in the deep strata of the Sichuan Basin because oil and gas exploration extends continuously to the deep and ultra-deep strata and a giant gas field with the explored reserves of more than 1 × 1012 m3 was discovered in the Middle and Upper Proterozoic–Lower Paleozoic strata in the stable inherited paleo-uplift of the central Sichuan Basin. Based on the previous geological research results, outcrop section of the Datangpo Fm, Nanhua System, at the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin was observed and the samples taken from the source rocks were tested and analyzed in terms of their organic geochemistry and organic petrology. It is shown that high-quality black shale source rocks of the Datangpo Fm are developed in the tensional background at the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin between two glacial ages, i.e., Gucheng and Nantuo ages in the Nanhua Period. Their thickness is 16–180 m and mineral compositions are mainly clay minerals and clastic quartz. Besides, shale in the Datangpo Fm is of high-quality sapropel type source rock with high abundance at an over-mature stage, and it is characterized by low pristane/phytane ratios (0.32–0.83, low gammacerane abundance, high-abundance tricyclic terpane and higher-content C27 and C29 gonane, indicating that biogenetic compositions are mainly algae and microbes in a strong reducing environment with low salinity. It is concluded that the Datangpo Fm source rocks may be developed in the rift of Nanhua System in central Sichuan Basin. Paleo-uplifts and paleo-slopes before the Caledonian are the favorable locations for the accumulation of dispersed liquid hydrocarbons and paleo-reservoirs derived from the Datangpo Fm source rocks. In addition, scale accumulation zones of dispersed organic matter cracking gas and paleo

  7. Geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the lower Merrimack and coastal river basins, southeastern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekl, Peter J.; Flanagan, Sarah M.

    1992-01-01

    Communities in the lower Merrimack River basin and coastal river basins of southeastern New Hampshire are experiencing increased demands for water because of a rapid increase in population. The population in 1987 was 225,495 and is expected to increase by 30 percent during the next decade. As of 1987, five towns used the stratified-drift aquifers for municipal supply and withdrew an estimated 6 million gallons per day. Four towns used the bedrock aquifer for municipal supply and withdrew an average of 1 .6 million gallons per day. Stratified-drift deposits cover 78 of the 327 square miles of the study area. These deposits are generally less than 10 square miles in areal extent, and their saturated thickness ranges front less than 20 feet to as much as 100 feet . Transinissivity exceeds 4,000 square feet per day in several locations. Stratified-drift aquifers in the eastern part are predominantly small ice-contact deposits surrounded by marine sediments or till of low hydraulic conductivity. Stratified-drift aquifers in the western part consist of ice-contact and proglacial deposits that are large in areal extent and are commonly in contact with surface-water bodies. Five stratified-drift aquifers, in the towns of Derry, Windham, Kingston, North Hampton, and Greenland, have the greatest potential to supply additional amounts of water. Potential yields and contributing areas of hypothetical supply wells were estimated for an aquifer in Windham near Cobbetts Pond and for an aquifer in Kingston along the Powwow River by use of a method analogous to superposition in conjunction with a numerical ground-waterflow model. The potential yield is estimated to be 0 .6 million gallons per day for the Windham-Cobbetts Pond aquifer and 4 .0 million gallons per day for the Kingston-Powwow River aquifer. Contributing recharge area for supply wells is estimated to be 1.6 square miles in the Windham-Cobbetts Pond aquifer and 4.9 square miles in the Kingston-Powwow River aquifer

  8. Harvested white-tailed deer as sentinel hosts for early establishing Ixodes scapularis populations and risk from vector-borne zoonoses in southeastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, C; Leighton, P A; Beauchamp, G; Nguon, S; Trudel, L; Milord, F; Lindsay, L R; Bélanger, D; Ogden, N H

    2013-03-01

    Due to recent establishment of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, in southeastern Canada, tick-borne zoonoses (Lyme disease, human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis) are of growing concern for public health. Using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) culled in southwestern Quebec during 2007-2008, we investigated whether hunter-killed deer could act as sentinels for early establishing tick populations and for tick-borne pathogens. Accounting for environmental characteristics of culling sites, and age and sex of deer, we investigated whether their tick infestation levels could identify locations of known tick populations detected in active surveillance, presumed tick populations detected by passive surveillance, or both. We also used spatial cluster analyses to identify spatial patterns of tick infestation and occurrence of tick-borne zoonoses infection in ticks collected from the deer. Adult ticks were found on 15% of the 583 deer examined. Adult male deer had the greatest number (approximately 90%) of adult ticks. Overall, 3, 15, and 0% of the ticks collected were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, respectively. Our statistical analyses suggest that sex and age of deer, temperature, precipitation, and an index of tick dispersion by migratory birds were significantly associated with tick infestation levels. Cluster analysis identified significant clusters of deer carrying ticks PCR-positive for A. phagocytophilum, and for deer carrying two or more I. scapularis. Our study suggests that hunter-killed deer may be effective as sentinels for emerging areas of tick-borne anaplasmosis. They may have limited use as sentinels for early emerging I. scapularis tick populations and emerging Lyme disease risk.

  9. Implications of Spatial Variability in Heat Flow for Geothermal Resource Evaluation in Large Foreland Basins: The Case of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Weides

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow and geothermal gradient of the sedimentary succession of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB are mapped based on a large thermal database. Heat flow in the deep part of the basin varies from 30 mW/m2 in the south to high 100 mW/m2 in the north. As permeable strata are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important aquifers are discussed and evaluated. Regional temperature distribution within different aquifers is mapped for the first time, enabling a delineation of the most promising areas based on thermal field and aquifer properties. Results of previous regional studies on the geothermal potential of the WCSB are newly evaluated and discussed. In parts of the WCSB temperatures as high as 100–210 °C exist at depths of 3–5 km. Fluids from deep aquifers in these “hot” regions of the WCSB could be used in geothermal power plants to produce electricity. The geothermal resources of the shallower parts of the WCSB (>2 km could be used for warm water provision (>50 °C or district heating (>70 °C in urban areas.

  10. Magnetic investigation and 2½ D gravity profile modelling across the Beattie magnetic anomaly in the southeastern Karoo Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiyegunhi, Christopher; Gwavava, Oswald

    2017-03-01

    The southeastern Karoo Basin is considered to be one of the most prospective areas for shale gas exploration in South Africa. An interesting magnetic anomaly, the Beattie magnetic anomaly (BMA), and geologic intrusions are seen on the magnetic map. To date, the source of the BMA and interconnectivity of the igneous intrusions are not well understood. In this study, we investigate the interconnectivity of the igneous intrusions and possible location of the source of the BMA using gravity and magnetic methods. The gravity model results showed that igneous intrusions are interconnected at depth, which probably pose threat by increasing the risk of fracking the Karoo for shale gas exploration. The magnetic results revealed that the BMA becomes stronger with depth. The average depths to the top of the shallow and deep magnetic sources were estimated to be approximately 0.6 and 15 km, respectively.

  11. Models of talik, permafrost and gas hydrate histories - Beaufort Mackenzie Basin, Canada

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Osadetz, K.; Šafanda, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2015), s. 6738-6764 ISSN 1996-1073 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : gas hydrates * permafrost * Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin * taliks Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.077, year: 2015

  12. A reassessment of the Archean-Mesoproterozoic tectonic development of the southeastern Chhattisgarh Basin, Central India through detailed aeromagnetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, M.; Ramesh Babu, V.; Markandeyulu, A.; Raju, B. V. S. N.; Chaturvedi, A. K.; Roy, M. K.

    2017-08-01

    We constrained the geological framework over polydeformed Paleoproterozoic Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and addressed the tectonic evolution of Singhora basin in the fringes of Bastar Craton, central India by utilizing aeromagnetic data interpretation, 2.5D forward modelling and 3D magnetic susceptibility inversions. The Sonakhan Greenstone Belt exposes volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Sonakhan Group within NNW-SSE to NW-SE trending linear belts surrounded by granite gneisses, which are unconformably overlain by sedimentary rocks of Chhattisgarh Basin. The orientations of aeromagnetic anomalies are coincident with geological trends and appear to correlate with lithology and geologic structure. Regional magnetic anomalies and lineaments reveal both NNW-SSE and NE-SW trends. Prominent E-W trending linear, high amplitude magnetic anomalies are interpreted as the Trans-Chhattisgarh Aeromagnetic Lineament (TCAL). NW-SE trending aeromagnetic signatures related to Sonakhan Greenstone Belt extends below the Singhora sedimentary rocks and forms the basement in the west. The analysis suggests that TCAL is a block fault with northern block down-thrown and affected the basement rocks comprising the Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and Samblapur Granitoids. The episode of faulting represented by the TCAL is pre-Singhora sedimentation and played a vital role in basin evolution. The basement configuration image generated by estimates of depth to magnetic basement suggests a complex pattern of NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending depressions separated by a linear N-S trending basement ridge. It is inferred from the 3D magnetic susceptibility inversion that the thickness of sediments is more towards the eastern basin margin and the N-S ridge is a manifestation of post sedimentary faulting. Results of 2.5D modelling of a WNW-ESE profile across the Singhora Basin combined with results from 3D inversion suggest suggests the basin subsidence was controlled by NE-SW trending regional faults in an active

  13. Seismic stratigraphy and structure of the Chukchi Borderland: implications for the opening of the Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, I.; Coakley, B.

    2015-12-01

    Interpretation of seismic reflection data from the western Chukchi Borderland has illuminated the structure and stratigraphy of the area. Basement rotated fault blocks are offset by two border fault systems (BFS1 and BFS2) and by secondary faults, striking curvilinear in the NW-SE direction, dipping to the NE. The BFS1 dissects the Chukchi Plateau into two first-order rotated blocks bounding two major sedimentary depocentres, the North Chukchi Basin and the Chukchi Plateau Central Basin. The BFS2, which has a larger offset than BFS1, forms the western boundary of the Northwind Basin. Much of the stratigraphy is controlled by sediment supply. The basins were starved early in their history, resulting in a limited syn-rift section. Substantial sediment accumulation in the Borderland appears to post-date large scale progradation of the depostional shelf edge across the Chukchi Shelf. Basin infill stratigraphies are subdivided into pre-rift, syn-rift, early-, middle-, late post-rift, and glacio-marine sequences (SB1-SB5). SB1 shows truncation of the remnants of the pre-rift strata below and onlap of the syn-rift sequence(s) above; the SB2 marks the termination of the rifting stage and is bounded by bi-directional onlap surface of the early post-rift strata above; the base of SB3 is an onlap surface marks the arrival of the prograding shelf margin sequence(s); the SB4 shows evidence of erosion at the base of the prograding late post-rift sequence(s); and the SB5 is an downloap surface marking the first arrival of the glacio-marine sediments eroded from the Chukchi Shelf. Two ages of the major sequence boundaries, the SB3 and SB4, can be directly tied to Popcorn and Crackerjack Chukchi Shelf well data, and the older ones, the end of rifting and the top of the pre-rift, are inferred based on stratigraphic observations. The stratigraphic relationship suggests that the Chukchi Borderland stratigraphy can be correlated in part to the Chukchi Shelf stratigraphy. The first and

  14. Surface water of Little River basin in southeastern Oklahoma (with a section on quality of water by R. P. Orth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, A.O.; Orth, Richard Philip

    1963-01-01

    This report summarizes basic hydrologic data of the surface water resources of Little River basin above the Oklahoma-Arkansas state line near Cerrogordo, Okla., and by analysis and interpretation, presents certain streamflow characteristics at specified points in the basin. Little River basin above the state line includes 2,269 square miles, of which about 250 square miles of the Mountain Fork River is in Arkansas. The climate is humid and the annual precipitation averages about 46 inches. Gross annual lake evaporation averages 49 inches per year. There are three reservoirs totaling 2,831,800 acre-feet of storage, either authorized or under construction in the basin. The average annual discharge at the gaging stations for the period 1930-61 is 674,900 acre-feet for Little River near Wright City; 1,273,000 acre-feet for Little River below Lukfata Creek, near Idabel; and 989,000 acre-feet for Mountain Fork River near Eagletown. The average annual discharge of Little River at the Oklahoma-Arkansas state line near Cerrogordo is 2,401,000 acre-feet. Flow-duration curves have been developed from daily records for the gaging stations. These curves show the percentage of time various rates of discharge have been equaled or exceeded. Procedures for defining the frequency of annual floods at any point in the basin are given. Low-flow frequency curves for the gaging stations defining the recurrence intervals of 7, 14 or 15, 30, 60, and 120 day mean flows have been prepared. Curves showing the relation of instantaneous discharge at specified upstream points to the daily mean discharge at two gaging stations are presented. The storage requirements for suplementing natural flows have been prepared for the gaging-station sites. Chemical analyses show that the surface water in the basin is suitable for domestic and industrial uses.

  15. Hydrology signal from GRACE gravity data in the Nelson River basin, Canada: a comparison of two approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tanghua; Wu, Patrick; Wang, Hansheng; Jia, Lulu; Steffen, Holger

    2018-03-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission measures the combined gravity signal of several overlapping processes. A common approach to separate the hydrological signal in previous ice-covered regions is to apply numerical models to simulate the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) signals related to the vanished ice load and then remove them from the observed GRACE data. However, the results of this method are strongly affected by the uncertainties of the ice and viscosity models of GIA. To avoid this, Wang et al. (Nat Geosci 6(1):38-42, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1038/NGEO1652; Geodesy Geodyn 6(4):267-273, 2015) followed the theory of Wahr et al. (Geophys Res Lett 22(8):977-980, 1995) and isolated water storage changes from GRACE in North America and Scandinavia with the help of Global Positioning System (GPS) data. Lambert et al. (Postglacial rebound and total water storage variations in the Nelson River drainage basin: a gravity GPS Study, Geological Survey of Canada Open File, 7317, 2013a, Geophys Res Lett 40(23):6118-6122, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GL057973, 2013b) did a similar study for the Nelson River basin in North America but applying GPS and absolute gravity measurements. However, the results of the two studies in the Nelson River basin differ largely, especially for the magnitude of the hydrology signal which differs about 35%. Through detailed comparison and analysis of the input data, data post-processing techniques, methods and results of these two works, we find that the different GRACE data post-processing techniques may lead to this difference. Also the GRACE input has a larger effect on the hydrology signal amplitude than the GPS input in the Nelson River basin due to the relatively small uplift signal in this region. Meanwhile, the influence of the value of α , which represents the ratio between GIA-induced uplift rate and GIA-induced gravity-rate-of-change (before the correction for surface uplift), is more obvious in

  16. Capacity for Watershed Cumulative Effects Assessment and Management: Lessons from the Lower Fraser River Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Stephanie; Noble, Bram F.; Patrick, Robert J.

    2013-08-01

    This study examines the capacity to support the cumulative effects assessment and management for watersheds. The research is set in the Lower Fraser River Basin, a densely populated sub-watershed in British Columbia's lower mainland. Eight requirements or requisites for the watershed cumulative effects assessment and management are applied to evaluate current capacity for implementation in the Lower Fraser, and to identify the areas in need of capacity development. Results show that advancing watershed cumulative effects assessment and management requires not only good science but also leadership in the coordination of monitoring programs, and in ensuring the appropriate incentives and penalties for engagement and nonengagement. The lack of leadership in this regard is the result of existing governance structures arranged around the political boundaries, which have produced over time multiple agencies and jurisdictional fragmentation. Notwithstanding this, we argue that the watershed is the most appropriate scale for assessing and managing the cumulative effects to complex ecosystems.

  17. Capacity for watershed cumulative effects assessment and management: lessons from the Lower Fraser River Basin, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Stephanie; Noble, Bram F; Patrick, Robert J

    2013-08-01

    This study examines the capacity to support the cumulative effects assessment and management for watersheds. The research is set in the Lower Fraser River Basin, a densely populated sub-watershed in British Columbia's lower mainland. Eight requirements or requisites for the watershed cumulative effects assessment and management are applied to evaluate current capacity for implementation in the Lower Fraser, and to identify the areas in need of capacity development. Results show that advancing watershed cumulative effects assessment and management requires not only good science but also leadership in the coordination of monitoring programs, and in ensuring the appropriate incentives and penalties for engagement and nonengagement. The lack of leadership in this regard is the result of existing governance structures arranged around the political boundaries, which have produced over time multiple agencies and jurisdictional fragmentation. Notwithstanding this, we argue that the watershed is the most appropriate scale for assessing and managing the cumulative effects to complex ecosystems.

  18. Geology and physiography of the continental margin north of Alaska and implications for the origin of the Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, Arthur; Eittreim, Stephen L.; Whitney, O.T.

    1979-01-01

    The continental margin north of Alaska is of Atlantic type. It began to form probably in Early Jurassic time but possibly in middle Early Cretaceous time, when the oceanic Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is thought to have opened by rifting about a pole of rotation near the Mackenzie Delta. Offsets of the rift along two fracture zones are thought to have divided the Alaskan margin into three sectors of contrasting structure and stratigraphy. In the Barter Island sector on the east and the Chukchi sector on the west the rift was closer to the present northern Alaska mainland than in the Barrow sector, which lies between them. In the Barter Island and Chukchi sectors the continental shelf is underlain by prisms of clastic sedimentary rocks that are inferred to include thick sections of Jurassic and Neocomian (lower Lower Cretaceous) strata of southern provenance. In the intervening Barrow sector the shelf is underlain by relatively thin sections of Jurassic and Neocomian strata derived from northern sources that now lie beneath the outer continental shelf. The rifted continental margin is overlain by a prograded prism of Albian (upper Lower Cretaceous) to Tertiary clastic sedimentary rocks that comprises the continental terrace of the western Beaufort and northern Chukchi Seas. On the south the prism is bounded by Barrow arch, which is a hingeline between the northward-tilted basement surface beneath the continental shelf of the western Beaufort Sea and the southward-tilted Arctic Platform of northern Alaska. The Arctic platform is overlain by shelf clastic and carbonate strata of Mississippian to Cretaceous age, and by Jurassic and Cretaceous clastic strata of the Colville foredeep. Both the Arctic platform and Colville foredeep sequences extend from northern Alaska beneath the northern Chukchi Sea. At Herald fault zone in the central Chukchi Sea they are overthrust by more strongly deformed Cretaceous to Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of Herald arch, which trends

  19. Structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin: An integrated geophysical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jacqueline A.

    A vast area of the Precambrian craton of Laurentia lies buried beneath Phanerozoic rocks of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). The lithospheric evolution of this crystalline basement and the stratigraphic architecture of the overlying sedimentary rocks have been investigated using geophysical techniques. A 1400-km reflection-seismic profile constructed from LITHOPROBE lines was used for regional investigation of basin structure and the nature of the basement-cover contact. Instantaneous attribute analysis of the top-of-basement reflection reveals domain-dependent properties. The seismic data also show that normal faulting in the basin, widely separated in both space and time, displays previously undocumented characteristics of extensional forced-folding. Previous workers have used gravity and magnetic data as the basis for qualitative subdivision of the crystalline basement into tectonic domains. Here, crustal structure in the vicinity of 6 prominent gravity and magnetic anomalies were investigated in a quantitative fashion by numerical simulation. Independent constraints from seismic and magnetotelluric data were used to mitigate the inherent non-uniqueness of the potential-field interpretations. In the case of the Vulcan Structure, a Paleoproterozoic collision zone in southern Alberta, significant remanent magnetization was invoked to simplify the interpretation of paired positive-negative magnetic anomalies that had been interpreted previously as separate domains. If correct, this interpretation challenges the almost universally held assumption that remanent magnetization is negligible in Precambrian terranes. Elsewhere, numerical modelling shows that previous seismic interpretations of a 10-km offset in the Moho across a splay of the Snowbird tectonic zone is consistent with, but not required by, the gravity signature of this feature. The Great Slave Lake shear zone is a conspicuous 1300-km linear potential-field anomaly that has been interpreted as

  20. The pulse of driftwood export from a very large forested river basin over multiple time scales, Slave River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Natalie; Wohl, Ellen; Hess-Homeier, Brooke; Leisz, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    This study presents a case study of large wood transport on the great Slave River in northern Canada with the objective to better understand the processes of and variability in pulsed wood fluxes from large forested catchments. We use a varied approach, integrating field characterization of wood, historical anecdotes, repeat aerial imagery of stored wood, and time-lapse imagery of moving wood, for a robust analysis and synthesis of processes behind pulsed wood flux, from yearly uncongested export to rare congested wood floods. Repeat monitoring of known sites of temporary storage with new or historic imagery proved to be a very useful tool for constraining wood flux histories. Pulsed wood export on the Slave River is not an artifact of episodic recruitment from major up-basin disturbances, but rather reflects decadal- to half-century-scale discharge patterns that redistribute wood recruited from channel migration and bank slumping. We suggest that the multiyear flow history is of paramount importance for estimating wood flux magnitude, followed in declining importance by the yearly sequence of peaks and the magnitude and characteristics of the rising limb of individual floods.

  1. Functional groups and elemental analyses of cuticular morphotypes of Cordaites principalis (Germar) Geinitz, Carboniferous Maritimes Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria; Orem, W.H.; Simunek, Z.; Bashforth, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    Well-preserved cuticles were isolated from Cordaites principalis (Germar) Geinitz leaf compressions, i.e., foliage from extinct gymnosperm trees Coniferophyta: Order Cordaitales. The specimens were collected from the Sydney. Stellarton and Bay St. George subbasins of the once extensive Carboniferous Maritimes Basin of Atlantic Canada. Fourier transformation of infrared spectra (FTIR) and elemental analyses indicate that the ca. 300-306-million-year-old fossil cuticles share many of the functional groups observed in modern cuticles. The similarities of the functional groups in each of the three cuticular morphotypes studied support the inclusion into a single cordaite-leaf taxon, i.e., C. principalis (Germar), confirming previous morphological investigations. Vitrinite reflectance measurements on coal seams in close proximity to the fossil-bearing sediments reveal that the Bay St. George sample site has the lowest thermal maturity, whereas the sites in Sydney and Stellarton are more mature. IR absorption and elemental analyses of the cordaite compressions corroborate this trend, which suggests that the coalified mesophyll in the leaves follows a maturation path similar to that of vitrinite. Comparison of functional groups of the cordaite cuticles with those from certain pteridosperms previously studied from the Sydney Subbasin shows that in the cordaite cuticles highly conjugated C-O (1632 cm-1) bands dominate over carbonyl stretch that characterizes the pteridosperm cuticles. The differences demonstrate the potential of chemotaxonomy as a valuable tool to assist distinguishing between Carboniferous plant-fossil groups. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Functional groups and elemental analyses of cuticular morphotypes of Cordaites principalis (Germar) Geinitz, Carboniferous Maritimes Basin, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodrow, E.L. [Department of Earth Sciences, University College of Cape Breton, Sydney, Nova Scotia, B1P 6L2 Bloomington, IN (Canada); Mastalerz, M. [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 N. Walnut Grove, 47405-2208 Bloomington, IN (United States); Orem, W.H. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 956, National Center, 22092 Reston, VA (United States); Simunek, Z. [Czech Geological Survey, Klarov 3/131, 118 21 Praha 1 St. John' s (Czech Republic); Bashforth, A.R. [Department of Earth Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, A1B 3X5 St. John' s (Canada)

    2000-11-01

    Well-preserved cuticles were isolated from Cordaites principalis (Germar) Geinitz leaf compressions, i.e., foliage from extinct gymnosperm trees Coniferophyta: Order Cordaitales. The specimens were collected from the Sydney, Stellarton and Bay St. George subbasins of the once extensive Carboniferous Maritimes Basin of Atlantic Canada. Fourier transformation of infrared spectra (FTIR) and elemental analyses indicate that the ca. 300-306-million-year-old fossil cuticles share many of the functional groups observed in modern cuticles. The similarities of the functional groups in each of the three cuticular morphotypes studied support the inclusion into a single cordaite-leaf taxon, i.e., C. principalis (Germar), confirming previous morphological investigations. Vitrinite reflectance measurements on coal seams in close proximity to the fossil-bearing sediments reveal that the Bay St. George sample site has the lowest thermal maturity, whereas the sites in Sydney and Stellarton are more mature. IR absorption and elemental analyses of the cordaite compressions corroborate this trend, which suggests that the coalified mesophyll in the leaves follows a maturation path similar to that of vitrinite. Comparison of functional groups of the cordaite cuticles with those from certain pteridosperms previously studied from the Sydney Subbasin shows that in the cordaite cuticles highly conjugated C-O (1632 cm{sup -1}) bands dominate over carbonyl stretch that characterizes the pteridosperm cuticles. The differences demonstrate the potential of chemotaxonomy as a valuable tool to assist distinguishing between Carboniferous plant-fossil groups.

  3. Conceptual model of the uppermost principal aquifer systems in the Williston and Powder River structural basins, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew J.; Aurand, Katherine R.; Bednar, Jennifer M.; Davis, Kyle W.; McKaskey, Jonathan D.R.G.; Thamke, Joanna N.

    2014-01-01

    The three uppermost principal aquifer systems of the Northern Great Plains—the glacial, lower Tertiary, and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems—are described in this report and provide water for irrigation, mining, public and domestic supply, livestock, and industrial uses. These aquifer systems primarily are present in two nationally important fossil-fuelproducing areas: the Williston and Powder River structural basins in the United States and Canada. The glacial aquifer system is contained within glacial deposits that overlie the lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems in the northeastern part of the Williston structural basin. Productive sand and gravel aquifers exist within this aquifer system. The Upper Cretaceous aquifer system is contained within bedrock lithostratigraphic units as deep as 2,850 and 8,500 feet below land surface in the Williston and Powder River structural basins, respectively. Petroleum extraction from much deeper formations, such as the Bakken Formation, is rapidly increasing because of recently improved hydraulic fracturing methods that require large volumes of relatively freshwater from shallow aquifers or surface water. Extraction of coalbed natural gas from within the lower Tertiary aquifer system requires removal of large volumes of groundwater to allow degasification. Recognizing the importance of understanding water resources in these energy-rich basins, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Groundwater Resources Program (http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/gwrp/) began a groundwater study of the Williston and Powder River structural basins in 2011 to quantify this groundwater resource, the results of which are described in this report. The overall objective of this study was to characterize, quantify, and provide an improved conceptual understanding of the three uppermost and principal aquifer systems in energy-resource areas of the Northern Great Plains to assist in groundwater-resource management for multiple uses. The study area

  4. Competition between agricultural, urban, and sand-mining areas at the Paraíba do Sul basin in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquim, Carlos C.; Cordeiro, Guilherme P. L.; Amorim, Mariana de; de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Galdino, Sergio

    2017-10-01

    This work was performed in the Paraíba do Sul basin, within the limits of the São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, in order to assess the dynamics of the land-use and land-cover changes at the Paraíba do Sul river's floodplains between 1985 and 2016. We focused on investigating the development of agricultural areas used for the production of wetland rice and of areas featuring artificial lakes produced by sand mining. We mapped the land cover in 1985 using images made by the Landsat 5 satellite's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors, which were segmented to produce vectors featuring homogeneous characteristics, and which were classified by means of visual interpretation. Similarly, we applied the maximum likelihood classification and used spectral curve inserts and adjustments to study and analyze the same area using a Landsat 8's Operational Land Imager (OLI) image made in 2016. Our results show significant reduction of areas used for rice crops, and increase in areas featuring sandmining pits. The rice crop areas decreased approximately 43% from 24,131.4 ha in 1985 to 13,789.8 ha in 2016. Over this 30-year period, the area covered by sand-mining lakes increased from 615 ha to 3,876 ha (+ 630%), and the number of lakes increased from 54 to 316. Sand mining and urbanization are the main factors causing the reduction in wetland rice areas. The absence of environmental management actions at the basin interferes with the rice production, which depends on the Paraíba do Sul river's floodplains.

  5. Ground-Water Storage Change and Land Subsidence in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley, Southeastern Arizona, 1998-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Donald R.; Anderson, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Gravity and land subsidence were measured annually at wells and benchmarks within two networks in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley from 1998 to 2002. Both networks are within the Tucson Active Management Area. Annual estimates of ground-water storage change, ground-water budgets, and land subsidence were made based on the data. Additionally, estimates of specific yield were made at wells within the monitored region. Increases in gravity and water-level rises followed above-average natural recharge during winter 1998 in Tucson Basin. Overall declining gravity and water-level trends from 1999 to 2002 in Tucson Basin reflected general declining ground-water storage conditions and redistribution of the recent recharge throughout a larger region of the aquifer. The volume of stored ground-water in the monitored portion of Tucson Basin increased 200,000 acre-feet from December 1997 to February 1999; however, thereafter an imbalance in ground-water pumpage in excess of recharge led to a net storage loss for the monitoring period by February 2002. Ground-water storage in Avra Valley increased 70,000 acre-feet during the monitoring period, largely as a result of artificial and incidental recharge in the monitored region. The water-budget for the combined monitored regions of Tucson Basin and Avra Valley was dominated by about 460,000 acre-feet of recharge during 1998 followed by an average-annual recharge rate of about 80,000 acre-feet per year from 1999 to 2002. Above-average recharge during winter 1998, followed by average-annual deficit conditions, resulted in an overall balanced water budget for the monitored period. Monitored variations in storage compared well with simulated average-annual conditions, except for above-average recharge from 1998 to 1999. The difference in observed and simulated conditions indicate that ground-water flow models can be improved by including climate-related variations in recharge rates rather than invariable rates of average-annual recharge

  6. Metal-rich fluid inclusions provide new insights into unconformity-related U deposits (Athabasca Basin and Basement, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) hosts numerous giant unconformity-related uranium deposits. The scope of this study is to establish the pressure, temperature, and composition (P-T-X conditions) of the brines that circulated at the base of the Athabasca Basin and in its crystalline basement before, during and after UO2 deposition. These brines are commonly sampled as fluid inclusions in quartz- and dolomite-cementing veins and breccias associated with alteration and U mineralization. Microthermometry and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data from five deposits (Rabbit Lake, P-Patch, Eagle Point, Millennium, and Shea Creek) complement previously published data for the McArthur River deposit. In all of the deposits investigated, fluid inclusion salinity is between 25 and 40 wt.% NaCl equiv., with compositions displaying a continuum between a "NaCl-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Na > Ca > Mg > K) and a "CaCl2-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Ca ≈ Mg > Na > K). The CaCl2-rich brine has the highest salinity and shows evidence for halite saturation at the time of trapping. The continuum of compositions between the NaCl-rich brine and the CaCl2-rich brine end-members combined with P-T reconstructions suggest anisothermal mixing of the two brines (NaCl-rich brine, 180 ± 30 °C and 800 ± 400 bars; CaCl2-rich brine, 120 ± 30 °C and 600 ± 300 bars) that occurred under fluctuating pressure conditions (hydrostatic to supra-hydrostatic). However, because the two brines were U bearing and therefore oxidized, brine mixing was probably not the driving force for UO2 deposition. Several scenarios are put forward to account for the Cl-Na-Ca-Mg-K composition of the brines, involving combinations of seawater evaporation, halite dissolution, mixing with a halite-dissolution brine, Mg/Ca exchange by dolomitization, Na/Ca exchange by albitization of plagioclase, Na/K exchange by albitization of K-feldspar, and Mg loss by Mg

  7. Geothermal investigation of Paleozoic formations in the Central Alberta Basin/Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weides, S.; Moeck, I.; Majorowicz, J.

    2012-04-01

    This study explores Paleozoic formations in the Central Alberta Basin with regard to their usability as geothermal reservoirs. The research area of this regional scale study is approx. 150 km * 200 km in size and located around the city of Edmonton. A 3D geological model is developed based on stratigraphic picks of more than 7000 wells from the Alberta general well data file. The model consists of 20 different geological units, of which 14 belong to the Paleozoic succession. Spatial distribution and thickness of formations is analysed with help of the 3D modelling study. Due to its depth and its distribution throughout the whole study area, the Cambrian Basal Sandstone formation is the most promising horizon for a geothermal development. Porosity and horizontal permeability of four Devonian carbonate formations - Cooking Lake, Leduc, Nisku and Wabamun - is mapped by reinvestigation of more than 50,000 core analyses from the Alberta general well data file. Average porosity of the Devonian ranges from 5.2 % (Nisku) to 10.4 % (Wabamun), average horizontal permeability is between 5 mD (Cooking Lake) and 142 mD (Leduc). In parts of the Devonian formations a vuggy porosity exists, as analysis of cores has shown. This locally high porosity and permeability zones are not fully covered by the core measurements. Since logging and core analysis data of the Cambrian Basal Sandstone are rare, properties of this formation are measured on core samples with probe permeametry, gas permeametry and helium pycnometry. First results show an average porosity of 11.1 % and an average horizontal permeability of 1.4 mD. Further investigation of the Cambrian Basal Sandstone in Central Alberta is planned, including analysis of thin sections and geomechanical testing. Surface temperatures of Cambrian and Devonian strata are calculated, based on a newly calculated geothermal gradient and the reservoir depth range derived from the 3D model. Temperature in the Cambrian Basal Sandstone

  8. Biology and ecomorphology of stream fishes from the rio Mogi-Guaçu basin, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiane M. Ferreira

    Full Text Available The córrego Paulicéia is a direct tributary of the rio Mogi-Guaçu, located in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. This stream runs inside a savannah-like (cerrado environment and it associated vegetation. Biological and ecomorphological aspects of its fish community were studied in three stretches of the stream, denominated herein as the upper, middle and lower courses. The fish fauna recorded in this study consisted of 15 species, belonging to five orders and nine families, based in a total of 715 collected individuals representing 1,450 kg of biomass. The most important abiotic factors related to the occurrence and distribution of the fish fauna were the substrate, current speed, and presence or absence of riparian vegetation. The analysis of 336 stomach contents of 13 species demonstrated that 65% of food items are autochthonous, 32% allochthonous, and 3% are of unknown origin. Four alimentary guilds could be identified, based on the predominant food items: omnivores with tendency to insectivory - Astyanax paranae, A. fasciatus and Piabina argentea; larvivores - Corydoras difluviatilis, Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Phenacorhamdia tenebrosa, Characidium gomesi, Eigenmannia virescens, and Rhamdia quelen; periphyton feeders - Hisonotus sp., Hypostomus ancistroides and Synbranchus marmoratus; and piscivore - Hoplias malabaricus. Reproductions data are presented for Astyanax altiparanae and Hisontus sp. Three ecomorphological groups could be established, based on swimming, feeding, and microhabitat strategies: nektonic (A. fasciatus, A. paranae, Bryconamericus stramineus, P. argentea, H. malabaricus and Phallotorynus jucundus, benthic (C. gomesi, P. tenebrosa, C. iheringi, R. quelen, C. difluviatilis, H. ancistroides and Hisonotus sp., and necktobenthic (E. virescens and S. marmoratus.

  9. Hydrological conditions and evaluation of sustainable groundwater use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungle, Bruce; Callegary, James B.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Eastoe, Christopher J.; Turner, Dale S.; Dickinson, Jesse; Levick, Lainie R.; Sugg, Zachary P.

    2016-08-18

    This study assessed progress toward achieving sustainable groundwater use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, through evaluation of 14 indicators of sustainable use. Sustainable use of groundwater in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed requires, at a minimum, a stable rate of groundwater discharge to, and thus base flow in, the San Pedro River. Many of the 14 indicators are therefore related to long-term or short-term effects on base flow and provide us with a means to evaluate groundwater discharge to and base flow in the San Pedro River. The indicators were based primarily on 10 to 20 years of data monitoring in the subwatershed, ending in 2012, and included subwatershedwide indicators, riparian-system indicators, San Pedro River indicators, and springs indicators.

  10. Using Clumped Isotopes to Investigate the Causes of Pluvial Conditions in the Southeastern Basin and Range during the Last Deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowler, A.; Lora, J. M.; Mitchell, J.; Risi, C.; Lee, H. I.; Tripati, A.

    2015-12-01

    The last deglacial interval (~19-11 ka) was marked by major perturbations to Earth's climate coupled with rising atmospheric temperatures and CO2 concentrations, reaching near-modern levels by the early Holocene. Several discharges of freshwater into the North Atlantic caused by melting and collapse of continental ice sheets affected ocean circulation and sea-surface temperatures, triggering abrupt changes in terrestrial climate worldwide. While the timing and amount of associated temperature changes have been quantified from ice core records at high latitudes, corresponding information from lower latitudes is comparatively low and concentrated along coastlines, at high elevations, and in tropical and mesic regions. This is problematic for efforts to improve the reliability of long-term climate forecasts, reliant on models lacking sufficient validation from paleoclimate reconstructions for interior drylands that comprise nearly half of Earth's land surface. Evidence for past hydrologic changes in arid regions comes from ancient lake-shoreline deposits in internally drained basins, allowing quantitative comparison of the recorded effective moisture increases. However, the utility of these records depends on our relatively limited ability to deconvolve the contributions of temperature and precipitation to these changes. Here we explore the possible role of the summer monsoon in causing deglacial-age highstands in the southern Basin and Range. We employ clumped isotope analysis to generate paleotemperature and surface-water d18O estimates from carbonates in fossil shoreline and wetland deposits for comparison to output from PMIP3 coupled climate models and the model ensemble. Additionally, we present higher resolution output from LMDZ, the atmosphere-only component of the IPSL coupled model, employing LGM boundary conditions along with a hosing experiment designed to simulate Heinrich 1. For all simulations, we present analysis of changes in moisture transport

  11. Mapping Ground Water in Three Dimensions - An Analysis of Airborne Geophysical Surveys of the Upper San Pedro River Basin, Cochise County, Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of two airborne geophysical surveys conducted in the upper San Pedro Valley of southeastern Arizona in 1997 and 1999. The combined surveys cover about 1,000 square kilometers and extend from the Huachuca Mountains on the west to the Mule Mountains and Tombstone Hills on the east and from north of the Babocomari River to near the Mexican border on the south. The surveys included the acquisition of high-resolution magnetic data, which were used to map depth to the crystalline basement rocks underlying the sediments filling the basin. The magnetic inversion results show a complex basement morphology, with sediment thickness in the center of the valley ranging from ~237 meters beneath the city of Sierra Vista to ~1,500 meters beneath Huachuca City and the Palominas area near the Mexican border. The surveys also included acquisition of 60-channel time-domain electromagnetic (EM) data. Extensive quality analyses of these data, including inversion to conductivity vs. depth (conductivity-depth-transform or CDT) profiles and comparisons with electrical well logs, show that the electrical conductor mapped represents the subsurface water-bearing sediments throughout most of the basin. In a few places (notably the mouth of Huachuca Canyon), the reported water table lies above where the electrical conductor places it. These exceptions appear to be due to a combination of outdated water-table information, significant horizontal displacement between the wells and the CDT profiles, and a subtle calibration issue with the CDT algorithm apparent only in areas of highly resistive (very dry) overburden. These occasional disparities appear in less than 5 percent of the surveyed area. Observations show, however, that wells drilled in the thick unsaturated zone along the Huachuca Mountain front eventually intersect water, at which point the water rapidly rises high into the unsaturated zone within the wellbore. This rising of water in a wellbore implies

  12. Magnetostratigraphy and 230Th dating of a drill core from the southeastern Qaidam Basin: Salt lake evolution and tectonic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Dong Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Qarhan Salt Lake area is the Quaternary depocenter of the Qaidam Basin, and carries thick lacustrine sediments, as well as rich potassium and magnesium salt deposits. The abundant resources and thick sediments in this lake provide an ideal place for the study of biogas formation and preservation, salt lake evolution, and the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we attempt to construct a paleomagnetic and 230Th age model and to obtain information on tectonic activity and salt lake evolution through detailed studies on a 1300-m-long drill core (15DZK01 from the northwestern margin of the Qarhan Salt Lake area (Dongling Lake. Based on gypsum 230Th dating, the age of the uppermost clastic deposit was calculated to be around 0.052 Ma. The polarity sequence consist of 13 pairs of normal and reversed zones, which can be correlated with subchrons C2r.1r-C1n of the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS 2012 (from ∼2.070 Ma to ∼0.052 Ma. Sedimentary characteristics indicate that Dongling Lake witnessed freshwater environment between ∼2.070 Ma and 1.546 Ma. During this period, the sedimentary record reflects primarily lakeshore, shallow-water and swamp environments, representing favourable conditions for the formation of hydrocarbon source rocks. Between 1.546 Ma and ∼0.052 Ma, the Dongling Lake was in sulphate deposition stage, which contrasts with the central Qarhan Salt Lake area, where this stage did not occur in the meantime. During this stage, Dongling Lake was in a shallow saltwater lake environment, but several periods of reduced salinity occurred during this stage. During the late Pleistocene at ∼0.052 Ma, the Dongling Lake experienced uplift due to tectonic activity, and saltwater migrated through the Sanhu Fault to the central Qarhan Salt Lake area, resulting in the absence of halite deposition stage. The residual saline water was concentrated into magnesium-rich brine due to the lack of freshwater, and few

  13. Impacts of Land Use on Surface Water Quality in a Subtropical River Basin: A Case Study of the Dongjiang River Basin, Southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Ding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between land use and surface water quality is necessary for effective water management. We estimated the impacts of catchment-wide land use on water quality during the dry and rainy seasons in the Dongjiang River basin, using remote sensing, geographic information systems and multivariate statistical techniques. The results showed that the 83 sites can be divided into three groups representing different land use types: forest, agriculture and urban. Water quality parameters exhibited significant variations between the urban-dominated and forest-dominated sites. The proportion of forested land was positively associated with dissolved oxygen concentration but negatively associated with water temperature, electrical conductivity, permanganate index, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and chlorophyll-a. The proportion of urban land was strongly positively associated with total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Forested and urban land use had stronger impacts on water quality in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, agricultural land use did not have a significant impact on water quality. Our study indicates that urban land use was the key factor affecting water quality change, and limiting point-source waste discharge in urban areas during the dry season would be critical for improving water quality in the study area.

  14. Palynology, palynofacies and paleoenvironmental studies of the Late Devonian sediments of the Atiavi-1 well, Keta Basin, southeastern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta-Peters, David; Achaegakwo, Christopher A.

