Sample records for basin paleoenvironmental studies

  1. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Project goals, project tasks, progress on tasks, and problems encountered are described and discussed for each of the studies that make up the Great Basin Paleoenvironmental Studies Project for Yucca Mountain. These studies are: Paleobotany, Paleofauna, Geomorphology, and Transportation. Budget summaries are also given for each of the studies and for the overall project

  2. Palynological and paleoenvironmental studies of the Gombe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palynological and paleoenvironmental studies of the Gombe Formation Gongola Basin, Nigeria. OJ Ojo, SO Akande. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.40(2) 2004: 143-149. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  3. Tree-rings and climate: Implications for Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graybill, D.A.; Rose, M.R.; Nials, F.L.


    The Quaternary Sciences Center of the Desert Research Institute is currently conducting a multi-phased study of floral, faunal, and geomorphic response to long- and short-term climate change and extremes in assessing Yucca Mountain's suitability as a high-level nuclear waste repository. Preliminary results of these studies indicate synchronous responses in late Holocene tree-ring, palynology and geomorphic records. A tree-ring chronology for paleoclimatic reconstruction is developed by collection of multiple cores from 20-60 living trees and a similar number of dead trees in a climate-sensitive location. Samples are cross-dated and every growth layer in each specimen is measured to the nearest .001 mm. The measured ring width series potentially contain a variety of climatic, biological, and anthropogenic signals. Each ring width series is subjected to a numerical standarization procedure that removes an age-related biological growth trend, reduces endogeneous and exogenous stand disturbance factors, and maximizes any climatic signal that is present. Each of these empirically defined components can be graphically portrayed and subjected to further analyses. The geophysical signal analysis techniques involved in the standarized protocol are well-documented and established. The final result is a tree-ring chronology that represents regional paleoclimatic variability over the time represented by the sample population

  4. Palynology, palynofacies and paleoenvironmental studies of the Late Devonian sediments of the Atiavi-1 well, Keta Basin, southeastern Ghana (United States)

    Atta-Peters, David; Achaegakwo, Christopher A.


    Palynomorph and palynofacies analysis have been performed on 34 cutting samples from the Late Devonian sediments of the Atiavi-1 well in the Keta Basin. Five (5) palynofacies associations linked to different depositional environments have been identified based on the kerogen content in the samples. Palynofacies types Pf A, Pf B and Pf E reflect deposition under mud-dominated oxic shelf conditions (distal shelf), characterized by kerogen type III > IV which is gas prone. Palynofacies type C (Pf C) and D (Pf D) reflect heterolithic oxic shelf (proximal) conditions and are also characterized by type III or IV kerogen. The palynomorph associations (miospores, acritarchs and chitinozoans) indicate an offshore distal or outer shelf environment for the lower section (1490 m-1244 m) with the upper sections (1244 m-936 m) showing intermixing of land - derived elements (miospores, phytoclasts and cuticles) with minor amounts of acritarchs, which strongly suggests deposition in shallow marine/fluvio-deltaic environment. The abundance and diversity of spores is an indication of humid climatic condition which existed at the time of deposition. Palynomorphs with marker species based mainly on miospores assemblages and some diagnostic chitinozoans and acritarchs association from the Atiavi-1 well indicate an age of upper lower Devonian (Emsian) to latest Devonian (Strunian).

  5. Paleoenvironmental interpretation through the analysis of ostracodes and carbonate microfacies: study of the Jandaíra Formation, Upper Cretaceous, Potiguar Basin

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    Marcos Antonio Batista dos Santos Filho

    Full Text Available Paleoecological analyses are important tools for the reconstruction of paleoenvironments. This paper had the objective of using analysis of ostracode assemblages and carbonate microfacies of a well (Carbomil and an outcrop (Quixeré from the Jandaíra Formation, Potiguar Basin, in order to verify how they corroborate and complement the other. Two paleoenvironments for Carbomil Well (assemblages 1 and 2, respectively marine and brackish to neritic environments and one for Quixeré Outcrop (assemblage 3, marine environment were identified through the ostracode assemblage analysis. Thin section analysis allowed the identification of two different facies for Carbomil Well, i.e. bioclastic packstones to wackstones, a marine brackish or restricted marine system; and bioclastic grainstones to packstones, a normal, shallow marine system. High levels of alteration on the samples prevented an adequate analysis of Quixeré Outcrop; however, it seems to point towards a low-energy environment. Overall, information provided by the thin sections corroborate and complement data of the ostracode assemblages, which allowed a higher degree of certainty for the paleoenvironmental analysis.

  6. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction and evolution of an Upper Cretaceous lacustrine-fluvial-deltaic sequence in the Parecis Basin, Brazil (United States)

    Rubert, Rogerio R.; Mizusaki, Ana Maria Pimentel; Martinelli, Agustín G.; Urban, Camile


    The Cretaceous in the Brazilian Platform records events of magmatism, tectonism and sedimentation coupled to the Gondwana breakup. Some of these events are registered as sedimentary sequences in interior basins, such as in the Cretaceous sequence of the Alto Xingu Sub-basin, Parecis Basin, Central Brazil. This article proposes the faciologic characterization and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Cretaceous sequence of the eastern portion of the Parecis Basin and its relation with some reactivated structures as, for instance, the Serra Formosa Arch. Based on both data from outcrops and core drillings a paleoenvironmental and evolutionary reconstruction of the sequence is herein presented. The base of the studied section is characterized by chemical and low energy clastic sedimentation of Lake Bottom and Shoreline, in a context of fast initial subsidence and low sedimentation rate. As the subsidence process decreased, a deltaic progradation became dominant with deposition in a prodelta environment, followed by a deltaic front and deltaic plain interbedded with fluvial plain, and aeolian deposition completing the sequence. The inferred Coniacian-Santonian age is based on vertebrate (fishes and notosuchians) and ostracod fossils with regional chrono-correlates in the Adamantina (Bauru Group), Capacete (Sanfranciscana Basin), and Bajo de la Carpa (Neuquén Group, in Argentina) formations. The formation of a Coniacian depocenter in the Alto Xingu Sub-basin is associated to the Turonian-Coniacian reactivation event in the Peruvian Orogenic Phase of the Andean Orogeny, with the transference of stresses to interplate setting, reactivating Proterozoic structures of the basement.

  7. Cretaceous ostracods of the Barreirinhas Basin: Taxonomy, biostratigraphic considerations and paleoenvironmental inferences (United States)

    Santos Filho, M. A. B.; Fauth, G.; Piovesan, E. K.


    Ostracods are microcrustaceans that inhabit different aquatic environments and are frequently used in paleoecological interpretations and biostratigraphic studies. The Barreirinhas Basin, Northern of Brazil, contains a well-preserved ostracod assemblage in its sedimentary rocks of early and late Cretaceous age, which have been so far poorly studied. This paper contains the first taxonomic identification of the ostracod assemblages, as well as the elaboration of paleoenvironmental and biostratigraphic inferences, for the Cretaceous of the Barreirinhas Basin. The studied material consists of 147 samples from the wells 1-MAS-1A, 1-MAS-3A, 1-MAS-4A and 1-MAS-14A. 495 specimens were recovered, distributed between 40 species, 16 genera and 9 families, including three new species. Based on previously established biozones for the Sergipe basin, two biozones were identified: the Nigeroloxoconcha aff. Nigeroloxoconcha sp. GA A 22 Range Zone, of lower Cenomanian age; and the Brachycythere sapucariensis Interval Zone, of Turonian to middle Coniacian age. Finally, three distinct ostracod assemblages were defined: Assemblage 1, dominated by Conchoecia? species; Assemblage 2, well diversified but with low abundance; and Assemblage 3, with cold water ostracods such as Krithe. Based on the ostracod assemblages identified, a middle neritic, platformal paleoenvironment was inferred for the studied interval.

  8. New Paleoenvironmental and Biotic Records from the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary Interval of the Algarve Basin, Portugal (United States)

    Kasprak, A. H.; Whiteside, J. H.; Lopes, F. M.; Brusatte, S. L.; Butler, R. J.; Mateus, O.


    Studies of carbonate, bulk organic, and compound-specific stable isotopes of carbon have shown that the Triassic-Jurassic boundary interval (including the end-Triassic mass extinction) displays major, global perturbations to the carbon cycle. These records are instrumental not only in reconstructing environmental change, as they are thought to reflect ecosystem instability and changing atmospheric gas inventories, but, due to their global nature, can be useful tools for stratigraphic correlation. The Algarve Basin, a deformed, extensional basin in the south of Portugal, has potential for yielding insight into the dramatic paleoenvironmental and faunal changes that occurred during the latest Triassic through earliest Jurassic. During this time interval, the basin records an evolution from continental to marginal marine sediments that are interbedded with radioisotopically dated Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) basalts, thought to be a major causative agent in the end-Triassic mass extinction. Recent field excavations in the Algarve Basin have documented terrestrial vertebrate remains at multiple horizons, including a rich bone bed densely packed with well-preserved remains of large stereospondyl temnospondyls (skull length up to ~1 meter) positioned close to the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. These stereospondyls may represent some of the latest surviving members of their groups in Europe, and occur in a time interval in which stereospondyl material is scarce and represented primarily by isolated and fragmentary material. Unfortunately, the paleoenvironmental and chronologic framework of the Algarve Basin is not well constrained, despite its importance as a critical record of this time in Earth history. We present a preliminary bulk organic carbon isotope record of early Mesozoic rift-basin sediments from the Algarve Basin. This record exhibits significant variability, but appears to record a trend towards more negative values at the top of the section, though

  9. sedimentology and paleoenvironmental studies on the chad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 12, 2008 ... (Du,Preez,1949; Jones,1959). It is located in the. Southeastern part of the of the Bornu Basin and trends in a Southeast-Northwest direction over a distance of about 160km from Dar-el-Jimeil in the Republic of. Cameroon, through Bama then Maiduguri where it is best developed in thickness and ultimately ...

  10. Stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) based interpretation of organic matter source and paleoenvironmental conditions in Al-Azraq basin, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Khaldoun; Davies, Caroline


    This study examines the stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen from cored lacustrine sediments of the Al-Azraq, an arid lake basin on the Jordan Plateau. Lacustrine sediments contain valuable records of paleoenvironmental conditions, recording local and regional responses to environmental change. Previous paleo-reconstructions on the Jordan Plateau are based on archaeology, pollen, mineralogy, and stratigraphy. The application of organic geochemistry analyses to these lake sediments identifies multiple sources of organic matter, biological production, and contributes to understanding the paleoenvironments of the Al-Azraq basin during the mid-Pleistocene period. Organic carbon concentration (Corg) provides an overview of the organic matter distribution. Carbon isotopic composition (δ13Corg) and nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) are indicators of organic matter sources and paleoproductivity. Magnetic susceptibility (MGSUS) measured the concentration of ferromagnetic minerals and indicated aeolian inputs. Organic geochemistry differentiated five paleoenvironmental zones with specific sources of organic matter, both aquatic and terrestrial. It identified a long period of climate wetter than the present, punctuated by a short intense period of aridity. Diagenesis plays an important role in the decomposition of organic matter and studies indicate this degradation can alter the isotopic signals of organic matter. Analyses of the isotopic signals and statistical analyses demonstrate diagenesis is not a factor in the Al-Azraq sediments in all but Zone 4 of the paleoenvironmental zones. This Zone is defined by less negative carbon isotopic composition and the presence of thick primary gypsum layers, in addition to the influx of high peaks of aeolian sediment as reflected in the magnetic susceptibility data. Stable isotope geochemistry provides detailed information on the paleoenvironments of lake sediments, and is applicable to typically challenging arid basin sediments

  11. Taphonomic and paleoenvironmental considerations for the concentrations of macroinvertibrate fossils in the Romualdo Member, Santana Formation, Late Aptian - Early Albian, Araripe Basin, Araripina, NE, Brazil (United States)

    Prado, Ludmila Alves Cadeira Do; Pereira, Priscilla Albuquerque; Sales, Alexandre Magno Feitosa; Barreto, Alcina Magnólia Franca


    Benthic macroinvertebrate fossils can be seen towards to the top of the Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation, in the Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil, and can provide paleoenvironmental and paleobiogeographical information regarding the Cretaceous marine transgression which reached the interior basins in Northeast Brazil. We analyse taphonomic characteristics of macroinvertebrate concentrations of two outcrops (Torrinha and Torre Grande) within the municipality Araripina, Pernambuco, in order to enhance our understanding of the Cretaceous paleoenvironment in the western portion of the Araripe Basin. At the outcrop Torrinha, proximal tempestitic taphofacies were identified. These predominantly consist of ceritid, cassiopid, and later, naticid gastropods as well as undetermined bivalves. Given this lack of variability it can be deduced that there were no significant paleoenvironmental changes during the successive stages tempestitic sedimentation. In the Torre Grande outcrop distal to proximal tempestitic taphofacies were identified from the base to the top respectively pointing to a decrease in paleodepth. Asides from the macroinvertebrates present in Torrinha, there are also echinoids - unequivocal evidence for marine conditions. These occurrences appear to be restricted to Romualdo Member outcrops in the Araripina municipality (the Southeast portion of the Araripe Basin) confirming a previously published hypothesis suggesting that the Cretaceous marine transgression originated from the neighbouring Parnaíba Basin to the west. This study identified marine molluscs of a similar age to those in the Romualdo Member's equivalent rock units in the Parnaíba and Sergipe-Alagoas (SE-AL) basins suggesting a marine connection between these basins and the Araripe Basin during the Early Cretaceous.

