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Sample records for basin southeastern canada

  1. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, R.H.G.

    1996-01-01

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  2. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  3. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    acoustic communications, acoustic navigation, or acoustic remote sensing of the ocean interior . RELATED PROJECTS The 2015 CANAPE pilot study was a...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE...ocean structure. Changes in sea ice and the water column affect both acoustic propagation and ambient noise. This implies that what was learned

  4. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, Arthur; Hart, Patrick E.

    2012-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a >700,000 sq. km. remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed across the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-83.5 Ma. Canada Basin was filled by Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Beaufort-Mackenzie Deltaic System, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. The basin contains roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. Three fourths or more of this volume generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemipelagic deposits, which contain lenses to extensive interbeds of moderate amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits.Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin is correlative with stratigraphic sequences in these areas that contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks. In addition, worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas windows. Structural, stratigraphic and combined structural and stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin, and at least one of these contains bright spots. However, deep water (to almost 4000 m), remoteness from harbors and markets, and thick accumulations of seasonal to permanent sea ice (until its possible removal by global warming later this century) will require the discovery of very large deposits for commercial success in most parts of Canada Basin. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed on the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-75 Ma. Canada Basin is filled with Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Mackenzie River system, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. Except for the absence of a salt- and shale-bearing mobile substrate Canada Basin is analogous to the Mississippi Delta and the western Gulf of Mexico. Canada Basin contains about 7 to >14 km of sediment beneath the Mackenzie Prodelta on the southeast, 6 to 7 km of sediment beneath the abyssal plain on the west, and roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. About three fourths of the basin fill generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemiplegic deposits, and a fourth of the fill generates interbedded lenses to extensive layers of moderate to high amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits. Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin may contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks and the apparent age of the basin suggests that it contains three of the six stratigraphic intervals that together provided >90?? of the World's discovered reserves of oil and gas.. Worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas window. At least five types of structural or stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin. These consist of 1) a belt of late Eocene to Miocene shale-cored detachment folds containing with at least two anticlines that are capped by beds with bright spots, 2) numerous moderate to high amplitude reflection packets

  6. Hydrology of the Upper Malad River basin, southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhowski, Edward J.

    1970-01-01

    The report area comprises 485 square miles in the Basin and Range physiographic province. It includes most of eastern' Oneida County and parts of Franklin, Bannock, and Power Counties of southeastern Idaho. Relief is about 5,000 feet; the floor of the Malad Valley is at an average altitude of about 4,400 feet. Agriculture is, by far, ,the principal economic .activity. In 1960 the population of the upper Malad River basin was about 3,600, of which about 60 percent resided in Malad City, the county seat of Oneida County. The climate is semiarid throughout the Malad Valley and its principal tributary valleys; ,above 6,500 feet the climate is subhumid. Annual precipitation ranges from about 13 inches in the lower Malad Valley to more than 30 inches on the highest peaks of the Bannock and Malad ranges. Owing to ,the normally clear atmospheric conditions, large daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations are common. Topography, distance from the Pacific Ocean, .and the general atmospheric circulation are the principal factors governing the climate of the Malad River basin. The westerlies transport moisture from the P.acific Ocean toward southeastern Idaho. The north-south tren4ing mountains flanking the basin are oriented orthogonally to the moisture flux so that they are very effective in removing precipitable water from the air. A minimum uplift of 6,000 feet is required to transport moisture from the Pacific source region; accordingly, most air masses are desiccated long before they reach the Malad basin. Heaviest precipitation is generally associated with steep pressure gradients in the midtroposphere that are so oriented as to cause a deep landward penetration of moisture from the Pacific Ocean. Annual water yields in the project area range from about 0.8 inch in the, lower Malad Valley to more than 19 inches on the high peaks north and east of Malad City. The mean annual water yield for the entire basin is 4 inches, or about 115,000 acre-feet. Evaporation is

  7. Granitic rocks from the southern Gyeongsang basin, southeastern Korea, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon-Jong

    1980-01-01

    In southern Gyeongsang basin, southeastern Korea, there are many granitic rock masses. They were divided into 7 groups according to their geological evidences. K-Ar age was determined on 36 samples obtained from the respective groups. Group A: pre-Gyeongsang granitic rock (Pre-Cretaceous), A 1 220 m.y., A 2 166 m.y.; group B: outer zone granitic rock (Cretaceous), 115-72 m.y.; group C: ditto (ditto), 97-70 m.y.; group D: ditto (ditto), 89-68 m.y.; group E: ditto (ditto), 82-68 m.y.; group F: inner zone granitic rock (Cretaceous), 75-74 m.y.; group G: Tertiary granitic rock, 63-41 m.y. The large part of the Cretaceous granitic masses show the double elongated ring form. Most of the Tertiary granitic rocks were probably emplaced in close relation with the Eonyang fault line and Ulsan fault line/or their extension line of the area. (J.P.N.)

  8. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    The need for a way by which rangeland managers can account for wildlife in land-use planning, in on-the-ground management actions, and in preparation of environmental impact statements is discussed. Principles of range-land-wildlife interactions and management are described along with management systems. The Great Basin of southeastern Oregon was selected as a well-...

  9. Acquiring Marine Data in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Jackson, H. Ruth; Shimeld, John W.; Chapman, C. Borden; Childs, Jonathan R.; Funck, Thomas; Rowland, Robert W.

    2009-06-01

    Despite the record minimum ice extent in the Arctic Ocean for the past 2 years, collecting geophysical data with towed sensors in ice-covered regions continues to pose enormous challenges. Significant parts of the Canada Basin in the western Arctic Ocean have remained largely unmapped because thick multiyear ice has limited access even by research vessels strengthened against ice [Jackson et al., 1990]. Because of the resulting paucity of data, the western Arctic Ocean is one of the few areas of ocean in the world where major controversies still exist with respect to its origin and tectonic evolution [Grantz et al., 1990; Lawver and Scotese, 1990; Lane, 1997; Miller et al., 2006]. This article describes the logistical challenges and initial data sets from geophysical seismic reflection, seismic refraction, and hydrographic surveys in the Canada Basin conducted by scientists with U.S. and Canadian government agencies (Figure 1a) to fulfill the requirements of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to determine sediment thickness, geological origin, and basin evolution in this unexplored part of the world. Some of these data were collected using a single ship, but the heaviest ice conditions necessitated using two icebreakers, similar to other recent Arctic surveys [e.g., Jokat, 2003].

  10. Conventional natural gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, B.

    1999-01-01

    The use of decline curve analysis to analyse and extrapolate the production performance of oil and gas reservoirs was discussed. This mathematical analytical tool has been a valid method for estimating the conventional crude oil resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). However, it has failed to provide a generally acceptable estimate of the conventional natural gas resources of the WCSB. This paper proposes solutions to this problem and provides an estimate of the conventional natural gas resources of the basin by statistical analysis of the declining finding rates. Although in the past, decline curve analysis did not reflect the declining finding rates of natural gas in the WCSB, the basin is now sufficiently developed that estimates of conventional natural gas resources can be made by this analytical tool. However, the analysis must take into account the acceleration of natural gas development drilling that has occurred over the lifetime of the basin. It was concluded that ultimate resources of conventional marketable natural gas of the WCSB estimated by decline analysis amount to 230 tcf. It was suggested that further research be done to explain why the Canadian Gas Potential Committee (CGPC) estimate for Alberta differs from the decline curve analysis method. 6 refs., 35 figs

  11. Regional tree growth and inferred summer climate in the Winnipeg River basin, Canada, since AD 1783

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. George, Scott; Meko, David M.; Evans, Michael N.

    2008-09-01

    A network of 54 ring-width chronologies is used to estimate changes in summer climate within the Winnipeg River basin, Canada, since AD 1783. The basin drains parts of northwestern Ontario, northern Minnesota and southeastern Manitoba, and is a key area for hydroelectric power production. Most chronologies were developed from Pinus resinosa and P. strobus, with a limited number of Thuja occidentalis, Picea glauca and Pinus banksiana. The dominant pattern of regional tree growth can be recovered using only the nine longest chronologies, and is not affected by the method used to remove variability related to age or stand dynamics from individual trees. Tree growth is significantly, but weakly, correlated with both temperature (negatively) and precipitation (positively) during summer. Simulated ring-width chronologies produced by a process model of tree-ring growth exhibit similar relationships with summer climate. High and low growth across the region is associated with cool/wet and warm/dry summers, respectively; this relationship is supported by comparisons with archival records from early 19th century fur-trading posts. The tree-ring record indicates that summer droughts were more persistent in the 19th and late 18th century, but there is no evidence that drought was more extreme prior to the onset of direct monitoring.

  12. Nonstationary frequency analysis of extreme daily precipitation amounts in Southeastern Canada using a peaks-over-threshold approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiombiano, Alida N.; El Adlouni, Salaheddine; St-Hilaire, André; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; El-Jabi, Nassir

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a statistical inference of Southeastern Canada extreme daily precipitation amounts is proposed using a classical nonstationary peaks-over-threshold model. Indeed, the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) is fitted to excess time series derived from annual averages of independent precipitation amount events above a fixed threshold, the 99th percentile. Only the scale parameter of the fitted distribution is allowed to vary as a function of a covariate. This variability is modeled using B-spline function. Nonlinear correlation and cross-wavelet analysis allowed identifying two dominant climate indices as covariates in the study area, Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Pacific North American (PNA). The nonstationary frequency analysis showed that there is an east-west behavior of the AO index effects on extreme daily precipitation amounts in the study area. Indeed, the higher quantiles of these events are conditional to the AO positive phase in Atlantic Canada, while those in the more southeastern part of Canada, especially in Southern Quebec and Ontario, are negatively related to AO. The negative phase of PNA also gives the best significant correlation in these regions. Moreover, a regression analysis between AO (PNA) index and conditional quantiles provided slope values for the positive phase of the index on the one hand and the negative phase and on the other hand. This statistic allows computing a slope ratio which permits to sustain the nonlinear relation assumption between climate indices and precipitation and the development of the nonstationary GPD model for Southeastern Canada extremes precipitation modeling.

  13. Quaternary studies in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggar, N.

    1987-08-01

    Studies have included paleoclimatic assessments and evaluation of the Needles Fault zone, and an assessment of geologic age dating results and techniques. Fossil pollen, snail shells, pack rat middens, and Holocene stratigraphic units have been examined as potential paleoclimatic indicators. Of these, the most definitive data have been an interpreted 13,000-year vegetation record found in the pack rat middens. This record defines the late Pleistocene-Holocene climatic transition at approximately 10,000 years ago, and indicates that temperature decreased and precipitation increased during the late Pleistocene relative to the present. In the Needles Fault zone, age dating results and geomorphic studies indicate that the northeastern grabens may be the youngest and that the system is at least 65,000 years old. Using this date and an assumed Colorado River incision rate, the maximum rate at which grabens have spread eastward from the river canyon can be estimated. The most useful age dating techniques for the Paradox Basin are the accumulation of pedogenic carbonate in the soil profile, radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence dating, amino acid diagenesis of mollusk shells, paleomagnetic analysis of early Pleistocene deposits, and topographic position of deposits and surfaces. Method applicability depends on the datable materials present, the estimated age of the sample or deposit, and potential contaminants that could affect analysis. 108 refs., 64 figs., 35 tabs

  14. Late Tertiary and Quaternary geology of the Tecopa basin, southeastern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-12-31

    Stratigraphic units in the Tecopa basin, located in southeastern California, provide a framework for interpreting Quaternary climatic change and tectonism along the present Amargosa River. During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, a climate that was appreciably wetter than today`s sustained a moderately deep lake in the Tecopa basin. Deposits associated with Lake Tecopa consists of lacustrine mudstone, conglomerate, volcanic ash, and shoreline accumulations of tufa. Age control within the lake deposits is provided by air-fall tephra that are correlated with two ash falls from the Yellowstone caldera and one from the Long Valley caldera. Lake Tecopa occupied a closed basin during the latter part, if not all, of its 2.5-million-year history. Sometime after 0.5 m.y. ago, the lake developed an outlet across Tertiary fanglomerates of the China Ranch Beds leading to the development of a deep canyon at the south end of the basin and establishing a hydrologic link between the northern Amargosa basins and Death Valley. After a period of rapid erosion, the remaining lake beds were covered by alluvial fans that coalesced to form a pediment in the central part of the basin. Holocene deposits consist of unconsolidated sand and gravel in the Amargosa River bed and its deeply incised tributaries, a small playa near Tecopa, alluvial fans without pavements, and small sand dunes. The pavement-capped fan remnants and the Holocene deposits are not faulted or tilted significantly, although basins to the west, such as Death Valley, were tectonically active during the Quaternary. Subsidence of the western basins strongly influenced late Quaternary rates of deposition and erosion in the Tecopa basin.

  15. Estimating annual high-flow statistics and monthly and seasonal low-flow statistics for ungaged sites on streams in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Curran, Janet H.

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating daily mean flow-duration statistics for seven regions in Alaska and low-flow frequencies for one region, southeastern Alaska, were developed from daily mean discharges for streamflow-gaging stations in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. The 15-, 10-, 9-, 8-, 7-, 6-, 5-, 4-, 3-, 2-, and 1-percent duration flows were computed for the October-through-September water year for 222 stations in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. The 98-, 95-, 90-, 85-, 80-, 70-, 60-, and 50-percent duration flows were computed for the individual months of July, August, and September for 226 stations in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. The 98-, 95-, 90-, 85-, 80-, 70-, 60-, and 50-percent duration flows were computed for the season July-through-September for 65 stations in southeastern Alaska. The 7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 2-year low-flow frequencies for the season July-through-September were computed for 65 stations for most of southeastern Alaska. Low-flow analyses were limited to particular months or seasons in order to omit winter low flows, when ice effects reduce the quality of the records and validity of statistical assumptions. Regression equations for estimating the selected high-flow and low-flow statistics for the selected months and seasons for ungaged sites were developed from an ordinary-least-squares regression model using basin characteristics as independent variables. Drainage area and precipitation were significant explanatory variables for high flows, and drainage area, precipitation, mean basin elevation, and area of glaciers were significant explanatory variables for low flows. The estimating equations can be used at ungaged sites in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada where streamflow regulation, streamflow diversion, urbanization, and natural damming and releasing of water do not affect the streamflow data for the given month or season. Standard errors of estimate ranged from 15 to 56 percent for high-duration flow

  16. Evaporite dissolution relevant to the WIPP site, northern Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluation of the threat of natural dissolution of host evaporites to the integrity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico has taken into consideration (1) the volume of missing rock salt, (2) the occurrence (or not) of characteristic dissolution brines, (3) geomorphic features, some of which are unrelated to dissolution, and (4) the time intervals over which dissolution may have been active. Even under the assumption that all missing halite was originally present and has been removed by dissolution, there is no evidence of active preferential removal of the lower Salado Formation halite by any geologically reasonable process. The geologic record contains evidence of dissolution in the Triassic and Jurassic; to constrain all removal of basinal halite to the late Cenozoic yields an unrealistically high rate of removal. Application to the lower Salado of a stratabound mechanism known to be active in Nash Draw, a near-surface feature within the Basin, allows a minimum survival time of 2,500,000 years to be predicted for the subsurface facility for storage of radioactive waste at WIPP. This calculation is based on an analysis of all known dissolution features in the Delaware Basin, and takes into account the wetter (pluvial) climate during the past 600,000 years. 2 figures, 1 table

  17. The nature of the Dakota-Morrison boundary, Southeastern San Juan basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubrey, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    A thin, discontinuous, fluvial locally conglomeratic sandstone at the vase of the Dakota Sandstone in the vicinity of the southeastern San Juan basin, New Mexico has been named the Encinal Canyon Member of the Dakota Sandstone. In the past, the sandstone beds, placed here in the Encinal Canyon, have been included in the Jackpile sandstone, (an economic unit in the Morrison Formation), in the Burro Canyon Formation, or in the Oak Canyon Member of the Dakota Sandstone. Distinction between the Encinal Canyon Member and the Jackpile sandstone, which are separated by an unconformity that probably spans most of the Early Cretaceous, is economically important. The Jackpile is a primary uranium exploration target, whereas the Dakota contains little known uranium. In the past, the sub-Dakota erosional surface in the southeastern San Juan basin generally was thought to be at the base of the marine and paralic Oak Canyon Member of the Dakota Sandstone, which overlies the Encinal Canyon Member. The unconformity is shown here to be at the base of the fluvial rocks of the Encinal Canyon Member. Local relief at the base of the Encinal Canyon indicates that the sub-Dakota erosional surface formed during a time of regional degradation. Easterly flowing streams scoured underlying units and in some places cut completely through the Jackpile sandstone and the Burro Canyon Formation. The Encinal Canyon was deposited in response to the initial transgression of the Dakota sea. As the sea inundated the area, a transgressive erosional surface formed, and the overlying paralic and marine sediments of the Oak Canyon Member were deposited

  18. Prediction in ungauged basins: approaches for Canada's cold regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pietroniro, Alain; Pomeroy, John Willard; Spence, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In March, 2004, Water Survey of Canada and the Canadian Society for Hydrological Sciences co-hosted a workshop in Yellowknife to discuss how to improve our community's abilities to predict streamflow...

  19. Sources, distributions and dynamics of dissolved organic matter in the Canada and Makarov Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive survey of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM was conducted in the Canada and Makarov Basins and adjacent seas during 2010-2012 to investigate the dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM in the Arctic Ocean. Sources and distributions of DOM in polar surface waters were very heterogeneous and closely linked to hydrological conditions. Canada Basin surface waters had relatively low DOC concentrations (69±6 µmol L-1, CDOM absorption (a325: 0.32±0.07 m-1 and CDOM-derived lignin phenols (3±0.4 nmol L-1 and high spectral slope values (S275-295: 31.7±2.3 µm-1, indicating minor terrigenous inputs and evidence of photochemical alteration in the Beaufort Gyre. By contrast, surface waters of the Makarov Basin had elevated DOC (108±9 µmol L-1 and lignin phenol concentrations (15±3 nmol L-1, high a325 values (1.36±0.18 m-1 and low S275-295 values (22.8±0.8 µm-1, indicating pronounced Siberian river inputs associated with the Transpolar Drift and minor photochemical alteration. Observations near the Mendeleev Plain suggested limited interactions of the Transpolar Drift with Canada Basin waters, a scenario favoring export of Arctic DOM to the North Atlantic. The influence of sea-ice melt on DOM was region-dependent, resulting in an increase (Beaufort Sea, a decrease (Bering-Chukchi Seas, and negligible change (deep basins in surface DOC concentrations and a325 values. Halocline structures differed between basins, and the Canada Basin upper halocline and Makarov Basin halocline were comparable in their average DOC (65-70 µmol L-1 and lignin phenol concentrations (3-4 nmol L-1 and S275-295 values (22.9-23.7 µm-1. Deep-water DOC concentrations decreased by 6-8 µmol L-1 with increasing depth, water mass age, nutrient concentrations, and apparent oxygen utilization. Maximal estimates of DOC degradation rates (0.036-0.039 µmol L-1 yr-1 in the deep Arctic were lower than those in other ocean

  20. Sources, distributions and dynamics of dissolved organic matter in the Canada and Makarov Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuan; Benner, Ronald; Robbins, Lisa L.; Wynn, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was conducted in the Canada and Makarov Basins and adjacent seas during 2010–2012 to investigate the dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Arctic Ocean. Sources and distributions of DOM in polar surface waters were very heterogeneous and closely linked to hydrological conditions. Canada Basin surface waters had relatively low DOC concentrations (69 ± 6 μmol L−1), CDOM absorption (a325: 0.32 ± 0.07 m−1) and CDOM-derived lignin phenols (3 ± 0.4 nmol L−1), and high spectral slope values (S275–295: 31.7 ± 2.3 μm−1), indicating minor terrigenous inputs and evidence of photochemical alteration in the Beaufort Gyre. By contrast, surface waters of the Makarov Basin had elevated DOC (108 ± 9 μmol L−1) and lignin phenol concentrations (15 ± 3 nmol L−1), high a325 values (1.36 ± 0.18 m−1), and low S275–295 values (22.8 ± 0.8 μm−1), indicating pronounced Siberian river inputs associated with the Transpolar Drift and minor photochemical alteration. Observations near the Mendeleev Plain suggested limited interactions of the Transpolar Drift with Canada Basin waters, a scenario favoring export of Arctic DOM to the North Atlantic. The influence of sea-ice melt on DOM was region-dependent, resulting in an increase (Beaufort Sea), a decrease (Bering-Chukchi Seas), and negligible change (deep basins) in surface DOC concentrations and a325 values. Halocline structures differed between basins, but the Canada Basin upper halocline and Makarov Basin halocline were comparable in their average DOC (65–70 μmol L−1) and lignin phenol concentrations (3–4 nmol L−1) and S275–295 values (22.9–23.7 μm−1). Deep-water DOC concentrations decreased by 6–8 μmol L−1 with increasing depth, water mass age, nutrient concentrations, and apparent oxygen utilization. Maximal estimates of DOC degradation rates (0.036–0.039 μmol L−1

  1. A 500-year history of floods in the semi arid basins of south-eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez García, Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Peña, Juan Carlos; Carvalho, Filpe; Brembilla, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the natural hazards with higher incidence in the south-eastern Spain, the driest region in Europe, causing fatalities, damage of infrastructure and economic losses. Flash-floods in semi arid environments are related to intensive rainfall which can last from few hours to days. These floods are violent and destructive because of their high discharges, sediment transport and aggradation processes in the flood plain. Also during historical times floods affected the population in the south-eastern Spain causing sever damage or in some cases the complete destruction of towns. Our studies focus on the flood reconstruction from historical sources of the Almanzora, Aguas and Antas river basins, which have a surface between 260-2600 km2. We have also compiled information from the Andarax river and compared the flood series with the Guadalentín and Segura basins from previous studies (Benito et. al., 2010 y Machado et al., 2011). Flood intensities have been classified in four levels according to the type of damage: 1) ordinary floods that only affect agriculture plots; 2) extraordinary floods which produce some damage to buildings and hydraulic infrastructure; 3) catastrophic floods which caused sever damage, fatalities and partial or complete destruction of towns. A higher damage intensity of +1 magnitude was assigned when the event is recorded from more than one major sub-basin (stretches and tributaries such as Huércal-Overa basin) or catchment (e.g. Antas River). In total 102 incidences of damages and 89 floods were reconstructed in the Almanzora (2.611 km2), Aguas (539 km2), Antas (261 km2) and Andarax (2.100 km2) catchments. The Almanzora River was affected by 36 floods (1550-2012). The highest events for the Almanzora River were in 1580, 1879, 1973 and 2012 producing many fatalities and destruction of several towns. In addition, we identified four flood-clusters 1750-1780, 1870-1900, 1960-1977 and 1989-2012 which coincides with the periods of

  2. A water system model for exploring electric energy alternatives in southeastern US basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-López, F; Yates, D

    2013-01-01

    Electric power generation often involves the use of water for power plant cooling and steam generation, which typically involves the release of cooling water to nearby rivers and lakes. The resulting thermal pollution may negatively impact the ecosystems of these water bodies. Water resource systems models enable the examination of the implications of alternative electric generation on regional water resources. This letter documents the development, calibration, and validation of a climate-driven water resource systems model of the Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint, the Alabama–Coosa–Tallapoosa, and the Tombigbee River basins in the states of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, in the southeastern US. The model represents different water users, including power plants, agricultural water users, and municipal users. The model takes into account local population, per-capita use estimates, and changes in population growth. The water resources planning model was calibrated and validated against the observed, managed flows through the river systems of the three basins. Flow calibration was performed on land cover, water capacity, and hydraulic conductivity of soil horizons; river water temperature calibration was performed on channel width and slope properties. Goodness-of-fit statistics indicate that under 1980–2010 levels of water use, the model robustly represents major features of monthly average streamflow and water temperatures. The application of this integrated electricity generation–water resources planning model can be used to explore alternative electric generation and water implications. The implementation of this model is explored in the companion paper of this focus issue (Yates et al 2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 035042). (letter)

  3. Hydrogeologic characteristics of domains of sparsely fractured rock in the granitic Lac Du Bonnet Batholith, southeastern Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, D.R.; Kozak, E.T.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.; Broadfoot, R.A.

    1996-06-01

    The hydrogeologic characteristics of the granitic Lac du Bonnet batholith in southeastern Manitoba have been studied since 1978, as part of AECL's program to assess the concept of disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste deep within plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield (Davison et al. 1994a). These studies have included an extensive program of drilling, logging, testing, sampling and monitoring in 19 deep surface boreholes drilled at Grid areas located across the Lac du Bonnet batholith, at the Whiteshell Laboratory (WL), and in surface and underground boreholes at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). Based on these investigations domains of low permeability, sparsely fractured rock (SFR) have been identified in the Lac du Bonnet batholith

  4. Cooperative and adaptive transboundary water governance in Canada's Mackenzie River Basin: status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada's Mackenzie River Basin (MRB is one of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in North America. Home to indigenous peoples for millennia, the basin is also the site of increasing resource development, notably fossil fuels, hydroelectric power resources, minerals, and forests. Three provinces, three territories, the Canadian federal government, and Aboriginal governments (under Canada's constitution, indigenous peoples are referred to as "Aboriginal" have responsibilities for water in the basin, making the MRB a significant setting for cooperative, transboundary water governance. A framework agreement that provides broad principles and establishes a river basin organization, the MRB Board, has been in place since 1997. However, significant progress on completing bilateral agreements under the 1997 Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement has only occurred since 2010. We considered the performance of the MRB Board relative to its coordination function, accountability, legitimacy, and overall environmental effectiveness. This allowed us to address the extent to which governance based on river basin boundaries, a bioregional approach, could contribute to adaptive governance in the MRB. Insights were based on analysis of key documents and published studies, 19 key informant interviews, and additional interactions with parties involved in basin governance. We found that the MRB Board's composition, its lack of funding and staffing, and the unwillingness of the governments to empower it to play the role envisioned in the Master Agreement mean that as constituted, the board faces challenges in implementing a basin-wide vision. This appears to be by design. The MRB governments have instead used the bilateral agreements under the Master Agreement as the primary mechanism through which transboundary governance will occur. A commitment to coordinating across the bilateral agreements is needed to enhance the prospects for

  5. Variation of Annual ET Determined from Water Budgets Across Rural Southeastern Basins Differing in Forest Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, S. E.; Jackson, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    In the Southeastern United States, evapotranspiration (ET) typically accounts for 60-70% of precipitation. Watershed and plot scale experiments show that evergreen forests have higher ET rates than hardwood forests and pastures. However, some plot experiments indicate that certain hardwood species have higher ET than paired evergreens. The complexity of factors influencing ET in mixed land cover watersheds makes identifying the relative influences difficult. Previous watershed scale studies have relied on regression to understand the influences or low flow analysis to indicate growing season differences among watersheds. Existing studies in the southeast investigating ET rates for watersheds with multiple forest cover types have failed to identify a significant forest type effect, but these studies acknowledge small sample sizes. Trends of decreasing streamflow have been recognized in the region and are generally attributed to five key factors, 1.) influences from multiple droughts, 2.) changes in distribution of precipitation, 3.) reforestation of agricultural land, 4.) increasing consumptive uses, or 5.) a combination of these and other factors. This study attempts to address the influence of forest type on long term average annual streamflow and on stream low flows. Long term annual ET rates were calculated as ET = P-Q for 46 USGS gaged basins with daily data for the 1982 - 2014 water years, >40% forest cover, and no large reservoirs. Land cover data was regressed against ET to describe the relationship between each of the forest types in the National Land Cover Database. Regression analysis indicates evergreen land cover has a positive relationship with ET while deciduous and total forest have a negative relationship with ET. Low flow analysis indicates low flows tend to be lower in watersheds with more evergreen cover, and that low flows increase with increasing deciduous cover, although these relationships are noisy. This work suggests considering forest

  6. Stimulating research and technology in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, H [Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-11

    The Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada prepared a survey as part of its investigation of the challenges and opportunities facing the oil and gas industry. This report includes a compilation of the 144 responses to the survey which was open for comment from May to early July 2003. The top technical challenges facing the conventional oil and gas industry were listed as being: improving conventional and heavy oil ultimate recovery; cost-effectively addressing environmental challenges including water, soil and air pollution and ecological impacts; life extension and cost reduction technologies; reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving energy efficiency; learning how to produce tight gas economically; using carbon dioxide injection for enhanced recovery; improving measurement-while-drilling techniques; and, improving seismic-while-drilling techniques. Other technical challenges include the development of hydrogen gas auto fuel; subsurface microbiology to enhance oil and gas quality; risk management; water conservation; and, coalbed methane. The report also listed a myriad of technologies with high potential for field testing. Many respondents strongly agreed that research and development incentive programs involving royalty tax credits or financial tax credits would result in greater resource recoverability. Respondents were also asked what additional role the government could play in resource development. The responses were numerous. The survey also also addressed the challenges associated with the service sector. figs.

  7. Review of forestry practices in caribou habitat in southeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Stevenson

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in southeastern British Columbia feed mainly on arboreal lichens in winter. Some modified forestry practices that have been used or proposed for caribou ranges are reviewed. Partial cutting results in the retention of some forage lichens. Partial cutting and small patch harvesting may improve lichen growth on the remaining trees. Retention of advanced regeneration and some residual trees may improve lichen growth in the remaining stand. Extension of the rotation age increases the amount of harvestable forest useful to caribou at any one time. Progressive cutting minimizes road access to caribou ranges, and may be combined with partial cutting. Most forestry practices intended to maintain lichen production will result in increased human activity in caribou ranges, unless road access is controlled. The management strategy selected depends on site conditions and on the relative importance assigned to the impact of habitat alteration and human activity on caribou.

  8. Petrogenesis of Pliocene Alkaline Volcanic Rocks from Southeastern Styrian Basin, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sh.; Ntaflos, Th.

    2009-04-01

    Petrogenesis of Pliocene Alkaline Volcanic Rocks from Southeastern Styrian Basin, Austria Sh. Ali and Th. Ntaflos Dept. of Lithospheric Research, University of Vienna, Austria Neogene volcanism in the Alpine Pannonian Transition Zone occurred in a complex geodynamic setting. It can be subdivided into a syn-extentional phase that comprises Middle Miocene dominantly potassic, intermediate to acidic volcanism and a post-extensional phase, which is characterized by eruption of alkaline basaltic magmas during the Pliocene to Quartenary in the Styrian Basin. These alkaline basaltic magmas occur as small eruptive centers dominating the geomorphology of the southeastern part of the Styrian Basin. The eruptive centers along the SE Styrian Basin from North to South are: Oberpullendorf, Pauliberg, Steinberg, Strandenerkogel, Waltrafelsen and Klöch. The suite collected volcanic rocks comprise alkali basalts, basanites and nephelinites. Pauliberg: consists of alkali basalts that exhibit a narrow range of SiO2 (44.66-47.70 wt %) and wide range of MgO (8.52-13.19-wt %), are enriched in TiO2 (3.74-4.18 wt %). They are enriched in incompatible trace elements such as Zr (317-483 ppm), Nb (72.4-138 ppm) and Y (30.7-42 ppm). They have Nb/La ratio of 1.89 (average) and Cen/Ybn=15.22-23.11. Oberpullendorf: it also consists of alkali basalts with higher SiO2 (50.39 wt %) and lower TiO2 (2.80 wt %) if compared with the Pauliberg suite. Incompatible trace elements are lower than in Pauliberg; Zr =217 ppm, Nb=49.8 ppm, Y=23.6 ppm and Nb/La=1.93. The Oberpullendorf alkalibasalts are relative to Pauliberg lavas more depleted in LREE (Cen/Ybn=12.78). Steinberg: it consists of basanites with SiO2=44.49-46.85 wt %, MgO=6.30-9.13-wt %, and TiO2 =2.09-2.26 wt %. They are enriched in incompatible trace elements such as Zr (250-333 ppm), Nb (94-130 ppm), Y (24.7-31.9 ppm) and Nb/La=1.59 (average). The Cen/Ybn ratio varies between 18.17 and 22.83 indicating relative steep REE chondrite normalized

  9. Quercus macrocarpa annual, early- and latewood widths as hydroclimatic proxies, southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanstone, Jessica R; Sauchyn, David J

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations in size of annual ring-widths of Quercus species suggest that environmental factors influence the size and density of vessels within the ring, either by acting as a limiting factor for growth or through fine tuning of the wood structure to environmental factors. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential of Q. macrocarpa to provide multiple dendroclimatic proxies for the Canadian Prairies, by investigating growth responses of annual, early- and latewood widths to regional climate variability. Results indicate that ring width chronologies, from southeastern Saskatchewan capture regional signals related to moisture and drought conditions. Correlations suggest that late-wood widths are more representative of annual ring-widths, than are early-wood widths, and are the best proxy of seasonal fluctuations in climate. Thus regression models that include latewood widths were able to account for more variance in the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) than when annual ring-widths are used as the only proxy. This study demonstrates that Q. macrocarpa can provide multiple dendroclimatic proxies for investigating large scale climatic fluctuations at annual and sub-annual time scales. It is novel in terms of sub-annual analysis of tree-rings in a region that previously lacked dendrochronological research.

  10. 2D Seismic Velocity Modelling in the Southeastern Romanian Carpathians and its Foreland (Vrancea Zone and Focsani Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, R.; Bocin, A.; Tryggvason, A.

    2003-12-01

    The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining of new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappes and the architecture of Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the seismically-active Vrancea Zone, including the rapidly subsiding Focsani Basin. The DACIA-PLAN profile is about 140 km long, having a roughly NW-SE direction, from near the southeast Transylvanian Basin, across the mountainous southeastern Carpathians and their foreland to near the Danube Dalta. A high resolution 2D velocity model of the upper crust along the seismic profile has been determined from a first-arrival tomographic inversion of the DACIA-PLAN data. The shallowing of Palaeozoic-Mesozoic basement, and related structural heterogeneity within it, beneath the eastern flank of the Focsani Basin is clearly seen. Velocity heterogeneity within the Carpathian nappe belt is also evident and is indicative of internal structural complexity, including the presence of salt bodies and basement involvement in thrusting, thus favouring some current geological models over others. The presence of basement involvement implies the compressional reactivation of pre-existing basement normal faults. Members of the DACIA-PLAN/TomoSeis Working Group (see poster) should be considered as co-authors of this presentation.

  11. Origin and composition of mineralizing fluids in the Athabasca Basin, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, A.; Cathelineau, M.; Boiron, M.Ch.; Cuney, M.; Mercadier, J.; Milesi, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report studies aimed at understanding mechanisms of concentration of uranium in the geological environment of the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada). They describe how two brines, a sodic one and a calcic one, circulated and mixed together while carrying uranium with exceptional and very heterogeneous concentrations. They show that these brines have a common origin and are formed by sea water evaporation, that the calcic brine formed itself by interaction between the sodic brine and platform rocks, and that the interactions of brines with platform rocks and minerals, water radiolysis, and bitumen synthesis have controlled the isotopic content in oxygen, hydrogen and carbon of these brines

  12. Genetic models and their impact on uranium exploration in the Athabasca sandstone basin, Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strnad, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    While the Beaverlodge area of Northern Saskatchewan became an important uranium-producing district during the 1950s, the Athabasca sandstone basin, located in the immediate vicinity, was considered to be non-prospective in Canada's regional assessment. Twenty years later, with the introduction of the supergene model into the basin's exploration strategy, the favourability of the host-rock for uranium deposits was shown. However, in some instances the search for local targets was enriched by implementing non-supergene models. Most geologists originally favoured the Middle Proterozoic (sub-Helikian) unconformity as a unique ore-controlling feature. Later, the concept of Lower Proterozoic (Aphebian) syngenetic protore, as represented by graphite-bearing strata in Archaean proximity, was added. In the author's view the combination of these factors is productive only within specialized segments of Archaean-Lower Proterozoic (Archaean-Aphebian) contact zones. (author)

  13. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 3: lower Thames and southeastern coastal river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chester E.; Cervione, Michael A.; Grossman, I.G.

    1968-01-01

    The lower Thames and southeastern coastal river basins have a relatively abundant supply of water of generally good quality which is derived from streams entering the area and precipitation that has fallen on the area. Annual precipitation has ranged from about 32 inches to 65 inches and has averaged about 48 inches over a 30-year period. Approximately 22 inches of water are returned to the atmosphere each year by evaporation and transpiration; the remainder of the annual precipitation either flows overland to streams or percolates downward to the water table and ultimately flows out of the report area through estuaries and coastal streams or as underflow through the deposits beneath. During the autumn and winter months precipitation normally is sufficient to cause a substantial increase in the amount of water stored underground and in surface reservoirs within the report area, whereas in the summer most of the precipitation is lost through evaporation and transpiration, resulting in sharply reduced stream-flow and lowered ground-water levels. The mean monthly storage of water on an average is about 3.8 inches higher in November than it is in June. The amount of water that flows through and out of the report area represents the total amount of water potentially available for use by man. For the 30-year period 1931 through 1960, the annual runoff from the report area has averaged nearly 26 inches (200 billion gallons), from the entire Thames River basin above Norwich about 24 inches (530 billion gallons), and from the Pawcatuck River basin about 26 inches (130 billion gallons). A total average annual runoff of 860 billion gallons is therefore available. Although runoff indicates the total amount of water potentially available, it is usually not economically feasible for man to use all of it. On the other hand, with increased development, it is possible that some water will be reused several times. The water available may be tapped as it flows through the area or is

  14. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: the relationship of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities and structural conditions (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ralph G. Anderson

    1984-01-01

    The relationships of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities, structural conditions, and special habitats in the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon are described. The importance of habitat components to wildlife and the predictability of management activities on wildlife are examined in terms of managed rangelands. The paper does not provide guidelines but rather...

  15. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: the relationship of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities and structural conditions (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ralph G. Anderson

    1984-01-01

    The relationships of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities, structural conditions, and special habitats in the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon are described in a series of appendices. The importance of habitat components to wildlife and the predictability of management activities on wildlife are examined in terms of managed rangelands. ...

  16. Applying Binary Forecasting Approaches to Induced Seismicity in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahue, R.; Shcherbakov, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin has been chosen as a focus due to an increase in the recent observed seismicity there which is most likely linked to anthropogenic activities related to unconventional oil and gas exploration. Seismicity caused by these types of activities is called induced seismicity. The occurrence of moderate to larger induced earthquakes in areas where critical infrastructure is present can be potentially problematic. Here we use a binary forecast method to analyze past seismicity and well production data in order to quantify future areas of increased seismicity. This method splits the given region into spatial cells. The binary forecast method used here has been suggested in the past to retroactively forecast large earthquakes occurring globally in areas called alarm cells. An alarm cell, or alert zone, is a bin in which there is a higher likelihood for earthquakes to occur based on previous data. The first method utilizes the cumulative Benioff strain, based on earthquakes that had occurred in each bin above a given magnitude over a time interval called the training period. The second method utilizes the cumulative well production data within each bin. Earthquakes that occurred within an alert zone in the retrospective forecast period contribute to the hit rate, while alert zones that did not have an earthquake occur within them in the forecast period contribute to the false alarm rate. In the resulting analysis the hit rate and false alarm rate are determined after optimizing and modifying the initial parameters using the receiver operating characteristic diagram. It is found that when modifying the cell size and threshold magnitude parameters within various training periods, hit and false alarm rates are obtained for specific regions in Western Canada using both recent seismicity and cumulative well production data. Certain areas are thus shown to be more prone to potential larger earthquakes based on both datasets. This has implications

  17. Arsenic, Boron, and Fluoride Concentrations in Ground Water in and Near Diabase Intrusions, Newark Basin, Southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    During an investigation in 2000 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) of possible contaminant releases from an industrial facility on Congo Road near Gilbertsville in Berks and Montgomery Counties, southeastern Pennsylvania, concentrations of arsenic and fluoride above USEPA drinking-water standards of 10 ?g/L and 4 mg/L, respectively, and of boron above the USEPA health advisory level of 600 ?g/L were measured in ground water in an area along the northwestern edge of the Newark Basin. In 2003, the USEPA requested technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help identify sources of arsenic, boron, and fluoride in the ground water in the Congo Road area, which included possible anthropogenic releases and naturally occurring mineralization in the local bedrock aquifer, and to identify other areas in the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania with similarly elevated concentrations of these constituents. The USGS reviewed available data and collected additional ground-water samples in the Congo Road area and four similar hydrogeologic settings. The Newark Basin is the largest of the 13 major exposed Mesozoic rift basins that stretch from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. Rocks in the Newark Basin include Triassic through Jurassic-age sedimentary sequences of sandstones and shales that were intruded by diabase. Mineral deposits of hydrothermal origin are associated with alteration zones bordering intrusions of diabase and also occur as strata-bound replacement deposits of copper and zinc in sedimentary rocks. The USGS review of data available in 2003 showed that water from about 10 percent of wells throughout the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania had concentrations of arsenic greater than the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 ?g/L; the highest reported arsenic concentration was at about 70 ?g/L. Few data on boron were available, and the highest reported boron concentration in well-water samples was 60 ?g/L in contrast

  18. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: manmade habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ira David Luman; Ralph. Anderson

    1979-01-01

    Manmade structures on rangelands provide specialized habitats for some species. These habitats and how they function as specialized habitat features are examined in this publication. The relationships of the wildlife of the Great Basin to such structures are detailed.

  19. Swatara Creek basin of southeastern Pennsylvania--An evaluation of its hydrologic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Wilbur Tennant; Schneider, William J.; Crooks, James W.

    1967-01-01

    Local concentrations of population in the Swatara Creek basin of Pennsylvania find it necessary to store, transport, and treat water because local supplies are either deficient or have been contaminated by disposal of wastes in upstream areas. Water in the basin is available for the deficient areas and for dilution of the coal-mine drainage in the northern parts and the sewage wastes in the southern parts.

  20. Disentangling the influences of habitat structure and limnological predictors on stream fish communities of a coastal basin, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cop Ferreira

    Full Text Available In stream environments habitat structure and limnological factors interact regulating patterns of energy and material transfer and affecting fish communities. In the coastal basins of Southeastern Brazil, limnological and structural characteristics differ between clear and blackwaters streams. The former have a diversity of substrate types, higher water velocities, and lower water conductivity, while the latter have sandy substrate, tea-colored and acidic waters, and low water velocities. In this study, we verified the relative importance of habitat structure and limnological variables in predicting patterns of variation in stream fish communities. Eight first to third order streams were sampled in the coastal plain of Itanhaém River basin. We captured 34 fish species and verified that community structure was influenced by physical habitat and limnology, being the former more important. A fraction of the variation could not be totally decomposed, and it was assigned to the joint influence of limnology and habitat structure. Some species that were restricted to blackwater streams, may have physiological and behavioral adaptations to deal with the lower pH levels. When we examined only the clearwater streams, all the explained variation in fish community composition was assigned to structural factors, which express specific preferences for different types of habitats.

  1. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thexton, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) type reactors in Canada is traced. What is CANDU? and how does it differ from a pressurized water reactor? Whey did Canada adopt this design? What factors have led to its success? These questions are asked and answered. First the design itself is explained. Technical problems are considered and figures on operating reliability presented. The economic advantages of CANDU are shown by comparing electricity generating costs at CANDU stations with those at coal-fired stations. Future CANDU options are discussed and prospects for CANDU considered. (U.K.)

  2. Crustal Structure Within the Southeastern Carpathian Arc, Transylvanian Basin, Romania from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, A. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Munteanu, L.

    2013-05-01

    We present new measurements of receiver functions at 4 broadband stations temporarily deployed in the Transylvanian Basin within the Carpathian Arc, Romania. Receiver functions can reveal depths to sharp crustal seismic velocity boundaries, which in complex tectonic environments such as the study area provide a good diagnostic for the regional tectonics. As a result of Africa (Adria) collision with Europe and subduction of a part of Tethys Ocean, Tisza-Dacia and Alcapa blocks escaped the collision and were emplaced in an embayment of this ocean, and form today the basement of the Transylvanian Basin. The collision of these terranes with the European continent culminated in the formation, in the Romanian part, of the Eastern Carpathians at the contact between the Transylvanian Basin and the East European Platform along the Tornquist-Teisseyre Suture zone, and of Southern Carpathians at the contact with Moesian Platform. In the foreland of the Carpathian Bend Zone, connecting the two mountain chains, in a very constrained area, a high velocity seismic body was contoured by hypocenters between 70 and 200 km depth. We constructed receiver functions using teleseismic P waves generated by events located between 30 and 95 degrees epicentral angle using the method of Ligorria and Ammon (1999) for individual measurements. We used the H-K method of Zhu and Kanamori (2000) to derive boundary interfaces depths and receiver function complexity from binned stacks. Preliminary results show a relatively shallow Moho depth beneath the Transylvanian Basin.

  3. Fracture overprinting history using Markov chain analysis: Windsor-Kennetcook subbasin, Maritimes Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Morgan E.; Waldron, John W. F.

    2018-03-01

    The deformation history of the Upper Paleozoic Maritimes Basin, Atlantic Canada, can be partially unraveled by examining fractures (joints, veins, and faults) that are well exposed on the shorelines of the macrotidal Bay of Fundy, in subsurface core, and on image logs. Data were collected from coastal outcrops and well core across the Windsor-Kennetcook subbasin, a subbasin in the Maritimes Basin, using the circular scan-line and vertical scan-line methods in outcrop, and FMI Image log analysis of core. We use cross-cutting and abutting relationships between fractures to understand relative timing of fracturing, followed by a statistical test (Markov chain analysis) to separate groups of fractures. This analysis, previously used in sedimentology, was modified to statistically test the randomness of fracture timing relationships. The results of the Markov chain analysis suggest that fracture initiation can be attributed to movement along the Minas Fault Zone, an E-W fault system that bounds the Windsor-Kennetcook subbasin to the north. Four sets of fractures are related to dextral strike slip along the Minas Fault Zone in the late Paleozoic, and four sets are related to sinistral reactivation of the same boundary in the Mesozoic.

  4. Three-dimensional geologic model of the southeastern Espanola Basin, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Michael P.; Hudson, Mark R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This multimedia model and report show and describe digital three-dimensional faulted surfaces and volumes of lithologic units that confine and constrain the basin-fill aquifers within the Espanola Basin of north-central New Mexico. These aquifers are the primary groundwater resource for the cities of Santa Fe and Espanola, six Pueblo nations, and the surrounding areas. The model presented in this report is a synthesis of geologic information that includes (1) aeromagnetic and gravity data and seismic cross sections; (2) lithologic descriptions, interpretations, and geophysical logs from selected drill holes; (3) geologic maps, geologic cross sections, and interpretations; and (4) mapped faults and interpreted faults from geophysical data. Modeled faults individually or collectively affect the continuity of the rocks that contain the basin aquifers; they also help define the form of this rift basin. Structure, trend, and dip data not previously published were added; these structures are derived from interpretations of geophysical information and recent field observations. Where possible, data were compared and validated and reflect the complex relations of structures in this part of the Rio Grande rift. This interactive geologic framework model can be used as a tool to visually explore and study geologic structures within the Espanola Basin, to show the connectivity of geologic units of high and low permeability between and across faults, and to show approximate dips of the lithologic units. The viewing software can be used to display other data and information, such as drill-hole data, within this geologic framework model in three-dimensional space.

  5. Geochemistry of water in the Fort Union formation of the northern Powder River basin, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roger W.

    1981-01-01

    Shallow water in the coal-bearing Paleocene Fort Union Formation of southeastern Montana was investigated to provide a better understanding of its geochemistry. Springs, wells less than 200 feet deep, and wells greater than 200 feet deep were observed to have different water qualities. Overall, the ground water exists as two systems: a mosaic of shallow, chemically dynamic, and localized recharge-discharge cells superimposed on a deeper, chemically static regional system. Water chemistry is highly variable in the shallow system; whereas, waters containing sodium and bicarbonate characterize the deeper system. Within the shallow system, springs and wells less than 200 feet deep show predominantly sodium and sulfate enrichment processes from recharge to discharge. These processes are consistent with the observed aquifer mineralogy and aqueous chemistry. However, intermittent mixing with downward moving recharge waters or upward moving deeper waters, and bacterially catalyzed sulfate reduction, may cause apparent reversals in these processes.

  6. Paleomagnetic evidence for a Tertiary not Triassic age for rocks in the lower part of the Grober-Fuqua #1 well, southeastern Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M.R.; Grauch, V.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    A sedimentary sequence penetrated in the lower part of the Grober-Fuqua #1 well in the southeastern Albuquerque Basin has previously been interpreted as either Triassic or Eocene in age. Paleomagnetic study of three specimens from two core fragments yielded a 54.5?? mean inclination of remanent magnetization relative to bedding. This inclination is like that expected in Tertiary time and is distinct from an expected low-angle Triassic inclination. Although the data are very few, when considered in combination with stratigraphic relations and the presence of a gravity low in this southeastern part of the basin, the paleomagnetic evidence favors a Tertiary age for strata in the lower part of the Grober-Fuqua #1 well.

  7. Simulations of hydrologic response in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFontaine, Jacob H.; Jones, L. Elliott; Painter, Jaime A.

    2017-12-29

    A suite of hydrologic models has been developed for the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACFB) as part of the National Water Census, a U.S. Geological Survey research program that focuses on developing new water accounting tools and assessing water availability and use at the regional and national scales. Seven hydrologic models were developed using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a deterministic, distributed-parameter, process-based system that simulates the effects of precipitation, temperature, land cover, and water use on basin hydrology. A coarse-resolution PRMS model was developed for the entire ACFB, and six fine-resolution PRMS models were developed for six subbasins of the ACFB. The coarse-resolution model was loosely coupled with a groundwater model to better assess the effects of water use on streamflow in the lower ACFB, a complex geologic setting with karst features. The PRMS coarse-resolution model was used to provide inputs of recharge to the groundwater model, which in turn provide simulations of groundwater flow that were aggregated with PRMS-based simulations of surface runoff and shallow-subsurface flow. Simulations without the effects of water use were developed for each model for at least the calendar years 1982–2012 with longer periods for the Potato Creek subbasin (1942–2012) and the Spring Creek subbasin (1952–2012). Water-use-affected flows were simulated for 2008–12. Water budget simulations showed heterogeneous distributions of precipitation, actual evapotranspiration, recharge, runoff, and storage change across the ACFB. Streamflow volume differences between no-water-use and water-use simulations were largest along the main stem of the Apalachicola and Chattahoochee River Basins, with streamflow percentage differences largest in the upper Chattahoochee and Flint River Basins and Spring Creek in the lower Flint River Basin. Water-use information at a shorter time step and a fully coupled simulation in

  8. Groundwater flow and solute transport at the Mourquong saline-water disposal basin, Murray Basin, southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Craig; Narayan, Kumar; Woods, Juliette; Herczeg, Andrew

    2002-03-01

    Saline groundwater and drainage effluent from irrigation are commonly stored in some 200 natural and artificial saline-water disposal basins throughout the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia. Their impact on underlying aquifers and the River Murray, one of Australia's major water supplies, is of serious concern. In one such scheme, saline groundwater is pumped into Lake Mourquong, a natural groundwater discharge complex. The disposal basin is hydrodynamically restricted by low-permeability lacustrine clays, but there are vulnerable areas in the southeast where the clay is apparently missing. The extent of vertical and lateral leakage of basin brines and the processes controlling their migration are examined using (1) analyses of chloride and stable isotopes of water (2H/1H and 18O/16O) to infer mixing between regional groundwater and lake water, and (2) the variable-density groundwater flow and solute-transport code SUTRA. Hydrochemical results indicate that evaporated disposal water has moved at least 100 m in an easterly direction and that there is negligible movement of brines in a southerly direction towards the River Murray. The model is used to consider various management scenarios. Salt-load movement to the River Murray was highest in a "worst-case" scenario with irrigation employed between the basin and the River Murray. Present-day operating conditions lead to little, if any, direct movement of brine from the basin into the river. Résumé. Les eaux souterraines salées et les effluents de drainage de l'irrigation sont stockés dans environ 200 bassins naturels ou artificiels destinés à retenir les eaux salines dans tout le bassin de Murray-Darling, en Australie. Leur impact sur les aquifères sous-jacents et sur la rivière Murray, l'une des principales ressources en eau d'Australie, constitue un problème grave. Dans une telle situation, les eaux souterraines salines sont pompées dans le lac Mourquong, complexe dans lequel les nappes se d

  9. The effect of seasonal drying on sulphate dynamics in streams across southeastern Canada and the northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.G. Kerr; M.C. Eimers; I.F. Creed; M.B. Adams; F. Beall; D. Burns; J.L. Campbell; S.F. Christopher; T.A. Clair; F. Courchesne; L. Duchesne; I. Fernandez; D. Houle; D.S. Jeffries; G.E. Likens; M.J. Mitchell; J. Shanley; H. Yao

    2012-01-01

    Within the southeast Canada and northeast USA region, a peak in sulphate (SO42-) concentration has been reported for some streams following periods of substantial catchment drying during the summer months (ON, Canada; VT, NH and NY, USA). However, it is currently unclear if a SO42-...