    2017-05-01

    Palynomorph and palynofacies analysis have been performed on 34 cutting samples from the Late Devonian sediments of the Atiavi-1 well in the Keta Basin. Five (5) palynofacies associations linked to different depositional environments have been identified based on the kerogen content in the samples. Palynofacies types Pf A, Pf B and Pf E reflect deposition under mud-dominated oxic shelf conditions (distal shelf), characterized by kerogen type III > IV which is gas prone. Palynofacies type C (Pf C) and D (Pf D) reflect heterolithic oxic shelf (proximal) conditions and are also characterized by type III or IV kerogen. The palynomorph associations (miospores, acritarchs and chitinozoans) indicate an offshore distal or outer shelf environment for the lower section (1490 m-1244 m) with the upper sections (1244 m-936 m) showing intermixing of land - derived elements (miospores, phytoclasts and cuticles) with minor amounts of acritarchs, which strongly suggests deposition in shallow marine/fluvio-deltaic environment. The abundance and diversity of spores is an indication of humid climatic condition which existed at the time of deposition. Palynomorphs with marker species based mainly on miospores assemblages and some diagnostic chitinozoans and acritarchs association from the Atiavi-1 well indicate an age of upper lower Devonian (Emsian) to latest Devonian (Strunian).

  15. Palynological age and palaeoenvironment of deposition of Mid-Cenozoic sediments around Umuahia, Niger delta basin, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegwuonu, Okechukwu N.; Umeji, Obianuji P.

    2016-05-01

    The sediments of Oligocene - Early Miocene Ogwashi Formation of the Niger Delta Basin exposed in the kaolinite quarry by Oyivo stream in Umuahia comprise four lithological units which from base to top are (a) white to grey mudstone over 5.0 m thick; (b) lignite 1.0 m; (c) carbonaceous grey to dark shale 3.0 m; and (d) medium to coarse grained argillaceous sandstone 8.5 m. Samples from lignite and carbonaceous shale yielded rich palynomorph assemblages. Argillaceous sandstone and mudstone were barren. Lignite recorded more spores and less pollen while carbonaceous shale had more pollen and less spores. Index sporomorphs include Verrucatosporites usmensis, Magnastriatites howardii, Psilatricolporites crassus, Echiperiporites icacinoides, Echiperiporites minor, Retibrevitricolporites protrudens, Retibrevitricolpo-rites obodoensis, Retibrevitricolporites ibadanensis, Chenopodipollis dispersus and Retitricolporites irregularis representing Oligocene - Early Miocene Verrucatosporites usmensis/Magnastriatites howardii pantropical palynozones. Palaeoenvironmental indicators include Monoporites annulatus, grass pollen commonly found in open vegetation of savannah or reed swamps within the rain forests; Psilastephanocolporites laevigatus, the tropical lowland evergreen tree; Proxapertites operculatus, Longapertites marginatus and Psilatricolporites crassus the palms of brackish water swamp, along with Schizosporis parvus (Spirogyra) a fresh-water green alga. The sporomorphs indicate palaeoenvironments ranging from fresh water upper to brackish water lower deltaic plain within the tropical rainforest.

  16. Characteristics and origin of the relatively high-quality tight reservoir in the Silurian Xiaoheba Formation in the southeastern Sichuan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoxing; Shi, Zejin; Wang, Yong; Tian, Yaming; Li, Wenjie; Liu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    A mature understanding of the sandstone gas reservoir in the Xiaoheba Formation in the southeastern Sichuan Basin remains lacking. To assess the reservoir characteristics and the origin of the high-quality reservoir in the Xiaoheba Formation, this paper uses systematic field investigations, physical property analysis, thin section identification, scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe methods. The results indicate that the Xiaoheba sandstone is an ultra-tight and ultra-low permeability reservoir, with an average porosity of 2.97% and an average permeability of 0.56×10−3 μm2. This promising reservoir is mainly distributed in the Lengshuixi and Shuangliuba regions and the latter has a relatively high-quality reservoir with an average porosity of 5.28% and average permeability of 0.53×10−3 μm2. The reservoir space comprises secondary intergranular dissolved pores, moldic pores and fractures. Microfacies, feldspar dissolution and fracture connectivity control the quality of this reservoir. The relatively weak compaction and cementation in the interbedded delta front distal bar and interdistributary bay microfacies indirectly protected the primary intergranular pores and enhanced late-stage dissolution. Late-stage potassium feldspar dissolution was controlled by the early-stage organic acid dissolution intensity and the distance from the hydrocarbon generation center. Early-stage fractures acted as pathways for organic acid migration and were therefore important factors in the formation of the reservoir. Based on these observations, the area to the west of the Shuangliuba and Lengshuixi regions has potential for gas exploration. PMID:28686735

  17. Characteristics and origin of the relatively high-quality tight reservoir in the Silurian Xiaoheba Formation in the southeastern Sichuan Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Gong

    Full Text Available A mature understanding of the sandstone gas reservoir in the Xiaoheba Formation in the southeastern Sichuan Basin remains lacking. To assess the reservoir characteristics and the origin of the high-quality reservoir in the Xiaoheba Formation, this paper uses systematic field investigations, physical property analysis, thin section identification, scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe methods. The results indicate that the Xiaoheba sandstone is an ultra-tight and ultra-low permeability reservoir, with an average porosity of 2.97% and an average permeability of 0.56×10-3 μm2. This promising reservoir is mainly distributed in the Lengshuixi and Shuangliuba regions and the latter has a relatively high-quality reservoir with an average porosity of 5.28% and average permeability of 0.53×10-3 μm2. The reservoir space comprises secondary intergranular dissolved pores, moldic pores and fractures. Microfacies, feldspar dissolution and fracture connectivity control the quality of this reservoir. The relatively weak compaction and cementation in the interbedded delta front distal bar and interdistributary bay microfacies indirectly protected the primary intergranular pores and enhanced late-stage dissolution. Late-stage potassium feldspar dissolution was controlled by the early-stage organic acid dissolution intensity and the distance from the hydrocarbon generation center. Early-stage fractures acted as pathways for organic acid migration and were therefore important factors in the formation of the reservoir. Based on these observations, the area to the west of the Shuangliuba and Lengshuixi regions has potential for gas exploration.

  18. Water resources and effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Hanging Woman Creek basin, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater resources of the Hanging Woman Creek basin, Montana include Holocene and Pleistocene alluvial aquifers and sandstone , coal, and clinker aquifers in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface water resources are composed of Hanging Woman Creek, its tributaries, and small stock ponds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater ranged from 200 to 11,00 mg/L. Generally, concentrations were largest in alluvial aquifers and smallest in clinker aquifers. Near its mouth, Hanging Woman Creek had a median concentration of about 1,800 mg/L. Mining of the 20-foot to 35-foot-thick Anderson coal bed and 3-foot to 16-foot thick Dietz coal bed could increase dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow aquifers and in Hanging Woman Creek because of leaching of soluble minerals from mine spoils. Analysis of saturated-paste extracts from 158 overburden samples indicated that water moving through mine spoils would have a median increase in dissolved-solids concentration of about 3,700 mg/L, resulting in an additional dissolved-solids load to Hanging Woman Creek of about 3.0 tons/day. Hanging Woman Creek near Birney could have an annual post-mining dissolved-solids load of 3,415 tons at median discharge, a 47% increase from pre-mining conditions load. Post-mining concentrations of dissolved solids, at median discharge, could range from 2,380 mg/L in March to 3,940 mg/L in August, compared to mean pre-mining concentrations that ranged from 1,700 mg/L in July, November, and December to 2,060 mg/L in May. Post-mining concentrations and loads in Hanging Woman Creek would be smaller if a smaller area were mined. (USGS)

  19. Geochemical constraints on the petrogenesis of the pyroclastic rocks in Abakaliki basin (Lower Benue Rift), Southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwu, Anthony; Obiora, Smart C.

    2018-05-01

    The pyroclastic rocks in the Cretaceous Abakaliki basin occur mostly as oval-shaped bodies, consisting of lithic/lava and vitric fragments. They are commonly characterized by parallel and cross laminations, as well contain xenoliths of shale, mudstone and siltstones from the older Asu River Group of Albian age. The rocks are basic to ultrabasic in composition, comprising altered alkali basalts, altered tuffs, minor lapillistones and agglomerates. The mineral compositions are characterized mainly by laths of calcic plagioclase, pyroxene (altered), altered olivines and opaques. Calcite, zeolite and quartz represent the secondary mineral constituents. Geochemically, two groups of volcaniclastic rocks, are distinguished: alkaline and tholeiitic rocks, both represented by fresh and altered rock samples. The older alkali basalts occur within the core of the Abakaliki anticlinorium while the younger tholeiites occur towards the periphery. Though most of the rocks are moderate to highly altered [Loss on ignition (LOI, 3.43-22.07 wt. %)], the use of immobile trace element such as Nb, Zr, Y, Hf, Ti, Ta and REEs reflect asthenospheric mantle source compositions. The rocks are enriched in incompatible elements and REEs (∑REE = 87.98-281.0 ppm for alkaline and 69.45-287.99 ppm for tholeiites). The ratios of La/Ybn are higher in the alkaline rocks ranging from 7.69 to 31.55 compared to the tholeiitic rocks which range from 4.4 to 16.89 and indicating the presence of garnet-bearing lherzolite in the source mantle. The spidergrams and REEs patterns along with Zr/Nb, Ba/Nb, Rb/Nb ratios suggest that the rocks were generated by a mantle plume from partial melting of mixed enriched mantle sources (HIMU, EMI and EMII) similar to the rocks of the south Atlantic Ocean such as St. Helena (alkaline rocks) and Ascension rocks (tholeiitic rocks). The rocks were formed in a within-plate setting of the intra-continental rift type similar to other igneous rocks in the Benue Rift and are not

  20. Developmental geology of coalbed methane from shallow to deep in Rocky Mountain basins and in Cook Inlet-Matanuska Basin, Alaska, USA and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.C.; Flores, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain basins of western North America contain vast deposits of coal of Cretaceous through early Tertiary age. Coalbed methane is produced in Rocky Mountain basins at depths ranging from 45 m (150 ft) to 1981 m (6500 ft) from coal of lignite to low-volatile bituminous rank. Although some production has been established in almost all Rocky Mountain basins, commercial production occurs in only a few. despite more than two decades of exploration for coalbed methane in the Rocky Mountain region, it is still difficult to predict production characteristics of coalbed methane wells prior to drilling. Commonly cited problems include low permeabilities, high water production, and coals that are significantly undersaturated with respect to methane. Sources of coalbed gases can be early biogenic, formed during the early stages of coalification, thermogenic, formed during the main stages of coalification, or late stage biogenic, formed as a result of the reintroduction of methane-gnerating bacteria by groundwater after uplift and erosion. Examples of all three types of coalbed gases, and combinations of more than one type, can be found in the Rocky Mountain region. Coals in the Rocky Mountain region achieved their present ranks largely as a result of burial beneath sediments that accumulated during the Laramide orogeny (Late Cretaceous through the end of the eocene) or shortly after. Thermal events since the end of the orogeny have also locally elevated coal ranks. Coal beds in the upper part of high-volatile A bituminous rank or greater commonly occur within much more extensive basin-centered gas deposits which cover large areas of the deeper parts of most Rocky Mountain basins. Within these basin-centered deposits all lithologies, including coals, sandstones, and shales, are gas saturated, and very little water is produced. The interbedded coals and carbonaceous shales are probably the source of much of this gas. Basin-centered gas deposits become overpressured

  1. Transport of trace metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn and Cd) in the western Arctic Ocean (Chukchi Sea and Canada Basin) in late summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yoshiko; Obata, Hajime.; Hioki, Nanako; Ooki, Atsushi; Nishino, Shigeto; Kikuchi, Takashi; Kuma, Kenshi

    2016-10-01

    Distributions of trace metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn and Cd) in the western Arctic Ocean (Chukchi Sea and Canada Basin) in September 2012 were investigated to elucidate the mechanisms behind the transport of these metals from the Chukchi Shelf to the Canada Basin. Filtered (metal concentrations, respectively. We identified maxima in vertical profiles for the concentrations of D-Fe and TD-Fe, as well as for the other four analyzed trace metals, which occurred in the halocline and/or near-bottom waters. Concentration profiles of all trace metals except for Cd also tended to show peaks near the surface, which suggest that the inflow of low-salinity Pacific-origin water from the Bering Strait, as well as local fresh water inputs such as river water and melting sea-ice, influenced trace metal concentrations. The distribution patterns and concentration ranges were generally similar between the D and TD fractions for Ni, Zn and Cd, which indicate that Ni, Zn and Cd were present mainly in their dissolved forms, whereas the concentrations of TD-Fe and TD-Mn were generally higher than those of D-Fe and D-Mn, respectively. These results are consistent with the results of previous studies of this region. For both Fe and Mn, labile particulate (LP) concentrations (the difference between the TD and D fractions, which is acid-leachable fraction in the particles during storage at pH 1.5-1.6) were highest in the near-bottom waters of the Chukchi Shelf region. The relationships between the distance from the shelf break and the concentrations of trace metals revealed that Fe and Mn concentrations in halocline waters tended to decrease logarithmically with distance, whereas changes in the concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd and phosphate with distance were small. These results suggest that the distributions of Fe and Mn were controlled mainly by input from shelf sediment and removal through scavenging processes. Based on the phase distributions of Fe and Mn, which were calculated as ratios between

  2. Estimating flood magnitude and frequency at gaged and ungaged sites on streams in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada, based on data through water year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2016-03-16

    Estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are needed across Alaska for engineering design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, flood-insurance studies, flood-plain management, and other water-resource purposes. This report updates methods for estimating flood magnitude and frequency in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. Annual peak-flow data through water year 2012 were compiled from 387 streamgages on unregulated streams with at least 10 years of record. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for each streamgage using the Expected Moments Algorithm to fit a Pearson Type III distribution to the logarithms of annual peak flows. A multiple Grubbs-Beck test was used to identify potentially influential low floods in the time series of peak flows for censoring in the flood frequency analysis.For two new regional skew areas, flood-frequency estimates using station skew were computed for stations with at least 25 years of record for use in a Bayesian least-squares regression analysis to determine a regional skew value. The consideration of basin characteristics as explanatory variables for regional skew resulted in improvements in precision too small to warrant the additional model complexity, and a constant model was adopted. Regional Skew Area 1 in eastern-central Alaska had a regional skew of 0.54 and an average variance of prediction of 0.45, corresponding to an effective record length of 22 years. Regional Skew Area 2, encompassing coastal areas bordering the Gulf of Alaska, had a regional skew of 0.18 and an average variance of prediction of 0.12, corresponding to an effective record length of 59 years. Station flood-frequency estimates for study sites in regional skew areas were then recomputed using a weighted skew incorporating the station skew and regional skew. In a new regional skew exclusion area outside the regional skew areas, the density of long-record streamgages was too sparse for regional analysis and station skew was used

  3. Inferred gas hydrate and permafrost stability history models linked to climate change in the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, Arctic Canada

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Šafanda, Jan; Osadetz, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2012), s. 667-682 ISSN 1814-9324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : climate change * Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin * permafrost Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2012

  4. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panea, I; Stephenson, R.A.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.I.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.C.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-01-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the

  5. Seismic velocities within the sedimentary succession of the Canada Basin and southern Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean: evidence for accelerated porosity reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeld, John; Li, Qingmou; Chian, Deping; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth; Mosher, David; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

    2016-01-01

    The Canada Basin and the southern Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex underlie a significant proportion of the Arctic Ocean, but the geology of this undrilled and mostly ice-covered frontier is poorly known. New information is encoded in seismic wide-angle reflections and refractions recorded with expendable sonobuoys between 2007 and 2011. Velocity–depth samples within the sedimentary succession are extracted from published analyses for 142 of these records obtained at irregularly spaced stations across an area of 1.9E + 06 km2. The samples are modelled at regional, subregional and station-specific scales using an exponential function of inverse velocity versus depth with regionally representative parameters determined through numerical regression. With this approach, smooth, non-oscillatory velocity–depth profiles can be generated for any desired location in the study area, even where the measurement density is low. Practical application is demonstrated with a map of sedimentary thickness, derived from seismic reflection horizons interpreted in the time domain and depth converted using the velocity–depth profiles for each seismic trace. A thickness of 12–13 km is present beneath both the upper Mackenzie fan and the middle slope off of Alaska, but the sedimentary prism thins more gradually outboard of the latter region. Mapping of the observed-to-predicted velocities reveals coherent geospatial trends associated with five subregions: the Mackenzie fan; the continental slopes beyond the Mackenzie fan; the abyssal plain; the southwestern Canada Basin; and, the Alpha-Mendeleev magnetic domain. Comparison of the subregional velocity–depth models with published borehole data, and interpretation of the station-specific best-fitting model parameters, suggests that sandstone is not a predominant lithology in any of the five subregions. However, the bulk sand-to-shale ratio likely increases towards the Mackenzie fan, and the model for this subregion compares

  6. Seismic velocities within the sedimentary succession of the Canada Basin and southern Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean: evidence for accelerated porosity reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeld, John; Li, Qingmou; Chian, Deping; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth; Mosher, David; Hutchinson, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The Canada Basin and the southern Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex underlie a significant proportion of the Arctic Ocean, but the geology of this undrilled and mostly ice-covered frontier is poorly known. New information is encoded in seismic wide-angle reflections and refractions recorded with expendable sonobuoys between 2007 and 2011. Velocity-depth samples within the sedimentary succession are extracted from published analyses for 142 of these records obtained at irregularly spaced stations across an area of 1.9E + 06 km2. The samples are modelled at regional, subregional and station-specific scales using an exponential function of inverse velocity versus depth with regionally representative parameters determined through numerical regression. With this approach, smooth, non-oscillatory velocity-depth profiles can be generated for any desired location in the study area, even where the measurement density is low. Practical application is demonstrated with a map of sedimentary thickness, derived from seismic reflection horizons interpreted in the time domain and depth converted using the velocity-depth profiles for each seismic trace. A thickness of 12-13 km is present beneath both the upper Mackenzie fan and the middle slope off of Alaska, but the sedimentary prism thins more gradually outboard of the latter region. Mapping of the observed-to-predicted velocities reveals coherent geospatial trends associated with five subregions: the Mackenzie fan; the continental slopes beyond the Mackenzie fan; the abyssal plain; the southwestern Canada Basin; and, the Alpha-Mendeleev magnetic domain. Comparison of the subregional velocity-depth models with published borehole data, and interpretation of the station-specific best-fitting model parameters, suggests that sandstone is not a predominant lithology in any of the five subregions. However, the bulk sand-to-shale ratio likely increases towards the Mackenzie fan, and the model for this subregion compares favourably with

  7. A reindeer footprint in a drilling core from the Allerød-Bølling age succession of Lille Slotseng basin, south-eastern Jylland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe-Nygaard, Nanna; Milàn, Jesper; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt

    2005-01-01

    of reindeer were recovered from the early Bølling succession dated to 14.200 cal yr BP. The Slotseng lacustrine basin is a kettle hole basin and almost circular with a diameter of 23 m. The over all transgressive late Glacial and regressive Holocene lake sediment succession covers the time period from 16...

  8. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic variations of natural gases in the southeast Columbus basin offshore southeastern Trinidad, West Indies - clues to origin and maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norville, Giselle A.; Dawe, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Natural gas can have two distinct origins, biogenic and thermogenic sources. This paper investigates the types and maturities of natural gas present in the SE Columbus basin, offshore Trinidad. The chemical composition and the isotope ratios of C and H were determined for approximately 100 samples of natural gas from eight areas within the SE Columbus basin. These compositions and isotopic data are interpreted to identify the origins of gas (biogenic, thermogenic) and maturity. The data showed that the gases in the SE Columbus basin are of both biogenic and thermogenic origin with a trend of mainly thermogenic to mixed to biogenic when moving from SW to NE across the basin. This trend suggests differential burial of the source rock. The presence of mixed gas indicates there was migration of gas in the basin resulting in deeper thermogenic gas mixing with shallow biogenic gas

  9. Structural equation model of total phosphorus loads in the Red River of the North Basin, USA and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.

    2017-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of trends in nutrient loading is often limited to correlation, qualitative reasoning, or references to the work of others. This paper represents efforts to improve causal attribution of water-quality changes. The Red River of the North basin provides a regional test case because of international interest in the reduction of total phosphorus loads and the availability of long-term total phosphorus data and ancillary geospatial data with the potential to explain changes in water quality over time. The objectives of the study are to investigate structural equation modeling methods for application to water-quality problems and to test causal hypotheses related to the drivers of total phosphorus loads over the period 1970 to 2012. Multiple working hypotheses that explain total phosphorus loads and methods for estimating missing ancillary data were developed, and water-quality related challenges to structural equation modeling (including skewed data and scaling issues) were addressed. The model indicates that increased precipitation in season 1 (November–February) or season 2 (March–June) would increase total phosphorus loads in the basin. The effect of agricultural practices on total phosphorus loads was significant, although the effect is about one-third of the effect of season 1 precipitation. The structural equation model representing loads at six sites in the basin shows that climate and agricultural practices explain almost 60% of the annual total phosphorus load in the Red River of the North basin. The modeling process and the unexplained variance highlight the need for better ancillary long-term data for causal assessments.

  10. Fluids preserved in variably altered graphitic pelitic schists in the Dufferin Lake Zone, south-central Athabasca Basin, Canada: implications for graphite loss and uranium deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Marjolaine; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Ansdell, Kevin; Annesley, Irvine R.; Kotzer, Tom; Jiricka, Dan; Cuney, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The Athabasca Basin (Canada) contains the highest grade unconformity-type uranium deposits in the world. Underlying the Athabasca Group sedimentary rocks of the Dufferin Lake Zone are variably graphitic, pelitic schists (VGPS), altered to chlorite and hematite (Red/Green Zone: RGZ). They were locally bleached near the unconformity during paleoweathering and/or later fluid interaction. Overall, graphite was lost from the RGZ and the bleached zone relative to the original VGPS. Fluid inclusions were examined in different generations of quartz veins, using microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy, to characterize and compare the different fluids that interacted with the RGZ and the VGPS. In the VGPS, CH4-, and N2-rich fluid inclusions, which homogenize into the vapor phase between -100 and -74 °C, and -152 and -125 °C, respectively, and CO2-rich fluid inclusions, homogenizing either into vapor or liquid between 20 and 28 °C, are present. Carbonic fluids could be the result of the breakdown of graphite to CH4 + CO2, whereas N2-rich fluid is interpreted to be the result of breakdown of feldspars/micas to NH4 ++N2. In the RGZ, the presence of fluid inclusions with low ice melting temperature (-38 to -16 °C) reflect the presence of CaCl2, and fluid inclusions with halite daughter minerals that dissolve between 190 and 240 °C indicate the presence of highly saline fluids. These fluids are interpreted to be derived from the Athabasca Basin. The circulation of carbonic fluids and brines occurred during two different events related to different P-T conditions of trapping. The carbonic fluids interacted with basement rocks during retrograde metamorphism of the basement rocks before deposition of the Athabasca Basin, whereas the brines circulated after the deposition of the Athabasca Basin. These latter fluids are similar to brines related to uranium mineralization at McArthur River and thus, in addition to possibly being related to graphite depletion in the RGZ, they could

  11. Fish, tributaries of middle Rio Mogi Guaçu, upper rio Paraná basin, São Paulo state, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, A. K.; Apone, F.; Birindelli, J. L. O.; Perez Jr, O. R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we compiled a fish list obtained from field collections performed between 1999 and 2005 in four tributaries of the Rio Mogi Guaçu, upper Rio Paraná basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. The collected fishes belong to six orders, 21 families, 60 genera and 82 species. The number of species represents 20 to 30% of the fish richness for the entire upper Rio Paraná basin according to recent estimates. A comparison to earlier published fish lists of the Rio Mogi Guaçu basin, chiefly from i...

  12. Fish, tributaries of middle Rio Mogi Guaçu, upper rio Paraná basin, São Paulo state, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we compiled a fish list obtained from field collections performed between 1999 and 2005 infour tributaries of the Rio Mogi Guaçu, upper Rio Paraná basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. The collected fishes belong tosix orders, 21 families, 60 genera and 82 species. The number of species represents 20 to 30% of the fish richness forthe entire upper Rio Paraná basin according to recent estimates. A comparison to earlier published fish lists of the RioMogi Guaçu basin, chiefly from its main river channel, is also presented.

  13. Diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette Oil Reservoir (Givetian-Frasnian), deep basin of west-central Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.P.; Mountjoy, E.W. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    1997-05-01

    The geology and diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette oil field of west-central Alberta basin was described. Present-day burial depth is 3900 m; formation temperature is 93 degrees C. Highest porosites (20 per cent) occur in dolostones of the lagoon, ref, and fore-reef depositional environments but limestones still retain porosities up to five per cent. Hydrocarbons are present in saddle dolomite fluid inclusions. Oxygen isotopes for replacement dolomites and late calcite suggest that the carbonate-precipitating fluids were derived from the Precambrian basement or Paleozoic clastics sourced from the basement. Faults may have acted as vertical conduits for fluid migration.

  14. Application of a Nested Modeling Approach Using the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin in the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, J.; Hay, L.; Viger, R.; Markstrom, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    In order to help environmental resource managers assess potential effects of climate change on ecosystems, the Southeast Regional Assessment Project (SERAP) began in 2009. One component of the SERAP is development and calibration of a set of multi-resolution hydrologic models of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin. The ACF River Basin is home to multiple fish and wildlife species of conservation concern, is regionally important for water supply, and has been a recent focus of complementary environmental and climate-change research. Hydrologic models of varying spatial extents and resolutions are required to address varied local to regional water-resource management questions as required by the scope and limits of potential management actions. These models were developed using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). The coarse-resolution model for the ACF Basin has a contributing area of approximately 19,200 mi2 with the model outlet located at the USGS streamflow gage on the Apalachicola River near Sumatra, Florida. Six fine-resolution PRMS models ranging in size from 153 mi2 to 1,040 mi2 are nested within the coarse-scale model, and have been developed for the following basins: upper Chattahoochee, Chestatee, and Chipola Rivers, Ichawaynochaway, Potato, and Spring Creeks. All of the models simulate basin hydrology using a daily time-step, measured climate data, and basin characteristics such as land cover and topography. Measured streamflow data are used to calibrate and evaluate computed basin hydrology. Land cover projections will be used in conjunction with downscaled Global Climate Model results to project future hydrologic conditions for this set of models.

  15. Identifiation of Phymatolithon lamii (Me. Lemoine Y.M. Chamberlain 1991 following bleaching in the upper intertidal zone of the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady Keith Quinn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify an unusual encrusting calcareous organism found growing on upper intertidal rocks along the coast of the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia, Canada, which was thought to potentially represent a new, perhaps invasive species to the area. Methods: Observations were made of the organism growing in situ and of intact and dissected specimens under microscopes in the laboratory. Taxonomic keys were used to determine probable identity of the organism as a tunicate, sponge, bryozoan, marine lichen, or coralline red alga. These keys were then further used to identify samples to species. Results: The organism was determined to be Phymatolithon lamii (Me. Lemoine Y.M. Chamberlain 1991, an encrusting coralline red alga native to the study region. This species normally occurs in the subtidal zone, so its occurrence in the high intertidal zone was unusual and resulted in the alga becoming bleached and taking on an unusual appearance. Conclusions: The sample did not represent a new or invasive species to the study area. However, occurrence of this species on the high intertidal zone was novel and may have resulted from unusual climatic and/or oceanographic conditions in the study area in 2015 that allowed this alga to settle and grow in the intertidal zone for a time before death and bleaching occurred. Events such as this resulting from climate change may negatively impact recruitment to populations of coastal marine species and should be investigated further.

  16. Wind-driven snow conditions control the occurrence of contemporary marginal mountain permafrost in the Chic-Choc Mountains, south-eastern Canada: a case study from Mont Jacques-Cartier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Davesne

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present data on the distribution and thermophysical properties of snow collected sporadically over 4 decades along with recent data of ground surface temperature from Mont Jacques-Cartier (1268 m a.s.l., the highest summit in the Appalachians of south-eastern Canada. We demonstrate that the occurrence of contemporary permafrost is necessarily associated with a very thin and wind-packed winter snow cover which brings local azonal topo-climatic conditions on the dome-shaped summit. The aims of this study were (i to understand the snow distribution pattern and snow thermophysical properties on the Mont Jacques-Cartier summit and (ii to investigate the impact of snow on the spatial distribution of the ground surface temperature (GST using temperature sensors deployed over the summit. Results showed that above the local treeline, the summit is characterized by a snow cover typically less than 30 cm thick which is explained by the strong westerly winds interacting with the local surface roughness created by the physiography and surficial geomorphology of the site. The snowpack structure is fairly similar to that observed on windy Arctic tundra with a top dense wind slab (300 to 450 kg m−3 of high thermal conductivity, which facilitates heat transfer between the ground surface and the atmosphere. The mean annual ground surface temperature (MAGST below this thin and wind-packed snow cover was about −1 °C in 2013 and 2014, for the higher, exposed, blockfield-covered sector of the summit characterized by a sporadic herbaceous cover. In contrast, for the gentle slopes covered with stunted spruce (krummholz, and for the steep leeward slope to the south-east of the summit, the MAGST was around 3 °C in 2013 and 2014. The study concludes that the permafrost on Mont Jacques-Cartier, most widely in the Chic-Choc Mountains and by extension in the southern highest summits of the Appalachians, is therefore likely limited to the barren wind

  17. Stable isotopes and heavy metal distribution in Dreissena polymorpha (Zebra Mussels) from western basin of Lake Erie, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Aasm, I.S.; Clarke, J.D.; Fryer, B.J. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1998-02-01

    Dreissena polymorpha is an exotic freshwater bivalve species which was introduced into the Great Lakes system in the fall of 1985 through the release of ballast water from European freighters. Utilizing individual growth rings of the shells, the stable isotope distribution ({delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C) was determined for the life history of selected samples which were collected from the western basin of Lake Erie. These bivalves deposit their shell in near equilibrium with the ambient water and thus reflect any annual variation of the system in the isotopic records held within their shells. Observed values for {delta}{sup 18}O range from -6.64 to -9.46 permille with an average value of -7.69 permille PDB, while carbon values ranged from -0.80 to -4.67 permille with an average value of -1.76 permille PDB. Dreissena polymorpha shells incorporate metals into their shells during growth. Individual shell growth increments were analyzed for Pb, Fe, Mg, Mn, Cd, Cu, and V concentrations. The shells show increased uptake of certain metals during periods of isotopic enrichment which correspond with warmer water temperatures. Since metals are incorporated into the shells, the organism may be useful as a biomonitor of metal pollution within aquatic environments. (orig.)

  18. Effect of irrigation pumpage during drought on karst aquifer systems in highly agricultural watersheds: example of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river basin, southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Subhasis; Srivastava, Puneet; Singh, Sarmistha

    2016-09-01

    In the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) river basin in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida (USA), population growth in the city of Atlanta and increased groundwater withdrawal for irrigation in southwest Georgia are greatly affecting the supply of freshwater to downstream regions. This study was conducted to understand and quantify the effect of irrigation pumpage on the karst Upper Floridan Aquifer and river-aquifer interactions in the lower ACF river basin in southwest Georgia. The groundwater MODular Finite-Element model (MODFE) was used for this study. The effect of two drought years, a moderate and a severe drought year, were simulated. Comparison of the results of the irrigated and non-irrigated scenarios showed that groundwater discharge to streams is a major outflow from the aquifer, and irrigation can cause as much as 10 % change in river-aquifer flux. The results also show that during months with high irrigation (e.g., June 2011), storage loss (34 %), the recharge and discharge from the upper semi-confining unit (30 %), and the river-aquifer flux (31 %) are the major water components contributing towards the impact of irrigation pumpage in the study area. A similar scenario plays out in many river basins throughout the world, especially in basins in which underlying karst aquifers are directly connected to a nearby stream. The study suggests that improved groundwater withdrawal strategies using climate forecasts needs to be developed in such a way that excessive withdrawals during droughts can be reduced to protect streams and river flows.

  19. Multielement statistical evidence for uraniferous hydrothermal activity in sandstones overlying the Phoenix uranium deposit, Athabasca Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shishi; Hattori, Keiko; Grunsky, Eric C.

    2018-04-01

    The Phoenix U deposit, with indicated resources of 70.2 M lb U3O8, occurs along the unconformity between the Proterozoic Athabasca Group sandstones and the crystalline basement rocks. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the compositions of sandstones overlying the deposit. Among PCs, PC1 accounts for the largest variability of U and shows a positive association of U with rare earth elements (REEs) + Y + Cu + B + Na + Mg + Ni + Be. The evidence suggests that U was dispersed into sandstones together with these elements during the uraniferous hydrothermal activity. Uranium shows an inverse association with Zr, Hf, Th, Fe, and Ti. Since they are common in detrital heavy minerals, such heavy minerals are not the major host of U. The elements positively associated with U are high in concentrations above the deposit, forming a "chimney-like" or "hump-like" distribution in a vertical section. Their enrichment patterns are explained by the ascent of basement fluids through faults to sandstones and the circulation of basinal fluids around the deposit. The Pb isotope compositions of whole rocks are similar to expected values calculated from the concentrations of U, Th, and Pb except for sandstones close to the deposit. The data suggest that in situ decay of U and Th is responsible for the Pb isotope compositions of most sandstones and that highly radiogenic Pb dispersed from the deposit to the proximal sandstones long after the mineralization. This secondary dispersion is captured in PC8, which has low eigenvalue. The data suggests that the secondary dispersion has minor effect on the overall lithogeochemistry of sandstones.

  20. Metalliferous coals of the Westphalian A Joggins Formation, Cumberland basin, Nova Scotia, Canada: Petrology, geochemistry, and palynology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Calder, J.H.; Eble, C.F.; Scott, A.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Blanchard, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    Five coals of Westphalian A (early Middle Pennsylvanian) age were sampled from the Joggins Formation section exposed along Chignecto Bay at Joggins, Nova Scotia. Coal beds along the bay were mined beginning in the early 17th century, yet there have been few detailed published investigation of the coal beds of this classic section. The lowermost coal, the Upper Coal 28 (Upper Fundy), is a high-vitrinite coal with a spore assemblage dominated by arboreous lycopsid spores with tree ferns subdominant. The upper portions of the coal bed have the highest ratio of well-preserved to poorly-preserved telinite of any of the coals investigated. Coal 19 ('clam coal') has 88% total vitrinite but, unlike the Fundy coal bed, the telinite has a poor preservation ratio and half the total vitrinite population comprises gelocollinite and vitrodetrinite. The latter coal bed is directly overlain by a basin-wide limestone bed. The Lower Kimberly coal shows good preservation of vitrinite with relatively abundant telinite among the total vitrinite. The Middle Kimberly coal, which underlies the tetrapod-bearing lycopsid trees found by Lyell and Dawson in 1852, exhibits an upward decrease in arboreous lycopod spores and an upward increase in the tree fern spore Punctatisporites minutus. Telinite preservation increases upwards in the Middle Kimberly but overall is well below the preservation ratio of the Upper Fundy coal bed. The coals all have high sulfur contents, yielding up to 13.7% total sulfur for the lower lithotype of the Upper Fundy coal bed. The Kimberly coals are not only high in total and pyritic sulfur, but also have high concentrations of chalcophile elements. Zinc, ranging up to 15,000 ppm (ash basis), is present as sphalerite in fusain lumens. Arsenic and lead each exceed 6000 ppm (ash basis) in separate lithotypes of the Kimberly coals. Together these data are consistent with elevated pH in planar mires. The source of the elemental enrichment in this presumed continental

  1. Road-impacted sediment and water in a Lake Ontario watershed and lagoon, City of Pickering, Ontario, Canada: An example of urban basin analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Nick; Meriano, Mandana

    2010-03-01

    The world is increasingly urban but there are few studies of how contaminated water and sediment move through urban basins with their built landscapes and complexly disturbed geology. The central Canadian city of Pickering, Ontario sprawls across a small (27 km 2) densely urbanized (pop: 53,000) watershed and is underlain by Pleistocene glacial sediments and thick artificial fill deposits. Almost 80% of the area is hardened by impervious cover; road and rail lines cover 40% and include Canada's busiest highway (12-lane Highway 401: 177,000 vehicles per day in 2003). The basin discharges to Lake Ontario through a small (85 ha) shallow (resistivity) boreholes and 3400 digital water wells. It identifies the subsurface stratigraphy and hydrostratigraphic function of deposits and the rates of groundwater flow. Year-round monitoring of groundwater, creek and lagoon water quality shows that transportation infrastructure is the primary source of contaminated water and sediment. Some 7600 tonnes of de-icing salt are applied to watershed roads each year; 52% accumulates in groundwater where it continues to be released as brackish baseflow to creeks in summer. The remainder is rapidly delivered by surface runoff to Frenchman's Bay where chloride contents are more than double the average values in waters across the Great Lakes. Highway 401 is the largest single source of salt contamination to the lagoon; it receives 26% of all road salt applied to the watershed but covers just 1.3% of its area. Prominent spikes in chloride content (> 2000 mg L - 1 ) occur during winter thaws in creeks downstream of the highway. Enhanced stream bank erosion as a consequence of flashy storm runoff from road surfaces moves ˜ 100 tonnes of contaminated sediment to Frenchman's Bay each year. Instantaneous suspended sediment concentrations in storm runoff are as high as 1600 g m - 3 and loadings of sulphate (SO 4- 2 ) nutrients reach 594 kg h - 1 . Metals and E. coli in road runoff are all elevated

  2. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Improving the Understanding and Prediction of Changing Land, Water, and Climate in the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Chun, K. P.; Shook, K.; Whitfield, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    Within the cold interior of western and northern Canada, rapid and widespread environmental changes are taking place, which are of serious concern for society and have a range of implications from local to regional and global scales. From a scientific standpoint there is an urgent need to understand the changes and develop improved diagnostic and predictive modelling tools to deal with the uncertainty faced in the future. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a research consortium of over 50 Canadian university and government scientists and international researchers aimed at addressing these issues within the geographic domain of the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins. CCRN's primary focus is to integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks. To support these activities, the network utilizes a suite of 14 world-class water, ecosystem, cryosphere and climate (WECC) observatories across this region that provide exceptional opportunities to observe change, investigate processes and their dynamics, and develop and test environmental models. This talk will briefly describe the CCRN thematic components and WECC observatories, and will then describe some of the observed environmental changes and their linkages across the northern and mountainous parts of the network study domain. In particular, this will include changes in permafrost, terrestrial vegetation, snowcover, glaciers, and river discharge in relation to observed climatic changes across the region. The observations draw on a wide range of literature sources and statistical analyses of federal and provincial regional monitoring network data, while more detailed observations at some of the WECC observatories help to show how these regional changes are manifested at local scales and vice versa. A coordinated special observation and analysis period across all

  3. Potential use of petroleum inclusions in the study of hydrocarbon degradation in oil sands and heavy oils in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin : examples from western Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, G.; Tong, A. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Lai, J. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada). Dept. of Geology]|[Central South Univ. Changsha, Hunan (China). School of Geoscience and Environmental Engineering; Pedersen, P. [Apache Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a microthermometric inclusion study of the Celtic Pool in western Saskatchewan's Lloydminster Deposit. Petroleum inclusions are useful for investigating hydrocarbon biodegradation processes that influenced the diagenesis of oil sands and heavy oils in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). The significant biodegradation which has occurred in the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group in the WCSB is closely associated with the burial temperatures of the reservoir rocks. These inclusions record petroleum characteristics in the different stages of reservoir evolution and can potentially give information about the conditions associated with biodegradation. The heavy oil reservoir contains two types of oil inclusions, namely a brown, non-fluorescent one; and, a light-coloured, fluorescent type. The latter occurs as secondary inclusions in detrital quartz and may record the petroleum in the reservoir before significant biodegradation. According to microthermometric studies, this type of oil inclusion suggests a wide range of homogenization temperatures mainly attributed to heterogenous oil trapping. Possible trapping temperatures may be 76 to 98 degrees C. However, homogeneous trapping was also recorded, with valid homogenization temperatures ranging from 29 to 113 degrees C. These range of temperature may reflect the change of petroleum temperature during the evolution of the reservoir, with the higher temperatures representing a hot oil charge event responsible for lower degree of biodegradation compared to that in the Athabasca and Cold Lake deposits. The study identified several problems associated with heterogeneous trapping and validation of homogenization temperatures. It was suggested that these problems may be solved by finding trails of petroleum inclusions with consistent homogenization temperatures. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. Prediction of shale prospectivity from seismically-derived reservoir and completion qualities: Application to a shale-gas field, Horn River Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Cheol Hoon; Lee, Gwang H.; Jeoung, Taek Ju; Ko, Kyung Nam; Kim, Ki Soo; Park, Kyung-sick; Shin, Chang Hoon

    2018-04-01

    Prospective shale plays require a combination of good reservoir and completion qualities. Total organic carbon (TOC) is an important reservoir quality and brittleness is the most critical condition for completion quality. We analyzed seismically-derived brittleness and TOC to investigate the prospectivity of the Horn River Group shale (the Muskwa, Otter Park, Evie shales) of a shale-gas field in the western Horn River Basin, British Columbia, Canada. We used the λρ-μρ brittleness template, constructed from the mineralogy-based brittleness index (MBI) and elastic logs from two wells, to convert the λρ and μρ volumes from prestack seismic inversion to the volume for the brittleness petrotypes (most brittle, intermediate, and least brittle). The probability maps of the most brittle petrotype for the three shales were generated from Bayesian classification, based on the λρ-μρ template. The relationship between TOC and P-wave and S-wave velocity ratio (VP/VS) at the wells allowed the conversion of the VP/VS volume from prestack inversion to the TOC volume, which in turn was used to construct the TOC maps for the three shales. Increased TOC is correlated with high brittleness, contrasting with the commonly-held understanding. Therefore, the prospectivity of the shales in the study area can be represented by high brittleness and increased TOC. We propose a shale prospectivity index (SPI), computed by the arithmetic average of the normalized probability of the most brittle petrotype and the normalized TOC. The higher SPI corresponds to higher production rates in the Muskwa and Evie shales. The areas of the highest SPI have not been fully tested. The future drilling should be focused on these areas to increase the economic viability of the field.

  5. Fan-delta and interdeltaic shoreline sediments of Middle Devonian Granite Wash and Keg River clastics, Red Earth field, north Alberta basin, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabry, H.