  12. Ichnofabrics of the Capdevila Formation (early Eocene) in the Los Palacios Basin (western Cuba): Paleoenvironmental and paleoecological implications (United States)

    Villegas-Martín, Jorge; Netto, Renata Guimarães; Lavina, Ernesto Luis Correa; Rojas-Consuegra, Reinaldo


    The ichnofabrics present in the early Eocene siliciclastic deposits of the Capdevila Formation exposed in the Pinar del Rio area (Los Palacios Basin, western Cuba) are analyzed in this paper and their paleoecological and paleoenvironmental significance are discussed. Nine ichnofabrics were recognized in the dominantly sandy sedimentary succession: Ophiomorpha, Asterosoma, Thalassinoides, Palaeophycus, Scolicia, Bichordites-Thalassinoides, Rhizocorallium, Scolicia-Thalassinoides and rhizobioturbation. Diversity of ichnofauna is low and burrows made by detritus-feeding organisms in well oxygenated and stenohaline waters predominate. Suites of the Cruziana and Skolithos Ichnofacies lacking their archetypical characteristics were recognized, being impoverished in diversity and presenting dominance of echinoderm and decapods crustacean burrows as a response to the environmental stress caused by the high frequency of deposition. The ichnofabric distribution in the studied succession, its recurrence in the sandstone beds and the presence of a Glossifungites Ichnofacies suite with rhizobioturbation associated reflect a shoaling-upward event with subaerial exposure of the substrate. The integrated analysis of the ichnology and the sedimentary facies suggests deposition in a shallow slope frequently impacted by gravitational flows and high-energy events. The evidence of substrate exposure indicates the occurrence of a forced regression and suggests the existence of a sequence boundary at the top of the Capdevila Formation.


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    Sérgio Bergamaschi


    Full Text Available Itararé Group represents the glacial record of Gondwana Continent in the intracratonic Paraná Basin, encompassing regions of Southern Brazil, Eastern Paraguay, Northeast Argentina and Northern Paraguay. Itararé Group is the thickest sedimentary package of Paraná Basin, and was deposited over 36 million years during the end of the Carboniferous and the beginning of the Permian. However, in relation to its paleoenvironmental evolution, it is generally understood that more research is necessary, in order to better understand the genesis of the Itararé Group in different places. The present work entailed mapping facies associations for the Itararé Group in the city of Salto, in São Paulo State, by identifying and classifying sedimentary facies that, in turn, were utilized to develop a paleoenvironmental evolution model. This model was based on geological mapping carried out over 125 km². Petrological and petrographic descriptions of 32 outcrops of Itararé Group also were studied. These results were compared with subsurface data obtained by Sistema de Informações de Águas Subterrâneas, Serviços Geológicos do Brasil (SIAGAS-CPRM; System Water Information Groundwater, Geological Survey of Brazil. Through lithofacies and petrographic analyses and making a comparison between five column sections, surface and subsurface data, a stratigraphic correlation model was established for the region. Through this model was possible to identify four facies associations, which, together, indicate how the paleoenvironmental evolution of the region occurred. The first three associations (A, B, C were interpreted as being formed in subaqueous environment, being related to sandy lobe systems, followed by the last association (D, pertaining to a fluvial system.

  14. Oil generation potential assessment and paleoenvironmental interpretation of Irati Formation (Lower Permian in northwestern of Paraná Basin (Brazil

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    Rosane dos Santos Euzébio


    Full Text Available Total organic carbon (TOC, total sulfur (S and Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyzes were performed in 41 samples collected along the SP-60-PR core, from the Irati Formation, northwestern of Paraná Basin. This work aims to show how organic matter content evolved vertically in the Irati Formation and therefore to contribute to the identification of the most attractive levels to generate hydrocarbons, in thermally immature sediments. The results of these analyses allowed to recognize sharp changes in the types of organic matter and paleoenvironmental conditions, giving rise to eight chemical-stratigraphic units, labeled as A, B and C (Taquaral Member and D, E, F, G and H (Assistência Member. The units A and C display low organic carbon content and predominance of organic matter type IV, which indicate an oxic environment.The unit B, with higher TOC content, has organic matter predominantly of type II and should be associated to a disoxic environment. The Assistência Member, mainly with organic matter type II, is differentiated from the previous units by their sharply higher TOC content and hydrogen index values, suggesting a more restricted environment, characterized by disoxic to anoxic conditions. The bituminous shale of the units E and H have the highest TOC, sulfur and hydrogen index values, representing the units where conditions of the autochthonous organic matter (type II preservation was more efficient (anoxic environment. Despite being found organic matter thermally immature in the Assistência Member, the layer with the highest generation potential is the unity H. The comparison with data of other studied wells evidenced a strong reduction in the potential generator of the Irati Formation toward the north of Paraná Basin.

  15. LIP volcanism and paleo-environmental crises - impact of magma emplacement sequence on thermogenic degassing rates from the Karoo sedimentary basin (United States)

    Galerne, Christophe; Hasenclever, Jörg


    Volcanism in organic-rich sedimentary basins leading to thermogenic greenhouse gas generation has been documented as a strong forcing factor of past mass extinctions. However, quantitative studies fail to provide degassing rate estimates that would allow a direct comparison with anthropogenic warming. We are investigating different sill-emplacement sequences of a Large Igneous Province (LIP) plumbing system to identify their potential variable impact in terms of thermogenic degassing rates and cumulative amount of gas released at the basin top. We use a 2D finite element model that solves for hydrothermal fluid flow and thermal evolution around several cooling intrusions. Igneous sills are represented by horizontally dominated thermal anomalies that are sequentially placed within the sedimentary basin. We test different end-member scenarios of emplacement like bottom-to-top, top-to-bottom, and arbitrary emplacement order. Degassing pulses monitored during the simulations are recorded and compared for various end-member scenarios. The LIP emplaced in the Karoo Basin (South Africa, 183 Ma) is considered as a case study. We use basin lithostratigraphic properties (e.g. Total Organic Carbon content, sill to sediment proportion and structural data) to discuss results of our end-member models. This research potentially holds the key to demonstrate whether or not anthropogenic warming is in a comparable range to a documented paleo-environmental crisis and mass extinction triggered by degassing related volcanism.

  16. Facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Upper Cretaceous sequences in the eastern Para-Tethys Basin, NW Iran

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    Omidvar, M.; Safari, A.; Vaziri-Moghaddam, H.; Ghalavand, H.


    Upper Cretaceous mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sequences are among the most important targets for hydrocarbon exploration in the Moghan area, located in the eastern Para-Tethys Basin. Despite of their significance, little is known about their facies characteristics and depositional environments. Detailed facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of these sequences have been carried out in eight surface sections. Accordingly, four siliciclastic facies, eight carbonate facies and one volcanic facies have been recognized. Detailed facies descriptions and interpretations, together with the results of facies frequency analysis, standard facies models and Upper Cretaceous depositional models of Para-Tethys Basin, have been integrated and a non-rimmed carbonate platform is presented. This platform was affected by siliciclastic influx, in the form of coastal fan delta and submarine fans in the shallow- to deep-marine parts, respectively. This model is interpreted to be shallower in the central and northeastern parts of the Moghan area. Toward the southeast and southwest, this shallow platform turns into deep marine settings along steep slopes without remarkable marginal barriers. (Author)

  17. Sedimentology and paleoenvironmental evolution of Messinian evaporites in the Iskenderun-Hatay basin complex, Southern Turkey (United States)

    Tekin, Erdoğan; Varol, Baki; Ayyıldız, Turhan


    Messinian evaporites, which resulted from the salinity crisis during the final closure of the Mediterranean Sea, are exposed in SE Turkey. These evaporites formed in two isolated sub-basins, Iskenderun-Arsuz (IA) and Hatay-Samandağ (HS), which belong to different depositional configurations and tectonic structures. The Neogene fill of these sub-basins consists of a thick sedimentary succession that started with Early Miocene terrestrial clastics, followed by reefs (Middle Miocene) and shallow water siliciclastics (Tortonian - Early to Late Miocene) and finally Messinian evaporates. These sub-basins accumulated in a diverse range of depositional environments from very shallow to deeper water. Evaporite facies in the IA sub-basin consist of sabkhas, saline lagoons and ponds. They are mainly represented by chemical deposits such as scattered gypsum nodules and balls, nodular bedded gypsum, laminated gypsum (Type-A) and selenites (Type-S1). Evaporites in the HS sub-basin mainly consist of detrital gypsum composed of gypsum laminae (Type-B, C), gypsum arenite-rudites and deeper water selenites (≤ 20 m), and resedimented selenites (Type-S2), which were deposited on a sulfate platform with a slope-basin transitional zone. Secondary gypsum with alabastrine and porphyroblastic textures as well as satin spar veins is commonly associated with the sabkha-type evaporites of the IA sub-basin. Deeper-water clastic evaporites of the HS sub-basin have generally remained as primary gypsum or have only been slightly affected by diagenetic alterations. The isotope values ( 87/86Sr; δ 18O SMOW; and δ 34S CDT) from the different kinds of gypsum lithofacies of the sub-basin are similar to those of the Messinian evaporites in other peri-Mediterranean basins, indicating an origin from marine water without external or basinal contributions. The Messinian evaporites examined in this paper are overlain by Early Pliocene (Zanclean) deposits composed of shallow- and deep

  18. Paleoenvironmental changes and influence on Operculodinium centrocarpum during the Quaternary in the Campos Basin, southwestern Brazil (United States)

    Santos, Alessandra; de Araujo Carvalho, Marcelo; de Oliveira, Antônio Donizeti; Mendonça Filho, João Graciano


    The purpose of this paper is to document the changes observed in the Quaternary dinoflagellate assemblages from 80 core samples from the Campos Basin. The Interglacial (Subzone X1), Glacial (Subzones Y5 to Y2), Last Glacial Maximum (Subzone Y1) and Post-Glacial (Zone Z) intervals were identified. High abundance of Operculodinium centrocarpum suggests the warm, high salinity and nutrient-poor water conditions dominated the upper water column of the Campos Basin. The climate and oceanic current dynamic of the continental slope of the Campos Basin appears to has been a significant controlling factor in the distribution of dinocysts, particularly of O. centrocarpum, during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition.

  19. PaleoGeo: a Web based GIS database for paleoenvironmental studies (United States)

    Song, Wonsuh; Kondo, Yasuhisa; Oguchi, Takashi


    Paleoenvironmental studies cover various fields such as paleohydrology, geomorphology, paleooceanology, paleobiology, paleoclimatology, and chronology. It is difficult for an individual researcher to collect and compile enormous data regarding these fields. We have been compiling portal data and presenting them using a web-based geographical information system (Web-GIS) called PaleoGeo for the multidisciplinary project 'Replacement of Neanderthals by Modern Humans'. The aim of the project is to reconstruct the distribution of Neanderthals and modern humans in time and space in relation to past climate change. We have been collecting information from almost three thousand articles of 13 journals regarding paleoenvironmental research (i.e., Boreas, Catena, Climatic Change, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Geomorphology, Journal of Quaternary Science, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, and Palaeoecology, Quaternary International, Quaternary Research, Quaternary Science Reviews, The Holocene, and The Journal of Geology). The topics of the articles were classified into six themes (paleohydrology, earth surface processes and materials, paleooceanology, paleobiology, palaeoclimatology, and chronology) and 19 subthemes (hydrology, flood, fluvial, glacier, fluvial/glacier, sedimentology, soil, slope process, periglacial, peat land, eolian, sea-level, biology, vegetation, zoology, vegetation/zoology, archaeology, climate, atmosphere, and chronology). The collected data consist of the journal name, information about each paper (authors, title, volume, year, and page numbers), site location (country name, longitude, and latitude), theme, subtheme, keywords, DOI (Digital Object Identifier), and period (era). Location data are indispensable for paleoenvironmental studies. The PaleoGeo shows information with a map, which is an advantage of this database system. However, the number of the paleoenvironmental studies is growing rapidly and we have to effectively cover them as

  20. Evidence of late Quaternary wet/dry climate episodes derived from paleoclimatic proxy data recovered from the paleoenvironmental record of the Great Basin of western North America: Paleobotanical studies

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    Through the integration of several avenues of paleoclimatic proxy data, the authors intend to arrive a definite conclusions regarding the frequency of periods of wetter climate, and to drive information regarding the magnitudes of these episodes, rates of their onset and demise, and the climatic conditions under which wetter climate can occur. These will in turn lead to rough estimates of: (1) the amounts of rainfall available for recharge during past periods of effectively wetter climate; and (2) the durations and spacing of such events that provide an indication of the amount of time that the area was subjected to these inputs. To accomplish these goals the paleobotanical record over a broad region is being examined to identify periods of greater effective precipitation. Although the project focus is on a region a of about 200 km around Yucca Mountain, they have collected data in other areas of the Great Basin in order to be able to identify large-scale climatic patterns. Once identified and described these climatic patterns can be separated from purely local climatic phenomena that might hinder the understanding of the Pliestocene climates of southern Nevada and the Yucca Mountain area in particular.