  10. Shear-Wave Splitting Within the Southeastern Carpathian Arc, Transylvanian Basin, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, A. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Munteanu, L.

    2012-12-01

    We present 75 new measurements of shear wave splitting at 4 temporary broadband seismic stations that we deployed in the Transylvanian Basin within the Carpathian Arc, Romania. The Tisza-Dacia terranes, which form the basement of this basin, were accommodated in the space between the thick, old, rigid and cold East European Platform and the Moesian Platform during the Miocene. This movement was driven by the subduction of a part of the Tethys Ocean, which led to the formation of Carpathian orogen system. In Romania, the mountains are divided into the Eastern Carpathians, at the limit of Transylvanian Basin and the East European Platform along the Tornquist-Teisseyre Suture Zone, and the Southern Carpathians, at the limit with Moesian Platform. They connect to the West of the Carpathian Bend Zone where a very active high velocity seismic body generates intermediate depth earthquakes between 70 and 200 km beneath the Vrancea seismogenic zone. We analyzed splitting of SKS and SKKS phases recorded at epicentral distances between 87 and 150 degrees using the method of Silver and Chan (1991). We estimated splitting parameters, fast shear polarization azimuth and delay time, using both weighted averages of individual splitting measurements (Helffrich et al., 1994) and simultaneous linearization of all clearly recorded SK(K)S waves (Wolfe and Silver, 1998). For COMD, located at the contact of the Carpathian Bend Zone and Transylvanian Basin, we obtained a fast shear polarization azimuth trending NE-SW, parallel to the contact and to the strike of the Vrancea seismic body. For 10 suitable events recorded at IACB, at the contact of the Neogene Volcanic zone with the Eastern Carpathians, we did not observe any splitting; we consider the station splitting to be null. The fast shear polarization azimuth for PMAR, at the limit between Tisza-Dacia block and Southern Carpathians thrust belt, and at CHDM, within the Transylvanian Basin, is NW-SE similar to a regional splitting

  11. Flux and distribution of methane (CH4) in the Gunsan Basin of the southeastern Yellow Sea, off the Western Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Woo, Han Jun; Son, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Moonkoo; Lee, Dong-Hun; Tsunogai, Urumu; Jeong, Kap-Sik

    2018-04-16

    The flux and distribution of methane (CH 4 ) was investigated in the seawater column at 14 stations in the Gunsan Basin, the southeastern part of Yellow Sea from 2013 to 2015. Here CH 4 is concentrated 2.4-4.7 (3.4 ± 0.7) nM in the surface and 2.5-7.4 (5.2 ± 1.7) nM in the bottom layer. The CH 4 saturation ratios ranged from 65.5% to 295.5% (162.6 ± 68.7), comprising the mean sea-to-air CH 4 flux of 3.8 to 25.3 (15.6 ± 5.5) µM m -2 d -1 . Methane concentration was largely different in the upper and the lower seawater layers that is separated by the thermocline of which depth is variable (20-60 m) depending on the time of sampling. The concentration of seawater dissolved CH 4 is high between the bottom surface of the thermocline layer and the sea floor. Generally it tends to decrease from the south-westernmost part of the basin toward the west coast of Korea. This distribution pattern of CH 4 seems to result from the CH 4 supply by decomposition of organic matters produced in the upper seawater layer that is superimposed by the larger supply from the underlying sediment layer especially beneath the thermocline. The latter is manifested by ubiquitous CH 4 seeps from the seafloor sediments.

  12. Dryness of ephemeral lakes and consequences for dust activity: the case of the Hamoun drainage basin, southeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashki, A; Kaskaoutis, D G; Goudie, A S; Kahn, R A

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the influence of changes in the water coverage in the Hamoun dry-bed lakes on visibility, dust outbreaks, aerosol loading and land-atmospheric fluxes over the region covering the period 1985-2005. The Hamoun basin, located on the southeastern Iran and western Afghanistan borders, has been recognized as one of the major dust source regions in south Asia and is covered by shallow, marshy lakes that are fed by the Helmand and Farahrood rivers. When the water in watersheds that support the lakes is drawn down for natural or human-induced reasons, the end result is a decrease in the water coverage in the basin, or even complete dryness as occurred in 2001. Then, strong seasonal winds, mainly in summer, blow fine sand and silt off the exposed lakebed, enhancing dust activity and aerosol loading over the region. Satellite (Landsat) and meteorological observations reveal that the water levels in the Hamoun lakes exhibit considerable inter-annual variability during the period 1985-2005 strongly related to anomalies in precipitation. This is the trigger for concurrent changes in the frequency of the dusty days, aerosol loading and deterioration of visibility over the region, as satellite (TOMS, MODIS, MISR) observations reveal. On the other hand, soil moisture and latent heat, obtained via model (GLDAS_noah-10) simulations are directly linked with water levels and precipitation over the region. The desiccation of the Hamoun lakes in certain years and the consequent increase in frequency and intensity of dust storms are serious concerns for the regional climate, ecosystems and human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.

    1991-01-01

    Canada, while professing a non-nuclear policy for its own armed forces, is, none the less, a member of a nuclear alliance. The security gained through participation in such arrangements does not come cost-free, despite the common view that countries such as Canada enjoy a free ride. Being under the nuclear umbrella, as this paper seeks to illustrate, does generate its own problems and costs. For example, does influence stem from the actual possession of nuclear weapons (albeit under US control), from support of the concept of nuclear deterrence and its infrastructure, or from possessing territory that is of strategic importance to a more powerful ally? Does the Canadian experience serve as a model for countries that are in close proximity to an existing or threshold nuclear power? Much depends on the willingness of a country to participate in the nuclear infrastructure associated with the acquisition of nuclear weapons for security purposes. It must accept the underlying rationale or logic of nuclear deterrence and the constraints on alternative security options that this imposes and it must also recognize that reliance on nuclear deterrence for military security seven if one seeks to emulate Canada and become a non-nuclear weapon state in a nuclear alliance can produce strains in its own right. The case of Canada shows that a country seeking security through such means should be aware of, and reflect upon, the fact that what appears to be a free ride does not come free of charge. However, a country may have other options in it, military security that have neither historically or geostrategically been available to Canada

  14. On the changing contribution of snow to the hydrology of the Fraser River Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dery, S. J.; Kang, D.; Shi, X.; Gao, H.

    2013-12-01

    This talk will present an application of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model to the Fraser River Basin (FRB) of British Columbia (BC), Canada over the latter half of the 20th century. The Fraser River is the longest waterway in BC and supports the world's most abundant Pacific Ocean salmon populations. Previous modeling and observational studies have demonstrated that the FRB is a snow-dominated system but with climate change it may evolve to a pluvial regime. Thus the goal of this study is to evaluate the changing contribution of snow to the hydrology of the watershed over the latter half of the 20th century. To this end, a 0.25° atmospheric forcing dataset is used to drive the VIC model from 1948 to 2006 at a daily time step over a domain covering the entire FRB. A model evaluation is first conducted over 11 major sub-watersheds of the FRB to quantitatively assess the spatial variations of snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff. The ratio of the spatially averaged maximum SWE to runoff (RSR) is used to quantify the contribution of snow to the runoff in the 11 sub-watersheds of interest. From 1948 to 2006, RSR exhibits a significant decreasing trend in 9 of the 11 sub-watersheds (at a 0.05 of p-value according to the Mann-Kendall Test statistics). Changes in snow accumulation and melt lead to significant advances of the spring freshet throughout the basin. As the climate continues to warm, ecological processes and human usage of natural resources in the FRB may be substantially affected by its transition from a snow to a hybrid (nival/pluvial) and even a rain-dominated watershed.

  15. Assessing climate change impacts on fresh water resources of the Athabasca River Basin, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Narayan Kumar; Du, Xinzhong; Wang, Junye

    2017-12-01

    Proper management of blue and green water resources is important for the sustainability of ecosystems and for the socio-economic development of river basins such as the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) in Canada. For this reason, quantifying climate change impacts on these water resources at a finer temporal and spatial scale is often necessary. In this study, we used a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess climate change impacts on fresh water resources, focusing explicitly on the impacts to both blue and green water. We used future climate data generated by the Canadian Center for Climate Modelling and Analysis Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4) with a spatial resolution of 0.22°×0.22° (~25km) for two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). Results projected the climate of the ARB to be wetter by 21-34% and warmer by 2-5.4°C on an annual time scale. Consequently, the annual average blue and green water flow was projected to increase by 16-54% and 11-34%, respectively, depending on the region, future period, and emission scenario. Furthermore, the annual average green water storage at the boreal region was expected to increase by 30%, while the storage was projected to remain fairly stable or decrease in other regions, especially during the summer season. On average, the fresh water resources in the ARB are likely to increase in the future. However, evidence of temporal and spatial heterogeneity could pose many future challenges to water resource planners and managers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogeologic framework of the uppermost principal aquifer systems in the Williston and Powder River structural basins, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamke, Joanna N.; LeCain, Gary D.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sando, Roy; Long, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The glacial, lower Tertiary, and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems in the Williston and Powder River structural basins within the United States and Canada are the uppermost principal aquifer systems and most accessible sources of groundwater for these energy-producing basins. The glacial aquifer system covers the northeastern part of the Williston structural basin. The lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems are present in about 91,300 square miles (mi2) of the Williston structural basin and about 25,500 mi2 of the Powder River structural basin. Directly under these aquifer systems are 800 to more than 3,000 feet (ft) of relatively impermeable marine shale that serves as a basal confining unit. The aquifer systems in the Williston structural basin have a shallow (less than 2,900 ft deep), wide, and generally symmetrical bowl shape. The aquifer systems in the Powder River structural basin have a very deep (as much as 8,500 ft deep), narrow, and asymmetrical shape.

  17. Low pCO2 under sea-ice melt in the Canada Basin of the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Naohiro; Sasano, Daisuke; Ishii, Masao; Nishino, Shigeto; Uchida, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa-Inoue, Hisayuki

    2017-12-01

    In September 2013, we observed an expanse of surface water with low CO2 partial pressure (pCO2sea) (Ocean. The large undersaturation of CO2 in this region was the result of massive primary production after the sea-ice retreat in June and July. In the surface of the Canada Basin, salinity was low ( 20 µmol kg-1) in the subsurface low pCO2sea layer in the Canada Basin indicated significant net primary production undersea and/or in preformed condition. If these low pCO2sea layers surface by wind mixing, they will act as additional CO2 sinks; however, this is unlikely because intensification of stratification by sea-ice melt inhibits mixing across the halocline.

  18. Clay mineral facies and lateritization in basalts of the southeastern Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.T.G. de; Formoso, M.L.L.; Trescases, J.J.; Meunier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Seventeen samples from two lateritic profiles, each with five facies, were studied. These profiles occur on the old planation surface of the plateau basalts of the southern part of ParanáBasin, Brazil. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra were used to obtain information about the nature and chemical composition of each weathering facies. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and analyses of clay minerals were performed to detect microcrystalline environmental changes. Both profiles have two major parts: a loose red-clay latosol separated from an underlying mottled clay and an alterite facies; a stone line may or may not be present between the latosol and the underlying units. In both profiles the latosol consists principally of kaolinite, hematite and goethite. Two alterite facies, shaped by differential weathering, are also present in the lower profile: a halloysite–nontronite clayey matrix with a well developed fissure system occurs in the argillaceous alterite and a network of Al–goethite aggregates is typical of the highly porous cortex of the boulder alterite that is found in the stone line and below it. Gibbsite has crystallized in the large pores of porphyritic boulder alterite but is absent in the small pores of the subaphyric boulder alterite. Clay minerals observed in fissures include halloysite associated with goethite and manganese oxides. The basalt has hydrothermal green-clays (mixed layers and trioctahedral smectites) that formed between primary plagioclase, pyroxene and Ti–magnetite crystals while fresh corestones of the boulder alterite have cryptocrystalline iron-rich material. The study of these profiles shows one principal evolutionary trend for clay minerals. This trend is from smectite and mixed layers that form green clays in altered bedrock at the base of the profile to an intermediate association of nontronite and halloysite in the argillaceous

  19. Origin and composition of mineralizing fluids in the Athabasca Basin, Canada; Origine et composition des fluides mineralisateurs dans le Bassin de l'Athabasca, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, A.; Cathelineau, M.; Boiron, M.Ch.; Cuney, M.; Mercadier, J. [G2R, Nancy-Universite, CNRS, CREGU, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Milesi, J.P. [AREVA, BU Mines, Tour Areva, 92 - Paris La Defense (France)

    2009-07-01

    The authors report studies aimed at understanding mechanisms of concentration of uranium in the geological environment of the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada). They describe how two brines, a sodic one and a calcic one, circulated and mixed together while carrying uranium with exceptional and very heterogeneous concentrations. They show that these brines have a common origin and are formed by sea water evaporation, that the calcic brine formed itself by interaction between the sodic brine and platform rocks, and that the interactions of brines with platform rocks and minerals, water radiolysis, and bitumen synthesis have controlled the isotopic content in oxygen, hydrogen and carbon of these brines

  20. The Great Basin Canada goose in southcentral Washington: A 40-year nesting history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Gray, R.H.

    1991-04-01

    Overall, the nesting population of Great Basin Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State is doing well and appears to be increasing. The average annual total nests for the period 1981 through 1990 was 215 nests, which is slightly above the average reported for the period 1950 through 1970. The nesting population has shifted its nucleus from upriver islands (1--10) to the lower river islands (11--20) with over 70% of the present-day nesting occurring on Islands 17, 18, 19, 20. The annual percent-successful nests from 1981 through 1990 was 80%. This is above the 71% reported for 1950 to 1970, but is below the 82% reported for 1971 to 1980. Average annual clutch size for 1981 to 1990 was 6.05, which is above the 1971-to-1980 average of 5.6 and the 1950-to-70 average of 5.5. Next desertions for 1981 to 1990 averaged 8%. This rate is well below the 14% reported for 1950 to 1970. Predators were responsible for an annual predation rate of 9% from 1981 to 1990. This is below the 1950-to-1970 annual average predation rate of 14%. Flooding losses to nests were low during the 1980s, except for 1989 and 1990 when 6% and 9% of the total nests, respectively, were destroyed by flooding. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Size distribution of absorbing and fluorescing DOM in Beaufort Sea, Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Guéguen, Céline

    2017-03-01

    The molecular weight (MW) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is considered as an important factor affecting the bioavailability of organic matter and associated chemical species. Colored DOM (CDOM) MW distribution was determined, for the first time, in the Beaufort Sea (Canada Basin) by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with online diode array ultra violet-visible photometer and offline fluorescence detectors. The apparent MW ranged from 1.07 to 1.45 kDa, congruent with previous studies using high performance size exclusion chromatography and tangential flow filtration. Interestingly, a minimum in MW was associated with the Pacific Summer Waters (PSW), while higher MW was associated with the Pacific Winter Waters (PWW). The Arctic Intermediate Waters (AIW) did not show any significant change in MW and fluorescence intensities distribution between stations, suggesting homogeneous DOM composition in deep waters. Three fluorescence components including two humic-like components and one protein-like component were PARAFAC-validated. With the increase of MW, protein-like fluorescence component became more dominant while the majority remained as marine/microbially derived humic-like components. Overall, it is concluded that water mass origin influenced DOM MW distribution in the Arctic Ocean.

  2. Evolution and diagenesis of Pennsylvanian phylloid algal bioherms in the Paradox basin of southeastern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gournay, J.P. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Three lower Ismay (Paradox Formation) bioherms, were examined at Honaker Trail, Soda Basin, and Eight Foot Rapids along the San Juan River. Approximately 150 samples were collected at approximately 0.5 m vertically spaced intervals. Samples of unique lithologies were also collected. The lower Ismay bioherms studied lie along an east-west traverse with respect to each other and display slight differences in internal facies composition. Phylloid algae generally dominate the bioherms, but associated biota include: fusulinids, crinoids, bryozoans, ostracods, minor trilobites, and rugose corals. Facies changes and the presence of numerous stylolitized layers within the bioherms suggest distinct growth phases. Additionally, the phylloid-rich layers appear to exhibit vertical variations in total micrite. Variations in facies and micrite composition may be controlled by sea level fluctuation or may reflect microbial activity. Consistent variation in porosity and permeability within bioherms may reflect high order cyclical events, possibly sixth order. Throughout the bioherms studied, variations in porosity and permeability correspond to variations in lithology. The bioherms are homogenous laterally, but heterogeneous vertically and the porosity zones reflect this. The zones are characterized by moldic porosity, increased abundances of phylloid algae, and each is capped by a mud-rich unit. Many of the porous zones are about 2 m thick with two or three associated smaller bands. The smaller bands are completely compartmentalized from the major bands. This information is of significant importance to production from phylloid algal reservoir systems.

  3. Evolution and diagenesis of Pennsylvanian phylloid algal bioherms in the Paradox basin of southeastern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gournay, J.P. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Three lower Ismay (Paradox Formation) bioherms, were examined at Honaker Trail, Soda Basin, and Eight Foot Rapids along the San Juan River. Approximately 150 samples were collected at approximately 0.5 m vertically spaced intervals. Samples of unique lithologies were also collected. The lower Ismay bioherms studied lie along an east-west traverse with respect to each other and display slight differences in internal facies composition. Phylloid algae generally dominate the bioherms, but associated biota include: fusulinids, crinoids, bryozoans, ostracods, minor trilobites, and rugose corals. Facies changes and the presence of numerous stylolitized layers within the bioherms suggest distinct growth phases. Additionally, the phylloid-rich layers appear to exhibit vertical variations in total micrite. Variations in facies and micrite composition may be controlled by sea level fluctuation or may reflect microbial activity. Consistent variation in porosity and permeability within bioherms may reflect high order cyclical events, possibly sixth order. Throughout the bioherms studied, variations in porosity and permeability correspond to variations in lithology. The bioherms are homogenous laterally, but heterogeneous vertically and the porosity zones reflect this. The zones are characterized by moldic porosity, increased abundances of phylloid algae, and each is capped by a mud-rich unit. Many of the porous zones are about 2 m thick with two or three associated smaller bands. The smaller bands are completely compartmentalized from the major bands. This information is of significant importance to production from phylloid algal reservoir systems.

  4. Mineralization sources of surface and subsurface waters at the southeastern edges of dead sea basin in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdEl-Samie, S.G.; EL-Shahat, M.F.; Al-Nawayseh, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    Surface and ground waters within the shallow-Alluvial and deep- Kurnub aquifers in four areas (Issal, Mazraa, Safi and Haditha) in the southeastern edge of the Dead Sea basin were evaluated according to Salinity changes and water quality degradation. Chemical and isotopic parameters were integrated to follow the chemical evolutionary trend and sources of mineralization in these waters. The isotopic results indicated that the main recharge sources Issal. Mazraa and Safi groundwaters are the flash flood and base flow water from the eastern highland through wadies. In Safi area, the groundwater that mixed with other depleted source could be paleowater seeped from older formation. The depletion in stable isotopic values with low d-parametewr (less than 10%) for Haditha groundwater confirms that the replenishment to the aquifer (Kurnub sandstone) had been formed during the pluvial time. The chemical data showed that the base flow water from the eastern highland is denoted by the least salinity values, whereas drainage water acquired the highest values as aa result of receiving a considerable amount of the remaining water from salt extraction processes. The groundwater in Safi wells has low salt content with respect to the other areas taping the same aquifer. The elevation in Ca and Mg ions reflects the dissolution of Ca-Mg rich minerals that actively reached saturation with respect to calcite and dolomite in all samples except Haditha deep aquifer due to its low ph values. In spite of the meteoric origin of the recharge source, the presence of MgCl 2 and CaCl 2 salts in almost all samples changed the water character to be old or recent marine genesis. This points to the effect of Dead Sea in both surface and ground waters. The obvious depletion in O-18 and isotopes for all ground waters samples with respect to the positive values of Dead Sea sample is good indicative for non mixing trend with Dead Sea water in the Alluvial and Kurnub aquifers

  5. Stratigraphy, structure, and lithofacies relationships of Devonian through Permian sedimentary rocks: Paradox Basin and adjacent areas - southeastern Utah. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCleary, J.; Rogers, T.; Ely, R.

    1983-08-01

    Geophysical well log analysis, literature review, and field work were conducted to develop isopach, structure contour, outcrop, and facies maps and cross sections for the Devonian through Permian strata of a 14,586-km 2 (5632-square-mile) area in southeastern Utah. The study area includes part of the Paradox Basin, the salt deposits of which are of interest in siting studies for a nuclear waste repository. For this reason hydrologic models of this area are needed. This study, part of which included the development of a three-dimensional stratigraphic computer model utilizing Geographic Information System software, can serve as a base for hydrologic or other models for this area. Within and adjacent to the study area, 730 wells were screened to select the 191 wells analyzed for the study. It was found that the Elbert through Molas formations did not exhibit noticeable facies changes within the study area. The Pinkerton Trail Formation exhibits moderate changes: anhydrite and shale become somewhat more abundant toward the northeast. Facies changes in the Paradox Formation are more dramatic. Thick saline facies deposits are present in the northeast, grading to thinner anhydrite and then to carbonate facies in the south and west. The lithology of the Honaker Trail Formation appears to be fairly uniform throughout the area. Facies changes in the Cutler Group are numerous and sometimes dramatic, and generally correspond to the named formations of the group. Other factors that could affect groundwater flow, such as stratigraphic cover of fine-grained rocks, area of formation outcrops, and fracturing and faulting are discussed and delineated on maps

  6. Large landslides, composed of megabreccia, interbedded in Miocene basin deposits, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Medora Louise Hooper

    1977-01-01

    The landslides in the Kearny and El Capitan Mountain quadrangles, Pinal and Gila Counties, Ariz., are tabular or lens like masses of megabreccia enclosed in Miocene basin deposits. The megabreccias within individual slide blocks are composed of pervasively brecciated Precambrian and younger formations that remain in normal stratigraphic sequence, indicating that each landslide moved as a fairly coherent mass. The megabreccias consist of fresh, mostly angular rock fragments in a comminuted matrix of the same composition as the fragments. The matrix ranges in amount from sparse to abundant. Where the matrix is sparse, the fragments fit tightly with little or no rotation. Locally fragments are rotated but not moved far; most units within a slide block are lithologically homogeneous. The Kearny landslides are conformably interbedded in steeply east-dipping playa and alluvial deposits. They form map units from a few tens of meters to nearly 4 km long and from less than 1 to 270 m wide. Narrow ridges expose sections through the landslides at about right angles to the direction of movement. The upper (proximal) ends have been eroded; the lower (distal) ends are buried. The El Capitan landslide dips very gently southward. Although partly dissected during erosion of the enclosing alluvial and lakebed deposits, its approximate original outline is still preserved. It forms a thin sheet, 5-15 m thick and at least 3.8 km long; the maximum outcrop width, near its distal end, is about 1.5 km. The Kearny landslides show little evidence of having exerted differential pressure on the underlying soft playa and alluvial deposits, and the contacts with the underlying sediments have little relief. The distal end of the El Capitan landslide, on the other hand, has considerable relief. As the landslide came to an abrupt stop, the end plowed into the underlying sediments, compressing them into fol9.s and forming sandstone dikes. The source of the El Capitan landslide is a well

  7. Future ocean acidification in the Canada Basin and surrounding Arctic Ocean from CMIP5 earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, N. S.; Christian, J. R.; Six, K. D.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.

    2014-01-01

    Six Earth system models that include an interactive carbon cycle and have contributed results to the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are evaluated with respect to Arctic Ocean acidification. Projections under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 consistently show reductions in the bidecadal mean surface pH from about 8.1 in 1986-2005 to 7.7/7.9 by 2066-2085 in the Canada Basin, closely linked to reductions in the calcium carbonate saturation state ΩA,C from about 1.4 (2.0) to 0.7 (1.0) for aragonite (calcite) for RCP8.5. The large but opposite effects of dilution and biological drawdown of DIC and dilution of alkalinity lead to a small seasonal amplitude change in Ω, as well as intermodel differences in the timing and sign of the summer minimum. The Canada Basin shows a characteristic layering in Ω: affected by ice melt and inflowing Pacific water, shallow undersaturated layers form at the surface and subsurface, creating a shallow saturation horizon which expands from the surface downward. This is in addition to the globally observed deep saturation horizon which is continuously expanding upward with increasing CO2 uptake. The Eurasian Basin becomes undersaturated much later than the rest of the Arctic. These CMIP5 model results strengthen earlier findings, although large intermodel differences remain: Below 200 m ΩA varies by up to 1.0 in the Canada Basin and the deep saturation horizon varies from 2000 to 4000 m among the models. Differences of projected acidification changes are primarily related to sea ice retreat and responses of wind mixing and stratification.

  8. Tree-ring reconstruction of streamflow in the Snare River Basin, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. P.; Pisaric, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Drought is a component of many ecosystems in North America causing environmental and socioeconomical impacts. In the ongoing context of climatic and environmental changes, drought-related issues are becoming problematic in northern Canada, which have not been associated with drought-like conditions in the past. Dryer than average conditions threatens the energy security of northern canadian communities, since this region relies on the production of hydroelectricity as an energy source. In the North Slave Region of Northwest Territory (NWT), water levels and streamflows were significantly lower in 2014/2015. The Government of the NWT had to spend nearly $50 million to purchase diesel fuel to generate enough electricity to supplement the reduced power generation of the Snare River hydroelectric system, hence the need to better understand the multi-decadal variability in streamflow. The aims of this presentation are i) to present jack pine and white spruce tree-ring chronologies of Southern NWT; ii) to reconstruct past streamflow of the Snare River Basin; iii) to evaluate the frequency and magnitude of extreme drought conditions, and iv) to identify which large-scale atmospheric or oceanic patterns are teleconnected to regional hydraulic conditions. Preliminary results show that the growth of jack pine and white spruce populations is better correlated with precipitation and temperature, respectively, than hydraulic conditions. Nonetheless, we present a robust streamflow reconstruction of the Snare River that is well correlated with the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, albeit the strength of the correlation is non-stationary. Spectral analysis corroborate the synchronicity between negative NAO conditions and drought conditions. From an operational standpoint, considering that the general occurrence of positive/negative NAO can be predicted, it the hope of the authors that these results can facilitate energetic planning in the Northwest Territories through

  9. Past and future changes of streamflow in Poyang Lake Basin, Southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Sun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To understand the causes of the past water cycle variations and the influence of climate variability on the streamflow, lake storage, and flood potential, we analyze the changes in streamflow and the underlying drivers in four typical watersheds (Gaosha, Meigang, Saitang, and Xiashan within the Poyang Lake Basin, based on the meteorological observations at 79 weather stations, and datasets of streamflow and river level at four hydrological stations for the period of 1961-2000. The contribution of different climate factors to the change in streamflow in each watershed is estimated quantitatively using the water balance equations. Results show that in each watershed, the annual streamflow exhibits an increasing trend from 1961–2000. The increases in streamflow by 4.80 m3 s−1 yr−1 and 1.29 m3 s−1 yr−1 at Meigang and Gaosha, respectively, are statistically significant at the 5% level. The increase in precipitation is the biggest contributor to the streamflow increment in Meigang (3.79 m3 s−1 yr−1, Gaosha (1.12 m3 s−1 yr−1, and Xiashan (1.34 m3 s−1 yr−1, while the decrease in evapotranspiration is the major factor controlling the streamflow increment in Saitang (0.19 m3 s−1 yr−1. In addition, radiation and wind contribute more than actual vapor pressure and mean temperature to the changes in evapotranspiration and streamflow for the four watersheds.

    For revealing the possible change of streamflow due to the future climate change, we also investigate the projected precipitation and evapotranspiration from of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3 under three greenhouse gases emission scenarios (SRESA1B, SRESA2 and SRESB1 for the period of 2061–2100. When the future changes in the soil water storage

  10. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panea, I.; Stephenson, R.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-12-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the experiment was to obtain new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappes and the architecture of Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the seismically-active Vrancea zone, including the Focsani Basin. The seismic reflection line had a WNW-ESE orientation, running from internal East Carpathians units, across the mountainous south-eastern Carpathians, and the foreland Focsani Basin towards the Danube Delta. There were 131 shot points along the profile, with about 1 km spacing, and data were recorded with stand-alone RefTek-125s (also known as "Texans"), supplied by the University Texas at El Paso and the PASSCAL Institute. The entire line was recorded in three deployments, using about 340 receivers in the first deployment and 640 receivers in each of the other two deployments. The resulting deep seismic reflection stacks, processed to 20 s along the entire profile and to 10 s in the eastern Focsani Basin, are presented here. The regional architecture of the latter, interpreted in the context of abundant independent constraint from exploration seismic and subsurface data, is well imaged. Image quality within and beneath the thrust belt is of much poorer quality. Nevertheless, there is good evidence to suggest that a thick (˜10 km) sedimentary basin having the structure of a graben and of indeterminate age underlies the westernmost part of the Focsani Basin, in the depth range 10-25 km. Most of the crustal depth seismicity observed in the Vrancea zone (as opposed to the more intense upper mantle seismicity) appears to be associated with this sedimentary basin. The sedimentary successions within this basin and other horizons

  11. Long-term solute transport through thick Cretaceous shale in the Williston Basin Canada using naturally-occurring tracer profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, M. Jim; Novakowski, Kent; Smith, Laura; Koehler, Geoff; Wassenaar, L.I.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. The hydrogeologic evolution of sedimentary basins is generally determined from hydraulic and chemical data collected from aquifers. Hydraulic and chemical data from aquitards, which constitute a much greater volume of basins than aquifers and provide important controls on water and solute transport in the basins, are generally not collected nor studied. In this study we characterized the paleo-groundwater flow and solute transport controls through a vertical section of Cretaceous sediments in the Williston Basin, Canada located near Esterhazy, Saskatchewan. It consists of 384 m of thick argillaceous sediment (aquitard) overlying 93 m of heterogeneous calcareous silt, shale and sandstone (Mannville Fm.; aquifer). Paleo-hydrologic conditions were determined by interpreting high-resolution depth profiles of natural tracers of water isotopes (δ 18 O and (δ 2 H) and Cl- measured on (1) continuous core samples through the aquitard, upper aquifer, and thin Quaternary sediments, (2) water samples collected from monitoring wells installed in the aquifer and the Quaternary sediments, and (3) water samples collected from mine shaft inflows to 900 m below ground. 1D numerical transport modeling reproduced the measured profiles and yielded valuable information on the large-scale and long-term transport behavior in both the Cretaceous aquitard and the Basin. In the modeling, the shapes of the tracer profiles was explained by diffusion with paleo-events identified from the modeling including the introduction of fresher water into the aquifer possibly from the onset of glaciation (activation of the lower boundary) about 1 Ma ago and the impact of the most recent deglaciation about 10 ka ago (activation of the upper boundary). These findings show that the hydrogeologic conditions in deep, extensive basins, such as the Williston Basin, cannot be assumed to be static over geologic time. (authors)

  12. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciej, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  13. Current and projected water demand and water availability estimates under climate change scenarios in the Weyib River basin in Bale mountainous area of Southeastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serur, Abdulkerim Bedewi; Sarma, Arup Kumar

    2017-07-01

    This study intended to estimate the spatial and temporal variation of current and projected water demand and water availability under climate change scenarios in Weyib River basin, Bale mountainous area of Southeastern Ethiopia. Future downscaled climate variables from three Earth System Models under the three RCP emission scenarios were inputted into ArcSWAT hydrological model to simulate different components of water resources of a basin whereas current and projected human and livestock population of the basin is considered to estimate the total annual water demand for various purposes. Results revealed that the current total annual water demand of the basin is found to be about 289 Mm3, and this has to increase by 83.47% after 15 years, 200.67% after 45 years, and 328.78% after 75 years by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively, from base period water demand mainly due to very rapid increasing population (40.81, 130.80, and 229.12% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively) and climatic variability. The future average annual total water availability in the basin is observed to be increased by ranging from 15.04 to 21.61, 20.08 to 23.34, and 16.21 to 39.53% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s time slice, respectively, from base period available water resources (2333.39 Mm3). The current water availability per capita per year of the basin is about 3112.23 m3 and tends to decline ranging from 11.78 to 17.49, 46.02 to 47.45, and 57.18 to 64.34% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively, from base period per capita per year water availability. This indicated that there might be possibility to fall the basin under water stress condition in the long term.

  14. Flow pattern and residence time of groundwater within the south-eastern Taoudeni sedimentary basin (Burkina Faso, Mali)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneau, F.; Dakoure, D.; Celle-Jeanton, H.; Vitvar, T.; Ito, M.; Traore, S.; Compaore, N. F.; Jirakova, H.; Le Coustumer, P.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryThe knowledge about groundwater flow conditions within the Southeastern Taoudeni Basin Aquifer shared by Burkina Faso and Mali is relatively limited with very little information on potentiometric heads, recharge processes, residence time and water quality. A better evaluation of groundwater resources in this area is a strategic point for water resources management in the entire Soudano-Sahelian region which endures since the beginning of the twentieth century a continuous decrease in precipitation amount. This paper provides a transboundary synthesis using water ( 18O, 2H and 3H) and carbon isotopes ( 13C and 14C) in conjunction with hydrogeological and hydrochemical data. The objectives are to improve the conceptual model of groundwater recharge and flow within this sandstone reservoir, and to assess the changes in the aquifer due to water abstraction and recent climate changes including an insight into Sahelian aquifers palaeorecharge processes. The local meteoric water line for the Bobo-Dioulasso station is proposed: δ 2H = 8.0 (±0.5)δ 18O + 10.2 (±2.1). Two main tendencies can be derived from groundwater chemistry. First, a slight evolution from the Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type towards a Na-K-HCO 3 type that indicates developed interactions between groundwater and clay minerals related to the residence time of groundwater. A second tendency towards Cl-NO 3-SO 4-HCO 3 water types indicates the anthropogenic influence on groundwater related to the poor sanitary conditions observed around wells. The carbon-14 activity measured on the TDIC varies between 0.3 and 122 pmC, so our record contains samples covering a wide period from Actual to Pleistocene suggesting a continuous recharge of the system through time even if the Sahel region has endured many different climate phases which have influenced the infiltration and recharge processes. All groundwater samples have stable isotope compositions in the range of the present day regional and global meteoric water line

  15. Using technology for E and P success - the practices of leader companies in Western Canada Sedimentary Basin strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynon, G.

    1997-01-01

    The technologies that create a competitive advantage for the leaders in various exploration and production (E and P) strategies were demonstrated. The western Canadian E and P industry has evolved since the oil price shock of 1986 and the gas price shock of 1990-92. Performance of the leaders in broadly defined E and P strategy areas in the western Canada Sedimentary Basin are compared. Success of the industry as a whole was evaluated based on measurement of one of the most critical success factors, technology utilization

  16. Using technology for E and P success - the practices of leader companies in Western Canada Sedimentary Basin strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eynon, G. [Ziff Energy Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    The technologies that create a competitive advantage for the leaders in various exploration and production (E and P) strategies were demonstrated. The western Canadian E and P industry has evolved since the oil price shock of 1986 and the gas price shock of 1990-92. Performance of the leaders in broadly defined E and P strategy areas in the western Canada Sedimentary Basin are compared. Success of the industry as a whole was evaluated based on measurement of one of the most critical success factors, technology utilization.

  17. Geochemical element mobility during the history of a Paleo-proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kister, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of migration and deposition of ore elements, it is essential to determine the timing, source, and destination of the geochemical element mass transfers and/or transportation on a scale encompassing the great sedimentary basins. The purpose of this study is to trace and to date the element migrations that occurred during the history of a Paleo-proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin, which hosts the world's largest and richest uranium deposits. As this geological environment was proved to be efficient to preserve high grade ore deposits for over more than one billion years, it provides an opportunity to study some natural analogues of deep geological nuclear waste storage. Five research topics were studied: 3D modelling of the distribution of normative minerals and trace elements on a basin-wide scale; U-Pb and Rb-Sr systematics; average chemical age estimation; thermodynamic modelling of the major mineralogical assemblages; U-Pb geochronology of uranium oxides. Some elements have remained immobile (Zr) since their initial sedimentary deposition, or were transferred from one phase to another (Al, Th). Other elements have been transported during fluid flow events that occurred: (1) on a basin wide scale during diagenesis (REE, Y, Sr, Fe), (2) at the unconformity and in the vicinity of the fault zones that represent preferential fluid flow pathways between the basement and the sandstone cover (U, Ni, As, B, Mg, K, Fe, Sr, REE), (3) during the late fault reactivation events associated with the basin uplift (U, Pb, Ni, S, Sr, REE). The successive tectonic events related to the geodynamical context that lead to the formation of these high-grade U concentrations (1460 Ma, 1335 Ma and 1275 Ma in the McArthur River deposit), did not however systematically occur in the whole basin (1275 Ma only at Shea Creek). The exceptionally high grade and tonnages of some deposits seem to be related to a larger number of U

  18. Characteristics of source rocks of the Datangpo Fm, Nanhua System, at the southeastern margin of Sichuan Basin and their significance to oil and gas exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengye Xie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much attention has been paid to the development environment, biogenetic compositions and hydrocarbon generation characteristics of ancient source rocks in the deep strata of the Sichuan Basin because oil and gas exploration extends continuously to the deep and ultra-deep strata and a giant gas field with the explored reserves of more than 1 × 1012 m3 was discovered in the Middle and Upper Proterozoic–Lower Paleozoic strata in the stable inherited paleo-uplift of the central Sichuan Basin. Based on the previous geological research results, outcrop section of the Datangpo Fm, Nanhua System, at the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin was observed and the samples taken from the source rocks were tested and analyzed in terms of their organic geochemistry and organic petrology. It is shown that high-quality black shale source rocks of the Datangpo Fm are developed in the tensional background at the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin between two glacial ages, i.e., Gucheng and Nantuo ages in the Nanhua Period. Their thickness is 16–180 m and mineral compositions are mainly clay minerals and clastic quartz. Besides, shale in the Datangpo Fm is of high-quality sapropel type source rock with high abundance at an over-mature stage, and it is characterized by low pristane/phytane ratios (0.32–0.83, low gammacerane abundance, high-abundance tricyclic terpane and higher-content C27 and C29 gonane, indicating that biogenetic compositions are mainly algae and microbes in a strong reducing environment with low salinity. It is concluded that the Datangpo Fm source rocks may be developed in the rift of Nanhua System in central Sichuan Basin. Paleo-uplifts and paleo-slopes before the Caledonian are the favorable locations for the accumulation of dispersed liquid hydrocarbons and paleo-reservoirs derived from the Datangpo Fm source rocks. In addition, scale accumulation zones of dispersed organic matter cracking gas and paleo

  19. Geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the lower Merrimack and coastal river basins, southeastern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekl, Peter J.; Flanagan, Sarah M.

    1992-01-01

    Communities in the lower Merrimack River basin and coastal river basins of southeastern New Hampshire are experiencing increased demands for water because of a rapid increase in population. The population in 1987 was 225,495 and is expected to increase by 30 percent during the next decade. As of 1987, five towns used the stratified-drift aquifers for municipal supply and withdrew an estimated 6 million gallons per day. Four towns used the bedrock aquifer for municipal supply and withdrew an average of 1 .6 million gallons per day. Stratified-drift deposits cover 78 of the 327 square miles of the study area. These deposits are generally less than 10 square miles in areal extent, and their saturated thickness ranges front less than 20 feet to as much as 100 feet . Transinissivity exceeds 4,000 square feet per day in several locations. Stratified-drift aquifers in the eastern part are predominantly small ice-contact deposits surrounded by marine sediments or till of low hydraulic conductivity. Stratified-drift aquifers in the western part consist of ice-contact and proglacial deposits that are large in areal extent and are commonly in contact with surface-water bodies. Five stratified-drift aquifers, in the towns of Derry, Windham, Kingston, North Hampton, and Greenland, have the greatest potential to supply additional amounts of water. Potential yields and contributing areas of hypothetical supply wells were estimated for an aquifer in Windham near Cobbetts Pond and for an aquifer in Kingston along the Powwow River by use of a method analogous to superposition in conjunction with a numerical ground-waterflow model. The potential yield is estimated to be 0 .6 million gallons per day for the Windham-Cobbetts Pond aquifer and 4 .0 million gallons per day for the Kingston-Powwow River aquifer. Contributing recharge area for supply wells is estimated to be 1.6 square miles in the Windham-Cobbetts Pond aquifer and 4.9 square miles in the Kingston-Powwow River aquifer

  20. Geochemical elements mobility during the history of a paleo-Proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kister, P.

    2003-10-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of migration and deposition of ore elements, it is essential to determine the timing, source, and destination of the geochemical element mass transfers and/or transportation on a scale encompassing the great sedimentary. The purpose of this study was to trace and to date the element migrations that occurred during the history of a Paleo-proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin, which hosts the world's largest and richest uranium deposits. As this geological environment was proved to be efficient to preserve high grade ore deposits for over more than one billion years, it provides an opportunity to study the mobility of some elements in a context that shows analogies with deep geological nuclear waste disposals. The natural analogies of interest include (i) uranium oxide and spent nuclear fuel; (ii) clay alteration halo and near field barrier, (iii) Athabasca sandstone cover and far-field barrier. Five research axis: (1) 3D modelling of the distribution of the main minerals and of some trace elements (U, Pb, Zr, Th, REE, Y, Rb, Sr) on a basin-wide scale and in the U mineralized zones, using the Gocad software. The models have been compared with detailed mineralogical studies performed on selected samples. (2) Pb-Pb and Rb-Sr systematics by TIMS (3) Mass balance calculation of the average Pb/U ratio at the scale of the deposit to evaluate whether the present day amount of radiogenic lead is sufficient to explain a U deposition in one or several episodes (geostatistical tools on Gocad) (4) Thermodynamic modelling of the mineralogical evolution of the Athabasca basin, considering the main mineral present in the sandstone (Phreeqc and Supcrt softwares) (5) U-Pb geochronology of uranium oxides using a 3 step approach: (i) optical and scanning electron microscopy; (ii) electron microprobe; (iii) ion microprobe (SIMS). The purpose was to study the long term stability of the uranium oxides and to characterise the

  1. The geology and hydrocarbon possibilities of the Triassic-Jurassic Fundy Basin, eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, J.A.; Fensome, R.A. [Geological Survey of Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Atlantic Geoscience Centre; Brown, D.E. [Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    The development of the Mesozoic sedimentary basins beneath the waters of the eastern coast of North America was discussed. These basins have been linked to the rifting of the central part of Pangaea during Mid and Late Triassic time that ended in the formation of a series of grabens extending from Florida to The Grand Banks of Newfoundland, one of them being the Bay of Fundy Basin which is about 16,500 square kilometres in size. Onshore and offshore geologic mapping and seismic interpretations have shown their age range to be from the Mid Triassic Anisian or Ladinian to Mid Jurassic. Up to 12 km of Mesozoic rocks were deposited in the basin with up to 9 km still present. The depositional history of the area was described. The two areas with greatest hydrocarbon potential are the Bay of Fundy and the Chignecto subbasins.

  2. Magnetic investigation and 2½ D gravity profile modelling across the Beattie magnetic anomaly in the southeastern Karoo Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiyegunhi, Christopher; Gwavava, Oswald

    2017-03-01

    The southeastern Karoo Basin is considered to be one of the most prospective areas for shale gas exploration in South Africa. An interesting magnetic anomaly, the Beattie magnetic anomaly (BMA), and geologic intrusions are seen on the magnetic map. To date, the source of the BMA and interconnectivity of the igneous intrusions are not well understood. In this study, we investigate the interconnectivity of the igneous intrusions and possible location of the source of the BMA using gravity and magnetic methods. The gravity model results showed that igneous intrusions are interconnected at depth, which probably pose threat by increasing the risk of fracking the Karoo for shale gas exploration. The magnetic results revealed that the BMA becomes stronger with depth. The average depths to the top of the shallow and deep magnetic sources were estimated to be approximately 0.6 and 15 km, respectively.

  3. Implications of Spatial Variability in Heat Flow for Geothermal Resource Evaluation in Large Foreland Basins: The Case of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Weides

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow and geothermal gradient of the sedimentary succession of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB are mapped based on a large thermal database. Heat flow in the deep part of the basin varies from 30 mW/m2 in the south to high 100 mW/m2 in the north. As permeable strata are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important aquifers are discussed and evaluated. Regional temperature distribution within different aquifers is mapped for the first time, enabling a delineation of the most promising areas based on thermal field and aquifer properties. Results of previous regional studies on the geothermal potential of the WCSB are newly evaluated and discussed. In parts of the WCSB temperatures as high as 100–210 °C exist at depths of 3–5 km. Fluids from deep aquifers in these “hot” regions of the WCSB could be used in geothermal power plants to produce electricity. The geothermal resources of the shallower parts of the WCSB (>2 km could be used for warm water provision (>50 °C or district heating (>70 °C in urban areas.

  4. Petroleum prospectivity of the onshore Gaspe and offshore Anticosti Basins, eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durling, P.; Martel, T.; Waldron, J.W.F.

    1998-01-01

    The development of oil and gas reserves on the Scotian Shelf and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland has sparked a renewed interest in the onshore Gaspe-Connecticut Valley Synclinorium (GCVS) and the offshore Anticosti Basin. The geologic history of each basin was described and some of the geological relationships that suggest the presence of hydrocarbon resources in the area were reviewed. The Anticosti Basin developed in a rift and open marine shelf environment during the early Cambrian period. Petroleum exploration in the Basin began in the early 1960s when Imperial Oil collected 435 km of single channel seismic reflection data - enough to identify several drilling locations. Eight wells were drilled on the island which resulted in a number of shows of oil and gas. The GCVS was developed within the Appalachian Orogen and is comprised of fine grained siliciclastic turbidites. The structural geology of the GCVS is more complicated than the Anticosti Basin. Petroleum exploration in the GCVS has, for the most part, been in the eastern part of the Gaspe Peninsula where one producing well is located. The central part is mainly unexplored for petroleum resources

  5. Models of talik, permafrost and gas hydrate histories - Beaufort Mackenzie Basin, Canada

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Osadetz, K.; Šafanda, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2015), s. 6738-6764 ISSN 1996-1073 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : gas hydrates * permafrost * Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin * taliks Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.077, year: 2015

  6. A reassessment of the Archean-Mesoproterozoic tectonic development of the southeastern Chhattisgarh Basin, Central India through detailed aeromagnetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, M.; Ramesh Babu, V.; Markandeyulu, A.; Raju, B. V. S. N.; Chaturvedi, A. K.; Roy, M. K.

    2017-08-01

    We constrained the geological framework over polydeformed Paleoproterozoic Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and addressed the tectonic evolution of Singhora basin in the fringes of Bastar Craton, central India by utilizing aeromagnetic data interpretation, 2.5D forward modelling and 3D magnetic susceptibility inversions. The Sonakhan Greenstone Belt exposes volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Sonakhan Group within NNW-SSE to NW-SE trending linear belts surrounded by granite gneisses, which are unconformably overlain by sedimentary rocks of Chhattisgarh Basin. The orientations of aeromagnetic anomalies are coincident with geological trends and appear to correlate with lithology and geologic structure. Regional magnetic anomalies and lineaments reveal both NNW-SSE and NE-SW trends. Prominent E-W trending linear, high amplitude magnetic anomalies are interpreted as the Trans-Chhattisgarh Aeromagnetic Lineament (TCAL). NW-SE trending aeromagnetic signatures related to Sonakhan Greenstone Belt extends below the Singhora sedimentary rocks and forms the basement in the west. The analysis suggests that TCAL is a block fault with northern block down-thrown and affected the basement rocks comprising the Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and Samblapur Granitoids. The episode of faulting represented by the TCAL is pre-Singhora sedimentation and played a vital role in basin evolution. The basement configuration image generated by estimates of depth to magnetic basement suggests a complex pattern of NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending depressions separated by a linear N-S trending basement ridge. It is inferred from the 3D magnetic susceptibility inversion that the thickness of sediments is more towards the eastern basin margin and the N-S ridge is a manifestation of post sedimentary faulting. Results of 2.5D modelling of a WNW-ESE profile across the Singhora Basin combined with results from 3D inversion suggest suggests the basin subsidence was controlled by NE-SW trending regional faults in an active

  7. An interpretation of the tectonostratigraphic framework of the Murray Basin region of southeastern Australia, based on an examination of airborne magnetic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. M.; Tucker, D. H.; Anfiloff, V.

    1988-11-01

    New pixel map representations of regional total magnetic intensity data reveal previously unknown characteristics of the basement concealed beneath thin Cainozoic sediments of the Murray Basin in southeastern Australia. Interpretations of magnetic patterns in terms of structural features allow a revised interpretation of the nature of the tectonostratigraphic framework underlying and flanking the basin. The magnetic data indicate that arcuate or curvilinear structural trends under the Murray Basin do not conform with those of the exposed Lachlan Fold Belt to the east and suggest that the basement concealed beneath the basin, together with that exposed in the Victorian Highlands to the south, forms a distinct composite tectonostratigraphic terrane. Beneath the southwestern Murray Basin ?Proterozoic-Lower Cambrian metasediments of the Padthaway Ridge of the Kanmantoo Fold Belt display a northwesterly trending structural grain and a previously unsuspected continuity of structural trend with Adelaidean-Cambrian rocks of the Mount Lofty Ranges to the west. In the south, Cambrian volcanics of the Black Range and Stavely greenstone belts have similar magnetic response and appear to be components of a single elongate and strongly magnetic domain which extends to the northwest for at least 400 km (Stavely Belt). To the north a similar but entirely concealed northeasterly trending magnetic domain can also be interpreted as volcanics (Lake Wintlow Belt). Together these two magnetic domains appear to form an arcuate zone of volcanics, with a concave-to-the-east configuration, located at a possible suture between the Lachlan and Kanmantoo Fold Belts beneath the western Murray Basin. In the south the magnetic imagery indicates that metasediments of the ?Cambro-Ordovician Stawell Belt produce magnetic patterns distinct from those produced by the metasediments of the adjacent Ordovician Bendigo Belt, which can itself be subdivided into a number of areas of distinct magnetic

  8. Surface water of Little River basin in southeastern Oklahoma (with a section on quality of water by R. P. Orth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, A.O.; Orth, Richard Philip

    1963-01-01

    This report summarizes basic hydrologic data of the surface water resources of Little River basin above the Oklahoma-Arkansas state line near Cerrogordo, Okla., and by analysis and interpretation, presents certain streamflow characteristics at specified points in the basin. Little River basin above the state line includes 2,269 square miles, of which about 250 square miles of the Mountain Fork River is in Arkansas. The climate is humid and the annual precipitation averages about 46 inches. Gross annual lake evaporation averages 49 inches per year. There are three reservoirs totaling 2,831,800 acre-feet of storage, either authorized or under construction in the basin. The average annual discharge at the gaging stations for the period 1930-61 is 674,900 acre-feet for Little River near Wright City; 1,273,000 acre-feet for Little River below Lukfata Creek, near Idabel; and 989,000 acre-feet for Mountain Fork River near Eagletown. The average annual discharge of Little River at the Oklahoma-Arkansas state line near Cerrogordo is 2,401,000 acre-feet. Flow-duration curves have been developed from daily records for the gaging stations. These curves show the percentage of time various rates of discharge have been equaled or exceeded. Procedures for defining the frequency of annual floods at any point in the basin are given. Low-flow frequency curves for the gaging stations defining the recurrence intervals of 7, 14 or 15, 30, 60, and 120 day mean flows have been prepared. Curves showing the relation of instantaneous discharge at specified upstream points to the daily mean discharge at two gaging stations are presented. The storage requirements for suplementing natural flows have been prepared for the gaging-station sites. Chemical analyses show that the surface water in the basin is suitable for domestic and industrial uses.

  9. Investigation of the structure and lithology of bedrock concealed by basin fill, using ground-based magnetic-field-profile data acquired in the San Rafael Basin, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultman, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Data on the Earth’s total-intensity magnetic field acquired near ground level and at measurement intervals as small as 1 m include information on the spatial distribution of nearsurface magnetic dipoles that in many cases are unique to a specific lithology. Such spatial information is expressed in the texture (physical appearance or characteristics) of the data at scales of hundreds of meters to kilometers. These magnetic textures are characterized by several descriptive statistics, their power spectrum, and their multifractal spectrum. On the basis of a graphical comparison and textural characterization, ground-based magnetic-field profile data can be used to estimate bedrock lithology concealed by as much as 100 m of basin fill in some cases, information that is especially important in assessing and exploring for concealed mineral deposits. I demonstrate that multifractal spectra of ground-based magnetic-field-profile data can be used to differentiate exposed lithologies and that the shape and position of the multifractal spectrum of the ground-based magnetic-field-profile of concealed lithologies can be matched to the upward-continued multifractal spectrum of an exposed lithology to help distinguish the concealed lithology. In addition, ground-based magnetic-field-profile data also detect minute differences in the magnetic susceptibility of rocks over small horizontal and vertical distances and so can be used for precise modeling of bedrock geometry and structure, even when that bedrock is concealed by 100 m or more of nonmagnetic basin fill. Such data contain valuable geologic information on the bedrock concealed by basin fill that may not be so visible in aeromagnetic data, including areas of hydrothermal alteration, faults, and other bedrock structures. Interpretation of these data in the San Rafael Basin, southeastern Arizona, has yielded results for estimating concealed lithologies, concealed structural geology, and a concealed potential mineral

  10. Three-ring stable oxygen isotope ratios indicating cooler and wetter climate conditions and high flood frequency periods in the Red River Basin, Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhay, W.M.; Harms, P.; Marcino, D.; Mayer, B.; St. George, S.; Nielsen, E.