    1989-03-01

    A detailed sedimentological investigation of over 4000 ft of core and 500 well logs of the Middle Devonian granite wash and Keg River clastics in the Red Earth field, North Alberta basin, Canada, has led to the recognition of a granite wash subaerial fan-delta system that is laterally continuous with a Keg River subaqueous delta component along an eastern shoreline of the ancestral Peace River arch. The subaerial fan delta includes alluvial fan facies, sheet wash and mud flows, and playa lakes. The subaqueous delta component includes lower shoreface, upper shoreface, beach-foreshore, eolian sand dunes, lagoon, washover sands, tidal channels and flats, and supratidal carbonates and anhydrites. Within this system, six mappable units are defined. A conceptual depositional model for the sequence depicts four main events. (1) Erosion of Peach River arch uplifted fault blocks, which produced coarse-grained fan-delta sediments in an adjacent fault-bounded margin. Subsequent fluvial reworking resulted in the deposition of thick, lenticular, wedge-shaped alluvial fans of granite wash. (2) Progradation of alluvial fans seaward into the Keg River Sea. (3) Transgression by Middle Devonian seas from the east, which reworked alluvial fans and led to deposition of discontinuous linear sand bodies represented by the Keg River regressive shoreline sediments. (4) Restriction of the sea by the Presqu'ile barrier reef to the north, which deposited evaporites of the Muskeg Formation over the whole sequence. Modern analog to this fan-delta system is the coastal fans of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Red Earth field contains over 27 million bbl of recoverable oil, related to a combination structural-stratigraphic trap.

  6. Using (137)Cs measurements to estimate soil erosion rates in the Pčinja and South Morava River Basins, southeastern Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Jelena; Dragović, Snežana; Dragović, Ranko; Đorđević, Milan; Đokić, Mrđan; Zlatković, Bojan; Walling, Desmond

    2016-07-01

    The need for reliable assessments of soil erosion rates in Serbia has directed attention to the potential for using (137)Cs measurements to derive estimates of soil redistribution rates. Since, to date, this approach has not been applied in southeastern Serbia, a reconnaissance study was undertaken to confirm its viability. The need to take account of the occurrence of substantial Chernobyl fallout was seen as a potential problem. Samples for (137)Cs measurement were collected from a zone of uncultivated soils in the watersheds of Pčinja and South Morava Rivers, an area with known high soil erosion rates. Two theoretical conversion models, the profile distribution (PD) model and diffusion and migration (D&M) model were used to derive estimates of soil erosion and deposition rates from the (137)Cs measurements. The estimates of soil redistribution rates derived by using the PD and D&M models were found to differ substantially and this difference was ascribed to the assumptions of the simpler PD model that cause it to overestimate rates of soil loss. The results provided by the D&M model were judged to more reliable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Methane leakage during the evolution of petroleum systems in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin and the Central Graben area of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbesi, L. A.; di Primio, R.; Anka, Z.; Horsfield, B.

    2012-04-01

    Around 500 to 600 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) of methane enter the atmosphere every year, mainly as product of microbial processes and combustion of fossil fuels and burning biomass. The importance of another source, the geologic emissions of methane, is up to now only loosely constrained. In this study, we addressed the potential methane emissions during the geological evolution of the Western Canada sedimentary basin (WCSB), which holds the largest oil sand accumulations in the world, and the Central Graben area of the North Sea. In the case of the WCSB, thermogenic gas generation and leakage at the sediment surface were addressed through 3D petroleum systems modeling. In this basin, the accumulated oil experienced intense biodegradation that resulted in large masses of biogenic methane. We quantified this latter mass though a two-step mass balance approach. Firstly, we estimated the rate of petroleum degradation and the magnitude of petroleum loss. After this, we calculated the mass of biogenic methane generated using a model that assumes hexadecane (C16H34) as representative of the saturated compounds (Zengler et al., 1999). Our 3D model suggests that 90000-150000 Tg of dry gas (mostly methane) could have leaked during the interval from 80 Ma to 60 Ma. Therefore, uniform leakage rates would have been in the order of 10-3-10-2 Tg yr-1. Biogenic methane generation could have taken place at rates of 10-4 to 10-2 Tg yr-1. However, the effective mass of thermogenic and biogenic methane reaching the atmosphere might have been up to 90% lower than calculated here due to methanotrophic consumption in soils (Etiope and Klusman, 2002). We addressed the thermogenic gas generation and leakage in the Central Graben through two different methods. The first is based on a previous 3D petroleum system modeling of the region (Neumann, 2006). The second consisted of calculating the mass of generated petroleum based on source rock extension and properties (Schmoker, 1994), and then

  8. Micromorphology of Paleosols of the Marília Formation and their Significance in the Paleoenvironmental Evolution of the Bauru Basin, Upper Cretaceous, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luiz da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Deduction of associated paleoenvironments and paleoclimate, definition of the chronosequence of paleosols, and paleogeographic reconstruction have become possible through the application of micromorphology in paleopedology. Micromorphology has also been useful in recognition of weathering processes and definition of minerals formed in succession. In this respect, the objective of this study was to identify the development of pedogenic processes and discuss their significance in the paleoclimate evolution of the Marília Formation (Maastrichtian of Bauru Basin. Three sections of the Marília Formation (A1, A2, and A3 were described, comprising nine profiles. Micromorphologic al analysis was carried out according to the specialized literature. In the Marília Formation, the paleosols developed in sandstones have argillic (Btkm, Bt and carbonate (Bk horizons with different degrees of cementation, forming mainly calcretes. The evolution of pedogenic processes, in light of micromorphological analysis, evidenced three moments or stages for the genesis of paleosols with Bkm, Btk, and Bt horizons, respectively. In the Maastrichtian in the Bauru Basin, the paleosols with Bkm are older and more arid environments, and those with Bt were formed in wetter weather, but not enough to lead to the genesis of enaulic-related distributions, typical of current Oxisols.

  9. Development and application of a groundwater/surface-water flow model using MODFLOW-NWT for the Upper Fox River Basin, southeastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, D.T.; Fienen, M.N.; Kennedy, J.L.; Buchwald, C.A.; Greenwood, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Fox River is a 199-mile-long tributary to the Illinois River within the Mississippi River Basin in the states of Wisconsin and Illinois. For the purposes of this study the Upper Fox River Basin is defined as the topographic basin that extends from the upstream boundary of the Fox River Basin to a large wetland complex in south-central Waukesha County called the Vernon Marsh. The objectives for the study are to (1) develop a baseline study of groundwater conditions and groundwater/surface-water interactions in the shallow aquifer system of the Upper Fox River Basin, (2) develop a tool for evaluating possible alternative water-supply options for communities in Waukesha County, and (3) contribute to the methodology of groundwater-flow modeling by applying the recently published U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW-NWT computer code, (a Newton formulation of MODFLOW-2005 intended for solving difficulties involving drying and rewetting nonlinearities of the unconfined groundwater-flow equation) to overcome computational problems connected with fine-scaled simulation of shallow aquifer systems by means of thin model layers. To simulate groundwater conditions, a MODFLOW grid is constructed with thin layers and small cell dimensions (125 feet per side). This nonlinear unconfined problem incorporates the streamflow/lake (SFR/LAK) packages to represent groundwater/surface-water interactions, which yields an unstable solution sensitive to initial conditions when solved using the Picard-based preconditioned-gradient (PCG2) solver. A particular problem is the presence of many isolated wet water-table cells over dry cells, causing the simulated water table to assume unrealistically high values. Attempts to work around the problem by converting to confined conditions or converting active to inactive cells introduce unacceptable bias. Application of MODFLOW-NWT overcomes numerical problem by smoothing the transition from wet to dry cells and keeps all cells active. The simulation is

  10. Application of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFontaine, Jacob H.; Hay, Lauren E.; Viger, Roland J.; Markstrom, Steve L.; Regan, R. Steve; Elliott, Caroline M.; Jones, John W.

    2013-01-01

    A hydrologic model of the Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River Basin (ACFB) has been developed as part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center effort to provide integrated science that helps resource managers understand the effect of climate change on a range of ecosystem responses. The hydrologic model was developed as part of the Southeast Regional Assessment Project using the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a deterministic, distributed-parameter, process-based system that simulates the effects of precipitation, temperature, and land use on basin hydrology. The ACFB PRMS model simulates streamflow throughout the approximately 50,700 square-kilometer basin on a daily time step for the period 1950–99 using gridded climate forcings of air temperature and precipitation, and parameters derived from spatial data layers of altitude, land cover, soils, surficial geology, depression storage (small water bodies), and data from 56 USGS streamgages. Measured streamflow data from 35 of the 56 USGS streamgages were used to calibrate and evaluate simulated basin streamflow; the remaining gage locations were used for model delineation only. The model matched measured daily streamflow at 31 of the 35 calibration gages with Nash-Sutcliffe Model Efficiency Index (NS) greater than 0.6. Streamflow data for some calibration gages were augmented for regulation and water use effects to represent more natural flow volumes. Time-static parameters describing land cover limited the ability of the simulation to match historical runoff in the more developed subbasins. Overall, the PRMS simulation of the ACFB provides a good representation of basin hydrology on annual and monthly time steps. Calibration subbasins were analyzed by separating the 35 subbasins into five classes based on physiography, land use, and stream type (tributary or mainstem). The lowest NS values were rarely below 0.6, whereas the median NS for all five

  11. Reproduction of Pimelodus maculatus(Siluriformes: Pimelodidae in three section of Grande River basin, downstream Porto Colombia dam, south-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Loureiro Paschoalini

    Full Text Available The alterations to the hydrologic regime downstream from hydroelectric dams may cause an impact on the reproductive success of fishes. This study aimed to analyse the influence of the physical and chemical parameters of the water of the Grande and Pardo Rivers on gonadal maturation, oocyte diameter, follicular atresia and biological indices of Pimelodus maculatus collected from three river sections: Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam (S1, Grande River, downstream from the confluence with the Pardo River (S2 and in the Pardo River channel (S3. Males and females captured in S1 presented significantly higher average values for total length and body weight than those captured in S2 and S3. The gonadosomatic index values were significantly higher in fish collected in S3 and the Fulton condition factor did not show significant differences in fish collected from the three sections. The oocyte diameter, the follicular cells height and the zona pellucida thickness did not show any statistical differences between the sections. Conductivity presented a significant difference between S1 and S3 and during the reproductive period, water transparency presented similar values in the two sampling sections of the Grande River, but a much lower value in the Pardo River. A low frequency of fish with reproductive activity was registered in S1, whereas in S2 and S3 higher frequencies were recorded, emphasising the need of preserving the tributaries for the reproductive success of P. maculatus of the Grande River in south-eastern Brazil.

  12. Ecological distribution of stream macroalgal communities from a drainage basin in the Serra da Canastra National Park, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necchi-Júnior O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve stream segments were sampled four times in 1998-1999 (one sampling per season in the drainage basin of the upper São Francisco River (19º45'-21º25'S, 49º05'-51º30'W, situated in Serra da Canastra National Park, at altitudes ranging from 1,175 to 1,400 m. The macroalgae survey resulted in 30 species, with a predominance of Cyanophyta (12 species = 40% and Chlorophyta (11 species = 36.5% and a lower proportion of Rhodophyta (seven species = 23.5%. Two species, Klebsormidium rivulare (Chlorophyta and Kyliniella latvica (Rhodophyta, were new records for Brazil. Capsosira sp. and Stigonema sp. (Cyanophyta and the "Chantransia" stage of Batrachospermum (Rhodophyta were the most widespread macroalgae, occurring in six sampling sites, whereas 11 species were found at only one site. The proportion of macroalgal morphological types were as follows: mats (33%, free filaments (27%, gelatinous filaments (27%, crusts (7%, tufts (3%, and gelatinous colonies (3%. The flora revealed few species in common (4%-8% with stream macroalgae from other Brazilian regions. The macroalgal communities proved to have species richness values close to the highest values reported in previous studies. The patterns typical for stream macroalgal communities (patchy distribution and dominance of few species were also found in this basin. However, the stream variables most influential in macroalgal distribution in this study (rocky substratum, low pH, high COD, water color, and current velocity were essentially the same that best describe the limnological characteristics of this lotic ecosystem. In addition, this combination of variables differed sharply from results of previous studies in other Brazilian stream ecosystems.

  13. Natural CO2 migrations in the South-Eastern Basin of France: implications for the CO2 storage in sedimentary formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubert, Y.

    2009-03-01

    Study of natural CO 2 analogues brings key informations on the factors governing the long term stability/instability of future anthropogenic CO 2 storages. The main objective of this work, through the study of cores from V.Mo.2 well crosscutting the Montmiral natural reservoir (Valence Basin, France), is to trace the deep CO 2 migrations in fractures. Petrographic, geochemical and micro-thermometric studies of the V.Mo.2 cores were thus performed in order: 1) to describe the reservoir filling conditions and 2) to detect possible CO 2 -leakage through the sediments overlying the reservoir. Fluid inclusions from the Paleozoic crystalline basement record the progressive unmixing of a hot homogeneous aquo-carbonic fluid. The Montmiral reservoir was therefore probably fed by a CO 2 -enriched gas component at the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene. The study of the sedimentary column in V.Mo.2 well, demonstrates that the CO 2 did not migrate towards the surface through the thick marly unit (Domerian-Middle Oxfordian). These marls have acted as an impermeable barrier that prevented the upward migration of fluids. Two main stages of fluid circulation have been recognized: 1) an ante- Callovian one related to the Tethysian extension 2) a tertiary stage during which the upper units underwent a karstification, with CO 2 leakage related but which remained confined into the deeper parts of the Valence Basin. Since the Paleogene, the Montmiral reservoir has apparently remained stable, despite the Pyrenean and alpine orogeneses. This is mainly due to the efficient seal formed by the thick marly levels and also to the local structuration in faulted blocks which apparently acted as efficient lateral barriers. (author)

  14. GEOLOGY AND DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF CAMPANO-MAASTRICHTIAN SEDIMENTS IN THE ANAMBRA BASIN, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA: EVIDENCE FROM FIELD RELATIONSHIP AND SEDIMENTOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E Salufu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study area lies within the Anambra Basin and it is made up of Enugu Shale, Mamu Formation, Ajali Sandstone, and Nsukka Formation. This study aimed at determining the geology and depositional environmental of these formations through field relationship and grain size distribution morphologic studies.The field data shows Enugu Shale as fissile, light grey with extraformational clast which graded into Mamu Formation whichis made up of shale, coal and sandy shale. It passes upward into Ajali Sandstone which is characterized by cross beds, Herringbonestructures and Ophiomorpha burrows. The youngest formation within the basin is Nsukka Formation.The granulometric study of Mamu Formation shows fine to medium grains, coarse, medium to fine grain for Mamu and Ajali Formation respectively. The standard deviation indicates poorly sorted. The kurtosis shows leptokurtic, platykurtic to very leptokurtic for both while the skewness values indicate positive and symmetrical in all except for Ajali Sandstone that is negatively skewed.The bivariate and the multivariate results reveal shallow marine and fluvial deposits for both Mamu Formation and Ajali Sandstone respectively. The paleocurrent direction of Ajali Sandstone indicates southwest while the provenance is northeast.The fissility of Enugu Shale suggests that it was deposited in low energy environment, distal to proximal lagoon environment.The presence of extraformatonal clast within Enugu Shale indicates fluvial incursion. However, the textural analysis of Mamu Formation suggests a sediment deposited in a low energy environment which favoured deposition of fine to medium size sediments that is, estuary environment. Textural result of Ajali Sandstone in the study area coupled with the field data such as Herring-bone structures, and Ophiomorpha burrows, revealed that Ajali Sandstone was deposited in a tidal environment probably littoral environment. While the light grey colour observed in the

  15. Preliminary report on fluid inclusions from halites in the Castile and lower Salado formations of the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, C.L.

    1985-09-01

    A suite of samples composed primarily of halite from the upper Castile and lower Salado Formations of the Permian Basin was selected from Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) core for a reconnaissance study of fluid inclusions. Volume percent of these trapped fluids averaged 0.7% to 1%. Freezing-point depressions varied widely and appeared to be unrelated to fluid-inclusion type, to sedimentary facies, or to stratigraphic depth. However, because very low freezing points were usually associated with anhydrite, a relation may exist between freezing-point data and lithology. Dissolved sulfate values were constant through the Castile, then decreased markedly with lesser depth in the lower Salado. This trend correlates very well with observed mineralogy and is consistent with an interpretation of the occurrence of secondary polyhalite as a result of gypsum or anhydrite alteration with simultaneous consumption of dissolved sulfate from the coexisting fluids. Together with the abundance and distribution of fluid inclusions in primary or ''hopper'' crystal structures, this evidence suggests that inclusions seen in these halites did not migrate any significant geographical distance since their formation. 28 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Bryophyte and pteridophyte spores and other palynomorphs in quaternary marine sediments from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents morphological descriptions and ecological data of cryptogam spores and other non-pollen palynomorphs from Quaternary sediments of Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil. The ages were derived from biostratigraphy of planktonic foraminifers and two radiocarbon dates, and suggest that sediment deposition started in the last 140,000 years BP. Thirty different types of palynomorphs were identified, described, and photographed: two bryophyte spores (sensu lato; 21 pteridophyte spores; four freshwater microalgae; onePseudoschizaea; and two microfungi. Some of the identified spores (Sphagnum, Blechnum, Cyatheaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Lycopodiella, Microgramma, Polypodium, Acrostichum, Pityrogramma, and Lygodium are related to the modern flora found on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, at the Restinga of Jurubatiba, from vegetation types such as shrub swamp/coastal swamp formation, seasonally flooded forest, Clusia and Ericaceae woods, and disturbed vegetation. The freshwater microalgae and the microfungi are also presently recorded from the coastal lagoons of this region. The high spore concentration in slope sediments reflects the intense terrigenous influx, caused by a relative low sealevel during glacial stages. Palynological analysis suggests the presence of taxa from flooded forests and humid areas in the coastal plain during glacial and interglacial stages of the Late Pleistocene.

  17. Surface-water quality and suspended-sediment quantity and quality within the Big River Basin, southeastern Missouri, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.

    2016-01-28

    Missouri was the leading producer of lead in the United States—as well as the world—for more than a century. One of the lead sources is known as the Old Lead Belt, located in southeast Missouri. The primary ore mineral in the region is galena, which can be found both in surface deposits and underground as deep as 200 feet. More than 8.5 million tons of lead were produced from the Old Lead Belt before operations ceased in 1972. Although active lead mining has ended, the effects of mining activities still remain in the form of large mine waste piles on the landscape typically near tributaries and the main stem of the Big River, which drains the Old Lead Belt. Six large mine waste piles encompassing more than 2,800 acres, exist within the Big River Basin. These six mine waste piles have been an available source of trace element-rich suspended sediments transported by natural erosional processes downstream into the Big River.

  18. An evaporated seawater origin for the ore-forming brines in unconformity-related uranium deposits (Athabasca Basin, Canada): Cl/Br and δ 37Cl analysis of fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Banks, David A.; Mercadier, Julien; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cuney, Michel; Cathelineau, Michel

    2011-05-01

    Analyses of halogen concentration and stable chlorine isotope composition of fluid inclusions from hydrothermal quartz and carbonate veins spatially and temporally associated with giant unconformity-related uranium deposits from the Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) were performed in order to determine the origin of chloride in the ore-forming brines. Microthermometric analyses show that samples contain variable amounts of a NaCl-rich brine (Cl concentration between 120,000 and 180,000 ppm) and a CaCl 2-rich brine (Cl concentration between 160,000 and 220,000 ppm). Molar Cl/Br ratios of fluid inclusion leachates range from ˜100 to ˜900, with most values between 150 and 350. Cl/Br ratios below 650 (seawater value) indicate that the high salinities were acquired by evaporation of seawater. Most δ 37Cl values are between -0.6‰ and 0‰ (seawater value) which is also compatible with a common evaporated seawater origin for both NaCl- and CaCl 2-rich brines. Slight discrepancies between the Cl concentration, Cl/Br, δ 37Cl data and seawater evaporation trends, indicate that the evaporated seawater underwent secondary minor modification of its composition by: (i) mixing with a minor amount of halite-dissolution brine or re-equilibration with halite during burial; (ii) dilution in a maximum of 30% of connate and/or formation waters during its migration towards the base of the Athabasca sandstones; (iii) leaching of chloride from biotites within basement rocks and (iv) water loss by hydration reactions in alteration haloes linked to uranium deposition. The chloride in uranium ore-forming brines of the Athabasca Basin has an unambiguous dominantly marine origin and has required large-scale seawater evaporation and evaporite deposition. Although the direct evidence for evaporative environments in the Athabasca Basin are lacking due to the erosion of ˜80% of the sedimentary pile, Cl/Br ratios and δ 37Cl values of brines have behaved conservatively at the basin

  19. Southeastern Power Administration 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-31

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2011 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending September 31, 2011. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 6.2 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 489 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled more than $264 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2011. This funding, which totaled more than $45 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in the funding efforts in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems of projects. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rain placed strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2011 totaled approximately $38 million. About $9 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We are committed to providing reliable hydroelectric power to

  20. Southeastern Power Administration 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2012 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2011, and ending September 30, 2012. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 5.4 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 487 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled about $263 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2012. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in funding infrastructure renewal efforts of powerplants feeding the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems. This funding, which totaled more than $71 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rainfall strained our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2012 in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System totaled approximately $29 million. About $8 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We

  1. Assessment of Appalachian Basin Oil and Gas Resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    to the Indiana border extends along an arbitrary boundary between the Utica Shale of the Appalachian basin and the Utica Shale of the Sebree trough (Kolata and others, 2001); and (6) the northwestern boundary (from east-central Indiana, through northwesternmost Ohio and southeasternmost Michigan, to central Ontario) extends along the approximate southeastern boundary of the Michigan Basin. Although the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS extends into northwestern Ohio, southeastern Michigan, and northeastern Indiana, these areas have been assigned to the Michigan Basin (Swezey and others, 2005) and are outside the scope of this report. Furthermore, although the northern part of the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS extends across the Great Lakes (Lake Erie and Lake Ontario) into southern Ontario, Canada, only the undiscovered oil and gas resources in the U.S. waters of the Great Lakes have been included in the USGS assessment of the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS. This TPS is similar to the Point Pleasant-Brassfield petroleum system previously identified by Drozd and Cole (1994) in the Ohio part of the Appalachian basin.

  2. Quantification of heat and fluid flow through time by 3D modeling : an example from the Jeanne d'Arc basin, offshore eastern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Baur, Friedemann Ulrich Maximilian

    2010-01-01

    Demand for energy is growing rapidly, causing worldwide concerns on security of supply. Petroleum systems modeling in 4 dimensions (cube + time) predicts generation, migration, and quality/quantity of accumulated hydrocarbons in reservoirs, incorporating temperature and pressure through the entire evolution of the basin. A petroleum systems model thus provides the only means to combine all physical aspects (source, trap, seal, and reservoir) and timing (charge) to reduce exploration risk and ...

  3. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  4. Distribution and abundance of decapod crustacean larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on commercial species. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D.A.; Incze, L.S.; Wencker, D.L.; Armstrong, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Contents include: Distribution and abundance of king crab larvae, Paralithodes camtschatica and P. platypus in the southeast Bering Sea; Distribution and abundance of the larvae of tanner crabs in the southeastern Bering Sea; Distribution and abundance of other brachyuran larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on Erimacrus isenbeckii; Distribution and abundance of shrimp larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on pandalid species; Distribution and abundance of hermit crabs (Paguridae) in the southeasternBering Sea; Possible oil impacts on decapod larbae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphesis on the St. George Basin.

  5. The role of the thermal convection of fluids in the formation of unconformity-type uranium deposits: the Athabasca Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, A. A.; Malkovsky, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    In the global production of uranium, 18% belong to the unconformity-type Canadian deposits localized in the Athabasca Basin. These deposits, which are unique in terms of their ore quality, were primarily studied by Canadian and French scientists. They have elaborated the diagenetic-hydrothermal hypothesis of ore formation, which suggests that (1) the deposits were formed within a sedimentary basin near an unconformity surface dividing the folded Archean-Proterozoic metamorphic basement and a gently dipping sedimentary cover, which is not affected by metamorphism; (2) the spatial accommodation of the deposits is controlled by the rejuvenated faults in the basement at their exit into the overlying sedimentary sequence; the ore bodies are localized above and below the unconformity surface; (3) the occurrence of graphite-bearing rocks is an important factor in controlling the local structural mineralization; (4) the ore bodies are the products of uranium precipitation on a reducing barrier. The mechanism that drives the circulation of ore-forming hydrothermal solutions has remained one of the main unclear questions in the general genetic concept. The ore was deposited above the surface of the unconformity due to the upflow discharge of the solution from the fault zones into the overlying conglomerate and sandstone. The ore formation below this surface is a result of the downflow migration of the solutions along the fault zones from sandstone into the basement rocks. A thermal convective system with the conjugated convection cells in the basement and sedimentary fill of the basin may be a possible explanation of why the hydrotherms circulate in the opposite directions. The results of our computations in the model setting of the free thermal convection of fluids are consistent with the conceptual reasoning about the conditions of the formation of unique uranium deposits in the Athabasca Basin. The calculated rates of the focused solution circulation through the fault

  6. Chemotaxonomy for naturally macerated tree-fern cuticles (Medullosales and Marattiales), Carboniferous Sydney and Mabou Sub-Basins, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Naturally macerated cuticles (NMC) and one synangium, representing medullosalean and marattialean tree-fern species, from two Carboniferous coalfields in Nova Scotia, Canada, are investigated. The samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by pyrolysis-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (py-Gc/Ms) techniques in search for chemical signatures that would help in developing a chemotaxonomic classification of Carboniferous fern species, assuming genetically dependent make-up of cuticles. FTIR-derived CH2/CH3 ratios, in conjunction with contributions from carboxyl groups, demonstrated a better potential for discriminating between medullosalean genera and species than molecular signatures obtained by py-Gc/Ms. However, the latter provided better data for differentiating medullosalean from marattialean tree ferns as a group. Changes in the chemical make-up of naturally macerated cuticles due to sample preparation are discussed. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemotaxonomy for naturally macerated tree-fern cuticles (Medullosales and Marattiales), Carboniferous Sydney and Mabou Sub-Basins, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodrow, Erwin L. [Department of Earth Sciences, University College of Cape Breton, PO Box 5300, Nova Scotia, B1P 6L2 Sydney (Canada); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, 47405-2208 Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Naturally macerated cuticles (NMC) and one synangium, representing medullosalean and marattialean tree-fern species, from two Carboniferous coalfields in Nova Scotia, Canada, are investigated. The samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by pyrolysis-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (py-Gc/Ms) techniques in search for chemical signatures that would help in developing a chemotaxonomic classification of Carboniferous fern species, assuming genetically dependent make-up of cuticles. FTIR-derived CH{sub 2}/CH{sub 3} ratios, in conjunction with contributions from carboxyl groups, demonstrated a better potential for discriminating between medullosalean genera and species than molecular signatures obtained by py-Gc/Ms. However, the latter provided better data for differentiating medullosalean from marattialean tree ferns as a group. Changes in the chemical make-up of naturally macerated cuticles due to sample preparation are discussed.

  8. Evolution and origin of brines in proterozoic basins in the vicinity of the basement / cover unconformity. Application to uranium deposits in the Kombolgie (Australia) and Athabasca (Canada) basins; Evolution et origine des saumures dans les bassins proterozoiques au voisinage de la discordance socle/couverture. L'exemple de l'environnement des gisements d'uranium associes aux bassins Kombolgie (Australie) et Athabasca (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derome, D

    2002-11-01

    The nature, evolution and origin of the fluids circulating at the basis of two Proterozoic sandstone basins (Kombolgie, Australia and Athabasca, Canada), associated with unconformity type uranium mineralization have been characterised. The coupling of several techniques (micro-thermometry, Raman, LIBS) for analysing individual fluid inclusions trapped in different quartz generations, sampled in the vicinity of Australian and Canadian uranium deposits, has led to the quantitative determination of the composition of the paleo-fluids which may have had a role in the genesis of these deposits. The P-T,x evolution of these fluids, in the vicinity of the interface between the basement and the sedimentary cover, has been reconstructed. The proposed fluid circulation model for the two basins is the following: - A sodium dominated chloride-rich brine (15-20 wt% NaCl + 4-12 wt% CaCl{sub 2}), highly oxidising (equilibrated with hematite) is responsible for the early diagenetic silicification. - The circulation of a calcium chloride-rich brine (25-30 wt.% CaCl{sub 2}+0-10 wt.% NaCl) was responsible for the deposition of a second quartz generation and dravite (magnesium-rich tourmaline) in the sandstone at the nose of the reverse basement-rooted faults. The highly calcic nature of this brine probably results from the evolution of the sodic brine through Na{r_reversible}Ca exchange in the basement. A low salinity fluid with traces of methane was heated heated in the basement rocks. It was mixed with the brines at the basis of the Kombolgie basin, during tectonic movements and hydraulic brecciation. This fluid has been rarely observed in the Canadian deposits. This study has shown many similarities between the fluid regimes of the Kombolgie and Athabasca basins. In both districts, a mixing between two Na-Ca-(Mg) chloride brines has been evidenced. Estimated temperatures and depths (about 5 km) are similar for both basins. However the brines observed at the basis of the Athabasca

  9. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U 3 O 8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  10. Ecomorphodynamic Response of Foreshore Saltmarsh to the Implementation of Flood and Erosion Mitigation and Adaptation Structures in a Hypertidal Estuary: Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, G.; van Proosdij, D.; Ross, C.

    2017-12-01

    Flood and erosion mitigations and adaptation structures are often implemented in anthropogenically modified coastal regions, such as dykelands, to protect against coastal hazards. If saltmarshes are to be incorporated into a coastal management plan as a source of coastal defence, it is paramount to understand how ecomorphodynamic feedbacks triggered by implementing these structures can impact saltmarshes. This study examines how these structures, in combination with natural drivers, have precipitated changes in foreshore saltmarsh erosion and progradation rates over varying spatial scales in the hypertidal Minas Basin, located in the upper Bay of Fundy, during the past 80 years. Foreshore change rates (in 25m segments) are obtained using empirical field measurements, geomatics techniques in a geographical information system (GIS), as well as imagery and digital surface models (DSMs) derived from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Furthermore, UAV DSMs were used to determine infill rates and short-term sediment budgets in saltmarsh borrow pits. Natural cyclical foreshore change rates are observed in the Minas Basin, but are often augmented by the presence of anthropogenic structures. Erosion and progradation rates in individual transects have been observed to be as much as -14.9m/yr and 20.1m/yr, respectively. In individual saltmarsh communities, average change rates have been observed to be as much -3.4m/yr and 2.1m/yr across the entire foreshore. Furthermore, results suggest that under specific environmental conditions some structures (e.g. kickers) work in tandem with saltmarshes to protect the upland by precipitating ecomorphodynamic feedbacks that promote saltmarsh progradation. Conversely, other structures (e.g. foreshore rocking) can exacerbate natural cycles of erosion, locally. Borrow pit studies reveal that although local suspended sediment concentrations, which can vary from 50mg/l to 50000mg/l, play an integral role in pit sedimentation, channel geometry

  11. Open system sulphate reduction in a diagenetic environment - Isotopic analysis of barite (δ34S and δ18O) and pyrite (δ34S) from the Tom and Jason Late Devonian Zn-Pb-Ba deposits, Selwyn Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnall, J. M.; Gleeson, S. A.; Stern, R. A.; Newton, R. J.; Poulton, S. W.; Paradis, S.

    2016-05-01

    Highly positive δ34S values in sulphide minerals are a common feature of shale hosted massive sulphide deposits (SHMS). Often this is attributed to near quantitative consumption of seawater sulphate, and for Paleozoic strata of the Selwyn Basin (Canada), this is thought to occur during bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR) in a restricted, euxinic water column. In this study, we focus on drill-core samples of sulphide and barite mineralisation from two Late Devonian SHMS deposits (Tom and Jason, Macmillan Pass, Selwyn Basin), to evaluate this euxinic basin model. The paragenetic relationship between barite, pyrite and hydrothermal base metal sulphides has been determined using transmitted and reflected light microscopy, and backscatter electron imaging. This petrographic framework provides the context for in-situ isotopic microanalysis (secondary ion mass spectrometry; SIMS) of barite and pyrite. These data are supplemented by analyses of δ34S values for bulk rock pyrite (n = 37) from drill-core samples of un-mineralised (barren), siliceous mudstone, to provide a means by which to evaluate the mass balance of sulphur in the host rock. Three generations of barite have been identified, all of which pre-date hydrothermal input. Isotopically, the three generations of barite have overlapping distributions of δ34S and δ18O values (+22.5‰ to +33.0‰ and +16.4‰ to +18.3‰, respectively) and are consistent with an origin from modified Late Devonian seawater. Radiolarian tests, enriched in barium, are abundant within the siliceous mudstones, providing evidence that primary barium enrichment was associated with biologic activity. We therefore propose that barite formed following remobilisation of productivity-derived barium within the sediment, and precipitated within diagenetic pore fluids close to the sediment water interface. Two generations of pyrite are texturally associated with barite: framboidal pyrite (py-I), which has negative δ34S values (-23‰ to -28

  12. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  13. Study design, water quality, morphometrics and age of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, in sub-watersheds of the Yamaska River drainage basin, Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Philip A; Boily, Monique; Giroux, Isabelle; Deblois, Christian; Leclair, Maria Helena; Levasseur, Marc; Leclair, Raymond

    2009-01-31

    The Yamaska River basin is renowned for its poor water quality, which has been attributed to intensive agriculture (corn, soya, high-density pork and poultry production). Six locations within the Yamaska watershed were selected to evaluate the impact of agriculture on water habitats and study the bullfrog as a sentinel species of potential exposure and effects. The selected sub-watersheds were chosen according to the percentage of surface area under cultivation and classified as low (0-19%), moderate (20-59%) or high (>60%). In 2004 and 2005, analysis of surface water samples demonstrated that pesticide concentrations and most water quality parameters increased with increasing agricultural activity. Sixteen adult bullfrogs were sampled from each site. Animals were weighed, measured for length (total, snout-vent, tibia, tympanum), sexed, and evaluated for the colour of the throat. Skeletochronology was used to estimate the growth and age of the frogs. Cross-sections of decalcified phalanges and femurs were treated in order to count LAGs (lines of arrest growth) and for the observations of other parameters related to bone growth. The bullfrogs from highly contaminated sites had the lowest mean age and the smallest snout-vent length compared to sites of low contamination.

  14. Crustal investigations of the earthquake-prone Vrancea region in Romania - Part 2: Novel deep seismic reflection experiment in the southeastern Carpathian belt and its foreland basin - survey target, design, and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, V. I.; Stephenson, R. A.; Diaconescu, C. C.; Knapp, J. H.; Matenco, L.; Dinu, C.; Harder, S.; Prodehl, C.; Hauser, F.; Raileanu, V.; Cloetingh, S. A.; Leever, K.

    2001-12-01

    Seismic studies of the outer Carpathian Orogen and its foreland (Focsani Basin) in the vicinity of the Vrancea Zone and Danube Delta (Romania) forms one component of a new multidisciplinary initiative of ISES (Netherlands Centre for Integrated Solid Earth Sciences) called DACIA PLAN ("Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics"). The study area, at the margin of the European craton, constitutes one of the most active seismic zones in Europe, yet has remained a geological and geodynamic enigma within the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Intermediate depth (50-220 km) mantle earthquakes of significant magnitude occur in a geographically restricted area in the south-east Carpathians bend. The adjacent, foreland Focsani Basin appears to exhibit recent extensional deformation in what is otherwise understood to be a zone of convergence. The deep seismic reflection component of DACIA PLAN comprises a ~140-km near-vertical profile across the Vrancea Zone and Focsani Basin. Data acquisition took place in August-September 2001, as part of the integrated refraction/reflection seismic field programme "Vrancea-2001" co-ordinated at Karlsruhe University (cf. Abstract, Part 1), utilising 640 independently deployed recorders provided by UTEP and IRIS/PASSCAL ("Texans"). Station spacing was every 100-m with shots every 1-km. These data are to be integrated with industry seismic as well as planned new medium-high resolution seismic reflection profiling across key neotectonically active structures in the Focsani Basin. Particular goals of DACIA PLAN include: (1) the architecture of the Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to this zone, including the foreland Focsani Basin; (2) the presence and geometry of structural detachment(s) in relation with foreland basin development, including constraints for balanced cross-sections and geodynamic modelling of basin origin and evolution; (3) the relationship between crustal

  15. Southeastern Science Policy Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, F.

    1995-06-22

    This conference covers four main topics: (1) Southeastern Labor Market and its Impact on Corporate/Industry Development; (2) New Issues for Science and Technology in the Year 2000 and Beyond; (3) The Role of Academia in Developing the Labor Force of the Southeast; and (4) K-12 Education: Challenges for the 21st Century.

  16. Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and composition in streams along an altitudinal gradient in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques-Oliveira, Ana Lucia; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and composition in streams along an altitudinal gradient in Southeastern Brazil. A study concerning taxonomic richness and composition of the aquatic insect fauna in streams within the same catchment basin along an altitudinal gradient in Southeast Brazil, was conducted to test the hypothesis that there is a faunal discontinuity in the biocenotic composition, related to differences in altitude and latitude. In Southeastern Brazil, around latitude 22°, this ...

  17. Using fluorescence spectroscopy to gain new insights into seasonal patterns of stream DOC concentrations in an alpine, headwater catchment underlain by discontinuous permafrost in Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatilla, N. J.; Carey, S.; Tang, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Canadian subarctic is experiencing rapid climate warming resulting in decreased depth and duration of snowcover, decreased permafrost extent and time span of seasonal frozen ground resulting in increased active layer depth, and increased frequency and magnitude of rainfall events during the growing season. These changes challenge our conceptual models of permafrost hydrology as comparisons between recent and historical streamflow records show an emerging secondary post-freshet peak in flow in recent years along with enhanced winter flows. Long-term monitoring of Granger Creek (7.6km2), an alpine watershed underlain by discontinuous permafrost located within Wolf Creek Research Basin (176km2) in Yukon Territory, Canada provided a multi-decadal record of hydro-meteorological measurements. Granger Creek experienced warmer and wetter summers in 2015-6 compared to 2001-8, and an altered streamflow pattern with an earlier spring freshet and peak in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. DOC concentrations post-freshet remained low at both the headwater and meso-catchment scale, which contradicts trends of increasing DOC concentrations observed in larger river systems. Hysteresis loops of sub-hourly measurements of streamflow, salinity and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were analyzed to provide new insights into how hydrological connectivity at the headwater scale affected the timing of solute release with supporting information from optical indices calculated from fluorescence spectroscopy. These indices provided a more nuanced view of catchment dynamics than the DOC concentrations. The composition and quality of DOM varied throughout the growing season with the delivery of older, terrestrially-derived material corresponding to high DOC concentrations at the onset of spring freshet when the catchment was initially being flushed. The origin and quality of stream DOM shifted throughout the rest of the season to newer, more easily mobilized DOM

  18. Biological monitoring of the micro watershed - Canada del Dragon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, H.; Rossetti, K.; Caceres, T.; Palma, R.; Garcia, P.; De la Rosa, A.; Seoane, I.

    2012-01-01

    The working group under the Uruguay RCA L-5053 project is about La canada del Dragon (located in Santa Lucia basin - Uruguay) evaluation using benthic macro invertebrates. The main problems of the study area were the riverbanks expansion, the erosion and the pesticides impact on the native fish. The group implemented the water quality evaluation through the study of the invertebrates in the basin.

  19. Health in rural Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kulig, Judith Celene; Williams, Allison M

    2012-01-01

    ... 362.1'042570971 C2011-907067-7 UBC Press gratefully acknowledges the financial support for our publishing program of the Government of Canada (through the Canada Book Fund), the Canada Council for th...

  20. Sand, salt and water in the Stampriet Basin, Namibia: Calculating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sand, salt and water in the Stampriet Basin, Namibia: Calculating unsaturated zone (Kalahari dunefield) .... prior to the deposition of the Kalahari Basin formed chan- nels, which in the south-eastern region of the .... Whitehill formation, and elsewhere this directly overlies the. Upper Rietmond member. The Upper Rietmond ...

  1. Horizontal drilling assessment in Western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catania, Peter; Wilson, Malcolm

    1999-01-01

    The first horizontal well was drilled in Saskatchewan in 1987. Since then, the number of horizontal wells drilled has escalated rapidly, averaging approximately 500 per year since 1993. When combined with horizontal wells drilled in Alberta, the major Canadian oil-producing province, the total number drilled in 1995 was 978. This total exceeds the National Energy Board (NEB) projected maximum of 816 wells per year. The NEB projections were based on a break-even point for the drilling of horizontal wells of a return of CDN $285,000 using a discount rate of 15%. This corresponded to a cumulative production from each individual well of some 11,000 m 3 . The introduction of a royalty-free production volume of 12,000 m 3 per horizontal well in Saskatchewan was instrumental in stimulating the rapid expansion in the use of horizontal wells and helping Canada to exceed the forecasted drilling level. Within Saskatchewan, daily production from 1964 active horizontal wells is in excess of 20,000 m 3 . Comparative analysis indicates that the average daily production per well has increased from approximately by 40% with the advent of horizontal wells. In total production terms, provincial production has increased from 11.7 million cubic metres in 1989 to 20.9 million m 3 in 1996. This represents an increase of almost 79% based primarily on the extensive use of horizontal wells. In 1996, horizontal wells produced 36% of the province's oil from 12% of the active wells. In the southeastern producing areas of Saskatchewan, the Williston Basin, declining oil-production has jumped 100%, with horizontal wells accounting for approximately 50% of total regional production. Pay zones in this areas, as in most of the province, tend to be relatively thin, with net pay frequently less that 5 m. The modest investment of some CDN $5 million in government research funding 10 years ago to stimulate the development of horizontal wells, combined with a favourable royalty structure, has been at

  2. Climate change research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, K.

    1994-01-01

    The current consensus on climatic change in Canada is briefly summarized, noting the results of modelling of the effects of a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 , the nonuniformity of climate change across the country, the uncertainties in local responses to change, and the general agreement that 2-4 degrees of warming will occur for each doubling of CO 2 . Canadian government response includes programs aimed at reducing the uncertainties in the scientific understanding of climate change and in the socio-economic response to such change. Canadian climate change programs include participation in large-scale experiments on such topics as heat transport in the ocean, and sources and sinks of greenhouse gases; development of next-generation climate models; studying the social and economic effects of climate change in the Great Lakes Basin and Mackenzie River Basin; investigation of paleoclimates; and analysis of climate data for long-term trends

  3. Saline water in southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, W.L.; Peterson, J.B.; Ramsey, T.R.

    1969-01-01

    Saline waters from formations of several geologic ages are being studied in a seven-county area in southeastern New Mexico and western Texas, where more than 30,000 oil and gas tests have been drilled in the past 40 years. This area of 7,500 sq. miles, which is stratigraphically complex, includes the northern and eastern margins of the Delaware Basin between the Guadalupe and Glass Mountains. Chloride-ion concentrations in water produced from rocks of various ages and depths have been mapped in Lea County, New Mexico, using machine map-plotting techniques and trend analyses. Anomalously low chloride concentrations (1,000-3,000 mg/l) were found along the western margin of the Central Basin platform in the San Andres and Capitan Limestone Formations of Permian age. These low chloride-ion concentrations may be due to preferential circulation of ground water through the more porous and permeable rocks. Data being used in the study were obtained principally from oil companies and from related service companies. The P.B.W.D.S. (Permian Basin Well Data System) scout-record magnetic-tape file was used as a framework in all computer operations. Shallow or non-oil-field water analyses acquired from state, municipal, or federal agencies were added to these data utilizing P.B.W.D.S.-compatible reference numbers and decimal latitude-longitude coordinates. Approximately 20,000 water analyses collected from over 65 sources were coded, recorded on punch cards and stored on magnetic tape for computer operations. Extensive manual and computer error checks for duplication and accuracy were made to eliminate data errors resulting from poorly located or identified samples; non-representative or contaminated samples; mistakes in coding, reproducing or key-punching; laboratory errors; and inconsistent reporting. The original 20,000 analyses considered were reduced to 6,000 representative analyses which are being used in the saline water studies. ?? 1969.