  1. Evidence of late Quaternary wet/dry climate episodes derived from paleoclimatic proxy data recovered from the paleoenvironmental record of the Great Basin of western North America: Paleobotanical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Through the integration of several avenues of paleoclimatic proxy data, the authors intend to arrive a definite conclusions regarding the frequency of periods of wetter climate, and to drive information regarding the magnitudes of these episodes, rates of their onset and demise, and the climatic conditions under which wetter climate can occur. These will in turn lead to rough estimates of: (1) the amounts of rainfall available for recharge during past periods of effectively wetter climate; and (2) the durations and spacing of such events that provide an indication of the amount of time that the area was subjected to these inputs. To accomplish these goals the paleobotanical record over a broad region is being examined to identify periods of greater effective precipitation. Although the project focus is on a region a of about 200 km around Yucca Mountain, they have collected data in other areas of the Great Basin in order to be able to identify large-scale climatic patterns. Once identified and described these climatic patterns can be separated from purely local climatic phenomena that might hinder the understanding of the Pliestocene climates of southern Nevada and the Yucca Mountain area in particular

  2. Paleoenvironmental conditions and strontium isotope stratigraphy in the Paleogene Gafsa Basin (Tunisia) deduced from geochemical analyses of phosphatic fossils (United States)

    Kocsis, László; Ounis, Anouar; Chaabani, Fredj; Salah, Neili Mohamed


    Fossil shark teeth and coprolites from three major phosphorite occurrences in the Gafsa Basin (southwestern Tunisia) were investigated for their geochemical compositions to improve local stratigraphy and to better assess paleoenvironmental conditions. 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of shark teeth from the Early Maastrichtian El Haria Formation and from the Early Eocene Métlaoui s.s. Formation yielded Sr isotope ages of 68 ± 1 and 47.9 ± 1.3 Ma, respectively, which accord with the expected stratigraphic positions of these sediments. Conversely, shark teeth from the Paleocene-Eocene Chouabine Formation have large variation in Sr isotope ratios even within individual layers. After statistical treatment and then elimination of certain outlier samples, three age-models are proposed and discussed. The most reasonable solution includes three subsequent Sr ages of 61.8 ± 2.2 Ma, 57.2 ± 1.8 and 54.6 ± 1.6 for layer IX, layers VIII-V and layers IV-0, respectively. Three scenarios are discussed for explanation of the presence of the outliers: (1) diagenesis, (2) re-working and (3) locally controlled seawater Sr isotope ratio. The most plausible account for the higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios relative to the global ocean in some fossils is enhanced intrabasinal re-working due to low sea level. Conversely, the sample with lower 87Sr/86Sr than the global seawater may link to diagenesis or to seawater influenced by weathering of Late Cretaceous marine carbonates, which latter is supported by model calculation as well. The ɛNd values of these fossils are very similar to those reported for Paleogene and Late Cretaceous Tethyan seawater and are compatible with the above interpretations. The relatively low oxygen isotope values in shark teeth from the topmost phosphate bed of the Chouabine Formation, together with the Sr isotope results, point toward recovering better connections with the open sea. These δ18O data reflect elevated ambient temperature, which may link to the Early Eocene

  3. Greigite formed in early Pleistocene lacustrine sediments from the Heqing Basin, southwest China, and its paleoenvironmental implications (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaoke; Xu, Xinwen; Zhao, Hui; Fu, Chaofeng


    The ferrimagnetic iron sulfide greigite (Fe3S4) occurs widely in sulfidic lacustrine and marine sedimentary environments. Knowledge of its formation and persistence is important for both magnetostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental studies. Although the formation mechanism of greigite has been widely demonstrated, the sedimentary environments associated with greigite formation in lakes, especially on relatively long timescales, are poorly understood. A long and continuous sequence of Pleistocene lacustrine sediments was recovered in the Heqing drill core from southwestern China, which provides an outstanding record of continental climate and environment. Integrated magnetic, geochemical, and paleoclimatic analysis of the lacustrine sequence provides an opportunity to improve our understanding of the environmental controls on greigite formation. Rock magnetic and scanning electron microscope analyses of selected samples from the core reveal that greigite is present in the lower part of the core (part 1, 665.8-372.5 m). Greigite occurs throughout this interval and is the dominant magnetic mineral, irrespective of the climatic state. The magnetic susceptibility (χ) record, which is mainly controlled by the concentration of greigite, matches well with variations in the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) index and total organic carbon (TOC) content, with no significant time lag. This indicates that the greigite formed during early diagenesis. In greigite-bearing intervals, with the χ increase, Bc value increase and tends to be stable at about 50 mT. Therefore, we suggest that χ values could estimate the variation of greigite concentration approximately in the Heqing core. Greigite favored more abundant in terrigenous-rich and organic-poor layers associated with weak summer monsoon which are characterized by high χ values, high Fe content, high Rb/Sr ratio and low TOC content. Greigite enhancement can be explained by variations in terrigenous inputs. Our studies demonstrate

  4. Miocene woods from the Qaidam Basin on northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with implications for paleoenvironmental change (United States)

    Cheng, Ye-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Nan


    The Qaidam Basin with the most complete Cenozoic sedimentary preservation in northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a key area for studying uplift and environmental change of the plateau. Three types of woods, Ulmus (Ulmaceae), Leguminosae (?) (angiosperm) and Cupressaceae (gymnosperm) were recognized from the large-scale preservation of fossil woods in late Miocene Shang Youshashan Formation in northern Qaidam Basin on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Both investigations of their Nearest Living Relatives (NLRs) and previous grassland mammal evidences suggest that there have been temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest and needle-leaved forest with grass in northern Qaidam Basin during the late Miocene in contrast to the desert vegetation found there nowadays. The presence of the ancient forest steppe further implies that the southern part of the plateau used to be adequately low, so that the Indian and East Asian monsoons could approach the northern area and to accommodate the vegetation in late Miocene.

  5. The microfauna assemblages as indicators of paleoenvironmental changes in the Miocene fluvial- lacustrine cycles (NE Duero Basin, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herrero-Hernández


    Full Text Available The siliclastic and carbonate deposits are interbedded in the Villadiego area (Miocene, NE Duero Basin. They have been subdivided into two high-rank depositional sequences: DDS and CDS. The sedimentary analysis of these units and the study of the microfauna content, mainly ostracods, led to the identification of lacustrine-fluvial interaction systems. The sedimentary characteristics reveal the existence of fluvial systems of gravel, flood plains and lacustrine systems that were interconnected and intimately related in north-south direction. In the sedimentological analysis, thirteen types of fluvial and lacustrine lithofacies and six genetic facies associations were recognized. The top of DDS is the result of lake level risings. The CDS shows a deepening-shallowing cycle. The ostracod micropaleontological analysis of the sediments have been studied, with the aim of reconstructing the palaeoenvironmental evolution of this area. These microfauna assemblages integrated with the analysis of the sedimentary facies allowed to conclude the existence of lakes with a water-bearing level of few tens of meters. A change in the chemical conditions of the waters, which evolved from oligohaline and carbonated to mesohaline and sulphated is concluded.

  6. Late Pliensbachian-early Toarcian paleoenvironmental changes in the Cleveland Basin: new clues from high-resolution trace element analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Ruhl, Micha; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    elements across the late Pliensbachian to middle Toarcian of the Cleveland Basin. The Pl/To boundary CIE is associated with low Total Organic Carbon (TOC... on the behaviour of elements associated with organic matter and the sulphur cycle such as Ni, Cu, Zn and As. Cu is well-correlated to the TOC whereas As shows an enrichment in the interval of black shale deposition after the CIE and two distinct correlation lines with sulphur, one before and during the event...

  7. Paleoenvironmental change in the southern Kenya Rift System: A case study based on the Pleistocene Olorgesailie and Oltulelei Formations (United States)

    Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Potts, R.; Deino, A. L.


    The Pleistocene paleoenvironmental history of the East African Rift in southern Kenya is recorded by the Olorgesailie Fm. (1.2 - 0.5 ma) and the overlying Oltulelei Fm. ( 320 ka - 50 ka), which occur in a depositional basin north of Mt. Olorgesailie that extends into the northern end of the Koora Graben west of the mountain. The two formations preserve abundant archeological sites and fossil remains that document hominin behavior and paleoecology during the time in Africa when Homo erectus evolved into Homo sapiens. Geochronological calibration, based primarily on Ar-Ar dates of interbedded tephras, shows shifts in the physical landscape on time scales of 104 - 105 yrs, with a prolonged period of primarily lacustrine deposition (Olorgesailie Fm.) followed by tectonically driven changes in base level leading to accelerating cycles of erosion and deposition (Oltulelei Fm.). Following major erosion of the Olorgesailie Fm. between 500 and 320 ka, the Oltulelei Fm. was deposited during three cycles of aggradation and erosion, with fluvial, lacustrine and wetlands deposits preserved in fault-controlled areas or temporarily blocked drainage valleys. Deposition occurred in three sub-basins with varying degrees of linkage, reflecting a changing balance of sediment input and accommodation space controlled by climate, volcanism, and periodic movement of faults in the volcanic basement. Large volumes of sediment were removed during erosive phases, requiring increased precipitation and through-flowing drainage into Koora Graben southwest and south of Mt. Olorgesailie. The southern Kenya rift provided a shifting array of habitats and environmental challenges for hominins, which were driven both by the dynamic tectonic setting and climate cycles. Portions of both the Olorgesailie and Oltulelei Fms. correlate geochronologically with a drill core record 20 km to the south (ODP-OLO12-1A), which will provide paleoclimate information for times when erosion and subaerial landscapes

  8. Multi-proxy paleoenvironmental reconstruction of saline lake carbonates: Paleoclimatic and paleogeographic implications (Priabonian-Rupelian, Issirac Basin, SE France) (United States)

    Lettéron, Alexandre; Fournier, François; Hamon, Youri; Villier, Loïc; Margerel, Jean-Pierre; Bouche, Alexandre; Feist, Monique; Joseph, Philippe


    A 200-m thick carbonate succession has been deposited in shallow-water, saline lake environments during the Priabonian-Rupelian in the Issirac Basin (South-East France). The palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographic significance of such saline lake carbonates has been characterized on the basis of a multi-proxy analysis including 1) depositional and diagenetic features, 2) biological components (molluscs, ostracods, benthic foraminifers, characean) and 3) carbon, oxygen and strontium stable isotopes. Biological associations are indicative of dominantly shallow (climate (dry versus humid) are the three key factors controlling the water composition, carbonate production and depositional environments in the Issirac lake. Although the ASCI (Alès-Issirac-Saint-Chaptes) lacustrine system likely represents an athalassic (inland) lake system evolving through times, the stable isotope composition (C, O and Sr) of carbonates strongly suggests the occurrence of transient connections of the ASCI lake water with water bodies influenced by seawater and/or fed with sulfates deriving from Triassic evaporites. The Issirac Basin may be therefore interpreted as a sill area connecting the ASCI lacustrine system with the Rhône valley (Mormoiron and Valence) saline lake systems during maximum flooding periods. Finally, changes in depositional features, biota and stable isotope composition of carbonates in unit U3 suggest a transition from relatively dry to more humid climate during the uppermost Priabonian or earliest Rupelian.

  9. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope data as paleoenvironmental indicators for limestones from the Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo Basins, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, T.; Rodrigues, R.