    2002-01-01

    In the Red River region of southern Manitoba, Canada, the frequency of flood events tends to increase during cooler and wetter climate conditions. Predictably, recorded Red River flood stages are primarily a result of meteorological conditions which produce an increase runoff due to excess snowmelt and heavy spring precipitation. Winter skewed precipitation periods corresponding to cooler and wetter conditions in the Red River Basin may provide traceable oxygen isotope signals in hydrologically sensitive trees occupying the basin. To test this hypothesis, three overlapping oak tree-ring chronologies (KPO1: 1990 to 1795; STVO1: 1985 to 1797; STVO2: 1990 to 1845) were annually sampled and processed for their cellulose

  11. Hydrology signal from GRACE gravity data in the Nelson River basin, Canada: a comparison of two approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tanghua; Wu, Patrick; Wang, Hansheng; Jia, Lulu; Steffen, Holger

    2018-03-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission measures the combined gravity signal of several overlapping processes. A common approach to separate the hydrological signal in previous ice-covered regions is to apply numerical models to simulate the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) signals related to the vanished ice load and then remove them from the observed GRACE data. However, the results of this method are strongly affected by the uncertainties of the ice and viscosity models of GIA. To avoid this, Wang et al. (Nat Geosci 6(1):38-42, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1038/NGEO1652; Geodesy Geodyn 6(4):267-273, 2015) followed the theory of Wahr et al. (Geophys Res Lett 22(8):977-980, 1995) and isolated water storage changes from GRACE in North America and Scandinavia with the help of Global Positioning System (GPS) data. Lambert et al. (Postglacial rebound and total water storage variations in the Nelson River drainage basin: a gravity GPS Study, Geological Survey of Canada Open File, 7317, 2013a, Geophys Res Lett 40(23):6118-6122, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GL057973, 2013b) did a similar study for the Nelson River basin in North America but applying GPS and absolute gravity measurements. However, the results of the two studies in the Nelson River basin differ largely, especially for the magnitude of the hydrology signal which differs about 35%. Through detailed comparison and analysis of the input data, data post-processing techniques, methods and results of these two works, we find that the different GRACE data post-processing techniques may lead to this difference. Also the GRACE input has a larger effect on the hydrology signal amplitude than the GPS input in the Nelson River basin due to the relatively small uplift signal in this region. Meanwhile, the influence of the value of α , which represents the ratio between GIA-induced uplift rate and GIA-induced gravity-rate-of-change (before the correction for surface uplift), is more obvious in

  12. Carbon and Nitrogen in the Lower Basin of the Paraíba do Sul River, Southeastern Brazil: Element fluxes and biogeochemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Martinelli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the lower basin of the Paraíba do Sul River (PSR, in which 57,000 km2 of the basin is located in the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. We proposed to identify the main sources of C and N fluxes in the PSR waters, to evaluate biogeochemical processes in the watershed, and to estimate C and N riverine loads to the Atlantic Ocean in the context of the sugarcane plantation expansion for ethanol production. Riverine water samples were collected at seven stations along 12 months. Physicochemical and limnological parameters, as well as discharge, were measured together with organic and inorganic C and N species in the dissolved and suspended particulate material. C and N concentrations in bed fluvial sediments, and suspended particulate material were measured, and their elemental ([C:N]a and isotopic (δ13C compositions were compared with the [C:N]a and δ13C of the following sources: riparian soils, insular flooded soils, aquatic macrophytes, phytoplankton, pasture grass, sugarcane, sugarcane byproducts, and forest litterfall. Temporal patterns in the physicochemical and limnological environment were correlated to discharge. It also was observed that sugar cane production can increase riverine C and N fluxes. Riparian soils inputs were larger than insular soils, which was likely to act as a biogeochemical barrier. Effects of the macrophytes on riverine C and N were unclear, as well as urban sewage disposal effects. Although the PSR loads represented a very small percentage of the fluvial input to global biogeochemical cycles, we suggest that this and other medium sized watersheds in Eastern and Southeastern South America can be significant contributors to the continental biogeochemical riverine loads to the ocean, if their loads are considered together.

  13. Drill site selection process using geophysical (seismic, EM, magnetic) surveys and regional geochemical uranium deposit vectors within the Keefe Lake Uranium Property and its vicinity – Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajnal, Z.; Pandit, B.; Annesley, I.; Takacs, E.

    2014-01-01

    This study was initiated at the request of Athabasca Uranium Inc. of Vancouver, Canada. The area of investigation is around 4000 km"2 and includes the Keefe Lake (KL) property of the Company, located at the southeastern flank of the Athabasca Basin in Northern Saskatchewan. The intention of the program was multi-fold: to establish trends of regional uranium mineralization vectors, and incorporate these findings into the multidimensional integrated analysis of the currently available KL data set with an aim of providing an advanced priority ranking of drill hole selection process for the upcoming drilling programs. The information adapted for this investigation includes data from 450 boreholes, as well as drilling results of a recent KL prospect; data obtained from 114 Assessment Reports of the Saskatchewan Mineral Assessment Data Base (SMAD), and the analyses of 4 highresolution 2D seismic profiles within the claims of Athabasca Uranium Inc. To establish more effective spatial perspectives, the results of the regional lithology study (investigating alteration, graphitic, structural, pelitic, and pegmatitic features) were displayed along with the EM conductors, whereas basement lithology and faults were obtained from the Geological Atlas of Saskatchewan (southeastern segment of the Athabasca Basin). The regional investigation also included a study of the depth variations of the unconformity (UC), spatial vectors in geochemistry of the indicative path finder elements (U, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, and B), and also the clay mineralization (illite and kaolinite) indicative of uranium mineralization related to alteration zones. Local area investigations consisted of integrating the AEROTEM (2009) and VTEM (2013) airborne EM data, the associated magnetic observations, and computation of relevant attributes. The comprehensive synthesis of the above geophysical information incorporated all the available and derived geological perspectives. The high-resolution 2D seismic data

  14. Canada's Fraser River Basin transitioning from a nival to a hybrid system in the late 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D. H.; Gao, H.; Shi, X.; Dery, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Fraser River Basin (FRB) is the largest river draining to the Pacific Ocean in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and it provides the world's most abundant salmon populations. With recent climate change, the shifting hydrologic regime of the FRB is evaluated using hydrological modeling results over the period 1949 to 2006. To quantify the contribution of snowmelt to runoff generation, the ratio RSR, defined as the division of the sum of the snowmelt across the watershed by the integrated runoff over the water year, is employed. Modeled results for RSR at Hope, BC — the furthest downstream hydrometric station of the FRB — show a significant decrease (from 0.80 to 0.65) in the latter part of the 20th century. RSR is found to be mainly suppressed by a decrease of the snowmelt across the FRB with a decline with 107 mm by 26 % along the simulation period. There is also a prominent shift in the timing of streamflow, with the spring freshet at Hope, BC advancing 30 days followed by reduced summer flows for over two months. The timing of the peak spring freshet becomes even earlier when moving upstream of the FRB owing to short periods of time after melting from the snow source to the rivers.

  15. Biology and ecomorphology of stream fishes from the rio Mogi-Guaçu basin, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiane M. Ferreira

    Full Text Available The córrego Paulicéia is a direct tributary of the rio Mogi-Guaçu, located in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. This stream runs inside a savannah-like (cerrado environment and it associated vegetation. Biological and ecomorphological aspects of its fish community were studied in three stretches of the stream, denominated herein as the upper, middle and lower courses. The fish fauna recorded in this study consisted of 15 species, belonging to five orders and nine families, based in a total of 715 collected individuals representing 1,450 kg of biomass. The most important abiotic factors related to the occurrence and distribution of the fish fauna were the substrate, current speed, and presence or absence of riparian vegetation. The analysis of 336 stomach contents of 13 species demonstrated that 65% of food items are autochthonous, 32% allochthonous, and 3% are of unknown origin. Four alimentary guilds could be identified, based on the predominant food items: omnivores with tendency to insectivory - Astyanax paranae, A. fasciatus and Piabina argentea; larvivores - Corydoras difluviatilis, Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Phenacorhamdia tenebrosa, Characidium gomesi, Eigenmannia virescens, and Rhamdia quelen; periphyton feeders - Hisonotus sp., Hypostomus ancistroides and Synbranchus marmoratus; and piscivore - Hoplias malabaricus. Reproductions data are presented for Astyanax altiparanae and Hisontus sp. Three ecomorphological groups could be established, based on swimming, feeding, and microhabitat strategies: nektonic (A. fasciatus, A. paranae, Bryconamericus stramineus, P. argentea, H. malabaricus and Phallotorynus jucundus, benthic (C. gomesi, P. tenebrosa, C. iheringi, R. quelen, C. difluviatilis, H. ancistroides and Hisonotus sp., and necktobenthic (E. virescens and S. marmoratus.

  16. Hydrological conditions and evaluation of sustainable groundwater use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungle, Bruce; Callegary, James B.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Eastoe, Christopher J.; Turner, Dale S.; Dickinson, Jesse; Levick, Lainie R.; Sugg, Zachary P.

    2016-08-18

    This study assessed progress toward achieving sustainable groundwater use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, through evaluation of 14 indicators of sustainable use. Sustainable use of groundwater in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed requires, at a minimum, a stable rate of groundwater discharge to, and thus base flow in, the San Pedro River. Many of the 14 indicators are therefore related to long-term or short-term effects on base flow and provide us with a means to evaluate groundwater discharge to and base flow in the San Pedro River. The indicators were based primarily on 10 to 20 years of data monitoring in the subwatershed, ending in 2012, and included subwatershedwide indicators, riparian-system indicators, San Pedro River indicators, and springs indicators.

  17. Metal-rich fluid inclusions provide new insights into unconformity-related U deposits (Athabasca Basin and Basement, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) hosts numerous giant unconformity-related uranium deposits. The scope of this study is to establish the pressure, temperature, and composition (P-T-X conditions) of the brines that circulated at the base of the Athabasca Basin and in its crystalline basement before, during and after UO2 deposition. These brines are commonly sampled as fluid inclusions in quartz- and dolomite-cementing veins and breccias associated with alteration and U mineralization. Microthermometry and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data from five deposits (Rabbit Lake, P-Patch, Eagle Point, Millennium, and Shea Creek) complement previously published data for the McArthur River deposit. In all of the deposits investigated, fluid inclusion salinity is between 25 and 40 wt.% NaCl equiv., with compositions displaying a continuum between a "NaCl-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Na > Ca > Mg > K) and a "CaCl2-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Ca ≈ Mg > Na > K). The CaCl2-rich brine has the highest salinity and shows evidence for halite saturation at the time of trapping. The continuum of compositions between the NaCl-rich brine and the CaCl2-rich brine end-members combined with P-T reconstructions suggest anisothermal mixing of the two brines (NaCl-rich brine, 180 ± 30 °C and 800 ± 400 bars; CaCl2-rich brine, 120 ± 30 °C and 600 ± 300 bars) that occurred under fluctuating pressure conditions (hydrostatic to supra-hydrostatic). However, because the two brines were U bearing and therefore oxidized, brine mixing was probably not the driving force for UO2 deposition. Several scenarios are put forward to account for the Cl-Na-Ca-Mg-K composition of the brines, involving combinations of seawater evaporation, halite dissolution, mixing with a halite-dissolution brine, Mg/Ca exchange by dolomitization, Na/Ca exchange by albitization of plagioclase, Na/K exchange by albitization of K-feldspar, and Mg loss by Mg

  18. A refined model of sedimentary rock cover in the southeastern part of the Congo basin from GOCE gravity and vertical gravity gradient observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinec, Zdeněk; Fullea, Javier

    2015-03-01

    We aim to interpret the vertical gravity and vertical gravity gradient of the GOCE-GRACE combined gravity model over the southeastern part of the Congo basin to refine the published model of sedimentary rock cover. We use the GOCO03S gravity model and evaluate its spherical harmonic representation at or near the Earth's surface. In this case, the gradiometry signals are enhanced as compared to the original measured GOCE gradients at satellite height and better emphasize the spatial pattern of sedimentary geology. To avoid aliasing, the omission error of the modelled gravity induced by the sedimentary rocks is adjusted to that of the GOCO03S gravity model. The mass-density Green's functions derived for the a priori structure of the sediments show a slightly greater sensitivity to the GOCO03S vertical gravity gradient than to the vertical gravity. Hence, the refinement of the sedimentary model is carried out for the vertical gravity gradient over the basin, such that a few anomalous values of the GOCO03S-derived vertical gravity gradient are adjusted by refining the model. We apply the 5-parameter Helmert's transformation, defined by 2 translations, 1 rotation and 2 scale parameters that are searched for by the steepest descent method. The refined sedimentary model is only slightly changed with respect to the original map, but it significantly improves the fit of the vertical gravity and vertical gravity gradient over the basin. However, there are still spatial features in the gravity and gradiometric data that remain unfitted by the refined model. These may be due to lateral density variation that is not contained in the model, a density contrast at the Moho discontinuity, lithospheric density stratifications or mantle convection. In a second step, the refined sedimentary model is used to find the vertical density stratification of sedimentary rocks. Although the gravity data can be interpreted by a constant sedimentary density, such a model does not correspond to

  19. Magnetostratigraphy and 230Th dating of a drill core from the southeastern Qaidam Basin: Salt lake evolution and tectonic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Dong Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Qarhan Salt Lake area is the Quaternary depocenter of the Qaidam Basin, and carries thick lacustrine sediments, as well as rich potassium and magnesium salt deposits. The abundant resources and thick sediments in this lake provide an ideal place for the study of biogas formation and preservation, salt lake evolution, and the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we attempt to construct a paleomagnetic and 230Th age model and to obtain information on tectonic activity and salt lake evolution through detailed studies on a 1300-m-long drill core (15DZK01 from the northwestern margin of the Qarhan Salt Lake area (Dongling Lake. Based on gypsum 230Th dating, the age of the uppermost clastic deposit was calculated to be around 0.052 Ma. The polarity sequence consist of 13 pairs of normal and reversed zones, which can be correlated with subchrons C2r.1r-C1n of the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS 2012 (from ∼2.070 Ma to ∼0.052 Ma. Sedimentary characteristics indicate that Dongling Lake witnessed freshwater environment between ∼2.070 Ma and 1.546 Ma. During this period, the sedimentary record reflects primarily lakeshore, shallow-water and swamp environments, representing favourable conditions for the formation of hydrocarbon source rocks. Between 1.546 Ma and ∼0.052 Ma, the Dongling Lake was in sulphate deposition stage, which contrasts with the central Qarhan Salt Lake area, where this stage did not occur in the meantime. During this stage, Dongling Lake was in a shallow saltwater lake environment, but several periods of reduced salinity occurred during this stage. During the late Pleistocene at ∼0.052 Ma, the Dongling Lake experienced uplift due to tectonic activity, and saltwater migrated through the Sanhu Fault to the central Qarhan Salt Lake area, resulting in the absence of halite deposition stage. The residual saline water was concentrated into magnesium-rich brine due to the lack of freshwater, and few

  20. Impacts of Land Use on Surface Water Quality in a Subtropical River Basin: A Case Study of the Dongjiang River Basin, Southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Ding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between land use and surface water quality is necessary for effective water management. We estimated the impacts of catchment-wide land use on water quality during the dry and rainy seasons in the Dongjiang River basin, using remote sensing, geographic information systems and multivariate statistical techniques. The results showed that the 83 sites can be divided into three groups representing different land use types: forest, agriculture and urban. Water quality parameters exhibited significant variations between the urban-dominated and forest-dominated sites. The proportion of forested land was positively associated with dissolved oxygen concentration but negatively associated with water temperature, electrical conductivity, permanganate index, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and chlorophyll-a. The proportion of urban land was strongly positively associated with total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Forested and urban land use had stronger impacts on water quality in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, agricultural land use did not have a significant impact on water quality. Our study indicates that urban land use was the key factor affecting water quality change, and limiting point-source waste discharge in urban areas during the dry season would be critical for improving water quality in the study area.

  1. Water resources and effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Hanging Woman Creek basin, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater resources of the Hanging Woman Creek basin, Montana include Holocene and Pleistocene alluvial aquifers and sandstone , coal, and clinker aquifers in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface water resources are composed of Hanging Woman Creek, its tributaries, and small stock ponds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater ranged from 200 to 11,00 mg/L. Generally, concentrations were largest in alluvial aquifers and smallest in clinker aquifers. Near its mouth, Hanging Woman Creek had a median concentration of about 1,800 mg/L. Mining of the 20-foot to 35-foot-thick Anderson coal bed and 3-foot to 16-foot thick Dietz coal bed could increase dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow aquifers and in Hanging Woman Creek because of leaching of soluble minerals from mine spoils. Analysis of saturated-paste extracts from 158 overburden samples indicated that water moving through mine spoils would have a median increase in dissolved-solids concentration of about 3,700 mg/L, resulting in an additional dissolved-solids load to Hanging Woman Creek of about 3.0 tons/day. Hanging Woman Creek near Birney could have an annual post-mining dissolved-solids load of 3,415 tons at median discharge, a 47% increase from pre-mining conditions load. Post-mining concentrations of dissolved solids, at median discharge, could range from 2,380 mg/L in March to 3,940 mg/L in August, compared to mean pre-mining concentrations that ranged from 1,700 mg/L in July, November, and December to 2,060 mg/L in May. Post-mining concentrations and loads in Hanging Woman Creek would be smaller if a smaller area were mined. (USGS)

  2. Geochemical constraints on the petrogenesis of the pyroclastic rocks in Abakaliki basin (Lower Benue Rift), Southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwu, Anthony; Obiora, Smart C.

    2018-05-01

    The pyroclastic rocks in the Cretaceous Abakaliki basin occur mostly as oval-shaped bodies, consisting of lithic/lava and vitric fragments. They are commonly characterized by parallel and cross laminations, as well contain xenoliths of shale, mudstone and siltstones from the older Asu River Group of Albian age. The rocks are basic to ultrabasic in composition, comprising altered alkali basalts, altered tuffs, minor lapillistones and agglomerates. The mineral compositions are characterized mainly by laths of calcic plagioclase, pyroxene (altered), altered olivines and opaques. Calcite, zeolite and quartz represent the secondary mineral constituents. Geochemically, two groups of volcaniclastic rocks, are distinguished: alkaline and tholeiitic rocks, both represented by fresh and altered rock samples. The older alkali basalts occur within the core of the Abakaliki anticlinorium while the younger tholeiites occur towards the periphery. Though most of the rocks are moderate to highly altered [Loss on ignition (LOI, 3.43-22.07 wt. %)], the use of immobile trace element such as Nb, Zr, Y, Hf, Ti, Ta and REEs reflect asthenospheric mantle source compositions. The rocks are enriched in incompatible elements and REEs (∑REE = 87.98-281.0 ppm for alkaline and 69.45-287.99 ppm for tholeiites). The ratios of La/Ybn are higher in the alkaline rocks ranging from 7.69 to 31.55 compared to the tholeiitic rocks which range from 4.4 to 16.89 and indicating the presence of garnet-bearing lherzolite in the source mantle. The spidergrams and REEs patterns along with Zr/Nb, Ba/Nb, Rb/Nb ratios suggest that the rocks were generated by a mantle plume from partial melting of mixed enriched mantle sources (HIMU, EMI and EMII) similar to the rocks of the south Atlantic Ocean such as St. Helena (alkaline rocks) and Ascension rocks (tholeiitic rocks). The rocks were formed in a within-plate setting of the intra-continental rift type similar to other igneous rocks in the Benue Rift and are not

  3. Developmental geology of coalbed methane from shallow to deep in Rocky Mountain basins and in Cook Inlet-Matanuska Basin, Alaska, USA and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.C.; Flores, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain basins of western North America contain vast deposits of coal of Cretaceous through early Tertiary age. Coalbed methane is produced in Rocky Mountain basins at depths ranging from 45 m (150 ft) to 1981 m (6500 ft) from coal of lignite to low-volatile bituminous rank. Although some production has been established in almost all Rocky Mountain basins, commercial production occurs in only a few. despite more than two decades of exploration for coalbed methane in the Rocky Mountain region, it is still difficult to predict production characteristics of coalbed methane wells prior to drilling. Commonly cited problems include low permeabilities, high water production, and coals that are significantly undersaturated with respect to methane. Sources of coalbed gases can be early biogenic, formed during the early stages of coalification, thermogenic, formed during the main stages of coalification, or late stage biogenic, formed as a result of the reintroduction of methane-gnerating bacteria by groundwater after uplift and erosion. Examples of all three types of coalbed gases, and combinations of more than one type, can be found in the Rocky Mountain region. Coals in the Rocky Mountain region achieved their present ranks largely as a result of burial beneath sediments that accumulated during the Laramide orogeny (Late Cretaceous through the end of the eocene) or shortly after. Thermal events since the end of the orogeny have also locally elevated coal ranks. Coal beds in the upper part of high-volatile A bituminous rank or greater commonly occur within much more extensive basin-centered gas deposits which cover large areas of the deeper parts of most Rocky Mountain basins. Within these basin-centered deposits all lithologies, including coals, sandstones, and shales, are gas saturated, and very little water is produced. The interbedded coals and carbonaceous shales are probably the source of much of this gas. Basin-centered gas deposits become overpressured

  4. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panea, I; Stephenson, R.A.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.I.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.C.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-01-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the

  5. Finite-frequency P-wave tomography of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin: Implications for the lithospheric evolution in Western Laurentia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunfeng; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Hung, Shu-Huei

    2017-02-01

    The lithosphere beneath the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin has potentially undergone Precambrian subduction and collisional orogenesis, resulting in a complex network of crustal domains. To improve the understanding of its evolutionary history, we combine data from the USArray and three regional networks to invert for P-wave velocities of the upper mantle using finite-frequency tomography. Our model reveals distinct, vertically continuous high (> 1%) velocity perturbations at depths above 200 km beneath the Precambrian Buffalo Head Terrane, Hearne craton and Medicine Hat Block, which sharply contrasts with those beneath the Canadian Rockies (Medicine Hat Block (200 km). These findings are consistent with earlier theories of tectonic assembly in this region, which featured distinct Archean and Proterozoic plate convergences between the Hearne craton and its neighboring domains. The highly variable, bimodally distributed craton thicknesses may also reflect different lithospheric destruction processes beneath the western margin of Laurentia.

  6. Integration of seismic data and a triple porosity model for interpretation of tight gas formations in the Western Canada sedimentary basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Fernando; Aguilera, Roberto; Lawton, Don [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the increased global demand for oil and gas, companies are looking to unconventional methods for exploring, drilling and refining these products. Unconventional reservoirs are found in the form of shale gas, coal bed methane and tight gas. This paper presents a model for evaluating various tight gas reservoirs in the Western Canada sedimentary basin (WCSB) by developing an equation. The proposed method integrates a triple porosity model with sonic, density and resistivity logs. The model uses petrographic data from work in the WCSB to determine the types of pores that are present in the tight rocks. The process also provides information on inter-well formation resistivity, porosity and water saturation to allow estimation of the amount of original gas in place. The results calculated from this study agreed with the actual deep resistivities of the WCSB Nikanassin group. This model can also be applied to other regions of the world that have similar characteristics to those of the WCSB.

  7. Inferred gas hydrate and permafrost stability history models linked to climate change in the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, Arctic Canada

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Šafanda, Jan; Osadetz, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2012), s. 667-682 ISSN 1814-9324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : climate change * Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin * permafrost Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2012

  8. Estimating flood magnitude and frequency at gaged and ungaged sites on streams in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada, based on data through water year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2016-03-16

    Estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are needed across Alaska for engineering design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, flood-insurance studies, flood-plain management, and other water-resource purposes. This report updates methods for estimating flood magnitude and frequency in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. Annual peak-flow data through water year 2012 were compiled from 387 streamgages on unregulated streams with at least 10 years of record. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for each streamgage using the Expected Moments Algorithm to fit a Pearson Type III distribution to the logarithms of annual peak flows. A multiple Grubbs-Beck test was used to identify potentially influential low floods in the time series of peak flows for censoring in the flood frequency analysis.For two new regional skew areas, flood-frequency estimates using station skew were computed for stations with at least 25 years of record for use in a Bayesian least-squares regression analysis to determine a regional skew value. The consideration of basin characteristics as explanatory variables for regional skew resulted in improvements in precision too small to warrant the additional model complexity, and a constant model was adopted. Regional Skew Area 1 in eastern-central Alaska had a regional skew of 0.54 and an average variance of prediction of 0.45, corresponding to an effective record length of 22 years. Regional Skew Area 2, encompassing coastal areas bordering the Gulf of Alaska, had a regional skew of 0.18 and an average variance of prediction of 0.12, corresponding to an effective record length of 59 years. Station flood-frequency estimates for study sites in regional skew areas were then recomputed using a weighted skew incorporating the station skew and regional skew. In a new regional skew exclusion area outside the regional skew areas, the density of long-record streamgages was too sparse for regional analysis and station skew was used

  9. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic variations of natural gases in the southeast Columbus basin offshore southeastern Trinidad, West Indies - clues to origin and maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norville, Giselle A.; Dawe, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Natural gas can have two distinct origins, biogenic and thermogenic sources. This paper investigates the types and maturities of natural gas present in the SE Columbus basin, offshore Trinidad. The chemical composition and the isotope ratios of C and H were determined for approximately 100 samples of natural gas from eight areas within the SE Columbus basin. These compositions and isotopic data are interpreted to identify the origins of gas (biogenic, thermogenic) and maturity. The data showed that the gases in the SE Columbus basin are of both biogenic and thermogenic origin with a trend of mainly thermogenic to mixed to biogenic when moving from SW to NE across the basin. This trend suggests differential burial of the source rock. The presence of mixed gas indicates there was migration of gas in the basin resulting in deeper thermogenic gas mixing with shallow biogenic gas

  10. Seismic velocities within the sedimentary succession of the Canada Basin and southern Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean: evidence for accelerated porosity reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeld, John; Li, Qingmou; Chian, Deping; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth; Mosher, David; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

    2016-01-01

    The Canada Basin and the southern Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex underlie a significant proportion of the Arctic Ocean, but the geology of this undrilled and mostly ice-covered frontier is poorly known. New information is encoded in seismic wide-angle reflections and refractions recorded with expendable sonobuoys between 2007 and 2011. Velocity–depth samples within the sedimentary succession are extracted from published analyses for 142 of these records obtained at irregularly spaced stations across an area of 1.9E + 06 km2. The samples are modelled at regional, subregional and station-specific scales using an exponential function of inverse velocity versus depth with regionally representative parameters determined through numerical regression. With this approach, smooth, non-oscillatory velocity–depth profiles can be generated for any desired location in the study area, even where the measurement density is low. Practical application is demonstrated with a map of sedimentary thickness, derived from seismic reflection horizons interpreted in the time domain and depth converted using the velocity–depth profiles for each seismic trace. A thickness of 12–13 km is present beneath both the upper Mackenzie fan and the middle slope off of Alaska, but the sedimentary prism thins more gradually outboard of the latter region. Mapping of the observed-to-predicted velocities reveals coherent geospatial trends associated with five subregions: the Mackenzie fan; the continental slopes beyond the Mackenzie fan; the abyssal plain; the southwestern Canada Basin; and, the Alpha-Mendeleev magnetic domain. Comparison of the subregional velocity–depth models with published borehole data, and interpretation of the station-specific best-fitting model parameters, suggests that sandstone is not a predominant lithology in any of the five subregions. However, the bulk sand-to-shale ratio likely increases towards the Mackenzie fan, and the model for this subregion compares

  11. Diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette Oil Reservoir (Givetian-Frasnian), deep basin of west-central Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.P.; Mountjoy, E.W. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    1997-05-01

    The geology and diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette oil field of west-central Alberta basin was described. Present-day burial depth is 3900 m; formation temperature is 93 degrees C. Highest porosites (20 per cent) occur in dolostones of the lagoon, ref, and fore-reef depositional environments but limestones still retain porosities up to five per cent. Hydrocarbons are present in saddle dolomite fluid inclusions. Oxygen isotopes for replacement dolomites and late calcite suggest that the carbonate-precipitating fluids were derived from the Precambrian basement or Paleozoic clastics sourced from the basement. Faults may have acted as vertical conduits for fluid migration.

  12. Geology of the Pennsylvanian and Permian Culter Group and Permian Kaibab Limestone in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Steven M.

    1997-01-01

    The Cutler Formation is composed of thick, arkosic, alluvial sandstones shed southwestward from the Uncompahgre highlands into the Paradox Basin. Salt tectonism played an important role in deposition of the Cutler in some areas. In the northeast part of the basin, more than 8,000 ft, and as much as 15,000 ft, of arkose was trapped between rising salt anticlines - this arkose is thin to absent over the crests of some anticlines. In the western and southern parts of the basin, the Cutler is recognized as a Group consisting of, in ascending order: the lower Cutler beds, Cedar Mesa Sandstone, Organ Rock Formation, White Rim Sandstone, and De Chelly Sandstone. The aggregate thickness of these formations is less than 2,000 ft. The formations of the Cutler Group were deposited in a complex system of alluvial, eolian, and marine environments characterized by abrupt vertical and lateral lithologic changes. The basal Cutler is Pennsylvanian in age, but the bulk of the Group was deposited during the Permian. The Cutler is conformably underlain by the Pennsylvanian Hermosa Group across most of the basin. It is overlain unconformably by the Permian Kaibab Limestone in the western part of the Paradox Basin. The Cutler or Kaibab are overlain unconformably by the Triassic Moenkopi or Chinle Formations.

  13. Mooring-based long-term observation of oceanographic condition in the Chukchi Ses and Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Itoh, Motoyo; Nishino, Shigeto; Watanabe, Eiji

    2015-04-01

    Changes of the Arctic Ocean environment are well known as one of the most remarkable evidences of global warming, attracting social and public attentions as well as scientists'. However, to illustrate on-going changes and predict future condition of the Arctic marine environment, we still do not have enough knowledge of Arctic sea ice and marine environment. In particular, lack of observation data in winter, e.g., under sea ice, still remains a key issue for precise understanding of seasonal cycle on oceanographic condition in the Arctic Ocean. Mooring-based observation is one of the most useful methods to collect year-long data in the Arctic Ocean. We have been conducting long-term monitoring using mooring system in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. Volume, heat, and freshwater fluxes through Barrow Canyon where is a major conduit of Pacific-origin water-masses into the Canada Basin have been observed since 2000. We show from an analysis of the mooring results that volume flux through Barrow Canyon was about 60 % of Bering Strait volume flux. Averaged heat flux ranges from 0.9 to 3.07 TW, which could melt 88,000 to 300,000 km2 of 1m thick ice in the Canada Basin, which likely contributed to sea ice retreat in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. In winter, we found inter-annual variability in salinity related to coastal polynya activity in the Chukchi Sea. In collaboration with Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) project, which is one of the tasks of Sustaining Arctic Observing Network (SAON), we also initiated year-long mooring observation in the Hope Valley of the southern Chukchi Sea since 2012. Interestingly, winter oceanographic conditions in the Hope Valley are greatly different between in 2012-2013 and in 2013-2014. We speculate that differences of sea ice freeze-up and coastal polynya activity in the southern Chukchi Sea cause significant difference of winter oceanographic condition. It suggests that recent sea ice reduction in the Pacific

  14. Hydrogeologic controls imposed by mechanical stratigraphy in layered rocks of the Chateauguay River Basin, a U.S.-Canada transborder aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Roger H.; Godin, Rejean; Nastev, Miroslav; Rouleau, Alain

    2007-01-01

    [1] The Châteauguay River Basin delineates a transborder watershed with roughly half of its surface area located in northern New York State and half in southern Québec Province, Canada. As part of a multidisciplinary study designed to characterize the hydrogeologic properties of this basin, geophysical logs were obtained in 12 wells strategically located to penetrate the four major sedimentary rock formations that constitute the regional aquifers. The layered rocks were classified according to their elastic properties into three primary units: soft sandstone, hard sandstone, and dolostone. Downhole measurements were analyzed to identify fracture patterns associated with each unit and to evaluate their role in controlling groundwater flow. Fracture networks are composed of orthogonal sets of laterally extensive, subhorizontal bedding plane partings and bed-delimited, subvertical joints with spacings that are consistent with rock mechanics principles and stress models. The vertical distribution of transmissive zones is confined to a few select bedding plane fractures, with soft sandstone having the fewest (one per 70-m depth) and hard sandstone the most (five per 70-m depth). Bed-normal permeability is examined using a probabilistic model that considers the lengths of flow paths winding along joints and bedding plane fractures. Soft sandstone has the smallest bed-normal permeability primarily because of its wide, geomechanically undersaturated joint spacing. Results indicate that the three formations have similar values of bulk transmissivity, within roughly an order of magnitude, but that each rock unit has its own unique system of groundwater flow paths that constitute that transmissivity.

  15. Effect of irrigation pumpage during drought on karst aquifer systems in highly agricultural watersheds: example of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river basin, southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Subhasis; Srivastava, Puneet; Singh, Sarmistha

    2016-09-01

    In the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) river basin in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida (USA), population growth in the city of Atlanta and increased groundwater withdrawal for irrigation in southwest Georgia are greatly affecting the supply of freshwater to downstream regions. This study was conducted to understand and quantify the effect of irrigation pumpage on the karst Upper Floridan Aquifer and river-aquifer interactions in the lower ACF river basin in southwest Georgia. The groundwater MODular Finite-Element model (MODFE) was used for this study. The effect of two drought years, a moderate and a severe drought year, were simulated. Comparison of the results of the irrigated and non-irrigated scenarios showed that groundwater discharge to streams is a major outflow from the aquifer, and irrigation can cause as much as 10 % change in river-aquifer flux. The results also show that during months with high irrigation (e.g., June 2011), storage loss (34 %), the recharge and discharge from the upper semi-confining unit (30 %), and the river-aquifer flux (31 %) are the major water components contributing towards the impact of irrigation pumpage in the study area. A similar scenario plays out in many river basins throughout the world, especially in basins in which underlying karst aquifers are directly connected to a nearby stream. The study suggests that improved groundwater withdrawal strategies using climate forecasts needs to be developed in such a way that excessive withdrawals during droughts can be reduced to protect streams and river flows.

  16. A reindeer footprint in a drilling core from the Allerød-Bølling age succession of Lille Slotseng basin, south-eastern Jylland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe-Nygaard, Nanna; Milàn, Jesper; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt

    2005-01-01

    ,000 to around 8,000 cal yr BP years. The basin sedimentation starts with old melt water deposits just below the Bølling Interstadial (GI 1-e), followed by older Dryas (GI 1-d), Allerød, (GI 1-c, 1-b, 1-a) and Younger Dryas (GS 1) which terminates the Late Glacial succession. Preboreal algal gyttja and near...

  17. Identifiation of Phymatolithon lamii (Me. Lemoine Y.M. Chamberlain 1991 following bleaching in the upper intertidal zone of the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady Keith Quinn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify an unusual encrusting calcareous organism found growing on upper intertidal rocks along the coast of the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia, Canada, which was thought to potentially represent a new, perhaps invasive species to the area. Methods: Observations were made of the organism growing in situ and of intact and dissected specimens under microscopes in the laboratory. Taxonomic keys were used to determine probable identity of the organism as a tunicate, sponge, bryozoan, marine lichen, or coralline red alga. These keys were then further used to identify samples to species. Results: The organism was determined to be Phymatolithon lamii (Me. Lemoine Y.M. Chamberlain 1991, an encrusting coralline red alga native to the study region. This species normally occurs in the subtidal zone, so its occurrence in the high intertidal zone was unusual and resulted in the alga becoming bleached and taking on an unusual appearance. Conclusions: The sample did not represent a new or invasive species to the study area. However, occurrence of this species on the high intertidal zone was novel and may have resulted from unusual climatic and/or oceanographic conditions in the study area in 2015 that allowed this alga to settle and grow in the intertidal zone for a time before death and bleaching occurred. Events such as this resulting from climate change may negatively impact recruitment to populations of coastal marine species and should be investigated further.

  18. Wind-driven snow conditions control the occurrence of contemporary marginal mountain permafrost in the Chic-Choc Mountains, south-eastern Canada: a case study from Mont Jacques-Cartier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davesne, Gautier; Fortier, Daniel; Domine, Florent; Gray, James T.

    2017-06-01

    We present data on the distribution and thermophysical properties of snow collected sporadically over 4 decades along with recent data of ground surface temperature from Mont Jacques-Cartier (1268 m a.s.l.), the highest summit in the Appalachians of south-eastern Canada. We demonstrate that the occurrence of contemporary permafrost is necessarily associated with a very thin and wind-packed winter snow cover which brings local azonal topo-climatic conditions on the dome-shaped summit. The aims of this study were (i) to understand the snow distribution pattern and snow thermophysical properties on the Mont Jacques-Cartier summit and (ii) to investigate the impact of snow on the spatial distribution of the ground surface temperature (GST) using temperature sensors deployed over the summit. Results showed that above the local treeline, the summit is characterized by a snow cover typically less than 30 cm thick which is explained by the strong westerly winds interacting with the local surface roughness created by the physiography and surficial geomorphology of the site. The snowpack structure is fairly similar to that observed on windy Arctic tundra with a top dense wind slab (300 to 450 kg m-3) of high thermal conductivity, which facilitates heat transfer between the ground surface and the atmosphere. The mean annual ground surface temperature (MAGST) below this thin and wind-packed snow cover was about -1 °C in 2013 and 2014, for the higher, exposed, blockfield-covered sector of the summit characterized by a sporadic herbaceous cover. In contrast, for the gentle slopes covered with stunted spruce (krummholz), and for the steep leeward slope to the south-east of the summit, the MAGST was around 3 °C in 2013 and 2014. The study concludes that the permafrost on Mont Jacques-Cartier, most widely in the Chic-Choc Mountains and by extension in the southern highest summits of the Appalachians, is therefore likely limited to the barren wind-exposed surface of the summit

  19. Wind-driven snow conditions control the occurrence of contemporary marginal mountain permafrost in the Chic-Choc Mountains, south-eastern Canada: a case study from Mont Jacques-Cartier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Davesne

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present data on the distribution and thermophysical properties of snow collected sporadically over 4 decades along with recent data of ground surface temperature from Mont Jacques-Cartier (1268 m a.s.l., the highest summit in the Appalachians of south-eastern Canada. We demonstrate that the occurrence of contemporary permafrost is necessarily associated with a very thin and wind-packed winter snow cover which brings local azonal topo-climatic conditions on the dome-shaped summit. The aims of this study were (i to understand the snow distribution pattern and snow thermophysical properties on the Mont Jacques-Cartier summit and (ii to investigate the impact of snow on the spatial distribution of the ground surface temperature (GST using temperature sensors deployed over the summit. Results showed that above the local treeline, the summit is characterized by a snow cover typically less than 30 cm thick which is explained by the strong westerly winds interacting with the local surface roughness created by the physiography and surficial geomorphology of the site. The snowpack structure is fairly similar to that observed on windy Arctic tundra with a top dense wind slab (300 to 450 kg m−3 of high thermal conductivity, which facilitates heat transfer between the ground surface and the atmosphere. The mean annual ground surface temperature (MAGST below this thin and wind-packed snow cover was about −1 °C in 2013 and 2014, for the higher, exposed, blockfield-covered sector of the summit characterized by a sporadic herbaceous cover. In contrast, for the gentle slopes covered with stunted spruce (krummholz, and for the steep leeward slope to the south-east of the summit, the MAGST was around 3 °C in 2013 and 2014. The study concludes that the permafrost on Mont Jacques-Cartier, most widely in the Chic-Choc Mountains and by extension in the southern highest summits of the Appalachians, is therefore likely limited to the barren wind

  20. Using "1"3"7Cs measurements to estimate soil erosion rates in the Pčinja and South Morava River Basins, southeastern Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrović, Jelena; Dragović, Snežana; Dragović, Ranko; Đorđević, Milan; Đokić, Mrđan; Zlatković, Bojan; Walling, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    The need for reliable assessments of soil erosion rates in Serbia has directed attention to the potential for using "1"3"7Cs measurements to derive estimates of soil redistribution rates. Since, to date, this approach has not been applied in southeastern Serbia, a reconnaissance study was undertaken to confirm its viability. The need to take account of the occurrence of substantial Chernobyl fallout was seen as a potential problem. Samples for "1"3"7Cs measurement were collected from a zone of uncultivated soils in the watersheds of Pčinja and South Morava Rivers, an area with known high soil erosion rates. Two theoretical conversion models, the profile distribution (PD) model and diffusion and migration (D&M) model were used to derive estimates of soil erosion and deposition rates from the "1"3"7Cs measurements. The estimates of soil redistribution rates derived by using the PD and D&M models were found to differ substantially and this difference was ascribed to the assumptions of the simpler PD model that cause it to overestimate rates of soil loss. The results provided by the D&M model were judged to more reliable. - Highlights: • The "1"3"7Cs measurements are employed to estimate the soil erosion and deposition rates in southeastern Serbia. • Estimates of annual soil loss by profile distribution (PD) and diffusion and migration (D&M) models differ significantly. • Differences were ascribed to the assumptions of the simpler PD model which cause it to overestimate rates of soil loss. • The study confirmed the potential for using "1"3"7Cs measurements to estimate soil erosion rates in Serbia.

  1. Stable isotopes and heavy metal distribution in Dreissena polymorpha (Zebra Mussels) from western basin of Lake Erie, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Aasm, I.S.; Clarke, J.D.; Fryer, B.J. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1998-02-01

    Dreissena polymorpha is an exotic freshwater bivalve species which was introduced into the Great Lakes system in the fall of 1985 through the release of ballast water from European freighters. Utilizing individual growth rings of the shells, the stable isotope distribution ({delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C) was determined for the life history of selected samples which were collected from the western basin of Lake Erie. These bivalves deposit their shell in near equilibrium with the ambient water and thus reflect any annual variation of the system in the isotopic records held within their shells. Observed values for {delta}{sup 18}O range from -6.64 to -9.46 permille with an average value of -7.69 permille PDB, while carbon values ranged from -0.80 to -4.67 permille with an average value of -1.76 permille PDB. Dreissena polymorpha shells incorporate metals into their shells during growth. Individual shell growth increments were analyzed for Pb, Fe, Mg, Mn, Cd, Cu, and V concentrations. The shells show increased uptake of certain metals during periods of isotopic enrichment which correspond with warmer water temperatures. Since metals are incorporated into the shells, the organism may be useful as a biomonitor of metal pollution within aquatic environments. (orig.)

  2. Facies Analysis and Sequence Stratigraphy of Missole Outcrops: N’Kapa Formation of the South-Eastern Edge of Douala Sub-Basin (Cameroon)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwetche , Paul; Ntamak-Nida , Marie Joseph; Nitcheu , Adrien Lamire Djomeni; Etame , Jacques; Owono , François Mvondo; Mbesse , Cecile Olive; Kissaaka , Joseph Bertrand Iboum; Ngon , Gilbert Ngon; Bourquin , Sylvie; Bilong , Paul

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Missole facies description and sequence stratigraphy analysis allow a new proposal of depositional environments of the Douala sub-basin eastern part. The sediments of Missole outcrops (N’kapa Formation) correspond to fluvial/tidal channel to shallow shelf deposits with in some place embayment deposits within a warm and semi-arid climate. Integrated sedimentologic, palynologic and mineralogical data document a comprehensive sequence stratigraphy of this part of the Doua...

  3. Multielement statistical evidence for uraniferous hydrothermal activity in sandstones overlying the Phoenix uranium deposit, Athabasca Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shishi; Hattori, Keiko; Grunsky, Eric C.

    2018-04-01

    The Phoenix U deposit, with indicated resources of 70.2 M lb U3O8, occurs along the unconformity between the Proterozoic Athabasca Group sandstones and the crystalline basement rocks. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the compositions of sandstones overlying the deposit. Among PCs, PC1 accounts for the largest variability of U and shows a positive association of U with rare earth elements (REEs) + Y + Cu + B + Na + Mg + Ni + Be. The evidence suggests that U was dispersed into sandstones together with these elements during the uraniferous hydrothermal activity. Uranium shows an inverse association with Zr, Hf, Th, Fe, and Ti. Since they are common in detrital heavy minerals, such heavy minerals are not the major host of U. The elements positively associated with U are high in concentrations above the deposit, forming a "chimney-like" or "hump-like" distribution in a vertical section. Their enrichment patterns are explained by the ascent of basement fluids through faults to sandstones and the circulation of basinal fluids around the deposit. The Pb isotope compositions of whole rocks are similar to expected values calculated from the concentrations of U, Th, and Pb except for sandstones close to the deposit. The data suggest that in situ decay of U and Th is responsible for the Pb isotope compositions of most sandstones and that highly radiogenic Pb dispersed from the deposit to the proximal sandstones long after the mineralization. This secondary dispersion is captured in PC8, which has low eigenvalue. The data suggests that the secondary dispersion has minor effect on the overall lithogeochemistry of sandstones.

  4. Empirical assessment of effects of urbanization on event flow hydrology in watersheds of Canada's Great Lakes-St Lawrence basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, M. P.; Richardson, Murray

    2016-10-01

    We conducted an empirical hydrological analysis of high-temporal resolution streamflow records for 27 watersheds within 11 river systems in the Greater Toronto Region of the Canadian Great Lakes basin. Our objectives were to model the event-scale flow response of watersheds to urbanization and to test for scale and threshold effects. Watershed areas ranged from 37.5 km2 to 806 km2 and urban percent land cover ranged from less than 0.1-87.6%. Flow records had a resolution of 15-min increments and were available over a 42-year period, allowing for detailed assessment of changes in event-scale flow response with increasing urban land use during the post-freshet period (May 26 to November 15). Empirical statistical models were developed for flow characteristics including total runoff, runoff coefficient, eightieth and ninety-fifth percentile rising limb event runoff and mean rising limb event acceleration. Changes in some of these runoff metrics began at very low urban land use (acceleration increased with increasing urban cover, thus causing 80th percentile runoff depths to be reached sooner. These results indicate the potential for compromised water balance when cumulative changes are considered at the watershed scale. No abrupt or threshold changes in hydrologic characteristics were identified along the urban land use gradient. A positive interaction of urban percent land use and watershed size indicated a scale effect on total runoff. Overall, the results document compromised hydrologic stability attributable to urbanization during a period with no detectable change in rainfall patterns. They also corroborate literature recommendations for spatially distributed low impact urban development techniques; measures would be needed throughout the urbanized area of a watershed to dampen event-scale hydrologic responses to urbanization. Additional research is warranted into event-scale hydrologic trends with urbanization in other regions, in particular rising limb event

  5. Using (137)Cs measurements to estimate soil erosion rates in the Pčinja and South Morava River Basins, southeastern Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Jelena; Dragović, Snežana; Dragović, Ranko; Đorđević, Milan; Đokić, Mrđan; Zlatković, Bojan; Walling, Desmond

    2016-07-01

    The need for reliable assessments of soil erosion rates in Serbia has directed attention to the potential for using (137)Cs measurements to derive estimates of soil redistribution rates. Since, to date, this approach has not been applied in southeastern Serbia, a reconnaissance study was undertaken to confirm its viability. The need to take account of the occurrence of substantial Chernobyl fallout was seen as a potential problem. Samples for (137)Cs measurement were collected from a zone of uncultivated soils in the watersheds of Pčinja and South Morava Rivers, an area with known high soil erosion rates. Two theoretical conversion models, the profile distribution (PD) model and diffusion and migration (D&M) model were used to derive estimates of soil erosion and deposition rates from the (137)Cs measurements. The estimates of soil redistribution rates derived by using the PD and D&M models were found to differ substantially and this difference was ascribed to the assumptions of the simpler PD model that cause it to overestimate rates of soil loss. The results provided by the D&M model were judged to more reliable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inferred gas hydrate and permafrost stability history models linked to climate change in the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, Arctic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Majorowicz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric methane from episodic gas hydrate (GH destabilization, the "clathrate gun" hypothesis, is proposed to affect past climates, possibly since the Phanerozoic began or earlier. In the terrestrial Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin (BMB, GHs occur commonly below thick ice-bearing permafrost (IBP, but they are rare within it. Two end-member GH models, where gas is either trapped conventionally (Case 1 or where it is trapped dynamically by GH formation (Case 2, were simulated using profile (1-D models and a 14 Myr ground surface temperature (GST history based on marine isotopic data, adjusted to the study setting, constrained by deep heat flow, sedimentary succession conductivity, and observed IBP and Type I GH contacts in Mallik wells. Models consider latent heat effects throughout the IBP and GH intervals. Case 1 GHs formed at ~0.9 km depth only ~1 Myr ago by in situ transformation of conventionally trapped natural gas. Case 2 GHs begin to form at ~290–300 m ~6 Myr ago in the absence of lithological migration barriers. During glacial intervals Case 2 GH layers expand both downward and upward as the permafrost grows downward through and intercalated with GHs. The distinctive model results suggest that most BMB GHs resemble Case 1 models, based on the observed distinct and separate occurrences of GHs and IBP and the lack of observed GH intercalations in IBP. Case 2 GHs formed >255 m, below a persistent ice-filled permafrost layer that is as effective a seal to upward methane migration as are Case 1 lithological seals. All models respond to GST variations, but in a delayed and muted manner such that GH layers continue to grow even as the GST begins to increase. The models show that the GH stability zone history is buffered strongly by IBP during the interglacials. Thick IBP and GHs could have persisted since ~1.0 Myr ago and ~4.0 Myr ago for Cases 1 and 2, respectively. Offshore BMB IBP and GHs formed terrestrially during Pleistocene sea level low

  7. Micromorphology of Paleosols of the Marília Formation and their Significance in the Paleoenvironmental Evolution of the Bauru Basin, Upper Cretaceous, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luiz da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Deduction of associated paleoenvironments and paleoclimate, definition of the chronosequence of paleosols, and paleogeographic reconstruction have become possible through the application of micromorphology in paleopedology. Micromorphology has also been useful in recognition of weathering processes and definition of minerals formed in succession. In this respect, the objective of this study was to identify the development of pedogenic processes and discuss their significance in the paleoclimate evolution of the Marília Formation (Maastrichtian of Bauru Basin. Three sections of the Marília Formation (A1, A2, and A3 were described, comprising nine profiles. Micromorphologic al analysis was carried out according to the specialized literature. In the Marília Formation, the paleosols developed in sandstones have argillic (Btkm, Bt and carbonate (Bk horizons with different degrees of cementation, forming mainly calcretes. The evolution of pedogenic processes, in light of micromorphological analysis, evidenced three moments or stages for the genesis of paleosols with Bkm, Btk, and Bt horizons, respectively. In the Maastrichtian in the Bauru Basin, the paleosols with Bkm are older and more arid environments, and those with Bt were formed in wetter weather, but not enough to lead to the genesis of enaulic-related distributions, typical of current Oxisols.

  8. Ground-Water Flow Model of the Sierra Vista Subwatershed and Sonoran Portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona, United States, and Northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D.R.; Dickinson, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    A numerical ground-water model was developed to simulate seasonal and long-term variations in ground-water flow in the Sierra Vista subwatershed, Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico, portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin. This model includes the simulation of details of the groundwater flow system that were not simulated by previous models, such as ground-water flow in the sedimentary rocks that surround and underlie the alluvial basin deposits, withdrawals for dewatering purposes at the Tombstone mine, discharge to springs in the Huachuca Mountains, thick low-permeability intervals of silt and clay that separate the ground-water flow system into deep-confined and shallow-unconfined systems, ephemeral-channel recharge, and seasonal variations in ground-water discharge by wells and evapotranspiration. Steady-state and transient conditions during 1902-2003 were simulated by using a five-layer numerical ground- water flow model representing multiple hydrogeologic units. Hydraulic properties of model layers, streamflow, and evapotranspiration rates were estimated as part of the calibration process by using observed water levels, vertical hydraulic gradients, streamflow, and estimated evapotranspiration rates as constraints. Simulations approximate observed water-level trends throughout most of the model area and streamflow trends at the Charleston streamflow-gaging station on the San Pedro River. Differences in observed and simulated water levels, streamflow, and evapotranspiration could be reduced through simulation of climate-related variations in recharge rates and recharge from flood-flow infiltration.