  4. Ichthyofauna of two streams (silted and reference in the Upper Paraná river basin, Southeastern Brazil Ictiofauna de dois riachos (assoreado e referência na bacia do Alto Rio Paraná, Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Casatti

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study the fish assemblages of the silted Águas Claras stream (AC was compared with that of a reference, the São Carlos stream (SC, so as to identify potential fish indicators of integrity or degradation. Both streams, located about 5 km from one another, are part of the Upper Paraná river basin, Brazil, and present similar physiographical features. Twenty-one species were collected in AC (1,271 specimens and 18 in SC (940 specimens. In AC, dominant species e.g., Corydoras aeneus (sandy pools, Serrapinnus notomelas, and Pyrrhulina australis (warm marginal shallow pools were those favored by new microhabitats linked to siltation and removal of the riparian vegetation. Changes in the composition of the marginal vegetation resulted in dominance of species such as Hisonotus francirochai (marginal grasses. In SC the dominant species was Phalloceros caudimacultus, abundant in marginal shallow pools, and Trichomycterus diabolus. and Hypostomus nigromaculatus, exclusively riffle-dwelling species, which were absent in AC. Fish assemblage monitoring is recommended for use in riparian management programs in order to evaluate negative instream sedimentation effects.Neste trabalho, a ictiofauna de um riacho assoreado (córrego Águas Claras - AC foi comparada com a de um riacho referência (córrego São Carlos - SC, com o objetivo de identificar espécies potencialmente indicadoras de integridade ou degradação. Os riachos localizam-se na bacia do Alto Rio Paraná, Brasil, estão distantes cerca de 5 km entre si e apresentam características fisiográficas semelhantes. Foram coletadas 21 espécies no AC (1.271 indivíduos e 18 no SC (940 indivíduos. No AC, as espécies dominantes foram aquelas favorecidas por microhabitats relacionados ao assoreamento e à remoção da vegetação marginal, como Corydoras aeneus (poços de fundo de areia, Serrapinnus notomelas e Pyrrhulina australis (poços rasos marginais, e por alterações na vegeta

  5. Ephemeral-stream channel and basin-floor infiltration and recharge in the Sierra Vista subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona: Chapter J in Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Professional Paper 1703)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, A.L.; Pool, D.R.; Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    The timing and location of streamflow in the San Pedro River are partially dependent on the aerial distribution of recharge in the Sierra Vista subwatershed. Previous investigators have assumed that recharge in the subwatershed occurs only along the mountain fronts by way of stream-channel infiltration near the contact between low-permeability rocks of the mountains and the basin fill. Recent studies in other alluvial basins of the Southwestern United States, however, have shown that significant recharge can occur through the sediments of ephemeral stream channels at locations several kilometers distant from the mountains. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of infiltration and subsequent recharge through the ephemeral channels in the Sierra Vista subwatershed.Infiltration fluxes in ephemeral channels and through the basin floor of the subwatershed were estimated by using several methods. Data collected during the drilling and coring of 16 boreholes included physical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of sediments; chloride concentrations of sediments; and pore-water stable-isotope values and tritium activity. Surface and subsurface sediment temperatures were continuously measured at each borehole.Twelve boreholes were drilled in five ephemeral stream channels to estimate infiltration within ephemeral channels. Active infiltration was verified to at least 20 meters at 11 of the 12 borehole sites on the basis of low sediment-chloride concentrations, high soil-water contents, and pore-water tritium activity similar to present-day precipitation. Consolidated sediments at the twelfth site prevented core recovery and estimation of infiltration. Analytical and numerical methods were applied to determine the surface infiltration flux required to produce the observed sediment-temperature fluctuations at six sites. Infiltration fluxes were determined for summer ephemeral flow events only because no winter flows were recorded at the sites

  6. TransCanada PipeLines Limited 1998 annual report : TransCanada energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Financial information from TransCanada PipeLines Limited and a review of the company's 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. TransCanada's pipeline system transports natural gas and crude oil from Western Canada Sedimentary Basin to North America's major energy markets. Net earnings from continuing operations for 1998, before unusual charges, were $575 million ($ 355 million after unusual charges) compared to $522 million for 1997. Solid performances from the energy transmission and international business, when compared to 1997, were more than offset by a decreased contribution from energy processing. TransCanada recorded integration costs of $166 million, after tax, related to the merger with NOVA in 1998, which was the major operational accomplishment during the year, creating a seamless economic energy delivery, processing and marketing system from the wellhead to the market. tabs., figs

  7. ASA24-Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada), developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with NCI, has been freely available since April 2014.

  8. The changing hydroclimatology of Southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Johanna; Waylen, Peter

    2017-05-01

    The allocation of the water resources of Southeastern United States have given rise to inter-state political conflicts for decades. The limited water resource are not only required to satisfy the demand of rapidly growing urban areas, but also the power industry, recreational needs and the environment. Although water resource variability has been attributed to various teleconnections, knowledge of long-term water resource availability is limited. In this paper historical (1952-2014) precipitation and streamflow data from 18 basins in southeast United States are analyzed for long-term changes in the hydroclimatology, possibly brought by urbanization, climate change and/or changed precipitation patterns. A Pettitt test indicates a change in the precipitation-runoff relationship in the late 1990s. After the shift, basin records indicate decreased precipitation storage and consequently increased streamflow.

  9. Individual and cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities on the metal and phosphorus content of fluvial fine-grained sediment; Quesnel River Basin, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyler B; Owens, Philip N

    2014-10-15

    The impact of agriculture, forestry and metal mining on the quality of fine-grained sediment (sediment were collected monthly during the snow-free season in 2008 using time-integrated samplers at replicate sites representative of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the basin (i.e. "impacted" sites). Samples were also collected from replicate reference sites and also from the main stem of the Quesnel River at the downstream confluence with the Fraser River. Generally, metal(loid) and phosphorus (P) concentrations for "impacted" sites were greater than for reference sites. Furthermore, concentrations of copper (forestry and mining sites), manganese (agriculture and forestry sites) and selenium (agriculture, forestry and mining sites) exceeded upper sediment quality guideline (SQG) thresholds. These results suggest that agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities are having an influence on the concentrations of sediment-associated metal(loid)s and P in the Quesnel basin. Metal(loid) and P concentrations of sediment collected from the downstream site were not significantly greater than values for the reference sites, and were typically lower than the values for the impacted sites. This suggests that the cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the QRB are presently not having a measureable effect at the river basin-scale. The lack of a cumulative effect at the basin-scale is thought to reflect: (i) the relatively recent occurrence of land use disturbances in this basin; (ii) the dominance of sediment contributions from natural forest and agriculture; and (iii) the potential for storage of contaminants on floodplains and other storage elements between the locations of disturbance activities and the downstream sampling site, which may be attenuating the disturbance signal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  11. Eastern Canada hydrocarbon development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.

    1998-01-01

    Current petroleum industry activities on Canada's east coast, and future potential were discussed. Offshore drilling activity is proceeding in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin, in addition to the Sable and Terra Nova Offshore Energy Projects. Future potential for Newfoundland and Nova Scotia has been estimated at 30 billion BOE and 13 billion BOE respectively. Natural gas potential off Labrador was estimated at 37 Tcf, offshore Newfoundland at 41 Tcf, and offshore Sable Island at 49 Tcf with varying amounts of oil associated with each field. Cumulative industry spending is expected to reach $ 10 billion by the year 2000, and could reach $20 billion by 2005. Prospects for Mobil Oil, number One in discoveries and industry influence, and number Two in acreage among the partners, were reviewed. Some details of the Sable Offshore Energy Project were outlined. The estimated cost of the project is $2 billion. It is expected to be on stream in late 1999 with a total of 27 wells (11 in phase 1). Reserves are estimated at 3.5 TCF or more. Hibernia was on stream in November 1997. Total recoverable reserves at Hibernia are estimated at 750 MMBls. Peak production of 180,000 b/d is expected by 2000-2001. Life expectancy of 20 years is predicted. The Terra Nova project, located 25 miles southeast of Hibernia, was also reviewed. It will be on stream in late 2000 with total reserves of 350-450 MMBls of oil, peak production at 115,000 to 135,000 b/d with a life expectancy of 15 years. 21 figs

  12. New TNX Seepage Basin: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    The New TNX Seepage Basin has been in operation at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) since 1980 and is located in the southeastern section of the TNX facility. The basin receives waste from pilot scale tests conducted at TNX in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the plant Separations area. The basin is scheduled for closure after the TNX Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) begins operation. The basin will be closed pursuant to all applicable state and federal regulations. A statistical analysis of monitoring data indicates elevated levels of sodium and zinc in the groundwater at this site. Closure options considered for the New TNX Seepage Basin include waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The two predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical contaminants are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options for the New TNX Seepage Basin. Cost estimates for each closure option at the basin have also been prepared. An evaluation of the environmental impacts from the New TNX Seepage Basin indicate that the relative risks to human health and ecosystems for the postulated closure options are low. The transport of six chemical and one radionuclide constituents through the environmental pathways from the basin were modeled. The maximum chemical carcinogenic risk and the noncarcinogenic risk for the groundwater pathways were from exposure to trichloromethane and nitrate

  13. Sequence stratigraphy, depositional facies and reservoir continuity of a storm-wave - and tide-dominated Delta: An example from the Lower Cretaceous Ben Nevis and Avalon Formations, Jeanne D'Arc Basin, Grand Banks, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabry, H. (Mobil Oil Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1990-05-01

    The Avalon Formation is recognized as a regressive/transgressive sequence of Barremian to late Aptian age, overlain unconformably (sequence boundary) by the Aptian to Albian Ben Nevis transgressive sequence. Sedimentation took place in a Mesozoic failed-rift basin setting dominated by an inferred delta complex that occupied the southern end of the Jeanne D'Arc basin. Geostrophic events, namely storm waves and tidal currents, dispersed and fractionated sediments northward into mainly thin-bedded clean sands with interbedded argillaceous, silty beds. The Avalon and Ben Nevis formations contain collectively four reservoir zones separated by two shale markers representing marine-flooding surfaces. Based on detailed sedimentologic investigation of over 6,000 ft of Avalon and Ben Nevis cores, the following geologic history of events and depositional model are proposed. Prior to the Avalon sequence, a lowstand prograding wedge of the eastern Shoals Formation terminated with lagoonal red mudstones and was locally emergent and rooted. During deposition of the basal Avalon (late Barremian), a slow transgression, marked by brackish water sediments, started, resulting in the formation of transgressive barrier bars and migrating tidal inlets in the Hibernia area. These transgressive shoreline sands display good reservoir continuity across the basin with large oil recoveries, e.g., Hibernia 0-35 field. A subsequent slow drop in relative sea level in the central part of the basin resulted in deposition and development of a prograding delta-front platform. Close to the end of Avalon deposition (middle Aptian), an ensuing rapid drop in relative sea level initiated very rapid seaward progradation of the coastal zone and incision of fluvial/estuarine channels into the older now-exposed delta-front platform.

  14. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  15. A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Jardim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil. Contulma sana sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected in the Rio Macaé Basin, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by the following male genitalia characters: long posterior lobes, dorsomedian processes of segment IX diverging on apical third, and well developed phallotremal sclerite. The female and immature stages are unknown.

  16. Natural hydrocarbon gases in Canada: the resource base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osadetz, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) has an ongoing national hydrocarbon resource assessment project which examines, characterizes and quantifies the hydrocarbon resource potential of Canada. In this paper the distribution, characteristics and sizes of conventional and unconventional natural gas resources in Canada are summarized. Four topics were addressed: (1) the origins of conventional and unconventional natural hydrocarbon gases in Canada, (2) the resource assessment techniques used at the GSC, with emphasis on predicting undiscovered reserves, (3) the setting, distribution and size of the conventional natural gas endowment of Canada in a geographic and geological context, and (4) the indications of unconventional natural gas resource endowment in Canada. Conventional in-place natural gas resources for Canada was estimated at 26.8 trillion cubic metres of which 54 per cent comes from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The national inventory of unconventional in-place gas resource is 3,460 trillion cubic metres. At current rates of production, the expected life expectancy for the in-place conventional natural gas resource base was estimated to be about 150 years. 1 tab., 9 figs

  17. Australia's uranium resources in the Pacific Basin context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, I.J.

    1994-01-01

    Australia's role as an uranium producer is central to the Pacific Basin nuclear industry. Australia's low cost reserves are the world's largest, perhaps up to two times greater than those of her closest competitor, Canada. In the domain of actual production, however, the nation's uranium output is currently limited by government policy. Nonetheless, in view of the Pacific Basin nations' increasing focus on nuclear energy as an efficient and clean energy source, it is likely that Australian producers will, over the next decades, be long term suppliers of uranium concentrates to Pacific Basin markets such as Japan, Korea, China/Hong Kong, Indonesia, China-Taipei, the USA and even Canada. 1 fig

  18. Regional cooperation on public acceptance in the pacific basin area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumasa Tanaka

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to examine the nature of nuclear issues and the need for effective public acceptance programs in the Pacific Basin area, drawing attention to Japan, Canada and Taiwan of China. The paper first presents a general institutional framework in which regional cooperetion is being sought in the Pacific Basin area. Secondly, country-specific nuclear issues and public acceptance programs of Canada, Japan and Taiwan of China will be presented. And thirdly, the importance of international public acceptance programs will be discussed for nuclear-electric power to grow in the Pacific Basin area toward the Year 2000. (author)

  19. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  20. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  1. Geologic Map of the Atlin Quadrangle, Southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, David A.; Himmelberg, Glen R.; Ford, Arthur B.

    2009-01-01

    This map presents the results of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geologic bedrock mapping studies in the mostly glacier covered Atlin 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, northern southeastern Alaska. These studies are part of a long-term systematic effort by the USGS to provide bedrock geologic and mineral-resource information for all of southeastern Alaska, covering all of the Tongass National Forest (including Wilderness Areas) and Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Some contributions to this effort are those concerned with southwesternmost part of the region, the Craig and Dixon Entrance quadrangles (Brew, 1994; 1996) and with the Wrangell-Petersburg area (Brew, 1997a-m; Brew and Grybeck, 1997; Brew and Koch, 1997). As shown on the index map (fig. 1), the study area is almost entirely in the northern Coast Mountains adjacent to British Columbia, Canada. No previous geologic map has been published for the area, although Brew and Ford (1985) included a small part of it in a preliminary compilation of the adjoining Juneau quadrangle; and Brew and others (1991a) showed the geology at 1:500,000 scale. Areas mapped nearby in British Columbia and the United States are also shown on figure 1. All of the map area is in the Coast Mountains Complex as defined by Brew and others (1995a). A comprehensive bibliography is available for this and adjacent areas (Brew, 1997n).

  2. Je voyage au Canada (Travelling to Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Normand

    Designed for use in a bilingual program, this basic French reader centers around a trip to Canada. It contains reading selections, two short poems, the words and music of a song entitled "La cigale et la fourmi," and several oral and written exercises. (PMP)

  3. (Dahomey) Basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    13 km maximum width in the onshore at the basin axis along Nigerian and Republic of Benin boundary. This narrows westwards and eastwards to about 5 km (Coker and Ejedawe, 1987; Coker,. 2002). Detailed geology, evolution, stratigraphy and hydrocarbon occurrence of the basin have been described by Jones and ...

  4. Radiation oncology in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Meredith; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2018-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the Canadian healthcare system and the cancer care system in Canada as it pertains to the governance, funding and delivery of radiotherapy programmes. We also review the training and practice for radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapists in Canada. We describe the clinical practice of radiation medicine from patients' referral, assessment, case conferences and the radiotherapy process. Finally, we provide an overview of the practice culture for Radiation Oncology in Canada. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Canada and veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, J Owen D

    2009-08-07

    A World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology tradition for its conference is to present some highlights of the country hosting the event, and with an emphasis on the history of, and research in, veterinary parasitology. A review of Canada's peoples, physiography, climate, natural resources, agriculture, animal populations, pioneers in veterinary parasitology, research accomplishments by other veterinary parasitologists, centres for research in veterinary parasitology, and major current research had been presented at a World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology Conference in Canada in 1987, and was published. The present paper updates the information on the above topics for the 22 years since this conference was last held in Canada.

  6. Relationships between basin architecture, basin closure, and occurrence of sulphide-bearing schists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliomäki, Henrik; Torvela, Taija; Moreau, Julien

    2014-01-01

    We present field observations from the Palaeoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Tampere palaeobasin, where the primary structures have been exceptionally well preserved. We use the observations to construct a new tectonic model for the southeastern margin of the Tampere basin during its inversion...... and subsequent closure. The observed volcano-sedimentary and structural features suggest a change in the local structural style from thick-skinned inversion to thin-skinned thrusting, in order to accommodate the crustal shortening during basin closure. Furthermore, it is suggested that there is a genetic...

  7. Malaria in prehistoric southeastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolsuwan, S

    1995-03-01

    This paper reviews the evolutionary and natural history of malarias; it is proposed that all human malarial parasites originated from zoonotic simian plasmodiids in tropical forests of southeastern Asia, during the terminal Pleistocene or early Holocene. The modes of malarial transmission among prehistoric natives of that geographic area is reconstructed, based primarily on ecological, archeological and ethnographic evidence. Early Holocene hunters and food gatherers of southeastern Asia shared the same forest habitats as several mosquito members of the Anopheles leucosphyrus group, known to be efficient malarial vectors. These forest dwellers could have maintained endemic malaria, however at low levels due to their low population density. With the abundance and interactive roles in transmitting human malaria of the An. dirus and An. minimus mosquitos in forest fringe areas, the middle Holocene settled farmers occupying such habitats would have been subject all year round to highly endemic malaria. Generally much lower and less uniform transmission of the disease could have been found among early coastal occupants, in the presence of the less efficient An. sundaicus vector. Malaria was practically absent on lowland floodplains, extensively occupied by human populations since the first millennium BC onwards, due to lack of major vectors.

  8. The organic petrology and thermal maturity of Lower Carboniferous and Upper Devonian source rocks in the Liard Basin, at Jackfish Gap-Yohin Ridge and North Beaver River, northern Canada: Implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J. (Univ. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)); Richards, B.C.; Goodarzi, G. (Geological Survey, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    Basinal shales of the Besa River Fm. have TOC values ranging from 1 to 4% and contain abundant type II, dominantly amorphous, kerogen of marine origin. Shales in the Yohin, Clausen, Prophet, and Golata Formations are of mixed maring and terrestrial origins and yield TOC values of 1 to 3%. Kerogen in the Golata and Yohin Formations are dominated by terrestrial components, while the Clausen and Flett kerogen comprises marine liptinites and bitumens. Kerogen from the deltaic Mattson shales at Jackfish Gap are types II and III, having mixed marine and terrestrial origins consistent with shallow, nearshore, subtidal environments. The coals are sapropelic and probably lacustrine in origin. Algal laminites associated with coals in the Upper Mattson have >10% TOC values, while non-laminite shales contain between 2 and 5% TOC. Comparable measured and calculated vitrinite reflectance data indicate that kerogen in the Lower Carboniferous at Jackfish Gap is mature. Kerogen in correlative formations in the subsurface at North Beaver River is more marine. Vitrinites are rate and oxidized, but four populations of bitumens are distinguished on the basis of relative reflectivity and morphological or petrophysical associations. Types A and B bitumens are primary and by-products of hydrocarbon generation from type II (algal and amorphous) kerogens. Correlations between depth and reflectance of bitumens A and B are very good. Vitrinite reflectance data calculated from bitumen reflectance measurements for the Besa River, Prophet, and Golata indicate that they are potential sources of catagenic gas. The Mattson kerogen is mature, oil and gas-prone.

  9. Peculiarities of distribution of oil polution in the Southeastern Baltic by satellite data and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulycheva, E. V.; Krek, A. V.; Kostianoy, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The results of satellite monitoring of oil pollution of the sea surface and field measurements of the concentration of oil products in the water column and bottom sediments for the first time allowed the establishment of a relation between the surface pollution from ships and the general characteristics of spatial and temporal distribution of oil products in the Southeastern Baltic Sea. Areas with increased concentrations of oil products in the surface and bottom layers were determined in the southeastern Baltic Sea. The basic directions of pollution spread, which are consistent with the main direction of annual mean transport of substances in the Gdansk Basin, are determined.

  10. Penitentiary Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Explains the historical background for four presuppositions which have governed penitentiary education in Canada. Calls for new approaches to the education of prison inmates and for related research. (Author/SB)

  11. Canada's Response to Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanphier, C. Michael

    1981-01-01

    Traces the types and numbers of refugees to Canada since World War II. Reviews key developments in Canadian refugee policy and practices before discussing the nation's response to the current refugee situation. (Author/MK)

  12. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  13. Transports on the Shelf of the Southeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, D. D.; Stabeno, P. J.; Hermann, A. J.

    2002-12-01

    The eastern half of the Bering Sea basin is composed of a wide (>500 kilometer) continental shelf (supply of nutrient rich shelf slope water and high solar radiation values combine to make this shelf one of the most productive regions of the world's oceans, supporting a large food chain of marine mammals, birds, fish and shellfish. An important component of the water that flows onto the eastern Bering shelf is transported through Unimak Pass. Unimak Pass (relatively shallow, transport there. To track the fate of water entering the southeastern Bering Sea through Unimak Pass, we will present simulated drifter trajectories from a regional circulation model of the northeastern Pacific and Bering Sea. These simulated trajectories will be compared with the large data set of real drifters that have been released in the Bering Sea. We will also compare transport results to hydrographic data collected along transects off Unimak Island, Port Moller, Cape Newenham and Nunivak Island.

  14. Wait times in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Janice Christine

    2017-07-01

    A significant barrier to accessing healthcare in Canada is long waiting lists, which can be linked to the way that Medicare was structured. After significant pressure, provincial governments began to address wait times. An example of a successful strategy to reduce wait times for elective surgery is the Saskatchewan Surgical Initiative, which saw wait times in the province change from being among the longest in Canada to the shortest.

  15. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in

  16. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  17. Reactive Transport Modeling Investigation of High Dissolved Sulfide Concentrations in Sedimentary Basin Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M.; Mayer, U. K.; MacQuarrie, K. T. B.

    2017-12-01

    Water with total dissolved sulfide in excess of 1 mmol L-1is widely found in groundwater at intermediate depths in sedimentary basins, including regions of the Michigan basin in southeastern Ontario, Canada. Conversely, at deeper and shallower depths, relatively low total dissolved sulfide concentrations have been reported. The mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of these brackish sulfide-containing waters are not fully understood. Anaerobic microbial sulfate reduction is a common process resulting in the formation of high sulfide concentrations. Sulfate reduction rates depend on many factors including the concentration of sulfate, the abundance of organic substances, redox conditions, temperature, salinity and the species of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). A sedimentary basin-specific conceptual model considering the effect of salinity on the rate of sulfate reduction was developed and implemented in the reactive transport model MIN3P-THCm. Generic 2D basin-scale simulations were undertaken to provide a potential explanation for the dissolved sulfide distribution observed in the Michigan basin. The model is 440 km in the horizontal dimension and 4 km in depth, and contains fourteen sedimentary rock units including shales, sandstones, limestones, dolostone and evaporites. The main processes considered are non-isothermal density dependent flow, kinetically-controlled mineral dissolution/precipitation and its feedback on hydraulic properties, cation exchange, redox reactions, biogenic sulfate reduction, and hydromechanical coupling due to glaciation-deglaciation events. Two scenarios were investigated focusing on conditions during an interglacial period and the transient evolution during a glaciation-deglaciation cycle. Inter-glaciation simulations illustrate that the presence of high salinity brines strongly suppress biogenic sulfate reduction. The transient simulations show that glaciation-deglaciation cycles can have an impact on the maximum depth of

  18. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Canadian uranium exploration and development efforts in 1985 and 1986 resulted in a significant increase in estimates of measured uranium resources. New discoveries have more than made up for production during 1985 and 1986, and for the elimination of some resources from the overall estimates, due to the sustained upward pressure on production costs and the stagnation of uranium prices in real terms. Canada possesses a large portion of the world's uranium resources that are of current economic interest and remains the major focus of inter-national uranium exploration activity. Expenditures for uranium exploration in Canada in 1985 and 1986 were $32 million and $33 million, respectively. Although much lower than the $130 million total reported for 1979, expenditures for 1987 are forecast to increase. Exploration and surface development drilling in 1985 and 1986 were reported to be 183 000 m and 165σ2 000 m, respectively, 85 per cent of which was in Saskatchewan. Canada has maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium. By the year 2000, Canada's annual uranium requirements will be about 2 100 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are either in operation now or expected to be in service by the late 1990s. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Annual sales currently approach $1 billion, of which exports account for 85 per cent. Forward domestic and export contract commitments totalled 73 000 tU and 62 000 tU, respectively, as of early 1987

  19. Gulf Canada's Russian joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motyka, D.

    1992-01-01

    After three years of evaluating prospects and negotiating with government and industry representatives, Gulf Canada established its first joint venture in the Russian Federation with Komineft, a production association from the Komi autonomous republic. Komineft has a 50% share of the venture, and the rest is shared equally between Gulf and British Gas. The operating area is at the Vozey and Upper Vozey fields in the Timan-Pechora Basin, some 1,500 km northeast of Moscow just inside the Arctic Circle. An attractive feature of the Upper Vozey project is low development costs of ca $2/bbl. In the Vozey field, the venture will set up an enhanced oil recovery demonstration project to test techniques perfected in Alberta. About 60 Canadians are involved on the project, and headquarters are in Usinsk, ca 100 km south of the oil fields. In the first half of 1992, oil production in the first phase of the venture averaged around 10,000 bbl/d and continues to increase

  20. Cardiac Rehabilitation Series: Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L.; Bennett, Stephanie; Ardern, Chris I.; Clark, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Canada. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has a long robust history here, and there are established clinical practice guidelines. While the effectiveness of CR in the Canadian context is clear, only 34% of eligible patients participate, and strategies to increase access for under-represented groups (e.g., women, ethnic minority groups) are not yet universally applied. Identified CR barriers include lack of referral and physician recommendation, travel and distance, and low perceived need. Indeed there is now a national policy position recommending systematic inpatient referral to CR in Canada. Recent development of 30 CR Quality Indicators and the burgeoning national CR registry will enable further measurement and improvement of the quality of CR care in Canada. Finally, the Canadian Association of CR is one of the founding members of the International Council of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, to promote CR globally. PMID:24607018

  1. Southeastern superpave center pooled-fund activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Much has been learned about materials characteristics, testing procedures, new equipment, mix design, and pavement performance through the many studies conducted as a part of the Southeastern Superpave Center (SSC) pooled-fund program. Lessons learne...

  2. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mai 2014 ... This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system.

  3. Stable-isotope studies of groundwaters in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen-18/16 and deuterium/hydrogen ratio measurements have been made on groundwaters sampled according to specific field criteria applied during pump tests of the Rustler Formation in Nash Draw, a solution-subsidence valley west of the WIPP site in the northern Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. Comparison of these data with similar measurements on other groundwaters from the northern Delaware Basin indicates two nonoverlapping populations of meteoric groundwaters. Most of the Rustler waters in Nash Draw and at the WIPP site and older waters from the eastern two-thirds of the Capitan Limestone constitute one population, while unconfined groundwaters originating as observable modern surface recharge to alluvium, the near-surface Rustler in southwestern Nash Draw, and the Capitan in the Guadalupe Mountains (Carlsbad Caverns) constitute the other. The isotopic distinction suggests that Rustler groundwater in most of Nash Draw and at the WIPP site is not receiving significant modern meteoric recharge. A likely explanation for this distinction is that meteoric recharge to most of the Rustler and Capitan took place in the geologic past under climatic conditions significantly different from the present. 25 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeastern United States. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bledsoe, H.W. Jr.; Marine, I.W.

    1980-10-01

    The geology of the southeastern United States was studied to recommend areas that should be considered for field exploration in order to select a site for a radioactive waste repository. The region studied included the Piedmont Province, the Triassic Basins, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. This study was entirely a review of literature and existing knowledge from a geotechnical point of view and was performed by subcontractors whose individual reports are listed in the bibliography. No field work was involved. The entire study was geotechnical in nature, and no consideration was given to socioeconomic or demographic factors. These factors need to be addressed in a separate study. For all areas, field study is needed before any area is further considered. A total of 29 areas are recommended for further consideration in the Piedmont Province subregion: one area in Maryland, 8 areas in Virginia, 4 areas in North Carolina, 6 areas in South Carolina, and 10 areas in Georgia. Of the 14 exposed and 5 buried or hypothesized basins identified in the Triassic basin subregion, 6 are recommended for further study: one basin in Virginia, 3 basins in North Carolina, and 2 basins in South Carolina. Four potential candidate areas are identified within the Atlantic Coastal Plain subregion: one in Maryland, one in North Carolina, and 2 in Georgia

  5. Building the vegetation drought response index for Canada (VegDRI-Canada) to monitor agricultural drought: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tsegaye; Champagne, Catherine; Wardlow, Brian D.; Hadwen, Trevor A.; Brown, Jesslyn; Demisse, Getachew B.; Bayissa, Yared A.; Davidson, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    map with the Canadian Drought Monitor (CDM), an independent drought indicator, showed that the VegDRI-Canada maps depicted key spatial drought severity patterns during the two targeted drought years consistent with the CDM. In addition, VegDRI-Canada was compared with canola yields in the Prairie Provinces at the regional scale for a period from 2000 to 2014 to evaluate the indices’ applicability for monitoring drought impacts on crop production. The result showed that VegDRI-Canada values had a relatively higher correlation (i.e., r > 0.5) with canola yield for nonirrigated croplands in the Canadian Prairies region in areas where drought is typically a limiting factor on crop growth, but showed a negative relationship in the southeastern Prairie region, where water availability is less of a limiting factor and in some cases a hindrance to crop growth when waterlogging occurs. These initial results demonstrate VegDRI-Canada’s utility for monitoring drought-related vegetation conditions, particularly in drought prone areas. In general, the results indicated that the VegDRI-Canada models showed sensitivity to known agricultural drought events in Canada over the 15-year period mainly for nonirrigated areas.

  6. Indian Arts in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A recent publication, "Indian Arts in Canada", examines some of the forces, both past and present, which are not only affecting American Indian artists today, but which will also profoundly influence their future. The review presents a few of the illustrations used in the book, along with the Introduction and the Foreword. (KM)

  7. Suicide in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leenaars, Antoon A

    1998-01-01

    ... provides long-awaited information that focuses specifically on Canada. It addresses suicide as a multidimensional problem with biological, psychological, cultural, sociological, personal, and philosophical aspects. The contributions integrate both critical analysis and personal experience. There are accounts from Inuit elders, fr...

  8. Nuclear technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This pamphlet provides a summary of the research being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The design and development of the CANDU type reactor are highlighted and the contribution of nuclear technology to medicine, agriculture and the Canadian economy is briefly discussed

  9. Fusion Canada issue 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  10. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  11. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  12. The butterflies of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layberry, Ross A; Hall, Peter W; Lafontaine, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    ... for the close to three hundred butterfly species recorded in Canada, including descriptions of early stages, subspecies, and key features that help distinguish similar species. Each species of butterfly has an individual distribution map, generated from a database of more than 90,000 location records. More than just a field guide to identifying Canadian butterfli...

  13. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrill, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario

  14. IYPE in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, J.; Nowlan, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Canadian National Committee picked five of the ten IYPE themes for emphasis in Canada - Water, Hazards, Energy, Resources and Environment. They are summarized in the acronym WHERE - WHERE on Earth, WHERE in Canada. Our committee raised funds from industry, with some generous support from The Geological Survey of Canada. Funds were used for publishing “Four Billion Years and Counting”, a book on Canadian geology designed for the general public. It will be useful to educators who can download many of the illustrations and images for classroom support. Recognizing the looming shortage of Geoscientists, we designed a new careers website to help attract young people to the Earth sciences. It can be seen on our website, www.EarthsciencesCanada.com. The website will be updated regularly. The WHERE Challenge was a national contest for children aged 10 to 14. They were asked to select an object, often something from their household, identify at least one non-renewable resource used to make the object, and submit an entry describing the object, the resources within it, and WHERE they came from. We received entries from more than 1000 students Some of the winning entries are posted on our website. We developed a partnership with Parks Canada called Egoists, which is a series of pamphlets on iconic views within the parks explaining the Earth science behind the views. We also supported the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Burgess Shale by providing funding for the publication of a field guide. At the end of the year all programs will transfer to the Canadian Federation of Earth Sciences. The WHERE Challenge will be repeated in 2010. It, plus our book and careers website will continue our outreach activities.

  15. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  16. Influence of lithosphere and basement properties on the stretching factor and development of extensional faults across the Otway Basin, southeast Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kharazizadeh, N.; Schellart, W. P.; Duarte, J.C.; Hall, M.

    2017-01-01

    The NW-SE striking Otway Basin in southeastern Australia is part of the continental rift system that formed during the separation of Australia from Antarctica. The development of this sedimentary basin occurred in two phases of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous rifting. The

  17. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  18. Variation in the Structure of Bird Nests between Northern Manitoba and Southeastern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Carla A.; Rohwer, Vanya G.; Martin, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis) where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations. PMID:21552515

  19. Variation in the structure of bird nests between northern Manitoba and southeastern Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A Crossman

    Full Text Available Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations.

  20. Variation in the structure of bird nests between northern Manitoba and southeastern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Carla A; Rohwer, Vanya G; Martin, Paul R

    2011-04-28

    Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis) where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations.

  1. Geochemical conditions and the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater basins used for public drinking-water supply, Desert and Basin and Range hydrogeologic provinces, 2006-11: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The geochemical conditions, occurrence of selected trace elements, and processes controlling the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater were investigated in groundwater basins of the Desert and Basin and Range (DBR) hydrogeologic provinces in southeastern California as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP is designed to provide an assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the aquifer systems that are used for public drinking-water supply. The GAMA PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  2. Uranium tailings in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulden, R.S.; Bragg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The last few years have produced significant changes in the way uranium tailings are managed in Canada. This is due both to the development of new technology and to changes in regulatory approach. The interrelationships between these two areas are examined with particular attention paid to the long term and the development of close-out criteria. New technological initiatives are examined including dry placement techniques, pit disposal and deep lake disposal

  3. Plugging into Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Exports of electricity from Canada to the U.S.A. are increasing in importance and have reached a new phase with proposals to build generating stations initially dedicated to export, notably a second nuclear station in New Brunswick. The author considers that the National Energy Board does a good job of protecting Canadian interests. Opposition in the United States comes from within the government or congress rather than from the power industry or public

  4. Canada's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnalls, O.J.C.

    The history of uranium mining, exploration, and trade in Canada is outlined. Past complex variations in market conditions are analyzed and future prospects for production and demand are forecast. Canadian and world resources of uranium are compared. Export policies and their rationales are explained. The Canadian nuclear fuel industry is described and fuel performance in-reactor is shown to be excellent. (E.C.B.)

  5. Canada's Global Partnership Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, M.

    2007-01-01

    Curbing the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) is an essential element of the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. At the Kananaskis Summit in June 2002, G8 Leaders committed to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from acquiring or developing biological weapons and related materials, equipment and technology. To this end, Canada's Global Partnership Program is investing heavily in biological non-proliferation activities in countries of the former Soviet Union. A comprehensive strategy has been developed to help improve biological safety (biosafety) and biological security (biosecurity) with provision for addressing dual-use concerns. Raising awareness and creating a self-sustaining culture of biosecurity is a key driver of the program. Through this strategy, Canada is assisting various FSU countries to: develop and implement effective and practical biosafety/biosecurity standards and guidelines; establish national and/or regional biosafety associations; develop and deliver effective biosafety and biosecurity training; put in place enhanced physical security measures and equipment. In addition to biosafety and biosecurity, the GPP supports a broad range of Biological Non-Proliferation projects and initiatives, including dozens of projects aimed at redirecting former biological weapons scientists. To date, most of these activities have been supported through Canada's contribution to the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the Science and Technology Centre Ukraine (STCU).(author)

  6. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  7. Midwifery education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michelle M; Hutton, Eileen K; McNiven, Patricia S

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a special series on midwifery education and describes the approach to midwifery education in Canada We begin with an overview of the model of midwifery practice introduced in Canada in the 1990s. We describe the model of midwifery education developed and report how it is implemented, with particular attention to the two longest established programs. Midwifery education programs in Ontario and British Columbia. Midwifery education programs in Canada are offered at the undergraduate baccalaureate level at universities and are typically four years in length. Programs are competence-based and follow a spiral curriculum. The first semesters focus on on core sciences, social sciences and introduction to midwifery concepts. Students spend fifty percent of the program in clinical practices with community-based midwives. Innovative education models enable students to be placed in distant placements and help to align theoretical and practice components. Clinically active faculty adds to the credibility of teaching but bring its own challenges for midwifery educators. The Canadian model of midwifery education has been very effective with low attrition rates and high demand for the number of places available. Further program expansion is warranted but is contingent on the growth of clinical placements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Canada Among Nations 2013, Canada-Africa Relations: Looking ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    19 août 2013 ... Depuis 1984, la collection Canada Among Nations invite d'éminents chercheurs et praticiens du Canada et de l'étranger à évaluer ensemble la politique étrangère du Canada. Préparé par la Norman Paterson School of International Affairs (NPSIA) de l'Université Carleton, le numéro de 2013 est le premier ...

  9. Meteorology of the storm of November 3-5, 1985, in West Virginia and Virginia: Chapter B in Geomorphic studies of the storm and flood of November 3-5, 1985, in the upper Potomac and Cheat River basins in West Virginia and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Stephen J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Greco, Steven

    1993-01-01

    The storm of November 3-5, 1985, in the central Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia and Virginia resulted from a complex sequence of meteorological events. The stage was set by Hurricane Juan, which made landfall in the Gulf Coast on October 31. Juan brought moisture northward up the Mississippi Valley; latent heat released by condensation aloft probably helped to render stationary a high-pressure anticyclone over southeastern Canada. A second low-pressure cyclone, moving north through the Southeastern United States, was blocked by the stationary anticyclone, intensifying a surface-pressure gradient that forced moist air from the Atlantic westward up the slope of the Appalachian Mountains. In the Cheat and Potomac River basins the resulting rainfall was of moderate intensity but of long duration. In Pendleton County, W. Va., the 1985 storm was the largest on record for durations from 24 to 72 h; the highest rainfall recurrence intervals were registered at durations of 24 to 48 h. Estimates of rainfall recurrence intervals from highly skewed records yield values ranging from 80 to 300 yr.

  10. San Mateo Creek Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  11. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Similarity of Cross-Sectional Characteristics of Costal Plain Streams of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, W. S.; Parola, A. C.

    2005-05-01

    The Coastal Plain physiographic region of the southeastern United States encompasses over 1.2 million km2. Analysis of data from six separate geomorphic studies conducted in five of the 19 states having a Coastal Plain region suggests that streams of the Coastal Plain region have very similar correlations betweein bankfull cross section area (R2 = 0.92, n = 123) and discharge (R2 = 0.85, n = 77) with drainage basin area, despite geographic and hydrologic differences. Analysis of these data also shows that bankfull cross section area for southeastern Coastal Plain streams is 47% less than that indicated for other eastern US rivers by Dunne and Leopold (1978). Furthermore, estimates of bankfull discharge have an average return period of 1.14 years on the annual series. These bankfull flows range from 6.2-90% of the 1.5-year flow, often considered to represent the bankfull flow condition, and 4.4-75% of the 2-year flow, which some have suggested for restoration design. The strong correlation of these data supports the concept of using regional morphologic data for initiating assessments and should be considered as an important component of restoration design for streams of the southeastern Coastal Plain.

  13. Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Washington Post 107:Cl, 18 February 1984. Bayless, Alan. Canada, anxious over drop in gas sales to U.S., prods exporters to fulfill pacts. Wall Street Journal 104...17, 11 May 1981. Canada reluctant to reduce gas prices despite complaints by U.S. lawmakers. Wall Street Journal pJ6, 26 November 1982...Canada’s new energy policy continues to cause cenfusion within the industry. Wall Street Journal 104:16, 9 March 1981. _ . Fuel pressure: sudden surplus

  14. Canada and international financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lafrance; James Powell

    1996-01-01

    International financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Bank for International Settlements, are important players in the global financial system. This article provides an overview of the major international financial institutions to which Canada belongs. The paper highlights their activities and the nature of Canada's involvement, including that of the Bank of Canada. Recent initiatives coming out of the Halifax and Lyon Summits to improve the eff...

  15. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  16. Do scrapers increase downstream? Patterns in southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We measured scraper biomass and relative abundance and epilithic chlorophyll and organic matter on a single occasion at 17 sites ranging from order 1 to order 4 on five streams in southeastern Australia. Biomass of invertebrate scrapers was not related to chlorophyll concentration and was negatively related to epilithic ...

  17. Summary of southeastern group breakout sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Ford; Charles P. Nicholson

    1993-01-01

    The breakout sessions held by the southeastern representatives at the Partners In Flight meeting in Colorado were extremely well attended Most states were represented, as well as several federal agencies (including USFS, USFWS, TVA, EPA), and non-government organizations. Two sessions were held, one to discuss a strategy of management by...