    Carbon and oxygen isotope data of limestones from Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo basins provided additional information on the sedimentation environments of these carbonates. The predominance of δ 13 C values between + 1,0 per mille and - 1,0 per mille samples from the Tertiary and the middle section of the Jiquia Stage (Lower Cretaceous) could indiccate, for both carbonate sequences, deposition in a normal marine environment. However, the absence of marine fossils in the Jiquia Stage but not in the Tertiary allows to suggest a normal marine environment for the latter and saline lakes for the former. More positive δ 13 C values in the upper portion of the Jiquia Stage and in the Alagoas Stage suggest a restricted marine environment, with a tendency to hypersalinity. During the Albian the carbonate sedimentation could have occurred in a marine enrironment with an above normal salinity, as indicated by values of δ 13 C between + 3,0 per mille and + 4,0 per mille. According to δ 18 O data, the surface waters were warm, with a tendency of becoming gradually cooler towards the top of the Tertiary. (Author) [pt

  10. Stable C, O and clumped isotope systematics and 14C geochronology of carbonates from the Quaternary Chewaucan closed-basin lake system, Great Basin, USA: Implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions using carbonates (United States)

    Hudson, Adam M.; Quade, Jay; Ali, Guleed; Boyle, Douglas; Bassett, Scott; Huntington, Katharine W.; De los Santos, Marie G.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Lin, Ke; Wang, Xiangfeng


    Isotopic compositions of lacustrine carbonates are commonly used for dating and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Here we use carbonate δ13C and δ18O, clumped (Δ47), and 14C compositions to better understand the carbonate isotope system in closed-basin lakes and trace the paleohydrologic and temperature evolution in the Chewaucan closed-basin lake system, northern Great Basin, USA, over the Last Glacial/Holocene transition. We focus on shorezone tufas to establish that they form in isotopic equilibrium with lake water and DIC, they can be dated reliably using 14C, and their clumped isotope composition can be used to reconstruct past lake temperature. Calculations of the DIC budget and reservoir age for the lake indicate residence time is short, and dominated by exchange with atmospheric CO2 at all past lake levels. Modern lake DIC and shorezone tufas yield δ13C and 14C values consistent with isotopic equilibrium with recent fossil fuel and bomb-influenced atmospheric CO2, supporting these calculations. δ13C values of fossil tufas are also consistent with isotopic equilibrium with pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 at all shoreline elevations. This indicates that the 14C reservoir effect for this material is negligible. Clumped isotope (Δ47) results indicate shorezone tufas record mean annual lake temperature. Modern (average 13 ± 2 °C) and 18 ka BP-age tufas (average 6 ± 2 °C) have significantly different temperatures consistent with mean annual temperature lowering of 7 ± 3 °C (1 SE) under full glacial conditions. For shorezone tufas and other lake carbonates, including spring mounds, mollusk shells, and ostracod tests, overall δ13C and δ18O values co-vary according to the relative contribution of spring and lacustrine end member DIC and water compositions in the drainage system, but specific isotope values depend strongly upon sample context and are not well correlated with past lake depth. This contrasts with the interpretation that carbonate

  11. Ichnological analysis of the Upper Miocene in the ANH-Tumaco-1-ST-P well: assessing paleoenvironmental conditions at the Tumaco Basin, in the Colombian Pacific (United States)

    Giraldo-Villegas, Carlos A.; Celis, Sergio A.; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Pardo-Trujillo, Andrés; Vallejo-Hincapié, Diego F.; Trejos-Tamayo, Raúl A.


    Tumaco is a frontier basin located on the SW Colombian Pacific coast. It is composed of a thick siliciclastic sequence up to reach 10,000 m-thick. In recent years, the National Hydrocarbon Agency-ANH has promoted new exploration wells in order to understand the sedimentary dynamic and its relationship with petroleum systems. One of them, the ANH-Tumaco-1-ST-P well has ∼3000 m (12,000 feet). We carried out sedimentological, geochemical, and micropaleontological detailed analyses with special attention to the ichnology on a 55 m-cored interval (from 1695.3 to 1640.4 m = 5563-5382 ft) in order to assess paleoenvironmental conditions. Beds are composed of green and gray mudrocks interbedded with lithic sandstones and fine-grained tuffs. Calcareous microfossil assemblages defined by the recovery of Uvigerina carapitana, Uvigerina laviculata, Uvigerina pigmaea, Globigerina woodi, Globigerionoides obliquus, Discoaster bellus gr., Catinaster coalitus, Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus and Sphenolithus abies indicated a Tortonian age, between CN6/CN7 biozones. Six sedimentary facies were identified: (1, 2) massive and laminated mudrocks, (3, 4) massive and normal-graded sandstones, (5) heterolithic beds, and in some cases (6) sandstones with soft-deformation structures. These rocks were accumulated in a shallowing platform-prodelta environment with continuous volcanic influence. Ichnotaxonomic analysis, conducted for the first time in the Colombian Pacific, allowed the identification of eighteen ichnogenera: Alcyonidiopsis, Asterosoma, Chondrites, Conichnus, Cylindrichnus, Diplocraterion, Ophiomorpha, Palaeophycus, Phycosiphon, Planolites, Rhyzocorallium, Schaubcylindrichnus, Scolicia, Siphonichnus, Taeinidum, Teichichnus, Thalassinoides, and Zoophycos. The ichnological association belongs to the archetypal Cruziana ichnofacies and its ;distal; expression. By integrating lithofacies and ichnological results, two segments have been distinguished: 1) the lower one (1695

  12. Sedimentologic and paleontologic study of the southeast coast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina: A late Pleistocene Holocene paleoenvironmental reconstruction (United States)

    Aramayo, S. A.; Téllez, B. Gutiérrez; Schillizzi, R. A.


    A paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the southeast coast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, is made mainly on the basis of paleontological and paleoichnological studies, supported by sedimentological analyses and radiocarbon dating. Continental late Pleistocene and continental, transitional, and marine Holocene stratigraphic units are identified. The former comprises fossil mammals and ichnites of 16000-12,000 BP. The continental early Holocene time, ca. 8100 BP, is represented by an interdune paleoenvironment in which shallow brackish ponds were colonized by diatoms, fish, rodents, and birds. A transitional paleoenvironment in the middle Holocene—6930-6570 BP—is recorded by deposits formed by estuarine crabs. During the late Holocene, between 5000 and 4800 BP, a marine transgression was recorded by a rich mollusc fauna.

  13. Preliminary mineralogical and paleoenvironmental study of the diatomites from Adamclisi, South Dobrogea, Romania (United States)

    Dumitras, Delia-Georgeta; Sebe-Radoi, Oana-Gabriela; Marincea, Stefan; Costea, Constantin


    Diatomite samples taken from the Urluia - Adamclisi localities, South Dobrogea region (Romania) have been studied by X-ray fluorescence, wet-chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR and X-ray powder diffraction. The diatomaceous earth from Adamclisi occurs as beds and lenses in alternance with bentonitic clays and limestones. The diatomite levels are chalk-like, soft, friable, earthy, very fine-grained, and have a white - yellow color. The mineralogy of all but one sample is characterized by the presence of quartz, amorphous silica, feldspars and clay minerals. Based on the broad hump registered between 15 and 20° 2 theta on XRD patterns and on the characters and intensities of the bands centered around 3350 and 1630 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra, the amorphous silica from the diagenesis-affected diatom frustules was identified as opal-A. The associated mineral species are quartz (up to 5 wt.%), opal-Ct (up to 15 wt%), clay minerals (up to 60 wt.%), and minor feldspar (up to 20 wt.%). The micro-paleontological study shows that benthic pennate diatoms prevail (more than 60%), with a low rate of species diversity. Large chain-forming centric diatoms also occur together with other microfossils (dinoflagellates, phytolites, sponge spicules, different types of fish teeth) assemblages common for the Sarmatian (middle Miocene) marine deposits of Eastern Paratethys. The diatomaceous formation afforded exceptional fossilization. The diatom assemblages characterize a shallow marine basin environment, with littoral or freshwater contributions. Both at the basis and on the top of the profile, the marine diatoms prevail. At the basis of profile, the marine species (e.g., Actinocyclus ehrenbergii, Amphora crassa, Amphora crassa-punctata, Caloneis liber, Camylodiscus kutzingii, Grammatophora stricta, etc.) form up to 80 % of the rock volume, being associated with marine-brackish species such as Achnanthes brevipes and Cocconeis scutelum (up to 25 %) and with

  14. The Importance of Accurate Dating and Multiproxy Analyses in Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions: A Case Study from Cocha Cashu, Peru (United States)

    Salenbien, W.; Jackson, L. J.; Baker, P. A.; Rigsby, C. A.; Wheatley, A.; Fritz, S. C.


    Using a multiproxy approach and LA-ICP-MS dating of detrital zircons, we propose a revised age and depositional setting for the well-known Cocha Cashu outcrop situated along the Manu River, approximately 2 kilometers downstream from the Cocha Cashu Biological Station, located in Manu National Park, southeastern Peruvian Amazonia. This outcrop stretches for 650 meters alongside the river with an average height of 10 meters. The depositional setting is reconstructed by the combined use of detailed sedimentological logging and analyses as well as geochemical analyses of podogenic carbonate (δ13C, δ18O) and the soil organic fraction (δ15N, δ13C, %S, %C, %N), which shows fluctuations in the source of organic material. We use palynological analyses to further improve the paleoenvironmental reconstruction by studying a series of samples evenly spaced throughout the whole outcrop. Radiometric dating on detrital zircon crystals in the coarse sedimentary fractions by LA-ICP-MS in conjunction with palynological data provide a much younger age for this outcrop than previously reported in the literature ( 0.1 Ma vs. 9 Ma). These dates are some of the youngest detrital zircons to be dated using LA-ICP-MS. The updated age, alongside with the sedimentological analyses, palynological and geochemical evidence, can be best explained by a fully continental, fluvial setting, with the outcrop having been deposited as a repeated series of crevasse splays, suggesting that the Amazonian forelands experienced a similar sedimentary regime during Middle to Late Quaternary. This has major implications for a series of paleogeographic reconstructions that utilized previous interpretations of the Cocha Cashu Outcrop for Miocene marine incursions and questions the validity of certain proxy types that have been frequently used in other studies, such as trace fossil assemblages and application of sedimentary statistics. Overall, this case study shows that in order to accurately reconstruct the

  15. Paleoenvironmental context of the Middle Stone Age record from Karungu, Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya, and its implications for human and faunal dispersals in East Africa. (United States)

    Faith, J Tyler; Tryon, Christian A; Peppe, Daniel J; Beverly, Emily J; Blegen, Nick; Blumenthal, Scott; Chritz, Kendra L; Driese, Steven G; Patterson, David


    The opening and closing of the equatorial East African forest belt during the Quaternary is thought to have influenced the biogeographic histories of early modern humans and fauna, although precise details are scarce due to a lack of archaeological and paleontological records associated with paleoenvironmental data. With this in mind, we provide a description and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age (MSA) artifact- and fossil-bearing sediments from Karungu, located along the shores of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. Artifacts recovered from surveys and controlled excavations are typologically MSA and include points, blades, and Levallois flakes and cores, as well as obsidian flakes similar in geochemical composition to documented sources near Lake Naivasha (250 km east). A combination of sedimentological, paleontological, and stable isotopic evidence indicates a semi-arid environment characterized by seasonal precipitation and the dominance of C4 grasslands, likely associated with a substantial reduction in Lake Victoria. The well-preserved fossil assemblage indicates that these conditions are associated with the convergence of historically allopatric ungulates from north and south of the equator, in agreement with predictions from genetic observations. Analysis of the East African MSA record reveals previously unrecognized north-south variation in assemblage composition that is consistent with episodes of population fragmentation during phases of limited dispersal potential. The grassland-associated MSA assemblages from Karungu and nearby Rusinga Island are characterized by a combination of artifact types that is more typical of northern sites. This may reflect the dispersal of behavioral repertoires-and perhaps human populations-during a paleoenvironmental phase dominated by grasslands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Micromorphology of Paleosols of the Marília Formation and their Significance in the Paleoenvironmental Evolution of the Bauru Basin, Upper Cretaceous, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luiz da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Deduction of associated paleoenvironments and paleoclimate, definition of the chronosequence of paleosols, and paleogeographic reconstruction have become possible through the application of micromorphology in paleopedology. Micromorphology has also been useful in recognition of weathering processes and definition of minerals formed in succession. In this respect, the objective of this study was to identify the development of pedogenic processes and discuss their significance in the paleoclimate evolution of the Marília Formation (Maastrichtian of Bauru Basin. Three sections of the Marília Formation (A1, A2, and A3 were described, comprising nine profiles. Micromorphologic al analysis was carried out according to the specialized literature. In the Marília Formation, the paleosols developed in sandstones have argillic (Btkm, Bt and carbonate (Bk horizons with different degrees of cementation, forming mainly calcretes. The evolution of pedogenic processes, in light of micromorphological analysis, evidenced three moments or stages for the genesis of paleosols with Bkm, Btk, and Bt horizons, respectively. In the Maastrichtian in the Bauru Basin, the paleosols with Bkm are older and more arid environments, and those with Bt were formed in wetter weather, but not enough to lead to the genesis of enaulic-related distributions, typical of current Oxisols.