  9. Prediction of shale prospectivity from seismically-derived reservoir and completion qualities: Application to a shale-gas field, Horn River Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Cheol Hoon; Lee, Gwang H.; Jeoung, Taek Ju; Ko, Kyung Nam; Kim, Ki Soo; Park, Kyung-sick; Shin, Chang Hoon

    2018-04-01

    Prospective shale plays require a combination of good reservoir and completion qualities. Total organic carbon (TOC) is an important reservoir quality and brittleness is the most critical condition for completion quality. We analyzed seismically-derived brittleness and TOC to investigate the prospectivity of the Horn River Group shale (the Muskwa, Otter Park, Evie shales) of a shale-gas field in the western Horn River Basin, British Columbia, Canada. We used the λρ-μρ brittleness template, constructed from the mineralogy-based brittleness index (MBI) and elastic logs from two wells, to convert the λρ and μρ volumes from prestack seismic inversion to the volume for the brittleness petrotypes (most brittle, intermediate, and least brittle). The probability maps of the most brittle petrotype for the three shales were generated from Bayesian classification, based on the λρ-μρ template. The relationship between TOC and P-wave and S-wave velocity ratio (VP/VS) at the wells allowed the conversion of the VP/VS volume from prestack inversion to the TOC volume, which in turn was used to construct the TOC maps for the three shales. Increased TOC is correlated with high brittleness, contrasting with the commonly-held understanding. Therefore, the prospectivity of the shales in the study area can be represented by high brittleness and increased TOC. We propose a shale prospectivity index (SPI), computed by the arithmetic average of the normalized probability of the most brittle petrotype and the normalized TOC. The higher SPI corresponds to higher production rates in the Muskwa and Evie shales. The areas of the highest SPI have not been fully tested. The future drilling should be focused on these areas to increase the economic viability of the field.

  10. Development and application of a groundwater/surface-water flow model using MODFLOW-NWT for the Upper Fox River Basin, southeastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, D.T.; Fienen, M.N.; Kennedy, J.L.; Buchwald, C.A.; Greenwood, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Fox River is a 199-mile-long tributary to the Illinois River within the Mississippi River Basin in the states of Wisconsin and Illinois. For the purposes of this study the Upper Fox River Basin is defined as the topographic basin that extends from the upstream boundary of the Fox River Basin to a large wetland complex in south-central Waukesha County called the Vernon Marsh. The objectives for the study are to (1) develop a baseline study of groundwater conditions and groundwater/surface-water interactions in the shallow aquifer system of the Upper Fox River Basin, (2) develop a tool for evaluating possible alternative water-supply options for communities in Waukesha County, and (3) contribute to the methodology of groundwater-flow modeling by applying the recently published U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW-NWT computer code, (a Newton formulation of MODFLOW-2005 intended for solving difficulties involving drying and rewetting nonlinearities of the unconfined groundwater-flow equation) to overcome computational problems connected with fine-scaled simulation of shallow aquifer systems by means of thin model layers. To simulate groundwater conditions, a MODFLOW grid is constructed with thin layers and small cell dimensions (125 feet per side). This nonlinear unconfined problem incorporates the streamflow/lake (SFR/LAK) packages to represent groundwater/surface-water interactions, which yields an unstable solution sensitive to initial conditions when solved using the Picard-based preconditioned-gradient (PCG2) solver. A particular problem is the presence of many isolated wet water-table cells over dry cells, causing the simulated water table to assume unrealistically high values. Attempts to work around the problem by converting to confined conditions or converting active to inactive cells introduce unacceptable bias. Application of MODFLOW-NWT overcomes numerical problem by smoothing the transition from wet to dry cells and keeps all cells active. The simulation is

  11. Methane leakage during the evolution of petroleum systems in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin and the Central Graben area of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbesi, L. A.; di Primio, R.; Anka, Z.; Horsfield, B.

    2012-04-01

    Around 500 to 600 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) of methane enter the atmosphere every year, mainly as product of microbial processes and combustion of fossil fuels and burning biomass. The importance of another source, the geologic emissions of methane, is up to now only loosely constrained. In this study, we addressed the potential methane emissions during the geological evolution of the Western Canada sedimentary basin (WCSB), which holds the largest oil sand accumulations in the world, and the Central Graben area of the North Sea. In the case of the WCSB, thermogenic gas generation and leakage at the sediment surface were addressed through 3D petroleum systems modeling. In this basin, the accumulated oil experienced intense biodegradation that resulted in large masses of biogenic methane. We quantified this latter mass though a two-step mass balance approach. Firstly, we estimated the rate of petroleum degradation and the magnitude of petroleum loss. After this, we calculated the mass of biogenic methane generated using a model that assumes hexadecane (C16H34) as representative of the saturated compounds (Zengler et al., 1999). Our 3D model suggests that 90000-150000 Tg of dry gas (mostly methane) could have leaked during the interval from 80 Ma to 60 Ma. Therefore, uniform leakage rates would have been in the order of 10-3-10-2 Tg yr-1. Biogenic methane generation could have taken place at rates of 10-4 to 10-2 Tg yr-1. However, the effective mass of thermogenic and biogenic methane reaching the atmosphere might have been up to 90% lower than calculated here due to methanotrophic consumption in soils (Etiope and Klusman, 2002). We addressed the thermogenic gas generation and leakage in the Central Graben through two different methods. The first is based on a previous 3D petroleum system modeling of the region (Neumann, 2006). The second consisted of calculating the mass of generated petroleum based on source rock extension and properties (Schmoker, 1994), and then

  12. Sedimentation of the Enan suite of the lower to middle Jurassic and coal reserves of the southeastern margin of the Ordos basin (China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y

    1983-01-01

    The studied coal bearing series has a parallel origin. The following facial complexes are isolated in its composition: lakes free of vegetation without coal interlayers; overgrown lakes of their margins which are poor in coals; swampy lakes, whose peat beds formed coal layers of shallow or moderate depth; channel sediments without coal layers and swamps from between channel spaces which created thick coal strata of high quality for which, however, a strong changeability in thickness is intrinsic. The coal strata are normally split towards the central parts of the lake basins and river channels. The coal presence of the suite is reduced along the section which is associated with the replacement of the lake swamp conditions of sedimentation by lake river conditions. A paleotectonic analysis established that the distribution of the zones richest in coal was controlled by consedimentational structural elements.

  13. Ecological distribution of stream macroalgal communities from a drainage basin in the Serra da Canastra National Park, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necchi-Júnior O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve stream segments were sampled four times in 1998-1999 (one sampling per season in the drainage basin of the upper São Francisco River (19º45'-21º25'S, 49º05'-51º30'W, situated in Serra da Canastra National Park, at altitudes ranging from 1,175 to 1,400 m. The macroalgae survey resulted in 30 species, with a predominance of Cyanophyta (12 species = 40% and Chlorophyta (11 species = 36.5% and a lower proportion of Rhodophyta (seven species = 23.5%. Two species, Klebsormidium rivulare (Chlorophyta and Kyliniella latvica (Rhodophyta, were new records for Brazil. Capsosira sp. and Stigonema sp. (Cyanophyta and the "Chantransia" stage of Batrachospermum (Rhodophyta were the most widespread macroalgae, occurring in six sampling sites, whereas 11 species were found at only one site. The proportion of macroalgal morphological types were as follows: mats (33%, free filaments (27%, gelatinous filaments (27%, crusts (7%, tufts (3%, and gelatinous colonies (3%. The flora revealed few species in common (4%-8% with stream macroalgae from other Brazilian regions. The macroalgal communities proved to have species richness values close to the highest values reported in previous studies. The patterns typical for stream macroalgal communities (patchy distribution and dominance of few species were also found in this basin. However, the stream variables most influential in macroalgal distribution in this study (rocky substratum, low pH, high COD, water color, and current velocity were essentially the same that best describe the limnological characteristics of this lotic ecosystem. In addition, this combination of variables differed sharply from results of previous studies in other Brazilian stream ecosystems.

  14. Natural CO2 migrations in the South-Eastern Basin of France: implications for the CO2 storage in sedimentary formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubert, Y.

    2009-03-01

    Study of natural CO 2 analogues brings key informations on the factors governing the long term stability/instability of future anthropogenic CO 2 storages. The main objective of this work, through the study of cores from V.Mo.2 well crosscutting the Montmiral natural reservoir (Valence Basin, France), is to trace the deep CO 2 migrations in fractures. Petrographic, geochemical and micro-thermometric studies of the V.Mo.2 cores were thus performed in order: 1) to describe the reservoir filling conditions and 2) to detect possible CO 2 -leakage through the sediments overlying the reservoir. Fluid inclusions from the Paleozoic crystalline basement record the progressive unmixing of a hot homogeneous aquo-carbonic fluid. The Montmiral reservoir was therefore probably fed by a CO 2 -enriched gas component at the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene. The study of the sedimentary column in V.Mo.2 well, demonstrates that the CO 2 did not migrate towards the surface through the thick marly unit (Domerian-Middle Oxfordian). These marls have acted as an impermeable barrier that prevented the upward migration of fluids. Two main stages of fluid circulation have been recognized: 1) an ante- Callovian one related to the Tethysian extension 2) a tertiary stage during which the upper units underwent a karstification, with CO 2 leakage related but which remained confined into the deeper parts of the Valence Basin. Since the Paleogene, the Montmiral reservoir has apparently remained stable, despite the Pyrenean and alpine orogeneses. This is mainly due to the efficient seal formed by the thick marly levels and also to the local structuration in faulted blocks which apparently acted as efficient lateral barriers. (author)

  15. GEOLOGY AND DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF CAMPANO-MAASTRICHTIAN SEDIMENTS IN THE ANAMBRA BASIN, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA: EVIDENCE FROM FIELD RELATIONSHIP AND SEDIMENTOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E Salufu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study area lies within the Anambra Basin and it is made up of Enugu Shale, Mamu Formation, Ajali Sandstone, and Nsukka Formation. This study aimed at determining the geology and depositional environmental of these formations through field relationship and grain size distribution morphologic studies.The field data shows Enugu Shale as fissile, light grey with extraformational clast which graded into Mamu Formation whichis made up of shale, coal and sandy shale. It passes upward into Ajali Sandstone which is characterized by cross beds, Herringbonestructures and Ophiomorpha burrows. The youngest formation within the basin is Nsukka Formation.The granulometric study of Mamu Formation shows fine to medium grains, coarse, medium to fine grain for Mamu and Ajali Formation respectively. The standard deviation indicates poorly sorted. The kurtosis shows leptokurtic, platykurtic to very leptokurtic for both while the skewness values indicate positive and symmetrical in all except for Ajali Sandstone that is negatively skewed.The bivariate and the multivariate results reveal shallow marine and fluvial deposits for both Mamu Formation and Ajali Sandstone respectively. The paleocurrent direction of Ajali Sandstone indicates southwest while the provenance is northeast.The fissility of Enugu Shale suggests that it was deposited in low energy environment, distal to proximal lagoon environment.The presence of extraformatonal clast within Enugu Shale indicates fluvial incursion. However, the textural analysis of Mamu Formation suggests a sediment deposited in a low energy environment which favoured deposition of fine to medium size sediments that is, estuary environment. Textural result of Ajali Sandstone in the study area coupled with the field data such as Herring-bone structures, and Ophiomorpha burrows, revealed that Ajali Sandstone was deposited in a tidal environment probably littoral environment. While the light grey colour observed in the

  16. Construction and calibration of a groundwater-flow model to assess groundwater availability in the uppermost principal aquifer systems of the Williston Basin, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle W.; Long, Andrew J.

    2018-05-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater-flow model for the uppermost principal aquifer systems in the Williston Basin in parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and parts of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada as part of a detailed assessment of the groundwater availability in the area. The assessment was done because of the potential for increased demands and stresses on groundwater associated with large-scale energy development in the area. As part of this assessment, a three-dimensional groundwater-flow model was developed as a tool that can be used to simulate how the groundwater-flow system responds to changes in hydrologic stresses at a regional scale.The three-dimensional groundwater-flow model was developed using the U.S. Geological Survey’s numerical finite-difference groundwater model with the Newton-Rhapson solver, MODFLOW–NWT, to represent the glacial, lower Tertiary, and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems for steady-state (mean) hydrological conditions for 1981‒2005 and for transient (temporally varying) conditions using a combination of a steady-state period for pre-1960 and transient periods for 1961‒2005. The numerical model framework was constructed based on existing and interpreted hydrogeologic and geospatial data and consisted of eight layers. Two layers were used to represent the glacial aquifer system in the model; layer 1 represented the upper one-half and layer 2 represented the lower one-half of the glacial aquifer system. Three layers were used to represent the lower Tertiary aquifer system in the model; layer 3 represented the upper Fort Union aquifer, layer 4 represented the middle Fort Union hydrogeologic unit, and layer 5 represented the lower Fort Union aquifer. Three layers were used to represent the Upper Cretaceous aquifer system in the model; layer 6 represented the upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit, layer 7 represented the lower Hell Creek aquifer, and layer 8 represented the Fox

  17. Preliminary report on fluid inclusions from halites in the Castile and lower Salado formations of the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, C.L.

    1985-09-01

    A suite of samples composed primarily of halite from the upper Castile and lower Salado Formations of the Permian Basin was selected from Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) core for a reconnaissance study of fluid inclusions. Volume percent of these trapped fluids averaged 0.7% to 1%. Freezing-point depressions varied widely and appeared to be unrelated to fluid-inclusion type, to sedimentary facies, or to stratigraphic depth. However, because very low freezing points were usually associated with anhydrite, a relation may exist between freezing-point data and lithology. Dissolved sulfate values were constant through the Castile, then decreased markedly with lesser depth in the lower Salado. This trend correlates very well with observed mineralogy and is consistent with an interpretation of the occurrence of secondary polyhalite as a result of gypsum or anhydrite alteration with simultaneous consumption of dissolved sulfate from the coexisting fluids. Together with the abundance and distribution of fluid inclusions in primary or ''hopper'' crystal structures, this evidence suggests that inclusions seen in these halites did not migrate any significant geographical distance since their formation. 28 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Bryophyte and pteridophyte spores and other palynomorphs in quaternary marine sediments from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents morphological descriptions and ecological data of cryptogam spores and other non-pollen palynomorphs from Quaternary sediments of Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil. The ages were derived from biostratigraphy of planktonic foraminifers and two radiocarbon dates, and suggest that sediment deposition started in the last 140,000 years BP. Thirty different types of palynomorphs were identified, described, and photographed: two bryophyte spores (sensu lato; 21 pteridophyte spores; four freshwater microalgae; onePseudoschizaea; and two microfungi. Some of the identified spores (Sphagnum, Blechnum, Cyatheaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Lycopodiella, Microgramma, Polypodium, Acrostichum, Pityrogramma, and Lygodium are related to the modern flora found on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, at the Restinga of Jurubatiba, from vegetation types such as shrub swamp/coastal swamp formation, seasonally flooded forest, Clusia and Ericaceae woods, and disturbed vegetation. The freshwater microalgae and the microfungi are also presently recorded from the coastal lagoons of this region. The high spore concentration in slope sediments reflects the intense terrigenous influx, caused by a relative low sealevel during glacial stages. Palynological analysis suggests the presence of taxa from flooded forests and humid areas in the coastal plain during glacial and interglacial stages of the Late Pleistocene.

  19. Surface-water quality and suspended-sediment quantity and quality within the Big River Basin, southeastern Missouri, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.

    2016-01-28

    Missouri was the leading producer of lead in the United States—as well as the world—for more than a century. One of the lead sources is known as the Old Lead Belt, located in southeast Missouri. The primary ore mineral in the region is galena, which can be found both in surface deposits and underground as deep as 200 feet. More than 8.5 million tons of lead were produced from the Old Lead Belt before operations ceased in 1972. Although active lead mining has ended, the effects of mining activities still remain in the form of large mine waste piles on the landscape typically near tributaries and the main stem of the Big River, which drains the Old Lead Belt. Six large mine waste piles encompassing more than 2,800 acres, exist within the Big River Basin. These six mine waste piles have been an available source of trace element-rich suspended sediments transported by natural erosional processes downstream into the Big River.

  20. High resolution carbon isotope stratigraphy and glendonite occurrences of the Christopher Formation, Sverdrup Basin (Axel Heiberg Island, Canada): implications for mid Cretaceous high latitude climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrle, Jens O.; Schröder-Adams, Claudia J.; Galloway, Jennifer M.; Pugh, Adam T.

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the evolution of Canada's Arctic region, as a crucial component of Earth's climate system, is fundamental to assess short and long-term climate, environmental, and paleogeographic change. However, the stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental evolution of the Cretaceous Arctic is poorly constrained and a detailed bio- and chemostratigraphic correlation of major mid-Cretaceous paleoceanographic turning points such as Oceanic Anoxic Events, cold snaps, and biotic turnovers with key locations of the high- and low latitudes is missing. Here we present for the first time a high resolution bio- and carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Arctic Albian Christopher Formation of the Sverdrup Basin at Glacier Fiord in the southern part of Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian High Arctic. By using these techniques we developed a high temporal framework to record major environmental changes as it is indicated by the occurrence of glendonites and sandstone intervals of our studied Albian succession. The Albian Christopher Formation is a shale dominated marine unit with a thickness of approximately 1200 m. Several transgressive/ regressive cycles can be recognized by prograding shoreface units that break up mudrock deposition. In addition, glendonites are mainly found in the lower part of the Christopher Formation. Glendonites are pseudomorphs of calcite, after the metastable mineral ikaite, and have been often described from high latitude Permian, Jurassic and Cretaceous marine environments from the Canadian Arctic, Spitsbergen and Australia. The formation of glendonites takes place in the uppermost layer of the sediment and requires near-freezing temperatures, high salinity, and orthophosphate-rich bottom water. Although the presence of glendonites implies a range of paleoenvironmental conditions there is a consensus in the scientific literature that they reflect cooler paleoenvironmental conditions. Preliminary bio- and carbon isotope stratigraphic results suggest that the

  1. Southeastern Power Administration 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-31

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2011 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending September 31, 2011. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 6.2 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 489 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled more than $264 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2011. This funding, which totaled more than $45 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in the funding efforts in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems of projects. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rain placed strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2011 totaled approximately $38 million. About $9 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We are committed to providing reliable hydroelectric power to

  2. Southeastern Power Administration 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2012 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2011, and ending September 30, 2012. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 5.4 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 487 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled about $263 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2012. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in funding infrastructure renewal efforts of powerplants feeding the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems. This funding, which totaled more than $71 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rainfall strained our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2012 in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System totaled approximately $29 million. About $8 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We

  3. Stream fish, water and habitat quality in a pasture dominated basin, southeastern Brazil Ictiofauna de riachos, qualidade da água e do hábitat em uma bacia hidrográfica dominada por pastagens, Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Casatti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A fish survey in 35 stream reaches (from 1st to 3rd order with physicochemical and habitat assessment in the São José dos Dourados system, southeastern Brazil, was conducted. Most of the basin land cover (77.4% is used for pasture. From the sampled stream reaches, 24 were of good physicochemical quality, 10 of fair quality, and only one of poor quality. A habitat assessment showed that 10 stream reaches were considered fair, 22 were poor, and 3 were very poor. Fifty species were collected and their abundances showed strong correlation with habitat descriptors. In addition to the correlation between fish abundance and habitat, some species also showed optimal distribution related to the degree of physical habitat conservation. Streams located in this region experience organic pollution, but the most important aspect is the decline of the instream physical habitat condition, especially in first order streams, which negatively affects coarse substrates and water column dependent fish species. Effluent control, riparian vegetation restoration programs, siltation control and adequate sustainable soil use are practices which could mitigate such impacts.A ictiofauna de 35 trechos de riachos (de 1ª a 3ª ordem no sistema do Rio São José dos Dourados, Sudeste do Brasil, foi estudada juntamente com a avaliação físico-química e física do hábitat. Na região estudada, 77,4% do solo é utilizado para pastagens. Quanto à avaliação físico-química da água, 24 trechos foram classificados como bons, 10 como regulares e um como pobre; quanto à avaliação física do hábitat, 10 foram considerados regulares, 22 como pobres e 3 como muito pobres. Cinqüenta espécies foram coletadas e suas abundâncias apresentaram forte correlação com descritores do hábitat. Em adição a esta correlação, observou-se que algumas espécies também demonstraram sua distribuição ótima coincidente com o grau de conservação do hábitat físico. Os riachos

  4. An evaporated seawater origin for the ore-forming brines in unconformity-related uranium deposits (Athabasca Basin, Canada): Cl/Br and δ 37Cl analysis of fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Banks, David A.; Mercadier, Julien; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cuney, Michel; Cathelineau, Michel

    2011-05-01

    Analyses of halogen concentration and stable chlorine isotope composition of fluid inclusions from hydrothermal quartz and carbonate veins spatially and temporally associated with giant unconformity-related uranium deposits from the Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) were performed in order to determine the origin of chloride in the ore-forming brines. Microthermometric analyses show that samples contain variable amounts of a NaCl-rich brine (Cl concentration between 120,000 and 180,000 ppm) and a CaCl 2-rich brine (Cl concentration between 160,000 and 220,000 ppm). Molar Cl/Br ratios of fluid inclusion leachates range from ˜100 to ˜900, with most values between 150 and 350. Cl/Br ratios below 650 (seawater value) indicate that the high salinities were acquired by evaporation of seawater. Most δ 37Cl values are between -0.6‰ and 0‰ (seawater value) which is also compatible with a common evaporated seawater origin for both NaCl- and CaCl 2-rich brines. Slight discrepancies between the Cl concentration, Cl/Br, δ 37Cl data and seawater evaporation trends, indicate that the evaporated seawater underwent secondary minor modification of its composition by: (i) mixing with a minor amount of halite-dissolution brine or re-equilibration with halite during burial; (ii) dilution in a maximum of 30% of connate and/or formation waters during its migration towards the base of the Athabasca sandstones; (iii) leaching of chloride from biotites within basement rocks and (iv) water loss by hydration reactions in alteration haloes linked to uranium deposition. The chloride in uranium ore-forming brines of the Athabasca Basin has an unambiguous dominantly marine origin and has required large-scale seawater evaporation and evaporite deposition. Although the direct evidence for evaporative environments in the Athabasca Basin are lacking due to the erosion of ˜80% of the sedimentary pile, Cl/Br ratios and δ 37Cl values of brines have behaved conservatively at the basin

  5. Geophysical reassessment of the role of ancient crustal structures on the development of western Laurentia and Selwyn Basin, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, N.

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the western margin of the North American craton (Laurentia) in the northern Canadian Cordillera and its role in the development of the Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic Selwyn Basin are reassessed through 3D inversion of a new compilation of aeromagnetic data and archival Bouguer gravity data. The region's tectonic history is obscured by partial burial beneath Selwyn Basin, and a tectonic overprint that includes terrane accretion, regional plutonism, and strike-slip faults with displacements of 100s and perhaps 1000s of kilometers. Despite the implied complexity, preliminary geological and geophysical based interpretations of the structure of the western margin of Laurentia, have been adopted with few refinements in over two decades. Regionally continuous, NE-trending, crustal lineaments, including the Fort Norman line and Leith Ridge fault, were interpreted as having had long-standing influence on the craton development, its western margin, and overlapping sedimentary basin. New results reveal limited evidence for the regional continuity of the NE-trending lineaments. Instead, models suggest that the structure of the Laurentian margin is characterised by segmentation on numerous shorter structures of varied strike. The western margin of the craton and its structures are bound by a NW-trending structure that connects with the Richardson Trough to the north and may have been active during rifting of the Misty Creek embayment. This boundary also marks the easternmost limit of both granitic intrusions in Selwyn Basin, which gravity models suggest are of greater extent than reflected on geological maps, and SEDEX occurrences. An ENE-trending structure beneath northern Selwyn Basin is interpreted as marking the southern edge of a previously unidentified cratonic promontory, akin to the Liard line that marks a transfer fault that bounds the promontory of the Macdonald Platform, south of Selwyn Basin. The ENE-trending structure is traced from the Tintina

  6. The thermal evolution and timing of hydrocarbon generation in the Maritimes Basin of eastern Canada: evidence from apatite fission track data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grist, A.M.; Zentilli, M.

    1995-01-01

    Sandstone drill core and/or cuttings from six wells in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and cabot Strait have been analyzed using the apatite fission track (AFT) method. Measured AFT ages for the late Paleozoic sandstones range from 26 ±7 to 184 ±28 Ma (2-σ errors). The AFT data indicate that most Maritimes Basin strata were heated to temperatures in excess of 100-150 o C very soon after their deposition. The strata also attained significant vitrinite reflectance (R 0 ) levels (i.e., reaching the oil window) early in the burial history. These findings imply the generation of hydrocarbons and coalbed methane in the early basin history (pre-250 Ma). In the Maritimes Basin AFT and R 0 data provide complementary information about the integrated thermal history, including maximum burial temperatures (from R 0 data), and information on the subsequent cooling history from AFT analysis. The present study also supports the proposal made previously by others that substantial erosion of the Eastern Canadian margin (up to 4 km) has occurred since the Permian and extends the AFT evidence for this erosional event to include the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence area. Thermal models of the AFT data demonstrate that they are consistent with a history of exhumation of basin strata since late Permian time. The model-predicted AFT age and track length histograms closely correspond to the measured AFT parameters. AFT analysis also indicates present-day geothermal gradients of less than 40 o C/km. (author). 42 refs.,3 tabs., 7 figs

  7. The role of the thermal convection of fluids in the formation of unconformity-type uranium deposits: the Athabasca Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, A. A.; Malkovsky, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    In the global production of uranium, 18% belong to the unconformity-type Canadian deposits localized in the Athabasca Basin. These deposits, which are unique in terms of their ore quality, were primarily studied by Canadian and French scientists. They have elaborated the diagenetic-hydrothermal hypothesis of ore formation, which suggests that (1) the deposits were formed within a sedimentary basin near an unconformity surface dividing the folded Archean-Proterozoic metamorphic basement and a gently dipping sedimentary cover, which is not affected by metamorphism; (2) the spatial accommodation of the deposits is controlled by the rejuvenated faults in the basement at their exit into the overlying sedimentary sequence; the ore bodies are localized above and below the unconformity surface; (3) the occurrence of graphite-bearing rocks is an important factor in controlling the local structural mineralization; (4) the ore bodies are the products of uranium precipitation on a reducing barrier. The mechanism that drives the circulation of ore-forming hydrothermal solutions has remained one of the main unclear questions in the general genetic concept. The ore was deposited above the surface of the unconformity due to the upflow discharge of the solution from the fault zones into the overlying conglomerate and sandstone. The ore formation below this surface is a result of the downflow migration of the solutions along the fault zones from sandstone into the basement rocks. A thermal convective system with the conjugated convection cells in the basement and sedimentary fill of the basin may be a possible explanation of why the hydrotherms circulate in the opposite directions. The results of our computations in the model setting of the free thermal convection of fluids are consistent with the conceptual reasoning about the conditions of the formation of unique uranium deposits in the Athabasca Basin. The calculated rates of the focused solution circulation through the fault

  8. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  9. Chemotaxonomy for naturally macerated tree-fern cuticles (Medullosales and Marattiales), Carboniferous Sydney and Mabou Sub-Basins, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Naturally macerated cuticles (NMC) and one synangium, representing medullosalean and marattialean tree-fern species, from two Carboniferous coalfields in Nova Scotia, Canada, are investigated. The samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by pyrolysis-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (py-Gc/Ms) techniques in search for chemical signatures that would help in developing a chemotaxonomic classification of Carboniferous fern species, assuming genetically dependent make-up of cuticles. FTIR-derived CH2/CH3 ratios, in conjunction with contributions from carboxyl groups, demonstrated a better potential for discriminating between medullosalean genera and species than molecular signatures obtained by py-Gc/Ms. However, the latter provided better data for differentiating medullosalean from marattialean tree ferns as a group. Changes in the chemical make-up of naturally macerated cuticles due to sample preparation are discussed. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemotaxonomy for naturally macerated tree-fern cuticles (Medullosales and Marattiales), Carboniferous Sydney and Mabou Sub-Basins, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodrow, Erwin L. [Department of Earth Sciences, University College of Cape Breton, PO Box 5300, Nova Scotia, B1P 6L2 Sydney (Canada); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, 47405-2208 Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Naturally macerated cuticles (NMC) and one synangium, representing medullosalean and marattialean tree-fern species, from two Carboniferous coalfields in Nova Scotia, Canada, are investigated. The samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by pyrolysis-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (py-Gc/Ms) techniques in search for chemical signatures that would help in developing a chemotaxonomic classification of Carboniferous fern species, assuming genetically dependent make-up of cuticles. FTIR-derived CH{sub 2}/CH{sub 3} ratios, in conjunction with contributions from carboxyl groups, demonstrated a better potential for discriminating between medullosalean genera and species than molecular signatures obtained by py-Gc/Ms. However, the latter provided better data for differentiating medullosalean from marattialean tree ferns as a group. Changes in the chemical make-up of naturally macerated cuticles due to sample preparation are discussed.

  11. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U 3 O 8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  12. Ecomorphodynamic Response of Foreshore Saltmarsh to the Implementation of Flood and Erosion Mitigation and Adaptation Structures in a Hypertidal Estuary: Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, G.; van Proosdij, D.; Ross, C.

    2017-12-01

    Flood and erosion mitigations and adaptation structures are often implemented in anthropogenically modified coastal regions, such as dykelands, to protect against coastal hazards. If saltmarshes are to be incorporated into a coastal management plan as a source of coastal defence, it is paramount to understand how ecomorphodynamic feedbacks triggered by implementing these structures can impact saltmarshes. This study examines how these structures, in combination with natural drivers, have precipitated changes in foreshore saltmarsh erosion and progradation rates over varying spatial scales in the hypertidal Minas Basin, located in the upper Bay of Fundy, during the past 80 years. Foreshore change rates (in 25m segments) are obtained using empirical field measurements, geomatics techniques in a geographical information system (GIS), as well as imagery and digital surface models (DSMs) derived from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Furthermore, UAV DSMs were used to determine infill rates and short-term sediment budgets in saltmarsh borrow pits. Natural cyclical foreshore change rates are observed in the Minas Basin, but are often augmented by the presence of anthropogenic structures. Erosion and progradation rates in individual transects have been observed to be as much as -14.9m/yr and 20.1m/yr, respectively. In individual saltmarsh communities, average change rates have been observed to be as much -3.4m/yr and 2.1m/yr across the entire foreshore. Furthermore, results suggest that under specific environmental conditions some structures (e.g. kickers) work in tandem with saltmarshes to protect the upland by precipitating ecomorphodynamic feedbacks that promote saltmarsh progradation. Conversely, other structures (e.g. foreshore rocking) can exacerbate natural cycles of erosion, locally. Borrow pit studies reveal that although local suspended sediment concentrations, which can vary from 50mg/l to 50000mg/l, play an integral role in pit sedimentation, channel geometry

  13. Crustal investigations of the earthquake-prone Vrancea region in Romania - Part 2: Novel deep seismic reflection experiment in the southeastern Carpathian belt and its foreland basin - survey target, design, and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, V. I.; Stephenson, R. A.; Diaconescu, C. C.; Knapp, J. H.; Matenco, L.; Dinu, C.; Harder, S.; Prodehl, C.; Hauser, F.; Raileanu, V.; Cloetingh, S. A.; Leever, K.

    2001-12-01

    Seismic studies of the outer Carpathian Orogen and its foreland (Focsani Basin) in the vicinity of the Vrancea Zone and Danube Delta (Romania) forms one component of a new multidisciplinary initiative of ISES (Netherlands Centre for Integrated Solid Earth Sciences) called DACIA PLAN ("Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics"). The study area, at the margin of the European craton, constitutes one of the most active seismic zones in Europe, yet has remained a geological and geodynamic enigma within the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Intermediate depth (50-220 km) mantle earthquakes of significant magnitude occur in a geographically restricted area in the south-east Carpathians bend. The adjacent, foreland Focsani Basin appears to exhibit recent extensional deformation in what is otherwise understood to be a zone of convergence. The deep seismic reflection component of DACIA PLAN comprises a ~140-km near-vertical profile across the Vrancea Zone and Focsani Basin. Data acquisition took place in August-September 2001, as part of the integrated refraction/reflection seismic field programme "Vrancea-2001" co-ordinated at Karlsruhe University (cf. Abstract, Part 1), utilising 640 independently deployed recorders provided by UTEP and IRIS/PASSCAL ("Texans"). Station spacing was every 100-m with shots every 1-km. These data are to be integrated with industry seismic as well as planned new medium-high resolution seismic reflection profiling across key neotectonically active structures in the Focsani Basin. Particular goals of DACIA PLAN include: (1) the architecture of the Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to this zone, including the foreland Focsani Basin; (2) the presence and geometry of structural detachment(s) in relation with foreland basin development, including constraints for balanced cross-sections and geodynamic modelling of basin origin and evolution; (3) the relationship between crustal

  14. Using 137Cs as a tool for the assessment and the management of erosion/sedimentation risks in view of the restoration of the Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) fish population in the Boyer River basin (Quebec, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.; Laverdiere, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Boyer River (Quebec, Canada) drains a 217 km 2 watershed that is under cultivation at 60%. The last 2 km of the river bed has always been used as a spawning ground by Rainbow Smelts (Osmerus mordax). This fish population, which plays an important ecological role in the St. Lawrence River estuary, has dramatically declined over the last decades. Siltation and excessive algal growth in the spawning area were identified as the most probable causes of the fish population decline; suggesting that soil erosion, nutrient and sediment transport are major factors underlying the environmental problem. In this context, 137 Cs provides an effective tool for investigating the magnitude and spatial distribution of long-term soil redistribution taking place in the watershed. Sampling of cultivated fields, riverbanks, bottom sediments and forested sites were thus undertaken to help understand the erosive behaviour of the watershed. Results obtained so far suggest in-field erosion rates of up to 13 t ha -1 yr -1 with net outputs reaching 11 t ha -1 yr -1 . These results agree well with estimates obtained from the USLE. The 137 Cs data indicate that fields located in the upstream half of the basin produce smaller sediment loadings than those in the downstream portion, despite higher soil erodibilities and more frequent use for annual crops. They also suggest that more than 75% of the sediment deposited in the spawning area originates from cultivated fields, and less than 25% from streambanks. (author)

  15. Southeastern Science Policy Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, F.

    1995-06-22

    This conference covers four main topics: (1) Southeastern Labor Market and its Impact on Corporate/Industry Development; (2) New Issues for Science and Technology in the Year 2000 and Beyond; (3) The Role of Academia in Developing the Labor Force of the Southeast; and (4) K-12 Education: Challenges for the 21st Century.

  16. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  17. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  18. Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and composition in streams along an altitudinal gradient in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques-Oliveira, Ana Lucia; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and composition in streams along an altitudinal gradient in Southeastern Brazil. A study concerning taxonomic richness and composition of the aquatic insect fauna in streams within the same catchment basin along an altitudinal gradient in Southeast Brazil, was conducted to test the hypothesis that there is a faunal discontinuity in the biocenotic composition, related to differences in altitude and latitude. In Southeastern Brazil, around latitude 22°, this ...

  19. Cretaceous joints in southeastern Canada: dating calcite-filled fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David; Spalding, Jennifer; Gautheron, Cécile; Sarda, Philippe; Davis, Donald; Petts, Duane

    2017-04-01

    To resolve the timing of brittle tectonism is a challenge since the classical chronometers required for analyses are not often in equilibrium with the surrounding material or simply absent. In this study, we propose to couple LA-ICP-MS U-Pb and (U-Th)/He dating with geochemical proxies in vein calcite to tackle this dilemma. We examined intracratonic Middle Ordovician limestone bedrock that overlies Mesoproterozoic crystalline basement, which are cut by NE-trending fault zones that have historic M4-5 earthquakes along their trace. E-W to NE-SW vertical joint sets, the relatively youngest stress recorded in the bedrock, possess 1-7 mm thick calcite veins that seal fractures or coat fracture surfaces. The veins possess intragranular calcite that are lined with fine-grained calcite along the vein margin and can exhibit µm- to mm-scale offset (e.g. displaced fossil fragments in host rock). Calcite d18O and d13C values are analogous to the bulk composition of Middle to Late Ordovician limestones, and suggest vein formation from a source dominated by connate fluids. The calcite contain trails of fluid inclusions commonly along fractures, and 3He/4He analyses indicate a primitive, deep fluid signature (R/Ra: 0.5-2.7). Trace element geochemistry of the calcite is highly variable, generally following the elevated HREE and lower LREE of continental crust trends but individual crystals from a single vein may vary by three orders of magnitude. LA-ICP-MS geochemical traverse across veins show elevated concentrations along (sub)grain boundaries and the vein-host rock contact. Despite abundant helium concentrations, (U-Th)/He dating was unsuccessful yielding highly dispersed dates likely from excess helium derived from the fluid inclusions. However, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating on calcite separated from the veins yielded model ages of 110.7 ± 6.8 Ma (MSWD: 0.53; n: 16) to 81.4 ± 8.3 Ma (MSWD: 2.6; n: 17). Since all veins are from the same ENE-trend, we regressed all the calcite dates together, yielding an age of 101 ± 6 Ma (MSWD: 2.3). These veins are 200 km to the west and slightly younger than the c. 140-120 Ma alkaline igneous rocks which mark the surface trace of the Great Meteor Hotspot. The period of 110-90 Ma has been identified as a time of major plate reorganization that involved tectonic and magmatic events, which may be reflected in our new calcite dates. Nonetheless, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of vein calcite was successful, and coupled with other geochemical information, can yield primary information about the timing and source of fluid flow through joints and fractures, which has direct applications to reducing risk associated with characterizing hydrocarbon reservoirs and deep geological repositories for nuclear waste.

  20. A Case Study of the Densu Basin, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    and middle sections of the basin are covered with semi-deciduous forest with a lush growth of thick and tall trees. ... and scrub forest vegetation with only few isolated trees. There are ... which underlie the south-eastern part of the basin and the area south of Weija to the estuary. The rocks of ...... Association, Washington, D.C.

  1. Using fluorescence spectroscopy to gain new insights into seasonal patterns of stream DOC concentrations in an alpine, headwater catchment underlain by discontinuous permafrost in Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatilla, N. J.; Carey, S.; Tang, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Canadian subarctic is experiencing rapid climate warming resulting in decreased depth and duration of snowcover, decreased permafrost extent and time span of seasonal frozen ground resulting in increased active layer depth, and increased frequency and magnitude of rainfall events during the growing season. These changes challenge our conceptual models of permafrost hydrology as comparisons between recent and historical streamflow records show an emerging secondary post-freshet peak in flow in recent years along with enhanced winter flows. Long-term monitoring of Granger Creek (7.6km2), an alpine watershed underlain by discontinuous permafrost located within Wolf Creek Research Basin (176km2) in Yukon Territory, Canada provided a multi-decadal record of hydro-meteorological measurements. Granger Creek experienced warmer and wetter summers in 2015-6 compared to 2001-8, and an altered streamflow pattern with an earlier spring freshet and peak in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. DOC concentrations post-freshet remained low at both the headwater and meso-catchment scale, which contradicts trends of increasing DOC concentrations observed in larger river systems. Hysteresis loops of sub-hourly measurements of streamflow, salinity and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were analyzed to provide new insights into how hydrological connectivity at the headwater scale affected the timing of solute release with supporting information from optical indices calculated from fluorescence spectroscopy. These indices provided a more nuanced view of catchment dynamics than the DOC concentrations. The composition and quality of DOM varied throughout the growing season with the delivery of older, terrestrially-derived material corresponding to high DOC concentrations at the onset of spring freshet when the catchment was initially being flushed. The origin and quality of stream DOM shifted throughout the rest of the season to newer, more easily mobilized DOM

  2. Long-term background denudation rates of southern and southeastern Brazilian watersheds estimated with cosmogenic 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa Gonzalez, Veronica; Bierman, Paul R.; Fernandes, Nelson F.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2016-09-01

    In comparison to humid temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, less is known about the long-term (millennial scale) background rates of erosion in Southern Hemisphere tropical watersheds. In order to better understand the rate at which watersheds in southern and southeastern Brazil erode, and the relationship of that erosion to climate and landscape characteristics, we made new measurements of in situ produced 10Be in river sediments and we compiled all extant measurements from this part of the country. New data from 14 watersheds in the states of Santa Catarina (n = 7) and Rio de Janeiro (n = 7) show that erosion rates vary there from 13 to 90 m/My (mean = 32 m/My; median = 23 m/My) and that the difference between erosion rates of basins we sampled in the two states is not significant. Sampled basin area ranges between 3 and 14,987 km2, mean basin elevation between 235 and 1606 m, and mean basin slope between 11 and 29°. Basins sampled in Rio de Janeiro, including three that drain the Serra do Mar escarpment, have an average basin slope of 19°, whereas the average slope for the Santa Catarina basins is 14°. Mean basin slope (R2 = 0.73) and annual precipitation (R2 = 0.57) are most strongly correlated with erosion in the basins we studied. At three sites where we sampled river sand and cobbles, the 10Be concentration in river sand was greater than in the cobbles, suggesting that these grain sizes are sourced from different parts of the landscape. Compiling all cosmogenic 10Be-derived erosion rates previously published for southern and southeastern Brazil watersheds to date (n = 76) with our 14 sampled basins, we find that regional erosion rates (though low) are higher than those of watersheds also located on other passive margins including Namibia and the southeastern North America. Brazilian basins erode at a pace similar to escarpments in southeastern North America. Erosion rates in southern and southeastern Brazil are directly and positively related to

  3. Biological monitoring of the micro watershed - Canada del Dragon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, H.; Rossetti, K.; Caceres, T.; Palma, R.; Garcia, P.; De la Rosa, A.; Seoane, I.

    2012-01-01

    The working group under the Uruguay RCA L-5053 project is about La canada del Dragon (located in Santa Lucia basin - Uruguay) evaluation using benthic macro invertebrates. The main problems of the study area were the riverbanks expansion, the erosion and the pesticides impact on the native fish. The group implemented the water quality evaluation through the study of the invertebrates in the basin.

  4. Natural gas potential in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An independent assessment of the undiscovered gas potential in Canada was conducted by a group of volunteer geoscientists. This report is the first of a series of assessments that are planned to be issued every three to four years. Separate assessments were made of conventional gas resources, unconventional gas resources and frontier gas resources. The assessment for conventional gas resources was organized into three categories: (1) gas producing areas where new discoveries can be integrated into existing producing and transportation infrastructure, (2) frontier basins where gas discoveries have been made, but no production is currently underway, and (3) frontier areas where gas-containing sedimentary rocks are known to exist, but where no gas discoveries have been made to date. The committee used year-end 1993 reserves data from discovered pools in each exploration play to predict the undiscovered potential. Information about discovered pools, geological setting, geographic limits and pool sizes of undiscovered pools in each exploration play was provided. Results of the investigation led to the conclusion that the natural gas potential in Canada is in fact larger than hitherto expected. It was estimated that in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin 47 per cent of the total volume of conventional gas is yet to be discovered. 152 figs

  5. Long-term evolution of denudational escarpments in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherem, Luis Felipe Soares; Varajão, Cesar Augusto C.; Braucher, Regis; Bourlés, Didier; Salgado, André Augusto R.; Varajão, Angélica C.

    2012-11-01

    Topographic relief in southeastern Brazil consists of a sequence of stepped surfaces that formed after the fragmentation of Gondwana during the Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary tectonic pulses. This region is drained by four major rivers within four major river basins, with interfluves that contain denudational escarpments, fault escarpments and mountain ranges. This study presents an analysis of the long-term evolution of two denudational escarpments, the Cristiano Otoni and the São Geraldo steps, which divide the river basins of the São Francisco, Doce and Paraíba do Sul rivers in southeastern Brazil. Denudation rates were obtained through the measurement of mean concentrations of in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be in sand-sized fluvial quartz sediments collected from granitic terrains. The rates were calculated and compared with one another and correlated to the basin-scale mean relief, slope, area, and stream power. The mean denudation rates of the Cristiano Otoni and São Geraldo highlands are 8.77 (± 2.78) m My- 1 and 15.68 (± 4.53) m My- 1, respectively. The mean denudation rates of the Cristiano Otoni and São Geraldo escarpments are 17.50 (± 2.71) m My- 1 and 21.22 (± 4.24) m My- 1, respectively. The denudation rates of the catchments of highlands that drain toward the escarpments are similar to those of their respective highlands. The results demonstrate that relief and slope have similar positive control on the denudation rates for all of the samples despite their different geomorphic context and history of landscape evolution. The São Francisco River Basin is losing area to the Doce River Basin, which, in turn, is losing area to the Paraíba do Sul River Basin.

  6. Structure of the crust beneath the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Lili; Rondenay, S.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    Southeastern Tibet marks the site of presumed clockwise rotation of the crust due to the India-Eurasian collision and abutment against the stable Sichuan basin and South China block. Knowing the structure of the crust is a key to better understanding crustal deformation and seismicity in this

  7. Horizontal drilling assessment in Western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catania, Peter; Wilson, Malcolm

    1999-01-01

    The first horizontal well was drilled in Saskatchewan in 1987. Since then, the number of horizontal wells drilled has escalated rapidly, averaging approximately 500 per year since 1993. When combined with horizontal wells drilled in Alberta, the major Canadian oil-producing province, the total number drilled in 1995 was 978. This total exceeds the National Energy Board (NEB) projected maximum of 816 wells per year. The NEB projections were based on a break-even point for the drilling of horizontal wells of a return of CDN $285,000 using a discount rate of 15%. This corresponded to a cumulative production from each individual well of some 11,000 m 3 . The introduction of a royalty-free production volume of 12,000 m 3 per horizontal well in Saskatchewan was instrumental in stimulating the rapid expansion in the use of horizontal wells and helping Canada to exceed the forecasted drilling level. Within Saskatchewan, daily production from 1964 active horizontal wells is in excess of 20,000 m 3 . Comparative analysis indicates that the average daily production per well has increased from approximately by 40% with the advent of horizontal wells. In total production terms, provincial production has increased from 11.7 million cubic metres in 1989 to 20.9 million m 3 in 1996. This represents an increase of almost 79% based primarily on the extensive use of horizontal wells. In 1996, horizontal wells produced 36% of the province's oil from 12% of the active wells. In the southeastern producing areas of Saskatchewan, the Williston Basin, declining oil-production has jumped 100%, with horizontal wells accounting for approximately 50% of total regional production. Pay zones in this areas, as in most of the province, tend to be relatively thin, with net pay frequently less that 5 m. The modest investment of some CDN $5 million in government research funding 10 years ago to stimulate the development of horizontal wells, combined with a favourable royalty structure, has been at

  8. Climate change research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, K.

    1994-01-01

    The current consensus on climatic change in Canada is briefly summarized, noting the results of modelling of the effects of a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 , the nonuniformity of climate change across the country, the uncertainties in local responses to change, and the general agreement that 2-4 degrees of warming will occur for each doubling of CO 2 . Canadian government response includes programs aimed at reducing the uncertainties in the scientific understanding of climate change and in the socio-economic response to such change. Canadian climate change programs include participation in large-scale experiments on such topics as heat transport in the ocean, and sources and sinks of greenhouse gases; development of next-generation climate models; studying the social and economic effects of climate change in the Great Lakes Basin and Mackenzie River Basin; investigation of paleoclimates; and analysis of climate data for long-term trends

  9. Saline water in southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, W.L.; Peterson, J.B.; Ramsey, T.R.

    1969-01-01

    Saline waters from formations of several geologic ages are being studied in a seven-county area in southeastern New Mexico and western Texas, where more than 30,000 oil and gas tests have been drilled in the past 40 years. This area of 7,500 sq. miles, which is stratigraphically complex, includes the northern and eastern margins of the Delaware Basin between the Guadalupe and Glass Mountains. Chloride-ion concentrations in water produced from rocks of various ages and depths have been mapped in Lea County, New Mexico, using machine map-plotting techniques and trend analyses. Anomalously low chloride concentrations (1,000-3,000 mg/l) were found along the western margin of the Central Basin platform in the San Andres and Capitan Limestone Formations of Permian age. These low chloride-ion concentrations may be due to preferential circulation of ground water through the more porous and permeable rocks. Data being used in the study were obtained principally from oil companies and from related service companies. The P.B.W.D.S. (Permian Basin Well Data System) scout-record magnetic-tape file was used as a framework in all computer operations. Shallow or non-oil-field water analyses acquired from state, municipal, or federal agencies were added to these data utilizing P.B.W.D.S.-compatible reference numbers and decimal latitude-longitude coordinates. Approximately 20,000 water analyses collected from over 65 sources were coded, recorded on punch cards and stored on magnetic tape for computer operations. Extensive manual and computer error checks for duplication and accuracy were made to eliminate data errors resulting from poorly located or identified samples; non-representative or contaminated samples; mistakes in coding, reproducing or key-punching; laboratory errors; and inconsistent reporting. The original 20,000 analyses considered were reduced to 6,000 representative analyses which are being used in the saline water studies. ?? 1969.

  10. Ephemeral-stream channel and basin-floor infiltration and recharge in the Sierra Vista subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona: Chapter J in Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Professional Paper 1703)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, A.L.; Pool, D.R.; Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    The timing and location of streamflow in the San Pedro River are partially dependent on the aerial distribution of recharge in the Sierra Vista subwatershed. Previous investigators have assumed that recharge in the subwatershed occurs only along the mountain fronts by way of stream-channel infiltration near the contact between low-permeability rocks of the mountains and the basin fill. Recent studies in other alluvial basins of the Southwestern United States, however, have shown that significant recharge can occur through the sediments of ephemeral stream channels at locations several kilometers distant from the mountains. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of infiltration and subsequent recharge through the ephemeral channels in the Sierra Vista subwatershed.Infiltration fluxes in ephemeral channels and through the basin floor of the subwatershed were estimated by using several methods. Data collected during the drilling and coring of 16 boreholes included physical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of sediments; chloride concentrations of sediments; and pore-water stable-isotope values and tritium activity. Surface and subsurface sediment temperatures were continuously measured at each borehole.Twelve boreholes were drilled in five ephemeral stream channels to estimate infiltration within ephemeral channels. Active infiltration was verified to at least 20 meters at 11 of the 12 borehole sites on the basis of low sediment-chloride concentrations, high soil-water contents, and pore-water tritium activity similar to present-day precipitation. Consolidated sediments at the twelfth site prevented core recovery and estimation of infiltration. Analytical and numerical methods were applied to determine the surface infiltration flux required to produce the observed sediment-temperature fluctuations at six sites. Infiltration fluxes were determined for summer ephemeral flow events only because no winter flows were recorded at the sites

  11. 105-KE basin pilot run relocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the bases for selecting the exact in-facility location for installation of process equipment to support pilot testing activities in the 105-KE Basin at the United States Department of Energy Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. The 105-KE Basin was constructed during the early 1950s, as an integralcomponent of the 105-K East reactor building. Similar basins were provided in all Hanford weapons production reactor buildings to receive fuel elements discharged from the reactors and stage them for rail transport to 200 Area fuel reprocessing plants. The 105-KE reactor began operation in 1955. It was shut down in 1971. However, the 105-KE Basin was reactivated several years later to store spent fuel from the N-Reactor basin and permit its continued operation during outages at the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant in the 200E Area

  12. TransCanada PipeLines Limited 1998 annual report : TransCanada energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Financial information from TransCanada PipeLines Limited and a review of the company's 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. TransCanada's pipeline system transports natural gas and crude oil from Western Canada Sedimentary Basin to North America's major energy markets. Net earnings from continuing operations for 1998, before unusual charges, were $575 million ($ 355 million after unusual charges) compared to $522 million for 1997. Solid performances from the energy transmission and international business, when compared to 1997, were more than offset by a decreased contribution from energy processing. TransCanada recorded integration costs of $166 million, after tax, related to the merger with NOVA in 1998, which was the major operational accomplishment during the year, creating a seamless economic energy delivery, processing and marketing system from the wellhead to the market. tabs., figs

  13. Reproduction of a fish assemblage in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM. Gomiero

    Full Text Available Fish reproductions were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira basins in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça River, Lapa Stream, Passa-Cinco River, and Corumbataí River; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá Stream, Jacaré-Pepira River, and Água Branca Stream. A total of 12 bimonthly samples were made. Fish equipment included gill nets, purse seines, sieves, and traps. The main objective of this study was to characterize the fish assemblage regarding their reproductive biology and to compare these reproductive traits between both river basins. Most individuals with gonads in stage C (mature and in stage D (empty gonads were captured in the spring and summer. Multiple spawn and parental care were common strategies, which guaranteed offspring survivorship in unstable conditions.