  18. Water usage in southeastern bioenergy crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southeastern United States with its long growing season and mild winter temperatures has long been able to produce a variety of food, forage, and fiber crops. In addition to these crops, the Southeast is capable of producing a plethora of lignoceullosic-based bioenergy crops for conversion into ...

  19. Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanakos, E. K. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the first symposium on emerging energy alternatives for the Southeastern States are presented. Some topics discussed are: (1) solar energy, (2) wood energy, (3) novel energy sources, (4) agricultural and industrial process heat, (5) waste utilization, (6) energy conservation and (7) ocean thermal energy conversion.

  20. Phosphorus adsorption characteristics of selected southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phosphorus adsorption characteristics of selected Southeastern Nigerian soils from Ikom, Bende and Ihiagwa were evaluated. P adsorption isotherm was obtained by shaking soil samples with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm P in 0.01M CaCl2 solution. P adsorption maxima (b), affinity constant (k), buffering capacity and P ...

  1. Progress with the PUB Initiative in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C.; Whitfield, P.; Ouarda, T.; Metcalfe, R.; Pomeroy, J.; Pietroniro, A.

    2008-12-01

    Practicing hydrologists continually face the challenge of prediction in ungauged basins. They are well aware of the difficulties and risks inherent in making predictions and forecasts of the state of water resources. They are cognizant of the climate and landscape change that is forcing our community to address some of the long held assumptions in our methodologies - notably that of stationarity. Furthermore, as resources have become scarcer due to availability or quality limitations, decision makers' demands not only include reports of mere abundance or state but also change. Interactions among hydrological, biochemical and ecological processes now need to be understood and incorporated into new predictive tools. In Canada, progress has been slow but steady. Priorities were identified, including improving prediction in small basins, incorporating process algorithms into deterministic models, implementing new information generating methods, and expanding outreach of new knowledge and techniques. Individual successes are reflective of the needs of each segment of the community. Large utilities and operational forecast offices, with their larger infrastructure, have made progress incorporating new algorithms into deterministic models and applying advanced regionalization tools. The majority of consulting engineers remain constrained by time, budgets and access to data. They remain comfortable reducing uncertainty and building confidence with calibration and reproduction of past conditions. Conservative assumptions are a mainstay for reducing risk. Progress in reducing uncertainty for this segment is made by developing relationships and exchanging information so that practicing hydrologists are aware of the new tools and knowledge they need to ensure wise water management decisions.

  2. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  3. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.S.

    1980-12-01

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)

  4. Southeastern Power Administration 2008 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-12-29

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2008 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this document reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2007 and ending September 30, 2008. Southeastern marketed more than 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 491 wholesale customers in ten southeastern states this past year. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $263 million. Drought conditions persisted in the southeastern region of the United States during FY 2008 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2008 totaled $91 million. Approximately $44 million of this amount was for replacement power which is paid only during adverse water conditions in order to meet our customers’ contract requirements. With the continued financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for these aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security programs continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) standards and requirements. In the coming year, Southeastern will continue open communication and cooperation with DOE, the Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Although competing uses of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency, Southeastern’s employees will meet these challenges and continue to provide reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E.Legg Administrator

  5. Use of land located within Eselnita drainage basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA VLAD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Developed on the south-eastern side of Almãjului Mountains, Eşelniţa drainage basin neighbours upon the following basins: upon S – SV with Mala, upon SV - V with Mraconia, upon V - NV with Berzasca, upon NV - NNE with Nera and on the NNE – SE direction with Cerna. The basin has a surface of 77 km2 and present a 5th degree hydrographic network according to Horton-Strahler ranking system, tributary to Danube by means of Eşelniţa main collector. Among surfaces belonging to various categories of use of land located within Eselnita drainage basin, there may be noticed the high share of forest and secondary grazing lands, although the latter have a smaller surface in comparison to the first ones. Therefore, the types of use of land located within the drainage basin are distinguished by the high share of surfaces of forests to the detriment of predominant agricultural land proven by using of some quantitative indexes defining the character of the Eselnita drainage basin as belonging to forestry type. Also the impact of human activities and number of inhabitants do not have a very damaging influence on the land corresponding to the basin, therefore it has a naturality index indicating an ecological equilibrium closed to the natural one.

  6. General subsurface geology of southeastern New Mexico with special reference to its structural stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, J.

    1979-01-01

    Southeastern New Mexico east of the Pecos River is a tectonically stable area with no major fault movements for the past 250 million years. No major tectonic adjustments are expected in the next million years. Minor tectonic adjustments during Triassic time (200 to 180 million years ago) and early Tertiary time (70 million years ago) have resulted in deepening and eastward tilting of the Delaware basin. These tectonic adjustments have resulted in the opening of joints and consequent solution of the upper part of the Salado salt. Compaction of Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian sediments has also contributed to the basin subsidence. This effect has been most severe on the west edge of the basin near the Pecos River and in the southeast edge of the basin adjoining Winkler County, Texas. Recent minor seismic activity is probably the result of petroleum secondary recovery operations. This seismic activity may result in the release of strain and may contribute to the long term tectonic stability of the area

  7. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    61 Access to Medicines ...and Mexico . Canada claims the rule is a non-tariff barrier that has led to a steep drop in beef and hog shipments to U.S. processors...concern about trade in pirated and counterfeit goods in Canada, as well as weak enforcement and relatively lax penalties

  8. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1986-09-01

    This bibliography is an up-date to AECL-6186(Rev 3), 1952-1982, 'Radioactive Waste Management in Canada AECL Publications and Other Literature' compiled by Dianne Wallace. Canadian publications from outside contractors concerning the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program are included in addition to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reports and papers. 252 refs

  9. Canada and the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Andrew F.

    1984-01-01

    Canada did not develop strong ties with the Third World until well after World War II. Three factors that have channeled and limited Canada's relationships with developing nations--location, history, and internal political relationships--are discussed. Also examined are patterns of Canadian foreign aid and investment and peace-seeking efforts. (RM)

  10. U.S.-Canada cooperation: the U.S.-Canada air quality agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Brian; Barton, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The impetus for the Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement was transboundary acid rain in eastern North America. This problem drove the parties to develop a bilateral agreement that not only addressed this issue, but also set up a broad and flexible framework to address other air quality problems. In 2000, the Ozone Annex to reduce smog and its precursor pollutants was negotiated. A transboundary particulate matter (PM) science assessment in 2004 led to the commencement of negotiation of a PM annex in late 2007. Over the course of 15 yr, Canada and the United States also developed innovative cooperative arrangements. Two transboundary airshed dialogues became important sources of practical on-the-ground cooperation in the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound and the Great Lakes Basin. In addition to providing the basis for ongoing international dialogue, these transboundary airshed projects resulted in changes to administrative practices as the parties exchange information and learn from each other in ways that benefit the airshed community. The nature of the Air Quality Agreement also enabled both Canada and the United States to address concerns each has had about specific pollutant sources and to address them in ways that avoided confrontation and resulted in air quality improvements for people living in the airsheds. Case studies of three of the "informal consultations" that have occurred under the agreement are described: where discussions occurred around a power plant in Michigan, a power plant in Saskatchewan, and a steel mill in Ontario. More than an agreement, this relationship has built a capacity to deal with common problems. Fostering such a relationship with its implicit transfer of knowledge and experience has opened doors for discussions on a new Clean Air framework in Canada and joint analyses of cross-border sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions caps and trading. U.S. experience with cap and trading is highlighted for background and context. The

  11. Energy in Canada 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This publication provides a panoramic overview of Canada's energy situation at the beginning of the 21st century, presenting the issues that drive the country's energy policy, and a look at the various technologies by which energy is produced, its sources, transformation and the infrastructure required to deliver it to the consumer. Energy consumption by sectors of the economy, energy conservation and energy conservation issues are analyzed, and details of the lines of actions designed by the federal government to achieve its energy policy objectives are explained. Appendix One provides more detail on the complex issue of climate change, while Appendix Two provides some energy-related statistics, extracted from a database of energy statistics which are also available in graphic or spreadsheet format at http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/es/ener2000. 12 tabs., 40 figs

  12. Tritium activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1995-01-01

    Canadian tritium activites comprise three major interests: utilites, light manufacturers, and fusion. There are 21 operating CANDU reactors in Canada; 19 with Ontario Hydro and one each with Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power. There are two light manufacturers, two primary tritium research facilities (at AECL Chalk River and Ontario Hydro Technologies), and a number of industry and universities involved in design, construction, and general support of the other tritium activities. The largest tritum program is in support of the CANDU reactors, which generate tritium in the heavy water as a by-product of normal operation. Currently, there are about 12 kg of tritium locked up in the heavy water coolant and moderator of these reactors. The fusion work is complementary to the light manufacturing, and is concerned with tritium handling for the ITER program. This included design, development and application of technologies related to Isotope Separation, tritium handling, (tritiated) gas separation, tritium-materials interaction, and plasma fueling

  13. A revised conceptual hydrogeologic model of a crystalline rock environment, Whiteshell research area, southeastern Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, D.R.; Brown, A.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.; McGregor, R.G.; Ophori, D.U.; Scheier, N.W.; Stanchell, F.; Thorne, G.A.; Tomsons, D.K.

    1996-04-01

    A revised conceptual hydrogeologic model of regional groundwater flow in the crystalline rocks of the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) has been developed by a team of AECL geoscientists. The revised model updates an earlier model developed in 1985, and has a much broader database. This database was compiled from Landsat and airborne radar images, geophysical surveys and surface mapping, and from analyses of fracture logs, hydraulic tests and water samples collected from a network of deep boreholes drilled across the WRA. The boundaries of the revised conceptual model were selected to coincide with the natural hydraulic boundaries assumed for the regional groundwater flow systems in the WRA. The upper and lower boundaries are the water table and a horizontal plane 4 km below ground surface. For modelling purposes the rocks below 4 km are considered to be impermeable. The rocks of the modelled region were divided on the basis of fracture characteristics into three categories: fractured zones (FZs); moderately fractured rock (MFR); and sparsely fractured rock (SFR). The FZs are regions of intensely fractured rock. Seventy-six FZs were selected to form the fault framework within the revised conceptual model. The physical rock/water properties of the FZs, MFR and SFR were selected by analysis of field data from hydraulic and tracer tests, laboratory test data and water quality data. These properties were used to define a mathematical groundwater flow model of the WRA using AECL's MOTIF finite element code (Ophori et al. 1995, 1996). (author). 29 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs

  14. Western Canada drilling barely keeping pace with production replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russum, D.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation provided a unique perspective of gas exploration, production and expectations in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). For the past several years, approximately 80 per cent of Canada's natural gas production has come from Alberta. In order to sustain this production level, greater activity is needed in the large and mature fields where conventional production is in decline. Rising gas prices resulting from tight supply in North America are providing incentive for additional activity, particularly in small, unconventional gas pools. The trend away from large, conventional gas pools has resulted in a decline in average well productivity. Continuing this trend will become more challenging and costly to sustain in the coming years, particularly since the oil and gas industry in Canada is already encountering manpower limitations, climate change, stringent environmental standards, and resistance from the general public. The author cautioned that the low cost and finite natural gas resource has been squandered in North America since the 1980s. The challenge now is to carefully consider how much gas can be produced in the future, but also at a cost that the consumer will pay in the global market. It was suggested that in addition to ensuring that domestic consumption and exports are targeted on the most efficient and value-added outcomes, Alberta's and Canada's energy plan should recognize the limitations of natural gas production. figs

  15. Field trip guide to selected studies of the Southwest Mineral and Environmental Investigations Project in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, B.B.; Gettings, M.E.; Bultman, M.W.; Gray, Floyd; Caruthers, K.R.; Hirschberg, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Southwest Mineral and Environmental Investigations Project is designed to address issues raised by rapid urban development in the basins of the southwestern U.S. These issues require objective geoscientific data that can be used by land managers and stakeholders to develop informed land and water use strategies. The project integrates new and existing geologic, geophysical, and geochemical data, and imagery to provide three-dimensional visualizations of the basins of southeastern Arizona. Emphasis is on developing better knowledge of the aquifer systems of both the basins and the ranges, on acquiring background and baseline information, and on determining the distribution of metals related to mineralization and the fate of these metals in surface and subsurface environments. The products of the project will be used in resolving issues of water quality and quantity, in understanding environmental impacts such as riparian ecosystem maintenace, and in evaluating mineral resources beneath and within the basins. The field trip highlights three topics and areas (figs. 1 and 2): (1) geology and geophysics of the upper San Pedro and upper Santa Cruz basins (M.E. Gettings, M. W. Bultman, and B.B. Houser), (2) geology, geophysics, and mineral resource potential of the San Rafael basin (M.W. Bultman), and (3) hydrology and aqueous geochemistry of the Red Mountain and Sonoita Creek drainage system (Floyd Gray). The trip guide, which begins and ends in Tucson, Arizona, also includes commentary on the cultural and mining history of the area.

  16. Southeastern Power Administration 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-28

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am proud to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2007 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this report reflects Southeastern’s programs, accomplishments, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2006 and ending September 30, 2007. Southeastern marketed more than 5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 492 wholesale Federal power customers in an 11-state marketing area in FY 2007. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $219 million. Drought conditions continued to plague the southeast region of the United States during 2007 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Southeastern purchased more than $40 million in replacement power to meet customer contract requirements to ensure the continued reliability of our nation’s power grid. With the financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, continued funding for capitalized equipment replacements at various Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security program continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and requirements. Plans for the upcoming year include communication and cooperation with DOE, Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our nation’s water resources. Competition for the use of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency. The employees at Southeastern will be proactive in meeting these challenges and providing reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E. Legg Administrator

  17. Canada No. 1 in business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    Canada has for the fifth time in a row been chosen the best industrialized country in the world in which to initiate and run a business. The Norwegian interest in Canada has grown strongly the last years and Norwegian companies have invested over 20 billion NOK there. Canada is the perfect gateway to the large markets in the USA. Norway is currently Canada's 15th largest trading partner. In addition to low costs and strategic location, Canada has the most highly educated workforce in the world. A company on the Canadian side of the US border has the same access to the American market as a US-based company. There is even a Norwegian company in Canada that exports 100 per cent of its products across the border to the USA. The trade between the USA and Canada is more extensive than between the USA and all the EU countries together. Furthermore, Canadian companies concentrating on research and education are given a generous tax credit

  18. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    passage of the Canada- Colombia FTA as a way to get a “leg up” in competing with U.S. firms for that market ? Canada-U.S. Relations Congressional...parts market , or so-called aftermarket, is reportedly the largest retail sector in Canada, ahead of clothing, food, furniture, and pharmaceuticals . The...not long avoid the effects of the collapse of the U.S. housing market , the woes of the U.S. automotive sector, and the seizing up of credit markets

  19. A regional tidal/subtidal circulation model of the southeastern Bering Sea: development, sensitivity analyses and hindcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Albert J.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Haidvogel, Dale B.; Musgrave, David L.

    2002-12-01

    A regional eddy-resolving primitive equation circulation model was used to simulate circulation on the southeastern Bering Sea (SEBS) shelf and basin. This model resolves the dominant observed mean currents, eddies and meanders in the region, and simultaneously includes both tidal and subtidal dynamics. Circulation, temperature, and salinity fields for years 1995 and 1997 were hindcast, using daily wind and buoyancy flux estimates, and tidal forcing derived from a global model. This paper describes the development of the regional model, a comparison of model results with available Eulerian and Lagrangian data, a comparison of results between the two hindcast years, and a sensitivity analysis. Based on these hindcasts and sensitivity analyses, we suggest the following: (1) The Bering Slope Current is a primary source of large ( ˜100 km diameter) eddies in the SEBS basin. Smaller meanders are also formed along the 100 m isobath on the southeastern shelf, and along the 200-m isobath near the shelf break. (2) There is substantial interannual variability in the statistics of eddies within the basin, driven by variability in the strength of the ANSC. (3) The mean flow on the shelf is not strongly sensitive to changes in the imposed strength of the ANSC; rather, it is strongly sensitive to the local wind forcing. (4) Vertical mixing in the SEBS is strongly affected by both tidal and subtidal dynamics. Strongest mixing in the SEBS may in fact occur between the 100- and 400-m isobaths, near the Pribilof Islands, and in Unimak Pass.

  20. Adaptation of Arabidopsis thaliana to the Yangtze River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Pan; Hou, Xing-Hui; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Jia-Fu; Li, Zi-Wen; Han, Ting-Shen; Niu, Xiao-Min; Yang, Li; Xu, Yong-Chao; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Min; Tan, Dunyan; Tian, Zhixi; Gu, Hongya; Guo, Ya-Long

    2017-12-28

    Organisms need to adapt to keep pace with a changing environment. Examining recent range expansion aids our understanding of how organisms evolve to overcome environmental constraints. However, how organisms adapt to climate changes is a crucial biological question that is still largely unanswered. The plant Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent system to study this fundamental question. Its origin is in the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa, but it has spread to the Far East, including the most south-eastern edge of its native habitats, the Yangtze River basin, where the climate is very different. We sequenced 118 A. thaliana strains from the region surrounding the Yangtze River basin. We found that the Yangtze River basin population is a unique population and diverged about 61,409 years ago, with gene flows occurring at two different time points, followed by a population dispersion into the Yangtze River basin in the last few thousands of years. Positive selection analyses revealed that biological regulation processes, such as flowering time, immune and defense response processes could be correlated with the adaptation event. In particular, we found that the flowering time gene SVP has contributed to A. thaliana adaptation to the Yangtze River basin based on genetic mapping. A. thaliana adapted to the Yangtze River basin habitat by promoting the onset of flowering, a finding that sheds light on how a species can adapt to locales with very different climates.

  1. Can Education Reform Canada's Criminals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the development of the existing correctional programs in Canada's prisons, some theories of criminality, and two competing views on the best way to reform criminals today. Also gives a short review of penitentiary education programs. (RK)

  2. Canada-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ek, Carl; Fergusson, Ian F; Nunez-Neto, Blas; Clarke, Stephen F; Abel, Amy; Becker, Geoffrey S; Buck, Eugene H; Corn, M. L; Gelb, Bernard A; Gorte, Ross W

    2006-01-01

    .... The early 1990s brought new governments to Ottawa and Washington, and although Canada's Liberal Party emphasized its determination to act independently of the United States when necessary, relations...

  3. The nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Broughton, W.

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear industry in Canada comprises three identifiable groups: (1) Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), (2) electrical utilities that use nuclear power plants, (3) private engineering and manufacturing companies. At the end of World War II, AECL was charged with investigating and developing peaceful uses of atomic power. Included in the results is the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, a peculiarly Canadian design. The AECL maintains research capability and operates as the prime nuclear steam supply system supplier. Utilities in three Canadian provinces operate nuclear power plants, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario, with the majority in Ontario. From the beginning of the nuclear program in Canada, private industry has been an important partner to AECL and the utilities, filling roles as manufacturing subcontractors and as component designers. The prime objective of this paper is to illuminate the role of private industry in developing and maintaining a competitive world-class nuclear industry

  4. Francophone Canada: The Other Solitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlan, James J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the influence of New France on Canadian history, focusing on the survival of a strong francophone culture in North America. Presents the politics, culture, and geography of Quebec, the center of French Canada. (DB)

  5. Uranium production, exploration and mine development in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R. E

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Canada has been the world leader in uranium production since the early 1990's and production in 2005 was 11,629 te U. The Elliott Lake region of Ontario was once the centre of production, but after the last facilities closed in 1996, all production now comes from the Athabasca Basin in northern Saskatchewan. Average grades of the world's two largest high grade deposits at McArthur River and Cigar Lake are 10 to 100 times the grade of deposits mined elsewhere. McArthur River has been in production since late 1999 and first production from Cigar Lake is expected in 2007. If all expansion and probable mine openings come to fruition, annual Canadian production could amount to 16,000 te U by 2011. All currently operating uranium mines have been the subject of a comprehensive environmental assessment and review process. Uranium mining brings significant benefits to local area residents in northern Saskatchewan. Residents of northern Saskatchewan are active participants in Environmental Quality Committees. Recent survey results show the majority of Saskatchewan residents support the continuation of uranium mining in the province. The closed uranium mines in Canada have been successfully decommissioned and rehabilitated in particular in the Elliott Lake region of Ontario. The principle exploration target in Canada remains the Athabasca Basin, but activity has also been reported in several of the other territories and provinces. Natural Resources Canada estimates that some $CAN81M was spent on exploration in Canada in 2005. Under the Canadian Constitution, natural resources are owned by the provinces or by the federal government if they are on federal lands north of 60 0 C latitude. The provinces have jurisdiction over exploration activities within their borders and for most commodities have jurisdiction over mine development and production, operations, health and safety and environmental matters. Once a company starts to develop a deposit into a mine

  6. Northern gas : Arctic Canada and Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses supply challenges in relation to Northern gas availability in Arctic Canada and Alaska. A background of BP Canada Energy Company was provided. It was suggested that gas from traditional North American basins would not meet demand, and that incremental sources of supply would be needed. A map of traditional and non-tradition supply sources was presented along with details of supply and infrastructure investment requirements from 2003-2025. The roles of producers, local distribution companies, pipelines and policy makers in infrastructure development were examined. Potential resources in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta were discussed, along with details of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project and exploration activities. Alaska's North Slope gas resource was reviewed. Several large projects devolving from the Alaska Gas Pipeline represent an anticipated total investment of $20 billion. Various regulatory and economic conditions necessary for the successful completion of the project include the Alaska Fiscal Contract; Alaska gas provisions in the Federal Energy Bill; details of the Canadian regulatory process; and cost reductions and market outlooks. It was concluded that the Alaska Gas Pipeline would provide thousands of jobs and provide stability of long-term gas prices as well as meeting North America's energy needs. In addition, the pipeline would provide $16 billion in Canadian government revenues and $40 billion in US government revenues. The pipeline would provide 4.5 billion cubic feet per day of clean energy, with half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal. It would also provide hundreds of billions of dollars in consumer savings. tabs, figs

  7. Superimposed versus residual basin: The North Yellow Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Yellow Sea Basin is a Mesozoic and Cenozoic basin. Based on basin-margin facies, sedimentary thinning, size and shape of the basin and vitrinite reflectance, North Yellow Sea Basin is not a residual basin. Analysis of the development of the basin’s three structural layers, self-contained petroleum systems, boundary fault activity, migration of the Mesozoic–Cenozoic sedimentation centers, different basin structures formed during different periods, and superposition of a two-stage extended basin and one-stage depression basin, the North Yellow Sea Basin is recognized as a superimposed basin.

  8. Irregular plate boundary controls on Foreland Basin sedimentation (Miocene, Kahramanmaraş Foreland Basin, SE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Murat; Gürbüz, Kemal; Cronin, Bryan T.

    2015-11-01

    The northern movement of the Arabian Plate led to the development of a compressional regime in the south-eastern part of Turkey after the Late Cretaceous. The collision of the Arabian Plate with the Anatolide-Taurides Platform and subsequent development of the Kahramanmaraş Foreland Basin at the beginning of the Miocene evolved as a result of this movement. An irregular plate geometry or promontory of the Arabian Plate caused partitioning of the plate margin (precollision-collision-postcollision). This irregular plate boundary was delimited by western and northern boundary faults and an interior basin fault. The NW-oriented small wedge top basins on the overlying Anatolide-Taurides Platform obliquely cut through the foredeep basin. The region (across the wedge top basin) on the irregular promontory of the underlying Arabian Plate contains different sedimentation depocentres. Small fining-upward submarine fan deposits (including pebbly channel deposits and coarsening-upward lobe sequences) are located at the centre of the irregular part of the plate (in the Tanır region) and overlie planktic foraminifera-bearing claystones. These submarine fan sediments pass outboard into distal interbedded turbidite claystones and siltstones in a downdip direction (S-SE). The boundary fault intersection of the promontory led to the development of a submarine slope environment with irregular sea-floor topography in the Fırnız area (4-5 km south-east of the Tanır region). The slump deposits, sandy debrites, and fine-grained thin-bedded turbidites filled this region. Structural alignments and seismicity associated with the plate margin were the main controlling factors on the geometry of the depocentre, sediment quantity, sediment input, sedimentary facies, local sea level changes, and post-sedimentary deformation in the Kahramanmaraş Foreland Basin.

  9. Canada's conventional natural gas resources : a status report : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada as well as the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. Energy market assessment reports examine different facets of the Canadian energy market and include long term-assessments of Canada's supply and demand as well as near-term energy market issues. This report examines the geological potential for conventional natural gas resources. An estimate of those resources for Canada was also presented. The main objective of the report is to set the groundwork for future partnerships between provincial, territorial and federal agencies. The size of Alberta's conventional natural gas resources is being examined in partnership with the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). The ultimate potential for conventional natural gas in British Columbia is being assessed by the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines. The Board's internal assessment for 2004 has revealed an estimate of 207 trillion cubic feet for the ultimate of conventional natural gas in Alberta. This estimate is higher than the estimate provided by the Canadian Gas Potential Committee in 2001 and higher than the 1992 assessment of the EUB. It was noted that most undiscovered resources in Alberta will be found in the shallow Cretaceous zones, not in deep Devonian zones. The Board also revised its estimate for the Mackenzie Delta-Beaufort Sea region and the East Newfoundland Basin. The current estimate for ultimate potential of conventional natural gas in Canada is 501 trillion cubic feet, with the following distribution of the resources by basin: Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (54.5 per cent), Northern Canada (23.1 per cent), East Coast (18.3 per cent), West Coast (3.4 per cent), Ontario (0.5 per cent), and Gulf of St. Lawrence (0.3 per cent). 39 refs., 7 tabs., 13 figs

  10. The Sirte Basin province of Libya; Sirte-Zelten total petroleum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    The Sirte (Sirt) Basin province ranks 13th among the world?s petroleum provinces, having known reserves of 43.1 bil-lion barrels of oil equivalent (36.7 billion barrels of oil, 37.7 tril-lion cubic feet of gas, 0.1 billion barrels of natural gas liquids). It includes an area about the size of the Williston Basin of the north-ern United States and southern Canada (?490,000 square kilome-ters). The province contains one dominant total petroleum system, the Sirte-Zelten, based on geochemical data. The Upper Cretaceous Sirte Shale is the primary hydrocarbon source bed. Reservoirs range in rock type and age from fractured Precam-brian basement, clastic reservoirs in the Cambrian-Ordovician Gargaf sandstones, and Lower Cretaceous Nubian (Sarir) Sand-stone to Paleocene Zelten Formation and Eocene carbonates commonly in the form of bioherms. More than 23 large oil fields (>100 million barrels of oil equivalent) and 16 giant oil fields (>500 million barrels of oil equivalent) occur in the province. Abstract 1 Production from both clastic and carbonate onshore reservoirs is associated with well-defined horst blocks related to a triple junc-tion with three arms?an eastern Sarir arm, a northern Sirte arm, and a southwestern Tibesti arm. Stratigraphic traps in combina-tion with these horsts in the Sarir arm are shown as giant fields (for example, Messla and Sarir fields in the southeastern portion of the province). Significant potential is identified in areas marginal to the horsts, in the deeper grabens and in the offshore area. Four assessment units are defined in the Sirte Basin prov-ince, two reflecting established clastic and carbonate reservoir areas and two defined as hypothetical units. Of the latter, one is offshore in water depths greater than 200 meters, and the other is onshore where clastic units, mainly of Mesozoic age, may be res-ervoirs for laterally migrating hydrocarbons that were generated in the deep-graben areas. The Sirte Basin reflects significant rifting

  11. Quantitative morphotectonic analysis of the South-Eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionuţ Cristea, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    South-Eastern Carpathians (Vrancea Region) have received an increasing scientific attention during the past years, mostly resulting in a detailed reconstruction of their exumation history. Moreover structural and thermocronological data suggest that the frontal part of the SE Carpathians conserves the youngest topography in the Romanian Carpathians resulting from a deformational process occurring during the late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene. This significant tectonic activity continues to the present time as it is confirmed by the geodetic measurements and by the frequency of crustal earthquakes. The specific effects of the Quaternary deformations on the regional fluvial system were associated so far with an increased incision and the formation of the degradational (strath) terraces, downstream tiling of terraces, the establishment of local drainage divides and young longitudinal river profiles. Our study further investigates the possible influence of the recent tectonic activity on the characteristics of the drainage basins in the area and the distribution of the over-steepened stream reaches using spatial autocorrelation techniques (Getis Ord Gi* statistics and Anselin's Local Moran's I). For the first, hypsometric integrals (Hi) and transverse topographic symmetry factor were analyzed. For the last, we used locally computed normalized channel steepness index (ksn). Due to the highly variable lithology in the region (specific to the Flysch areas), additional correlations of the determined values with the geological units and rock types have been made in order to assess the effects. The results show that the geographic clustering of the high Hi and ksn values is more significant than the lithological one, and, although the rock strength have local influences, this is not sufficient to explain the regional distribution of the values, generally between 26.5o and 26.66o E (p

  12. Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Alexandre Oliveira; Coelho, Petrônio Alves; Luz, Joaldo Rocha; dos Santos, José Tiago Almeida; Ferraz, Neyva Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. Voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815) and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881) and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862), M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. jelskii (Miers, 1877), M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836), and Palaemon (Palaemon) pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871). The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral margin is

  13. Cretaceous sedimentation and tectonism in the southeastern Kaiparowits region, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Fred

    1969-01-01

    Upper Cretaceous strata in the southeastern Kaiparowits region of south-central Utah consist of approximately 3,500 feet of interfingering sandstone, mudstone, shale, and coal in the Dakota Formation (oldest), Tropic Shale, Straight Cliffs Formation, and Wahweap Formation (youngest). The formations consist of several depositional facies that can be recognized by characteristic lithologies bedding structures, and fossils; these are the alluvial plain, deltaic plain, lagoonal-paludal, barrier sandstone, and offshore marine facies. The distribution of facies clearly defines the paleogeography of the region during several cycles of marine transgression and regression. The nonmarine beds were deposited on a broad alluvial coastal plain that was bordered on the west and southwest by highlands and on the east and northeast by the Western Interior seaway. The marine beds were deposited whenever the seaway advanced into or across the region. The Dakota Formation and the lower part of the Tropic Shale were deposited in nonmarine and marine environments, while the shoreline advanced generally westward across the region. The middle and upper part of the Tropic Shale and the Tibbet Canyon and Smoky Hollow Members of the Straight Cliffs Formation were deposited in marine and nonmarine environments when the seaway had reached its greatest areal extent and began a gradual northeastward withdrawal. An unconformity at the top of the Smoky Hollow represents a period of erosion and possibly nondeposition before deposition of the John Henry Member of the Straight Cliffs. The John Henry Member grades from nonmarine in the southwest to predominantly marine in the northeast, and was deposited during two relatively minor cycles of transgression and regression. The Drip Tank Member at the top of the Straight Cliffs Formation is a widespread sandstone unit deposited mainly in fluvial environments. Some of the beds in the northeastern part of the region were probably deposited in marine

  14. Flood tracking chart, Amite River Basin, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Lawrence E.; McCallum, Brian E.; Brazelton, Sebastian R.; Anderson, Mary L.; Ensminger, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    The Amite River Basin flood tracking chart is designed to assist emergency response officials and the local public in making informed decisions about the safety of life and property during floods along the Amite and Comite Rivers and Bayou Manchac in southeastern Louisiana. This chart is similar in concept to the charts used to track hurricanes; the user can record the latest river stage information at selected gaging stations and the latest flood crest predictions. The latest stage data can be compared to historical flood peaks as well as to the slab or pier elevation of a threatened property. The chart also discusses how to acquire the latest river stage data from the Internet and a recorded voice message.

  15. The Pennsylvanian-early permian bird spring carbonate shelf, Southeastern California: Fusulinid biostratigraphy, paleogeographic evolution, and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Bird Spring Shelf in southeastern California, along with coeval turbidite basins to the west, records a complex history of late Paleozoic sedimentation, sea-level changes, and deformation along the western North American continental margin. We herein establish detailed correlations between deposits of the shelf and the flanking basins, which we then use to reconstruct the depositional history, paleogeography, and deformational history, including Early Permian emplacement of the regionally significant Last Chance allochthon. These correlations are based on fusulinid faunas, which are numerous both on the shelf and in the adjoining basins. Study of 69 fusulinid species representing all major fusulinid-bearing Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian limestone outcrops of the Bird Spring Shelf in southeastern California, including ten new species of the genera Triticites, Leptotriticites, Stewartina, Pseudochusenella, and Cuniculinella, forms the basis for our correlations. We group these species into six fusulinid zones that we correlate with fusulinid-bearing strata in east-central and southern Nevada, Kansas, and West Texas, and we propose some regional correlations not previously suggested. In addition, we utilize recent conodont data from these areas to correlate our Early Permian fusulinid zones with the standard Global Permian Stages, strengthening their chronostratigraphic value. Our detailed correlations between the fusulinid-bearing rocks of the Bird Spring Shelf and deep-water deposits to the northwest reveal relationships between the history of shelf sedimentation and evolution of basins closer to the continental margin. In Virgilian to early Asselian (early Wolfcampian) time (Fusulinid Zones 1 and 2), the Bird Spring Shelf was flanked on the west by the deep-water Keeler Basin in which calcareous turbidites derived from the shelf were deposited. In early Sakmarian (early middle Wolfcampian) time (Fusulinid Zone 3), the Keeler Basin deposits were uplifted and

  16. Canada's isotope crisis : what next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathwani, J.; Wallace, D.

    2010-01-01

    Canada urgently requires a rigorous debate on the strategic options for ensuring a robust, reliable, and affordable supply of radioactive isotopes. Should the debate be confined to how Canada can best develop the necessary technologies solely for our own use or should Canada abandon the idea of producing its own isotope supply and any future aspirations to serve the global market? Canada's Isotope Crisis focuses on the central policy question: do we dare to try to shape the future or do we retreat into silence because we are not prepared to make the necessary investments for the future well-being of Canadians? This volume showcases pointed essays and analysis from members of the academy and individuals who have made contributions to the development of medical isotopes and pioneered their use in medical practice. It also includes commentary from those involved in the production, manufacturing, processing, and distribution of isotopes. Canada's Isotope Crisis is a multi-disciplinary effort that addresses the global dimension of isotope supply and combines expert opinions on the present and past with knowledge of the relevant government agencies and the basis for their decisions at critical junctures.

  17. Mediterranean spotted fever in southeastern Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigoi, Daniela; Olaru, Ioana D; Badescu, Daniela; Rafila, Alexandru; Arama, Victoria; Hristea, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Although cases of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) have been reported for decades in southeastern Romania, there are few published data. We retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with MSF at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals" between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about MSF in certain regions of Romania. According to the Raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4%) had a score >25 points. Mean age was 52.5 years. One hundred and fifty-five (90.6%) patients were from Bucharest and the surrounding region. Almost all patients presented with fever (99.4%) and rash (98.2%), and 57.9% had evidence of a tick bite. There were no recorded deaths. Serologic diagnosis was made by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Of the 171 patients, serology results for R. conorii were available in 147. One hundred and twenty-three (83.7%) of them had a titer IgG ≥1:160 or a fourfold increase in titer in paired samples. MSF is endemic in southeastern Romania and should be considered in patients with fever and rash even in the absence of recognized tick exposure. Since the disease is prevalent in areas highly frequented by tourists, travel-associated MSF should be suspected in patients with characteristic symptoms returning from the endemic area.

  18. Mediterranean Spotted Fever in Southeastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pitigoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cases of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF have been reported for decades in southeastern Romania, there are few published data. We retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with MSF at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases “Prof. Dr. Matei Bals” between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about MSF in certain regions of Romania. According to the Raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4% had a score >25 points. Mean age was 52.5 years. One hundred and fifty-five (90.6% patients were from Bucharest and the surrounding region. Almost all patients presented with fever (99.4% and rash (98.2%, and 57.9% had evidence of a tick bite. There were no recorded deaths. Serologic diagnosis was made by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Of the 171 patients, serology results for R. conorii were available in 147. One hundred and twenty-three (83.7% of them had a titer IgG ≥1 : 160 or a fourfold increase in titer in paired samples. MSF is endemic in southeastern Romania and should be considered in patients with fever and rash even in the absence of recognized tick exposure. Since the disease is prevalent in areas highly frequented by tourists, travel-associated MSF should be suspected in patients with characteristic symptoms returning from the endemic area.

  19. Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) in southeastern Oregon: A survey of historical localities, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Chistopher A.; Galvan, Stephanie K.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) occupies a large range in western North America and is comprised of at least three genetic units. Concern exists regarding the status of the Great Basin populations in Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada. We surveyed target and nearby alternate sites on public lands in southeastern Oregon where there was evidence that Columbia spotted frogs were historically present. We found the species at 59.5 percent (25 of 42) of target or nearby alternate sites. They were in 15 of 23 permanent streams and 8 of 13 intermittent streams. Our surveys do not provide evidence of widespread population losses in our sites. Interpretation of status of Columbia spotted frogs in this study is limited by a lack of precision in some of the historical locations and by our inability to determine if locations where only adults were indicated in the historical record once had breeding populations. Our results support the need for continued investigation of these populations.

  20. Sediment Flux and Storage in a Rural Southeastern Piedmont River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. R.; Martin, J. K.

    2001-12-01

    A sediment budget was developed for a representative rural southeastern Piedmont watershed to provide information on the relative importance of sediment sources. Sediment issues in the southeastern Piedmont are complicated by the so-called legacy sediment produced by poor farming practices during the cotton-farming era, approximately 1810-1930. The Murder Creek basin near Monticello, GA was chosen because: it featured forestry and agriculture as the principal land uses; a USGS gage provided a flow record; and the creek deposited in a reservoir built in 1948. Suspended load export was calculated using a sediment rating curve and the USGS flow time series. Bed load export was determined by estimating the volume of sediment deposited in the reservoir since construction. Unpaved road erosion was estimated using the WEPP model, and other surface erosion was estimated using USLE and delivery ratios. Historical floodplain storage was determined by coring floodplain deposits, measuring the depth to the pre-historic/historic sediment interface, and multiplying by the area of the floodplain. Recent accretion rates were estimated using dendrogeomorphology. Results showed that the practices of the cotton farming era deposited an average of 1.6 meters of sediment on the floodplains. This depth was relatively uniform across the watershed. The cotton-farming sediment in storage exceeds the current annual export by a factor of about 5000. Approximately half of the current export comes from current inputs, and half comes from remobilized floodplain sediments.

  1. Karelian Heritage in the Toponymy of the Southeastern Lake Onega Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton I. Sobolev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on place names of Karelian origin on the territory of Southeastern Lake Onega region and provides linguistic and historical evidence of Karelians’ migrations to the area in question. The etymological analysis of place names made by the author supports that the Karelian language was brought to the territory of the Southeastern Lake Onega region from the Northwestern Lake Ladoga region by the end of the 15th century. The documentary and linguistic data testify that in the 15–18th centuries there were several migrations of Karelians to the studied area and that in the 18th century the Karelian language was still in use by a part of the population of the eastern Andoma river basin. Since Karelians migrated to the Russian-Veps language environment, the article provides evidence of Vepsian adaptations of Karelian place names and of Veps-Karelian and Russian-Karelian bilingualism in the studied area in the 17–18th centuries. The research is based on reliable historical resources and toponymic data from the contemporary Karelian territories and takes into account the geographic characteristics of the named objects.

  2. Canada report on bioenergy 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Canada possesses significant forest resources. This paper reviewed Canada's bioenergy potential and market. Biomass in Canada is used to produce heat and power, as well as to produce ethanol and biodiesel. Biomass is also used to produce pyrolysis oil and wood pellets. Biomass resources included woody biomass; annual residue production; hog fuel piles; forest harvest waste and urban wood residues; agricultural residues; and municipal solid wastes. Trends in biomass production and consumption were discussed, and current biomass users were identified. A review of biomass prices was presented, and imports and exports for ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets were discussed. Barriers and opportunities for trade were also outlined. 6 tabs., 6 figs. 1 appendix.

  3. Deep seismic reflection profiling of sedimentary basins offshore Brazil: Geological objectives and preliminary results in the Sergipe Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohriak, Webster Ueipass; Lira Rabelo, JoséHenrique; De Matos, Renato Darros; De Barros, Mozart C.

    1995-12-01

    The first deep seismic reflection profiles offshore Brazil were acquired in Campos Basin and processed to 10 s TWT in 1984. Starting in 1989, Petrobrás acquired an extensive data set of deep seismic profiles using special acquisition equipment capable of effectively penetrating through the sedimentary layers and imaging the whole crustal architecture. These deep (18 s TWT) seismic reflection profiles extend across the Atlantic-type marginal basins, from the platform to the deepwater province, presently considered frontier regions for petroleum exploration. This work addresses the geological objectives of a deep seismic profile in the Sergipe Basin and discusses the results obtained by integrating regional seismic, gravity and magnetic data. When combined, these data provide evidence that deep seismic reflectors observed in the Sergipe Basin are related to intracrustal-upper mantle structures rather than sedimentary features. The deep seismic reflection profile in the Sergipe Basin also suggests that, rather than a non-volcanic passive margin, the deepwater extension of this basin is marked by several magmatic structures, including thick wedges of seaward-dipping reflectors and volcanic plugs. These magmatic features are associated with basinforming processes resulting from lithospheric extension during the breakup of Gondwana in the Early Cretaceous and subsequent emplacement of oceanic crust. These results are compared to the crustal scale structures observed in the Campos Basin, in the southeastern margin of Brazil. The interpretation of the deep structure of these basins indicates that final separation between the South American and African plates formed passive margins characterized by different patterns of crustal attenuation underlying the rift blocks.

  4. Traditional Chinese medicine education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huan-bin

    2015-03-01

    The history of education and legislation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and acupuncture in Canada is short. The first school of TCM opened its door to the general public in Canada in 1985 and the first legislation of acupuncture was introduced in Alberta, Canada in 1988. Currently, TCM and/or acupuncture have been regulated in five provinces in Canada. The legislation and regulation, as well as education of TCM and acupuncture vary among the five provinces in Canada. Opportunities and challenges facing TCM education exist simultaneously. Strategies are proposed to develop an international standard for TCM education in Canada, and possibly in other English speaking countries as well.