  17. Rare Carboniferous and Permian glacial and non-glacial bryophytes and associated lycophyte megaspores of the Paraná Basin, Brazil: A new occurrence and paleoenvironmental considerations (United States)

    Ricardi-Branco, Fresia; Rohn, Rosemarie; Longhim, Marcia Emilia; Costa, Juliana Sampaio; Martine, Ariel Milani; Christiano-de-Souza, Isabel Cortez


    Fossil bryophytes are rare because their preservation is compromised by the presence of a thin cuticle (if any) and a lack of lignin. Except for the occurrence of one bryophyte in the glacial Dwyka Group of the Karoo Basin, the other rare Late Paleozoic records in Gondwana are notably from the Paraná Basin in Southeast/South Brazil. Four bryophyte sites (including a newly discovered one) were found in the lower part of the thick Permo-Carboniferous glacial succession of the Itararé Group, and one was found in the Guadalupian Teresina Formation, which was roughly assigned to an epeiric sea (or "lake") dominated by a warm, semi-arid climate. This study describes the fossils from the new occurrence from the Itararé Group and discusses the context in which the bryophyte beds originated in the basin. The new samples confirm that all of the bryophytes of the Itararé Group can be classified as Dwykea araroii Ricardi-Branco et al. (a possible pleurocarp) and are associated with the lycophyte megaspore Sublagenicula brasiliensis (Dijkstra) Dybová-Jachowicz. In the much younger Teresina Formation, the bryophytes are Yguajemanus yucapirus Cristiano-de-Souza et al. and Capimirinus riopretensis Cristiano-de-Souza et al., and abundant charophytes and rare dwarf lycophyte stems and bracts are present in the same layers. Although the two stratigraphic units represent distinct paleoenvironments and climates, they seem to share some characteristics: a) the bryophyte assemblages were transported very little; b) they were deposited in very calm environments; c) they were the main components (along with some lycophytes) of local or poorly diversified regional vegetation. The low number of species, which is characteristic of opportunistic communities, can be explained by local or regional conditions that would have been stressful for the vascular plants in other areas. During the deposition of the Itararé Group, the main control was probably the cold climate in addition to a

  18. Modern diatom assemblages as tools for paleoenvironmental reconstruction: a case study from estuarine intertidal zones in southern Iberia (United States)

    Gomes, Ana; Boski, Tomasz; Moura, Delminda; Szkornik, Katie; Witkowski, Andrzej; Connor, Simon; Laut, Lazaro; Sobrinho, Frederico; Oliveira, Sónia


    associated to five distinct environments: lower estuary sandflats, lower estuary mudflats, middle to upper estuary mudflats, lower estuary salt marshes and middle estuary salt marshes. This study allowed us to establish modern analogues that are essential for developing transfer functions (quantitative palaeoenvironmental estimates). These methods will enable more accurate Holocene paleoenvironmental reconstructions on the southern Iberian coast and will improve knowledge about the evolution of estuarine environments globally . The work was supported by the SFRH/BD/62405/2009 fellowship, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology.

  19. Organic geochemistry of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillo-carbonated sedimentary series of the East of the Paris basin and of England. Variabilities and paleo-environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautevelle, Y.


    The Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stones from the East of the Paris basin are studied by ANDRA in order to test the feasibility of a possible storage of radioactive waste. The molecular analysis of their organic matter indicates that they can be considered as homogenous from their organic content point of view because they are characterized by only one molecular facies. However, the transition to the surrounding limestones is underlined by a major evolution of the molecular facies indicating a change and an increase of the variability of the deposition and diagenesis conditions. The evolution of the distribution of the plant bio-markers indicates, at the end of the Lower Oxfordian, a paleo-floristic change characterized by the increase of the proportion of Pinaceae (a conifer family) or their forerunners on the London-Brabant massif. This paleo-floristic evolution reflects a paleo-climatic change characterized by the increase of aridity at the global scale. Other complementary results get on other sedimentary series of similar ages highlight the occurrence of a period of water anoxia during the Middle Callovian which certainly happened on the major part of the Western Europe. This event could be at the origin of the crisis of the carbonate production at the Dogger/Malm transition. On the other hand, an experimental technique based on artificial maturation of extant plants has been developed and will allow the acquisition of new palaeo-chemo-taxonomic data. These data will contribute to a better interpretation of plant bio-marker assemblages in terms of palaeo-floristic composition. (author)

  20. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case - Crasna River Basin (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert


    study for Crasna river basin, with the use of MIKE HYDRO Basin advanced hydroinformatic tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management.

  1. Detention basin alternative outlet design study. (United States)


    This study examines the outlets structures CDOT has historically employed to drain water quality treatment detention basins and flood control basins, presents two new methods of metering the water quality capture volume (WQCV), namely 1) the Elliptic...

  2. KE Basin water dispositioning engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S.; Gahir, S.S.


    This engineering study is a feasibility study of KE Basin water treatment to an acceptable level and dispositioning the treated water to Columbia River, ground through ETF or to air through evaporation

  3. Paleo-Environmental Reconstruction Using Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther

    The aim of this thesis has been to investigate and expand the methodology and applicability for using ancient DNA deposited in lake sediments to detect and determine its genetic sources for paleo-environmental reconstruction. The aim was furthermore to put this tool into an applicable context...... research on ancient and modern environmental DNA (Paper 1), secondly by setting up a comparative study (Paper 2) to investigate how an ancient plant DNA (mini)-barcode can reflect other traditional methods (e.g. pollen and macrofossils) for reconstructing floristic history. In prolongation of the results...... obtained in paper 2 we developed a holistic metagenomic method combined with shotgun sequencing of ancient DNA in lake sediment samples to reconstruct organismal assemblages in addition to the flora e.g. micro-, meso- and megafauna, fungi and microbial communities (Paper 3). Fundamental processes were...

  4. Oxygen isotopic composition of mammal bones as a new tool for studying ratios of paleoenvironmental water and paleoclimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinelli, A.


    The purpose of this study is to try to establish quantitative relationships between the average oxygen isotopic composition of local meteoric water, the oxygen isotopic composition of mammal body water and the oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate in mammal bones. These relationships, after calibration of the method on living specimens, would allow quantitative paleoclimatological research based on the measurement of delta 18 O(PO 4 3- ) of fossil mammal bones

  5. A molecular and stable carbon isotope study of organic matter in immature Miocene Monterey sediments (Pismo Basin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Schoell, M.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.


    The 300 m section of the Miocene Monterey Formation outcropping at Shell Beach (Pismo basin; ca. 15-11 Ma) is composed of calcareous phosphatic (15.1–14.5 Ma) and siliceous facies (14.5–11.0 Ma). An objective of this paper is to document lateral paleoenvironmental changes in the Miocene Moneterey

  6. Influence of Tertiary paleoenvironmental changes on the diversification of South American mammals: a relaxed molecular clock study within xenarthrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizcaíno Sergio F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomic data among organisms allow the reconstruction of their phylogenies and evolutionary time scales. Molecular timings have been recently used to suggest that environmental global change have shaped the evolutionary history of diverse terrestrial organisms. Living xenarthrans (armadillos, anteaters and sloths constitute an ideal model for studying the influence of past environmental changes on species diversification. Indeed, extant xenarthran species are relicts from an evolutionary radiation enhanced by their isolation in South America during the Tertiary era, a period for which major climate variations and tectonic events are relatively well documented. Results We applied a Bayesian approach to three nuclear genes in order to relax the molecular clock assumption while accounting for differences in evolutionary dynamics among genes and incorporating paleontological uncertainties. We obtained a molecular time scale for the evolution of extant xenarthrans and other placental mammals. Divergence time estimates provide substantial evidence for contemporaneous diversification events among independent xenarthran lineages. This correlated pattern of diversification might possibly relate to major environmental changes that occurred in South America during the Cenozoic. Conclusions The observed synchronicity between planetary and biological events suggests that global change played a crucial role in shaping the evolutionary history of extant xenarthrans. Our findings open ways to test this hypothesis further in other South American mammalian endemics like hystricognath rodents, platyrrhine primates, and didelphid marsupials.

  7. Similarity in Evolutionary Histories of Eocene Sediments from Subathu and Cambay Basins: Geochemical and Palaeontological Studies (United States)

    Chaudhuri, S.; Halder, K.; Sarkar, S.


    A systematic comparative study of microfaunal assemblage and representative geochemical elements from two Cenozoic basins of India, Mangrol-Valia Lignite Mine section (21°30'52''N:73°12'20.5''E) of Cambay Shale Formation, western India and Jigni section (33°14'45"N:74°22'0"E) from Subathu Formation in northern India was undertaken to infer the paleoenvironment, palaeobathymetry and paleoclimate of these successions. Despite a gamut of work already carried out in these two basins, the sedimentary successions still await a correlative-detailed process-based facies, geochemical characterization and paleoenvironmental analysis. With a view to fulfill this gap, the present work was carried out by studying bulk rock XRD, XRF, clay mineralogy and analyzing calcareous microfossil foraminifera from samples at equivalent depth of these two basins which are situated thousands of kilometers apart and in different tectonic settings. The faunal assemblage of Eocene sediments of Mangrol-Valia section is indicative of shallow marine and inner shelf deposition with medium oxygen supply, while that of the Jigni section suggests primarily a shallow marine condition, which gradually changes to open marine condition with time. It is pertinent to note that the two basins of Cenozoic India started their lithosuccession with coal bearing strata. Well preserved pectin aragonite shells also indicate that primarily these two basins experienced low energy lagoonal environment. The fossil assemblage in both basins also suggests a tropical moist to terrestrial lowland environment. Geochemical analysis shows that the Mangrol-Valia section mineralogically comprises of kaolinite, siderite, quartz, smectite and kaolinite with higher abundance throughout the succession indicating chemical weathering of Deccan basement and high erosional environment. Calcite is the main constituent of Jigni section that indicates intracratonic rift settings. Medium to high quartz content and other detrital

  8. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, A.G.


    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  9. Consequences of Lower Miocene CO.sub.2./sub. degassing on geological and paleoenvironmental settings of the Ahníkov/Merkur Mine paleontological locality (Most Basin, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mach, K.; Žák, Karel; Teodoridis, V.; Kvaček, Z.


    Roč. 285, č. 3 (2017), s. 235-266 ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : geology * paleoflora * travertine formation * Most Basin * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2016

  10. Mackenzie Basin impact study: Interim report 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.J.


    The Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MIBS) is a six-year study undertaken to assess the potential impacts on the Mackenzie River Basin region and its inhabitants. The study framework, structure, organization, methods, and data are described. Highlights of work to date are reviewed. The MBIS employs scenarios of future warmer climates and changes in population and economic conditions. Research is coordinated by an interagency working committee and research activities cover 28 areas including permafrost, hydrology, sea ice, boreal ecosystems, freshwater fish, wildlife, forestry, agriculture, tourism, community studies, and defense. Six issues have been identified: interjurisdictional water management, sustainability of native lifestyles, economic development opportunities, infrastructure and buildings, and sustainability of ecosystems. An integrated assessment approach is used in the MBIS, combining scientific and indigenous traditional knowledge and attempting to include all interactions that occur between sectors. Two methods are being developed: socio-economic integration using a resource accounting framework, and an integrated land assessment framework. Four scenarios of warmer climates have been developed, all showing increased precipitation for the basin as a whole. Moderate growth in the resource sector is predicted. Preliminary results of some research are reported, including a lengthened open-water season in the Beaufort Sea accompanied by a greater extent of open water. 44 figs., 16 tabs

  11. The Relative Rates of Secondary Hydration in Basalt and Rhyolite, and the use of δD as a Paleoclimate Indicator: Implications for Paleoenvironmental and Volcanic Degassing Studies (United States)

    Seligman, A. N.; Bindeman, I. N.


    The δD-H2O correlation is important for volcanic degassing and secondary hydration trends. We utilize the caibration of the TC/EA - MAT 253 continuous flow system, which permits us to analyze wt.% H2O and its δD extracted from 1-8 mg of glass with as little as 0.1 wt% H2O. Tephra that has been secondarily hydrated with meteoric water is widely used as a paleoenvironmental tool, but the rate of secondary hydration, the relative amounts of primary magmatic (degassed) and secondary meteoric water, and the retention of primary and secondary δD values are not well understood. To quantify these processes, we use a natural experiment involving dated Holocene tepha in Kamchatka and Oregon. Our research illustrates the drastic difference in hydration rates between silicic (hydrated after ~1.5 ka) and mafic tephra, which is not hydrated in the Holocene (similar to results for submarine volcanic glasses), and andesitic tephra with intermediate degrees of hydration. The 0.05-7.3 ka basaltic scoria from Klyuchevskoy volcano retains ≤0.45 wt.% primary magmatic H2O, with δD values from -99 to -121 ‰. Four other 0.05-7.6 ka basaltic tephra units from Kamchatka with 65 wt.% have higher (1.5 -3.4) wt.% H2O and δD values between -115 - -160 ‰. We interpret the lower δD values and higher water contents (opposite of the magmatic degassing trend) to be a characteristic of secondary hydration in regions of higher latitude such as Kamchatka and Oregon. We are also investigating 7.7 ka Mt. Mazama tephra in Oregon that are known to be fully hydrated and cover nearly 5000 km2 northeast of Crater Lake and range in elevation from ~1.3-1.9 km to understand the δD and δ18O details of the hydrated water's correspondence with local Holocene meteoric waters. In the future, we plan to use a combination of δD in mid-high latitude precipitation to delineate δD-H2O hydration trends to better understand the distinction between primary magmatic and secondary meteoric water in volcanic

  12. Palynological and paleoenvironmental analyses of selected shale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Core and ditch cutting of shaly samples were selected from 5 wells within the Orange Basin, South Africa. It was with a view to studying the palynological contents of the samples and to also delineate the environment and condition in which the samples were formed. The samples were prepared for palynological studies ...