  14. Natural gas resources in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas is an important component in many of the technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In order to understand the role that natural gas can play, it is important to know how much may be present, where it is, when can it be accessed and at what cost. The Canadian Gas Potential Committee has completed its second report 'Natural Gas Potential in Canada - 2001' (CGPC, 2001). This comprehensive study of exploration plays in Canada addresses the two issues of 'how much may be present' and 'where is it'. The Report deals with both conventional gas and non-conventional gas. One hundred and seven Established Conventional Exploration Plays, where discoveries of gas exist, have been assessed in all of the sedimentary basins in Canada. In addition, where sufficient information was available, twelve Conceptual Exploration Plays, where no discoveries have been made, were assessed. Sixty-five other Conceptual Plays were described and qualitatively ranked. An experienced volunteer team of exploration professionals conducted assessments of undiscovered gas potential over a four-year period. The team used technical judgment, statistical techniques and a unique peer review process to make a comprehensive assessment of undiscovered gas potential and estimates of the size of individual undiscovered gas accumulations. The Committee assessed all gas in place in individual exploration plays. For Established Plays, estimates of Undiscovered Nominal Marketable Gas are based on the percentage of the gas in place that is marketable gas in the discovered pools in a play. Not all of the Nominal Marketable Gas will be available. Some underlies areas where exploration is not possible, such as parks, cities and other closed areas. Some will be held in gas pools that are too small to be economic and some of the pools will never be found. In some areas no production infrastructure will be available. Detailed studies of individual exploration plays and basins will be required

  15. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  16. ASA24-Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada), developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with NCI, has been freely available since April 2014.

  17. Individual and cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities on the metal and phosphorus content of fluvial fine-grained sediment; Quesnel River Basin, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyler B; Owens, Philip N

    2014-10-15

    The impact of agriculture, forestry and metal mining on the quality of fine-grained sediment (sediment were collected monthly during the snow-free season in 2008 using time-integrated samplers at replicate sites representative of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the basin (i.e. "impacted" sites). Samples were also collected from replicate reference sites and also from the main stem of the Quesnel River at the downstream confluence with the Fraser River. Generally, metal(loid) and phosphorus (P) concentrations for "impacted" sites were greater than for reference sites. Furthermore, concentrations of copper (forestry and mining sites), manganese (agriculture and forestry sites) and selenium (agriculture, forestry and mining sites) exceeded upper sediment quality guideline (SQG) thresholds. These results suggest that agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities are having an influence on the concentrations of sediment-associated metal(loid)s and P in the Quesnel basin. Metal(loid) and P concentrations of sediment collected from the downstream site were not significantly greater than values for the reference sites, and were typically lower than the values for the impacted sites. This suggests that the cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the QRB are presently not having a measureable effect at the river basin-scale. The lack of a cumulative effect at the basin-scale is thought to reflect: (i) the relatively recent occurrence of land use disturbances in this basin; (ii) the dominance of sediment contributions from natural forest and agriculture; and (iii) the potential for storage of contaminants on floodplains and other storage elements between the locations of disturbance activities and the downstream sampling site, which may be attenuating the disturbance signal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. New TNX Seepage Basin: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    The New TNX Seepage Basin has been in operation at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) since 1980 and is located in the southeastern section of the TNX facility. The basin receives waste from pilot scale tests conducted at TNX in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the plant Separations area. The basin is scheduled for closure after the TNX Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) begins operation. The basin will be closed pursuant to all applicable state and federal regulations. A statistical analysis of monitoring data indicates elevated levels of sodium and zinc in the groundwater at this site. Closure options considered for the New TNX Seepage Basin include waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The two predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical contaminants are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options for the New TNX Seepage Basin. Cost estimates for each closure option at the basin have also been prepared. An evaluation of the environmental impacts from the New TNX Seepage Basin indicate that the relative risks to human health and ecosystems for the postulated closure options are low. The transport of six chemical and one radionuclide constituents through the environmental pathways from the basin were modeled. The maximum chemical carcinogenic risk and the noncarcinogenic risk for the groundwater pathways were from exposure to trichloromethane and nitrate

  19. Oil spill contamination probability in the southeastern Levantine basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ron; Biton, Eli; Brokovich, Eran; Kark, Salit; Levin, Noam

    2015-02-15

    Recent gas discoveries in the eastern Mediterranean Sea led to multiple operations with substantial economic interest, and with them there is a risk of oil spills and their potential environmental impacts. To examine the potential spatial distribution of this threat, we created seasonal maps of the probability of oil spill pollution reaching an area in the Israeli coastal and exclusive economic zones, given knowledge of its initial sources. We performed simulations of virtual oil spills using realistic atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The resulting maps show dominance of the alongshore northerly current, which causes the high probability areas to be stretched parallel to the coast, increasing contamination probability downstream of source points. The seasonal westerly wind forcing determines how wide the high probability areas are, and may also restrict these to a small coastal region near source points. Seasonal variability in probability distribution, oil state, and pollution time is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fusion Canada issue 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada`s participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs.

  1. Avulsions, channel evolution and floodplain sedimentation rates of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.; Berendsen, H.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Ages of channels of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, south-eastern British Columbia, Canada, were investigated in a cross-valley transect by C-14 dating of subsurface floodplain organic material from beneath levees. The avulsion history within the transect was deduced from these data, and

  2. A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Jardim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil. Contulma sana sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected in the Rio Macaé Basin, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by the following male genitalia characters: long posterior lobes, dorsomedian processes of segment IX diverging on apical third, and well developed phallotremal sclerite. The female and immature stages are unknown.

  3. Ichthyofauna diversity in a protected area in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Gomiero

    Full Text Available The study site is located in an environmentally protected area known as an "APA" in São Pedro and Analândia, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, whose watercourses are under strong anthropogenic pressure. Two basins were studied (sub-basin of the Corumbataí River and basin of the Jacaré-pepira River with the purpose of characterizing the ichthyofauna of various streams, comparing fish diversity among assemblages. The Passa-cinco River showed the highest diversity (H', and the Jaccard and Morisita-Horn indices showed low similarity among sites and between the basins. Diversity was correlated with the number of available habitats and with the environmental conditions.

  4. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  5. Regional cooperation on public acceptance in the pacific basin area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumasa Tanaka

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to examine the nature of nuclear issues and the need for effective public acceptance programs in the Pacific Basin area, drawing attention to Japan, Canada and Taiwan of China. The paper first presents a general institutional framework in which regional cooperetion is being sought in the Pacific Basin area. Secondly, country-specific nuclear issues and public acceptance programs of Canada, Japan and Taiwan of China will be presented. And thirdly, the importance of international public acceptance programs will be discussed for nuclear-electric power to grow in the Pacific Basin area toward the Year 2000. (author)

  6. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  7. Principles of economic evaluation of uranium resources in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.

    1998-01-01

    The uranium resources of Canada occur in deposits associated with unconformities in Proterozoic basins and adjacent areas. Classification of the resources is based on the confidence in the estimates and on their economic viability. The system is fully compatible with IAEA/NEA classified systems. The methods of estimating and classifying the Canadian resources is described. (author)

  8. All projects related to Canada | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-01-26

    The flood-prone Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China, accounting for 9% of the drainage area of the Yangtze River Basin. End Date: January 26, 2017. Topic: WATER MANAGEMENT, AGRICULTURE, POLICY MAKING, Climate change, ADAPTATION. Region: China, Canada. Program: Climate Change.

  9. Natural hydrocarbon gases in Canada: the resource base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osadetz, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) has an ongoing national hydrocarbon resource assessment project which examines, characterizes and quantifies the hydrocarbon resource potential of Canada. In this paper the distribution, characteristics and sizes of conventional and unconventional natural gas resources in Canada are summarized. Four topics were addressed: (1) the origins of conventional and unconventional natural hydrocarbon gases in Canada, (2) the resource assessment techniques used at the GSC, with emphasis on predicting undiscovered reserves, (3) the setting, distribution and size of the conventional natural gas endowment of Canada in a geographic and geological context, and (4) the indications of unconventional natural gas resource endowment in Canada. Conventional in-place natural gas resources for Canada was estimated at 26.8 trillion cubic metres of which 54 per cent comes from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The national inventory of unconventional in-place gas resource is 3,460 trillion cubic metres. At current rates of production, the expected life expectancy for the in-place conventional natural gas resource base was estimated to be about 150 years. 1 tab., 9 figs

  10. Relationships between basin architecture, basin closure, and occurrence of sulphide-bearing schists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliomäki, Henrik; Torvela, Taija; Moreau, Julien

    2014-01-01

    We present field observations from the Palaeoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Tampere palaeobasin, where the primary structures have been exceptionally well preserved. We use the observations to construct a new tectonic model for the southeastern margin of the Tampere basin during its inversion...... and subsequent closure. The observed volcano-sedimentary and structural features suggest a change in the local structural style from thick-skinned inversion to thin-skinned thrusting, in order to accommodate the crustal shortening during basin closure. Furthermore, it is suggested that there is a genetic...

  11. Fusion Canada issue 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs

  12. Fusion Canada issue 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs.

  13. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  14. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  15. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  16. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  17. Peculiarities of distribution of oil polution in the Southeastern Baltic by satellite data and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulycheva, E. V.; Krek, A. V.; Kostianoy, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The results of satellite monitoring of oil pollution of the sea surface and field measurements of the concentration of oil products in the water column and bottom sediments for the first time allowed the establishment of a relation between the surface pollution from ships and the general characteristics of spatial and temporal distribution of oil products in the Southeastern Baltic Sea. Areas with increased concentrations of oil products in the surface and bottom layers were determined in the southeastern Baltic Sea. The basic directions of pollution spread, which are consistent with the main direction of annual mean transport of substances in the Gdansk Basin, are determined.

  18. Arsenic in sediments from the southeastern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnaga, Galina; Wyse, Eric; Azemard, Sabine; Stankevicius, Algirdas; Mora, Stephen de

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic occurs as a persistent constituent in many of the chemical weapons dumped into the Baltic Sea; it can be used as an indicator of leakage and dispersal of released munitions to the marine environment. Total arsenic was analysed in sediment samples taken from the Lithuanian economic zone in the Baltic Sea, which included samples from the chemical munitions dumpsite in the Gotland Basin and national monitoring stations in the southeastern Baltic Sea. Arsenic concentrations in sediments ranged from 1.1 to 19.0 mg kg -1 , with an average of 3.4 mg kg -1 . Although there was evidence of slightly elevated arsenic content in sediments near the weapons dumpsite, arsenic concentrations were nevertheless quite low relative to other investigations in the Baltic and North Seas. - Arsenic concentrations in sediments near chemical weapons dumpsites were only slightly elevated

  19. Reactive Transport Modeling Investigation of High Dissolved Sulfide Concentrations in Sedimentary Basin Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M.; Mayer, U. K.; MacQuarrie, K. T. B.

    2017-12-01

    Water with total dissolved sulfide in excess of 1 mmol L-1is widely found in groundwater at intermediate depths in sedimentary basins, including regions of the Michigan basin in southeastern Ontario, Canada. Conversely, at deeper and shallower depths, relatively low total dissolved sulfide concentrations have been reported. The mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of these brackish sulfide-containing waters are not fully understood. Anaerobic microbial sulfate reduction is a common process resulting in the formation of high sulfide concentrations. Sulfate reduction rates depend on many factors including the concentration of sulfate, the abundance of organic substances, redox conditions, temperature, salinity and the species of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). A sedimentary basin-specific conceptual model considering the effect of salinity on the rate of sulfate reduction was developed and implemented in the reactive transport model MIN3P-THCm. Generic 2D basin-scale simulations were undertaken to provide a potential explanation for the dissolved sulfide distribution observed in the Michigan basin. The model is 440 km in the horizontal dimension and 4 km in depth, and contains fourteen sedimentary rock units including shales, sandstones, limestones, dolostone and evaporites. The main processes considered are non-isothermal density dependent flow, kinetically-controlled mineral dissolution/precipitation and its feedback on hydraulic properties, cation exchange, redox reactions, biogenic sulfate reduction, and hydromechanical coupling due to glaciation-deglaciation events. Two scenarios were investigated focusing on conditions during an interglacial period and the transient evolution during a glaciation-deglaciation cycle. Inter-glaciation simulations illustrate that the presence of high salinity brines strongly suppress biogenic sulfate reduction. The transient simulations show that glaciation-deglaciation cycles can have an impact on the maximum depth of

  20. The organic petrology and thermal maturity of Lower Carboniferous and Upper Devonian source rocks in the Liard Basin, at Jackfish Gap-Yohin Ridge and North Beaver River, northern Canada: Implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J. (Univ. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)); Richards, B.C.; Goodarzi, G. (Geological Survey, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    Basinal shales of the Besa River Fm. have TOC values ranging from 1 to 4% and contain abundant type II, dominantly amorphous, kerogen of marine origin. Shales in the Yohin, Clausen, Prophet, and Golata Formations are of mixed maring and terrestrial origins and yield TOC values of 1 to 3%. Kerogen in the Golata and Yohin Formations are dominated by terrestrial components, while the Clausen and Flett kerogen comprises marine liptinites and bitumens. Kerogen from the deltaic Mattson shales at Jackfish Gap are types II and III, having mixed marine and terrestrial origins consistent with shallow, nearshore, subtidal environments. The coals are sapropelic and probably lacustrine in origin. Algal laminites associated with coals in the Upper Mattson have >10% TOC values, while non-laminite shales contain between 2 and 5% TOC. Comparable measured and calculated vitrinite reflectance data indicate that kerogen in the Lower Carboniferous at Jackfish Gap is mature. Kerogen in correlative formations in the subsurface at North Beaver River is more marine. Vitrinites are rate and oxidized, but four populations of bitumens are distinguished on the basis of relative reflectivity and morphological or petrophysical associations. Types A and B bitumens are primary and by-products of hydrocarbon generation from type II (algal and amorphous) kerogens. Correlations between depth and reflectance of bitumens A and B are very good. Vitrinite reflectance data calculated from bitumen reflectance measurements for the Besa River, Prophet, and Golata indicate that they are potential sources of catagenic gas. The Mattson kerogen is mature, oil and gas-prone.

  1. ATLAS-Canada Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gable, I; Sobie, R J [HEPnet/Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada); Bedinelli, M; Butterworth, S; Groer, L; Kupchinsky, V [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Caron, B; McDonald, S; Payne, C [TRIUMF Laboratory, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Chambers, R [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fitzgerald, B [University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hatem, R; Marshall, P; Pobric, D [CANARIE Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Maddalena, P; Mercure, P; Robertson, S; Rochefort, M [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); McWilliam, D [BCNet, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Siegert, M [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada)], E-mail: igable@uvic.ca (and others)

    2008-12-15

    The ATLAS-Canada computing model consists of a WLCG Tier-1 computing centre located at the TRIUMF Laboratory in Vancouver, Canada, and two distributed Tier-2 computing centres in eastern and western Canadian universities. The TRIUMF Tier-1 is connected to the CERN Tier-0 via a 10G dedicated circuit provided by CANARIE. The Canadian institutions hosting Tier-2 facilities are connected to TRIUMF via 1G lightpaths, and routing between Tier-2s occurs through TRIUMF. This paper discusses the architecture of the ATLAS-Canada network, the challenges of building the network, and the future plans.

  2. Canada's nuclear export policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R W; Wonder, E F [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology.

  3. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.; Wonder, E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  4. Radiation oncology in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Meredith; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2018-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the Canadian healthcare system and the cancer care system in Canada as it pertains to the governance, funding and delivery of radiotherapy programmes. We also review the training and practice for radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapists in Canada. We describe the clinical practice of radiation medicine from patients' referral, assessment, case conferences and the radiotherapy process. Finally, we provide an overview of the practice culture for Radiation Oncology in Canada. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  6. Northern part, Ten Mile and Taunton River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.

    1967-01-01

    The northern part of the Ten Mile and Taunton River basins is an area of about 195 square miles within Norfolk, Plymouth, and Bristol Counties in southeastern Massachusetts. The northern boundary of the area (plate 1) is the drainage divide separating these basins from that of the Charles, Neponset, and Weymouth River basins. The western boundary is, for the most part, the divide separating the basins from the Blackstone River basin. The eastern boundary is at the edge of the Brockton-Pembroke area (Petersen, 1962; Petersen and Shaw, 1961). The southern boundary in Seekonk is the northern limit of the East Providence quadrangle, for which a ground-water map was prepared by Allen and Gorman (1959); eastward, the southern boundaries of the city of Attleboro and the towns of Norton, Easton, and West Bridgewater form the southern boundary of the area.

  7. The tectonic evolution of the southeastern Terceira Rift/São Miguel region (Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, B. J.; Hübscher, C.; Lüdmann, T.

    2015-07-01

    The eastern Azores Archipelago with São Miguel being the dominant subaerial structure is located at the intersection of an oceanic rift (Terceira Rift) with a major transform fault (Gloria Fault) representing the westernmost part of the Nubian-Eurasian plate boundary. The evolution of islands, bathymetric highs and basin margins involves strong volcanism, but the controlling geodynamic and tectonic processes are currently under debate. In order to study this evolution, multibeam bathymetry and marine seismic reflection data were collected to image faults and stratigraphy. The basins of the southeastern Terceira Rift are rift valleys whose southwestern and northeastern margins are defined by few major normal faults and several minor normal faults, respectively. Since São Miguel in between the rift valleys shows an unusual W-E orientation, it is supposed to be located on a leaky transform. South of the island and separated by a N120° trending graben system, the Monacco Bank represents a N160° oriented flat topped volcanic ridge dominated by tilted fault blocks. Up to six seismic units are interpreted for each basin. Although volcanic ridges hamper a direct linking of depositional strata between the rift and adjacent basins, the individual seismic stratigraphic units have distinct characteristics. Using these units to provide a consistent relative chrono-stratigraphic scheme for the entire study area, we suggest that the evolution of the southeastern Terceira Rift occurred in two stages. Considering age constrains from previous studies, we conclude that N140° structures developed orthogonal to the SW-NE direction of plate-tectonic extension before ~ 10 Ma. The N160° trending volcanic ridges and faults developed later as the plate tectonic spreading direction changed to WSW-ENE. Hence, the evolution of the southeastern Terceira Rift domain is predominantly controlled by plate kinematics and lithospheric stress forming a kind of a re-organized rift system.

  8. Canada's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.

    1976-01-01

    Although Canada has developed the CANDU type reactor, and has an ambitious programme of nuclear power plant construction, there has been virtually no nuclear controversy. This progress was seen as a means to bring Canada out of the 'resource cow' era, and onto a more equal footing with technologically elite nations. However the Indian nuclear explosion test, waste storage problems, contamination problems arising from use of uranium ore processing waste as land fill and subsidised sale of nuclear power plants to Argentina and South Korea have initiated public and parliamentary interest. Some economists have also maintained that Canada is approaching over-supply of nuclear power and over-investment in plant. Canada has no official overall energy production plan and alternative sources have not been evaluated. (JIW)

  9. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  10. Wait times in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Janice Christine

    2017-07-01

    A significant barrier to accessing healthcare in Canada is long waiting lists, which can be linked to the way that Medicare was structured. After significant pressure, provincial governments began to address wait times. An example of a successful strategy to reduce wait times for elective surgery is the Saskatchewan Surgical Initiative, which saw wait times in the province change from being among the longest in Canada to the shortest.

  11. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  12. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in

  13. Terrorism in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollek, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews terrorism in Canada, assessing the incidence and nature of terrorist activity, the potential targets of terrorist attacks, risk factors to Canadian nationals and institutions, and the responses of the Canadian government in dealing with the threat and the effectiveness of those responses. Despite the fact that there have been no recent high-profile terrorist events in Canada, this country has a serious terrorism problem, the key manifestation of which is the multitude of terrorist organizations that have designated Canada as a base of operations. In addition, Canadians have been attacked overseas and Canadian organizations, both local and abroad, are potential targets of terrorist activity. Canadian attempts to deal with terrorism through foreign and domestic policy have been ineffective, primarily because the policies have been poorly enforced. Until recently, terrorist organizations legally could raise funds in Canada, in direct contravention of international treaties signed by Canada. It is possible that the ineffectiveness in enforcing the anti-terrorism legislation stems from hope that placating terrorist organizations, and the countries that support them, will prevent Canada from becoming a target. Unfortunately evidence from other countries has shown this strategy to be ineffective.

  14. Stability Zone of Natural Gas Hydrates in a Permafrost-Bearing Region of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin: Study of a Feasible Energy Source (Geological Survey of Canada Contribution No.1999275)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majorowicz, J. A.; Hannigan, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of geological and geophysical data from 150 wells in the Beaufort-Mackenzie region(study area between 68 deg. 30'-70 deg. 00'N and 131 deg. -39 deg. W) led to reinterpretation of the depth of methane hydrate stability and construction of the first contour maps displaying thickness of hydrate stability zones as well as hydrate stability zone thicknesses below permafrost. Calculations were based on construction of temperature-depth profiles incorporating regional heat-flow values, temperature at the base of ice-bearing permafrost, and models relating thermal conductivity with depth. Data analysis indicates the presence and extent of the methane hydrate stability zone is related mainly to the history of permafrost development and less so by the relatively small regional variations of temperature gradients. Analysis of well logs and other indicators in conjunction with knowledge of the hydrate stability zone allows reevaluation of the location of possible gas hydrate occurrences. Log analysis indicates that in the onshore and shallow sea area of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, methane hydrate occurs in 27 wells. Fifteen of these locations coincides with underlying conventional hydrocarbon occurrences. Previous analyses place some of the hydrate occurrences at greater depths than proposed for the methane hydrate stability zone described in this study. Interpretation of geological cross sections reveals that hydrates are related mainly to sandy deltaic and delta-plain deposits in Iperk, Kugmallit, and Reindeer sequences although additional hydrate picks have been inferred in other sequences, such as Richards. Overlying permafrost may act as seal for hydrate accumulations; however, the thickness of permafrost and its related hydrate stability zone fluctuated during geological time. It is interpreted that only in the last tens of thousand of years (i.e., Sangamonian to Holocene), conditions for hydrates changed from nonstable to stable. During Early and Late

  15. Stable-isotope studies of groundwaters in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen-18/16 and deuterium/hydrogen ratio measurements have been made on groundwaters sampled according to specific field criteria applied during pump tests of the Rustler Formation in Nash Draw, a solution-subsidence valley west of the WIPP site in the northern Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. Comparison of these data with similar measurements on other groundwaters from the northern Delaware Basin indicates two nonoverlapping populations of meteoric groundwaters. Most of the Rustler waters in Nash Draw and at the WIPP site and older waters from the eastern two-thirds of the Capitan Limestone constitute one population, while unconfined groundwaters originating as observable modern surface recharge to alluvium, the near-surface Rustler in southwestern Nash Draw, and the Capitan in the Guadalupe Mountains (Carlsbad Caverns) constitute the other. The isotopic distinction suggests that Rustler groundwater in most of Nash Draw and at the WIPP site is not receiving significant modern meteoric recharge. A likely explanation for this distinction is that meteoric recharge to most of the Rustler and Capitan took place in the geologic past under climatic conditions significantly different from the present. 25 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeastern United States. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bledsoe, H.W. Jr.; Marine, I.W.

    1980-10-01

    The geology of the southeastern United States was studied to recommend areas that should be considered for field exploration in order to select a site for a radioactive waste repository. The region studied included the Piedmont Province, the Triassic Basins, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. This study was entirely a review of literature and existing knowledge from a geotechnical point of view and was performed by subcontractors whose individual reports are listed in the bibliography. No field work was involved. The entire study was geotechnical in nature, and no consideration was given to socioeconomic or demographic factors. These factors need to be addressed in a separate study. For all areas, field study is needed before any area is further considered. A total of 29 areas are recommended for further consideration in the Piedmont Province subregion: one area in Maryland, 8 areas in Virginia, 4 areas in North Carolina, 6 areas in South Carolina, and 10 areas in Georgia. Of the 14 exposed and 5 buried or hypothesized basins identified in the Triassic basin subregion, 6 are recommended for further study: one basin in Virginia, 3 basins in North Carolina, and 2 basins in South Carolina. Four potential candidate areas are identified within the Atlantic Coastal Plain subregion: one in Maryland, one in North Carolina, and 2 in Georgia

  17. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Canadian uranium exploration and development efforts in 1985 and 1986 resulted in a significant increase in estimates of measured uranium resources. New discoveries have more than made up for production during 1985 and 1986, and for the elimination of some resources from the overall estimates, due to the sustained upward pressure on production costs and the stagnation of uranium prices in real terms. Canada possesses a large portion of the world's uranium resources that are of current economic interest and remains the major focus of inter-national uranium exploration activity. Expenditures for uranium exploration in Canada in 1985 and 1986 were $32 million and $33 million, respectively. Although much lower than the $130 million total reported for 1979, expenditures for 1987 are forecast to increase. Exploration and surface development drilling in 1985 and 1986 were reported to be 183 000 m and 165σ2 000 m, respectively, 85 per cent of which was in Saskatchewan. Canada has maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium. By the year 2000, Canada's annual uranium requirements will be about 2 100 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are either in operation now or expected to be in service by the late 1990s. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Annual sales currently approach $1 billion, of which exports account for 85 per cent. Forward domestic and export contract commitments totalled 73 000 tU and 62 000 tU, respectively, as of early 1987

  18. The Mackenzie Basin impacts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a commitment was made to begin development of a framework for an integrated regional impact assessment of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, the most populated region of Canada's north. The project, called Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS), is led by a multidisciplinary working group from government and non-governmental organizations with interests in the Basin. Objectives of MBIS include defining the direction and magnitude of regional-scale impacts of global warming scenarios on the physical, biological, and human systems of the Basin. MBIS will also identify regional sensitivities to climate, inter-system linkages, uncertainties, policy implications, and research needs. MBIS research activities as of March 1992 are outlined and policy concerns related to global warming are listed. Two new methodologies are being developed by MBIS to address particular economic and policy concerns: a socio-economic resource accounting framework and an integrated land assessment framework. Throughout MBIS, opportunities will be presented for western science and traditional native knowledge to be integrated

  19. Gulf Canada's Russian joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motyka, D.

    1992-01-01

    After three years of evaluating prospects and negotiating with government and industry representatives, Gulf Canada established its first joint venture in the Russian Federation with Komineft, a production association from the Komi autonomous republic. Komineft has a 50% share of the venture, and the rest is shared equally between Gulf and British Gas. The operating area is at the Vozey and Upper Vozey fields in the Timan-Pechora Basin, some 1,500 km northeast of Moscow just inside the Arctic Circle. An attractive feature of the Upper Vozey project is low development costs of ca $2/bbl. In the Vozey field, the venture will set up an enhanced oil recovery demonstration project to test techniques perfected in Alberta. About 60 Canadians are involved on the project, and headquarters are in Usinsk, ca 100 km south of the oil fields. In the first half of 1992, oil production in the first phase of the venture averaged around 10,000 bbl/d and continues to increase

  20. Canada's uranium policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.L.; Williams, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Canadian Government policies which affect the uranium industry and, where appropriate, to provide some background on the development of these policies. This review is timely because of two recent announcements by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources - one concerning the Canadian Government's renewed commitment to maintain the nuclear power option for Canada, and the other concerning some adjustments to Canada's uranium export policy. The future of Canada's nuclear industry was subject to a thorough review by the Canadian Government during 1989. This review occurred at a time when environmental issues were attracting increasing attention around the world, and the environmental advantages of nuclear power were becoming increasingly recognised. The strong support for the nuclear industry in Canada is consistent with the government's long-standing efforts to maintain Canada's position as a reliable and competitive supplier of uranium. This paper is particularly devoted to an outline of the results of the uranium export policy review. (author)

  1. Building Canada: Phase One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-04-15

    The 'Building Canada' program modelled after the 'Building America' program, aims at increasing energy efficiency and affordability, primarily for single family homes. The program takes a holistic and whole house view, employing a systems approach and is committed to continuous improvement through testing, evaluation, retesting and novel construction practices. The program's objective is to re-engineer house designs so that builders can take advantage of advanced products and achieve maximum efficiency. Building Canada aims to achieve its objectives through partnership with the housing industry, focusing on increasing energy efficiency while reducing construction time, using and wasting fewer materials, forestalling call backs, and reducing overall costs. The Building Canada procedures encompass marketing, research of builder's operations, re-engineering mechanical systems, framing components and techniques, moisture control and thermal performance, construction, resolution of problems in re-engineered homes, and discussion of results in demonstration homes. The program as a whole is built on the feasibility study of a Building Canada program carried out in Nova Scotia and Ontario. Some of the results of this pilot study summarized in this report indicate that the Building Canada is not suitable for use by small builders. Benefits are most likely to be realized by only by builders constructing more than 100 homes annually.

  2. Silurian deltaic progradation, Tassili n’Ajjer plateau, south-eastern Algeria: Sedimentology, ichnology and sequence stratigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Djouder, Hocine; Lüning, Sebastian; Da Silva, Anne-Christine; Abdallah, Hussein; Boulvain, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    The economic potential for unconventional shale oil and gas production in the Silurian of the Berkine – Ghadames and Illizi basins (BGI) in south-eastern Algeria has been recently confirmed through exploration drilling. The aim of the present paper attempts a better understanding of the Intra-Tassilian depression within the entire Silurian of the Tassili n’Ajjer plateau. The continuous deposits of the Silurian are exposed at the southern margin of the prolific BGI basins, in the Tassili n’Ajj...

  3. Canada's domestic nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) is a committee of representatives of religious groups in Toronto, a group of people concerned about the moral and ethical implications of the operation of Canada's nuclear industry and of its exports to other countries. The faith groups represented are the Anglican Diocese of Toronto, the Baha'i Community of Canada, the Jewish Community of Toronto, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto and the United Church of Canada Toronto Conference. Wishing to encourage the Canadian government to enquire into this broad question, the faith groups established IPPANI and assigned to it the task of enhancing their knowledge of the nuclear industry. IPPANI was to develop an effective set of questions to be placed before governments and to promote public discussion so that governments might become more responsive to these issues

  4. Cardiac Rehabilitation Series: Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L.; Bennett, Stephanie; Ardern, Chris I.; Clark, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Canada. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has a long robust history here, and there are established clinical practice guidelines. While the effectiveness of CR in the Canadian context is clear, only 34% of eligible patients participate, and strategies to increase access for under-represented groups (e.g., women, ethnic minority groups) are not yet universally applied. Identified CR barriers include lack of referral and physician recommendation, travel and distance, and low perceived need. Indeed there is now a national policy position recommending systematic inpatient referral to CR in Canada. Recent development of 30 CR Quality Indicators and the burgeoning national CR registry will enable further measurement and improvement of the quality of CR care in Canada. Finally, the Canadian Association of CR is one of the founding members of the International Council of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, to promote CR globally. PMID:24607018

  5. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mai 2014 ... This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system.

  6. An assessment of coalbed methane exploration projects in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, F.M.; Marchioni, D.L.; Anderson, T.C.; McDougall, W.J. [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    A critical assessment of coalbed methane exploration opportunities is presented. Geological and production data from 59 well bores drilled in Canada's major coal basins are evaluated to assess the coalbed methane potential of the deposits. Data acquisition, geology, gas content, coal quality, adsorption isotherms, formation testing, and a technical assessment are presented for each area. Areas with the best potential for economic coalbed methane accumulations are indicated. 6 refs., 153 figs., 99 tabs.

  7. Building the vegetation drought response index for Canada (VegDRI-Canada) to monitor agricultural drought: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tsegaye; Champagne, Catherine; Wardlow, Brian D.; Hadwen, Trevor A.; Brown, Jesslyn; Demisse, Getachew B.; Bayissa, Yared A.; Davidson, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    map with the Canadian Drought Monitor (CDM), an independent drought indicator, showed that the VegDRI-Canada maps depicted key spatial drought severity patterns during the two targeted drought years consistent with the CDM. In addition, VegDRI-Canada was compared with canola yields in the Prairie Provinces at the regional scale for a period from 2000 to 2014 to evaluate the indices’ applicability for monitoring drought impacts on crop production. The result showed that VegDRI-Canada values had a relatively higher correlation (i.e., r > 0.5) with canola yield for nonirrigated croplands in the Canadian Prairies region in areas where drought is typically a limiting factor on crop growth, but showed a negative relationship in the southeastern Prairie region, where water availability is less of a limiting factor and in some cases a hindrance to crop growth when waterlogging occurs. These initial results demonstrate VegDRI-Canada’s utility for monitoring drought-related vegetation conditions, particularly in drought prone areas. In general, the results indicated that the VegDRI-Canada models showed sensitivity to known agricultural drought events in Canada over the 15-year period mainly for nonirrigated areas.

  8. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  9. Geochemical conditions and the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater basins used for public drinking-water supply, Desert and Basin and Range hydrogeologic provinces, 2006-11: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The geochemical conditions, occurrence of selected trace elements, and processes controlling the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater were investigated in groundwater basins of the Desert and Basin and Range (DBR) hydrogeologic provinces in southeastern California as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP is designed to provide an assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the aquifer systems that are used for public drinking-water supply. The GAMA PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  10. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  11. Fusion Canada issue 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs

  12. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  13. Fusion Canada issue 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs.

  14. Suicide in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leenaars, Antoon A

    1998-01-01

    ... provides long-awaited information that focuses specifically on Canada. It addresses suicide as a multidimensional problem with biological, psychological, cultural, sociological, personal, and philosophical aspects. The contributions integrate both critical analysis and personal experience. There are accounts from Inuit elders, fr...

  15. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  16. Fusion Canada issue 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the Canada - US fusion meeting in Montreal, fusion breeder work in Chile, new management at CFFTP, fast electrons in tokamaks: new data from TdeV, a program review of CCFM and Velikhov to address Montreal fusion meeting. 1 fig

  17. Fusion Canada issue 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs.

  18. Coal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

  19. Fusion Canada issue 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs.

  20. Nuclear technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This pamphlet provides a summary of the research being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The design and development of the CANDU type reactor are highlighted and the contribution of nuclear technology to medicine, agriculture and the Canadian economy is briefly discussed

  1. Fusion Canada issue 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue tritium supply for Japanese research, Canada to host the 1995 IAEA Conference on Tritium, studies on the tokamak divertor and edge plasma studies, a tritium field release study, erosion studies on plasma facing materials, G. Pacher returns to CCFM and an update on CCFM/TdeV

  2. Indian Arts in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A recent publication, "Indian Arts in Canada", examines some of the forces, both past and present, which are not only affecting American Indian artists today, but which will also profoundly influence their future. The review presents a few of the illustrations used in the book, along with the Introduction and the Foreword. (KM)

  3. The butterflies of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layberry, Ross A; Hall, Peter W; Lafontaine, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    ... for the close to three hundred butterfly species recorded in Canada, including descriptions of early stages, subspecies, and key features that help distinguish similar species. Each species of butterfly has an individual distribution map, generated from a database of more than 90,000 location records. More than just a field guide to identifying Canadian butterfli...

  4. Fusion Canada issue 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs.

  5. Fusion Canada issue 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  6. Variation in the structure of bird nests between northern Manitoba and southeastern Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A Crossman

    Full Text Available Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations.

  7. Variation in the Structure of Bird Nests between Northern Manitoba and Southeastern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Carla A.; Rohwer, Vanya G.; Martin, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis) where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations. PMID:21552515

  8. Variation in the structure of bird nests between northern Manitoba and southeastern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Carla A; Rohwer, Vanya G; Martin, Paul R

    2011-04-28

    Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis) where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations.

  9. Canada`s greenhouse gas emissions inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    In 1994, Canada was the seventh largest global emitter of CO{sub 2}. The Kyoto Protocol has made it necessary to continue to improve methods for developing emissions inventories. An emissions inventory was defined as `a comprehensive account of air pollutant emissions and associated data from sources within the inventory area over a specified time frame that can be used to determine the effect of emissions on the environment`. The general approach is to compile large-scale emission estimates under averaged conditions for collective sources and sectors, using data that is available on a sectoral, provincial and national basis. Ideally, continuous emission monitors should be used to develop emissions inventories. Other needed improvements include additional research on emissions data, and increased support for international negotiations on reporting policies and related methodologies, verification procedures and adjustments. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  10. Nuclear regulatory developments in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper from CNSC discusses nuclear regulatory developments in Canada. It starts with the Fukushima accident and the effect on the nuclear sector. It summarises what CNSC has done, what it has learned and their plans going forward. It has made recommendations to IAEA for international enhancements to regulatory procedures. It outline the activities of Canada's nuclear power plants, Canada's uranium projects, deep geological repository and waste management as well as nuclear research in Canada.

  11. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrill, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario

  12. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  13. Electric power in Canada 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs.

  14. Meteorology of the storm of November 3-5, 1985, in West Virginia and Virginia: Chapter B in Geomorphic studies of the storm and flood of November 3-5, 1985, in the upper Potomac and Cheat River basins in West Virginia and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Stephen J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Greco, Steven

    1993-01-01

    The storm of November 3-5, 1985, in the central Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia and Virginia resulted from a complex sequence of meteorological events. The stage was set by Hurricane Juan, which made landfall in the Gulf Coast on October 31. Juan brought moisture northward up the Mississippi Valley; latent heat released by condensation aloft probably helped to render stationary a high-pressure anticyclone over southeastern Canada. A second low-pressure cyclone, moving north through the Southeastern United States, was blocked by the stationary anticyclone, intensifying a surface-pressure gradient that forced moist air from the Atlantic westward up the slope of the Appalachian Mountains. In the Cheat and Potomac River basins the resulting rainfall was of moderate intensity but of long duration. In Pendleton County, W. Va., the 1985 storm was the largest on record for durations from 24 to 72 h; the highest rainfall recurrence intervals were registered at durations of 24 to 48 h. Estimates of rainfall recurrence intervals from highly skewed records yield values ranging from 80 to 300 yr.

  15. Hydrological response to dynamical downscaling of climate model outputs: A case study for western and eastern snowmelt-dominated Canada catchments

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Troin; Daniel Caya; Juan Alberto Velázquez; François Brissette

    2015-01-01

    Study region: An analysis of hydrological response to a dynamically downscaled multi-member multi-model global climate model (GCM) ensemble of simulations based on the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) is presented for three snowmelt-dominated basins in Canada. The basins are situated in the western mountainous (British Columbia) and eastern level (Quebec) regions in Canada, providing comprehensive experiments to validate the CRCM over various topographic features. Study focus: The ev...

  16. Salt disposal: Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a study conducted for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Permanent disposal options are examined for salt resulting from the excavation of a waste repository in the bedded salt deposits of the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. The study is based on a repository salt backfill compaction of 60% of the original density which leaves a total of 8 million tons of 95% pure salt to be disposed of over a 30-year period. The feasibility, impacts, and mitigation methods are examined for five options: commercial disposal, permanent onsite surface disposal, permanent offsite disposal, deepwell injection, and ocean and Great Salt Lake disposal. The study concludes the following: Commercial marketing of all repository salt would require a subsidy for transportation to major salt markets. Permanent onsite surface storage is both economically and technically feasible. Permanent offsite disposal is technically feasible but would incur additional transportation costs. Selection of an offsite location would provide a means of mitigating impacts associated with surface storage at the repository site. Deepwell injection is an attractive disposal method; however, the large water requirement, high cost of development, and poor performance of similar operating brine disposal wells eliminates this option from consideration as the primary means of disposal for the Paradox Basin. Ocean disposal is expensive because of high transportation cost. Also, regulatory approval is unlikely. Ocean disposal should be eliminated from further consideration in the Paradox Basin. Great Salt Lake disposal appears to be technically feasible. Great Salt Lake disposal would require state approval and would incur substantial costs for salt transportation. Permanent onsite disposal is the least expensive method for disposal of all repository salt

  17. [Stingrays in rivers in southeastern Brazil: occurrence localities and impact on the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrone Neto, Domingos; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, our aim was to describe the process of colonization of the upper Paraná basin, southeastern Brazil, by stingrays, showing the current situation, likely trend and impact caused and discussing some management actions and mitigation measures. Interviews were held with riverbank people and health professionals, to gather information on occurrences of stingrays and accidents associated with these animals, along with underwater observations and collection of specimens, between 2004 and 2009 in localities in the States of São Paulo, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, in the southeastern, southern and part of the central-western regions of Brazil. Three species of stingrays were identified in the study area, thus demonstrating that they were using the paths opened by the Tietê-Paraná Waterway to disperse. Sixteen victims of accidents involving these animals were found, mainly bathers and fishermen. Attention was drawn to the fact that these cases had not been reported, yet they presented high morbidity with notable temporary incapacity for work. This is the first report on biological invasion involving species of elasmobranchs in the literature and, because stingrays are colonizing densely populated areas and are expanding their range of distribution each year, it can be expected that their negative interactions with humans will intensify, with important changes in the epidemiological profile of accidents due to venomous animals occurring in southeastern Brazil.

  18. Uranium tailings in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulden, R.S.; Bragg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The last few years have produced significant changes in the way uranium tailings are managed in Canada. This is due both to the development of new technology and to changes in regulatory approach. The interrelationships between these two areas are examined with particular attention paid to the long term and the development of close-out criteria. New technological initiatives are examined including dry placement techniques, pit disposal and deep lake disposal

  19. Marketing Canada's coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  20. Electric deregulation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the electric power deregulation activities across Canada, particularly in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, was presented. A central element of the restructuring is creation of a power pool which acts as an open spot market, and a transmission administrator that provides access to the generators, distribution companies, importers and exporters. Load forecasts, average daily load profile and hourly pool prices for TransAlta Corporation were presented as an example. 22 figs

  1. Plugging into Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Exports of electricity from Canada to the U.S.A. are increasing in importance and have reached a new phase with proposals to build generating stations initially dedicated to export, notably a second nuclear station in New Brunswick. The author considers that the National Energy Board does a good job of protecting Canadian interests. Opposition in the United States comes from within the government or congress rather than from the power industry or public

  2. Presentation of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedley, Dianne E.

    1997-01-01

    In contingency of a nuclear emergency event, requiring application of intervention measures on a federal scale, Canada has of a plan ensuring the compatibility of the plans of different provinces and serving as interface between federal and provincial authorities. Exclusive of a nuclear attack against North America, by nuclear emergency it is understood an accident resulting in radionuclide release. This is called the Plan of federal intervention in case of nuclear emergency. 'Sante Canada' is the federal authority responsible for intervention in case of nuclear emergency and it has the task of preparing and coordinating the actions on a federal scale.Should the plan be set in action and if the emergency has repercussions upon the agricultural sector, the sustaining organism will be 'Agriculture and agroalimentaire Canada' which in case of emergency acts through the channels of the National System of intervention in the agro-alimentary sector (SNIUA). The paper presents the objectives, the principles of organization and operation, the responsibilities and the plans which SNIUA has in its charge to implement in case of emergency

  3. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  4. Energy cascades in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, A. C.; Brown, T. D.

    1979-03-15

    Combining energy uses in a cascade can result in significant overall reductions in fuel requirements. The simplest applications for a cascade are in the recovery of waste heat from existing processes using special boilers or turbines. Specific applications of more-complex energy cascades for Canada are discussed. A combined-cycle plant at a chemical refinery in Ontario is world leader in energy efficiency. Total-energy systems for commercial buildings, such as one installed in a school in Western Canada, offer attractive energy and operating cost benefits. A cogeneration plant proposed for the National Capital Region, generating electricity as well as steam for district heating, allows the use of a low-grade fossil fuel (coal), greatly improves energy-transformation efficiency, and also utilizes an effectively renewable resource (municipal garbage). Despite the widespread availability of equipment and technology of energy cascades, the sale of steam and electricity across plant boundaries presents a barrier. More widespread use of cascades will require increased cooperation among industry, electric utilities and the various levels of government if Canada is to realize the high levels of energy efficiency potential available.

  5. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Canada's Global Partnership Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, M.

    2007-01-01

    Curbing the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) is an essential element of the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. At the Kananaskis Summit in June 2002, G8 Leaders committed to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from acquiring or developing biological weapons and related materials, equipment and technology. To this end, Canada's Global Partnership Program is investing heavily in biological non-proliferation activities in countries of the former Soviet Union. A comprehensive strategy has been developed to help improve biological safety (biosafety) and biological security (biosecurity) with provision for addressing dual-use concerns. Raising awareness and creating a self-sustaining culture of biosecurity is a key driver of the program. Through this strategy, Canada is assisting various FSU countries to: develop and implement effective and practical biosafety/biosecurity standards and guidelines; establish national and/or regional biosafety associations; develop and deliver effective biosafety and biosecurity training; put in place enhanced physical security measures and equipment. In addition to biosafety and biosecurity, the GPP supports a broad range of Biological Non-Proliferation projects and initiatives, including dozens of projects aimed at redirecting former biological weapons scientists. To date, most of these activities have been supported through Canada's contribution to the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the Science and Technology Centre Ukraine (STCU).(author)

  7. Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanakos, E. K. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the first symposium on emerging energy alternatives for the Southeastern States are presented. Some topics discussed are: (1) solar energy, (2) wood energy, (3) novel energy sources, (4) agricultural and industrial process heat, (5) waste utilization, (6) energy conservation and (7) ocean thermal energy conversion.

  8. Summary of southeastern group breakout sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Ford; Charles P. Nicholson

    1993-01-01

    The breakout sessions held by the southeastern representatives at the Partners In Flight meeting in Colorado were extremely well attended Most states were represented, as well as several federal agencies (including USFS, USFWS, TVA, EPA), and non-government organizations. Two sessions were held, one to discuss a strategy of management by...

  9. Tectonic evolution of the Tualatin basin, northwest Oregon, as revealed by inversion of gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Darcy K.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; Wells, Ray; Blakely, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The Tualatin basin, west of Portland (Oregon, USA), coincides with a 110 mGal gravity low along the Puget-Willamette lowland. New gravity measurements (n = 3000) reveal a three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface geometry suggesting early development as a fault-bounded pull-apart basin. A strong northwest-trending gravity gradient coincides with the Gales Creek fault, which forms the southwestern boundary of the Tualatin basin. Faults along the northeastern margin in the Portland Hills and the northeast-trending Sherwood fault along the southeastern basin margin are also associated with gravity gradients, but of smaller magnitude. The gravity low reflects the large density contrast between basin fill and the mafic crust of the Siletz terrane composing basement. Inversions of gravity data indicate that the Tualatin basin is ∼6 km deep, therefore 6 times deeper than the 1 km maximum depth of the Miocene Columba River Basalt Group (CRBG) in the basin, implying that the basin contains several kilometers of low-density pre-CRBG sediments and so formed primarily before the 15 Ma emplacement of the CRBG. The shape of the basin and the location of parallel, linear basin-bounding faults along the southwest and northeast margins suggest that the Tualatin basin originated as a pull-apart rhombochasm. Pre-CRBG extension in the Tualatin basin is consistent with an episode of late Eocene extension documented elsewhere in the Coast Ranges. The present fold and thrust geometry of the Tualatin basin, the result of Neogene compression, is superimposed on the ancestral pull-apart basin. The present 3-D basin geometry may imply stronger ground shaking along basin edges, particularly along the concealed northeast edge of the Tualatin basin beneath the greater Portland area.

  10. A framework model for water-sharing among co-basin states of a river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, N. K.; Azad, Shambhu

    2018-05-01

    A new framework model is presented in this study for sharing of water in a river basin using certain governing variables, in an effort to enhance the objectivity for a reasonable and equitable allocation of water among co-basin states. The governing variables were normalised to reduce the governing variables of different co-basin states of a river basin on same scale. In the absence of objective methods for evaluating the weights to be assigned to co-basin states for water allocation, a framework was conceptualised and formulated to determine the normalised weighting factors of different co-basin states as a function of the governing variables. The water allocation to any co-basin state had been assumed to be proportional to its struggle for equity, which in turn was assumed to be a function of the normalised discontent, satisfaction, and weighting factors of each co-basin state. System dynamics was used effectively to represent and solve the proposed model formulation. The proposed model was successfully applied to the Vamsadhara river basin located in the South-Eastern part of India, and a sensitivity analysis of the proposed model parameters was carried out to prove its robustness in terms of the proposed model convergence and validity over the broad spectrum values of the proposed model parameters. The solution converged quickly to a final allocation of 1444 million cubic metre (MCM) in the case of the Odisha co-basin state, and to 1067 MCM for the Andhra Pradesh co-basin state. The sensitivity analysis showed that the proposed model's allocation varied from 1584 MCM to 1336 MCM for Odisha state and from 927 to 1175 MCM for Andhra, depending upon the importance weights given to the governing variables for the calculation of the weighting factors. Thus, the proposed model was found to be very flexible to explore various policy options to arrive at a decision in a water sharing problem. It can therefore be effectively applied to any trans-boundary problem where

  11. Southeastern Power Administration 2008 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-12-29

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2008 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this document reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2007 and ending September 30, 2008. Southeastern marketed more than 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 491 wholesale customers in ten southeastern states this past year. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $263 million. Drought conditions persisted in the southeastern region of the United States during FY 2008 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2008 totaled $91 million. Approximately $44 million of this amount was for replacement power which is paid only during adverse water conditions in order to meet our customers’ contract requirements. With the continued financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for these aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security programs continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) standards and requirements. In the coming year, Southeastern will continue open communication and cooperation with DOE, the Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Although competing uses of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency, Southeastern’s employees will meet these challenges and continue to provide reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E.Legg Administrator

  12. Satellite-Enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies: Extreme Precipitation Events in Southeastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A.; Gomes, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Frequently found in southeastern South America during the warm season from October through May, strong and localized precipitation maxima are usually associated with the presence of mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) travelling across the region. Flashfloods and landslides can be caused by these extremes in precipitation, with damages to the local communities. Heavily populated, southeastern South America hosts many agricultural activities and hydroelectric production. It encompasses one of the most important river basins in South America, the La Plata River Basin. Therefore, insufficient precipitation is equally prejudicial to the region socio-economic activities. MCCs are originated in the warm season of many regions of the world, however South American MCCs are related to the most severe thunderstorms, and have significantly contributed to the precipitation regime. We used the hourly outputs of Satellite-enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies (SRDAS), developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, in the analysis of the dynamics and physical characteristics of MCCs in South America. SRDAS is the 25-km resolution downscaling of a global reanalysis available from January 1998 through December 2010. The Regional Spectral Model is the SRDAS atmospheric component and assimilates satellite-based precipitation estimates from the NOAA/Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique global precipitation analyses. In this study, the SRDAS atmospheric and land-surface variables, global reanalysis products, infrared satellite imagery, and the physical retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), on board of the NASA's Aqua satellite, were used in the evaluation of the MCCs developed in southeastern South America from 2008 and 2010. Low-level circulations and vertical profiles were analyzed together to establish the relevance of the moisture transport in connection with the upper-troposphere dynamics to the development of those MCCs.

  13. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Canada and international financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lafrance; James Powell

    1996-01-01

    International financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Bank for International Settlements, are important players in the global financial system. This article provides an overview of the major international financial institutions to which Canada belongs. The paper highlights their activities and the nature of Canada's involvement, including that of the Bank of Canada. Recent initiatives coming out of the Halifax and Lyon Summits to improve the eff...

  15. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuklenk, Udo

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate.

  16. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  17. Natural CO{sub 2} migrations in the South-Eastern Basin of France: implications for the CO{sub 2} storage in sedimentary formations; Contribution a la connaissance des migrations de CO{sub 2} naturel dans le Bassin du Sud-Est de la France: enseignements pour le stockage geologique du CO{sub 2} dans les reservoirs sedimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubert, Y.

    2009-03-15

    Study of natural CO{sub 2} analogues brings key informations on the factors governing the long term stability/instability of future anthropogenic CO{sub 2} storages. The main objective of this work, through the study of cores from V.Mo.2 well crosscutting the Montmiral natural reservoir (Valence Basin, France), is to trace the deep CO{sub 2} migrations in fractures. Petrographic, geochemical and micro-thermometric studies of the V.Mo.2 cores were thus performed in order: 1) to describe the reservoir filling conditions and 2) to detect possible CO{sub 2}-leakage through the sediments overlying the reservoir. Fluid inclusions from the Paleozoic crystalline basement record the progressive unmixing of a hot homogeneous aquo-carbonic fluid. The Montmiral reservoir was therefore probably fed by a CO{sub 2}-enriched gas component at the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene. The study of the sedimentary column in V.Mo.2 well, demonstrates that the CO{sub 2} did not migrate towards the surface through the thick marly unit (Domerian-Middle Oxfordian). These marls have acted as an impermeable barrier that prevented the upward migration of fluids. Two main stages of fluid circulation have been recognized: 1) an ante- Callovian one related to the Tethysian extension 2) a tertiary stage during which the upper units underwent a karstification, with CO{sub 2} leakage related but which remained confined into the deeper parts of the Valence Basin. Since the Paleogene, the Montmiral reservoir has apparently remained stable, despite the Pyrenean and alpine orogeneses. This is mainly due to the efficient seal formed by the thick marly levels and also to the local structuration in faulted blocks which apparently acted as efficient lateral barriers. (author)

  18. Maturity in the Styrian Basin. Maturitaet im Steirischen Tertiaerbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachsenhofer, R.F. (Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften/Geologie)

    1991-01-01

    The Styrian basin, situated at the south-eastern margin of the Alps, contains up to 3 km of Ottnangian to Pliocene sedimentary rocks. Main subsidence occured between Ottnangian and Sarmatian. Miocene and Plio-/Pleistocene volcanic phases can be distinguished. Maturity in the Styrian basin was studied with vitrinite reflectance curves of 25 boreholes. The oil window lies at shallow depths in the vicinty of Miocene volcanos. This is due to high heating rate during Karpatian to Lower Badenian times. Depth and thickness of the oil window increase with increasing distance from these volcanos. At a distance of some kilometers the thermal influence of this Miocene volcanism disappears. According to high recent heat flow the oil window is located below 1 500 to 2 000 m in these parts of the basin. An influence of Plio-/Pleistocene volcanism on maturity cannot be observed. (orig.).