  5. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment survey (NURE). Preliminary report on the Smoke Creek Desert Basin pilot study (Nevada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) is conducting a hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment survey in the seven western states as part of ERDA's National Uranium Resources Evaluation (NURE) Program. The objective of this survey is to develop a geochemical data base for use by the private sector to locate regions of anomalous uranium content. Prior to wide area coverage, several pilot studies are being undertaken to develop and evaluate sampling and analytical techniques. The second through fifth of these studies were conducted in four playa basins in Nevada, selected to represent different regional geology and uranium occurrence. This study in the Smoke Creek Desert Basin, characterizes igneous surface geology with known uranium occurrences. The Smoke Creek Desert Basin is the largest of the four playa basins and contains an areaof about 2700 square kilometers (1003 square miles). The basin is bordered on the east by the Fox Hills and on the north and east by the Granite Ranges which are characterized by granite, pegmatites, and Tertiary rocks very similar to the lithology of the Winnemucca Basin boundary ranges (study UCID-16911-P-2). On the west the Desert is bordered by an area of extensive basalt flow. There is no known uranium occurrence in the area, and metallization of any kind is scarce. This study is applicable to the western igneous portion of the Basin and Range Province which includes southeastern Oregon, western Nevada, and southeastern California. This report contains only analytical data and sample locations

  6. Petroleum geology and resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin, Ukraine and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The Dnieper-Donets basin is almost entirely in Ukraine, and it is the principal producer of hydrocarbons in that country. A small southeastern part of the basin is in Russia. The basin is bounded by the Voronezh high of the Russian craton to the northeast and by the Ukrainian shield to the southwest. The basin is principally a Late Devonian rift that is overlain by a Carboniferous to Early Permian postrift sag. The Devonian rift structure extends northwestward into the Pripyat basin of Belarus; the two basins are separated by the Bragin-Loev uplift, which is a Devonian volcanic center. Southeastward, the Dnieper-Donets basin has a gradational boundary with the Donbas foldbelt, which is a structurally inverted and deformed part of the basin. The sedimentary succession of the basin consists of four tectono-stratigraphic sequences. The prerift platform sequence includes Middle Devonian to lower Frasnian, mainly clastic, rocks that were deposited in an extensive intracratonic basin. 1 The Upper Devonian synrift sequence probably is as thick as 4?5 kilometers. It is composed of marine carbonate, clastic, and volcanic rocks and two salt formations, of Frasnian and Famennian age, that are deformed into salt domes and plugs. The postrift sag sequence consists of Carboniferous and Lower Permian clastic marine and alluvial deltaic rocks that are as thick as 11 kilometers in the southeastern part of the basin. The Lower Permian interval includes a salt formation that is an important regional seal for oil and gas fields. The basin was affected by strong compression in Artinskian (Early Permian) time, when southeastern basin areas were uplifted and deeply eroded and the Donbas foldbelt was formed. The postrift platform sequence includes Triassic through Tertiary rocks that were deposited in a shallow platform depression that extended far beyond the Dnieper-Donets basin boundaries. A single total petroleum system encompassing the entire sedimentary succession is identified in

  7. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    and winter precipitation totals were used to anticipate flooding of Holgate Lake. Several factors affect annual mean flow of Johnson Creek. More precipitation falls in the southeastern area of the basin because of the topographic setting. Runoff from much of the northern and western areas of the basin does not flow into Johnson Creek due to permeable deposits, interception by combined sewer systems, and by groundwater flow away from Johnson Creek. Inflow from Crystal Springs Creek accounts for one-half of the increase in streamflow of Johnson Creek between the Sycamore and Milwaukie sites. Low flows of Johnson Creek vary as a result of fluctuations in groundwater discharge to the creek, although past water uses may have decreased flows. The groundwater contributions to streamflow upstream of river mile (RM) 5.5 are small compared to contributions downstream of this point. Comparison of flows to a nearby basin indicates that diversions of surface water may have resulted in a 50 percent decrease in low flows from about 1955 to 1977. Runoff from the drainage basin area upstream of the Johnson Creek at Sycamore site contributes more to peak streamflow and peak volume than the drainage basin area between the Sycamore and Milwaukie sites. The average increase in annual peak streamflow and annual peak volume between the two sites was 11 and 24 percent, respectively. Decreased contribution in the lower area of the drainage basin is a result of infiltration, interception by drywell and combined sewer systems, and temporary overbank storage. Trends in flow typically associated with increasing urban development were absent in Johnson Creek. Annual, low, and high flows showed no trend from 1941 to 2006. Much of the infrastructure that may affect runoff from agricultural, residential, and urban development was in place prior to collection of hydrologic data in the basin. Management of stormwater in the urban areas by routing runoff from impervious surfaces to dry

  8. TransCanada's Alberta hub : a great market for British Columbia natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation outlined commercial gas transmission activities along TransCanada Pipelines' wholly owned regulated pipelines in western Canada, including the Alberta System and the British Columbia (BC) System. TransCanada Pipelines owns and operates 41,000 km of pipeline that transport 11.5 billion cubic feet of gas per day. TransCanada's efforts to improve Alberta System economics were described along with the services it has developed to better connect supply and improve market access. This presentation included several illustrations depicting North American gas supply and demand; frontier resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB); pipelines that accommodate northern gas; Alberta gas demand; and, Pacific gas demand; The integration of the Gas Transmission Northwest (GTN) System in the energy grid of western North America was also discussed. It was determined that production from the WCSB remains stable and supply from BC will remain a key growth area for the WCSB. In addition, enhancements to the Alberta Hub, facilitated by TransCanada's Nova Inventory Transfer, will provides a great market for BC gas. figs

  9. Nitrogen dynamics in subtropical fringe and basin mangrove forests inferred from stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Carla Roberta Gonçalves; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld; Rochelle, André Luis Casarin; Vieira, Simone Aparecida; Oliveira, Rafael Silva

    2017-03-01

    Mangroves exhibit low species richness compared to other tropical forests, but great structural and functional diversity. Aiming to contribute to a better understanding of the functioning of mangrove forests, we investigated nitrogen (N) dynamics in two physiographic types of mangroves (fringe and basin forests) in southeastern Brazil. Because fringe forests are under great influence of tidal flushing we hypothesized that these forests would exhibit higher N cycling rates in sediment and higher N losses to the atmosphere compared to basin forests. We quantified net N mineralization and nitrification rates in sediment and natural abundance of N stable isotopes (δ 15 N) in the sediment-plant-litter system. The fringe forest exhibited higher net N mineralization rates and δ 15 N in the sediment-plant-litter system, but net nitrification rates were similar to those of the basin forest. The results of the present study suggest that fringe forests exhibit higher N availability and N cycling in sediment compared to basin forests.

  10. A National Palliative Care Strategy for Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, R. Sean

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify barrier to achieving universal access to high quality palliative care in Canada, review published national strategies and frameworks to promote palliative care, examine key aspects that have been linked to successful outcomes, and make recommendations for Canada.

  11. Comparing pyloromyotomy outcomes across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ednie, Alexander C; Amram, Ofer; Schuurman, Nadine; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2017-05-01

    Changing patterns of referral and management of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) in North America have recently been described. Comfort with perioperative management, anesthesia, and corrective surgery have been cited as reasons for these changes. Our primary objective was to assess pyloromyotomy outcomes between different hospital types across Canada. The secondary objective was to geospatially map all pyloromyotomies to identify regions of higher HPS incidence across Canada. Data of all pyloromyotomies done between 2011 and 2013 were acquired from Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Complication rates and length of hospital stay (LOS) were analyzed. Postal codes for each patient were used to geospatially map regions of higher HPS incidence. A total of 1261 pyloromyotomies were assessed. There was no difference in LOS or complication rates between different hospital types or surgeon group. Open pyloromyotomies were done in 75% of the cases. Several regions of higher HPS incidence were identified across Canada. This study found no difference in complication rate or LOS stay between hospital type and surgeon type across Canada. This may reflect a previously identified referral trend in the United States towards pediatric centers. Several regions of higher HPS incidence were identified, and may aid in identifying genetic elements causing HPS. 2c. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Educational Change in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Webber

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Alberta, Canada, is the site of large-scale educational change initiatives legislated by the provincial government. The mandates have sparked heated public debate over the appropriateness, wisdom, and utility of the reforms. This article summarizes the views of representatives of several educational interest groups and offers suggestions for making change more meaningful and successful.

  13. Educating Canada's Urban Poor Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, Bill; Foster, Rosemary

    2000-01-01

    Presents six critical thoughts and questions about educating poor urban children in Canada. These thoughts were derived from the development of a directory of Canadian educational poverty programs. Findings from that study emphasize the increasing diversity of the student population, the importance of temporary and large-scale funding, and the…

  14. Food irradiation: progress in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada; non-regulatory developments (poultry irradiation; fish irradiation; Government willingness to fund industry initiated projects; Government willingness to establish food irradiation research and pilot plant facilities; food industry interest is increasing significantly; Canadian Consumers Association positive response; the emergence of new consulting and entrepreneurial firms). (U.K.)

  15. Unique Measles Virus in Canada

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-24

    Dr. Shelley Deeks, chief of communicable diseases at Public Health Ontario, discusses a measles outbreak in Canada.  Created: 8/24/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  16. Creative Literature in Canada Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Grace, Ed.; McDonough, Irma, Ed.

    The contents of this booklet were presented at a symposium on Canadian creative literature at the University of Toronto in March 1974. Included are five papers, summaries of two talks (one by Bill Sault on the oral tradition of Canada's native peoples and one by Robert Weaver on discovering and encouraging Canadian writers) and of a panel…

  17. Canada-China power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.

    1995-01-01

    International energy opportunities were reviewed, with emphasis on China, and on Canada-China Power Inc., alternatively known as 'Team Canada'. Canada-Chine Power Inc., is a company founded by three of Canada's leading engineering consulting firms, i.e., Monenco AGRA Inc., SNC Lavalin Inc., and Acres International Limited. An office was established in Beijing in January 1994. Other Canadian manufacturers and engineering companies also have been actively pursuing hydro power opportunities in China for several years in view of China's enormous demand for power. It was estimated that by the year 2000, China will install 137 GW of new capacity, and foreign investment will account for approximately a third of the growth. AGRA is working on a 5400 MW thermal plant on Hainan Island, and is in final negotiations with the Yangtze Three Gorges Development Corporation for a management information system for their 18200 MW multi-purpose project. Criteria used by AGRA to identify international opportunities include: (1) a large capital spending program in fields with capabilities, expertise and past experience, (2) access to international funding, (3) competitive Canadian technology, and (4) an acceptable business and cultural climate. In assessing the opportunities, AGRA decided to concentrate on providing technologies in greatest need, such as project management systems, computer engineering and CAD systems, and clean coal technology

  18. Let's Celebrate! Canada's Special Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Caroline

    Designed for children ages 8 to 13, this teaching resource presents an explanation of seasons, calendars, and why people celebrate particular days. The four seasons are discussed. Canada's national holidays, and the seasonal, social and religious holidays celebrated by diverse Canadian culture groups are described. A separate section presents…

  19. Redistribution of cesium-137 in southeastern watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, J.R.; Ritchie, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Sediment samples from 14 southeastern agricultural reservoirs and surface samples from representative soils from the contributing water shed areas were analyzed for 137 Cs. The concentrations of 137 Cs measured reflect the nature of the watershed, its cover, its use, and man's activities. Since the redistribution of 137 Cs was assumed to result from soil erosion, recent erosion rates can be calculated from the measured 137 Cs accumulations in sediments and from the decreases in the 137 Cs calculated to have been deposited on upland soils. Measured concentrations of 137 Cs ranged from 14 to 158 nCi/m 2 in surface soils. As much as 525 nCi/m 2 of 137 Cs was measured in the deposited sediment profile. Watershed budgets for 137 Cs were calculated for three representative watersheds using available sediment survey information and the measured 137 Cs concentrations

  20. Building better health care leadership for Canada: implementing evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denis, Jean-Louis; Sullivan, Terrence James

    2011-01-01

    ... of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund for our publishing activities. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Building better health care leadership for Canada: imple...

  1. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  2. Surface deformation of Taipei basin detected by Differential SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Chang, C.; Yen, J.; Lin, M.

    2006-12-01

    Taiwan island is located between the southeastern periphery of the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. The two converging plates produced very active tectonics, and can be seen by the high seismicity and deformation rate. Taipei, the highest populated area, center of politics, and economics in Taiwan, is in Taipei basin at the northern part of the island. There are several faults in and surrounding the basin, and the city is threatened with a high geological hazard potential that we should keep monitoring the crustal deformation to prevent and mitigate the disaster effect. The aims of our study is to apply the DInSAR technique to determine the surface deformation of Taipei basin area, and discussing the relation between the manifestation of deformation and the tectonically active region, Shanjiao fault. In the past few years, Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) has been proved to be a powerful technique for monitoring the neotectonic activities and natural hazards. High spatial sampling rate of DInSAR technique allows studies of surface deformations with centimeter accuracy. In this area, we used ERS-1/2 SAR images acquired from 1993 to 2005 to generate 10 differential interferograms and processed the data using DIAPASON developed by CNES and SRTM global DEM.From our results, the deformation rate in Taipei is generally high in the western end of the basin along the Shanjiao fault and decrease eastward, while the subsidence center often appeared in the center of the Taipei basin. The neotectonic activity of the Shanjiao fault appeared to be insignificant by itself but it seemed to separate the subsiding basin from the surrounding areas. Further comparison between our DInSAR results and isopach of the Taipei basin revealed that the subsidence centers appeared in the interferograms did not coincide with the location where the sediments are thickest. Our results from differential interferometry will be compared to other geodetic measurements such as the

  3. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area

  4. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  5. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10`` to 20`` API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  6. 2.5D seismic velocity modelling in the south-eastern Romanian Carpathians Orogen and its foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocin, Andrei; Stephenson, Randell; Tryggvason, Ari; Panea, Ionelia; Mocanu, Victor; Hauser, Franz; Matenco, Liviu

    2005-12-01

    The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappe system and the architecture of the Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the Vrancea zone, including the rapidly subsiding Focsani Basin. The DACIA-PLAN profile is about 140 km long, having a roughly WNW-ESE direction, from near the southeast Transylvanian Basin, across the mountainous south-eastern Carpathians and their foreland to near the Danube River. A high resolution 2.5D velocity model of the upper crust along the seismic profile has been determined from a tomographic inversion of the DACIA-PLAN first arrival data. The results show that the data fairly accurately resolve the transition from sediment to crystalline basement beneath the Focsani Basin, where industry seismic data are available for correlation, at depths up to about 10 km. Beneath the external Carpathians nappes, apparent basement (material with velocities above 5.8 km/s) lies at depths as shallow as 3-4 km, which is less than previously surmised on the basis of geological observations. The first arrival travel-time data suggest that there is significant lateral structural heterogeneity on the apparent basement surface in this area, suggesting that the high velocity material may be involved in Carpathian thrusting.

  7. Improving Canada's climate change performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinq-Mars, K.

    2006-01-01

    Canada's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to increase despite ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. Combined, the growth in GH G emissions from oil and gas, electricity, heat generation, and road transportation accounted for nearly 80 per cent of the emission growth in Canada's total emissions between 1990 and 2004. Although Canada's high emission level has been attributed to economic growth and climatic and geographic constraints, this paper argued that the successful curtailment of emissions in countries similar to Canada indicates that successful emission control is an effect of conscious policy choices rather than economic and structural factors. Despite being a much smaller country, Norway has had similar levels of oil and gas production to Canada. However, Norway was one of the first countries to implement a carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) tax in 1991, from which the petroleum industry is not exempted. Norway credits the tax for the emissions-efficiency gains that have been achieved in the production of oil. In response to increased needs for electricity and heat generation, the Norwegian government has stated that new licenses for gas-fired power plants will be based on carbon capture and storage (CSS) technology. Over the 1990-20045 period, the United Kingdom (UK) saw a 26 per cent decrease in emissions from power stations despite a 24 per cent increase in electricity use. The decrease has been attributed to a shift from coal to natural gas as well as to improved catalytic emissions controls. The UK government has also created a Carbon Trust and a Low Carbon Buildings Programme. In 2001, the UK introduced the Climate Change Levy, a set of agreements with industry to promote efficiency and emissions control. A number of European countries are now starting to apply the European Union (EU) Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, which sets high standards for the energy-efficiency of new buildings. The German government attributes a drop in GHG emissions from

  8. Temporal and spatial trends in precipitation chemistry in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun A. WATMOUGH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available During the 1960s and 1970s, scientific evidence on the impacts of atmospheric acid deposition led to international negotiations to control emissions of compounds (primarily sulphur (S and nitrogen (N oxides that undergo long-range transport. More recently, there has been growing interest in acid rain research in western Canada, e.g., the Georgia Basin, British Columbia, where S and N emissions are expected to increase during the next two decades. In the current study, long-term trends (1990–2007 in precipitation chemistry were evaluated at four stations (Saturna, British Columbia; Egbert, Ontario; Chapais Quebec; and Kejimkujik, Nova Scotia using the Mann-Kendall statistical test. Precipitation chemistry at Saturna suggests that the Georgia Basin is less influenced by anthropogenic (S and N emissions compared with monitoring stations in eastern Canada; nonetheless, long-term (1990–2007 trends in precipitation chemistry at Saturna [pH (significant increase sulphate (significant decrease and nitrate (decrease] mirrored those at sites in eastern Canada suggesting all stations (across Canada have responded similarly to large-scale emissions reductions under the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement. The chemistry of precipitation and snow in the current study was well characterised by location and elevation, providing a way to estimate long-term mean annual base cation and chloride precipitation chemistry (ions showing no trend at unmonitored sites for contiguous regions in the Georgia Basin.

  9. Productivity of Degraded Ultisol in South-Eastern Nigeria Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity of Degraded Ultisol in South-Eastern Nigeria Using Desurfacing Technique (DT) for Sustainable Agriculture. ... Keywords: Degradation, Soil Productivity, Predictive Model, Soil Properties, Soil Erosion-Productivity Relationship, Sustainable Agriculture, Productive Index. International Journal of Agriculture and ...

  10. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus) pooled tetraploid accessions for U.S. Intermountain rangeland reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford A. Young; Jason Vernon; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus [Scribn. & Merr.] A. Love) is an important perennial, hardy, long-lived, cool season C3 native grass of rangeland plant communities throughout much of western United States and Canada. All classes of livestock and wildlife, including large and small birds and mammals, utilise the grass year round for food and protection due to its 2-3...

  11. Detectability of groundwater storage change within the Great Lakes Water Basin using GRACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Halpenny, J.; Van der Wal, W.; Klatt, C.; James, T.S.; Rivera, A.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a primary hydrological reservoir of the Great Lakes Water Basin (GLB), which is an important region to both Canada and US in terms of culture, society and economy. Due to insufficient observations, there is a knowledge gap about groundwater storage variation and its interaction with

  12. Revisiting the Mesozoic opening of the Southeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, G.; Pascoe, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Southeastern Gulf of Mexico (SEGOM) is defined here as the seaway between Yucatan and Florida, south of the Tampa Embayment. This area is regarded as a southward propagating rift in the Gulf of Mexico. There is an overwhelming amount of previous evidence that the Yucatan block rotated counterclockwise about 42 degrees around a pole located just north of present-day Cuba (23oN, 84oW) during the Late Jurassic to Earliest Cretaceous oceanic spreading phase. North of the pole in the SEGOM the rotational movement of Yucatan was accommodated by a uniformly increasing amount of SW-NE extension. The degree of extension north of 25oN was large enough to result in rifting and oceanic spreading. Lack of salt in the area south of the Tampa embayment indicates that the SEGOM was not affected by the large amount of NW-SE continental extension as observed in the rest of the Gulf of Mexico. Thus, the area between Yucatan and the Sarasota arch remained a land bridge between the proto- GOM and the Proto-Caribbean and formed a barrier to salt deposition. During the period of late Jurassic oceanic crust formation (and Yucatan rotation), the southern tip of the oceanic spreading center propagated south from 27oN to 25oN, or about 220 km. In the 220 km long zone from 25oN to the pole (23oN) the rotation of Yucatan was accommodated by continental rifting only. The validity of the above outlined propagating rift model in the SEGOM is also supported by the age differences in the observed post-rift unconformities along its margins. At the edge of the salt basin to the north, the post-rift unconformity in the upper crust occurs at the base of the Louann salt and thus is Callovian in age. In the southern continental rift segment of the SEGOM, a seismic to well tie at the DSDP Site 535 shows that the post-rift unconformity is no younger than Late Berriasian to Early Valanginian. This latter age bracket constrains a) the cessation of continental rifting in the SEGOM, b) the time when the

  13. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. During 1986 the program was strongly influenced by radioactive fallout on Canada resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986 in the Soviet Ukraine. The Environmental Radiation Hazards Division (ERHD) increased its frequency of analyses of environmental samples immediately following the accident. Interim screening limits for foodstuffs were developed. A measurement program for radioactivity in domestic and imported foods was implemented. The ERHD measurement program was supplemented by additional measurements conducted by many other private and government laboratories. Radiation doses to Canadian from Chernobyl fallout were extremely low with no group in the population receiving more than 10 microsieverts

  14. Nuclear criticality safety in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, K.R.

    1980-04-01

    The approach taken to nuclear criticality safety in Canada has been influenced by the historical development of participants. The roles played by governmental agencies and private industry since the Atomic Energy Control Act was passed into Canadian Law in 1946 are outlined to set the scene for the current situation and directions that may be taken in the future. Nuclear criticality safety puts emphasis on the control of materials called special fissionable material in Canada. A brief account is given of the historical development and philosophy underlying the existing regulations governing special fissionable material. Subsequent events have led to a change in emphasis in the regulatory process that has not yet been fully integrated into Canadian legislation and regulations. Current efforts towards further development of regulations governing the practice of nuclear criticality safety are described. (auth)

  15. Nuclear criticality safety in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    The approach taken to nuclear criticality safety in Canada has been influenced by the historical development of participants. The roles played by governmental agencies and private industry since the Atomic Energy Control Act was passed into Canadian Law in 1946 are outlined to set the scene for the current situation and directions that may be taken in the future. Nuclear criticality safety puts emphasis on the control of materials called special fissionable material in Canada. A brief account is given of the historical development and philosophy underlying the existing regulations governing special fissionable material. Subsequent events have led to a change in emphasis in the regulatory process that has not yet been fully integrated into Canadian legislation and regulations. Current efforts towards further development of regulations governing the practice of nuclear criticality safety are described

  16. Great Basin insect outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  17. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossdarf, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  18. Mineral waste resources of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    Canadian phosphogypsum, a waste product from the manufacture of phosphoric acid, is not currently being used in gypsum products because the radium content ranges from 25 to 40 picocuries per gram. Phosphogypsum will not become a raw material in Canada until methods of reducing the radium content are found. Uranium recovery during processing of raw phosphate rock is technically feasible and is being considered at one or two Canadian plants. (E.C.B.)

  19. Croatian Language Maintenance in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Petrović

    2017-01-01

    Although the topic of language maintenance has received considerable attention from linguists around the world, there are still many aspects of this language-contact phenomenon that could be examined further. This paper aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge by exploring the state of Croatian as a heritage language in Canada. The aim of the paper is two-fold. The first is to describe the demographic characteristics of the Croatian community by investigating the number of people ...

  20. Canada: The largest uranium producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Despite all the current difficulties, previous erroneous forecasts and other mistakes, the longer term future looks good for uranium mining and for Canada's industry in particular. Saskatchewan continues to offer the most exciting new prospects, the huge and fabulously high grade Cigar Lake deposits being the most spectacular of the recent discoveries. Notwithstanding continuous mining for 30 years from Elliot Lake there still remain there significant uncommitted reserves which can be developed when the market for uranium is in better balance

  1. The nuclear debate in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macaulay, H.L.

    1981-06-01

    The author argues that the nuclear debate in Canada is concerned less with the safety of nuclear power plants and more with arguments of economics and social decision-making. The nuclear industry cannot afford to neglect the continuing need to inform the public about nuclear risks. But there is also a need to develop specific arguments to increase public acceptance of nuclear energy as an economic, democratic and equitable energy option

  2. Indian Reserves: Canada's Developing Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Musto, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    Indian reserves are the most visible reminder of the separation of aboriginal people from the rest of Canada and other Canadians. Illness patterns and social conditions in Native communities closely parallel those in developing nations. While they continue to have a large burden of infectious diseases, these groups also have an increased incidence of chronic and lifestyle diseases as well as environment-related conditions. Similarities can be seen in urban areas between immigrants from abroad...

  3. Electric power in Canada, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (78 tabs., 27 figs.)

  4. Electric power in Canada, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (82 tabs., 23 figs.)

  5. Women in Physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  6. Colorectal cancer screening in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G. [Hamilton Health Sciences Corp., Henderson Campus, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-02-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Canada, ranking third among all cancers. In 1998, there were 16,500 new cases and 6300 deaths from this disease. Predictions for 2000 were similar. There has been a gradual decrease in age-adjusted incidence and mortality from CRC over the last few years, but the actual number of cases is expected to increase significantly over the next decade because of changing age demographics. The regional incidence is lowest on the west coast and highest on the east coast, with Ontario and Quebec in between. In Canada, the lifetime risk of dying from CRC is 2.8%, compared with 8.1% for lung cancer in men, 4.5% for lung cancer in women, 3.6% for prostate cancer in men and 3.9% for breast cancer in women. CRC is a disease of developed, rather than developing countries, and the incidence in Canada is among the highest in the world, and higher in relative terms than in the United States. Primary prevention, including diet modification and other lifestyle influences, may have the most significant long-term effects on the problem, but earlier detection and treatment would seem to be the most advantageous medium-term objectives. An excellent review and guidelines article by Winawer and colleagues has formed the basis for an informed discussion on CRC and screening-related issues. (author)

  7. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  8. Overview of Canada's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1982-06-01

    This paper places Canada's uranium industry in its international context. Most uranium, except that produced in the United States, is traded internationally. A brief history of the industry worldwide is given to show how the principal producing areas have fared to date. The industry is young, highly cyclical, and still far from achieving stability. Uranium is a single end-use commodity, entirely dependent on the generation of electricity in nuclear stations, and is without price elasticity: lowering the price does not increase demand. The typical nuclear fuel processing chain has not encouraged or led to much vertical integration. Uranium is subject to more governmental control than any other commodity. The principal market is located in the industrial countries of western Europe, the United States, Canada, and the far east. The uranium supply-demand situation is reviewed, including the current and near-term oversupply and the longer term outlook to 1995. The major negative impact of reactor cancellations and deferments in the United States is discussed. Because of the difficulty in getting reactors on line, it has become easier to forecast the demand for uranium over the next 10 years. It is more difficult to predict how that demand will be met from the more than ample competing sources. Canada's potential for supplying a significant portion of this demand is considered in relation to producers and potential new producers in other countries

  9. Sedimentary basin analysis and petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jin-Dam; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Bong, Pil-Yoon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Since 1992 sedimentary basin analysis to assess petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Korean onshore and continental shelf have been carried out. The Cretaceous non-marine strata mainly occupy the Gyeongsang Basin in southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula and small basins such as Haenam and Gyeokpo depressions in western coastal areas. The Tertiary strata are mostly distributed in Domi, Cheju, Socotra subbasins, and Okinawa Trough in the South Continental Shelf, and Kunsan and Heuksan basins in the West. The basin evolution and petroleum potential for each basins are characterized as follow. The Cretaceous Gyeongsang sediments were deposited in three subbasins including Milyang, Euisung and Yongyang subbasins. The black shales in Nakdong and Jinju formations are interpreted to contain abundant organic matter during the deposition, thermal maturity reaching up to the zone of dry gas formation. Because porosity and permeability are too low, the sandstones can act as a tight gas reservoir rather than conventional oil and gas reservoir. The latest Cretaceous strata of Haenam and Kyeokpo depressions in western coastal area are correlated into the Yuchon Volcanic Group of the Gyeongsang Basin. Petroleum potential of the Early Cretaceous basin in the West Continental Shelf could be relatively high in terms of sedimentary basin filled with thick lacustrine sediments. The Kunsan basin in the West Continental Shelf originated in the Early Cretaceous time expanded during the Paleocene time followed by regional erosion at the end of Paleocene on which Neogene sediment have been accumulated. The Paleocene-Eocene sublacustrine shales may play an major role as a source and cap rocks. South Continental Shelf Basin is subdivided by Cheju subbasin in the center, Socotra Subbasin to the west, Domi Subbasin to the northeast and Okinawa Trough to the East. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, titled fault blocks, fault, unconformity

  10. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  11. Assessing climate-sensitive ecosystems in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer; Beck, Scott; Pyne, Milo; Terando, Adam; Rubino, Matthew J.; White, Rickie; Collazo, Jaime

    2016-08-11

    Climate change impacts ecosystems in many ways, from effects on species to phenology to wildfire dynamics. Assessing the potential vulnerability of ecosystems to future changes in climate is an important first step in prioritizing and planning for conservation. Although assessments of climate change vulnerability commonly are done for species, fewer have been done for ecosystems. To aid regional conservation planning efforts, we assessed climate change vulnerability for ecosystems in the Southeastern United States and Caribbean.First, we solicited input from experts to create a list of candidate ecosystems for assessment. From that list, 12 ecosystems were selected for a vulnerability assessment that was based on a synthesis of available geographic information system (GIS) data and literature related to 3 components of vulnerability—sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. This literature and data synthesis comprised “Phase I” of the assessment. Sensitivity is the degree to which the species or processes in the ecosystem are affected by climate. Exposure is the likely future change in important climate and sea level variables. Adaptive capacity is the degree to which ecosystems can adjust to changing conditions. Where available, GIS data relevant to each of these components were used. For example, we summarized observed and projected climate, protected areas existing in 2011, projected sea-level rise, and projected urbanization across each ecosystem’s distribution. These summaries were supplemented with information in the literature, and a short narrative assessment was compiled for each ecosystem. We also summarized all information into a qualitative vulnerability rating for each ecosystem.Next, for 2 of the 12 ecosystems (East Gulf Coastal Plain Near-Coast Pine Flatwoods and Nashville Basin Limestone Glade and Woodland), the NatureServe Habitat Climate Change Vulnerability Index (HCCVI) framework was used as an alternative approach for assessing

  12. Catching a greenhouse gas : the latest on carbon capture and storage in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.L.M.

    2008-08-15

    This paper addressed the issue of combining carbon capture storage (CCS) with enhanced recovery methods. CCS involves separating CO{sub 2} emissions from large industrial facilities from a plant's process or exhaust stream and compressing and injecting it into underground geological formations. The stable sedimentary rock formations in the Canadian Western Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) are ideal for CCS. The co-location of large industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) sources with this storage opportunity makes the WCSB a world-class location for CCS. Other potential storage site in Canada include Atlantic Canada and southern Ontario. The challenge lies in finding ways to provide industry with the confidence they need to make long-term investment and ensure industry remains competitive while reducing emissions. CCS technology can be retrofitted on existing infrastructure, or it can be built during the construction of new facilities. The CCS report recommends incorporating the technology into Canada's clean air regulations. With CCS, Canada's potential for sequestering CO{sub 2} could be as high as 600 megatonnes per year, or approximately 40 per cent of Canada's projected GHG emissions in 2050. This paper described 3 projects that are investigating the technical and economic feasibility of implementing CCS, notably the Alberta saline aquifer project (ASAP), the Redwater/Leduc Reef CCS project and the the Wabamun-area CO{sub 2} sequestration project. 1 fig.

  13. Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2011, the Track Fire burned 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins burned by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins burned by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the burned area. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya

  14. Seismic risk map for Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioto, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    During the last few years, some studies regarding seismic risk were prepared for three regions of Brazil. They were carried on account of two basic interests: first, toward the seismic history and recurrence of Brazilian seismic events; second, in a way as to provide seismic parameters for the design and construction of hydro and nuclear power plants. The first seismic risk map prepared for the southeastern region was elaborated in 1979 by 6he Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Brasilia Seismological Station). In 1981 another seismic risk map was completed on the basis of seismotectonic studies carried out for the design and construction of the Nuclear power plants of Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro) by IPT (Mining and Applied Geology Division). In Brazil, until 1984, seismic studies concerning hydro and nuclear power plants and other civil construction of larger size did not take into account the seismic events from the point of view of probabilities of seismic recurrences. Such analysis in design is more important than the choice of a level of intensity or magnitude, or adoption of a seismicity level ased on deterministic methods. In this way, some considerations were made, concerning the use of seisms in Brazilian designs of hydro and nuclear power plants, as far as seismic analysis is concerned, recently altered over the current seismic risk panorama. (D.J.M.) [pt

  15. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

  16. Wada basin boundaries and basin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, H.E.; Yorke, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In dynamical systems examples are common in which two or more attractors coexist, and in such cases the basin boundary is nonempty. We consider a two-dimensional diffeomorphism F (that is, F is an invertible map and both F and its inverse are differentiable with continuous derivatives), which has at

  17. Biostratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of deposition of Nsukka Formation, Anambra Basin, southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Bankole

    2017-01-01

    A Spinizonocolpites baculatus assemblage zone was established based on the basal occurrence of S. baculatus, Spinizonocolpites echinatus, Constructipollenites ineffectus, Periretisyncolpites sp. Periretisyncolpites giganteus, Monocolpites sp 1, Foveotriletes margaritae, Syncolporites marginatus, and Longapertites marginatus. The upper part of the interval is marked by association of Anacolosidites luidonisis (at top, Mauritiidites crassibaculatus, Retistephanocolpites williamsi, Proteacidites dehaani, Echitriporites trianguliformis, Proxapertites cursus, Retidiporites magdalenensis, S. baculatus, Retitricolpites gigeonetti, F. margaritae and Araucariacites sp. The Nsukka Formation is dated as Late Maastrichtian based on the co-occurrence of recovered index fossils. Importantly, Cretaceous–Tertiary (K/T boundary is marked by high fossil content in the Maastrichtian sediments compared to paucity in palynomorph that characterise the overlying Paleocene facies. Palaeoenvironment of the analyzed section varies alternately from marginal marine to continental setting based on the presence of land-derived miospores and dinoflagellates.

  18. Modeling aboveground biomass of Tamarix ramosissima in the Arkansas River Basin of Southeastern Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, P.; Kumar, S.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Crall, A.W.; Newman, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Predictive models of aboveground biomass of nonnative Tamarix ramosissima of various sizes were developed using destructive sampling techniques on 50 individuals and four 100-m2 plots. Each sample was measured for average height (m) of stems and canopy area (m2) prior to cutting, drying, and weighing. Five competing regression models (P < 0.05) were developed to estimate aboveground biomass of T. ramosissima using average height and/or canopy area measurements and were evaluated using Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size (AICc). Our best model (AICc = -148.69, ??AICc = 0) successfully predicted T. ramosissima aboveground biomass (R2 = 0.97) and used average height and canopy area as predictors. Our 2nd-best model, using the same predictors, was also successful in predicting aboveground biomass (R2 = 0.97, AICc = -131.71, ??AICc = 16.98). A 3rd model demonstrated high correlation between only aboveground biomass and canopy area (R2 = 0.95), while 2 additional models found high correlations between aboveground biomass and average height measurements only (R2 = 0.90 and 0.70, respectively). These models illustrate how simple field measurements, such as height and canopy area, can be used in allometric relationships to accurately predict aboveground biomass of T. ramosissima. Although a correction factor may be necessary for predictions at larger scales, the models presented will prove useful for many research and management initiatives.

  19. Southeastern Aleutian Basin (Bogoslof Island) Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Walleye Pollock (DY1202, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) program of NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC)...

  20. Southeastern Aleutian Basin (Bogoslof Island) Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Walleye Pollock (DY1402, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) program of NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC)...

  1. Hydrographic Measurements in the Grenada Basin, Southeastern Caribbean Sea, January 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    E CV N I1 I 8 El I LZ25 .......... 64.00 63.00 62.00 61.00 1600 -T -- 18 17 4 2 24 23 14.00 49 5Q1 5 3 16 -4 2- 17 Janar 1960 13.0 -, 36 1 4 i 720...36.2 36.8 374 38 I - L. I i I - - P I .I O TEMPERATURE(DEG C) 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 K0 2001 300- 400 2 ’)CO - 700 /i- 1000 9 ) OIDO 11001 1200...36.8 37, 38 I"j 27 124 21 0 ..O 18 /:.3 / Lii / tlf / j 15 . ,,’ / 2 ŕ- / / L 9 / * / 91 Figure 196. 219 R EL - A LA/L) A, JArUA--RY 1.980 SI . 9 ~~I G

  2. Southeastern Aleutian Basin (Bogoslof Island) Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Walleye Pollock (DY1603, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) program of NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC)...

  3. The Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the Southeastern Anatolia Project: Is Armed Conflict in the Offing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cason, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Turkey, Syria and Iraq, the main riparians of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, have unilaterally created agricultural irrigation schemes and other water utilization projects along these two rivers for centuries...

  4. Sour-gas potential in Devonian of western Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podruski, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada is presently conducting an assessment of the undiscovered gas resources of the Western Canada sedimentary basin using the exploration play analysis technique. The first system being examined is the Devonian, which as been divided into four exploration districts based on differences in depositional and tectonic histories, hydrocarbon compositions, and exploration practices. The western Alberta sour gas district contains most of the Devonian gas reserves (10 trillion ft/sup 3/ of marketable gas) and potential in 12 exploration plays. Production in the Upper Devonian Swan Hills, Leduc, and Nisku formations is from the updip (northeast), basinward termination of carbonate shelves or large reef complexes and their associated patch and pinnacle reefs. Mapping the reef or shelf carbonate transition to basinal shale and carbonate delineates the play areas in these formations. Production in the Upper Devonian Wabamun Formation is from stratigraphic traps at shelf carbonate/shelf evaporite transitions and in structural-stratigraphic traps in dolomitized shelf carbonate. Pools in these plays typically contain from 50 to 500 billion ft/sup 3/ of marketable gas, have 10-30% H/sub 2/S, and occur at depths from 8000 to 15,000 ft. Potential in most plays is large, considering that between 90 and 99% of the play areas are unexplored. Present exploration is still concentrating on the conventional shelf margin or reef traps, such as in the area of the recent Caroline discovery. Subtle intrashelf traps are only beginning to be explored and could constitute a major resource target of the future, provided that economic conditions and improvements in seismic technology and geologic understanding will sustain the exploration effort in this district.

  5. Petroleum systems and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Anadarko Basin Province, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas: USGS Province 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides research results and related data in support of the U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas resource potential of the Anadarko Basin Province of western Oklahoma and Kansas, northern Texas, and southeastern Colorado. This province area includes the Las Animas arch of southeastern Colorado, part of the Palo Duro Basin of Texas, and the Anadarko Basin. Results of the geologic analysis and resource assessment are based on the geologic elements of each defined total petroleum system, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphic and petrophysical properties), hydrocarbon traps (trapping mechanisms and timing), and seals. Using this geologic framework, the U.S. Geological Survey defined 2 total petroleum systems, the Woodford Composite total petroleum system and Pennsylvanian Composite total petroleum system and 12 included assessment units, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered oil and gas resources within these conventional and continuous (unconventional) AUs.

  6. Eastern equine encephalitis virus: high seroprevalence in horses from Southern Quebec, Canada, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Jean-Philippe; Arsenault, Julie; Lindsay, L Robbin; DiBernardo, Antonia; Kulkarni, Manisha A; Côté, Nathalie; Michel, Pascal

    2013-10-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a highly pathogenic arbovirus that infects humans, horses, and other animals. There has been a significant increase in EEEV activity in southeastern Canada since 2008. Few data are available regarding nonlethal EEEV infections in mammals, and consequently the distribution and pathogenicity spectrum of EEEV infections in these hosts is poorly understood. This cross-sectional study focuses on the evaluation of viral activity in southern Quebec's horses by seroprevalence estimation. A total of 196 horses, 18 months and older, which had never been vaccinated against EEEV and have never traveled outside Canada, were sampled from 92 barns distributed throughout three administrative regions of southern Quebec. Blood samples were taken from each horse and titrated for EEEV antibodies by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Equine population vaccination coverage was estimated by surveying horse owners and equine practitioners. PRNT results revealed an EEEV seroprevalence up to 8.7%, with 95% confidence limits ranging from 4.4% to 13.0%. Vaccination coverage was estimated to be at least 79%. Our study reveals for the first time in Canada a measure of EEEV seroprevalence in horses. High seroprevalence in unvaccinated animals challenges the perception that EEEV is a highly lethal pathogen in horses. Monitoring high-risk vector-borne infections such as EEEV in animal populations can be an important element of a public health surveillance strategy, population risk assessment and early detection of epidemics.

  7. Catch history of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall R Reeves

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The ringed seal (Phoca hispida has always been a staple in the diet and household economy of Inuit in Canada. The present paper was prepared at the request of the NAMMCO Scientific Committee to support their assessment of ringed seal stocks in the North Atlantic Basin and adjacent arctic and subarctic waters. Specifically, our objective was to evaluate recent and current levels of use of ringed seals by Canadian Inuit. Annual removals probably were highest (possibly greater than 100,000 in the 1960s and 1970s, a period when sealskin prices were particularly strong. Catches declined substantially in the 1980s following a collapse in sealskin prices, presumably related to the European trade ban on skins from newborn harp and hooded seals (Phoca groenlandica and Cystophora cristata, respectively. Recent catch levels throughout Canada (1980s and early 1990s are believed to be in the order of 50,000 to 65,000 ringed seals, with a total average annual kill (including hunting loss in the high tens of thousands. No reliable system is in place to monitor catches of ringed seals, so any estimate must be derived from a heterogeneous array of sources.

  8. Protecting places and people: Conserving Canada`s natural heritage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    A series of definitions of tools and processes for developing a national strategy to select and designate areas for protection and preservation in their natural state in Canada, were presented. Through a series of on-site visits, and the advice and experience of hundreds of Canadians, a common vision of protected areas across the country and clear principles for planning were developed. Partnerships and collaboration between governments, native peoples and non-governmental groups were the guiding principles of the Committee`s deliberations. Ecological factors were said to have been fully considered before any of the decisions were made. Aboriginal peoples` rights to continue their traditional use of the land were taken into account and supported. Twenty recommendations that were both practical and practicable were made that would enhance the rate of progress and enable Canada to complete the network of protected areas by the year 2000, in line with national and international commitments. Effective communication by all interested parties, commitment to action by the highest levels of government with appropriate infrastructure and resources, flexibility and innovation in the use of resources, and agreed-upon priorities were cited as the keys to success.

  9. CANADA

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hakan Mustafa

    Le versement de subventions de recherche, de bourses d'études, de bourses de perfectionnement, de bourses d'entretien et de récompenses (autres que les récompenses visées par un règlement), doit être déclaré sur le feuillet T4A État du revenu de pension, de retraite, de rente ou d'autres sources. Afin de satisfaire à ...