  13. Great Salt Lake basins study unit (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Baskin, Robert L.


    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program.The long-term goals of the NAWQA Program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation’s surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect the quality of these resources. In meeting these goals, the program will produce a wealth of water-quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at Federal, State, and local levels.A major design feature of the NAWQA Program will enable water-quality information at different areal scales to be integrated. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, which ae the principal building blocks of the program upon which national-level assessment activities will be based. The 60 study-unit investigations that make up the program are hydrologic systems that include principal river basins and aquifer systems throughout the Nation. These study units cover areas from less than 1.000 to greater than 60,000 mi2 and incorporate from about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation’s water use and population served by public water supply. In 1993, assessment activities began in the Great Salt Lake Basins NAWQA study unit.

  14. Multivariate study of trace element distribution in the geological record of Roñanzas Peat Bog (Asturias, N. Spain). Paleoenvironmental evolution and human activities over the last 8000 calyr BP. (United States)

    Gallego, José Luis R; Ortiz, José E; Sierra, Carlos; Torres, Trinidad; Llamas, J F


    Trace element concentrations in the Roñanzas peat bog record reveal a contribution of natural processes but the influence of anthropogenic factors predominates in the last two millenniums, particularly aerosol deposition linked to mining and industrial activities in northern Spain. We observed that the Roñanzas record can be considered a preserved environment, suitable to search for local (major elements. Our study design represents a novel approach to assign natural vs. human contributions in peatlands. Therefore, synergies obtained by the simultaneous study of multivariate statistics and enrichment factors allow robust conclusions about paleoenvironmental evolution and human activities. Anthropogenic influence has also been reported in similar records in other parts of Europe, thereby suggesting large-scale sources for atmospheric pollution. However, here we revealed remarkable particularities, such as the association of Cd, Zn and Pb, mainly linked to regional and local factors (mining and more recently the metallurgical industry), whereas we propose that the occurrence of Hg is associated with a combination of regional factors and global atmospheric pollution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstruction for middle and late holocene in Uruguay southeastern New contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Puerto, L.; Bracco, R.; Inda, H.; Garcia, F.; Panario, D.; Castineira, C.; Capdepont, I.


    This work is about the study carried out within the framework of the environmental evolution and the prehistoric human occupation on coastal lagoons in the east of Uruguay. The analysis of the sediments in the zone enable the reconstruction of the Holocene climate history as well as the construction of the Paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental model belong to the middle and late Holocene

  16. The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction (United States)

    Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L.E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D.K.


    The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additional geographic sites and environmental parameters, and is continuously refined by independent research findings. The new PRISM three dimensional (3D) reconstruction differs from previous PRISM reconstructions in that it includes a subsurface ocean temperature reconstruction, integrates geochemical sea surface temperature proxies to supplement the faunal-based temperature estimates, and uses numerical models for the first time to augment fossil data. Here we describe the components of PRISM3D and describe new findings specific to the new reconstruction. Highlights of the new PRISM3D reconstruction include removal of Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes and creation of open waterways in locations where the current bedrock elevation is less than 25m above modern sea level, due to the removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mid-Piacenzian oceans were characterized by a reduced east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific, but PRISM3D data do not imply permanent El Niño conditions. The reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient that characterized previous PRISM reconstructions is supported by significant displacement of vegetation belts toward the poles, is extended into the Arctic Ocean, and is confirmed by multiple proxies in PRISM3D. Arctic warmth coupled with increased dryness suggests the formation of warm and salty paleo North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and a more vigorous thermohaline circulation system that may

  17. Turonian palynostratigraphy of the Laranjeiras area, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin: paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic inferences; Palinoestratigrafia do Turoniano na area de Laranjeiras, Bacia de Sergipe-Alagoas: inferencias paleoambientais e paleoclimaticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo Roberto Silva [PETROBRAS (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao de Sergipe Alagoas. Gerencia de Gerencia de Sedimentologia e Estratigrafia], e-mail:


    The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary is recognized worldwide as the most important eustatic event of sea-level rise in the Cretaceous, correlated with a global oceanic anoxic event, which induced the widespread formation of organic-rich pelitic deposits, potential source rocks of hydrocarbon. in Brazil this section is predominantly found in subsurface, in land and offshore oil wells. One of the best outcrops of this interval is found in the Votorantim Quarry, in Laranjeiras, Sergipe State, Brazil. Through a semi-quantitative palynological study, based on mining cores drilled in the quarry, a palynostratigraphic framework with additional paleoecological inferences and interpretation based in Sequence Stratigraphy.(author)

  18. Integrated studies of Azraq Basin in Jordan (United States)

    Mohammed Shahbaz; B. Sunna


    Many historical indications of the eastern Mediterranean Basin exhibit climatic changes or alterations effecting the status of water resources, hence, effecting human-kind and the quality of life. It is essential to deeply understand the nature of climates and geological structures employing state of the art techniques to assess rainfall, runoff, and floods that...

  19. High resolution stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes in the southern North Sea during the Neogene : an integrated study of Late Cenozoic marine deposits from the northern part of the Dutch offshore area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Gesa


    This thesis is the result of a multidisciplinary study on the prograding marine Neogene sedimentary succession of the southern North Sea Basin. To date, sediment material available from the Neogene North Sea is very scarce. Its location between 400 and 1500 m below the seabed in the depocentre of

  20. High resolution stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes in the southern North Sea during the Neogene : An integrated study of Late Cenozoic marine deposits from the northern part of the Dutch offshore area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, G.


    This thesis is the result of a multidisciplinary study on the prograding marine Neogene sedimentary succession of the southern North Sea Basin. To date, sediment material available from the Neogene North Sea is very scarce. Its location between 400 and 1500 m below the seabed in the depocentre of

  1. Reconnaissance coal study in the Susitna basin, 2014 (United States)

    David L. LePain,; Stanley, Richard G.; Harun, Nina T.; Helmold, Kenneth T.; Tsigonis, Rebekah


    The Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) conducted fieldwork during the summer of 2014 in the Susitna basin as part of an ongoing evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of frontier basins, particularly those near the Railbelt region (for example, Decker and others, 2013; Gillis and others, 2013). Topical studies associated with this recent work include sedimentary facies analysis (LePain and others, 2015) and structural geology investigations (Gillis and others, 2015). The Susitna basin contains coal-bearing Paleogene and Neogene strata correlative with formations that host oil and gas in Cook Inlet basin to its south. Isotopic signatures of natural gas reservoired in the Miocene/Pliocene Sterling and Miocene Beluga Formations suggest a biogenic origin for Cook Inlet gas (Claypool and others, 1980). To assess the biogenic gas potential of the Susitna basin, it is important to obtain information from its coal-bearing units.Characteristics of coal, such as maturity/rank and cleat development are key parameters influencing viability of a biogenic gas system (Laubach and others, 1998). In an early study of the Susitna basin (Beluga–Yentna region), Barnes (1966) identified, analyzed, and recognized potentially valuable subbituminous coal resources at Fairview Mountain, Canyon Creek, and Johnson Creek. Merritt (1990), in a sedimentological study to evaluate surface coal mining potential of the Tertiary rocks of the Susitna basin (Susitna lowland), concluded that the basin contained several billion tons of mineable reserves. This preliminary report offers a brief summary of new information on coals in the Susitna Basin acquired during associated stratigraphic studies (see LePain and others, 2015). 

  2. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River Basin case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Jensen, Iris Hedegaard; Guzinski, R.


    assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. This study is funded by the European Space Agency under the TIGER-NET project. The objective of TIGER-NET is to develop open-source software tools...

  3. Hydrogeological and geochemical studies in the Perch Lake basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, P.J.


    The Perch Lake basin is a small drainage system along the Ottawa River about 200 km west of Ottawa on the Canadian Shield. Since 1975, groups of scientists from several Canadian universities and government departments have been studying the hydrological, geological and geochemical properties of the basin. The object of these studies is to develop and test simulation models used to describe the time-dependent mass flow rates of water and dissolved and suspended substances through the basin. To review progress, a symposium/workshop was held at Chalk Rier in 1978 April. This report contains 24 extended summaries of the material presented verbally at the workshop. Subject matters include atmospheric sources and sinks, mass flows through the surface and subsurface regimes in the drainage basins and interactions occurring in the lake. (author)

  4. Geoarchaeologic and paleopedologic evidences for the holocene paleoenvironmental evolution of the Crisuri plain (Western Romania)


    Nicolae Josan; Sever Dumitrascu; Dan Petrea


    This study is based mainly on the correlation established between the fossil soils identified within several archaeological sites from Crisuri Plain as well as the information that could be obtained by analysing their content in artefacts and paleozoological remains and takes into account the validity of some consecrated points of view, almost unanimously accepted concerning the paleoenvironmental evolution of the North Western part of Romania. Some very popular "clichés" such as the ...

  5. Trace Phosphorus Variation in Cave Drip Water and Its Paleo-environmental Implication: A Case Study in HeShang Cave, qingjiang river, Hubei province, China (United States)

    Yang, L. A., Jr.


    Trace elements demonstrate apparent seasonal variation in the lamina of speleothems in recent years, providing the possibility of studying the changing seasonality of the earth's climate in the past and attracting much extensive attention. As one of the most significant biological elements, the utilization of biology for phosphorus has a direct impact on the growth of animals and plants on the earth surface. The research revolves around standard recovery test of P drip water samples at HS4 drop site in different periods (four periods in total), and the quantitative analysis of phosphates in drip water samples of HS4 drop site within HeShang Cave, qingjiang river, Hubei province was made, recognizing the orthophosphate seasonal changes in karst system and its response to the environment of the earth's surface. The results manifest that the maximum concentration value of phosphorus in drip water samples from 2005 to 2012 is 12.1μg/L(2007-8-14), and the minimum concentration value is 0.1μg/L(2009-3-16), with the average value of 4.55μg/L. The P concentration in HeShang Cave is in accordance with the exclusively reported P data in Ernesto cave in Italy at present. The phosphorus concentration fluctuates seasonally by and large: high in summer and autumn while low in winter and spring, which has common in similar seasonal cycles with synchronous temperatures and drip water rates, also conforming to local temperature and precipitation changes. Plant productivity (determines the organic quality supplied to soil), microbiological effects (relate to temperature and humidity) and underground water permeability (relate to the precipitation and surrounding rock structure) can have an impact on the concentration of phosphorus in drip water. In winter and spring, organic phosphorus decomposition is slow and the phosphorus entering into the karst water is less as low temperature and less rainfall and weak biological process influence, resulting in the phosphorus concentration

  6. Sedimentology and paleoenvironmental studies on the Chad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deviation vs. first percentile, mean vs. first percentile and log probability plots have conclusively define the depositional environment of the arenaceous samples of the Chad Formation as fluvial in origin. The paleocurrent analysis indicates a trend in the northwestern direction which implies that the sediments forming the ...