  19. Nutrition inequities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather

    2010-04-01

    In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities.

  20. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.S.

    1980-12-01

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)

  1. Wheeling in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fytche, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    The quest for economic efficiency, or lowest cost, in the electricity supply industry is furthered by trading between high and low cost utilities, one aspect being transporting or wheeling power through the transmission system of a third party. Some of the pressures and constraints limiting wheeling are discussed. A simple formula is presented for determining whether trading and wheeling are worthwhile. It is demonstrated for assumed capital and operating cost levels, the viability of nine cases where bulk power or economy energy would need to be wheeled across provincial boundaries in order to reach potential buyers. Wheeling in Canada is different from the situation in the USA, due to large distances spanned by Canadian utilities and because most are provincial crown corporations, with different territorial interests and profit motivations than investor-owned utilities. Most trading in electricity has been between contiguous neighbours, for mutual advantage. New technology allows power transmission over distances of up to 1000 miles, and the economics of Canada's electrical supply could be improved, with means including access to low cost coal of Alberta, and remote hydro in British Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec and Labrador. Nuclear plants could be located anywhere but suffer from an unfriendly public attitude. A bridge across the Prairies appears uneconomic due to cost of transmission, and also due to low valuation given to Alberta coal. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  3. Southeastern Power Administration 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-28

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am proud to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2007 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this report reflects Southeastern’s programs, accomplishments, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2006 and ending September 30, 2007. Southeastern marketed more than 5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 492 wholesale Federal power customers in an 11-state marketing area in FY 2007. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $219 million. Drought conditions continued to plague the southeast region of the United States during 2007 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Southeastern purchased more than $40 million in replacement power to meet customer contract requirements to ensure the continued reliability of our nation’s power grid. With the financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, continued funding for capitalized equipment replacements at various Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security program continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and requirements. Plans for the upcoming year include communication and cooperation with DOE, Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our nation’s water resources. Competition for the use of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency. The employees at Southeastern will be proactive in meeting these challenges and providing reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E. Legg Administrator

  4. A revised conceptual hydrogeologic model of a crystalline rock environment, Whiteshell research area, southeastern Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, D.R.; Brown, A.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.; McGregor, R.G.; Ophori, D.U.; Scheier, N.W.; Stanchell, F.; Thorne, G.A.; Tomsons, D.K.

    1996-04-01

    A revised conceptual hydrogeologic model of regional groundwater flow in the crystalline rocks of the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) has been developed by a team of AECL geoscientists. The revised model updates an earlier model developed in 1985, and has a much broader database. This database was compiled from Landsat and airborne radar images, geophysical surveys and surface mapping, and from analyses of fracture logs, hydraulic tests and water samples collected from a network of deep boreholes drilled across the WRA. The boundaries of the revised conceptual model were selected to coincide with the natural hydraulic boundaries assumed for the regional groundwater flow systems in the WRA. The upper and lower boundaries are the water table and a horizontal plane 4 km below ground surface. For modelling purposes the rocks below 4 km are considered to be impermeable. The rocks of the modelled region were divided on the basis of fracture characteristics into three categories: fractured zones (FZs); moderately fractured rock (MFR); and sparsely fractured rock (SFR). The FZs are regions of intensely fractured rock. Seventy-six FZs were selected to form the fault framework within the revised conceptual model. The physical rock/water properties of the FZs, MFR and SFR were selected by analysis of field data from hydraulic and tracer tests, laboratory test data and water quality data. These properties were used to define a mathematical groundwater flow model of the WRA using AECL's MOTIF finite element code (Ophori et al. 1995, 1996). (author). 29 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs

  5. The genomic history of southeastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Iain; Alpaslan-Roodenberg, Songül; Posth, Cosimo; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Olalde, Iñigo; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen; Candilio, Francesca; Cheronet, Olivia; Fernandes, Daniel; Ferry, Matthew; Gamarra, Beatriz; Fortes, Gloria González; Haak, Wolfgang; Harney, Eadaoin; Jones, Eppie; Keating, Denise; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Kucukkalipci, Isil; Michel, Megan; Mittnik, Alissa; Nägele, Kathrin; Novak, Mario; Oppenheimer, Jonas; Patterson, Nick; Pfrengle, Saskia; Sirak, Kendra; Stewardson, Kristin; Vai, Stefania; Alexandrov, Stefan; Alt, Kurt W; Andreescu, Radian; Antonović, Dragana; Ash, Abigail; Atanassova, Nadezhda; Bacvarov, Krum; Gusztáv, Mende Balázs; Bocherens, Hervé; Bolus, Michael; Boroneanţ, Adina; Boyadzhiev, Yavor; Budnik, Alicja; Burmaz, Josip; Chohadzhiev, Stefan; Conard, Nicholas J; Cottiaux, Richard; Čuka, Maja; Cupillard, Christophe; Drucker, Dorothée G; Elenski, Nedko; Francken, Michael; Galabova, Borislava; Ganetsovski, Georgi; Gély, Bernard; Hajdu, Tamás; Handzhyiska, Veneta; Harvati, Katerina; Higham, Thomas; Iliev, Stanislav; Janković, Ivor; Karavanić, Ivor; Kennett, Douglas J; Komšo, Darko; Kozak, Alexandra; Labuda, Damian; Lari, Martina; Lazar, Catalin; Leppek, Maleen; Leshtakov, Krassimir; Vetro, Domenico Lo; Los, Dženi; Lozanov, Ivaylo; Malina, Maria; Martini, Fabio; McSweeney, Kath; Meller, Harald; Menđušić, Marko; Mirea, Pavel; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Petrova, Vanya; Price, T Douglas; Simalcsik, Angela; Sineo, Luca; Šlaus, Mario; Slavchev, Vladimir; Stanev, Petar; Starović, Andrej; Szeniczey, Tamás; Talamo, Sahra; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Thevenet, Corinne; Valchev, Ivan; Valentin, Frédérique; Vasilyev, Sergey; Veljanovska, Fanica; Venelinova, Svetlana; Veselovskaya, Elizaveta; Viola, Bence; Virag, Cristian; Zaninović, Joško; Zäuner, Steve; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Catalano, Giulio; Krauß, Raiko; Caramelli, David; Zariņa, Gunita; Gaydarska, Bisserka; Lillie, Malcolm; Nikitin, Alexey G; Potekhina, Inna; Papathanasiou, Anastasia; Borić, Dušan; Bonsall, Clive; Krause, Johannes; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David

    2018-03-08

    Farming was first introduced to Europe in the mid-seventh millennium bc, and was associated with migrants from Anatolia who settled in the southeast before spreading throughout Europe. Here, to understand the dynamics of this process, we analysed genome-wide ancient DNA data from 225 individuals who lived in southeastern Europe and surrounding regions between 12000 and 500 bc. We document a west-east cline of ancestry in indigenous hunter-gatherers and, in eastern Europe, the early stages in the formation of Bronze Age steppe ancestry. We show that the first farmers of northern and western Europe dispersed through southeastern Europe with limited hunter-gatherer admixture, but that some early groups in the southeast mixed extensively with hunter-gatherers without the sex-biased admixture that prevailed later in the north and west. We also show that southeastern Europe continued to be a nexus between east and west after the arrival of farmers, with intermittent genetic contact with steppe populations occurring up to 2,000 years earlier than the migrations from the steppe that ultimately replaced much of the population of northern Europe.

  6. Canada's steps towards nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1958-09-01

    This paper describes the policy development of nuclear power in Canada. Canada has a natural abundance of coal, oil, natural gas, water power and uranium. It was recognized that the demand for nuclear power would only materialize if it met an economically competitive range.

  7. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1986-09-01

    This bibliography is an up-date to AECL-6186(Rev 3), 1952-1982, 'Radioactive Waste Management in Canada AECL Publications and Other Literature' compiled by Dianne Wallace. Canadian publications from outside contractors concerning the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program are included in addition to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reports and papers. 252 refs

  8. ESPlannerBASIC CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Kotlikoff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional financial planning is based on a fundamental rule of thumb: Aim to save enough for retirement to replace 80 per cent of your pre-retirement income with income from pensions and assets. Millions of Canadians follow this formula. Yet, there is no guarantee this approach is consistent with a savings plan that will allow them to experience their optimal standard of living — given their income — throughout their working lives. Consumption smoothing happens when a consumer projects her income and her non-discretionary expenses (such as mortgage payments all the way up until the end of her life, and is able to determine her household discretionary spending power over time, to achieve the smoothest living standard path possible without going into debt. When consumption smoothing is calculated accurately, a person’s lifestyle should be roughly the same whether she is in her 30s with small children, in her 50s with kids in college, or in retirement, with adult children. Consumption smoothing allows that to happen. But while it is conceptually straightforward, consumption smoothing requires the use of advanced numerical techniques. Now, Canadian families have access to a powerful consumption-smoothing tool: ESPlannerBASIC Canada. This free, secure and confidential online tool will allow Canadian families to safely and securely enter their earnings and other financial resources and will calculate for them how much they can spend and how much they should save in order to maintain their lifestyle from now until they die, without going into debt. It will also calculate how much life insurance they should buy, to ensure that household living standards are not affected after a family member dies. Users can easily and instantly run “what-if” scenarios to see how retiring early (or later, changing jobs, adjusting retirement contributions, having children, moving homes, timing RRSP withdrawals, and other financial and lifestyle decisions would

  9. Three-dimensional geologic mapping of the Cenozoic basin fill, Amargosa Desert basin, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the subsurface geologic framework of the Cenozoic basin fill that underlies the Amargosa Desert in southern Nevada and southeastern California has been improved by using borehole data to construct three-dimensional lithologic and interpreted facies models. Lithologic data from 210 boreholes from a 20-kilometer (km) by 90-km area were reduced to a limited suite of descriptors based on geologic knowledge of the basin and distributed in three-dimensional space using interpolation methods. The resulting lithologic model of the Amargosa Desert basin portrays a complex system of interfingered coarse- to fine-grained alluvium, playa and palustrine deposits, eolian sands, and interbedded volcanic units. Lithologic units could not be represented in the model as a stacked stratigraphic sequence due to the complex interfingering of lithologic units and the absence of available time-stratigraphic markers. Instead, lithologic units were grouped into interpreted genetic classes, such as playa or alluvial fan, to create a three-dimensional model of the interpreted facies data. Three-dimensional facies models computed from these data portray the alluvial infilling of a tectonically formed basin with intermittent internal drainage and localized regional groundwater discharge. The lithologic and interpreted facies models compare favorably to resistivity, aeromagnetic, and geologic map data, lending confidence to the interpretation.

  10. Reinterpretation of Halokinetic Features in the Ancestral Rocky Mountains Paradox Salt Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. A.; Giles, K. A.; Rowan, M. G.; Hearon, T. E., IV

    2016-12-01

    The Paradox Basin in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado is a foreland basin formed in response to flexural loading by the Pennsylvanian-aged Uncompaghre uplift during the Ancestral Rocky Mountain orogen. Thick sequences of evaporites (Paradox Formation) were deposited within the foreland basin, which interfinger with clastic sediments in the foredeep and carbonates around the basin margin. Differential loading of the Pennsylvanian-Jurassic sediments onto the evaporites drove synsedimentary halokinesis, creating a series of salt walls and adjacent minibasins within the larger foreland basin. The growing salt walls within the basin influenced patterns of sediment deposition from the Pennsylvanian through the Cretaceous. By integrating previously published mapping with recent field observations, mapping, and subsurface interpretations of well logs and 2D seismic lines, we present interpretations of the timing, geometry, and nature of halokinesis within the Paradox Basin, which record the complex salt tectonic history in the basin. Furthermore, we present recent work on the relationships between the local passive salt history and the formation of syndepositional counter-regional extensional fault systems within the foreland. These results will be integrated into a new regional salt-tectonic and stratigraphic framework of the Paradox Basin, and have broader implications for interpreting sedimentary records in other basins with a mobile substrate.

  11. Adaptation of Arabidopsis thaliana to the Yangtze River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Pan; Hou, Xing-Hui; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Jia-Fu; Li, Zi-Wen; Han, Ting-Shen; Niu, Xiao-Min; Yang, Li; Xu, Yong-Chao; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Min; Tan, Dunyan; Tian, Zhixi; Gu, Hongya; Guo, Ya-Long

    2017-12-28

    Organisms need to adapt to keep pace with a changing environment. Examining recent range expansion aids our understanding of how organisms evolve to overcome environmental constraints. However, how organisms adapt to climate changes is a crucial biological question that is still largely unanswered. The plant Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent system to study this fundamental question. Its origin is in the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa, but it has spread to the Far East, including the most south-eastern edge of its native habitats, the Yangtze River basin, where the climate is very different. We sequenced 118 A. thaliana strains from the region surrounding the Yangtze River basin. We found that the Yangtze River basin population is a unique population and diverged about 61,409 years ago, with gene flows occurring at two different time points, followed by a population dispersion into the Yangtze River basin in the last few thousands of years. Positive selection analyses revealed that biological regulation processes, such as flowering time, immune and defense response processes could be correlated with the adaptation event. In particular, we found that the flowering time gene SVP has contributed to A. thaliana adaptation to the Yangtze River basin based on genetic mapping. A. thaliana adapted to the Yangtze River basin habitat by promoting the onset of flowering, a finding that sheds light on how a species can adapt to locales with very different climates.

  12. Energy in Canada 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This publication provides a panoramic overview of Canada's energy situation at the beginning of the 21st century, presenting the issues that drive the country's energy policy, and a look at the various technologies by which energy is produced, its sources, transformation and the infrastructure required to deliver it to the consumer. Energy consumption by sectors of the economy, energy conservation and energy conservation issues are analyzed, and details of the lines of actions designed by the federal government to achieve its energy policy objectives are explained. Appendix One provides more detail on the complex issue of climate change, while Appendix Two provides some energy-related statistics, extracted from a database of energy statistics which are also available in graphic or spreadsheet format at http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/es/ener2000. 12 tabs., 40 figs

  13. Tritium activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1995-01-01

    Canadian tritium activites comprise three major interests: utilites, light manufacturers, and fusion. There are 21 operating CANDU reactors in Canada; 19 with Ontario Hydro and one each with Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power. There are two light manufacturers, two primary tritium research facilities (at AECL Chalk River and Ontario Hydro Technologies), and a number of industry and universities involved in design, construction, and general support of the other tritium activities. The largest tritum program is in support of the CANDU reactors, which generate tritium in the heavy water as a by-product of normal operation. Currently, there are about 12 kg of tritium locked up in the heavy water coolant and moderator of these reactors. The fusion work is complementary to the light manufacturing, and is concerned with tritium handling for the ITER program. This included design, development and application of technologies related to Isotope Separation, tritium handling, (tritiated) gas separation, tritium-materials interaction, and plasma fueling

  14. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and

  15. Western Canada drilling barely keeping pace with production replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russum, D.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation provided a unique perspective of gas exploration, production and expectations in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). For the past several years, approximately 80 per cent of Canada's natural gas production has come from Alberta. In order to sustain this production level, greater activity is needed in the large and mature fields where conventional production is in decline. Rising gas prices resulting from tight supply in North America are providing incentive for additional activity, particularly in small, unconventional gas pools. The trend away from large, conventional gas pools has resulted in a decline in average well productivity. Continuing this trend will become more challenging and costly to sustain in the coming years, particularly since the oil and gas industry in Canada is already encountering manpower limitations, climate change, stringent environmental standards, and resistance from the general public. The author cautioned that the low cost and finite natural gas resource has been squandered in North America since the 1980s. The challenge now is to carefully consider how much gas can be produced in the future, but also at a cost that the consumer will pay in the global market. It was suggested that in addition to ensuring that domestic consumption and exports are targeted on the most efficient and value-added outcomes, Alberta's and Canada's energy plan should recognize the limitations of natural gas production. figs

  16. Permian Basin location recommendation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    Candidate study areas are screened from the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basin areas using data obtained from studies to date and criteria and specifications that consider: rock geometry; rock characteristics; human intrusion potential; surface characteristics; and environmental and socioeconomic conditions. Two preferred locations are recommended from among these areas for additional characterization to identify potential National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) salt repository sites. One location, in northeastern Deaf Smith County and southeastern Oldham County, is underlain by two salt units that meet the adopted screening specifications. The other location, in northcentral Swisher County, is underlain by one salt unit that meets the adopted screening specifications. Both locations have several favorable features, relative to surrounding areas, and no obviously undesirable characteristics. Both lie wholly on the Southern High Plains surface, are in relatively sparsely populated areas, contain no unique land use conflicts, and comprise large enough geographic areas to provide flexibility in site selection. Data gathered to date indicate that these locations contain salt units sufficient in thickness and in depth for the safe construction and operation of the underground facilities under consideration. 93 references, 34 figures, 6 tables

  17. Canada`s green plan - The second year. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Canada`s Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan`s goal is `to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.` It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan`s short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities.

  18. Canada No. 1 in business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    Canada has for the fifth time in a row been chosen the best industrialized country in the world in which to initiate and run a business. The Norwegian interest in Canada has grown strongly the last years and Norwegian companies have invested over 20 billion NOK there. Canada is the perfect gateway to the large markets in the USA. Norway is currently Canada's 15th largest trading partner. In addition to low costs and strategic location, Canada has the most highly educated workforce in the world. A company on the Canadian side of the US border has the same access to the American market as a US-based company. There is even a Norwegian company in Canada that exports 100 per cent of its products across the border to the USA. The trade between the USA and Canada is more extensive than between the USA and all the EU countries together. Furthermore, Canadian companies concentrating on research and education are given a generous tax credit

  19. Quantitative morphotectonic analysis of the South-Eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionuţ Cristea, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    South-Eastern Carpathians (Vrancea Region) have received an increasing scientific attention during the past years, mostly resulting in a detailed reconstruction of their exumation history. Moreover structural and thermocronological data suggest that the frontal part of the SE Carpathians conserves the youngest topography in the Romanian Carpathians resulting from a deformational process occurring during the late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene. This significant tectonic activity continues to the present time as it is confirmed by the geodetic measurements and by the frequency of crustal earthquakes. The specific effects of the Quaternary deformations on the regional fluvial system were associated so far with an increased incision and the formation of the degradational (strath) terraces, downstream tiling of terraces, the establishment of local drainage divides and young longitudinal river profiles. Our study further investigates the possible influence of the recent tectonic activity on the characteristics of the drainage basins in the area and the distribution of the over-steepened stream reaches using spatial autocorrelation techniques (Getis Ord Gi* statistics and Anselin's Local Moran's I). For the first, hypsometric integrals (Hi) and transverse topographic symmetry factor were analyzed. For the last, we used locally computed normalized channel steepness index (ksn). Due to the highly variable lithology in the region (specific to the Flysch areas), additional correlations of the determined values with the geological units and rock types have been made in order to assess the effects. The results show that the geographic clustering of the high Hi and ksn values is more significant than the lithological one, and, although the rock strength have local influences, this is not sufficient to explain the regional distribution of the values, generally between 26.5o and 26.66o E (p

  20. Perforated peptic ulcer in southeastern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chin-Hsien; Chang, Wen-Hsiung; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Lin, Shee-Chan; Bair, Ming-Jong

    2010-09-01

    No studies focus on the population with perforated peptic ulcer in southeastern Taiwan. The present study aimed to assess the differences between the different races and the risk factors related to mortality and morbidity in postoperative patients in southeastern Taiwan. The medical records of 237 patients were reviewed retrospectively. The following factors were analyzed: patient profiles, coexisting illnesses, diagnostic method, fever, preoperative shock, clinical data at emergency room, delay operation, site of perforation, operative method, positive ascites culture, species of microbes in ascites culture, postoperative complications, death and the length of hospital stay. Aborigines were significantly different from non-aborigines in the ratio of female cases and in the habits of alcohol drinking and betel nut chewing. There were also four significantly different variables between them: fever, hemoglobin value, site of perforation and operative method. Total postoperative complication rate was 41.3% and 39 patients (16.6%) died. In multivariate analysis, age > or = 65 years, lipase > upper normal limit and preoperative shock were independent predictors of mortality. Significant risk factors associated with morbidity were NSAIDs use, creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and preoperative shock. Aborigines were different from non-aborigines in several categories. In southeastern Taiwan, NSAIDs use, creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and preoperative shock were independent risk factors of morbidity, and age > or = 65 years, lipase > upper normal limit and preoperative shock were independent risk factors of mortality in postoperative perforated peptic ulcer. Lipase > upper normal limit is needed for further research on the influence on mortality.

  1. Uranium production, exploration and mine development in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R. E

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Canada has been the world leader in uranium production since the early 1990's and production in 2005 was 11,629 te U. The Elliott Lake region of Ontario was once the centre of production, but after the last facilities closed in 1996, all production now comes from the Athabasca Basin in northern Saskatchewan. Average grades of the world's two largest high grade deposits at McArthur River and Cigar Lake are 10 to 100 times the grade of deposits mined elsewhere. McArthur River has been in production since late 1999 and first production from Cigar Lake is expected in 2007. If all expansion and probable mine openings come to fruition, annual Canadian production could amount to 16,000 te U by 2011. All currently operating uranium mines have been the subject of a comprehensive environmental assessment and review process. Uranium mining brings significant benefits to local area residents in northern Saskatchewan. Residents of northern Saskatchewan are active participants in Environmental Quality Committees. Recent survey results show the majority of Saskatchewan residents support the continuation of uranium mining in the province. The closed uranium mines in Canada have been successfully decommissioned and rehabilitated in particular in the Elliott Lake region of Ontario. The principle exploration target in Canada remains the Athabasca Basin, but activity has also been reported in several of the other territories and provinces. Natural Resources Canada estimates that some $CAN81M was spent on exploration in Canada in 2005. Under the Canadian Constitution, natural resources are owned by the provinces or by the federal government if they are on federal lands north of 60 0 C latitude. The provinces have jurisdiction over exploration activities within their borders and for most commodities have jurisdiction over mine development and production, operations, health and safety and environmental matters. Once a company starts to develop a deposit into a mine

  2. Northern gas : Arctic Canada and Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses supply challenges in relation to Northern gas availability in Arctic Canada and Alaska. A background of BP Canada Energy Company was provided. It was suggested that gas from traditional North American basins would not meet demand, and that incremental sources of supply would be needed. A map of traditional and non-tradition supply sources was presented along with details of supply and infrastructure investment requirements from 2003-2025. The roles of producers, local distribution companies, pipelines and policy makers in infrastructure development were examined. Potential resources in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta were discussed, along with details of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project and exploration activities. Alaska's North Slope gas resource was reviewed. Several large projects devolving from the Alaska Gas Pipeline represent an anticipated total investment of $20 billion. Various regulatory and economic conditions necessary for the successful completion of the project include the Alaska Fiscal Contract; Alaska gas provisions in the Federal Energy Bill; details of the Canadian regulatory process; and cost reductions and market outlooks. It was concluded that the Alaska Gas Pipeline would provide thousands of jobs and provide stability of long-term gas prices as well as meeting North America's energy needs. In addition, the pipeline would provide $16 billion in Canadian government revenues and $40 billion in US government revenues. The pipeline would provide 4.5 billion cubic feet per day of clean energy, with half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal. It would also provide hundreds of billions of dollars in consumer savings. tabs, figs

  3. Wellons Canada energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Wellons Canada is a British Columbia-based company that specializes in the manufacture and installation of lumber drying and energy conversion equipment. This brochure provided details of the Wellons energy system designed for oriented strand board (OSB) plants. The brochure outlined the system's scope of supply, and provided illustrations of system procedures from the initial wet fuel bin through to the electric precipitator used for air clean-up. During the process, fuel was conveyed from the bin to metering bins into combustors and through a cyclo-blast cell. Forced draft fan systems were then used to provide primary and secondary combustion air. Radiant heaters were then used. A drop-out chamber was supplied to allow for complete combustion of fuel particles and to provide a drop-out of ash. A fan was then used to deliver diluent air to maintain the set point temperature in the hot gas stream. Refractory lined hot gas ducts were used to deliver heat to the dryers. Hot gas was then drawn through a multi-cyclone collector for ash removal. Electrostatic precipitators were used to clean up emissions on a continuous operating basis. An automatic system was used to collect ash from the combustion system grates and other areas. Details of installation services provided by the company were also included. 42 figs.

  4. Flammability of litter from southeastern trees: a preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Varner; Jeffrey M. Kane; Erin M. Banwell; Jesse K. Kreye

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern United States possesses a great diversity of woody species and an equally impressive history of wildland fires. Species are known to vary in their flammability, but little is known about southeastern species. We used published data and our own collections to perform standard litter flammability tests on a diverse suite of 25 native overstory trees from...

  5. The nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Broughton, W.

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear industry in Canada comprises three identifiable groups: (1) Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), (2) electrical utilities that use nuclear power plants, (3) private engineering and manufacturing companies. At the end of World War II, AECL was charged with investigating and developing peaceful uses of atomic power. Included in the results is the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, a peculiarly Canadian design. The AECL maintains research capability and operates as the prime nuclear steam supply system supplier. Utilities in three Canadian provinces operate nuclear power plants, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario, with the majority in Ontario. From the beginning of the nuclear program in Canada, private industry has been an important partner to AECL and the utilities, filling roles as manufacturing subcontractors and as component designers. The prime objective of this paper is to illuminate the role of private industry in developing and maintaining a competitive world-class nuclear industry

  6. Canada-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ek, Carl; Fergusson, Ian F; Nunez-Neto, Blas; Clarke, Stephen F; Abel, Amy; Becker, Geoffrey S; Buck, Eugene H; Corn, M. L; Gelb, Bernard A; Gorte, Ross W

    2006-01-01

    .... The early 1990s brought new governments to Ottawa and Washington, and although Canada's Liberal Party emphasized its determination to act independently of the United States when necessary, relations...

  7. Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomiero, Leandro; Braga, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira) subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and analyzed....

  8. Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga, F. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and analyzed.

  9. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    reaffirmed this timetable and added goat meat, chicken, ginseng, pecans , and macadamia nuts as covered commodities. A final rule was issued on...major countries gather to discuss and coordinate international policies. The G-8 is a group of advanced countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy ...Financial Crisis Since the mid-1970s, leaders from the G-7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy , Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States), a small group

  10. A staff shortage in Canada?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, P.

    1995-01-01

    Attrition of experienced staff, falling student enrolments and closure of university courses are symptoms of the contraction of the Canadian nuclear industry over the last two decades. It is not alone. A study carried out by Human Resources Development Canada, a government department, to forecast the demand for qualified nuclear staff in Canada over the next 15 years has reached similar conclusions to an OECD/NEA study of its members' future personnel requirements. (author)

  11. Zoonotic Leprosy in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Singh, Pushpendra; Loughry, W.J.; Lockhart, J. Mitchell; Inman, W. Barry; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Pena, Maria T.; Marcos, Luis A.; Scollard, David M.; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are naturally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and have been implicated in zoonotic transmission of leprosy. Early studies found this disease mainly in Texas and Louisiana, but armadillos in the southeastern United States appeared to be free of infection. We screened 645 armadillos from 8 locations in the southeastern United States not known to harbor enzootic leprosy for M. leprae DNA and antibodies. We found M. leprae–infected armadillos at each location, and 106 (16.4%) animals had serologic/PCR evidence of infection. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism variable number tandem repeat genotyping/genome sequencing, we detected M. leprae genotype 3I-2-v1 among 35 armadillos. Seven armadillos harbored a newly identified genotype (3I-2-v15). In comparison, 52 human patients from the same region were infected with 31 M. leprae types. However, 42.3% (22/52) of patients were infected with 1 of the 2 M. leprae genotype strains associated with armadillos. The geographic range and complexity of zoonotic leprosy is expanding. PMID:26583204

  12. Canada's conventional natural gas resources : a status report : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada as well as the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. Energy market assessment reports examine different facets of the Canadian energy market and include long term-assessments of Canada's supply and demand as well as near-term energy market issues. This report examines the geological potential for conventional natural gas resources. An estimate of those resources for Canada was also presented. The main objective of the report is to set the groundwork for future partnerships between provincial, territorial and federal agencies. The size of Alberta's conventional natural gas resources is being examined in partnership with the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). The ultimate potential for conventional natural gas in British Columbia is being assessed by the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines. The Board's internal assessment for 2004 has revealed an estimate of 207 trillion cubic feet for the ultimate of conventional natural gas in Alberta. This estimate is higher than the estimate provided by the Canadian Gas Potential Committee in 2001 and higher than the 1992 assessment of the EUB. It was noted that most undiscovered resources in Alberta will be found in the shallow Cretaceous zones, not in deep Devonian zones. The Board also revised its estimate for the Mackenzie Delta-Beaufort Sea region and the East Newfoundland Basin. The current estimate for ultimate potential of conventional natural gas in Canada is 501 trillion cubic feet, with the following distribution of the resources by basin: Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (54.5 per cent), Northern Canada (23.1 per cent), East Coast (18.3 per cent), West Coast (3.4 per cent), Ontario (0.5 per cent), and Gulf of St. Lawrence (0.3 per cent). 39 refs., 7 tabs., 13 figs

  13. Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) in southeastern Oregon: A survey of historical localities, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Chistopher A.; Galvan, Stephanie K.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) occupies a large range in western North America and is comprised of at least three genetic units. Concern exists regarding the status of the Great Basin populations in Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada. We surveyed target and nearby alternate sites on public lands in southeastern Oregon where there was evidence that Columbia spotted frogs were historically present. We found the species at 59.5 percent (25 of 42) of target or nearby alternate sites. They were in 15 of 23 permanent streams and 8 of 13 intermittent streams. Our surveys do not provide evidence of widespread population losses in our sites. Interpretation of status of Columbia spotted frogs in this study is limited by a lack of precision in some of the historical locations and by our inability to determine if locations where only adults were indicated in the historical record once had breeding populations. Our results support the need for continued investigation of these populations.

  14. A transitional alkalic dolerite dike suite of Mesozoic age in Southeastern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, O. Don; Rao, J. M.; Dickenson, M. P.; Pierce, T. A.

    1984-12-01

    Dike rocks from the New England platform of Rhode Island and adjacent Massachusetts consist of premetamorphic and post-metamorphic suites. The older group includes metamorphosed dolerite, minette, and schistose dioritic rocks. Post-metamorphic dikes consist of dolerite and sparse monchiquite. The post-metamorphic dolerites are of comparable age to the Eastern North American dolerite suite associated with the Mesozoic basins along the eastern seaboard of North America. However, the southeastern New England dolerites exhibit mineralogy and chemistry more typical of a transitional alkalic suite compared to the more subalkalic tholeiitic dolerites of the Eastern North American suite. Both suites are compatible with a rift tectonic setting, but the more alkalic dolerites may represent a deeper source of small volume melts compared to the Eastern North American dolerites. These more alkaline melts may have concentrated at local centers, or they may be typical of flank dolerites as opposed to the less alkalic varieties that occur within the central axial rift.

  15. Sediment Flux and Storage in a Rural Southeastern Piedmont River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. R.; Martin, J. K.

    2001-12-01

    A sediment budget was developed for a representative rural southeastern Piedmont watershed to provide information on the relative importance of sediment sources. Sediment issues in the southeastern Piedmont are complicated by the so-called legacy sediment produced by poor farming practices during the cotton-farming era, approximately 1810-1930. The Murder Creek basin near Monticello, GA was chosen because: it featured forestry and agriculture as the principal land uses; a USGS gage provided a flow record; and the creek deposited in a reservoir built in 1948. Suspended load export was calculated using a sediment rating curve and the USGS flow time series. Bed load export was determined by estimating the volume of sediment deposited in the reservoir since construction. Unpaved road erosion was estimated using the WEPP model, and other surface erosion was estimated using USLE and delivery ratios. Historical floodplain storage was determined by coring floodplain deposits, measuring the depth to the pre-historic/historic sediment interface, and multiplying by the area of the floodplain. Recent accretion rates were estimated using dendrogeomorphology. Results showed that the practices of the cotton farming era deposited an average of 1.6 meters of sediment on the floodplains. This depth was relatively uniform across the watershed. The cotton-farming sediment in storage exceeds the current annual export by a factor of about 5000. Approximately half of the current export comes from current inputs, and half comes from remobilized floodplain sediments.

  16. A review of the petroleum geochemistry of the Precaspian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pairazian, V.V. [All-Russian Geological Oil Research and Prospecting Inst. (VNIGNI), Moscow (Russian Federation); ENI-AGIP, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    1999-11-01

    On the territory of the former Soviet Union more than 30- oil and gas-bearing basins have been defined. Among them the Precaspian basin is one of the most prolific in terms of oil and gas exploration and production. The basin is situated in the southeastern part of the East European Platform and covers an areas of about 500 000 km{sup 2}. There are a number of source rocks of different ages, among which the principal ones are Lower Permian, Middle Carboniferous and Middle Devonian marine shales and carbonates. The post-salt Mesozoic sources are of less significance. Geological and geochemical data interpretation allows the main oil/gas accumulation zones and new exploration prospects to be defined. Two main petroleum systems are recognised in the Palaeozoic sequence of the basin, containing 90% of the recoverable hydrocarbon resources: Lower Permian-Middle Carboniferous and Lower Carboniferous-Upper Devonian. The new exploration targets are deep Middle Devonian clastic reservoirs on the passive continental margins and Middle Carboniferous (Bashkirian) carbonates in the Caspian offshore part of the basin. (Author)

  17. Fusion Canada issue 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Canada-Europe Accords: 5 year R and D collaboration for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) AECL is designated to arrange and implement the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) while EUROTAM is responsible for operating Europe's Fusion R and D programs plus MOU and EDA. The MOU includes tokamaks, plasma physics, fusion technology, fusion fuels and other approaches to fusion energy (as alternatives to tokamaks). STOR-M Tokamak was restarted at the University of Saskatchewan following upgrades to the plasma chamber to accommodate the Compact Toroid (CT) injector. The CT injector has a flexible attachment thus allowing for injection angle adjustments. Real-time video images of a single plasma discharge on TdeV showing that as the plasma density increases, in a linear ramp divertor, the plasma contact with the horizontal plate decreases while contact increases with the oblique plate. Damage-resistant diffractive optical elements (DOE) have been developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research by Gentac Inc. and the National Optics Institute, laser beam homogeniser and laser harmonic separator DOE can also be made using the same technology. Studies using TdeV indicate that a divertor will be able to pump helium from the tokamak with a detached-plasma divertor but helium extraction performance must first be improved, presently the deuterium:helium retention radio-indicates that in order to pump enough helium through a fusion reactor, too much deuterium-tritium fuel would be pumped out. 2 fig

  18. SCWR Concept in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    AECL is designing the Canadian SCWR concept, which has evolved from the well-established pressuretube type CANDU® reactor. The Canadian SCWR is designed to produce electrical energy as the main product, plus process heat, hydrogen, industrial isotopes, and drinking water (through the desalination process) as supplementary products, all within a more compact reactor building. Another potential application of the available co-generated process heat is the extraction and refining of oil sands, which is presently achieved using co-generation with natural gas turbines and process heat. The extraction and upgrading process requires: thermal power to lower the viscosity and extract the oil; electric power for separation and refining equipment; and hydrogen gas for upgrading the oil product prior to transport. A National Program has been established in Canada to support R&D studies for the Canadian SCWR design. It covers key areas of interest (such as thermal hydraulics, safety, materials, and chemistry) to participants in the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) SCWR designs. Results generated from the program are contributed to the GIF SCWR project management boards (PMBs). For example, heat transfer correlations have been derived using experimental data primarily obtained from fossil-plant related studies (which were started as early as 1930s. Materials and chemistry studies have evolved from operating experience of fossil-fired power plants to a) develop, and perform targeted testing of, materials for key components, in particular in-core reactor components that will be exposed to conditions not encountered in a fossil-fired boiler (such as irradiation and water radiolysis), and b) develop a suitable water chemistry to minimize corrosion and corrosion product transport.

  19. Ecohydrological Controls on Intra-Basin Alpine Subarctic Water Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Ziegler, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    In the mountainous Canadian subarctic, elevation gradients control the disposition of vegetation, permafrost, and characteristics of the soil profile. How intra-basin ecosystems combine to control catchment-scale water and biogeochimcal cycling is uncertain. To this end, a multi-year ecohydrological investigation was undertaken in Granger Basin (GB), a 7.6 km2 sub-basin of the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada. GB was divided into four sub-basins based on the dominant vegetation and permafrost status, and the timing and magnitude of hydrological processes were compared using hydrometric and hydrochemical methods. Vegetation plays an important role in end-of-winter snow accumulation as snow redistribution by wind is controlled by roughness length. In sub-basins of GB with tall shrubs, snow accumulation is enhanced compared with areas of short shrubs and tundra vegetation. The timing of melt was staggered with elevation, although melt-rates were similar among the sub-basins. Runoff was enhanced at the expense of infiltration in tall shrub areas due to high snow water equivalent and antecedent soil moisture. In the high-elevation tundra sub-basin, thin soils with cold ground temperatures resulted in increased surface runoff. For the freshet period, the lower and upper sub-basins accounted for 81 % of runoff while accounting for 58 % of the total basin area. Two-component isotopic hydrograph separation revealed that during melt, pre-event water dominated in all sub-basins, yet those with greater permafrost disposition and taller shrubs had increased event-water. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) spiked prior to peak freshet in each sub-basin except for the highest with thin soils, and was associated with flushing of surficial organic soils. For the post-melt period, all sub-basins have similar runoff contributions. Solute and stable isotope data indicate that in sub-basins dominated by permafrost, supra-permafrost runoff pathways predominate as flow

  20. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    and winter precipitation totals were used to anticipate flooding of Holgate Lake. Several factors affect annual mean flow of Johnson Creek. More precipitation falls in the southeastern area of the basin because of the topographic setting. Runoff from much of the northern and western areas of the basin does not flow into Johnson Creek due to permeable deposits, interception by combined sewer systems, and by groundwater flow away from Johnson Creek. Inflow from Crystal Springs Creek accounts for one-half of the increase in streamflow of Johnson Creek between the Sycamore and Milwaukie sites. Low flows of Johnson Creek vary as a result of fluctuations in groundwater discharge to the creek, although past water uses may have decreased flows. The groundwater contributions to streamflow upstream of river mile (RM) 5.5 are small compared to contributions downstream of this point. Comparison of flows to a nearby basin indicates that diversions of surface water may have resulted in a 50 percent decrease in low flows from about 1955 to 1977. Runoff from the drainage basin area upstream of the Johnson Creek at Sycamore site contributes more to peak streamflow and peak volume than the drainage basin area between the Sycamore and Milwaukie sites. The average increase in annual peak streamflow and annual peak volume between the two sites was 11 and 24 percent, respectively. Decreased contribution in the lower area of the drainage basin is a result of infiltration, interception by drywell and combined sewer systems, and temporary overbank storage. Trends in flow typically associated with increasing urban development were absent in Johnson Creek. Annual, low, and high flows showed no trend from 1941 to 2006. Much of the infrastructure that may affect runoff from agricultural, residential, and urban development was in place prior to collection of hydrologic data in the basin. Management of stormwater in the urban areas by routing runoff from impervious surfaces to dry

  1. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment survey (NURE). Preliminary report on the Smoke Creek Desert Basin pilot study (Nevada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) is conducting a hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment survey in the seven western states as part of ERDA's National Uranium Resources Evaluation (NURE) Program. The objective of this survey is to develop a geochemical data base for use by the private sector to locate regions of anomalous uranium content. Prior to wide area coverage, several pilot studies are being undertaken to develop and evaluate sampling and analytical techniques. The second through fifth of these studies were conducted in four playa basins in Nevada, selected to represent different regional geology and uranium occurrence. This study in the Smoke Creek Desert Basin, characterizes igneous surface geology with known uranium occurrences. The Smoke Creek Desert Basin is the largest of the four playa basins and contains an areaof about 2700 square kilometers (1003 square miles). The basin is bordered on the east by the Fox Hills and on the north and east by the Granite Ranges which are characterized by granite, pegmatites, and Tertiary rocks very similar to the lithology of the Winnemucca Basin boundary ranges (study UCID-16911-P-2). On the west the Desert is bordered by an area of extensive basalt flow. There is no known uranium occurrence in the area, and metallization of any kind is scarce. This study is applicable to the western igneous portion of the Basin and Range Province which includes southeastern Oregon, western Nevada, and southeastern California. This report contains only analytical data and sample locations

  2. Geochemistry of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, southeastern New Mexico, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive geochemical data base, including analyses of major and minor solutes, mineralogical studies of core samples, and isotopic studies of waters, carbonates and sulfates, has been assembled for evaporites and related rocks in the northern Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. These data were compiled for the geological and hydrological characterization of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is excavated in the evaporites of the Salado Formation. These data were evaluated in order:(1) to determine the stability of the evaporite mineralogy over geological time; (2) to compare the aqueous geochemistry with host rock mineralogy; (3) to delineate the nature and timing of water-rock interactions, such as dissolution and recrystallization; and (4) to determine the geological and climatic conditions that have governed groundwater recharge. The resulting synthesis of data and current hypotheses concerning the origin, composition and history of waters in the evaporite rocks and related units of the Delaware Basin provides a tentative conceptual model for the behavior of the water-rock system since the deposition of the evaporites in the Permian. Essential components of this model include: (1) widespread Late Triassic/Early Jurassic evaporite recrystallization; (2) accumulation of deep-basin brines isolated from meteoric recharge; (3) evaporite dissolution by meteoric waters flowing in carbonates and sulfates interbedded in the uppermost Permian section and at the basin margin; (4) lateral rather than vertical infiltration of pre-Holocene meteoric waters in the uppermost Permian section; and (5) climatic conditions presently less conductive to recharge than in the Late Pleistocene. (author)

  3. Environmental tritium as a hydrometeorologic tool in the Roswell basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, D.D.; Gross, F.W.; Holmes, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    Tritium analyses of precipitation collected in central New Mexico in the years 1957-1968 were combined with precipitation distribution patterns in space and time. An empirical tritium input function (effective fallout) was constructed for the Roswell artesian basin in southeastern New Mexico. Rather than linearly related to precipitation, recharge is proportional to a sliding function of the mean annual precipitation. Proper selection of precipitation measuring stations was of critical importance in constructing the tritium input function

  4. The legacy of lead (Pb) in fluvial bed sediments of an urban drainage basin, Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotton, Veronica K; Sutherland, Ross A

    2016-03-01

    The study of fluvial bed sediments is essential for deciphering the impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality and drainage basin integrity. In this study, a systematic sampling design was employed to characterize the spatial variation of lead (Pb) concentrations in bed sediment of urban streams in the Palolo drainage basin, southeastern Oahu, Hawaii. Potentially bioavailable Pb was assessed with a dilute 0.5 N HCl extraction of the  Pukele (19) > Waiomao (8). Comparisons to sediment quality guidelines and potential toxicity estimates using a logistic regression model (LRM) indicated a significant potential risk of Palolo Stream bed sediments to bottom-dwelling organisms.

  5. Nitrogen dynamics in subtropical fringe and basin mangrove forests inferred from stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Carla Roberta Gonçalves; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld; Rochelle, André Luis Casarin; Vieira, Simone Aparecida; Oliveira, Rafael Silva

    2017-03-01

    Mangroves exhibit low species richness compared to other tropical forests, but great structural and functional diversity. Aiming to contribute to a better understanding of the functioning of mangrove forests, we investigated nitrogen (N) dynamics in two physiographic types of mangroves (fringe and basin forests) in southeastern Brazil. Because fringe forests are under great influence of tidal flushing we hypothesized that these forests would exhibit higher N cycling rates in sediment and higher N losses to the atmosphere compared to basin forests. We quantified net N mineralization and nitrification rates in sediment and natural abundance of N stable isotopes (δ 15 N) in the sediment-plant-litter system. The fringe forest exhibited higher net N mineralization rates and δ 15 N in the sediment-plant-litter system, but net nitrification rates were similar to those of the basin forest. The results of the present study suggest that fringe forests exhibit higher N availability and N cycling in sediment compared to basin forests.

  6. Canada's energy future : 2008 workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The National Energy Board hosted this Energy Futures Workshop as a follow-up to its report entitled Canada's Energy Future: Reference Case and Scenarios to 2030, which focused on emerging trends in energy supply and demand. Various energy futures that may be available to Canadians up to the year 2030 were examined. This workshop addressed issues regarding the growing demand for energy, the adequacy of future energy supplies, and related issues of greenhouse gas emissions, emerging technologies, energy infrastructure and energy exports. The workshop was attended by 18 experts who presented their diverse views on long-term energy issues. The sessions of the workshop focused on external and key geopolitical issues that will influence Canadian energy markets; the adoption of alternative and emerging sources of energy; outlook for Canadian oil supply, including oil sands development, reservoir quality, and financial, environmental and technological issues; issues in electricity generation and transmission; gas market dynamics; and carbon dioxide capture and storage and the associated benefits and challenges. There was general consensus that global and Canadian energy markets will remain in a state of flux. Crude oil prices are likely to remain high and volatile. The combination of maturing energy resource basins and geopolitical tensions has created uncertainty about future availability and access to global energy resources. 2 figs., 3 appendices

  7. Canada's isotope crisis : what next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathwani, J.; Wallace, D.

    2010-01-01

    Canada urgently requires a rigorous debate on the strategic options for ensuring a robust, reliable, and affordable supply of radioactive isotopes. Should the debate be confined to how Canada can best develop the necessary technologies solely for our own use or should Canada abandon the idea of producing its own isotope supply and any future aspirations to serve the global market? Canada's Isotope Crisis focuses on the central policy question: do we dare to try to shape the future or do we retreat into silence because we are not prepared to make the necessary investments for the future well-being of Canadians? This volume showcases pointed essays and analysis from members of the academy and individuals who have made contributions to the development of medical isotopes and pioneered their use in medical practice. It also includes commentary from those involved in the production, manufacturing, processing, and distribution of isotopes. Canada's Isotope Crisis is a multi-disciplinary effort that addresses the global dimension of isotope supply and combines expert opinions on the present and past with knowledge of the relevant government agencies and the basis for their decisions at critical junctures.

  8. Redistribution of cesium-137 in southeastern watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, J.R.; Ritchie, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Sediment samples from 14 southeastern agricultural reservoirs and surface samples from representative soils from the contributing water shed areas were analyzed for 137 Cs. The concentrations of 137 Cs measured reflect the nature of the watershed, its cover, its use, and man's activities. Since the redistribution of 137 Cs was assumed to result from soil erosion, recent erosion rates can be calculated from the measured 137 Cs accumulations in sediments and from the decreases in the 137 Cs calculated to have been deposited on upland soils. Measured concentrations of 137 Cs ranged from 14 to 158 nCi/m 2 in surface soils. As much as 525 nCi/m 2 of 137 Cs was measured in the deposited sediment profile. Watershed budgets for 137 Cs were calculated for three representative watersheds using available sediment survey information and the measured 137 Cs concentrations

  9. Exploratory shaft conceptual design report: Paradox Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This conceptual design report summarizes the conceptualized design for an exploratory shaft facility at a representative site in the Paradox Basin located in the southeastern part of Utah. Conceptualized designs for other possible locations (Permian Basin in Texas and Gulf Interior Region salt domes in Louisiana and Mississippi) are summarized in separate reports. The purpose of the exploratory shaft facility is to provide access to the reference repository horizon to permit in situ testing of the salt. The in-situ testing is necessary to verify repository salt design parameters, evaluate isotropy and homogeneity of the salt, and provide a demonstration of the constructability and confirmation of the design to gain access to the repository. The fundamental purpose of this conceptual design report is to assure the feasibility of the exploratory shaft project and to develop a reliable cost estimate and realistic schedule. Because a site has not been selected and site-specific subsurface data are not available, it has been necessary to make certain assumptions in order to develop a conceptual design for an exploratory shaft facility in salt. As more definitive information becomes available to support the design process, adjustments in the projected schedule and estimated costs will be required

  10. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area

  11. 2.5D seismic velocity modelling in the south-eastern Romanian Carpathians Orogen and its foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocin, Andrei; Stephenson, Randell; Tryggvason, Ari; Panea, Ionelia; Mocanu, Victor; Hauser, Franz; Matenco, Liviu

    2005-12-01

    The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappe system and the architecture of the Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the Vrancea zone, including the rapidly subsiding Focsani Basin. The DACIA-PLAN profile is about 140 km long, having a roughly WNW-ESE direction, from near the southeast Transylvanian Basin, across the mountainous south-eastern Carpathians and their foreland to near the Danube River. A high resolution 2.5D velocity model of the upper crust along the seismic profile has been determined from a tomographic inversion of the DACIA-PLAN first arrival data. The results show that the data fairly accurately resolve the transition from sediment to crystalline basement beneath the Focsani Basin, where industry seismic data are available for correlation, at depths up to about 10 km. Beneath the external Carpathians nappes, apparent basement (material with velocities above 5.8 km/s) lies at depths as shallow as 3-4 km, which is less than previously surmised on the basis of geological observations. The first arrival travel-time data suggest that there is significant lateral structural heterogeneity on the apparent basement surface in this area, suggesting that the high velocity material may be involved in Carpathian thrusting.

  12. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 23 figs., 95 tabs

  13. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1991 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  14. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Information is appended on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  15. Canada report on bioenergy 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Canada possesses significant forest resources. This paper reviewed Canada's bioenergy potential and market. Biomass in Canada is used to produce heat and power, as well as to produce ethanol and biodiesel. Biomass is also used to produce pyrolysis oil and wood pellets. Biomass resources included woody biomass; annual residue production; hog fuel piles; forest harvest waste and urban wood residues; agricultural residues; and municipal solid wastes. Trends in biomass production and consumption were discussed, and current biomass users were identified. A review of biomass prices was presented, and imports and exports for ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets were discussed. Barriers and opportunities for trade were also outlined. 6 tabs., 6 figs. 1 appendix.

  16. The Assessment Of Small Games On Fadama Land In Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Assessment Of Small Games On Fadama Land In Southeastern Nigeria And The Potential For Development. ... country can offer feasible operational strategy for sustainable wildlife species development. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. The potential of energy farming in the southeastern California desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, V.

    1980-04-01

    The use of energy forms to provide future sources of energy for California is considered. Marginal desert lands in southeastern California are proposed for the siting of energy farms using acacia, eucalyptus, euphorbia, guayule, jojoba, mesquite, or tamarisk.

  18. The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern Zimbabwe. ... African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... Comparisons with other southern African savannas are made, and similarities and differences are discussed.

  19. Seismic stratigraphy and regional unconformity analysis of Chukchi Sea Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasheva, Mariia; Karpov, Yury; Stoupakova, Antonina; Suslova, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Russian Chukchi Sea Shelf one of petroleum potential province and still one of the most uninvestigated area. North and Sough Chukchi Trough that separated by Wrangel-Hearld Arch have different origin. The main challenge is stratigraphic sequences determination that filled North and South Chukchi basins. The joint tectonic evolution of the territory as Canada basin opening and Brooks Range-Wrangel Herald orogenic events enable to expect the analogous stratigraphy sequences in Russian Part. Analysis of 2D seismic data of Russian and American Chukchi Sea represent the major seismic reflectance that traced throughout the basins. Referring to this data North Chukchi basin includes four seismic stratigraphic sequences - Franklian (pre-Mississippian), Ellesmirian (Upper Devonian-Jurassic), Beaufortian (Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) and Brookian (Lower Cretaceous-Cenozoic), as it is in North Slope Alaska [1]. South Chukchi basin has different tectonic nature, representing only Franclian basement and Brookian sequences. Sedimentary cover of North Chukchi basins starts with Ellesmirian sequence it is marked by bright reflector that separates from chaotic folded Franklian sequence. Lower Ellesmirian sequence fills of grabens that formed during upper Devonian rifting. Devonian extension event was initiated as a result of Post-Caledonian orogenic collapse, terminating with the opening of Arctic oceans. Beaufortian sequence is distinguished in Colville basin and Hanna Trough by seismically defined clinoforms. Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata are eroded by regional Lower Cretaceous Unconformity (LCU) linked with Canada basin opening. LCU is defined at seismic by angular unconformity, tracing at most arctic basins. Lower Cretaceous erosion and uplift event are of Hauterivian to Aptian age in Brooks Range and the Loppa High uplift refer to the early Barremian. The Lower Cretaceous clinoform complex downlaps to LCU horizon and filling North Chukchi basin (as in Colville basin Alska

  20. Early irrigation systems in southeastern Arizona: the ostracode perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Fest, Manuel R.; Mabry, Jonathan B.; Nials, Fred; Holmlund, James P.; Miksa, Elizabeth; Davis, Owen K.