  10. canada

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hakan Mustafa

    bourses d'entretien et de récompenses (autres que les récompenses visées par un règlement) doit être déclaré sur le feuillet T4A État du revenu de pension, de retraite, de rente ou d'autres sources. Afin de satisfaire à cette exigence et conformément à l'alinéa 221(1)d) de la Loi de l'impôt sur le revenu, le CRDI demande à ...

  11. Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-13

    Recruitment drive for nurse gradutates British Columbia (BC), the westernmost Canadian province, urgently needs 1,500 qualified nurses graduates to staff longterm care and assisted-living beds as well as home care clients. The provincial government has launched a $160,000 (£78,600) marketing campaign called BC Cares. Craig Hebert, dean of development and access training at Northern Lights College in BC, said: 'The industry needs to get the message out to students that there has never been a better time to start a career in senior health care. Graduates who study for about one year, sometimes less, will have their pick of jobs in a number of service environments and can advance relatively quickly to the nursing profession.'

  12. Landfill gas management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A.

    1997-01-01

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada's commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (10 15 Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring

  13. Fusion energy. What Canada can do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    As Canada's fusion programs have grown, Canadian capabilities in fusion science and technology have grown and matured with them. The fusion capabilities described in this booklet have come from a coordinated national effort. The Government of Canada is committed to continuing its fusion energy program, and to supporting global fusion efforts. These first pages provide an overview of Canada's fusion work and its underlying basis of science and technology

  14. CHILD WELFARE IN CANADA : PART II

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 眞一; Shinichi, Matsumoto; 桃山学院大学社会学部

    2006-01-01

    This part study aims to research on the whole aspect of child protection in Canada. And so, this paper consists of five chapters as follows: (1)Canadian history of child protection, (2)definition of child abuse, (3)current situation of child protection in Canada, (4)outline of child protection and treatment, (5)triangular comparison of child protection and prevention in Canada, Australia and England. The first efforts at identifying and combating child abuse occurred in the latter part of the...

  15. Integrating hydrogen into Canada's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, P.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation outlines the steps in integrating of hydrogen into Canada's energy future. Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell investment is primarily driven by two government commitments - climate change commitments and innovation leadership commitments. Canada's leading hydrogen and fuel cell industry is viewed as a long-term player in meeting the above commitments. A hydrogen and fuel cell national strategy is being jointly developed to create 'Win-Wins' with industry

  16. Environmental radioactivity in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracey, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1982 on metabolism of natural radionuclides and on the accumulation of radon in energy-efficient homes. The pre-operational phase of the monitoring program at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station was completed. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  17. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Quinn, J.M.; Tracy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1981 on bottled mineral waters and in conjunction with unusual occurences at nuclear reactor sites and a uranium refinery. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  18. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. A study was initiated to evaluate the contamination by cesium-137, of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. Work on development of methods proceeded for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. All measurements made during 1987 are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  19. An Energy Strategy for Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal C. Moore

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Canada is struggling to fully develop, sell and move its energy resources. This is a dramatic change from the recent past where the U.S. has provided stable growth in demand for energy supplied by the provinces, from hydrocarbons to electricity. Current circumstances now challenge this relationship, adding environmental, policy and economic hurdles that exacerbate the impact of fluctuations in world demand and pricing. In addition, competitive interaction between provinces, aboriginal land owners and special interest groups complicate and compound the issues of royalty returns, regulatory authority and direction, land-use management and long-term market opportunities for Canadian companies. There is no strategic document guiding the country’s energy future. As the steward of one of the largest, most diverse and valuable energy "banks" in the world, Canada has a unique opportunity to exploit a critical and valuable economic niche in the world economy. Given the lack of federal leadership and the tendency for each province to undercut each other in the same marketplace, there is also the distinct possibility the nation will squander the opportunity. This document offers the rationale for a comprehensive energy strategy, literally a vision where Canada can lead and not follow opportunities in energy markets. This strategic approach to energy systems by definition will include transportation, housing, employment and financial markets. It is not a plan, not a foil for tax or policy guidance in one or more sectors. This strategy is a fundamental rail on which plans, tactics and policies can be built. This vision identifies how the provinces can work together using all the tools available to them, maximizing long-term resource development while minimizing environmental damage. This document assumes there can be a broad commitment and effort by the federal government to help build those tools, providing guidance and assistance where needed without

  20. NPP construction cost in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The structure of capital costs during NPP construction in Canada is considered. Capital costs comprise direct costs (cost of the ground and ground rights, infrastructure, reactor equipment, turbogenerators, electrotechnical equipment, auxiliary equipment), indirect costs (construction equipment and services, engineering works and management services, insurance payments, freight, training, operating expenditures), capital per cents for the period of construction and cost of heavy water storages. It proceeds from the analysis of the construction cost structure for a NPP with the CANDU reactor of unit power of 515, 740 and 880 MW, that direct costs make up on the average 62%

  1. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Meyerhof, D.P.; Quinn, J.M.; Tracy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted to determine levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and asessing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for 1980 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. The graphical format is used with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection

  2. Potential impact of increased temperature and CO2 on particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the Southeastern Bering Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of elevated sea surface temperature (SST and pCO2 on algal community structure and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPp concentrations in the southeastern Bering Sea was examined using a shipboard “Ecostat” continuous culture system. The ecostat system was used to mimic the conditions projected to exist in the world's oceans by the end of this century (i.e. elevated pCO2 (750 ppm and elevated SST (ambient + 4°C. Two experiments were conducted using natural phytoplankton assemblages from the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC central basin and from the middle domain of the southeastern continental shelf. At the HNLC site, the relative abundances of haptophytes and pelagophytes were higher and the relative abundance of diatoms lower under “greenhouse” conditions (i.e. combined 750 ppm CO2 and elevated temperature than control conditions (380 ppm CO2 and ambient temperature. This shift in algal community structure was accompanied by increases in DMSPp (2–3 fold, DMSPp:Chl a (2–3 fold and DMSP:PON (2 fold. At the continental shelf site, the changes in the relative abundances of haptophytes, pelagophytes and diatoms under “greenhouse” conditions were similar to those observed at the HNLC site, with 2.5 fold increases in DMSPp, 50–100% increases in DMSPp:Chl a and 1.8 fold increases in DMSP:PON. At both locations, changes in community structure and the DMSPp parameters were largely driven by increasing temperature. The observed changes were also consistent with the phytoplankton-DMS-albedo climate feedback mechanism proposed in the Charlson-Lovelock-Andreae-Warren (CLAW hypothesis.

  3. Assessment of spatial rainfall variability in Lake Victoria Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizza, M.; Westerberg, I.; Rodhe, A.; Ntale, H. K.

    2011-12-01

    for PERSIANN but the correlation was higher for TRMM 3B43 with a better representation of the intra-annual variability. The TRMM 3B43 product showed an enhancement of lake rainfall over basin rainfall of 25% while the PERSIANN product gave a much higher enhancement of up to 80%. The uncertainty in the gridded dataset is expected to be largest in the south-eastern part of the basin where the rain-gauge coverage was the poorest, which should be kept in mind when using the dataset in future water-resources studies.

  4. Chukchi Edges Project - Geophysical constraints on the history of the Amerasia Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, B.; Ilhan, I.; Chukchi Edges Science Party

    2011-12-01

    The geological history of the Amerasian Basin is poorly understood, in part due to the lack of identified plate boundaries within it. These boundaries must exist to explain the basin history. Identification of these structures will make it possible to reconstruct the development of the basin, which will substantially improve our understanding of the surrounding continents. The Chukchi Borderland, a block of extended continental crust embedded in the deep central Canada Basin, figures prominently in all tectonic models proposed for the opening of the Amerasian Basin. The Chukchi cannot be simply reconstructed back to any of the nearby continental shelves. It complicates any model for the Mesozoic opening of the Amerasia Basin. According to the commonly accepted model, the Canada Basin opened like a pair of scissors. This was accomplished by a counter-clockwise rotation of the North Alaskan-Chukchi micro-plate (Arctic Alaska Plate) by 66 degrees. The micro-plate collided with the Siberian margin. Most of the existing models for the development of the Amerasian Basin accept the basic pattern of scissors-like or, classically, the "windshield wiper" opening for the basin. This theory finds some support in the identification of a possible relict mid-ocean ridge axis in the central Canada Basin. Since the continental Chukchi Borderland creates a space problem for any simple opening model, the greatest differences between models revolve around how to accommodate that block. Fundamental differences among the proposed models include the paleo-location of the Chukchi Borderland as well as whether the Borderland is a single entity or is instead comprised of small terranes which behaved as independent microplates. A consequence of these models is the prediction that the Chukchi Borderland is distinct from the Chukchi Shelf. During the Chukchi Edges cruise on board the RV Marcus G. Langseth, we collected multi-channel seismic reflection, swath bathymetry, gravity, magnetics and

  5. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  6. BASINS Framework and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  7. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  8. Application of remote-sensing techniques to hydrologic studies in selected coal-mine areas of southeastern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, J.F.; McCauley, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Disturbances resulting from intensive coal mining in the Cherry Creek basin of southeastern Kansas were investigated using color and color-infrared aerial photography in conjunction with water-quality data from simultaneously acquired samples. Imagery was used to identify the type and extent of vegetative cover on strip-mined lands and the extent and success of reclamation practices. Drainage patterns, point sources of acid mine drainage, and recharge areas for underground mines were located for onsite inspection. Comparison of these interpretations with water-quality data illustrated differences between the eastern and western parts of the Cherry Creek basin. Contamination in the eastern part is due largely to circulation of water from unreclaimed strip mines and collapse features through the network of underground mines and subsequent discharge of acidic drainage through seeps. Contamination in the western part is primarily caused by runoff and seepage from strip-mined lands in which surfaces have frequently been graded and limed but are generally devoid of mature stands of soil-anchoring vegetation. The successful use of aerial photography in the study of Cherry Creek basin indicates the potential of using remote-sensing techniques in studies of other coal-mined regions. (USGS)

  9. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  10. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  11. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  12. Brittle reactivation of mylonitic fabric and the origin of the Cenozoic Rio Santana Graben, southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo-Pascutti, Ambrosina; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Terra, Emanuele La; Almeida, Julio C. H.

    2010-03-01

    basins of the System of Continental Rifts of southeastern Brazil. We conclude that the Rio Santana Graben is an example of the direct control of a preexisting continental-scale rheological boundary on the geometry and location of fault systems and sediment deposition. Quaternary fault reactivation of the preexisting fabrics represents only the latest movement of a major structure.

  13. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  14. Latest Ordovician-earliest Silurian acritarchs and chitinozoans from subsurface samples in Jebel Asba, Kufra Basin, SE Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Thusu , Bindra; Rasul , Sayed; Paris , Florentin; Meinhold , Guido; Howard , James ,; Abutarruma , Youssef; Whitham , Andrew ,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Latest Ordovician-earliest Silurian Tanezzuft Formation shales recovered from core material of the shallow borehole JA-2 drilled in Jebel Asba at the eastern margin of the Kufra Basin, southeastern Libya, yielded well-diversified palynomorph assemblages with transparent and brownish to yellowish vesicles and organic matter (visual kerogen Types 1 and 2) from depth interval 46.20 to 67.82 m. In addition, miospores including cryptospores, and Tasmanites sp. ("Tasmanites ...

  15. 2000 Western Canada activity forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, D.L.

    1999-10-01

    All wells drilled in Western Canada during the first nine months of 1999 are listed and sorted into 12 geographical areas used in the Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) well cost study. Each area represents wells of common drilling, production and depth characteristics. Area totals for well counts and meters drilled were determined from the sorting process. Previous years' activities are reviewed and various operators and PSAC members contacted to review upcoming programs. In addition, trends and other projections were consulted to develop an estimate of drilling activity for the rest of 1999 as well as a projection of drilling activity for 2000. The historical and projected drilling activities were tabulated and plotted for each area. Average drilling costs for each area were determined, and the total expenditures were calculated for each area by multiplying the the projected meterage by the adjusted drilling costs. All costs were allocated to various services and products utilizing percentages determined in the Well Cost Study. During the sorting process, a list was developed of the major operators in each area, which list is included in the report along with average depths and types of wells drilled by the various operators in each area. The costs included in the report include only drilling and completion operations, starting with the building of the location prior to drilling, and ending with the installation of the wellhead after construction. 5 tabs

  16. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Future Area Burned in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flannigan, M.D.; Logan, K.A.; Stocks, B.J.; Amiro, B.D.; Skinner, W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Historical relationships between weather, the Canadian fire weather index (FWI) system components and area burned in Canadian ecozones were analysed on a monthly basis in tandem with output from the Canadian and the Hadley Centre GCMs to project future area burned. Temperature and fuel moisture were the variables best related to historical monthly area burned with 36-64% of the variance explained depending on ecozone. Our results suggest significant increases in future area burned although there are large regional variations in fire activity. This was especially true for the Canadian GCM where some ecozones show little change in area burned, however area burned was not projected to decrease in any of the ecozones modelled. On average, area burned in Canada is projected to increase by 74-118% by the end of this century in a 3 x CO2 scenario. These estimates do not explicitly take into account any changes in vegetation, ignitions, fire season length, and human activity (fire management and land use activities) that may influence area burned. However, the estimated increases in area burned would have significant ecological, economic and social impacts for Canada

  18. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  19. Energy in Canada: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recent changes in the North American natural gas industry are discussed, with a focus on how these changes will affect the ability of Alberta and Canadian natural gas supply to meet market growth. These changes include a decline in the merchant role of many of the major interstate pipelines, resulting in a larger number of smaller-sized purchasers for natural gas marketers to deal with; a greater extent of direct purchasing by local distribution companies and large industrial users, combined with a preference for spot sales rather than long-term commitments; direct marketing of uncontracted gas by many producers and brokers; a bidding type of sales process rather than a negotiated process; and price deregulation. It is foreseen that long term security of supply will again become an important factor to North American buyers, and Canada can offer substantial supplies under secure long term contracts. Marketers will have to seek new market targets such as cogeneration plants and the transportation sector. Access to pipeline transport will be one of the major factors in obtaining new markets. The Canada-USA free trade agreement is viewed as a positive development which should help Canadian gas marketers to gain and retain U.S. customers

  20. Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board annual report, 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board was established as the agency responsible for the regulation of the hydrocarbon resources in the Nova Scotia offshore. The Board evaluates resource potential, administers petroleum exploration and production rights, approves offshore activities, and approves benefits and development plans. The main activities of the Board in 1992-1993 are summarized and financial statements are presented. Highlights include production of 572,300 m 3 of oil during the first production season of LASMO Nova Scotia Ltd.'s Cohasset development, the first commercial offshore oil production for Canada; four major resource evaluation projects in the Glenelg Field, the Laurentian sub-basin, the Fundy Rift Basin, and the Panuke Field; holding of discussions between Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Canada on the maritime boundary lines between respective offshore petroleum board jurisdictions, in the wake of a June 1992 determination of the disputed maritime boundary around St. Pierre et Miquelon; and amendments of certain safety-related legislation applicable to offshore operations. Employment benefits of the Cohasset project during 1992 totalled ca 470 Nova Scotians and 120 other Canadians. 3 tabs

  1. Criteria and standards for radiation therapy (megavoltage) in southeastern Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The criteria and standards presented in this document provide the basis for the review of proposals to establish, expand or alter institutionally-based radiation therapy services, the criteria developed should provide sufficient guidance to the Plan Implementation Committee of CHPC-SEM to enable it to accomplish the following: Assure the existence of sufficient treatment capacity to serve the identified radiation therapy needs of the Southeastern Michigan community; Assure the residents of Southeastern Michigan of reasonable access to radiation therapy services; Assure that the radiation therapy services offered are of good quality; Avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication of radiation therapy equipment and services; and promote the effective operation of the health care system in Southeastern Michigan. These criteria and standards also should provide guidance to providers who may consider initiating a new radiation therapy service or altering an existing service or program

  2. The Brazilian marginal basins: current state of knowledge; As bacias marginais brasileiras: estagio atual de conhecimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Francisco Celso; Asmus, Haroldo Erwin

    2004-11-01

    Based on distinctive stratigraphic and/or structural characteristics, the brazilian continental margin can be divided into two main provinces : (1)The southeastern-eastern province, extending from the Pelotas to the Recife - Joao Pessoa Basin, presents a tensional tectonic style of Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous age, paralleling the structural alignments of the Precambrian basement, except in the northeastern segment where the Mesozoic faults of the Recife - Joao Pessoa Basin cut across the east west basement directions. The basin-fill, Upper Jurassic through Recent, consists, where complete, of three stratigraphic sequences, each of a distinct depositional environment: (a) a lower clastic non-marine sequence; (b) a middle evaporitic sequence, and (c) an upper clastic paralic and open marine sequence. (2)The northern province, extending from the Potiguar Basin to the Amazon Submarine Basin, displays both tensional and compressional tectonic styles of Upper Jurassic (?) to Upper Cretaceous age either paralleling or cutting transversally the basement alignments. The stratigraphic column differs from the southeastern - eastern province in lacking the Lower Cretaceous evaporitic rocks. The integration of the stratigraphic and structural data allows one to determine in the eastern Brazilian marginal basins the main evolutionary stages of a typical pull-apart continental margin: a continental pre-rift and rift stage, an evaporitic proto-ocean stage, and a normal open ocean stage. In the northern province it is possible to infer a continental rift valley stage, a marine transform - movement stage and an open ocean stage. The relationship between the rift valley and transform movement stages is not clear. (author)

  3. Microsatellite assessment of walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus stocks in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron BA Shafer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Walruses in Canada are currently subdivided into seven stocks based on summering areas; Western Jones Sound (WJS, Baffin Bay (BB, Penny Strait-Lancaster Sound (PS-LS, North Foxe Basin (N-FB, Central Foxe Basin (C-FB, Hudson Bay Davis Strait (HB-DS and Southern and Eastern Hudson Bay (SE-HB. In this study, walrus were sampled from six of the seven stocks (SE-HB samples were not available and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. All stocks were genetically diverse (average heterozygosity of 0.58 with no evidence of inbreeding (average FIS of 0.03. We detected significant genetic differentiation among the stocks and a pattern of genetic spatial autocorrelation that suggests a moderate effect of geographic distance on gene flow among stocks. Bayesian clustering suggested the six recognized stocks were elements of two larger genetic clusters - a northern Arctic population (containing BB, WJS, and PS-LS stocks and a central Arctic population (containing C-FB, N-FB, and HB-DS stocks. These populations are moderately differentiated (FST = 0.07, but based on evidence of contemporary movement from assignment tests, are not completely isolated. There was support for maintaining the WJS stock and a combined BB+PS-LS stock, although the latter conclusion is based on a small sample size. Similarly, there was some evidence suggesting separation of the Foxe Basin stocks from the HB-DS but not the N-FB from the C-FB stock. However, given that there are morphological and chemical differences between N-FB and C-FB stocks, there is currently insufficient evidence to support a revision of the current stock designations.

  4. Chapter 5. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources-Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston formations, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak Formation of east Texas and southern Arkansas (and the correlative Hosston Formation of Louisiana and Mississippi) is a basinward-thickening wedge of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks that underlies the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin from east Texas across northern Louisiana to southern Mississippi. Clastic detritus was derived from two main fluvial-deltaic depocenters, one in northeastern Texas and the other extending from southeastern Mississippi northwestward into northeastern Louisiana. Across the main hydrocarbon-productive trend in east Texas and northern Louisiana, the Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are about 2,000 ft thick.

  5. Comparison of streamflow between pre and post timber harvesting in Catamaran Brook (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissie, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Serge; Bouchard, Mireille; Poncet, Emmanuel

    2002-02-01

    The forest industry plays a major role in the economy of eastern Canada. The recreational fishery also represents an important source of revenue for this area. Therefore, there is concern over the potential economic effects and ecological impacts from logging operations on aquatic habitats. The present study deals with the comparison of streamflow between pre and post timber harvesting at Catamaran Brook (New Brunswick, Canada) to identify any potential changes to the hydrological regime. Studies were carried out on two sub-basins of Catamaran Brook, namely the Middle Reach (mid-basin) and the Upper Tributary 1. The harvested area at the Middle Reach represented 2.3% of this sub-basin while 23.4% of Upper Tributary 1 was harvested. It was noted that during both the calibration and timber harvesting phases, meteorological conditions (e.g. precipitation, runoff) contributed to relatively high natural variability. When studying changes on an annual and seasonal basis for the basin cut at 2.3% (i.e. Middle Reach) and using a control basin for comparison, no changes were detected to the annual water yield, seasonal runoff and streamflow timing between the calibration and timber harvesting phases. On a summer rainfall event basis, no changes were detected at the Middle Reach and the Upper Tributary 1 when studying relations between precipitation and stormflow (obtained through hydrograph separation). Alternatively, changes were detected in relations between peak flows and precipitation (pCatamaran Brook, changes could only be detected on a summer storm event basis for the most affected site (Upper Tributary 1) and for peak flow only.

  6. The quasi-stationary feature of nocturnal precipitation in the Sichuan Basin and the role of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; Wu, Tongwen; Li, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    The nocturnal precipitation in the Sichuan Basin in summer has been studied in many previous works. This paper expands the study on the diurnal cycle of precipitation in the Sichuan Basin to the whole year. Results show that the nocturnal precipitation has a specific quasi-stationary feature in the basin. It occurs not only in summer but also in other three seasons, even more remarkable in spring and autumn than in summer. There is a prominent eastward timing delay in the nocturnal precipitation, that is, the diurnal peak of precipitation occurs at early-night in the western basin whereas at late-night in the center and east of the basin. The Tibetan Plateau plays an essential role in the formation of this quasi-stationary nocturnal precipitation. The early-night peak of precipitation in the western basin is largely due to strong ascending over the plateau and its eastern lee side. In the central and eastern basin, three coexisting factors contribute to the late-night peak of precipitation. One is the lower-tropospheric southwesterly flow around the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, which creates a strong cyclonic rotation and ascendance in the basin at late-night, as well as brings abundant water vapor. The second is the descending motion downslope along the eastern lee side of the plateau, together with an air mass accumulation caused by the warmer air mass transport from the southeast of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, creating a diabatic warming at low level of the troposphere in the central basin. The third is a cold advection from the plateau to the basin at late-night, which leads to a cooling in the middle troposphere over the central basin. All these factors are responsible for precipitation to occur at late-night in the central to eastern basin.

  7. Drought and Burn Scars in Southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    More than 2 million acres were consumed by hundreds of fires between December 2002 and February 2003 in southeastern Australia's national parks, forests, foothills and city suburbs. These images were acquired on February 14, 2002 (left) and February 17, 2003 (right) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument onboard NASA's Terra satellite. The year 2002 was one of Australia's hottest and driest on record, and the acreage burnt during the summer 2002-2003 fire season in Victoria, the Australian Capital Territory and southern New South Wales, is the largest since 1938-1939, when more than 3 million acres were scorched.The extent of the burnt area and the dry conditions as of February 2003 are indicated by these contrasting false-color views. Both image panels display data from the near-infrared, red and blue spectral bands of MISR's downward-viewing (nadir) camera, as red, green and blue, respectively. This display technique causes healthy vegetation to appear red and burnt areas to show as dark brown. The data displayed from the two dates were processed identically to preserve relative brightness variations. Vegetation changes related to the dry conditions (not related to the brown burn scars) are also indicated in the February 2003 panel, where many previously red areas exhibit instead the pale yellow-brown of the underlying soils and geology. Significant reduction in the surface area of several large and important water bodies are also apparent. The diminished extent of Lake Hume (along the left-hand edge) in the later date provides a good example.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 14999 and 16858. The panels cover an area of about 208 kilometers x 286 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 118 to 121 within

  8. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is followed by a foreign capital outflow which at the end will destabilize the balance of external payments and will overall result in no favorable effect upon the economy of their countries.

  9. Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final ''Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report'' (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository or high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  10. Characterizing rainfall parameters which influence erosivity in southeastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, M.E.; Salako, F.K.

    1993-12-01

    An investigation was carried out to characterize some selected parameters which influence rainfall erosivity in southeastern Nigeria. Rainfall amount, distribution, duration, intensity, storm types, energy loads and frequency of rain events in the region were studied using data from stations located in three major agroecological zones. Raindrop size and detaching capacity were evaluated in one of the stations for two months. The mean annual rainfall erosivity values for southeastern Nigeria point to the fact that rainfall tend to be highly erosive. 25 refs, 6 figs, 8 tabs

  11. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive wasste disposal in the southeast United States: Triassic basin subregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    Based on an evaluation of existing information, areas were identified within the Triassic basins of the southeastern United States with geologic properties considered favorable for containment of radioactive waste. The study region included both exposed and buried Triassic basins from Maryland to Georgia. These basins are long, narrow northeast-trending troughs filled with continental deposits derived from Paleozoic and Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks bordering the basins. The rocks are predominantly red in color and consist mainly of fanglomerates, conglomerates, arkosic sandstones, siltstones, claystones, shales, and argillites. The investigation identified 14 exposed and 5 buried basins within the study region. Candidate areas for further investigation were identified which meet the broad general criteria for tectonic stability, slow ground water movement, and long flow paths to the biosphere. These include: the Danville Triassic Basin in Virginia; the Dan River, Durham, and Wadesboro Triassic Basins in North Carolina; and the buried Florence and Dunbarton Triassic Basins in South Carolina. Other rock types in the southeast may prove more or less suitable as host rocks for a repository, but the available data suggest that the argillaceous Triassic rocks offer sufficient promise to be considered for additional study

  12. Canada's Changing Geography of Jobs and Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of globalization on the jobs and trade of Canada. Emphasizes new relationships with countries in Latin America and Africa. Notes the types of trade that Canada enjoys with these two areas and encourages expansion of business into them. (DSK)

  13. Cultural Dependency in Canada's Feature Film Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendakur, Manjunath

    1981-01-01

    Examines the ownership and policies of the dominant firms in the Canadian film market to explain Canada's dependence on imported films. Demonstrates how the economic relations existing between Canadian and U.S. film industries limit the profitability of films made in Canada. (JMF)

  14. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  15. Professor: Lær af Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada.......Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada....

  16. Canada's World : a Deliberative Dialogue | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada's World is a three-year citizens' dialogue aimed at advancing a new vision for Canadian international policy. Unlike traditional policy reviews and consultations led by government, this initiative is funded by individuals, business, international organizations and foundations who wish to enhance Canada's ...

  17. ASEAN-Canada Research Partnership | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The ASEAN-Canada Research Partnership will deepen Canada-ASEAN relations through research and policy dialogue on issues of mutual regional interest. The recipient organization, the Centre for Non-Traditional Security Studies at the S. Rajaratnam School of. International Studies at Nanyang Technological University ...

  18. Water in carbonate rocks of the Madison Group in southeastern Montana--A preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. Roger

    1976-01-01

    The Madison Group of Mississippian age comprises, from oldest to youngest, the Lodgepole and Mission Canyon Limestones and the Charles Formation. The Madison crops out in the Bighorn and Pryor Mountains and in the mountains west of the study area. These rocks consist of cyclically deposited normal-marine carbonates and restricted-marine carbonates and evaporites. The Madison ranges in thickness from about 700 feet (210 metres) in the Bighorn Mountains to about 2,000 feet (610 metres) in the Williston basin. The top of the Madison ranges in depth from land surface in the mountains to about 10,000 feet (3,000 metres) below land surface along the MontanaWyoming border. The potentiometric surface of water in the Madison Group slopes northeastward from the outcrops. Potentiometric lows occur in the Cat Creek anticline-Porcupine dome area along the Bighorn River and at the north end of Powder River basin. Potentiometric highs occur in outcrop areas, on the interstream divide between the Bighorn, Tongue, and Yellowstone Rivers, and along the Cedar Creek anticline. The potentiometric surface ranges from 1,200 feet (370 metres) below land surface in the topographically high areas in the southern part of the area to 1,000 feet (300 metres) above land surface along the Yellowstone River. Yields from wells range from about 50 gallons per minute (3 litres per second) at several places to a reported 1,400 gallons per minute (88 litres per second) from a flowing well on the north side of the Porcupine dome. Yields estimated or reported from drill-stem tests range from about 1 to 157 gallons per minute {0.1 to 9.9 litres per second). Water from the Madison generally contains less than 3,000 milligrams per litre dissolved solids south of T. 1 N., and from 3,000 to 10,000 milligrams per litre in most of the remaining area; in the Williston basin the concentration increases to more than 100,000 milligrams per litre. In the southeastern and southwestern parts of the area, calcium

  19. 76 FR 65360 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Southeastern Potato Committee (Committee). The Committee believes advances in farming technology and production...; FV11-953-1 FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions... the interim rule that suspended the marketing order for Irish potatoes grown in Southeastern states...

  20. Environmental health assessment of primary schools in southeastern Nigeria: implication for a healthy school environment in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeonu, C T; Anyansi, M N

    2010-01-01

    In this cross-sectional descriptive study, we used a validated school health program evaluation scale (SHPE) to assess the environmental health status of primary schools in Ebonyi State, southeastern Nigeria. Parameters assessed included water supply, sewage and refuse disposal, school building ventilation, lighting and seating, as well as the availability of toilet tissue, basins for washing hands, regular cleaning of toilets, and so forth. Of all the schools assessed, only two schools, both private, attained the minimum acceptable SHPE score of 57. The mean SHPE score of the private schools (50.40) was significantly higher than that of the public schools (28.69) (t-test, p=.00). Policy reforms are needed that would ensure a healthy primary school environment in Nigeria and in other developing countries with similar settings.

  1. Oral bacterial microbiota and traumatic injuries of free-ranging Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines, Chelidae in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno O. Ferronato

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 and 2007, we collected free-ranging Phrynops geoffroanus, from two anthropogenically altered rivers in southeastern Brazil. Oral microbiological samples were taken for isolation of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria; a physical examination was performed;and we evaluated possible effects on the turtles’ health. Twenty-nine species of bacteria were isolated in Piracicaba River turtles (n=10, and twenty-four species in Piracicamirim stream turtles (n=8, most of them gram-negative. In both sites, potential pathogens for reptiles were: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter agglomerans, Citrobacter freundii, and Bacillus sp. Although boatpropeller lesions were common on the carapace of the turtles, we have not found turtles with signs of clinical diseases. The oral bacterial microbiota of P. geoffroanus inhabiting the Piracicaba River basin are composed of a diverse microbe spectrum, and long-term studies of the effects of pollution and traumatic injuries on this population and its microbial flora are warranted.

  2. Strontium-90 in Canada goose eggshells: Nonfatal monitoring for contamination in wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    90 Sr was measured in eggshells from Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) that nested on Columbia River islands up- and downstream from deactivated plutonium production reactors on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. We also measured 90 Sr in wing bones of goose carcasses. Background levels of 90 Sr were based on eggshells collected on an island upstream of the reactors. A few eggshells collected from nests on a single island downstream of the reactors had slightly higher than background levels of 90 Sr. This may have resulted from geese eating shoreline plants or crops irrigated with Columbia River water that contained 90 Sr released into the river through groundwater seepage

  3. Hydrology of the middle San Pedro area, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Dickinson, Jesse; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Hopkins, Candice B.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Pool, Donald R.; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2015-05-05

    In the middle San Pedro Watershed in southeastern Arizona, groundwater is the primary source of water supply for municipal, domestic, industrial, and agricultural use. The watershed comprises two smaller subareas, the Benson subarea and the Narrows-Redington subarea. Early 21st century projections for heavy population growth in the watershed have not yet become a reality, but increased groundwater withdrawals could have undesired consequences - such as decreased base flow to the San Pedro River, and groundwater-level declines - that would lead to the need to deepen existing wells. This report describes the hydrology, hydrochemistry, water quality, and development of a groundwater budget for the middle San Pedro Watershed, focusing primarily on the elements of groundwater movement that could be most useful for the development of a groundwater modelPrecipitation data from Tombstone, Arizona, and base flow at the stream-gaging station on the San Pedro River at Charleston both show relatively dry periods during the 1960s through the mid-1980s and in the mid-1990s to 2009, and wetter periods from the mid-1980s through the mid-1990s. Water levels in four out of five wells near the mountain fronts show cyclical patterns of recharge, with rates of recharge greatest in the early 1980s through the mid-1990s. Three wells near the San Pedro River recorded their lowest levels during the 1950s to the mid-1960s. The water-level record from one well, completed in the confined part of the coarse-grained lower basin fill, showed a decline of approximately 21 meters.Annual flow of the San Pedro River, measured at the Charleston and Redington gages, has decreased since the 1940s. The median annual streamflow and base flow at the gaging station on the river near Tombstone has decreased by 50 percent between the periods 1968–1986 and 1997–2009. Estimates of streamflow infiltration along the San Pedro River during 1914–2009 have decreased 44 percent, with the largest decreases in

  4. Seismicity of the Paradox Basin and the Colorado Plateau interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, I.G.

    1984-04-01

    National Waste Terminal Storage Program site qualification criteria require that a nuclear waste repository be located so that ground motion associated with the maximum credible and maximum probable earthquakes or other earthquake-associated effects will not have an unacceptable adverse impact on system performance. To determine whether a potential repository site located in the Paradox salt formation in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah satisfies these criteria, seismological studies were undertaken by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) in March 1978. These studies included: (1) analysis of historical seismicity; (2) analysis of contemporary seismicity and tectonics of both the Paradox Basin and surrounding Colorado Plateau, including an extensive program of microearthquake monitoring; (3) evaluation of the Paradox Basin crustal structure; (4) evaluation of mining-induced seismicity; and (5) characterization of design-related earthquake-induced ground motions pertinent to a potential repository site through studies of attentation and subsurface ground motions. A detailed discussion of the results of the seismological studies performed through December 1980 is contained in WCC (1982). The purpose of this topical report is to update and summarize the studies on the local, regional, and mining-induced seismicity conducted through December 1982. The limitations of any interpretations are also discussed and additional information that remains to be acquired is identified. 56 references, 45 figures, 4 tables

  5. Nuclear emergency exercises in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F.B.

    1993-01-01

    The practice followed in planning, preparing and conducting offsite nuclear emergency exercises in the Province of Ontario, Canada, is described. In addition, some of the main issues that arise during this process are discussed, as well as Canadian experience in dealing with them. The planning process starts with basic decisions on the aim, scope and duration of the exercise. It proceeds through selection of the exercise objectives and participants, the development of scenarios and incident lists culminating in a master scenario and a master incident list, and finally, the production of control inputs. Preparations include the setting up of a planning organization, making arrangements for exercise control and evaluation, and the required logistics. Some aspects of international exercises are also covered, based upon experience with joint exercises with the U.S.A

  6. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Following major changes to the CAMECO Port Hope operations to reduce uranium emissions, a study was initiated to measure uranium levels in air in the community. Studies continued on lung cancer and domestic exposure to radon, and current levels of cesium-137 in caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. The movement of tritium on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers was studied following an accidental release into the Ottawa River. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl in imported foods. All measurements recorded during 1988 were below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (14 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.)

  7. Oil price uncertainty in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, John; Serletis, Apostolos

    2009-01-01

    Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)

  8. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Forest insect pests in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The papers presented in this book cover the range of forest insect pest management activities in Canada. The first section contains papers on the current status of insect pests by region, including data on insect populations and extent of defoliation caused by the insect. The next section covers pest management technology, including the use of insecticides, insect viruses, fungal pathogens, growth regulators, antifeedants, pheromones, natural predators, and aerial spraying. The third section contains papers on the application of technology and equipment for forest pest control, and includes papers on the impacts of insecticides on the forest environment. The fourth section describes operational control programs by province. The final paper presents future strategies for the management of forest pests. An author index is included.

  10. Transport gasoline demand in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltony, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of household gasoline demand in Canada by applying a detailed model to pool time-series (1969-1988) and cross-sectional provincial data. The model recognises three major behavioural changes that households can make in response to gasoline price changes: drive fewer miles, purchase fewer cars, and buy more fuel-efficient vehicles. In the model, fuel economy is treated in considerable detail. The two components of the fuel economy of new cars sold-the technical fuel efficiency of various classes of cars and the distribution of new car sales according to their interior volume rather than their weight - are estimated as functions of economic variables. Car manufacturers are assumed to improve the technical fuel economy according to their expectation of consumer's response to future changes in gasoline prices and general economic conditions. (author)

  11. Canada's population: growth and dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujot, R P

    1978-04-01

    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  12. Constraints on crustal structure in the Southeastern United States from the SUGAR 2 refraction seismic refraction experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, R. E.; Shillington, D. J.; Lizarralde, D.; Harder, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    The Southeastern United States is an ideal location to study the interactions between continental collision, extensive but short-lived magmatism, and continental rifting. Continental collision during the Alleghenian Orogeny ( 290 Ma) formed the supercontinent Pangea. Extension leading to the breakup of Pangea began 230 Ma, forming the South Georgia Basin and other rift basins. The extensive Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) magmatism was emplaced at 200 Ma, and continental separation occurred afterwards. During these processes, part of the African continent was added to North America. Prior work has raised questions including (1) the location and geometry of the suture zone and implications for the style of collision (thin-skinned versus thick-skinned), (2) the role of pre-existing structures on later rifting, and (3) the distribution of magmatism, and possible relationships between magmatism and rifting. To address these questions, we present preliminary velocity models for the 400-km-long refraction seismic line from the SUwanee Suture and GA Rift basin experiment (SUGAR) Line 2. This line is central to CAMP magmatism, and crosses the South Georgia rift basin and two hypothesized locations for the ancient suture zone. The data were collected in August 2015 by a team of over 40 students and scientists. Fifteen shots spaced at 20-40 km were recorded by 1981 Texans spaced at 250 m. We observe refractions from the basin, crust, and upper mantle, and wide-angle reflections from the base of the sediments, within the crust, and from the Moho. Prominent mid crustal reflections may arise from the top of elevated lower crustal velocities and possible lower crustal layering. The starting velocity model and constraints on the upper sedimentary basin velocity structure are obtained through forward modeling, which show basin sediment thickness increasing to the South. We then invert for smooth 2D velocity structure using first arrivals (FAST) and a layered velocity

  13. On the origin of the Amerasia Basin and the High Arctic Large Igneous Province-Results of new aeromagnetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Arne; Jackson, H.R.; Matzka, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    are revealed. Prior to Cenozoic opening of the Eurasia Basin the giant dyke swarm stretched from Franz Josef Land to the southern Alpha Ridge and possibly further to Queen Elisabeth Islands, Canada. The swarm points towards a 250-km-wide donut-shaped anomaly on the southern Alpha Ridge, which we propose...

  14. Petroleum geology and resources of southeastern Mexico, northern Guatemala, and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James A.

    1983-01-01

    Petroleum deposits in southeastern Mexico and Guatemala occur in two main basinal provinces, the Gulf Coast Tertiary basin area, which includes the Reforma and offshore Campeche Mesozoic fields, and the Peten basin of eastern Chiapas State (Mexico) and Guatemala. Gas production is mainly from Tertiary sandstone reservoirs of Miocene age. Major oil production, in order of importance, is from Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Jurassic carbonate reservoirs in the Reforma and offshore Campeche areas. Several small oil fields have been discovered in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in west-central Guatemala, and one major discovery has been reported in northwestern Guatemala. Small- to medium-sized oil accumulations also occur in Miocene sandstone reservoirs on salt structures in the Isthmus Saline basin of western Tabasco State, Mexico. Almost all important production is in salt structure traps or on domes and anticlines that may be related to deep-seated salt structures. Some minor oil production has occurred in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in a buried overthrust belt along the west flank of the Veracruz basin. The sedimentary cover of Paleozoic through Tertiary rocks ranges in thickness from about 6,000 m (20,000 ft) to as much as 12,000 m (40,000 ft) or more in most of the region. Paleozoic marine carbonate and clastic rocks 1,000 to 2,000 m (3,300 to 6,500 ft) thick overlie the metamorphic and igneous basement in part of the region; Triassic through Middle Jurassic red beds and evaporite deposits, including halite, apparently are present throughout the region, deposited in part in a Triassic graben system. Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) through Cretaceous rocks make up the bulk of the Mesozoic regional carbonate bank complex, which dominates most of the area. Tertiary marine and continental clastic rocks, some of deep water origin, 3,000 to 10,000 m (10,000 to 35,000 ft) thick, are present in the coastal plain Tertiary basins. These beds grade eastward into a carbonate

  15. Urbanization of Brazilian spotted fever in a municipality of the southeastern region: epidemiology and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Jeanette Trigo; Lana, Rafael César; Silva, Claudia Maria dos Santos; Lourenço, Roberto Wagner; da Cunha e Silva, Darllan Collins; Donalísio, Maria Rita

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian spotted fever is an emerging zoonosis notified mainly in the Southeast of Brazil, especially due to its high level of lethality. To analyze the epidemiological and spatial pattern of the disease in the municipality of Valinhos (106,793 inhabitants), São Paulo, Southeastern region of Brazil, in the period between 2001 and 2012. All laboratory-confirmed cases with likely site of infection in the city (n = 49) notified in the Brazilian Case Registry Database were studied. Sites were geocoded using the cartographic base of the city and Google Earth (geographic coordinates) with correction according to the Brazilian Geodetic System. We used the Kernel estimator to analyze the density of the cases on the map. Land cover and distance to basins of all cases were analyzed. Information about tick species and primary hosts were obtained from reports of the Superintendence of Control of Endemic Diseases. Seasonality of the disease was observed with the highest incidence from June to November, and in 2005 and 2011. The most affected groups were men (79.6%) aged 20-49 years old (49%). Lethality was found to be 42.9%. Maps showed the progressive registration of cases in the urban area. Capybaras were reported as the main primary host, and Amblyomma cajennense was identified in probable sites of infection during field investigation. The likely sites of infection were mostly located near basins, dirty pastures, and bordering woods. The transmission pattern of Brazilian spotted fever in Valinhos is similar to that in other cities in the region, where capybara is the main primary host and an amplifier of R. rickettsii. Over the years, a higher occurrence of cases has been identified in the urban area of the city.