  7. Chemical and mineralogical proxies of erosion episodes in the dried lake sediments (Amik Lake, Southern Turkey): paleoenvironmental implications (United States)

    El Ouahabi, Meriam; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Lebeau, Héléne; Fagel, Nathalie; Vander Auwera, Jacquelinec; Karabacak, Volkan; Schmidt, Sabine


    The Amik Basin in the Eastern Mediterranean region has been continuously occupied since 6000-7000 BC. The landscape has sustained with highly variable anthropic pressure culminating during the Late Roman Period when the Antioch city reached its golden age. The basin also sustained a high seismic activity (M≥7) as it is a releasing step-over along the Dead Sea Fault. The study focuses on the sedimentary record of the Amik Lake occupying the central part of the Basin. Our objective is to constrain major paleo-environmental changes in the area over the last 4000 years and to unravel possible human impacts on the sedimentation. A diverse array of complementary methods was applied on the 6 m long record. High resolution of mineralogical (XRD) and geochemical (XRF) analyses were performed. Quantitative mineralogical phases of sediments by the Rietveld method were computed using Topaz software. The age of the record is constrained combining radionuclide and radiocarbon dating, and checked using the correlation between the earthquake history and rapidly deposited layer identified. A high sedimentation rate of 0.12 cm/yr was inferred at the coring site. The 4000 years old record shows that significant fluctuations of the lake level and the riverine system inflow into the Amik Lake occurred. The Late Bronze lowstand leaded to punctual dryings of the lake at the end of the Bronze/Iron transition marked by the collapse of the Hittite Empire and during the Dark ages. At that time, the riverine was carrying a large terrigenous input linked to strong soil erosion related to deforestation, exploitation of mineral resources and the beginning of upland cultivation. During the Roman Period and in the later periods, upland soils were partly depleted and the riverine system completely transformed by channelization that leaded to a mashification of the Amik Basin. Chemical and mineralogical composition of sediments is quite diversified reflecting the significant geological variation

  8. Testing multivariate analysis in paleoenvironmental reconstructions using pollen records from Lagoa Salgada, NE Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. (United States)

    Toledo, Mauro B de; Barth, Ortrud M; Silva, Cleverson G; Barros, Marcia A


    Despite the indisputable significance of identification of modern analogs for Paleoecology research, relatively few studies attempted to integrate modern and fossil samples on paleoenvironmental reconstructions. In Palynology, this general pattern is not different from other fields of Paleoecology. This study demonstrates the practical application of modern pollen deposition data on paleoenvironmental reconstructions based on fossil pollen by using multivariate analysis. The main goal of this study was to use Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) to compare pollen samples from two sediment cores collected at Lagoa Salgada, a coastal lagoon located at northeastern Rio de Janeiro State. Furthermore, modern surface samples were also statistically compared with samples from both cores, providing new paleoecological insights. DCA demonstrated that samples from both cores are more similar than previously expected, and that a strong pattern, related to a paleoenvironmental event, is present within the fossil data, clearly identifying in the scatter plot samples that represent pre- and post-environmental change. Additionally, it became apparent that modern vegetation and environmental conditions were established in this region 2500 years before present (BP). Multivariate Analysis allowed a more reliable integration of modern and fossil pollen data, proving to be a powerful tool in Paleoecology studies that should be employed more often on paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  9. Upper Paleozoic glacigenic deposits of Gondwana: Stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental significance of a tillite succession in Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) (United States)

    Cornamusini, Gianluca; Talarico, Franco M.; Cirilli, Simonetta; Spina, Amalia; Olivetti, Valerio; Woo, Jusun


    Late Paleozoic glacial deposits are widespread in Gondwana. In Antarctica the best outcrops occur in the Central Transantarctic Mountains, Ellsworth Mountains, Pensacola Mountains, and in Southern Victoria Land, whereas they are rare and very scattered in Northern Victoria Land, which represents a linkage sector with Tasmania and eastern Australia. The aim of the present research is to define the stratigraphic setting and the environmental interpretation of a poorly studied Lower Permian glacigenic succession located near Orr Glacier in the Lanterman Range in Northern Victoria Land. It has great importance because it represents the only significant glacigenic succession for this wide area, marking and defining time and modality of a glacial-postglacial transition during the early Permian, a critical time-interval in the paleoenvironmental evolution of southern Gondwana. This succession, named here as the Lanterman Formation, lies directly on to crystalline basement, and is overlain by a thick Permian fluvial succession (Takrouna Formation). The results provided by sedimentological facies analysis and palynological analysis, integrated with a limited petrographic characterization, show a correlation framework between two isolated successions, outlining their stratigraphic architecture and subdivided into a lower glacial portion and an upper postglacial portion. The former, Asselian in age, is dominated by diamictite, sandstone, mudstone with lonestones, and carbonate deposits, suggesting repeated advance and retreat of a terrestrial glacier, with facies associations indicating environmental changes from subglacial to glaciofluvial, to glaciolacustrine. The latter is dominated by lacustrine mudstone with decreasing lonestones upward, thin bedded sandstone, conglomerate and a thick fluvial sandstone and pebbly sandstone succession at the top, signalling the transition to a fluvial system through time. The overall dataset suggests that the late Paleozoic glacigenic

  10. Paleoenvironmental conditions at the loess paleosol sequence Bodrogkeresztúr in NE Hungary (United States)

    Bösken, Janina; Obreht, Igor; Zeeden, Christian; Klasen, Nicole; Hambach, Ulrich; Sümegi, Pál; Lehmkuhl, Frank


    Loess paleosol sequences (LPS) have the ability to preserve past environmental and climatic conditions. Therefore, they are a widely used terrestrial archive for the reconstruction of paleoclimatic dynamics. In this study, we use several proxies (grain size distributions, geochemical analysis, rock magnetism, and color measurements) to study past environmental changes in a LPS covering the MIS 2/MIS 3 transition. Geochronological control is given by post infrared infrared stimulated luminescence dating of polymineral fine grains. The research aim lies in the reconstruction of the paleoenvironmental conditions at the loess-paleosol sequence Bodrogkeresztúr in northeastern Hungary using a multi-proxy approach. The sequence is located at the foot of the Kopasz hill, the southernmost part of the Tokaj Mountains, which belong to the Carpathian mountain range. The area is famous for the Bodrogkeresztúr-Henye Gravettian site (Lengyel, 2015). The profile contains eolian loess deposits intercalated by two paleosols. The lower paleosol overlays possibly fluvial clay (fine overbank deposits) forming the base of the profile. The luminescence samples have been tested thoroughly and have been measured with the pIR50IR290 protocol (Thiel et al., 2011). The final age assessment between 28.0±2.1 ka and 33.5±2.5 ka fits well to the established geochronologies of the Kopasz hill (Sümegi and Hertelendi, 1998) and the Tokaj section (Schatz et al., 2012). Paleoenvironmental conditions are investigated through the multi-proxy approach. The measurement of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility is interpreted in regard of paleowind directions. The magnetic susceptibility is enhanced in paleosols, especially in the lower one, indicating strong pedogenesis. Grain size parameters also show high clay contribution in the lower paleosol, but also indicate two distinct features of stronger wind dynamics in the loess layer in the middle of the profile (double sigmoidal fluctuations in all

  11. Conifer woods from the Salamanca Formation (early Paleocene), Central Patagonia, Argentina: Paleoenvironmental implications (United States)

    Ruiz, Daniela P.; Brea, Mariana; Raigemborn, M. Sol; Matheos, Sergio D.


    The main objective of the present work is to describe the first conifer assemblage of a mixed forest from the Danian Salamanca Formation at the Estancia Las Violetas locality (San Jorge Basin, Central Patagonia, Argentina), based on detailed descriptions of secondary xylem. Also, sedimentological description of the Estancia Las Violetas outcrops are made in order to understand the paleoenvironmental conditions under which paleocommunities developed. Six conifer woods are described and assigned to one Podocarpoxylon Gothan and three Cupressinoxylon Göppert species (including a new species). This is the first record of Patagonia forest where the conifer assemblage is dominated by Cupressinoxylon, associated with Podocarpaceae and palms (recorded as fruits), conforming a mixed forest with a floristic composition similar to present-day New Caledonia forests. Las Violetas fossil forest represent a parautochtonous community developed in a forested coastal setting, a tide-dominated estuary, at ∼51-50° S paleolatitudes of South America during the early-middle Danian.

  12. Groundwater Quality Studies: A Case Study of the Densu Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    farming) within the Densu basin culminated in a public outcry over the quality of water supplied from the Weija ... It is, therefore, imperative to carry out an extensive groundwater quality assess-ment of the basin, as well as water types of ...... environment (Evans et al., 1977) and often occurs with iron (Fe). Its concentrations in ...

  13. The Early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event: Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change across the Alpine Tethys (Switzerland) (United States)

    Fantasia, Alicia; Föllmi, Karl B.; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos


    Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change associated with the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE) was evaluated in five successions located in Switzerland. They represent different paleogeographic settings across the Alpine Tethys: the northern shelf (Gipf, Riniken and Rietheim), the Sub-Briançonnais basin (Creux de l'Ours), and the Lombardian basin (Breggia). The multi-proxy approach chosen (whole-rock and clay mineralogy, phosphorus, major and trace elements) shows that local environmental conditions modulated the response to the T-OAE across the Alpine Tethys. On the northern shelf and in the Sub-Briançonnais basin, high kaolinite contents and detrital proxies (detrital index, Ti, Zr, Si) in the T-OAE interval suggest a change towards a warmer and more humid climate coupled with an increase in the chemical weathering rates. In contrast, low kaolinite content in the Lombardian basin is likely related to a more arid climate along the southern Tethys margin and/or to a deeper and more distal setting. Redox-sensitive trace-element (V, Mo, Cu, Ni) enrichments in the T-OAE intervals reveal that dysoxic to anoxic conditions developed on the northern shelf, whereas reducing conditions were less severe in the Sub-Briançonnais basin. In the Lombardian basin well-oxygenated bottom water conditions prevailed. Phosphorus (P) speciation analysis was performed at Riniken and Creux de l'Ours. This is the first report of P speciation data for T-OAE sections, clearly suggesting that high P contents during this time interval are mainly linked to the presence of an authigenic phases and fish remains. The development of oxygen-depleted conditions during the T-OAE seems to have promoted the release of the organic-bound P back into the water column, thereby further sustaining primary productivity in a positive feedback loop.

  14. Paleocene calcareous nannofossils biostratigraphy from the Sergipe Sub-basin, northeastern Brazil: Implications for this depositional environment (United States)

    Andrade Oliveira, Geize Carolinne Correia; de Oliveira, Rick Souza; Monte Guerra, Rodrigo; de Lima Filho, Mario Ferreira


    This study reports on the biostratigraphy of Paleocene calcareous nannofossils and paleoenvironmental inferences based on five wells drilled on the offshore portion of the Sergipe Sub-basin. Five biostratigraphic zones were defined for the Paleocene in zones of Brazilian continental margin basins N-305, N-307, N-330, N-340 and N-350, and four hiatuses were identified based on the absence of marker species. These hiatuses were interpreted as excavations originated by turbulent to hyperpycnal flows, revealing an important application of biostratigraphy to better understand depositional environments that are often limited by little variation in lithology or low variation in the well log patterns. In Paleoecological terms, the Sergipe Sub-basin, in the Paleocene, experienced geological and environmental events similar to those of other sedimentary basins on the eastern passive continental margin of Brazil, but has a more complete biostratigraphic record of calcareous nannofossils.

  15. Paleoenvironmental significance of clay mineral assemblages in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A gravity core SK-221 recovered from the southeastern Arabian Sea near Laccadive–Chagos Ridge was examined to identify the sources of detrital clay minerals and to decipher paleoenvironmental changes for the last 30 kyr. The clay mineral assemblages predominantly consist of illite, kaolinite and chlorite with small ...

  16. Biogeochemistry of selenium isotopes: processes, cycling and paleoenvironmental applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, K.A.


    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element, which, with multiple oxidation states and six stable isotopes, has been suggested as a potentially powerful environmental tracer and paleoenvironmental proxy. Chapter 1 provides a literature review of the Se cycle. While the Se cycle shares some

  17. Paleoenvironmental evidence for first human colonization of the eastern Caribbean (United States)

    Siegel, Peter E.; Jones, John G.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Dunning, Nicholas P.; Farrell, Pat; Duncan, Neil A.; Curtis, Jason H.; Singh, Sushant K.


    Identifying and dating first human colonization of new places is challenging, especially when group sizes were small and material traces of their occupations were ephemeral. Generating reliable reconstructions of human colonization patterns from intact archaeological sites may be difficult to impossible given post-depositional taphonomic processes and in cases of island and coastal locations the inundation of landscapes resulting from post-Pleistocene sea-level rise. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction is proving to be a more reliable method of identifying small-scale human colonization events than archaeological data alone. We demonstrate the method through a sediment-coring project across the Lesser Antilles and southern Caribbean. Paleoenvironmental data were collected informing on the timing of multiple island-colonization events and land-use histories spanning the full range of human occupations in the Caribbean, from the initial forays into the islands through the arrival and eventual domination of the landscapes and indigenous people by Europeans. In some areas, our data complement archaeological, paleoecological, and historical findings from the Lesser Antilles and in others amplify understanding of colonization history. Here, we highlight data relating to the timing and process of initial colonization in the eastern Caribbean. In particular, paleoenvironmental data from Trinidad, Grenada, Martinique, and Marie-Galante (Guadeloupe) provide a basis for revisiting initial colonization models of the Caribbean. We conclude that archaeological programs addressing human occupations dating to the early to mid-Holocene, especially in dynamic coastal settings, should systematically incorporate paleoenvironmental investigations.