    2001-10-01

    For the first time, the Early Agricultural Period (1200 BC-150 AD) canal irrigation in the Santa Cruz River Valley, southeastern Arizona, is documented through ostracode paleoecology. Interpretations based on ostracode paleoecology and taphonomy are supported by anthropological, sedimentological, geomorphological, and palynological information, and were used to determine the environmental history of the northern Tucson Basin during the time span represented by the sequence of canals at Las Capas (site AZ AA:12:753 ASM). We also attempt to elucidate based on archaeological artifacts if the Hohokam or a previous civilization built the canals. Between 3000 and 2400 radiocarbon years BP, at least three episodes of canal operation are defined by ostracode assemblages and pollen records. Modern (mid-late 20th century) canals supported no ostracodes, probably because of temporally brief canal operation from local wells. Three stages of water management are well defined during prehistoric canal operation. Ostracode faunal associations indicate that prehistoric peoples first operated their irrigation systems in a simple, 'opportunistic' mode (diversion of ephemeral flows following storms), and later in a complex, 'functional' mode (carefully timed diversions of perennial flows). The geomorphological reconstruction indicates that these canals had a minimum length of 1.1 km, and were possibly twice as long. The hydraulic reconstruction of these canals suggests that they had similar gradients (0.05-0.1%) to later prehistoric canals in the same valley. Discharges were also respectable. When flowing at bank-full, the largest canal provided an acre-foot of water in about 2.3 h; when flowing half-full (probably a more realistic assumption), it produced an acre-foot of water in about 8.6 h. Palynological records of the oldest canals (here identified as Features 3 and 4; 3000-2500 years BP) indicate they were used temporarily, since riparian vegetation did not grow consistently in

  1. Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA Chelsea L. Wright, Robyn M. Nadolny, Ju Jiang, Allen L. Richards, Daniel E...Virginia. We found that 43.1% of the adult Gulf Coast ticks collected in the summer of 2010 carried Rickettsia parkeri, suggesting that persons living in...or visiting southeastern Virginia are at risk for infection with this pathogen. Rickettsia parkeri is an obligate intracellular bacterium belonging

  2. Uranium assessment for the Precambrian pebble conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgman, L.E.; Sever, C.; Quimby, W.F.; Andrew, M.E.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.

    1981-03-01

    This volume is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates, and is a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential to Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 2: Drill-Hole Data, Drill-Site Geology, and Geochemical Data from the Study of Precambrian Uraniferous Conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming

  3. Basalt stratigraphy - Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Myers, C.W.; Brown, D.J.; Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1979-10-01

    The geologic history of the Pasco Basin is sketched. Study of the stratigraphy of the area involved a number of techniques including major-element chemistry, paleomagnetic investigations, borehole logging, and other geophysical survey methods. Grande Ronde basalt accumulation in the Pasco Basin is described. An illustrative log response is shown. 1 figure

  4. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossdarf, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  5. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  6. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus) pooled tetraploid accessions for U.S. Intermountain rangeland reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford A. Young; Jason Vernon; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus [Scribn. & Merr.] A. Love) is an important perennial, hardy, long-lived, cool season C3 native grass of rangeland plant communities throughout much of western United States and Canada. All classes of livestock and wildlife, including large and small birds and mammals, utilise the grass year round for food and protection due to its 2-3...

  7. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    56 RBC Financial Group, Daily Forex Fundamentals, February 27, 2009. [ http...www.actionforex.com/fundamental- analysis/daily- forex -fundamentals/canada%27s-fourth%11quarter-current-account-moves-into-deficit-after-nine-years- of-surpluses...sharing, infrastructure improvements, improvement of compatible immigration databases , visa policy coordination, common biometric identifiers in

  8. Food irradiation: progress in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada; non-regulatory developments (poultry irradiation; fish irradiation; Government willingness to fund industry initiated projects; Government willingness to establish food irradiation research and pilot plant facilities; food industry interest is increasing significantly; Canadian Consumers Association positive response; the emergence of new consulting and entrepreneurial firms). (U.K.)

  9. Comparing pyloromyotomy outcomes across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ednie, Alexander C; Amram, Ofer; Schuurman, Nadine; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2017-05-01

    Changing patterns of referral and management of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) in North America have recently been described. Comfort with perioperative management, anesthesia, and corrective surgery have been cited as reasons for these changes. Our primary objective was to assess pyloromyotomy outcomes between different hospital types across Canada. The secondary objective was to geospatially map all pyloromyotomies to identify regions of higher HPS incidence across Canada. Data of all pyloromyotomies done between 2011 and 2013 were acquired from Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Complication rates and length of hospital stay (LOS) were analyzed. Postal codes for each patient were used to geospatially map regions of higher HPS incidence. A total of 1261 pyloromyotomies were assessed. There was no difference in LOS or complication rates between different hospital types or surgeon group. Open pyloromyotomies were done in 75% of the cases. Several regions of higher HPS incidence were identified across Canada. This study found no difference in complication rate or LOS stay between hospital type and surgeon type across Canada. This may reflect a previously identified referral trend in the United States towards pediatric centers. Several regions of higher HPS incidence were identified, and may aid in identifying genetic elements causing HPS. 2c. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Canada report on bioenergy 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.

    2008-06-01

    Canada is a nation rich in fossil fuel resources. Canada has a large, well-developed forest sector and is one of the world's largest exporters of wood products. Although national bioenergy policies exist, provincial policies regarding forest resources are necessary because 77 per cent of Canada's forests are under provincial jurisdiction. This report presented an update on Canada's bioenergy policy and resources. The report discussed biomass resources such as woody biomass; agricultural residues; and municipal waste. The use of biomass was presented with particular reference to heat and power; biofuels production; pyrolysis oil; wood pellets; and trends in biomass production and consumption. Current biomass users and biomass prices were also examined. Last, the report addressed imports and exports of ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets as well as barriers and opportunities to trade. A list of Canadian bioenergy initiatives and programs was also provided. It was concluded that the greatest opportunities for trade are to succeed in research on super-densified pellets; raise ocean shipping capacity to bring down rates; and to establish and entire biomass industry in Newfoundland Labrador. 20 tabs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  11. Canada and Missions for Peace

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The study focuses primarily on Canada's role in these missions in light of ..... simply because peacekeeping has been the chief form of UN intervention and one in which ... Other factors, such as financial constraints and increasing social problems ..... Luck, superior armaments, the shortage of professional officers among the ...

  12. Canada puts emphasis on SMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to hydroelectricity and 16% share of nuclear power, Canada is among the few countries to respect GIEC's 2050 climate objectives: producing 80% of electricity without emitting CO 2 . In the context of a growing power demand, Canada has integrated nuclear energy in its energy scenarios. Small Modular Reactors (SMR) are considered as an efficient means to replace diesel generators used in small isolated communities. Several North America start-ups such as Terrestrial Energy that develops molten salt reactors, have moved to Canada. The British firm Moltex has chosen Canadian Nuclear Safety Authority (CCSN for the certification of its 4. generation reactor. In Ontario, Canada's most populated province, nuclear energy produces 60% of its electricity consumption and has allowed the progressive shutdown of all coal-fed power plants of the province. Between 2000 and 2013 nuclear power increased by 20% whereas the coal share in power production dropped by 27%. The 2014 Toronto Public Health report highlights that since 2004 premature mortality has dropped by 23% and the hospitalization due to air pollution by 41%. (A.C.)

  13. Uranium: the nuclear fuel. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E E.N. [Eldorado Nuclear Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1976-05-01

    A brief history is presented of Canadian uranium exploration, production, and sales. Statistics show that Canada is a good customer for its own uranium due to a rapidly expanding nuclear power program. Due to an average 10 year lag between commencement of exploration and production, and with current producers sold out through 1985, it is imperative that exploration efforts be increased.

  14. Nuclear fuel activities in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D S [Fuel Development Branch, Chalk River Labs., AECL (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Nuclear fuel activities in Canada are considered in the presentation on the following directions: Canadian utility fuel performance; CANDU owner`s group fuel programs; AECL advanced fuel program (high burnup fuel behaviour and development); Pu dispositioning (MOX) activities. 1 tab.

  15. Canada-India Reactor (CIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1960-12-15

    Design information on the Canada-India Reactor is presented. Data are given on reactor physics, the core, fuel elements, core heat transfer, control, reactor vessel, fluid flow, reflector and shielding, containment, cost estimates, and research facilities. Drawings of vertical and horizontal sections of the reactor and fluid flow are included. (M.C.G.)

  16. Canada's commitment to nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Murray J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives a broad update on all facets of the Canadian nuclear industry and demonstrates Canada's continuing commitment to nuclear technology. Canada has developed a global leadership position in nuclear technology for power generation, uranium production and isotope supply. This commitment is being further enhanced by successes in international markets with Candu technology, new uranium mine developments in our province of Saskatchewan, and expanding isotope capabilities including the construction of two new production reactors. Korea's economy is benefiting through collaboration with Canada's leading nuclear companies, both in Korea and Canada. These collaborations have the potential to expand considerably with the implementation of the Kyoto Framework Convention on Climate Change and the anticipated increased demand for new nuclear power generation installations in all major global markets. Much has been publicized about the situation surrounding Ontario Hydro Nuclear and its nuclear recovery program. This paper gives the background and highlights the actions within Ontario and Ontario Hydro designed to ensure the long term recovery of all twenty nuclear units in Ontario. The presentation at the conference will bring the audience completely up-to-date on recent events. (author)

  17. Canada-China power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.

    1995-01-01

    International energy opportunities were reviewed, with emphasis on China, and on Canada-China Power Inc., alternatively known as 'Team Canada'. Canada-Chine Power Inc., is a company founded by three of Canada's leading engineering consulting firms, i.e., Monenco AGRA Inc., SNC Lavalin Inc., and Acres International Limited. An office was established in Beijing in January 1994. Other Canadian manufacturers and engineering companies also have been actively pursuing hydro power opportunities in China for several years in view of China's enormous demand for power. It was estimated that by the year 2000, China will install 137 GW of new capacity, and foreign investment will account for approximately a third of the growth. AGRA is working on a 5400 MW thermal plant on Hainan Island, and is in final negotiations with the Yangtze Three Gorges Development Corporation for a management information system for their 18200 MW multi-purpose project. Criteria used by AGRA to identify international opportunities include: (1) a large capital spending program in fields with capabilities, expertise and past experience, (2) access to international funding, (3) competitive Canadian technology, and (4) an acceptable business and cultural climate. In assessing the opportunities, AGRA decided to concentrate on providing technologies in greatest need, such as project management systems, computer engineering and CAD systems, and clean coal technology

  18. Unique Measles Virus in Canada

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-24

    Dr. Shelley Deeks, chief of communicable diseases at Public Health Ontario, discusses a measles outbreak in Canada.  Created: 8/24/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  19. Rock mechanics evaluation of potential repository sites in the Paradox, Permian, and Gulf Coast Basins: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Thermal and thermomechanical analyses of a conceptual radioactive waste repository containing commercial and defense high-level wastes and spent fuel have been performing using finite element models. The thermal and thermomechanical responses of the waste package, disposal room, and repository regions were evaluated. four bedded salt formations, in Davis and Lavender Canyons in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah and in Deaf Smith and Swisher counties in the Permian Basin of northwestern Texas, and three salt domes, Vacherie Dome in northwestern Louisiana and Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in southeastern Mississippi, located in the Gulf Coast Basin, were examined. In the Paradox Basin, the pressure exerted on the waste package overpack was much greater than the initial in situ stress. The disposal room closure was less than 10 percent after 5 years. Surface uplift was nominal, and no significant thermomechanical perturbation of the aquitards was observed. In the Permian Basin, the pressure exerted on the waste package overpack was greater than the initial in situ stress. The disposal room closures were greater than 10 percent in less than 5 years. Surface uplift was nominal, and no significant thermomechanical perturbation of the aquitards was observed. In the Gulf Coast Basin, the pressure exerted on the waste package overpack was greater than the initial in situ stress. The disposal room closures were greater than 10 percent in less than 5 years. No significant thermomechanical perturbation of the overlying geology was observed. 40 refs., 153 figs., 32 tabs

  20. What's next? Lesser explored basins : offshore Newfoundland and Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J.A. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2005-07-01

    A review of the sedimentary basins of Atlantic Canada was presented with particular focus on offshore basins in the southern Grand Banks, the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Labrador Shelf. The exploration history and petroleum geology of the South Whale Basin in southern Grand Banks was discussed with reference to salt diapirism, salt tectonism and gas prone source rocks. Early exploration of the Anticosti and Magdalen Basins, 2 basins in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, revealed a proven petroleum system. However, there has been very limited modern exploration in the area. A detailed geologic review of Appalachian Ordovician carbonate producers was also presented. The early exploration phase of the Labrador Shelf from 1975 to 1982 confirmed a petroleum system. However, the discoveries offered poor economics due to the high cost of recovery. Five gas discoveries in the Hopedale Basin in Labrador were made in the early 1970s, with an estimated development threshold of 6 to 7 Tcf marketable gas reserves. A new outlook for the Labrador Shelf has been provided due to new and extensive seismic data, multiple play concepts, gas takeaway systems such as marine CNG, and strong economics for more than 8 Tcf of gas reserves. It was concluded that 3 new basins with proven petroleum systems in Atlantic Canada are both accessible and close to markets. figs.

  1. North to Alaska: Evidence for conveyor belt transport of Dungeness crab larvae along the west coast of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, W.; Douglas, David C.; Shirley, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) larvae from the northwestern coast of the United States and Canada can be transported northward to southeastern Alaska. Larvae collected in southeastern Alaska during May and June 1997–2004 had abundances and stages that varied seasonally, interannually, and spatially. An unexpected presence of late-stage larvae in spring raises a question regarding their origin, and the most plausible explanation is that they hatched off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts and were transported to southeastern Alaska. Buoy drift tracks support the hypothesis that larvae released off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts during the peak hatching season can be physically transported to southeastern Alaska, arriving as late-stage larvae in May and June, when local larvae are only beginning to hatch. A northward spring progression of monthly mean 7°C SST isotherms and phytoplankton blooms provide further evidence that environmental conditions are conducive for larval growth and metabolism during the transport period. The proposed larval transport suggests possible unidirectional gene flow between southern and northern populations of Dungeness crabs in southeastern Alaska.

  2. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  3. Sedimentary basin analysis and petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jin-Dam; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Bong, Pil-Yoon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Since 1992 sedimentary basin analysis to assess petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Korean onshore and continental shelf have been carried out. The Cretaceous non-marine strata mainly occupy the Gyeongsang Basin in southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula and small basins such as Haenam and Gyeokpo depressions in western coastal areas. The Tertiary strata are mostly distributed in Domi, Cheju, Socotra subbasins, and Okinawa Trough in the South Continental Shelf, and Kunsan and Heuksan basins in the West. The basin evolution and petroleum potential for each basins are characterized as follow. The Cretaceous Gyeongsang sediments were deposited in three subbasins including Milyang, Euisung and Yongyang subbasins. The black shales in Nakdong and Jinju formations are interpreted to contain abundant organic matter during the deposition, thermal maturity reaching up to the zone of dry gas formation. Because porosity and permeability are too low, the sandstones can act as a tight gas reservoir rather than conventional oil and gas reservoir. The latest Cretaceous strata of Haenam and Kyeokpo depressions in western coastal area are correlated into the Yuchon Volcanic Group of the Gyeongsang Basin. Petroleum potential of the Early Cretaceous basin in the West Continental Shelf could be relatively high in terms of sedimentary basin filled with thick lacustrine sediments. The Kunsan basin in the West Continental Shelf originated in the Early Cretaceous time expanded during the Paleocene time followed by regional erosion at the end of Paleocene on which Neogene sediment have been accumulated. The Paleocene-Eocene sublacustrine shales may play an major role as a source and cap rocks. South Continental Shelf Basin is subdivided by Cheju subbasin in the center, Socotra Subbasin to the west, Domi Subbasin to the northeast and Okinawa Trough to the East. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, titled fault blocks, fault, unconformity

  4. Heavy mineral potential of Ramnad Sub-basin, Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaji, T.S.; Alam, M.

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Minerals Directorate for the Exploration and Research (AMD) is actively engaged in the surveys and exploration of heavy mineral placers along 980 km long coast of Tamil Nadu since 1950's identifying many major heavy mineral deposits/occurrences of varying grade and dimensions in the beach, coastal dunes and Teri sand environs. Though most of the coastal stretch of Tamil Nadu is fairly understood for its heavy mineral potential, some of the coastal segments of the Ramnad basin of southeastern Tamil Nadu, a storehouse of heavy mineral placer repositories need intensive exploration inputs, to understand its potential completely. The 100 km long study area falls in parts of Ramnad sub basin from Vaippar in Tuticorin to Mandapam in Ramanathpuram districts, constitutes the southern part of Cauvery basin. The unconsolidated coastal sediments of the basin is under active exploration and evaluation since 2012, in a phased manner, to link the known deposits, and completely delineate geo-spatial disposition of the heavy mineral bearing sand bodies in different environs right from the present day shoreline to the inland. Geologically, the area is a part of a long narrow strip of Tertiary/Quaternary sediments which outcrops along the southern Tamil Nadu coast. Precambrian granulites terrain of Southern Granulitic Terrain (SGT) in the hinterland area consisting of predominantly charnockites, gneisses, leptynites with numerous pegmatitic, vein quartz injections. The geomorphological features identified include Holocene Beach ridges, swales, abandoned channels, coastal dunes, and alluvial delta plains of Vaippar

  5. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the San Miguel River basin, southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, D.J.; Rush, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    The San Miguel River Basin encompasses 4,130 square kilometers of which about two-thirds is in the southeastern part of the Paradox Basin. The Paradox Basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Evaporite beds of mostly salt are both overlain and underlain by confining beds. Aquifers are present above and below the confining-bed sequence. The principal element of ground-water outflow from the upper aquifer is flow to the San Miguel River and its tributaries; this averages about 90 million cubic meters per year. A water budget for the lower aquifer has only two equal, unestimated elements, subsurface outflow and recharge from precipitation. The aquifers are generally isolated from the evaporite beds by the bounding confining beds; as a result, most ground water has little if any contact with the evaporites. No brines have been sampled and no brine discharges have been identified in the basin. Salt water has been reported for petroleum-exploration wells, but no active salt solution has been identified. (USGS)

  6. Building better health care leadership for Canada: implementing evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denis, Jean-Louis; Sullivan, Terrence James

    2011-01-01

    ... of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund for our publishing activities. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Building better health care leadership for Canada: imple...

  7. Assessing climate-sensitive ecosystems in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer; Beck, Scott; Pyne, Milo; Terando, Adam; Rubino, Matthew J.; White, Rickie; Collazo, Jaime

    2016-08-11

    Climate change impacts ecosystems in many ways, from effects on species to phenology to wildfire dynamics. Assessing the potential vulnerability of ecosystems to future changes in climate is an important first step in prioritizing and planning for conservation. Although assessments of climate change vulnerability commonly are done for species, fewer have been done for ecosystems. To aid regional conservation planning efforts, we assessed climate change vulnerability for ecosystems in the Southeastern United States and Caribbean.First, we solicited input from experts to create a list of candidate ecosystems for assessment. From that list, 12 ecosystems were selected for a vulnerability assessment that was based on a synthesis of available geographic information system (GIS) data and literature related to 3 components of vulnerability—sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. This literature and data synthesis comprised “Phase I” of the assessment. Sensitivity is the degree to which the species or processes in the ecosystem are affected by climate. Exposure is the likely future change in important climate and sea level variables. Adaptive capacity is the degree to which ecosystems can adjust to changing conditions. Where available, GIS data relevant to each of these components were used. For example, we summarized observed and projected climate, protected areas existing in 2011, projected sea-level rise, and projected urbanization across each ecosystem’s distribution. These summaries were supplemented with information in the literature, and a short narrative assessment was compiled for each ecosystem. We also summarized all information into a qualitative vulnerability rating for each ecosystem.Next, for 2 of the 12 ecosystems (East Gulf Coastal Plain Near-Coast Pine Flatwoods and Nashville Basin Limestone Glade and Woodland), the NatureServe Habitat Climate Change Vulnerability Index (HCCVI) framework was used as an alternative approach for assessing

  8. Fusion Canada issue 32. Final edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    Fusion Canada is a bulletin of the National Fusion Program, this is the last edition. Included in this July edition are articles on Funding for Canada's fusion program, Research and Development on TdeV-96 , Divertor Maintenance Robotics and reference listing for Canada's Fusion research and development sites

  9. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  10. Groundwater Resources Isotope Study of Eastern and Southeastern Areas of Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Momani, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    Since Jordan depends on the groundwater resources especially for municipal use so, water resources studies and development takes priority on the national level. For this reason the environmental isotope technique and application contributed and supported the hydrological studies as a research tool confirmed some scientific facts including natural and environmental changes of water resources. The isotope analyses has been implemented for upper and deep aquifer systems in the eastern and southeastern areas of Jordan for Hamad, Sirhan, Azraq and Jafr basins. The analyses included the stable isotopes for 18 O, Deuterium ( 2 H) and 13 C also the radioactive isotopes for Tritium ( 3 H ) and 14 C in nineties of the last century until 2002 and this indicates the following: * The origin and mechanism of the nonrenewable groundwater recharge in the deep aquifer systems of (B2/A7) Campanian and Turonian age for Hamad and Azraq basins has been defined. This refers that the groundwater recharge existed within humid, cold and wet climatologic conditions which is completely different from the present climate where the groundwater age exceeds thirty thousand years. * Also this indicates that the stable isotopic composition of the upper aquifers in Hamad and Sirhan basins in Shallala and Rijam aquifers (B5/B4) of Eocene and Paleocene age lie on the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) where the deuterium excess (d) is 10 %. Actually this water is not tritiated and the 14 C content in the groundwater is close to zero which is a strong indication of humid and wet climate where the age of the groundwater range between 20000 and exceeds 300000 years. In comparison this situation with the same aquifer in Jafr basin located in the southeastern part of Jordan, there are differences in the deuterium excess (d), Tritium and 14 C content which depends on the climatologic conditions existed during the recharge period. Also the isotopic signaure for the middle groundwater system (B2/A7) and the

  11. Provenance of Late Ordovician Sandstones along the southeastern Appalachian Mountains: Implications for the Tectonic Model of the Taconic Orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, J. C.; Herrmann, A. D.; Haynes, J.

    2017-12-01

    A provenance study of sandstones along the southeastern Appalachian Mountains has been conducted in order to test the current volcanic arc-continent collision and foreland basin formation model of the Taconic Orogeny. Samples along the southeastern Appalachians were taken from sandstone sequences deposited between 460-450 Ma. Results from these sandstones show three dominate age ranges: 465-685 Ma, 980-1300 Ma, and 1300-1500 Ma. The 980-1300 Ma and 1300-1500 Ma ages are seen throughout the study area and are compatible with previously reported ages of the Grenville Orogeny and the Rhyolite-Granite Province. The northernmost samples have a small quantity of 465-685 Ma zircons which is attributed to an accretionary wedge that formed as a result of the continent-island arc collision and acted as a physical barrier keeping sediment from depositing within the basin. The younger age signal becomes stronger to the south, as samples in Georgia and Alabama show strong concentrations of 465-685 zircons. These ages are attributed to exotic terranes (Dalhonega Terrane and Carolina Terrane) that were accreted onto Laurentia during the Taconic Orogeny and/or a possible change in subduction direction leading to a back-arc basin model for the southern Appalachian Taconic Orogeny. The results from this provenance analysis support previous studies indicating that the model for the Taconic Orogeny is a combined A-type subduction for the north and a B-type subduction model for the southern part of the orogeny.

  12. Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2011, the Track Fire burned 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins burned by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins burned by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the burned area. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya

  13. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome

  14. Karst in evaporites in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, G.O.

    1987-09-01

    Permian evaporites in southeastern New Mexico include gypsum, anhydrite, and salt, which are subject to both blanket and local, selective dissolution. Dissolution has produced many hundreds of individual karst features including collapse sinks, karst valleys, blind valleys, karst plains, caves, and breccia pipes. Dissolution began within some formations during Permian time and has been intermittent but continual ever since. Karst features other than blanket deposits of breccia are not preserved from the early episodes of dissolution, but some karst features preserved today - such as breccia pipes - are remnants of karst activity that was active at least as early as mid-Pleistocene time. Rainfall was much more abundant during Late Pleistocene time, and many features visible today may have been formed then. The drainage history of the Pecos River is related to extensive karstification of the Pecos Valley during mid-Pleistocene time. Large-scale stream piracy and dissolution of salt in the subsurface resulted in major shifts and excavations in the channel. In spite of intensive groundwater studies that have been carried out in the region, major problems in near-surface evaporite karst remain to be solved. Among these are determination of recharge areas and time of recharge. 109 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab

  15. Groundwater Quality of Southeastern Brazzaville, Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matini Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater in southeastern Brazzaville (Congo was analyzed for their fluoride contents and others related parameters in rainy season. The fluoride contents in water samples (wells and spring can be gather in three classes in the study area: low, optimal, high. Fluoride concentration in water samples presents a low significant correlation with Ca2+. This suggests that fluoride in the groundwater come from fluoride-bearing minerals such as CaF2 (fluorite. Maps were drawn to show the geographical distribution of EC, Ca2+, Mg2+and F-. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were applied to the dataset. Factor analysis resulted in four factors explained 76.90% of the total groundwater quality variance. Factor 1 (hardness of the groundwater includes total hardness, the concentration of K+, Ca2+ and pH. Factor 2 (low mineralization of the groundwater includes concentrations of TDS, Cl--, SO42+ and EC. Factor 3 (anthropogenic activities with the impact of agricultural fertilizers, farming activities, domestic wastewater, septic tanks includes concentrations of Na+ and NO3-. Factor 4 (weathering of calcium minerals includes concentrations of F-. For cluster analysis, Ward’s method and the Euclidean distance were used. The findings of the cluster analysis are presented in the form of dendrogram of the well water sites (cases. The discriminating parameters between clusters have been highlighted from the Student test. In majority, they are in accordance with those highlighted by factor analysis.

  16. Seismic risk map for Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioto, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    During the last few years, some studies regarding seismic risk were prepared for three regions of Brazil. They were carried on account of two basic interests: first, toward the seismic history and recurrence of Brazilian seismic events; second, in a way as to provide seismic parameters for the design and construction of hydro and nuclear power plants. The first seismic risk map prepared for the southeastern region was elaborated in 1979 by 6he Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Brasilia Seismological Station). In 1981 another seismic risk map was completed on the basis of seismotectonic studies carried out for the design and construction of the Nuclear power plants of Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro) by IPT (Mining and Applied Geology Division). In Brazil, until 1984, seismic studies concerning hydro and nuclear power plants and other civil construction of larger size did not take into account the seismic events from the point of view of probabilities of seismic recurrences. Such analysis in design is more important than the choice of a level of intensity or magnitude, or adoption of a seismicity level ased on deterministic methods. In this way, some considerations were made, concerning the use of seisms in Brazilian designs of hydro and nuclear power plants, as far as seismic analysis is concerned, recently altered over the current seismic risk panorama. (D.J.M.) [pt

  17. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

  18. L'évolution paléoenvironnementale des faunes de poissons du Crétacé supérieur du bassin du Tafilalt et des régions avoisinantes (Sud-Est du Maroc) : implications paléobiogéographiquesPalaeoenvironmental evolution of the fish assemblages from the Late Cretaceous of the Tafilalt basin and surrounding areas, southeastern Morocco: palaeogeographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Lionel; Boudad, Larbi; Duffaud, Sylvain; Kabiri, Lahcen; Le Lœuff, Jean; Rouget, Isabelle; Tong, Haiyan

    2001-11-01

    A critical revision of published data along with new field data allow to draw up the succession of the fish faunas from the Lower Cenomanian to the Lower Turonian in the Tafilalt basin and surrounding areas (southeast Morocco). The analysis of these faunas shows changes from freshwater to marine palaeoenvironments. The palaeogeographic distribution of some taxa is discussed. It shows that the crossing of strictly freshwater organisms between Africa and South America was likely impossible at the time of the formation of the deposits resting around the Tafilalt basin and named 'Kem Kem beds'. The Cenomano-Turonian transgression reached the Erfoud-Errachidia carbonate platform from the Central Tethys, and then connected the central Atlantic.

  19. Corrigendum to "Three climatic cycles recorded in a loess-palaeosol sequence at Semlac (Romania)-Implications for dust accumulation in south-eastern Europe" [Quat. Sci. Rev. 154C (2016) 130-142

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeden, C.; Kels, H.; Hambach, U.; Schulte, P.; Protze, J.; Eckmeier, E.; Marković, S. B.; Klasen, N.; Lehmkuhl, F.

    2018-05-01

    In the article 'Three climatic cycles recorded in a loess-palaeosol sequence at Semlac (Romania)-Implications for dust accumulation in south-eastern Europe' (Zeeden et al., 2016) we employed rock magnetic and grain size proxy data in combination with OSL- and correlative age models. The data and dating is combined to discuss glacial-interglacial paleoclimate variability in an Eurasian context. This dataset was also interpreted regarding the dust source in the eastern Carpathian (Middle Danube) Basin.

  20. The Ogaden Basin, Ethiopia: an underexplored sedimentary basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitz, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    A brief article examines the Ogaden Basin in Ethiopia in terms of basin origin, basin fill and the hydrocarbon exploration history and results. The natural gas find in pre-Jurassic sandstones, which appears to contain substantial reserves, justifies continuing investigations in this largely underexplored basin. (UK).

  1. Southeastern Aleutian Basin (Bogoslof Island) Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Walleye Pollock (DY1202, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) program of NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC)...

  2. Southeastern Aleutian Basin (Bogoslof Island) Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Walleye Pollock (DY1603, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) program of NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC)...

  3. The Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the Southeastern Anatolia Project: Is Armed Conflict in the Offing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cason, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Turkey, Syria and Iraq, the main riparians of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, have unilaterally created agricultural irrigation schemes and other water utilization projects along these two rivers for centuries...

  4. Modeling aboveground biomass of Tamarix ramosissima in the Arkansas River Basin of Southeastern Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, P.; Kumar, S.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Crall, A.W.; Newman, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Predictive models of aboveground biomass of nonnative Tamarix ramosissima of various sizes were developed using destructive sampling techniques on 50 individuals and four 100-m2 plots. Each sample was measured for average height (m) of stems and canopy area (m2) prior to cutting, drying, and weighing. Five competing regression models (P < 0.05) were developed to estimate aboveground biomass of T. ramosissima using average height and/or canopy area measurements and were evaluated using Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size (AICc). Our best model (AICc = -148.69, ??AICc = 0) successfully predicted T. ramosissima aboveground biomass (R2 = 0.97) and used average height and canopy area as predictors. Our 2nd-best model, using the same predictors, was also successful in predicting aboveground biomass (R2 = 0.97, AICc = -131.71, ??AICc = 16.98). A 3rd model demonstrated high correlation between only aboveground biomass and canopy area (R2 = 0.95), while 2 additional models found high correlations between aboveground biomass and average height measurements only (R2 = 0.90 and 0.70, respectively). These models illustrate how simple field measurements, such as height and canopy area, can be used in allometric relationships to accurately predict aboveground biomass of T. ramosissima. Although a correction factor may be necessary for predictions at larger scales, the models presented will prove useful for many research and management initiatives.

  5. Groundwater vulnerability and recharge or palaeorecharge in the Southeastern Chad Basin, Chari Baguirmi aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoret, D.; Travi, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Stable isotopes and major chemical elements have been used to investigate present or ancient groundwater renewal in the multilayered aquifer of the Chari-Baguirmi plain, South of Lake Chad. On the Western side, recharge mainly occurs from the Chari River during the flood period. Within the Ndjamena area, the rise of the piezometric level in the contaminated subsurface zone provokes an increase in nitrate concentrations. Rainfall recharge is mainly located close to the outcropping basement, i.e. on the Eastern side of the area and does not occurs in the central part of the plain where groundwater also presents a stronger evaporative signature. This supports the hypothesis attributing a major role to evaporation processes in the formation of piezometric depressions in the Sahel zone. There is no evidence of present day or ancient water recharge from Lake Chad. (author)

  6. Southeastern Aleutian Basin (Bogoslof Island) Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Walleye Pollock (DY1402, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) program of NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC)...

  7. Differentiating Canada: The Future of the Canada-US Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Dobson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Turbulence will mark the world economy in the coming decade as Canada’s traditional trading partners in North America and Europe struggle with slow growth and rising structural unemployment and move, as they must, to restore the health of their public finances. Settling for the status quo is not a compelling option as the US border thickens and Canada stays on the sidelines in two areas vital to its long-term interest: climate change policy and trade liberalization. In this context, the Policy Brief evaluates the strategic options for Canada’s long-standing economic relationship with the United States. The authors propose a two-part proactive strategy. The first part is for Canada to differentiate its economy by building on its macroeconomic, financial and energy strengths relative to the United States and by shaping a best-practice North American climate change policy. The second part of the strategy is to deepen NAFTA by participating in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP, a comprehensive, highquality FTA that has strategic attention of the US administration. Any country can join by accepting the agreement’s provisions. The TPP offers at least two strategic opportunities: a comprehensive negotiation in which Canada, the United States and Mexico could upgrade NAFTA and a way to diversify and deepen trade and investment liberalization with major economies in the Asia-Pacific region.

  8. Evidence of shallow gas in the Queen Charlotte Basin from waveform tomography of seismic reflection data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takam Takougang, Eric M.; Calvert, Andrew J. [Simon Fraser University (Canada)], email: eta9@sfu.ca

    2011-07-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) collected eight seismic reflection lines in 1988 across the Queen Charlotte sedimentary basin of western Canada, which is the largest tertiary basin on the west coast. This work furthers the study of the upper part of the basin by using quantitative imaging of its structure through application of 2-D waveform tomography to the limited offset seismic reflection data. With the help of waveform tomography, seismic reflection data has allowed the identification of pockmark structures and pipe-like gas chimney in the recovered velocity and attenuation models. Overall, there is an excellent match between field data and predicted data. and a good match between the sonic log and a 1-D velocity function derived from the 2-D velocity model. This shows that specific preconditioning of the data and a good inversion strategy make it possible to use waveform tomography of relatively short offset reflection data for the imaging of shallow geological features.

  9. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  10. Fusion energy and Canada's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drolet, T.S.

    1992-01-01

    Fusion is the process of releasing energy from matter which occurs in our sun. Canada is contributing to the development of technology which will permit this process to be harnessed and made available on earth. The international effort has increased from a modest beginning in the 1950s to a level of approximately two billion dollars annually in the 1980s. The purpose of this booklet is to introduce the concept of fusion energy as a technology which should make an important addition to the mix of energy sources for our future. Through a co-ordinated approach, Canada has established several projects which will contribute significantly to the development of technologies in specific areas leading to opportunities now for Canadian industry in the international effort

  11. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. During 1986 the program was strongly influenced by radioactive fallout on Canada resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986 in the Soviet Ukraine. The Environmental Radiation Hazards Division (ERHD) increased its frequency of analyses of environmental samples immediately following the accident. Interim screening limits for foodstuffs were developed. A measurement program for radioactivity in domestic and imported foods was implemented. The ERHD measurement program was supplemented by additional measurements conducted by many other private and government laboratories. Radiation doses to Canadian from Chernobyl fallout were extremely low with no group in the population receiving more than 10 microsieverts

  12. Nuclear criticality safety in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, K.R.

    1980-04-01

    The approach taken to nuclear criticality safety in Canada has been influenced by the historical development of participants. The roles played by governmental agencies and private industry since the Atomic Energy Control Act was passed into Canadian Law in 1946 are outlined to set the scene for the current situation and directions that may be taken in the future. Nuclear criticality safety puts emphasis on the control of materials called special fissionable material in Canada. A brief account is given of the historical development and philosophy underlying the existing regulations governing special fissionable material. Subsequent events have led to a change in emphasis in the regulatory process that has not yet been fully integrated into Canadian legislation and regulations. Current efforts towards further development of regulations governing the practice of nuclear criticality safety are described. (auth)

  13. Canada: The largest uranium producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Despite all the current difficulties, previous erroneous forecasts and other mistakes, the longer term future looks good for uranium mining and for Canada's industry in particular. Saskatchewan continues to offer the most exciting new prospects, the huge and fabulously high grade Cigar Lake deposits being the most spectacular of the recent discoveries. Notwithstanding continuous mining for 30 years from Elliot Lake there still remain there significant uncommitted reserves which can be developed when the market for uranium is in better balance

  14. Electric power in Canada, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (82 tabs., 23 figs.)

  15. Electric power in Canada, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (78 tabs., 27 figs.)

  16. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Scott,Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior) abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and developmen...

  17. The nuclear debate in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macaulay, H.L.

    1981-06-01

    The author argues that the nuclear debate in Canada is concerned less with the safety of nuclear power plants and more with arguments of economics and social decision-making. The nuclear industry cannot afford to neglect the continuing need to inform the public about nuclear risks. But there is also a need to develop specific arguments to increase public acceptance of nuclear energy as an economic, democratic and equitable energy option

  18. Canada; Financial Sector Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This report discusses key findings of the Financial Sector Stability Assessment on Canada. Canada’s financial system successfully navigated the global financial crisis, and stress tests suggest that major financial institutions would continue to be resilient to credit, liquidity, and contagion risks arising from a severe stress scenario. Elevated housing prices and high household debt remain an area of concern, though targeted prudential and macroprudential measures are proving to be effectiv...

  19. Overview of Canada's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1982-06-01

    This paper places Canada's uranium industry in its international context. Most uranium, except that produced in the United States, is traded internationally. A brief history of the industry worldwide is given to show how the principal producing areas have fared to date. The industry is young, highly cyclical, and still far from achieving stability. Uranium is a single end-use commodity, entirely dependent on the generation of electricity in nuclear stations, and is without price elasticity: lowering the price does not increase demand. The typical nuclear fuel processing chain has not encouraged or led to much vertical integration. Uranium is subject to more governmental control than any other commodity. The principal market is located in the industrial countries of western Europe, the United States, Canada, and the far east. The uranium supply-demand situation is reviewed, including the current and near-term oversupply and the longer term outlook to 1995. The major negative impact of reactor cancellations and deferments in the United States is discussed. Because of the difficulty in getting reactors on line, it has become easier to forecast the demand for uranium over the next 10 years. It is more difficult to predict how that demand will be met from the more than ample competing sources. Canada's potential for supplying a significant portion of this demand is considered in relation to producers and potential new producers in other countries

  20. Women in Physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  1. Canada's helium output rising fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-12-01

    About 12 months from now, International Helium Limited will be almost ready to start up Canada's second helium extraction plant at Mankota, in Saskatchewan's Wood Mountain area about 100 miles southwest of Moose Jaw. Another 80 miles north is Saskatchewan's (and Canada's) first helium plant, operated by Canadian Helium and sitting on a gas deposit at Wilhelm, 9 miles north of Swift Current. It contains almost 2% helium, some COD2U, and the rest nitrogen. One year in production was apparently enough to convince Canadian Helium that the export market (it sells most of its helium in W. Europe) can take a lot more than it's getting. Construction began this summer on an addition to the Swift Current plant that will raise its capacity from 12 to 36MMcf per yr when it goes on stream next spring. Six months later, International Helium's 40 MMcf per yr plant to be located about 4 miles from its 2 Wood Mountain wells will double Canada's helium output again.

  2. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  3. Potential impact of increased temperature and CO2 on particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the Southeastern Bering Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of elevated sea surface temperature (SST and pCO2 on algal community structure and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPp concentrations in the southeastern Bering Sea was examined using a shipboard “Ecostat” continuous culture system. The ecostat system was used to mimic the conditions projected to exist in the world's oceans by the end of this century (i.e. elevated pCO2 (750 ppm and elevated SST (ambient + 4°C. Two experiments were conducted using natural phytoplankton assemblages from the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC central basin and from the middle domain of the southeastern continental shelf. At the HNLC site, the relative abundances of haptophytes and pelagophytes were higher and the relative abundance of diatoms lower under “greenhouse” conditions (i.e. combined 750 ppm CO2 and elevated temperature than control conditions (380 ppm CO2 and ambient temperature. This shift in algal community structure was accompanied by increases in DMSPp (2–3 fold, DMSPp:Chl a (2–3 fold and DMSP:PON (2 fold. At the continental shelf site, the changes in the relative abundances of haptophytes, pelagophytes and diatoms under “greenhouse” conditions were similar to those observed at the HNLC site, with 2.5 fold increases in DMSPp, 50–100% increases in DMSPp:Chl a and 1.8 fold increases in DMSP:PON. At both locations, changes in community structure and the DMSPp parameters were largely driven by increasing temperature. The observed changes were also consistent with the phytoplankton-DMS-albedo climate feedback mechanism proposed in the Charlson-Lovelock-Andreae-Warren (CLAW hypothesis.

  4. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  5. BASINS Framework and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  6. Exploration of the South-Eastern Alps lithosphere with 3D refraction seismics project Alp 2002 – data acquisition in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gosar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Using combined seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection method project Alp 2002 explored the contact zone between South-Eastern Alps, Dinarides and Pannonian basin. In a network of 12 profiles of 4100 km total length, which are spread over seven countries,1055 portable seismographs were deployed and 31 strong (300 kg explosions fired. In Slovenia 127 seismographs were deployed along five profiles totalling 575 km and two explosions fired near Vojnik and Gradin. The collected data will allow construction of athree-dimensional model of the lithosphere and will contribute to the understanding of the tectonics and geodynamics at the junction of European, Adriatic and Tisza plates.

  7. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  8. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  9. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  10. Application of remote-sensing techniques to hydrologic studies in selected coal-mine areas of southeastern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, J.F.; McCauley, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Disturbances resulting from intensive coal mining in the Cherry Creek basin of southeastern Kansas were investigated using color and color-infrared aerial photography in conjunction with water-quality data from simultaneously acquired samples. Imagery was used to identify the type and extent of vegetative cover on strip-mined lands and the extent and success of reclamation practices. Drainage patterns, point sources of acid mine drainage, and recharge areas for underground mines were located for onsite inspection. Comparison of these interpretations with water-quality data illustrated differences between the eastern and western parts of the Cherry Creek basin. Contamination in the eastern part is due largely to circulation of water from unreclaimed strip mines and collapse features through the network of underground mines and subsequent discharge of acidic drainage through seeps. Contamination in the western part is primarily caused by runoff and seepage from strip-mined lands in which surfaces have frequently been graded and limed but are generally devoid of mature stands of soil-anchoring vegetation. The successful use of aerial photography in the study of Cherry Creek basin indicates the potential of using remote-sensing techniques in studies of other coal-mined regions. (USGS)

  11. Brittle reactivation of mylonitic fabric and the origin of the Cenozoic Rio Santana Graben, southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo-Pascutti, Ambrosina; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Terra, Emanuele La; Almeida, Julio C. H.

    2010-03-01

    basins of the System of Continental Rifts of southeastern Brazil. We conclude that the Rio Santana Graben is an example of the direct control of a preexisting continental-scale rheological boundary on the geometry and location of fault systems and sediment deposition. Quaternary fault reactivation of the preexisting fabrics represents only the latest movement of a major structure.

  12. Atlantic Canada's gas industry overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, G. [Emera Energy Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Emera Energy is a vertically integrated energy company with 4 billion dollars in assets, and one billion dollars in revenue. The ownership structure of Emera Energy was reviewed. The major issues facing Emera Energy all imply a balancing act, between end users and producers, government and industry, infrastructure owners and customers, and Canada versus exports. A brief overview of the regulatory environment in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia was presented. Some of the other issues addressed in this presentation were: project Think, Maritime fragmentation and parochialism, federal/provincial equalization payments, fishing/petroleum industry clash, sovereign risk higher than need be, immature energy industry in Atlantic Canada, and offshore exploration and production industry different than that of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). National Energy Board (NEB) gas export hearing into the appropriateness of the market oriented export liberalization rules implemented in 1987 for exports of Atlantic Canada gas production is being challenged by the government of New Brunswick. Figures depicting the Canadian gas resource and Nova Scotia offshore gas development were presented, followed by a table providing East Coast offshore costs. The Sable Offshore Energy Project was described, as well as the Deep Panuke gas field. An update on offshore exploration was provided, including comments on onshore activity concerning coal bed methane. A status report of the natural gas supply contracts was discussed. Conventional gas was the next topic discussed, beginning with an overview of onshore activity. The midstream sector was reviewed, with a brief discussion about the existing pipeline system. The mainline expansion plans were reviewed. Some of the gas transmission issues facing the industry in Atlantic Canada are high transport rates, postage stamp toll that is anti-Canadian, gate keeper role for producers, and onerous rules and poor customer service. The Cartier pipeline

  13. Short overview of water scarcity in the basins of the Upper Tietê River and PCJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cordeiro de Souza Fernandes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity in the region of the Alto Tietê basin and Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí basins (PCJ, southeastern Brazil, it is a concrete fact that should be faced. In our view it is not a simple water crisis, but a water collapse a decade advertised, which shows an inconsistent and ineffective planning, a lack of political management and the flagrant absence of compliance with the legal grounds brought by the National Water Resources Policy Act (Federal Law n. 9433/97.

  14. Eastern equine encephalitis virus: high seroprevalence in horses from Southern Quebec, Canada, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Jean-Philippe; Arsenault, Julie; Lindsay, L Robbin; DiBernardo, Antonia; Kulkarni, Manisha A; Côté, Nathalie; Michel, Pascal

    2013-10-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a highly pathogenic arbovirus that infects humans, horses, and other animals. There has been a significant increase in EEEV activity in southeastern Canada since 2008. Few data are available regarding nonlethal EEEV infections in mammals, and consequently the distribution and pathogenicity spectrum of EEEV infections in these hosts is poorly understood. This cross-sectional study focuses on the evaluation of viral activity in southern Quebec's horses by seroprevalence estimation. A total of 196 horses, 18 months and older, which had never been vaccinated against EEEV and have never traveled outside Canada, were sampled from 92 barns distributed throughout three administrative regions of southern Quebec. Blood samples were taken from each horse and titrated for EEEV antibodies by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Equine population vaccination coverage was estimated by surveying horse owners and equine practitioners. PRNT results revealed an EEEV seroprevalence up to 8.7%, with 95% confidence limits ranging from 4.4% to 13.0%. Vaccination coverage was estimated to be at least 79%. Our study reveals for the first time in Canada a measure of EEEV seroprevalence in horses. High seroprevalence in unvaccinated animals challenges the perception that EEEV is a highly lethal pathogen in horses. Monitoring high-risk vector-borne infections such as EEEV in animal populations can be an important element of a public health surveillance strategy, population risk assessment and early detection of epidemics.

  15. The Brazilian marginal basins: current state of knowledge; As bacias marginais brasileiras: estagio atual de conhecimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Francisco Celso; Asmus, Haroldo Erwin

    2004-11-01

    Based on distinctive stratigraphic and/or structural characteristics, the brazilian continental margin can be divided into two main provinces : (1)The southeastern-eastern province, extending from the Pelotas to the Recife - Joao Pessoa Basin, presents a tensional tectonic style of Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous age, paralleling the structural alignments of the Precambrian basement, except in the northeastern segment where the Mesozoic faults of the Recife - Joao Pessoa Basin cut across the east west basement directions. The basin-fill, Upper Jurassic through Recent, consists, where complete, of three stratigraphic sequences, each of a distinct depositional environment: (a) a lower clastic non-marine sequence; (b) a middle evaporitic sequence, and (c) an upper clastic paralic and open marine sequence. (2)The northern province, extending from the Potiguar Basin to the Amazon Submarine Basin, displays both tensional and compressional tectonic styles of Upper Jurassic (?) to Upper Cretaceous age either paralleling or cutting transversally the basement alignments. The stratigraphic column differs from the southeastern - eastern province in lacking the Lower Cretaceous evaporitic rocks. The integration of the stratigraphic and structural data allows one to determine in the eastern Brazilian marginal basins the main evolutionary stages of a typical pull-apart continental margin: a continental pre-rift and rift stage, an evaporitic proto-ocean stage, and a normal open ocean stage. In the northern province it is possible to infer a continental rift valley stage, a marine transform - movement stage and an open ocean stage. The relationship between the rift valley and transform movement stages is not clear. (author)

  16. Chapter 5. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources-Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston formations, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak Formation of east Texas and southern Arkansas (and the correlative Hosston Formation of Louisiana and Mississippi) is a basinward-thickening wedge of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks that underlies the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin from east Texas across northern Louisiana to southern Mississippi. Clastic detritus was derived from two main fluvial-deltaic depocenters, one in northeastern Texas and the other extending from southeastern Mississippi northwestward into northeastern Louisiana. Across the main hydrocarbon-productive trend in east Texas and northern Louisiana, the Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are about 2,000 ft thick.

  17. Catch history of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall R Reeves

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The ringed seal (Phoca hispida has always been a staple in the diet and household economy of Inuit in Canada. The present paper was prepared at the request of the NAMMCO Scientific Committee to support their assessment of ringed seal stocks in the North Atlantic Basin and adjacent arctic and subarctic waters. Specifically, our objective was to evaluate recent and current levels of use of ringed seals by Canadian Inuit. Annual removals probably were highest (possibly greater than 100,000 in the 1960s and 1970s, a period when sealskin prices were particularly strong. Catches declined substantially in the 1980s following a collapse in sealskin prices, presumably related to the European trade ban on skins from newborn harp and hooded seals (Phoca groenlandica and Cystophora cristata, respectively. Recent catch levels throughout Canada (1980s and early 1990s are believed to be in the order of 50,000 to 65,000 ringed seals, with a total average annual kill (including hunting loss in the high tens of thousands. No reliable system is in place to monitor catches of ringed seals, so any estimate must be derived from a heterogeneous array of sources.

  18. Tectonic history of the southeastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The present-day configuration of the crust of southeastern North America (SENA) is the product of a lengthy history traceable through more than 1 billion yr. of geologic time. The Appalachians (AP) record complete Wilson cycles of opening and closing of several oceans from ca. 690 Ma to 245 M. The final event forming the AP was the collision of SENA with Gondwana to form the supercontinent Pangaea. The Ouachitas (OA) had a somewhat different history culminating with island-arc collision during the Pennsylvanian--before the final collision began in the AP. SENA faced the open lapetos ocean no earlier than the Early Cambrian. The AP and OA were built on an earlier margin formed by rifting of the Rodonia super-continent formed by construction of the 1.2 to 1.0 Ga Grenville orogen, and farther west, a crust formed by still earlier (1.3 and 1.8 Ga) events. Recent suggestions that part of the AP platform is in Argentina raises the possibility that a fragment was rifted from between the AP and OA during the early Paleozoic. The crust beneath the Mississippi Embayment is atypical of continental crust, and would have been rifted during the Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic. The Argentine fragment may have been removed along a transform that was reactivated several times since. Northern Pangaea was rifted during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and SENA once again faced open ocean-the nascent present Atlantic (AT) when spreading began. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) also opened then forming extensive salt deposits. The AT opened partly along the old suture, but produced a failed rift in GA and FL leaving a piece of Africa forming the crust beneath the Coastal Plain as far south as central FL. The overlying sediments record recurrent uplift and decay of the AP and OA, cooling of new AT oceanic crust, eustatic sea-level changes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and uplift of the Rockies providing a new source of voluminous detritus that is still being deposited in the GOM.

  19. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive wasste disposal in the southeast United States: Triassic basin subregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    Based on an evaluation of existing information, areas were identified within the Triassic basins of the southeastern United States with geologic properties considered favorable for containment of radioactive waste. The study region included both exposed and buried Triassic basins from Maryland to Georgia. These basins are long, narrow northeast-trending troughs filled with continental deposits derived from Paleozoic and Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks bordering the basins. The rocks are predominantly red in color and consist mainly of fanglomerates, conglomerates, arkosic sandstones, siltstones, claystones, shales, and argillites. The investigation identified 14 exposed and 5 buried basins within the study region. Candidate areas for further investigation were identified which meet the broad general criteria for tectonic stability, slow ground water movement, and long flow paths to the biosphere. These include: the Danville Triassic Basin in Virginia; the Dan River, Durham, and Wadesboro Triassic Basins in North Carolina; and the buried Florence and Dunbarton Triassic Basins in South Carolina. Other rock types in the southeast may prove more or less suitable as host rocks for a repository, but the available data suggest that the argillaceous Triassic rocks offer sufficient promise to be considered for additional study

  20. Extending GIS Technology to Study Karst Features of Southeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Tipping, R. G.; Alexander, E. C.; Alexander, S. C.