  16. An integrated geophysical study of the southeastern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Veronica J.; Keller, G. Randy

    Southwestern Wyoming is located at the margin of the Archean Wyoming craton but has experienced significant deformation as a result of both the Sevier and Laramide orogenies. This study focuses on the nature and extent of this deformation and its interactions with structures within the Precambrian basement. We used about 350 km of newly released industry seismic reflection data along with gravity data, satellite imagery, and drilling information in an integrated analysis focusing on the north-south trending Rock Springs uplift, the northwest-trending Wind River uplift and the west-east trending Sweetwater uplift. These features form arches that are bounded by the Green River, Wind River, Great Divide, and the Washakie basins (Fig. 1). An example of the seismic data is shown in Figure 2 displays structural complexity at the northeast boundary of the Great Divide basin involving high-angle reverse faults with northeast dips. The fault that lies roughly in the middle of the line is interpreted to be the southeastern extension of the Wind River thrust, and the fault at the northeast end of the line is interpreted to be the Mormon Trail thrust. A gravity profile was modeled as a medium to integrate all of the data. This model of the upper crust indicates the presence of inhomogeneities in the Archean basement that have not been recognized previously. The basement northeast of the Wind River thrust contains considerable reflectivity indicating folding or fabric that either reflects or controls Laramide structures. The interweaving of reflectors in one line resemble imbricate structures shown in the CD-ROM Cheyenne belt deep reflection profile and could be related to an ancient structural boundary within the basement. Our analysis shows that the multiple thrusts bounding the Sweetwater uplift occur near major inhomogeneities in the Precambrian basement. Spatial relations we observe are consistent with the hypothesis that anastomosing arches characterize Laramide foreland

  17. Age and Construction of Little Ambergris Cay Bedrock Rim, Southeastern Caicos Platform, British West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, E. A.; Strauss, J. V.; Knoll, A. H.; Fischer, W. W.; Cantine, M.; Metcalfe, K.; Quinn, D. P.; Stein, N.; Gomes, M. L.; Grotzinger, H. M.; Lingappa, U.; O'Reilly, S. S.; Riedman, L. A.; Trower, L.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Caicos Platform's interior-platform ooid shoals and patch reef environments are unique modern examples of grain-rich carbonate settings. In July 2016, the Agouron Institute's Advanced Geobiology field course conducted a detailed study of Little Ambergris Cay, in the southeastern sector of the platform. The cay is fringed by a topographically high rim formed of amalgamated ridges of partially lithified fossiliferous grainstone and rudstone (i.e. beachrock conglomerate), that protects an interior basin dominated by microbial mats and mangroves. Tidal channels exchanging open platform waters with the interior basin breach the rim locally. We sampled and mapped the rim (using differential GPS) in order to examine its age, sedimentological characteristics, and faunal composition. Strata up to 2 meters above the present-day high tide mark form the rim, characterized by several carbonate lithofacies, including oolites with keystone vugs, high-angle trough cross bedding, seaward-dipping low angle stratification, bioturbation and fossiliferous lags, and rudstones composed of imbricated beachrock boulders. We interpret these facies as an upper shoreface to foreshore depositional setting dominated by local storm and eolian deposits. A distinct fossiliferous rudstone facies is dominated by mytilid bivalves, as well as Eustrombus, Conus, Oliva, and vermetid gastropods. X-ray powder diffraction analyses on fossil shells reveal both shells with pristine aragonite and shells with evidence of secondary calcite. Radiometric analyses of pristine aragonite material provide additional age constraints on these deposits. Understanding the formation of Little Ambergris Cay's bedrock deposits will provide important context for the island's geological history and geomorphology, aiding in our understanding of modern analogues for ancient interior platform depositional environments.

  18. A conceptual framework of groundwater flow in some crystalline aquifers in Southeastern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yidana, Sandow Mark; Ganyaglo, Samuel; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Akabzaa, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    A conceptual groundwater flow model was developed for the crystalline aquifers in southeastern part of the Eastern region, Ghana. The objective was to determine approximate levels of groundwater recharge, estimate aquifer hydraulic parameters, and then test various scenarios of groundwater extraction under the current conditions of recharge. A steady state groundwater flow model has been calibrated against measured water levels of 19 wells in the area. The resulting recharge is estimated to range from 8.97 × 10 -5 m/d to 7.14 × 10 -4 m/d resulting in a basin wide average recharge of about 9.6% of total annual precipitation, which results in a basin wide quantitative recharge of about 2.4 million m 3/d in the area. This compares to recharge estimated from the chloride mass balance of 7.6% of precipitation determined in this study. The general groundwater flow in the area has also been determined to conform to the general northeast-southwest structural grain of the country. The implication is that the general hydrogeology is controlled by post genetic structural entities imposed on the rocks to create ingresses for sufficient groundwater storage and transport. Calibrated aquifer hydraulic conductivities range between 0.99 m/d and over 19.4 m/d. There is a significant contribution of groundwater discharge to stream flow in the study area. Increasing groundwater extraction will have an effect on stream flow. This study finds that the current groundwater extraction levels represent only 0.17% of the annual recharge from precipitation, and that groundwater can sustain future increased groundwater demands from population growth and industrialization.

  19. Water Under Fire: A Seven Part Video Series on Canada's Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazek, R.; Byrne, J.; Rabe, N.; Gallant, G.

    2003-12-01

    Canada's water is under escalating pressure from a host of threats. Increasingly, our water is being tainted, misused and over allocated. Experts have identified a multitude of threats to water quantity and quality. Among them, climate change impacts on water supply, and the effects of pesticides, pathogens, industrial waste, urban runoff, and rising demands. These and other threats are the roots to a serious shortage of high quality, safe water sources. In the 1990s, waterborne diseases have re-emerged as one of the primary health issues on a national and global scale. This seven-part video series brings science voices together and provides a nationwide context. The first six programs in the series explore regional concerns: Rocky Mountains, Prairie Waters, Northern Waters, Great Lakes Basin, St. Lawrence and Atlantic Canada. The final program covers the national and international perspectives.

  20. Contributions of palynology to Carboniferous biostratigraphy and coal geology of the Atlantic provinces of Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacquebard, P.A. [Geological Survey of Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Atlantic Geoscience Centre

    1997-01-01

    W.A. Bell`s palaeobotanical and geological studies carried out between 1927 and 1948 resulted in the recognition of six stratigraphic units in the Carboniferous system of the Atlantic Provinces of Canada. Subsequent palynological research provided additional information on: (1) The recognition of nineteen miospore zones in the six groups of the Carboniferous succession. (2) Regional correlation of the stratigraphic units in areas where, due to lack of plant megafossils, no age relationship had been established. This resulted in recognizing the existence of the Gulf of St. Lawrence coalfield, the largest in eastern Canada. (3) Detailed coal seam correlations from miospore histograms, as an aid to structural and stratigraphic interpretations, resulted in delineating hitherto unknown coal reserves, notably in the Mabou and Pictou coalfields of Nova Scotia and in the Central Pennsylvanian Basin of New Brunswick. (4) The miospore assemblages provided information on the negotiation of the ancient peat mires that are valuable to coal-facies interpretations.

  1. Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-30

    Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP) Pierre-Marie Poulain Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica ...Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale,Borgo Grotta Gigante, 42/c,34010 Sgonico (Trieste), Italy, , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  2. Oak-Black Bear Relationships in Southeastern Uplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph D. Clark

    2004-01-01

    Bears (Ursus americanus) primarily occur in upland habitats in the Southeast because uplands were the last to be developed for agriculture and were more likely to become publicly owned. National parks and forests created in the early to mid-1900s served as sources to supply surrounding uplands with bears. Bears could not survive in southeastern...

  3. Lowland riparian herpetofaunas: the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip C. Rosen

    2005-01-01

    Previous work has shown that southeastern Arizona has a characteristic, high diversity lowland riparian herpetofauna with 62-68 or more species along major stream corridors, and 46-54 species in shorter reaches within single biomes, based on intensive fieldwork and museum record surveys. The San Pedro River supports this characteristic herpetofauna, at least some of...

  4. Southeastern Wisconsin Workplace Communication Project Curriculum Development Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Catherine; Huss-Lederman, Susan; Johnson, Jewelie

    The Southeastern Wisconsin Workplace Communication Project is a workplace English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) resource and outreach program involving a partnership of businesses and adult educators in a rural area that has experienced an increase in new speakers of English in the manufacturing workforce. The guide provides workplace educators and…

  5. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm

    2010-01-01

    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  6. geochemistry of schists of northwest obudu plateau, southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REV YOUNG EZENWA OBIOHA

    Zircon evaporation ages and chemical composition of migmatitic schist in the Obudu Plateau: Evidence of Paleo-Proterozoic (Ca. 1769Ma) component in the Basement Complex of. Southeastern Nigeria. J. Min. Geol. 33: 81- 88. Ekwueme, B. N. and Onyeagocha, A. C., 1986. Geochemistry of metasedimentary rocks of.

  7. Habitat associations of birds and herpetofauna in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    William M. Block; Kieth E. Severson

    1992-01-01

    The mountains of southeastern Arizona support a large diversity of vegetative plant communities ranging from grassland and desert scrub to spruce-fir forests. These vegetation types provide appropriate conditions for a number of species of vertebrates. Although vertebrates have been the subject of numerous studies in this region, most studies were restricted to one...

  8. Mulching An Arenic Hapludult In Southeastern Nigeria: Effects On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out over two cropping seasons at Umudike, southeastern Nigeria, to determine the type and quantity of mulch that would improve some selected physical properties of an Arenic Hapludult and optimize the rhizome yield of turmeric. Effects of mulch rate on bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), ...

  9. The Economics Of Goat Production In Southeastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Economics Of Goat Production In Southeastern Nigeria: Implications For The Future. ... Both males and females owned goats but males dominated goat marketing. Women have recently become goat meat retailers. Although the prospects for large scale goat production appeared bleak, those for women producers

  10. Sterilization by Minilaparotomy in South-Eastern Nigeria | Nwogu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to assess the trend in acceptance and characteristics of acceptors of female sterilization between January 1999 and December 2006 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria. There were a total of 20,485 new clients, with 212 (1.0%) accepting sterilization between ...

  11. Bird-habitat relationships in riparian communities of southeastern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    1987-01-01

    Bird-habitat relationships along a riparian gradient in southeastern Wyoming were examined from 1982 to 1984. Breeding birds were spot-mapped on ten study grids established over an elevational cline of 933 m. Habitat analyses indicated significant trends of decreasing vegetational complexity from low to high elevations, with declines in number of habitat layers, and...

  12. Consolidation of Small, Rural Schools in One Southeastern Kentucky District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, June; Cleveland, Roger; Huffman, Tyler

    2010-01-01

    From 1945 to 1980, school districts across the United States decreased the number of schools through consolidation. With the advent of geographic software, it is possible to map schools across time and analyze patterns of school openings, closings, and consolidation. In this study, one Southeastern Kentucky district was selected as a pilot for…

  13. Economics of conservation systems research in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of conservation systems in crop production is not a new concept in the southeastern United States. In 1978, researchers from across the Southeast met in Griffin, Georgia for the first annual Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference. Four of the ten presentations specifically men...

  14. Physico-chemical properties of a Haplic Acrisol in Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties of a Haplic Acrisol in Southeastern Nigeria amended with rice mill waste and NPK fertilizer. ... conductivity (Ksat) and mean weight diameter (MWD) of water stable aggregates significantly by 41.1, 368.2 and 155.8%, respectively, and resulted in 20.9% significant decrease in bulk density (BD).

  15. Bedrock geologic map of the Spring Valley, West Plains, and parts of the Piedmont and Poplar Bluff 30'x60' quadrangles, Missouri, including the upper Current River and Eleven Point River drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Harrison, Richard W.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Weems, Robert E.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2015-01-01

    This map covers the drainage basins of the upper Current River and the Eleven Point River in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province of southeastern Missouri. The two surface drainage basins are contiguous in their headwaters regions, but are separated in their lower reaches by the lower Black River basin in the southeast corner of the map area. Numerous dye-trace studies demonstrate that in the contiguous headwaters areas, groundwater flows from the Eleven Point River basin into the Current River basin. Much of the groundwater discharge of the Eleven Point River basin emanates from Big Spring, located on the Current River. This geologic map and cross sections were produced to help fulfill a need to understand the geologic framework of the region in which this subsurface flow occurs.

  16. Taxi and limousine industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, J.; Civettini, S.

    2007-01-01

    Taxi and limousine service plays an important role in the movement of people within a city. In 2004, the total revenue in this industry in Canada was $1.305 billion, and an estimated 35,339 carriers served the industry. In Canada, economic and safety regulations of taxi supply were imposed in most cities during the 1930s and 1940s and continue to this date. Although the industry is regulated, the competition law also applies. The appropriateness of these regulations continues to be challenged and regulatory reforms in the major cities in Canada have concentrated their efforts on increasing the rate of services, improving the quality of vehicles and enhancing the training of taxi drivers. Indicators for the 1999-2004 period reveal that the taxi and limousine industry in Canada did not perform very well. Revenue increased by only 1.7 per cent per year and margins deteriorated by -1.78 per cent together with the operating ratio. The purpose of this paper was to examine the taxi and limousine industry in Canada. First, the structure of the industry in Canada was examined followed by a review of the economic regulation of the industry. Recent regulatory developments in Canada and in other countries were then reviewed with arguments for or against deregulation. 28 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Canada's non-proliferation and safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote the emergence of a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to assure the Canadian people and the international community that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the NPT, by promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, by treating nuclear weapon and non-nuclear weapon states alike regarding Canadian nuclear exports, by working for new approaches covering the sensitive phases (e.g. reprocessing) of the nuclear fuel cycle, Canada's policy promotes attainment of the first objective. The latter objective is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its nuclear partners. Those agreements provide assurance that Canada's nuclear exports are used solely for legitimate, peaceful, nuclear energy production purposes. At the same time, Canada, having formulated its non-proliferation and safeguards policy during the period 1945 to 1980, has recognized that it has gone as far as it can on its own in this field and that from this point on any further changes should be made on the basis of international agreement. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums such as the Committee on Assurances of Supply is to exert Canada's best efforts to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers might subsume their national requirements

  18. Petro-Canada 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Petro-Canada is a dominant player in the petroleum industry in Western Canada as well as on the Grand Banks offshore Newfoundland. This report presents a review of operations, provides detailed statements of the corporation's finances, and a wealth of information of interest to shareholders. The report states that in 1997 Petro-Canada achieved record financial results, following a dramatic turnaround over the past five years. Net earnings for 1997 were $306 million, a $59 million increase over 1996. The company's share price appreciated 34 per cent in 1997 and was one of the most heavily traded stocks in Canada. The company plans to maximize shareholder value by reducing its interests in conventional oil from mature fields in western Canada and by re-investing the proceeds in natural gas development. Petro-Canada is also committed to an expansion that will double production at the Syncrude oil sands plant over the next decade and has tested large in-situ oil sands resources for potential development in northeastern Alberta. On the Atlantic coast too, Petro-Canada is delivering leadership with increasing production from Hibernia, and final approvals in place to proceed with development of the Terra Nova field. International operations are also contributing to the Corporation's profitability by delivering new production from oil fields offshore Norway and from the Sahara Desert in North Africa. tabs., figs

  19. Uranium in Canada: Billion-dollar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillans, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium; five primary uranium producers reported concentrate output containing 12,400 MT of uranium, or about one-third of Western production. Uranium shipments made by these producers in 1988 exceeded 13,200 MT, worth Canadian $1.1 billion. Because domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian output, most of Canada's uranium production is available for export. Despite continued market uncertainty in 1988, Canada's uranium producers signed new sales contracts for some 14,000 MT, twice the 1987 level. About 90% of this new volume is with the US, now Canada's major uranium customer. The recent implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade agreement brings benefits to both countries; the uranium industries in each can now develop in an orderly, free market. Canada's uranium industry was restructured and consolidated in 1988 through merger and acquisition; three new uranium projects advanced significantly. Canada's new policy on nonresident ownership in the uranium mining sector, designed to encourage both Canadian and foreign investment, should greatly improve efforts to finance the development of recent Canadian uranium discoveries

  20. Paleoelevation reconstruction of the Paleocene-Eocene Gonjo basin, SE-central Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Maoyun; Liu-Zeng, Jing; Hoke, Gregory D.; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Weitao; Li, Zhanfei; Zhang, Jinyu; Wang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The topography evolution of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau provides a constraint for evaluating various geodynamic models of plateau formation. We reconstruct the Paleocene to Eocene paleoelevation of the Cenozoic Gonjo basin in the Qiangtang terrane, using oxygen and carbon stable isotopic results from pedogenic carbonates of the lower Ranmugou Formation. Lithofacies associations indicate that the lower Ranmugou Formation was deposited in alluvial fan and fluvial floodplain environments. U-Pb dating of volcanics within the middle Ranmugou Formation constrains the deposition of the lower Ranmugou Formation as prior to 43.2 Ma. Paleoelevations are calculated using both a thermodynamic model and an empirical relationship. The empirical relationship of elevation-δ18O is determined from a series of modern water samples. Calculated paleoelevations indicate that the Gonjo basin attained a minimum average elevation of 2100-2500 m in the early Eocene. Together with recent paleoaltimetry studies in the region, it can be concluded that the crust of southeastern Tibetan Plateau was already thickened by that time. The calculation is based on the section in northern Gonjo basin, where δ18O values of paleosol nodules appear to be unaltered, but we cannot rule out the possibility that δ18O values of the pedogenic carbonates had been partially reset. Our preliminary results favor tectonic models compatible with pre-Miocene uplift of the SE-central Tibetan Plateau.

  1. Summer precipitation variability over Southeastern South America in a global warming scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junquas, C. [UPMC/CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris (France); UMI-IFAECI CNRS-CONICET-UBA, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), DCAO/FCEyN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vera, C. [UMI-IFAECI CNRS-CONICET-UBA, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), DCAO/FCEyN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Li, L.; Le Treut, H. [UPMC/CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris (France)

    2012-05-15

    December-January-February (DJF) rainfall variability in southeastern South America (SESA) is studied in 18 coupled general circulation models from the WCRP/CMIP3 dataset, for present climate and the SRES-A1B climate change scenario. The analysis is made in terms of properties of the first leading pattern of rainfall variability in the region, characterized by a dipole-like structure with centers of action in the SESA and South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) regions. The study was performed to address two issues: how rainfall variability in SESA would change in a future climate and how much of that change explains the projected increasing trends in the summer mean rainfall in SESA identified in previous works. Positive (negative) dipole events were identified as those DJF seasons with above (below) normal rainfall in SESA and below (above) normal rainfall in the SACZ region. Results obtained from the multi-model ensemble confirm that future rainfall variability in SESA has a strong projection on the changes of seasonal dipole pattern activity, associated with an increase of the frequency of the positive phase. In addition, the frequency increase of positive dipole phase in the twenty first century seems to be associated with an increase of both frequency and intensity of positive SST anomalies in the equatorial Pacific, and with a Rossby wave train-like anomaly pattern linking that ocean basin to South America, which regionally induces favorable conditions for moisture transport convergence and rainfall increase in SESA. (orig.)

  2. Bailarinas Exoticas, Striptease e Inmigracion en Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Patricia Diaz Barrero.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the product of exploratory field research conducted in Toronto, Canada. It consists of in-depth interviews of Latin American women from diverse countries who obtained temporary work visas as exotic dancers. The objective of the study is to determine the ways in which women are recruited in their countries of origin, transported to Canada and what happens to them upon arrival. The author proposes that the conditions inherent to migration, more than women's legal status, determines their emotional, economic and legal well-being. However, upon obtaining legal residency in Canada, abuse committed by employers and state agents is significantly reduced.

  3. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y

    1992-01-01

    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  4. Nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1990-05-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste and is submitting it for review under the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. During this review, AECL intends to show that careful, controlled burial 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is a safe and feasible way to dispose of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept has been assessed without identifying or evaluating any particular site for disposal. AECL is now preparing a comprehensive report based on more than 10 years of research and development

  5. Critical Energy Infrastructure Protection in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    partie de l’apport vital des exportations d’énergie à la croissance et à la prospérité économique du Canada et des États-Unis. Il faut tenir compte...Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2010 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle...que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2010 DRDC CORA CR 2010-274 i Abstract …….. Various government Ministers have

  6. Electricity - a great asset for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, Jean.

    1983-06-01

    Canada has a great national asset in its ability to generate electricity economically from its abundant hydro, coal, and uranium resources. Its nuclear industry has an excellent product. Despite lack of orders for now, the CANDU will be a competitive force when the reactor market recovers. Canada has a proven record of reliability for electricity trade with the United States. There appear to be some opportunities for plants in Canada dedicated to the export of electric power. The federal government is prepared to work closely with the provinces to develop projects which will be attractive to customers in the United States

  7. Non-stationary temporal characterization of the temperature profile of a soil exposed to frost in south-eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Anctil

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare time and frequency fluctuations of air and soil temperatures (2-, 5-, 10-, 20- and 50-cm below the soil surface using the continuous wavelet transform, with a particular emphasis on the daily cycle. The analysis of wavelet power spectra and cross power spectra provided detailed non-stationary accounts with respect to frequencies (or periods and to time of the structure of the data and also of the relationships that exist between time series. For this particular application to the temperature profile of a soil exposed to frost, both the air temperature and the 2-cm depth soil temperature time series exhibited a dominant power peak at 1-d periodicity, prominent from spring to autumn. This feature was gradually damped as it propagated deeper into the soil and was weak for the 20-cm depth. Influence of the incoming solar radiation was also revealed in the wavelet power spectra analysis by a weaker intensity of the 1-d peak. The principal divergence between air and soil temperatures, besides damping, occurred in winter from the latent heat release associated to the freezing of the soil water and the insulation effect of snowpack that cease the dependence of the soil temperature to the air temperature. Attenuation and phase-shifting of the 1-d periodicity could be quantified through scale-averaged power spectra and time-lag estimations. Air temperature variance was only partly transferred to the 2-cm soil temperature time series and much less so to the 20-cm soil depth.

  8. Looking Forward: Using Scenario Modeling to Support Regional Land Use Planning in Northern Yukon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn R. Francis

    2011-12-01

    We describe how the ALCES® landscape cumulative effects simulation model was used to explore possible outcomes of an oil and gas scenario in the Eagle Plain basin of the North Yukon Planning Region of Yukon Territory, Canada. Scenario modeling was conducted to facilitate informed discussion about key land use issues and practices, potential levels of landscape change, and possible socioeconomic benefits and environmental impacts. Modeling results supported the sustainable development and cumulative effects management recommendations of the North Yukon Regional Land Use Plan. Land use scenario modeling, as applied in this project, was found to be an effective approach for establishing sustainable development guidelines through a regional planning process.

  9. Prospecting for Natural Gas Gydrate in the Orca & Choctaw Basins in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, A.; Hillman, J. I. T.; Sawyer, D.; Frye, M.; Palmes, S.; Shedd, W. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Orca and Choctaw salt bounded mini-basins, which occur in 1.5 to 2.5 km water depth on the northern Gulf of Mexico slope, are currently under consideration as an IODP scientific drilling location for coarse-grained natural gas hydrate systems. We use a 3D seismic dataset for gas hydrate prospecting that covers parts of eleven lease blocks ( 200 km2) in the Walker Ridge protraction area. The study area includes the southern section of the Orca Basin and a smaller section of the northern Choctaw Basin. We have mapped a discontinuous bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) over nearly 30% of our seismic dataset, which varies significantly in both amplitude and depth throughout the area. The southeastern section of our dataset contains three positive impedance amplitude horizons with possible phase reversals at the BSR. Detailed mapping in the area also reveals at the base of gas hydrate stability, a complicated intercalation of an east-west trending fault system and an amalgamated deepwater depositional system comprising channel levee deposits and turbidite sheet sands. Three industry wells drilled in the southwestern section of our study area indicate that the sedimentary sequence infilling the basins consists of predominantly mud rich units with interbedded turbidite sands, forming a 2 km thick supra-salt sequence of late Miocene to Pleistocene sediments. Two of the industry wells have strong evidence for natural gas hydrate in clay-rich sediment, with moderate resistivity (between 2-10 Ωm) increases above background resistivity in zones that exceed 60 m thick. Additionally, the electromagnetic resistivity curves in these wells separate suggesting that the gas hydrate occurs in high-angle fractures. We will present our seismic dataset, our continuing analysis and selected drill sites in the Orca and Choctaw basins. Furthermore, our analysis in the southeastern section of the study area underscores the importance of interpreting faults when considering phase

  10. Manyame River Basin, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available on website http://www.wrc.org.za. ISSN 1816-7950 (On-line) = Water SA Vol. 42 No. 1 January 2016. Published under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence. A test of the Lake Habitat Survey method in Cleveland Reservoir and. Lake Chivero (Manyame River Basin, Zimbabwe). Tatenda Dalu1*, Edwin ...

  11. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.

    2008-01-01

    genetically from the rest of the populations in the Mediterranean area. This result supports the hypothesis of a low incidence of the south-north genetic interchange at the western shores of the Mediterranean basin. A low genetic distance was found between populations in the Middle East and the western part...

  12. Pacific Basin Heavy Oil Refining Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hackett

    2013-02-01

    additional refineries, both of which are not expected, given the volume of lighter and more valuable crude from the Middle East finding its way to Pacific Basin markets. Consequently, any new refinery capacity is not likely to be dedicated to Canadian crude shipments. This places increasing importance on the need to enter into long-term contracts to supply Pacific Basin refineries, backed up by evidence of adequate transportation capacity. Canadians will have to show first, and quickly, that we are committed to building pipelines that will bring sufficient volumes of oil to the Pacific coast necessary to give the refiners the certainty they need to invest in infrastructure for refining Canadian oil. Access to this crucial market will depend critically on the outcome of the pipeline approval process, and also the cost to ship from Canada. If Canada does not approve of the Pacific coast pipeline expansions, or takes too long in doing so, it could find its crude unable to effectively penetrate the world’s most promising oil export market.

  13. Understanding gasoline pricing in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This brochure is designed to help consumers understand how gasoline is priced and explained why prices increase, fluctuate and vary by location, city or region. The price of a litre of gasoline reflects the costs of crude oil, refining, retailing and taxes. Taxes are usually the largest single component of gasoline prices, averaging 40 to 50 per cent of the pump price. The cost of crude oil makes up another 35 to 45 per cent of the price. Refining costs make up 10 to 15 per cent while the remaining 5 to 10 per cent represents retail costs. Gasoline retailers make a profit of about 1 cent per litre. The latest network technology allows national and regional retail chains to constantly monitor price fluctuations to change their prices at gasoline stations at a moments notice to keep up with the competition and to protect their market shares. Several government studies, plus the Conference Board of Canada, have reported that competition is working in favour of Canadian motorists. This brochure also explained the drawbacks of regulating crude and pump prices with the reminder that crude prices were regulated in the 1970s with many negative consequences. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Coal geology and assessment of coal resources and reserves in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the final results of the first assessment of both coal resources and reserves for all significant coal beds in the entire Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The basin covers about 19,500 square miles, exclusive of the part of the basin within the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations in Montana. The Powder River Basin, which contains the largest resources of low-sulfur, low-ash, subbituminous coal in the United States, is the single most important coal basin in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey used a geology-based assessment methodology to estimate an original coal resource of about 1.16 trillion short tons for 47 coal beds in the Powder River Basin; in-place (remaining) resources are about 1.15 trillion short tons. This is the first time that all beds were mapped individually over the entire basin. A total of 162 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources (coal reserve base) are estimated at a 10:1 stripping ratio or less. An estimated 25 billion short tons of that coal reserve base met the definition of reserves, which are resources that can be economically produced at or below the current sales price at the time of the evaluation. The total underground coal resource in coal beds 10–20 feet thick is estimated at 304 billion short tons.

  15. Emerging Churches in Post-Christian Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Studebaker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional mainline and evangelical churches in Canada, as in most western countries, are either in decline or static. Taken as a measure of the future, the prospects for Christianity in Canada, and more broadly the West, are bleak. Post-Christian Canada, however, contains thriving alternative and innovative forms of church, often called ‘emerging’ churches. They take many forms of expression, but share common theological convictions. Based on site research and personal interviews, this article describes the various types and contexts of these churches in Canada. It then highlights three of their central theological characteristics. First, rejecting the ‘culture wars’ social involvement of Christendom churches, they embrace practices and initiatives that transform their local communities. Second, they embrace an incarnational and contextual understanding of Christian life and ministry. Eschewing mega-church franchise models, they endeavor to shape their ministry to the their local communities. Third, they adopt a comprehensive rather than compartmental spirituality.

  16. Canada Research Chairs | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    aspx. International Research Chairs Initiative. The International Research Chairs Initiative pairs top research talent from universities in Canada with their counterparts in developing countries to address key development challenges. View more

  17. Building the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada. The energy development is poised to help transform the economy of New Brunswick. Planning for energy projects and supporting infrastructure are under way and regional opportunities are emerging

  18. Gulf Canada Resources Limited 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A review of operations in 1998 and financial information from Gulf Canada Resources Limited is provided to keep shareholders abreast of company performance. Gulf Canada Resources Limited explores for, develops, produces and markets conventional and synthetic crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. In 1998, the company's main operating centres were in western Canada (where it owns a nine per cent interest in the Syncrude Joint Venture), Indonesia, the North Sea and Australia. The report summarizes the company's energy resource activities, presents a detailed review of operations, and provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information. Although Gulf Canada Resources sold $ 1.2 billion worth of non-producing assets during the year, year end proved reserves of 838 million barrels of oil equivalent were less than ten per cent lower than a year earlier, reflecting reserve additions of 100 million barrels of oil equivalent. tabs., figs

  19. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    Canada's non-proliferation safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to ensure that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, treating nuclear weapon and non-weapon states alike, and working for new approaches covering reprocessing, Canada promotes attainment of the first objective. The second is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its partners. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums is to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers may subsume their national requirements

  20. Canada files WTO complaint against EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In December 1998, Canada filed a complaint alleging that the European Communities (EC) had adopted regulations that amounted to a scheme to extend patent terms, limited to pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products.

  1. Opportunities for manufactured housing in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bairstow, Dale

    1985-01-01

    In the fall of 1984, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation commissioned this study because it wanted to find out why manufactured housing appeared to be increasing in importance in certain foreign...

  2. Proceedings of the 7. Symposium on geology from southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents papers on the following subjects: regional geology of the proterozoic and fanerozoic, metallic and non metallic resources, tectoni-sedimentary evolution of the eastern margin Brazil basins and petroleum geology applied to the Santos, Campos and Espirito Santo basins, engineering and environmental geologies, ornamental rocks/building materials/mineral waters/industrial ores

  3. How Do Density Fronts Interact with Zooplankton Distributions to Create Baleen Whale Prey-Fields in Roseway Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckdeschel, G.; Ross, T.; Davies, K. T. A.

    2016-02-01

    On the Scotian Shelf in the northwest Atlantic, Roseway Basin is a feeding ground for several species of large baleen whales, including the highly endangered North Atlantic right whale. In this habitat, aggregations of zooplankton must be present at concentrations high enough for baleen whales to obtain an energetic benefit. Regions of highly concentrated zooplankton are formed within the habitat through various biophysical interactions, such as fontal accumulation and retention. In Roseway Basin, humpback and fin whales prey on accumulated euphausiids, while right and sei whales forage for deep layers of Calanoid copepods. Right whales are found most often along the southeastern basin margin in Roseway, and this is also where density fronts occur and are associated with zooplankton patches that can form and disaggregate at tidal scales. The temporal persistence and biophysical mechanisms behind the observed interactions of zooplankton and frontal features have not been assessed. To understand how density fronts impact zooplankton distributions at the scale of feeding whales, we deployed Slocum gliders equipped with conductivity-temperature-depth sensors and echosounders in a series of cross-isobath transects along the sloped southeastern margin of Roseway Basin during August to November 2015. By looking for the presence of density fronts that are also regions of elevated acoustic backscatter (primarily from copepods and euphausiids) and quantifying their persistence over time, we aim to determine how these biophysical interactions create whale prey-fields.

  4. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments transiting Canada. (a) Manifest required. Trucks with merchandise...

  5. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Canada. 93.418 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.418 Cattle from Canada. (a) Health certificates. Cattle intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a certificate issued in accordance...

  6. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a certificate...

  7. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…

  8. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry Canada 6 § 93.216 Poultry from Canada. Poultry imported from Canada is not required to meet the requirements of § 93.209 but shall meet all other requirements of this...

  9. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in…

  10. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  11. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  12. NDT in Canada - the next 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittmer, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The theme for the Fifth Canadian Conference on Nondestructive Testing was 'NDT in Canada - The Next 20 years'. The three day conference with 42 presentations provided a short overview of NDT in Canada, a look at NDT in pipeline, materials, offshore, nuclear and training applications, and a glimpse into the next 20 years with recent advances in research and development as related to this 'hi-tech' field of work

  13. Geochemical characterization of Parana Basin volcanic rocks: petrogenetic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed study of the geochemical characteristics of Parana Basin volcanic rocks is presented. The results are based on the analyses of major and trace elements of 158 samples. Ninety three of these volcanic samples belong to 8 flow sequences from Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina States. The remaining sixty five samples are distributed over the entire basin. In order to study the influence of crustal contamination processes in changing chemical characteristics of the volcanic rocks, 47 samples representative of the crystalline basement of the southern and southeastern Parana Basin were also analysed. Several petrogenetic models were tested to explain the compocional variability of the volcanic rocks, in particular those of southern region. The results obtained sugest an assimilation-fractional crystallization process as viable to explain the differences of both the chemical characteristics and Sr isotope initial ratios observed in basic and intermediate rocks. A model involving melting processes of basic material, trapped at the base of the crust, with composition similar to low and high TiO 2 basalts appears to be a possibility to originate the Palmas and Chapeco acid melts, respectively. The study of ''uncontaminated'' or poorly contaminated low TiO 2 basic rocks from the southern, central and northern regions shows the existence of significant differences in the geochemical charactetistics according to their geographical occurrence. A similar geochemical diversity is also observed in high TiO 2 basalts and Chapeco volcanics. Differences in incompatible element ratios between low and high TiO 2 ''uncontaminated'' or poorly contaminated basalts suggest that they could have been produced by different degrees of melting in a garnet peridotite source. Geochemical and isotopic (Sr and Nd) data also support the view that basalts from northern and southern regions of Parana Basin originated from mantle source with different composition. (author) [pt

  14. Structural evolution of Lake Superior II: Eastern basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.J. (Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)); Coakley, B.J.; Wang, H.F. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1992-01-01

    The authors have interpreted 1,400 km of industry and government multichannel seismic reflection data from eastern Lake Superior. Seismic sequences have been identified by using reflection character and reflector terminations and truncations. This framework, coupled with outcrop information, has allowed them to assign lithologic units to some of these reflectors and reconstruct the timing and geometry of structures within the basin. The authors have mapped the Base Jacobsville-Bayfield Group/Top oronto Group, Base oronto Group/Top Keweenawan volcanics, and Basement as well as several reflectors internal to these groups. Integration of gravity and magnetic data with the seismic grid permits regional mapping of faults and folds between seismic lines. In the eastern part of the basin, high-angle basement-involved reverse faults, such as the southeastern combination of the Keweenaw fault, trend NNW-SSE, while broad folds trend E-W. The Keweenaw fault is a complex structural zone and, in the Manitou Island region, steeply-dipping reflectors with abrupt dip reversals indicate a transpressive flower structure. Reactivation of the Keweenaw fault along the southern margin of the basin has rotated and uplifted the basin fill. This region is where the unconformity on top of the Oronto Group is best developed and shows that much of the compressive motion on this fault system occurred post-Oronto and syn-Jacobsville as the top of Jacobsville Group reflector is only slightly deformed. The stratal relationships seen in the seismic data suggest that compressive deformation was synchronous with Oronto and early Jacobsville deposition.

  15. A trishear model for the deformation of the Sudbury Igneous Complex, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenauer, Iris; Riller, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    The Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC), Canada, is an impact-induced layered sheet of crystalline rocks deformed into an asymmetrical fold basin, the Sudbury Basin. The basin geometry at depth is largely unknown as few attempts were made to quantify displacement and rotation of layer contacts. We propose that the dip of layer contacts and foliation surfaces in the southern SIC can be approximated by trishear fault propagation folding. Trishear deformation accounts for: (1) angular discordances between upper and basal SIC contacts, (2) local overturning of the SIC, (3) progressive steepening of foliation surfaces from NW to SE, (4) strain gradient in the Sudbury Basin sedimentary rocks, and (5) thickness variations in SIC layers. Moreover, the South Range Shear Zone, a zone of moderately strong metamorphic fabrics, coincides with the surface manifestation of the proposed trishear zone. We demonstrate the use of structural data together with forward kinematic modelling to identify the strain distribution within the SIC, rotation of SIC contacts and thickness changes of SIC layers. Backward kinematic modelling provides information on the initial geometry of the SIC and is used to restore the shape of the igneous sheet, showing that the SIC was shortened by approximately 10 km in NW-SE diameter. Most of the shortening was accommodated by 40% reduction in the thickness of the upper SIC layer.

  16. Modelling drought and recovery in the southern Murray-Darling basin

    OpenAIRE

    Wittwer, Glyn; Griffith, Marnie

    2011-01-01

    The prolonged drought from 2006–07 to 2008–09 in south-eastern Australia presented severe difficulties for dry-land and irrigation farmers in the southern Murray-Darling basin. A dynamic multi-regional computable general equilibrium model (TERMH2O) is used to estimate the economy-wide small region impacts during and after drought. Drought reduces real GDP in some small regions by up to 20 per cent. Irrigation water trading and farm factor movements alleviate losses. The drought results in an ...

  17. Increasing turbine vendor competition in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the wind turbine market in Canada was presented. Canada is now experiencing increased turbine vendor competition. Trends in wind turbine OEM market shares in Canada have increased from 10 per cent in 2000 to over 70 per cent in 2007. Several major companies in Canada have signed large-scale orders for delivery in 2010. It is expected that future wind turbine demands in all areas of Canada will increase. However, projections for Canadian wind growth demonstrate the difficulties provinces are now facing in trying to attract manufacturing investment away from the United States. Growth in wind turbine investment is in the process of creating a more robust North American wind turbine generator chain. However, the majority of new facilities are located in the United States. It is not known if Quebec's wind turbine generators will be viable outside of fulfilling Hydro-Quebec's tendering process. Canada's wind industry must consider equipment transport costs as well as a shortage of operating and maintenance service infrastructure. It was concluded that growth in the United States is expected to have a positive impact on Canadian wind energy customers. tabs., figs

  18. Croatian Language Maintenance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Petrović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the topic of language maintenance has received considerable attention from linguists around the world, there are still many aspects of this language-contact phenomenon that could be examined further. This paper aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge by exploring the state of Croatian as a heritage language in Canada. The aim of the paper is two-fold. The first is to describe the demographic characteristics of the Croatian community by investigating the number of people of Croatian descent and the number of Croatian speakers in Canada. The second, and more specific, aim of the paper is to provide an account of the state of Croatian as a minority language and examine the extent of language maintenance in the community. To accomplish the first objective, Canadian census data (1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011 was analyzed, with special focus on linguistic census data (number and age of Croatian speakers in Canada, mother tongue of people of Croatian descent, language most used at home, etc.. To accomplish the second objective, census data was supplemented with data from a questionnaire-based survey completed by members of the Croatian community in Toronto. The survey was completed by 220 participants; 110 first-generation Croatian Canadians and 110 second-generation Croatian Canadians. Two versions of the questionnaire were designed, one for first-generation participants and the other for second-generation participants. The great majority of items in the two versions were identical; each version contained questions about demographic characteristics, language use in everyday life, and self-perceived language proficiency in English and Croatian. The majority of questions were of a closed type (multiple-choice questions and rating scales, but there were also some open-ended questions, so as to give participants the opportunity to express their viewpoint or comment on certain issues. Questions were written in both Croatian and English

  19. Nova Scotia offshore to Grand Banks connection : Mesozoic basins on a transform margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, L.E.; Martin, M.R.; Enachescu, M.E.; Atkinson, I.; Stead, J.E. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences and Pan-Atlantic Petroleum Systems Consortium

    2005-07-01

    The renewed interest in the southern Grand Banks has resulted in new active exploration licenses, seismic acquisition programs and planned drilling in the South Whale and Laurentian basins. The basins are located northeast of the Scotian margin, about 200 km south of the east coast of Newfoundland, in shallow to intermediate waters in an area free of icebergs. The Scotian and Newfoundland offshore areas are separated by the St. Lawrence Tertiary channel. A provincial boundary divides the jurisdiction over sea resources. The long political moratorium which had been imposed on the Laurentian Basin was resolved during the summer of 2003 with the establishment of the provincial boundary. Some regional geological maps of the East Coast Mesozoic sedimentary area indicate continuity between the Orpheus Graben and northern Scotian Shelf and Slope basins (Nova Scotia) and Laurentian and South Whale basins (Newfoundland). In contrast, other maps represents them as being separated by faults or ridges that affect the basin development and complicate the tectono-structural framework initiated in Late Triassic-Early Jurassic periods. Argo salt features found in seismic sections on both sides of the provincial boundary indicate that Atlantic Canada basins were interconnected during the marine phase of the Thethys rifting stage, most likely up to the time of Scotian Shelf break-up. During the Late Jurassic, marine, oil prone source rocks were deposited in the Grand Banks basins and terrestrial to marine, gas prone source rocks were deposited offshore Nova Scotia. Modern industry 2D data donated by GSI and WesternGeco were used to examine the structural and stratigraphic framework of the basins. Common geological and geomorphologic features were emphasized along with the disparity between the structural element, stratigraphy and quality of petroleum systems of the two basins.

  20. Assessment of streambed sediment contamination by heavy metals: The case of the Gabes Catchment, South-eastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahri, Noura; Atoui, Abdelfattah; Ellouze, Manel; Abida, Habib

    2018-04-01

    This study deals with the assessment of the behaviour of seven heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr and As) in streambed sediments within the Gabes Catchment, located in South-eastern Tunisia. To understand the effect of intense human activities in the Gabes Basin on the quality of the environment, 22 sediment samples, spread all over the study basin, were taken and analyzed for heavy metals. Heavy metal concentrations were shown to vary in the following order: Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd > As. Sediment quality was assessed based on the evaluation of various indices. A total of 27% of the sampling stations are characterised by sediment Enrichment Factors (EF) exceeding 40, reflecting extremely severe pollution. This result was also confirmed by different indices, including Sediment Pollution Index (SPI), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Geo-accumulation index. The calculation of Mean Effect Range-Median Quotient (M-ERM-Q) indicated that in stream discharge, all metals have a probability of 21% to be toxic. The ecological toxicity risk of heavy metals increases close to urban (traffic activity) and industrial activities (industrial complex of Gabes). Close to Gabes City, the situation and the degree of contamination that may be transferred into marine ecosystems is worrisome and requires immediate intervention.