    2001-12-01

    This paper summarizes ongoing research on karst feature distribution of southeastern Minnesota. The main goals of this interdisciplinary research are: 1) to look for large-scale patterns in the rate and distribution of sinkhole development; 2) to conduct statistical tests of hypotheses about the formation of sinkholes; 3) to create management tools for land-use managers and planners; and 4) to deliver geomorphic and hydrogeologic criteria for making scientifically valid land-use policies and ethical decisions in karst areas of southeastern Minnesota. Existing county and sub-county karst feature datasets of southeastern Minnesota have been assembled into a large GIS-based database capable of analyzing the entire data set. The central database management system (DBMS) is a relational GIS-based system interacting with three modules: GIS, statistical and hydrogeologic modules. ArcInfo and ArcView were used to generate a series of 2D and 3D maps depicting karst feature distributions in southeastern Minnesota. IRIS ExplorerTM was used to produce satisfying 3D maps and animations using data exported from GIS-based database. Nearest-neighbor analysis has been used to test sinkhole distributions in different topographic and geologic settings. All current nearest-neighbor analyses testify that sinkholes in southeastern Minnesota are not evenly distributed in this area (i.e., they tend to be clustered). More detailed statistical methods such as cluster analysis, histograms, probability estimation, correlation and regression have been used to study the spatial distributions of some mapped karst features of southeastern Minnesota. A sinkhole probability map for Goodhue County has been constructed based on sinkhole distribution, bedrock geology, depth to bedrock, GIS buffer analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis. A series of karst features for Winona County including sinkholes, springs, seeps, stream sinks and outcrop has been mapped and entered into the Karst Feature Database

  1. Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes, and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  2. Characterizing rainfall parameters which influence erosivity in southeastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, M.E.; Salako, F.K.

    1993-12-01

    An investigation was carried out to characterize some selected parameters which influence rainfall erosivity in southeastern Nigeria. Rainfall amount, distribution, duration, intensity, storm types, energy loads and frequency of rain events in the region were studied using data from stations located in three major agroecological zones. Raindrop size and detaching capacity were evaluated in one of the stations for two months. The mean annual rainfall erosivity values for southeastern Nigeria point to the fact that rainfall tend to be highly erosive. 25 refs, 6 figs, 8 tabs

  3. Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final ''Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report'' (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository or high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  4. Suicide policy in Canada: lessons from history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Elias, Brenda; Bolton, James M; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender

    2012-07-18

    In Canada, suicide has transitioned from being a criminal activity with much associated stigma, to being a public health concern that needs to be managed by governments and clinicians in a culturally sensitive manner. In Canada and worldwide, the social attitudes toward and legal interpretation of suicide have been dynamic. Much has been proposed in the development of suicide policy in Canada, however Canada is unique in that it remains one of the only industrialized countries without a national suicide prevention strategy. The current article provides a critical review of the history of suicide in Canada, as well as an appraisal of Canadian suicide prevention policies and key government and political milestones that have impacted suicide policy. Current activity regarding a national suicide prevention strategy in Canada is discussed, as well as potential options for clinician involvement.

  5. Canada's green plan: Summary. Le plan vert du Canada: Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of Canada's Green Plan, a comprehensive action plan to ensure a healthy environment for the future. The plan defines targets and schedules which will drive federal environmental initiatives, and incorporates concepts of sustainable development. Elements of the plan include initiatives to combat and prevent water pollution; control ocean dumping; control smog-causing emissions; provide tighter air pollution standards; provide for sound waste management according to the principles of reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover; assess and control chemical wastes; sustain Canadian forests and maintain their diversity while shifting forest management from sustained yield to sustainable development; maintain and enhance environmental sustainability in the agro-food sector and the fishery sector; preserve and protect national parks and wildlife; and preserve and enhance the integrity, health, biodiversity and productivity of Arctic ecosystems. With respect to global-scale problems, measures will be taken to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, limit acid rain-related emissions, and phase out the use of ozone-depleting substances. The plan also intends to improve Canada's capability to respond to environmental emergencies, improve environmental decision-making by strengthening and building of partnerships, promote environmental science research and development, and make effective and balanced use of enviromental laws, with market-based approaches for environmental protection.

  6. Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-13

    Recruitment drive for nurse gradutates British Columbia (BC), the westernmost Canadian province, urgently needs 1,500 qualified nurses graduates to staff longterm care and assisted-living beds as well as home care clients. The provincial government has launched a $160,000 (£78,600) marketing campaign called BC Cares. Craig Hebert, dean of development and access training at Northern Lights College in BC, said: 'The industry needs to get the message out to students that there has never been a better time to start a career in senior health care. Graduates who study for about one year, sometimes less, will have their pick of jobs in a number of service environments and can advance relatively quickly to the nursing profession.'

  7. Landfill gas management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A.

    1997-01-01

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada's commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (10 15 Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring

  8. Integrating hydrogen into Canada's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, P.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation outlines the steps in integrating of hydrogen into Canada's energy future. Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell investment is primarily driven by two government commitments - climate change commitments and innovation leadership commitments. Canada's leading hydrogen and fuel cell industry is viewed as a long-term player in meeting the above commitments. A hydrogen and fuel cell national strategy is being jointly developed to create 'Win-Wins' with industry

  9. CHILD WELFARE IN CANADA : PART II

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 眞一; Shinichi, Matsumoto; 桃山学院大学社会学部

    2006-01-01

    This part study aims to research on the whole aspect of child protection in Canada. And so, this paper consists of five chapters as follows: (1)Canadian history of child protection, (2)definition of child abuse, (3)current situation of child protection in Canada, (4)outline of child protection and treatment, (5)triangular comparison of child protection and prevention in Canada, Australia and England. The first efforts at identifying and combating child abuse occurred in the latter part of the...

  10. Fusion energy. What Canada can do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    As Canada's fusion programs have grown, Canadian capabilities in fusion science and technology have grown and matured with them. The fusion capabilities described in this booklet have come from a coordinated national effort. The Government of Canada is committed to continuing its fusion energy program, and to supporting global fusion efforts. These first pages provide an overview of Canada's fusion work and its underlying basis of science and technology

  11. COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS TO PREDICT ANNUAL SEDIMENT YIELD IN CARONI RIVER BASIN, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Guevara-Pérez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Caroní River Basin is located in the south-eastern part of Venezuela; with an area of 92.000 km2, 40% of which belongs to the main affluent, the Paragua River. Caroní basin is the source of 66% of energy of the country. About 85% of the hydro electrical energy is generated in Guri reservoir located in the lower part of the watershed. To take provisions to avoid the reservoir silting it is very important the study of sediment yield of the basin. In this paper result of three empirical sediment yield models: Langbein- Schumm, Universal Soil Loss Equation-USLE and Poesen, are compared with observed data from five sub basins with records of twenty to thirty years. Men values of sediment yield for low, middle and upper Caroní are of 27, 76, 17 t/km2-year, respectively; and 46 and 78 t/km2-year for low and upper Paragua sub basins are. Standard errors of estimates vary between 13 and 29 for Langbein-Schumm model; between 8 and 32 for USLE procedure; and between 9 and 79, for Poesen model. Sediment yield predictions by Langbein-Schumm model seem to the best in Caroní basin.

  12. Environmental health assessment of primary schools in southeastern Nigeria: implication for a healthy school environment in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeonu, C T; Anyansi, M N

    2010-01-01

    In this cross-sectional descriptive study, we used a validated school health program evaluation scale (SHPE) to assess the environmental health status of primary schools in Ebonyi State, southeastern Nigeria. Parameters assessed included water supply, sewage and refuse disposal, school building ventilation, lighting and seating, as well as the availability of toilet tissue, basins for washing hands, regular cleaning of toilets, and so forth. Of all the schools assessed, only two schools, both private, attained the minimum acceptable SHPE score of 57. The mean SHPE score of the private schools (50.40) was significantly higher than that of the public schools (28.69) (t-test, p=.00). Policy reforms are needed that would ensure a healthy primary school environment in Nigeria and in other developing countries with similar settings.

  13. Oral bacterial microbiota and traumatic injuries of free-ranging Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines, Chelidae in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno O. Ferronato

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 and 2007, we collected free-ranging Phrynops geoffroanus, from two anthropogenically altered rivers in southeastern Brazil. Oral microbiological samples were taken for isolation of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria; a physical examination was performed;and we evaluated possible effects on the turtles’ health. Twenty-nine species of bacteria were isolated in Piracicaba River turtles (n=10, and twenty-four species in Piracicamirim stream turtles (n=8, most of them gram-negative. In both sites, potential pathogens for reptiles were: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter agglomerans, Citrobacter freundii, and Bacillus sp. Although boatpropeller lesions were common on the carapace of the turtles, we have not found turtles with signs of clinical diseases. The oral bacterial microbiota of P. geoffroanus inhabiting the Piracicaba River basin are composed of a diverse microbe spectrum, and long-term studies of the effects of pollution and traumatic injuries on this population and its microbial flora are warranted.

  14. Archean inheritance in zircon from late Paleozoic granites from the Avalon zone of southeastern New England: an African connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartman, R.E.; Don, Hermes O.

    1987-01-01

    In southeastern New England the Narragansett Pier Granite locally intrudes Carboniferous metasedimentary rocks of the Narragansett basin, and yields a monazite UPb Permian emplacement age of 273 ?? 2 Ma. Zircon from the Narragansett Pier Granite contains a minor but detectable amount of an older, inherited component, and shows modern loss of lead. Zircon from the late-stage, aplitic Westerly Granite exhibits a more pronounced lead inheritance -permitting the inherited component to be identified as Late Archean. Such old relict zircon has not been previously recognized in Proterozoic to Paleozoic igneous rocks in New England, and may be restricted to late Paleozoic rocks of the Avalon zone. We suggest that the Archean crustal component reflects an African connection, in which old Archean crust was underplated to the Avalon zone microplate in the late Paleozoic during collision of Gondwanaland with Avalonia. ?? 1987.

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. A study was initiated to evaluate the contamination by cesium-137, of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. Work on development of methods proceeded for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. All measurements made during 1987 are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  16. An Energy Strategy for Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal C. Moore

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Canada is struggling to fully develop, sell and move its energy resources. This is a dramatic change from the recent past where the U.S. has provided stable growth in demand for energy supplied by the provinces, from hydrocarbons to electricity. Current circumstances now challenge this relationship, adding environmental, policy and economic hurdles that exacerbate the impact of fluctuations in world demand and pricing. In addition, competitive interaction between provinces, aboriginal land owners and special interest groups complicate and compound the issues of royalty returns, regulatory authority and direction, land-use management and long-term market opportunities for Canadian companies. There is no strategic document guiding the country’s energy future. As the steward of one of the largest, most diverse and valuable energy "banks" in the world, Canada has a unique opportunity to exploit a critical and valuable economic niche in the world economy. Given the lack of federal leadership and the tendency for each province to undercut each other in the same marketplace, there is also the distinct possibility the nation will squander the opportunity. This document offers the rationale for a comprehensive energy strategy, literally a vision where Canada can lead and not follow opportunities in energy markets. This strategic approach to energy systems by definition will include transportation, housing, employment and financial markets. It is not a plan, not a foil for tax or policy guidance in one or more sectors. This strategy is a fundamental rail on which plans, tactics and policies can be built. This vision identifies how the provinces can work together using all the tools available to them, maximizing long-term resource development while minimizing environmental damage. This document assumes there can be a broad commitment and effort by the federal government to help build those tools, providing guidance and assistance where needed without

  17. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  18. Environmental radioactivity in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracey, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1982 on metabolism of natural radionuclides and on the accumulation of radon in energy-efficient homes. The pre-operational phase of the monitoring program at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station was completed. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  19. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Quinn, J.M.; Tracy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1981 on bottled mineral waters and in conjunction with unusual occurences at nuclear reactor sites and a uranium refinery. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  20. Radioactive waste mangement in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of the Canadian radioactive waste management program are to manage the wastes so that the potential hazards of the material are minimized, and to manage the wastes in a manner which places the minimum possible burden on future generations. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all activities in the nuclear field in Canada, including radioactive waste management facility licensing. The Atomic Energy Control Act authorizes the Board to make rules for regulating its proceedings and the performance of its functions. The Atomic Energy Control Regulations define basic regulatory requirements for the licensing of facilities, equipment and materials, including requirements for records and inspection, for security and for health and safety

  1. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Scott

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and development of projects. Activities funded by the seven federal departments and agencies involved in the Initiative emphasize partnerships with the professional, voluntary, corporate, non-government and government sectors.

  2. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Meyerhof, D.P.; Quinn, J.M.; Tracy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted to determine levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and asessing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for 1980 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. The graphical format is used with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection

  3. NPP construction cost in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The structure of capital costs during NPP construction in Canada is considered. Capital costs comprise direct costs (cost of the ground and ground rights, infrastructure, reactor equipment, turbogenerators, electrotechnical equipment, auxiliary equipment), indirect costs (construction equipment and services, engineering works and management services, insurance payments, freight, training, operating expenditures), capital per cents for the period of construction and cost of heavy water storages. It proceeds from the analysis of the construction cost structure for a NPP with the CANDU reactor of unit power of 515, 740 and 880 MW, that direct costs make up on the average 62%

  4. Seismicity of the Paradox Basin and the Colorado Plateau interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, I.G.

    1984-04-01

    National Waste Terminal Storage Program site qualification criteria require that a nuclear waste repository be located so that ground motion associated with the maximum credible and maximum probable earthquakes or other earthquake-associated effects will not have an unacceptable adverse impact on system performance. To determine whether a potential repository site located in the Paradox salt formation in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah satisfies these criteria, seismological studies were undertaken by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) in March 1978. These studies included: (1) analysis of historical seismicity; (2) analysis of contemporary seismicity and tectonics of both the Paradox Basin and surrounding Colorado Plateau, including an extensive program of microearthquake monitoring; (3) evaluation of the Paradox Basin crustal structure; (4) evaluation of mining-induced seismicity; and (5) characterization of design-related earthquake-induced ground motions pertinent to a potential repository site through studies of attentation and subsurface ground motions. A detailed discussion of the results of the seismological studies performed through December 1980 is contained in WCC (1982). The purpose of this topical report is to update and summarize the studies on the local, regional, and mining-induced seismicity conducted through December 1982. The limitations of any interpretations are also discussed and additional information that remains to be acquired is identified. 56 references, 45 figures, 4 tables

  5. Hydrology of the middle San Pedro area, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Dickinson, Jesse; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Hopkins, Candice B.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Pool, Donald R.; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2015-05-05

    In the middle San Pedro Watershed in southeastern Arizona, groundwater is the primary source of water supply for municipal, domestic, industrial, and agricultural use. The watershed comprises two smaller subareas, the Benson subarea and the Narrows-Redington subarea. Early 21st century projections for heavy population growth in the watershed have not yet become a reality, but increased groundwater withdrawals could have undesired consequences - such as decreased base flow to the San Pedro River, and groundwater-level declines - that would lead to the need to deepen existing wells. This report describes the hydrology, hydrochemistry, water quality, and development of a groundwater budget for the middle San Pedro Watershed, focusing primarily on the elements of groundwater movement that could be most useful for the development of a groundwater modelPrecipitation data from Tombstone, Arizona, and base flow at the stream-gaging station on the San Pedro River at Charleston both show relatively dry periods during the 1960s through the mid-1980s and in the mid-1990s to 2009, and wetter periods from the mid-1980s through the mid-1990s. Water levels in four out of five wells near the mountain fronts show cyclical patterns of recharge, with rates of recharge greatest in the early 1980s through the mid-1990s. Three wells near the San Pedro River recorded their lowest levels during the 1950s to the mid-1960s. The water-level record from one well, completed in the confined part of the coarse-grained lower basin fill, showed a decline of approximately 21 meters.Annual flow of the San Pedro River, measured at the Charleston and Redington gages, has decreased since the 1940s. The median annual streamflow and base flow at the gaging station on the river near Tombstone has decreased by 50 percent between the periods 1968–1986 and 1997–2009. Estimates of streamflow infiltration along the San Pedro River during 1914–2009 have decreased 44 percent, with the largest decreases in

  6. Critical energy infrastructure protection in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendron, Angela [Canadian Centre for Intelligence and Security Studies, Carleton University (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    In Canada government acknowledged the need to protect energy assets against attacks. However, so far no strategy has been developed. The aim of this report is to present the characteristics of the energy sector in Canada, the threats, and how the government is responding to those threats. The energy sector in Canada is concentrated and diverse and is under not only terrorism or cyber attacks threats but also environmental threats. This report shows that the Government of Canada is focusing on the protection and assurance of important energy infrastructures but that they are facing several challenges resulting in long delays in the adoption of a formal strategy.

  7. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  8. Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board annual report, 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board was established as the agency responsible for the regulation of the hydrocarbon resources in the Nova Scotia offshore. The Board evaluates resource potential, administers petroleum exploration and production rights, approves offshore activities, and approves benefits and development plans. The main activities of the Board in 1992-1993 are summarized and financial statements are presented. Highlights include production of 572,300 m 3 of oil during the first production season of LASMO Nova Scotia Ltd.'s Cohasset development, the first commercial offshore oil production for Canada; four major resource evaluation projects in the Glenelg Field, the Laurentian sub-basin, the Fundy Rift Basin, and the Panuke Field; holding of discussions between Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Canada on the maritime boundary lines between respective offshore petroleum board jurisdictions, in the wake of a June 1992 determination of the disputed maritime boundary around St. Pierre et Miquelon; and amendments of certain safety-related legislation applicable to offshore operations. Employment benefits of the Cohasset project during 1992 totalled ca 470 Nova Scotians and 120 other Canadians. 3 tabs

  9. Microsatellite assessment of walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus stocks in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron BA Shafer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Walruses in Canada are currently subdivided into seven stocks based on summering areas; Western Jones Sound (WJS, Baffin Bay (BB, Penny Strait-Lancaster Sound (PS-LS, North Foxe Basin (N-FB, Central Foxe Basin (C-FB, Hudson Bay Davis Strait (HB-DS and Southern and Eastern Hudson Bay (SE-HB. In this study, walrus were sampled from six of the seven stocks (SE-HB samples were not available and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. All stocks were genetically diverse (average heterozygosity of 0.58 with no evidence of inbreeding (average FIS of 0.03. We detected significant genetic differentiation among the stocks and a pattern of genetic spatial autocorrelation that suggests a moderate effect of geographic distance on gene flow among stocks. Bayesian clustering suggested the six recognized stocks were elements of two larger genetic clusters - a northern Arctic population (containing BB, WJS, and PS-LS stocks and a central Arctic population (containing C-FB, N-FB, and HB-DS stocks. These populations are moderately differentiated (FST = 0.07, but based on evidence of contemporary movement from assignment tests, are not completely isolated. There was support for maintaining the WJS stock and a combined BB+PS-LS stock, although the latter conclusion is based on a small sample size. Similarly, there was some evidence suggesting separation of the Foxe Basin stocks from the HB-DS but not the N-FB from the C-FB stock. However, given that there are morphological and chemical differences between N-FB and C-FB stocks, there is currently insufficient evidence to support a revision of the current stock designations.

  10. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs

  11. 2000 Western Canada activity forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, D.L.

    1999-10-01

    All wells drilled in Western Canada during the first nine months of 1999 are listed and sorted into 12 geographical areas used in the Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) well cost study. Each area represents wells of common drilling, production and depth characteristics. Area totals for well counts and meters drilled were determined from the sorting process. Previous years' activities are reviewed and various operators and PSAC members contacted to review upcoming programs. In addition, trends and other projections were consulted to develop an estimate of drilling activity for the rest of 1999 as well as a projection of drilling activity for 2000. The historical and projected drilling activities were tabulated and plotted for each area. Average drilling costs for each area were determined, and the total expenditures were calculated for each area by multiplying the the projected meterage by the adjusted drilling costs. All costs were allocated to various services and products utilizing percentages determined in the Well Cost Study. During the sorting process, a list was developed of the major operators in each area, which list is included in the report along with average depths and types of wells drilled by the various operators in each area. The costs included in the report include only drilling and completion operations, starting with the building of the location prior to drilling, and ending with the installation of the wellhead after construction. 5 tabs

  12. Natural background radiation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasty, R.L.; Carson, J.M.; Charbonneau, B.W.; Holman, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Published airborne gamma ray survey data from 33 areas of Canada were used to compile information on the average ground level exposure from natural radiation. The exposures at ground level were calculated from the surface concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. The highest levels of radioactivity were found in northern Canada and were generally related to granitic rocks; the lowest levels with the Athabasca sandstone. Summer outdoor exposure rates have a population-weighted average of 3.7 +- 2.3 μR.h -1 , of which 48 percent orginated from potassium, 43 percent from the thorium series and 9 percent from the uranium series. This low level of radioactivity, compared to worldwide data, has resulted from erosion of a geologically old continental crust in which radioactivity decreases with depth. When seasonal variations of soil moisture and snow cover are considered, the annual population-weighted average outdoor exposure rate decreases to 2.8 +- 1.7 μR.h -1 corresponding to an annual outdoor dose-equivalent of 150 +- 90 μSV. Factors increasing the annual outdoor dose-equivalent are cosmic radiation (320 +- 30 μSV) and the internal radioactivity of the body (190 μSV). Using the ratio between indoor and outdoor values for worldwide published data, the average annual Canadian whole-body dose-equivalent from all sources of natural radiation is estimated to be 690 +-130 μSV

  13. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  14. Energy in Canada: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recent changes in the North American natural gas industry are discussed, with a focus on how these changes will affect the ability of Alberta and Canadian natural gas supply to meet market growth. These changes include a decline in the merchant role of many of the major interstate pipelines, resulting in a larger number of smaller-sized purchasers for natural gas marketers to deal with; a greater extent of direct purchasing by local distribution companies and large industrial users, combined with a preference for spot sales rather than long-term commitments; direct marketing of uncontracted gas by many producers and brokers; a bidding type of sales process rather than a negotiated process; and price deregulation. It is foreseen that long term security of supply will again become an important factor to North American buyers, and Canada can offer substantial supplies under secure long term contracts. Marketers will have to seek new market targets such as cogeneration plants and the transportation sector. Access to pipeline transport will be one of the major factors in obtaining new markets. The Canada-USA free trade agreement is viewed as a positive development which should help Canadian gas marketers to gain and retain U.S. customers

  15. Wind turbine supply in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodin, H.

    2007-01-01

    This study reported on wind turbine supplies to the Canadian market. The report was written to address concerns for Canada's supply outlook in the near future due to the booming wind energy market. Turbine shortages have arisen as a result of continued growth in both European and North American markets. Long lead-times on turbine orders are now increasing the pressure to lock in turbine supply during the initial phases of the development process. Future growth of the wind energy industry will be impacted if turbine supply difficulties continue to contribute to uncertainties in the development process. The report provided an overview of the North American and global wind energy markets, as well as a summary of telephone interviews conducted with turbine suppliers. The implications for the future of turbine supply to the Canadian market were also analyzed. It was concluded that policy-makers should focus on supporting the expansion of manufacturing facilities for small wind turbines and control infrastructure in Canada 7 refs., 3 figs

  16. An integrated geophysical study of the southeastern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Veronica J.; Keller, G. Randy

    Southwestern Wyoming is located at the margin of the Archean Wyoming craton but has experienced significant deformation as a result of both the Sevier and Laramide orogenies. This study focuses on the nature and extent of this deformation and its interactions with structures within the Precambrian basement. We used about 350 km of newly released industry seismic reflection data along with gravity data, satellite imagery, and drilling information in an integrated analysis focusing on the north-south trending Rock Springs uplift, the northwest-trending Wind River uplift and the west-east trending Sweetwater uplift. These features form arches that are bounded by the Green River, Wind River, Great Divide, and the Washakie basins (Fig. 1). An example of the seismic data is shown in Figure 2 displays structural complexity at the northeast boundary of the Great Divide basin involving high-angle reverse faults with northeast dips. The fault that lies roughly in the middle of the line is interpreted to be the southeastern extension of the Wind River thrust, and the fault at the northeast end of the line is interpreted to be the Mormon Trail thrust. A gravity profile was modeled as a medium to integrate all of the data. This model of the upper crust indicates the presence of inhomogeneities in the Archean basement that have not been recognized previously. The basement northeast of the Wind River thrust contains considerable reflectivity indicating folding or fabric that either reflects or controls Laramide structures. The interweaving of reflectors in one line resemble imbricate structures shown in the CD-ROM Cheyenne belt deep reflection profile and could be related to an ancient structural boundary within the basement. Our analysis shows that the multiple thrusts bounding the Sweetwater uplift occur near major inhomogeneities in the Precambrian basement. Spatial relations we observe are consistent with the hypothesis that anastomosing arches characterize Laramide foreland

  17. Urbanization of Brazilian spotted fever in a municipality of the southeastern region: epidemiology and spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Trigo Nasser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazilian spotted fever is an emerging zoonosis notified mainly in the Southeast of Brazil, especially due to its high level of lethality.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological and spatial pattern of the disease in the municipality of Valinhos (106,793 inhabitants, São Paulo, Southeastern region of Brazil, in the period between 2001 and 2012.METHODS: All laboratory-confirmed cases with likely site of infection in the city (n = 49 notified in the Brazilian Case Registry Database were studied. Sites were geocoded using the cartographic base of the city and Google Earth (geographic coordinates with correction according to the Brazilian Geodetic System. We used the Kernel estimator to analyze the density of the cases on the map. Land cover and distance to basins of all cases were analyzed. Information about tick species and primary hosts were obtained from reports of the Superintendence of Control of Endemic Diseases.RESULTS: Seasonality of the disease was observed with the highest incidence from June to November, and in 2005 and 2011. The most affected groups were men (79.6% aged 20-49 years old (49%. Lethality was found to be 42.9%. Maps showed the progressive registration of cases in the urban area. Capybaras were reported as the main primary host, and Amblyomma cajennense was identified in probable sites of infection during field investigation. The likely sites of infection were mostly located near basins, dirty pastures, and bordering woods.CONCLUSIONS: The transmission pattern of Brazilian spotted fever in Valinhos is similar to that in other cities in the region, where capybara is the main primary host and an amplifier of R. rickettsii. Over the years, a higher occurrence of cases has been identified in the urban area of the city.

  18. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm

    2010-01-01

    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  19. Some Spatial Aspects of Southeastern United States Climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Peter T.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the climatology of an eight-state region in the southern and southeastern United States. Discusses general controls of climate and spatial patterns of various climatic averages. Examines mapped extremes as a means of fostering increased awareness of the variability that exists for climatic conditions in the region. (CMK)

  20. Economics of conservation systems research in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of conservation systems in crop production is not a new concept in the southeastern United States. In 1978, researchers from across the Southeast met in Griffin, Georgia for the first annual Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference. Four of the ten presentations specifically men...

  1. preliminary investigation of pegmatites in obudu area, southeastern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stream sediment samples were collected from Southern Obudu. Plateau area ... The elements in Obudu stream sediments show perfect, strong, moderate and weak correlations among themselves ..... also be due to the low radioactive materials in the area. However .... geochemistry in southeastern Asia: soils, sediments ...

  2. Southeastern Community College Annual Progress Report, December 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, R. Gene

    Presenting information on the status of Southeastern Community College (SCC), in Iowa, this annual progress report highlights basic institutional data, financial information, and improvements and planned changes of the college as of 1995. Part 1 presents basic data on SCC, including facility locations, assessed property valuation, district…

  3. Plant community variability on a small area in southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. MacCracken; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1984-01-01

    Plant communities are inherently variable due to a number of environmental and biological forces. Canopy cover and aboveground biomass were determined for understory vegetation in plant communities of a prairie grassland-forest ecotone in southeastern Montana. Vegetation units were described using polar ordination and stepwise discriminant analysis. Nine of a total of...

  4. Mulching An Arenic Hapludult In Southeastern Nigeria: Effects On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out over two cropping seasons at Umudike, southeastern Nigeria, to determine the type and quantity of mulch that would improve some selected physical properties of an Arenic Hapludult and optimize the rhizome yield of turmeric. Effects of mulch rate on bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), ...

  5. Hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant women in Southeastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis C virus and its possible risk factors in antenatal clinic attendees. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 820 consecutive and consenting antenatal clinic attendees at five antenatal clinics in Aba, Southeastern Nigeria over the period 15 June – 15 November, ...

  6. The Economics Of Goat Production In Southeastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Dwarf goat is indigenous to Southeastern Nigeria and is raised by many families under small·scale and intensive management systems. Results showed that the average households kept 6 goats, but that expansion was limited by hour and feed procurement problems. Both males and females owned goats ...

  7. Oak-Black Bear Relationships in Southeastern Uplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph D. Clark

    2004-01-01

    Bears (Ursus americanus) primarily occur in upland habitats in the Southeast because uplands were the last to be developed for agriculture and were more likely to become publicly owned. National parks and forests created in the early to mid-1900s served as sources to supply surrounding uplands with bears. Bears could not survive in southeastern...

  8. Lowland riparian herpetofaunas: the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip C. Rosen

    2005-01-01

    Previous work has shown that southeastern Arizona has a characteristic, high diversity lowland riparian herpetofauna with 62-68 or more species along major stream corridors, and 46-54 species in shorter reaches within single biomes, based on intensive fieldwork and museum record surveys. The San Pedro River supports this characteristic herpetofauna, at least some of...

  9. Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-30

    Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP) Pierre-Marie Poulain Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica ...Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale,Borgo Grotta Gigante, 42/c,34010 Sgonico (Trieste), Italy, , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  10. Physico-chemical properties of a Haplic Acrisol in Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties of a Haplic Acrisol in Southeastern Nigeria amended with rice mill waste and NPK fertilizer. ... conductivity (Ksat) and mean weight diameter (MWD) of water stable aggregates significantly by 41.1, 368.2 and 155.8%, respectively, and resulted in 20.9% significant decrease in bulk density (BD).

  11. Bedrock geologic map of the Spring Valley, West Plains, and parts of the Piedmont and Poplar Bluff 30'x60' quadrangles, Missouri, including the upper Current River and Eleven Point River drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Harrison, Richard W.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Weems, Robert E.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2015-01-01

    This map covers the drainage basins of the upper Current River and the Eleven Point River in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province of southeastern Missouri. The two surface drainage basins are contiguous in their headwaters regions, but are separated in their lower reaches by the lower Black River basin in the southeast corner of the map area. Numerous dye-trace studies demonstrate that in the contiguous headwaters areas, groundwater flows from the Eleven Point River basin into the Current River basin. Much of the groundwater discharge of the Eleven Point River basin emanates from Big Spring, located on the Current River. This geologic map and cross sections were produced to help fulfill a need to understand the geologic framework of the region in which this subsurface flow occurs.

  12. Iso-Naakkima, a circular structure filled with Neoproterozoic sediments, Pieksämäki, southeastern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elo, S.

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available A circular Bouguer gravity anomaly with a minimum of -4.0 mGal and halfamplitude width of 2 km was recognized at Lake Iso-Naakkima (62°11'N, 27°09'E, southeastern Finland. The gravity low is associated with subdued aeromagnetic signature and notable airborne and ground electromagnetic anomalies that indicate low bedrock resistivity. The drilling record beneath the recent (Quaternary glacial sediments, 25-40 m thick, reveals a 100 m thick sequence of unmetamorphosed shale, siltstone, quartz sandstone, kaolinitic clay and conglomeratic sandstone that rest on a weathered mica gneiss basement. The upward fining sequence is characterized by red colour, high kaolinite content, and tilted, distorted and brecciated beds. According to the geophysical modelling the diameter of the whole basin is 3 km and that of the sedimentary rocks 2 km, and the depth is 160 m. Shock lamellas in quartz clasts of the basal conglomeratic sandstone, almost omnipresent kink banding in micas of the rocks beneath the basin floor and the occurrence of polymictic dike breccia in the underlying mica gneiss suggest shock metamorphism. It was concluded that the basin originated by a meteorite impact. However, the impact-generated rocks were subsequently eroded before the sedimentation and only minor marks of shock metamorphism were preserved. Lateritic weathering took place prior to deposition of the sediments. Quartz sandstone and siltstone are interpreted as fluvial deposits and the thinly laminated shales as transgressi ve lacustrine or lagoonal deposits. The microfossil assemblage in the shale includes sphaeromorphs of acritarchs from Late Riphean (Neoproterozoic. Postdepositional subsidence of the Iso-Naakkima basin, shown by tilted sediments, preserved the sequence from further erosion.

  13. Present-day geothermal characteristics of the Ordos Basin, western North China Craton: new findings from deep borehole steady-state temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Qiu, Qianfeng; Jiang, Guangzheng; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Shengbiao; Lei, Yuhong; Wang, Xiangzeng

    2018-07-01

    Heat flow and associated thermal regimes are related to the tectonic evolution and geophysical properties of the lithosphere. The Ordos Basin is located in a tectonic transitional zone: areas to the east of the basin are characterized as tectonically active, while regions to the west of the basin are characterized as tectonically stable. It is of general interest to learn the geothermal characteristics of the basin in such tectonic conditions. To clarify the spatial variability of the present-day geothermal field across the basin and its implications, we report 13 terrestrial heat flow points based on the first systematic steady-state deep borehole temperature measurements in the basin. The new data together with existing data show that the geothermal gradients in the basin range from 12.6 to 42.3 °C km-1 with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.3 °C km-1; the terrestrial heat flow values range from 43.3 to 88.7 mW m-2 with a mean of 64.7 ± 8.9 mW m-2. Such values are higher than those of typical cratonic basins and lower than those of tectonically active areas. By using all these data in the basin and adjacent areas, we plot geothermal gradient and heat flow distribution maps. The maps reveal that the basin is cooling westwards and northwards. The distribution pattern of the geothermal field is consistent with the lithospheric thickness variation in the basin. This similarity suggests that the geothermal spatial variability of the Ordos Basin is mainly influenced by heat from the deep mantle. In the southeastern basin, we locate a positive geothermal anomaly caused by the convergence of heat flow in basement highs and the high radiogenic heat production. In addition, the high heat flow in the eastern basin is related to the intense uplift during the Cenozoic Era.

  14. Present-day geothermal characteristics of the Ordos Basin, western North China Craton: new findings from deep borehole steady-state temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Qiu, Qianfeng; Jiang, Guangzheng; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Shengbiao; Lei, Yuhong; Wang, Xiangzeng

    2018-03-01

    Heat flow and associated thermal regimes are related to the tectonic evolution and geophysical properties of the lithosphere. The Ordos Basin is located in a tectonic transitional zone: areas to the east of the basin are characterized as tectonically active, while regions to the west of the basin are characterized as tectonically stable. It is of general interest to learn the geothermal characteristics of the basin in such tectonic conditions. To clarify the spatial variability of the present-day geothermal field across the basin and its implications, we report 13 terrestrial heat flow points based on the first systematic steady-state deep borehole temperature measurements in the basin. The new data together with existing data show that the geothermal gradients in the basin range from 12.6 to 42.3° C km-1 with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.3° C km-1; the terrestrial heat flow values range from 43.3 to 88.7 mW/m2 with a mean of 64.7 ± 8.9 mW/m2. Such values are higher than those of typical cratonic basins and lower than those of tectonically active areas. By using all these data in the basin and adjacent areas, we plot geothermal gradient and heat flow distribution maps. The maps reveal that the basin is cooling westward and northward. The distribution pattern of the geothermal field is consistent with the lithospheric thickness variation in the basin. This similarity suggests that the geothermal spatial variability of the Ordos Basin is mainly influenced by heat from the deep mantle. In the southeastern basin, we locate a positive geothermal anomaly caused by the convergence of heat flow in basement highs and the high radiogenic heat production. In addition, the high heat flow in the eastern basin is related to the intense uplift during the Cenozoic Era.

  15. Canada's forest biomass resources: deriving estimates from Canada's forest inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, M.; Power, K.; Muhairwe, C.; Tellier, R.; Wang, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A biomass inventory for Canada was undertaken to address the data needs of carbon budget modelers, specifically to provide estimates of above-ground tree components and of non-merchantable trees in Canadian forests. The objective was to produce a national method for converting volume estimates to biomass that was standardized, repeatable across the country, efficient and well documented. Different conversion methods were used for low productivity forests (productivity class 1) and higher productivity forests (productivity class 2). The conversion factors were computed by constructing hypothetical stands for each site, age, species and province combination, and estimating the merchantable volume and all the above-ground biomass components from suitable published equations. This report documents the procedures for deriving the national biomass inventory, and provides illustrative examples of the results. 46 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  16. Strontium-90 in Canada goose eggshells: Nonfatal monitoring for contamination in wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    90 Sr was measured in eggshells from Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) that nested on Columbia River islands up- and downstream from deactivated plutonium production reactors on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. We also measured 90 Sr in wing bones of goose carcasses. Background levels of 90 Sr were based on eggshells collected on an island upstream of the reactors. A few eggshells collected from nests on a single island downstream of the reactors had slightly higher than background levels of 90 Sr. This may have resulted from geese eating shoreline plants or crops irrigated with Columbia River water that contained 90 Sr released into the river through groundwater seepage

  17. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  18. Cultural Dependency in Canada's Feature Film Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendakur, Manjunath

    1981-01-01

    Examines the ownership and policies of the dominant firms in the Canadian film market to explain Canada's dependence on imported films. Demonstrates how the economic relations existing between Canadian and U.S. film industries limit the profitability of films made in Canada. (JMF)

  19. Professor: Lær af Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada.......Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada....

  20. Summer precipitation variability over Southeastern South America in a global warming scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junquas, C. [UPMC/CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris (France); UMI-IFAECI CNRS-CONICET-UBA, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), DCAO/FCEyN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vera, C. [UMI-IFAECI CNRS-CONICET-UBA, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), DCAO/FCEyN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Li, L.; Le Treut, H. [UPMC/CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris (France)

    2012-05-15

    December-January-February (DJF) rainfall variability in southeastern South America (SESA) is studied in 18 coupled general circulation models from the WCRP/CMIP3 dataset, for present climate and the SRES-A1B climate change scenario. The analysis is made in terms of properties of the first leading pattern of rainfall variability in the region, characterized by a dipole-like structure with centers of action in the SESA and South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) regions. The study was performed to address two issues: how rainfall variability in SESA would change in a future climate and how much of that change explains the projected increasing trends in the summer mean rainfall in SESA identified in previous works. Positive (negative) dipole events were identified as those DJF seasons with above (below) normal rainfall in SESA and below (above) normal rainfall in the SACZ region. Results obtained from the multi-model ensemble confirm that future rainfall variability in SESA has a strong projection on the changes of seasonal dipole pattern activity, associated with an increase of the frequency of the positive phase. In addition, the frequency increase of positive dipole phase in the twenty first century seems to be associated with an increase of both frequency and intensity of positive SST anomalies in the equatorial Pacific, and with a Rossby wave train-like anomaly pattern linking that ocean basin to South America, which regionally induces favorable conditions for moisture transport convergence and rainfall increase in SESA. (orig.)

  1. Spatial and temporal distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in a Southeastern Brazilian river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, M P; Buss, D F; Nessimian, J L; Baptista, D F

    2006-05-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are structured according to physical and chemical parameters that define microhabitats, including food supply, shelter to escape predators, and other biological parameters that influence reproductive success. The aim of this study is to investigate spatial and temporal distribution of macroinvertebrate assemblages at the Macaé river basin, in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil. According to the "Habitat Assessment Field Data Sheet--High Gradient Streams" (Barbour et al., 1999), the five sampling sites are considered as a reference condition. Despite the differences in hydrological parameters (mean width, depth and discharge) among sites, the physicochemical parameters and functional feeding groups' general structure were similar, except for the less impacted area, which showed more shredders. According to the Detrended Correspondence Analysis based on substrates, there is a clear distinction between pool and riffle assemblages. In fact, the riffle litter substrate had higher taxa in terms of richness and abundance, but the pool litter substrate had the greatest number of exclusive taxa. A Cluster Analysis based on sampling sites data showed that temporal variation was the main factor in structuring macroinvertebrate assemblages in the studied habitats.

  2. Palynostratigraphy, palynofacies and palaeoenvironment of deposition of Selandian to Aquitanian sediments, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Kingsley K.; Umeji, Obianuju P.

    2016-08-01

    Investigation of outcrop sections along the Onitsha-Awka transect in the Niger Delta Basin southeastern Nigeria was undertaken to assess the palynological composition, palynofacies and palaeoenvironment of deposition. Stratigraphic ranges of palynomorphs suggest an age of Selandian to Aquitanian. The palynological composition is marked by abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in the Imo Formation (Selandian to Thanetian), dominance of spores and pollen over dinoflagellate cysts in the Nanka Formation (Ypresian to Bartonian), and overwhelming amounts of spore and pollen in the Ogwashi Formation (Pariabonian to Aquitanian). Palynofacies content shows dominance of structureless organic matter in the Imo Formation, few phytoclasts in the Nanka Formation and maximum phytoclast amounts in the Ogwashi Formation. Thanetian to Ypresian boundary was marked by the mixing of older Palaeocene and younger Eocene microfossils, decrease of microflora towards the end of Palaeocene and the evolution of abundant and more diverse Eocene taxa. The Imo Formation was deposited in middle to outer neritic zone based on abundance of gonyaulacacean cysts. However, peridiniacean and terrestrial microflora extend the deposition range to shallow waters of inner neritic and coastal zone. Increase in diversity and abundance of terrestrial palynomorphs over marine palynomorphs assemblages in the overlying Nanka Formation suggest deposition under alternating coastal and inner neritic conditions while the Ogwashi Formation records oscillating coastal plain and brackish water depositional conditions. The palaeoenvironments illustrate that general retrogradation was followed by progradation of the delta during the Cenozoic.

  3. Drivers of long-term precipitation and runoff variability in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Johanna; Waylen, Peter

    2018-02-01

    The hydroclimatology of the southeastern USA (AL, GA, NC, SC, and TN) is analyzed from a holistic perspective, including multiple climate drivers. Monthly precipitation modeled by the PRISM group and runoff data (1952-2011) from 18 basins are analyzed using a single-field based principal component's analysis. Results indicate that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation are the main atmospheric drivers of hydroclimate variability in the region, sometimes operating at several months' lag. Their influence is the strongest in the fall through spring, which corresponds with the dry season in the southern parts of the study area thereby increasing pressure on already limited water resources. The Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Pacific-North American patterns vary on shorter-term bases, and also show a significant, but temporally more sporadic influence. Insight is also brought to the ongoing discussion, confirming the disassociation of the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillation. Findings can be used in water resources forecasting, giving an indication of expected water volumes several months ahead.

  4. The influence of the geomorphological factors on the relief modelling within Eselnita hydrographic basin (Danube catchment/Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA VLAD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Developed on the south-eastern side of Almãjului Mountains, Eşelniţa drainage basin neighbours upon the following basins: upon S – SV with Mala, upon SV - V with Mraconia, upon V – NV with Berzasca, upon NV - NNE with Nera and on the NNE – SE direction with Cerna. The basin has a surface of 77 km2 and present a 5th degree hydrographic network according to Horton-Strahler ranking system, tributary to Danube by means of Eşelniţa main collector. Developed in a mountain landscape, the basin presents different levels held between minimum altitude of 64 m at the confluence with the Danube and maximum altitude of 1107 m, thus presenting a difference of 1043 m. Geological formations within the basin belong predominant to the Danubian Domain, so in central and upper courses, these are represented by a crystalline foundation and by magmatic rocks of intrusive nature covered by very small areas of sediment located in the northwest (belong to the Lower Jurassic and in the south-eastern (belongs to the Upper Cretaceous of the basin. But in the lower course, there are both crystalline and the sedimentary formations, last being integrated to Orşova depression and whose presence is related to the evolution of the Danube. Morphometric indices of Eşelniţa basin allows the distinction of a higher sector, mountainous terrain with high energy under a relatively increased fragmentation and depression sector with low relief energy and also with an intense fragmentation of the existing sedimentary rocks wich favors erosion manifestation in the context of deforestation action.

  5. Western Canada : changing pricing dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, B.

    1998-01-01

    Natural gas supply and demand trends in Western Canada are reviewed in a series of overhead viewgraphs. Production versus pipeline capacity, required gas well completions in the WCSB to meet local demand and fill export pipeline capacity to year 2005, NYMEX and AECO price trends during 1995-2000, and the question of what will happen to prices with additional pipeline capacity to the U.S. Midwest were summarized. The best guess is that Midwest prices will need to be high enough to attract marginal supplies from the Gulf, i.e. prices have be around the Henry Hub + five cents/ mmbtu. The new Canadian pipelines, (Northern Border and Alliance) will lower Midwest prices somewhat, but the impact will be modest. Assuming that additional planned pipeline expansion come on-stream, the pressure to expand east of Chicago will be considerable. tabs., figs

  6. Student research in Canada's north

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Admas, P [ed.; Johnson, P G [ed.

    1988-01-01

    A conference was organized in Canada to allow a large number of students with northern interests to meet together to present the results of their work and to discuss many other matters of mutual interset. In addition, this conference allowed students from many disciplines in the natural and social sciences to advance northern scholarship, and to foster a multidisciplinary approach to northern studies. A wide range of topics from the physical, biological, and social sciences were covered, including Inuit music, traditional medicine, mammoth bones, fossil trees, icebreaker design, archaeology, caves, naturally acid and other lakes, glaciers, bogs, Inuit clothing, education, northern parks, river ice jams, geology, marine science including large marine mammals, and global strategy. Separate abstracts have been prepared for twelve papers from this conference.

  7. Nuclear emergency exercises in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F.B.

    1993-01-01

    The practice followed in planning, preparing and conducting offsite nuclear emergency exercises in the Province of Ontario, Canada, is described. In addition, some of the main issues that arise during this process are discussed, as well as Canadian experience in dealing with them. The planning process starts with basic decisions on the aim, scope and duration of the exercise. It proceeds through selection of the exercise objectives and participants, the development of scenarios and incident lists culminating in a master scenario and a master incident list, and finally, the production of control inputs. Preparations include the setting up of a planning organization, making arrangements for exercise control and evaluation, and the required logistics. Some aspects of international exercises are also covered, based upon experience with joint exercises with the U.S.A

  8. Oil price uncertainty in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, John [Department of Finance and Real Estate, 1272 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)

  9. What fusion means to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    Fusion can and will play an ever-increasing role in the energy balance once it has been brought on line. Taming of this technology and the maturing processes of engineering and economic feasibility will proceed at a rate which depends very strongly upon international and collective national wills to see it through. Large experimental devices, particularly of the tokamak type, are now being completed; their performance should give a very good idea of the scientific feasibility. The next-stage devices are at the pre-proposal and proposal stages but are not yet approved, even in principle. An improved general economic climate sustained for a few years would certainly help re-establish the momentum of world international efforts in fusion. This paper gives an overview of fusion research on a world scale and details of the particular aspects that Canada has chosen to pursue

  10. Focus: Asian migration to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, A

    1988-01-01

    This collection of 5 short essays on Asian migration to Canada focuses on the relationships between individual migrants and their social contexts, both Asian and Canadian. Papers by Anderson and Kobayashi adopt research perspectives of outsider and insider, respectively. Vibert provides a historical overview against which the substantive issues introduced in the other 3 papers can be understood, and he illustrates the links between circumstances of migration and the larger issues by which the course of Canadian social progress has been steered. Mercer provides an introduction to issues that dominate the agenda of contemporary research, to show that Canadian communities of Asian heritage continue to grow in size, diversity, and complexity, as they become more established on the Canadian landscape. This collection is as much about the geography of racism as it is about migration.

  11. Transport gasoline demand in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltony, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of household gasoline demand in Canada by applying a detailed model to pool time-series (1969-1988) and cross-sectional provincial data. The model recognises three major behavioural changes that households can make in response to gasoline price changes: drive fewer miles, purchase fewer cars, and buy more fuel-efficient vehicles. In the model, fuel economy is treated in considerable detail. The two components of the fuel economy of new cars sold-the technical fuel efficiency of various classes of cars and the distribution of new car sales according to their interior volume rather than their weight - are estimated as functions of economic variables. Car manufacturers are assumed to improve the technical fuel economy according to their expectation of consumer's response to future changes in gasoline prices and general economic conditions. (author)

  12. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Following major changes to the CAMECO Port Hope operations to reduce uranium emissions, a study was initiated to measure uranium levels in air in the community. Studies continued on lung cancer and domestic exposure to radon, and current levels of cesium-137 in caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. The movement of tritium on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers was studied following an accidental release into the Ottawa River. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl in imported foods. All measurements recorded during 1988 were below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (14 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.)

  14. Canada's population: growth and dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujot, R P

    1978-04-01

    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  15. Coal geology and assessment of coal resources and reserves in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the final results of the first assessment of both coal resources and reserves for all significant coal beds in the entire Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The basin covers about 19,500 square miles, exclusive of the part of the basin within the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations in Montana. The Powder River Basin, which contains the largest resources of low-sulfur, low-ash, subbituminous coal in the United States, is the single most important coal basin in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey used a geology-based assessment methodology to estimate an original coal resource of about 1.16 trillion short tons for 47 coal beds in the Powder River Basin; in-place (remaining) resources are about 1.15 trillion short tons. This is the first time that all beds were mapped individually over the entire basin. A total of 162 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources (coal reserve base) are estimated at a 10:1 stripping ratio or less. An estimated 25 billion short tons of that coal reserve base met the definition of reserves, which are resources that can be economically produced at or below the current sales price at the time of the evaluation. The total underground coal resource in coal beds 10–20 feet thick is estimated at 304 billion short tons.

  16. Pacific Basin Heavy Oil Refining Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hackett

    2013-02-01

    additional refineries, both of which are not expected, given the volume of lighter and more valuable crude from the Middle East finding its way to Pacific Basin markets. Consequently, any new refinery capacity is not likely to be dedicated to Canadian crude shipments. This places increasing importance on the need to enter into long-term contracts to supply Pacific Basin refineries, backed up by evidence of adequate transportation capacity. Canadians will have to show first, and quickly, that we are committed to building pipelines that will bring sufficient volumes of oil to the Pacific coast necessary to give the refiners the certainty they need to invest in infrastructure for refining Canadian oil. Access to this crucial market will depend critically on the outcome of the pipeline approval process, and also the cost to ship from Canada. If Canada does not approve of the Pacific coast pipeline expansions, or takes too long in doing so, it could find its crude unable to effectively penetrate the world’s most promising oil export market.

  17. Brine migrations in the Athabasca Basin platform, alteration and associated fluid-rock exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercadier, J.; Cathelineau, M.; Richard, A.; Boiron, M.Ch.; Cuney, M.; Milesi, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium deposits of Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada) are considered as the richest in the world. They result from massive percolation of basin brines in the underlying platform. The authors describe the brine movements and how structures and micro-fractures promoted this percolation until very important depths (hundreds of meters under the discordance), and their chemical modifications as they interacted with platform rocks, thus promoting the transformation of an initially sodic brine into a uranium-enriched calcic brine which is essential to the formation of discordance-type deposit

  18. Coalbed Methane Extraction and Soil Suitability Concerns in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is located in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. It is an area of approximately 55,000 square kilometers. Extraction of methane gas from the coal seams that underlie the Powder River Basin began in Wyoming in the late 1980s and in Montana in the late 1990s. About 100-200 barrels of co-produced water per day are being extracted from each active well in the Powder River Basin, which comes to over 1.5 million barrels of water per day for all the active coalbed methane wells in the Basin. Lab testing indicates that Powder River Basin co-produced water is potable but is high in sodium and other salts, especially in the western and northern parts of the Powder River Basin. Common water management strategies include discharge of co-produced water into drainages, stock ponds, evaporation ponds, or infiltration ponds; treatment to remove sodium; or application of the water directly on the land surface via irrigation equipment or atomizers. Problems may arise because much of the Powder River Basin contains soils with high amounts of swelling clays. As part of the USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center's hyperspectral research program, researchers are investigating whether hyperspectral remote sensing data can be beneficial in locating areas of swelling clays. Using detailed hyperspectral data collected over parts of the Powder River Basin and applying our knowledge of how the clays of interest reflect energy, we will attempt to identify and map areas of swelling clays. If successful, such information will be useful to resource and land managers.

  19. Water Under Fire: A Seven Part Video Series on Canada's Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazek, R.; Byrne, J.; Rabe, N.; Gallant, G.

    2003-12-01

    Canada's water is under escalating pressure from a host of threats. Increasingly, our water is being tainted, misused and over allocated. Experts have identified a multitude of threats to water quantity and quality. Among them, climate change impacts on water supply, and the effects of pesticides, pathogens, industrial waste, urban runoff, and rising demands. These and other threats are the roots to a serious shortage of high quality, safe water sources. In the 1990s, waterborne diseases have re-emerged as one of the primary health issues on a national and global scale. This seven-part video series brings science voices together and provides a nationwide context. The first six programs in the series explore regional concerns: Rocky Mountains, Prairie Waters, Northern Waters, Great Lakes Basin, St. Lawrence and Atlantic Canada. The final program covers the national and international perspectives.

  20. Proceedings of the 7. Symposium on geology from southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents papers on the following subjects: regional geology of the proterozoic and fanerozoic, metallic and non metallic resources, tectoni-sedimentary evolution of the eastern margin Brazil basins and petroleum geology applied to the Santos, Campos and Espirito Santo basins, engineering and environmental geologies, ornamental rocks/building materials/mineral waters/industrial ores