  18. 488-D Ash Basin Vegetative Cover Treatibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Christopher; Marx, Don; Blake, John; Adriano, Domy; Koo, Bon-Jun; Czapka, Stephen


    The 488-D Ash Basin is an unlined containment basin that received ash and coal reject material from the operation of a powerhouse at the USDOE's Savannah River Site, SC. They pyretic nature of the coal rejects has resulted in the formation of acidic drainage (AD), which has contributed to groundwater deterioration and threatens biota in down gradient wetlands. Establishment of a vegetative cover was examined as a remedial alternative for reducing AD generation within this system by enhanced utilization of rainwater and subsequent non-point source water pollution control. The low nutrient content, high acidity, and high salinity of the basin material, however, was deleterious to plant survivability. As such, studies to identify suitable plant species and potential adaptations, and pretreatment techniques in the form of amendments, tilling, and/or chemical stabilization were needed. A randomized block design consisting of three subsurface treatments (blocks) and five duplicated surface amendments (treatments) was developed. One hundred inoculated pine trees were planted on each plot. Herbaceous species were also planted on half of the plots in duplicated 1-m2 beds. After two growing seasons, deep ripping, subsurface amendments and surface covers were shown to be essential for the successful establishment of vegetation on the basin. This is the final report of the study.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hesse


    Full Text Available The SRTM data set is the highest resolution DEM with global or continental coverage. It is therefore theDEM of choice for continental-scale geomorphological mapping and quantitative analysis. In this study,SRTM data are used for the identification and characterisation of endorheic basins in southern SouthAmerica (south of 19°S. The results show the feasibility of continental-scale quantitative geomorphologybased on SRTM data and provide insights into the distribution of closed basins. The largest endorheicbasin is located in the Puna region and consists of several interconnected sub-basins. This basin accountsfor 38.6 % (7877 km3 of the total volume of the endorheic basins identified in this study. Analyses of thegeographic distribution show a narrow longitudinal distribution between 64.5 and 71.5° W and a multimodallatitudinal distribution which is characterised by two groups of basins at 22.5–27.5°S and 37.5–50.0° Sand an almost complete absence of basins between 27.5 and 37.5° S. Problems and sources ofmisinterpretation arising from data quality and resolution are discussed. Further research, targeting in particularthe genesis and potential for paleoenvironmental reconstruction of closed basins in southern Argentina, iscalled for.

  20. Hydrological study of La Paz river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, German F.; Garcia Agudo, Edmundo; Quiroga, F.; Tarquino, W.; Diaz, J.; Suxo, Cl.; Mansilla, A.; Rojas, M.


    This work aims to determine the hydrological parameters for the La Paz river, by using tracer techniques and also the determination of the water quality parameters for the study of the behavior along the stream. This study intends the prediction and control of the water contamination by using mathematical modelling

  1. Dynamics of living phytoplankton: Implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, A B [Centre for Marine and Environmental Research (CIMA), Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)], E-mail:


    Phytoplankton is the dominant primary producer in aquatic ecosystems and is considered a gauge of ecological condition and change. Some phytoplankton groups, namely diatoms, dinoflagellates, and coccolithophores, produce morphological or chemical fossils that can be used for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. This study aims to review the processes that regulate dynamics in living phytoplankton and to highlight how this knowledge is used in paleoecological studies. The distribution patterns of phytoplankton in present-day aquatic ecosystems are shaped by the interplay between processes that regulate cell growth and cell death. Cell growth and cell death are regulated by the internal environment of phytoplankton (e.g., specific environmental tolerances, resource uptake properties, cell size, density and morphology, alternative nutritional strategies such as mixotrophy or N{sub 2} uptake, motility, intracellular storage capacities, grazing resistance properties), and by its external environment. The external environment includes variables dependent on the availability of resources (e.g., light intensity, concentration of CO{sub 2} and dissolved inorganic macronutrients and micronutrients, availability of living prey in case of mixotrophs) and variables independent of resources (e.g., temperature, salinity, turbulence, ultraviolet radiation, bioactive compounds, activity of grazers, viruses, and eukaryotic parasites). The importance of recently described loss processes, such as grazing by phagotrophic protists, viral lyses, and programmed cell death, is discussed in the context of its potential impact upon phytoplankton vertical fluxes. Examples of the use of different phytoplankton metrics (e.g. abundance, species composition, species morphology, and elemental composition) to infer contemporaneous as well as past environmental and ecological conditions are critically evaluated.

  2. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River basin case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Jensen, Iris Hedegaard; Guzinski, R.


    assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. The objective of this study is to develop open-source software tools to support hydrologic forecasting and integrated water resources management......Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically based and distributed modeling schemes employing data...... in Africa. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations...

  3. Timing of Early Cretaceous angiosperm diversification and possible links to major paleoenvironmental change (United States)

    Heimhofer, U.; Hochuli, P. A.; Burla, S.; Dinis, J. M. L.; Weissert, H.


    Palynological records from the Western Portuguese and Algarve basins (Portugal) provide new insights on the timing and pattern of the early diversification of angiosperms (flowering plants) and its relationship to global environmental perturbations during the late Early Cretaceous. Angiosperm pollen displays a stepwise increase in both diversity and relative abundance during the late Barremian to middle Albian interval (ca. 124 104 Ma), reflecting the incipient radiation of flowering plants in lower midlatitude floras. Our results provide new evidence for the age interpretation of the previously described angiosperm mesofossil floras and associated in situ pollen assemblages from the Western Portuguese basin, until now interpreted as Barremian or possibly Aptian in age. Biostratigraphic and sedimentologic evidence indicates a post-Aptian age for these assemblages, hence demonstrating a major radiation phase of angiosperms during the early Albian. Correlation of the angiosperm pollen record with data on global paleoenvironmental changes suggests a link between the rapid adaptive radiation of flowering plants and major climatic and oceanographic perturbations during the late Early Cretaceous.

  4. Fluid migration in sedimentary basins - a case study from the Central European Basin (United States)

    Duschl, Florian; van den Kerkhof, Alfons; Leiss, Bernd; Sosa, Graciela; Wiegand, Bettina; Vollbrecht, Axel; Sauter, Martin


    Core samples from the cap rock of an Upper Permian dolomitic limestone from the Zechstein formation (Stassfurt carbonate sequence, Ca2) in the Central European Basin were studied for a better understanding of the tectonic control on fluid migration during the burial and uplift of CO2-rich gas reservoirs. Petrographical investigations were carried out by means of optical transmission and cathodoluminescence microscopy. A heating-freezing stage was applied for fluid inclusion analysis; gas compositions were measured by Laser-Raman spectroscopy. The study focuses on the quantification of paleo pressures, temperatures and compositions of diagenetic fluids trapped as inclusions in dolomite, anhydrite, calcite, and fluorite, as well as in postdiagenetic fluorite in mineralized fractures. Limestone matrix mainly consists of early diagenetic, euhedral dolomite with few hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions. Offset veins originating from fine-grained inclusion-free anhydrite nodules consist of coarse-grained recrystallized anhydrite containing primary aqueous CaCl2-rich inclusions. Late calcite cement fills remnant pores between the dolomite rhombs and contains H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 fluid inclusions. Subsequently, the dolomitic limestones were affected by pressure solution due to burial, followed by basin inversion (uplift) starting in Upper Cretaceous. Pressure solution generated carbonate rich fluids, which resulted in dolomite and calcite veinlets. Simultaneously, a first clearly zoned and brown coloured generation of fluorite (I) accumulated in nodules together with sulfides and organic matter. This fluorite (I) contains mostly H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 fluid inclusions with relatively high salinity (17.8 wt% NaCl, 8.9 wt% CaCl2). Colourless fluorite (II) is the latest observable (post-) diagenetic mineral phase filling veinlets in dolomitic limestone that crosscut pressure solution features. Fluorite (II) replaces fluorite (I) within the nodules as well. Carbonic inclusions together with CH4

  5. Stakeholder participation to watershed management: A case study from Beysehir Lake Basin. (United States)

    Yavuz, Fadim; Baycan, Tozin


    This study addresses Beyehir Lake Basin, which is the largest freshwater lake in Turkey. The aim of the study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions and behaviors of local communities regarding; the critical problems of the basin; technical and political situation of the water management in the basin; possible strategies ensuring positive change towards the sustainability of the basin; and the watershed management strategies which could contribute to success in this case. The participatory level of the local water users of the basin was also examined. The results revealed that local communities were aware of the basin's problems and contribution of the participatory approaches to watershed management. Also, collaboration between the public and public institutions was accepted as key to successful watershed management. The stakeholders, who considered that current water policies to solve the problems of the basin were ineffectual, relied on the local environmental groups more than central government and local authorities regarding their water policies.

  6. New aerogeophysical study of the Eurasia Basin and Lomonosov Ridge: Implications for basin development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brozena, J.M.; Childers, V.A.; Lawver, L.A.


    data reveal prominent bends in the isochrons that provide solid geometrical constraints for plate reconstructions. Tentative identification of anomaly 25 in the Eurasia Basin links early basin opening to spreading in the Labrador Sea before the locus of spreading in the North Atlantic shifted...... the southern Gakkel Ridge. This collision may have contributed to vollcanism on the Morris Jesup Rise. By chron 13, Greenland had ended its northward motion and had become fixed to North America, and the plateau north of Greenland had rifted apart to become the Morris Jesup Rise and the Yermak Plateau....

  7. U-Pb Geochronology of non-marine Upper Triassic strata of the Colorado Plateau (western North America): implications for stratigraphic correlation and paleoenvironmental reconstruction (United States)

    Rasmussen, C.; Mundil, R.; Irmis, R. B.; Keller, C. B.; Giesler, D.; Gehrels, G. E.


    The Triassic is a critical period in Earth history that witnessed the origin of modern ecosystems and frequent climate fluctuations, as well as major environmental events such as flood basalt volcanism and bolide impacts. The Chinle Formation contains a primary non-marine archive for past ecosystems in North America due to its fossil richness and well-studied sedimentology. Moreover, within these highly fossiliferous strata, a biotic turnover has been reported that has been hypothesized to coincide with one or more of the aforementioned environmental events. Unfortunately, few radioisotopic ages have been published for the Late Triassic, limiting our ability for lithological and paleoenvironmental correlations. In addition, the superposition of the Chinle Formation remains illusive due to frequent lateral facies changes and discontinuous outcrops across the Colorado Plateau. The 520 m long core 1A of the Colorado Plateau Coring Project from Petrified Forest National Park (PFNP) (Arizona) provides, for the first time, a continuous section of these early Mesozoic sedimentary strata. Many of the sand- and siltstones from this continuous succession throughout most of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation contain euhedral zircons suitable for U-Pb analyses. We analyzed >300 crystals each from 10 samples using LA-ICPMS; these results indicated abundant Late Triassic crystals that appear to be closely associated with the depositional age of the host rock. We then selected the youngest grains from these samples to obtain precise CA-TIMS U-Pb single zircon ages in order to constrain the maximum depositional ages (using quantitative methods) of these formations. We are able to revise the proposed time scale (based on outcrop samples) for Upper Triassic strata at PFNP and evaluate whether the biotic turnover observed within the Sonsela Member of these strata coincides with the Manicouagan bolide impact event. This revised chronostratigraphic framework allows intercalibration

  8. hydrological study of the basin of Tunja using isotopics technical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho R, Gloria; Hernandez Luis


    In the carried out study, it is analyzed the generalities in the first place on the city of Tunja, keeping in mind the aspects of Topography, Climate Population and the projection of this last one until the year 2020, and of equal it forms the demand of drinkable water for these same projections. Then it is the Superficial Hydrology of the area in study, keeping in mind the physiographic parameters of the basin, behavior pluviometrical graphic, flows and evapotranspiration, towards them to calculate this way the infiltration and power to end up determining the hydraulic balance of the area. In the concerning to Geology, this it was carried out on the base of the rising of stratigraphic columns made in having traveled by different roads and roads bordering to the study area; based on this columns it was carried out a geologic map with all the characteristics of the formations in the area

  9. Organic geochemistry of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillo-carbonated sedimentary series of the East of the Paris basin and of England. Variabilities and paleo-environmental implications; Geochimie organique des series argilo-carbonatees du Callovo-Oxfordien de l'Est du bassin de Paris et d'Angleterre: Variabilites et implications paleoenvironnementales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautevelle, Y


    The Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stones from the East of the Paris basin are studied by ANDRA in order to test the feasibility of a possible storage of radioactive waste. The molecular analysis of their organic matter indicates that they can be considered as homogenous from their organic content point of view because they are characterized by only one molecular facies. However, the transition to the surrounding limestones is underlined by a major evolution of the molecular facies indicating a change and an increase of the variability of the deposition and diagenesis conditions. The evolution of the distribution of the plant bio-markers indicates, at the end of the Lower Oxfordian, a paleo-floristic change characterized by the increase of the proportion of Pinaceae (a conifer family) or their forerunners on the London-Brabant massif. This paleo-floristic evolution reflects a paleo-climatic change characterized by the increase of aridity at the global scale. Other complementary results get on other sedimentary series of similar ages highlight the occurrence of a period of water anoxia during the Middle Callovian which certainly happened on the major part of the Western Europe. This event could be at the origin of the crisis of the carbonate production at the Dogger/Malm transition. On the other hand, an experimental technique based on artificial maturation of extant plants has been developed and will allow the acquisition of new palaeo-chemo-taxonomic data. These data will contribute to a better interpretation of plant bio-marker assemblages in terms of palaeo-floristic composition. (author)

  10. Engineering study: 105KE to 105KW Basin fuel and sludge transfer. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, R.G.


    In the last five years, there have been three periods at the 105KE fuel storage basin (KE Basin) where the reported drawdown test rates were in excess of 25 gph. Drawdown rates in excess of this amount have been used during past operations as the primary indicators of leaks in the basin. The latest leak occurred in March, 1993. The reported water loss from the KE Basin was estimated at 25 gph. This engineering study was performed to identify and recommend the most feasible and practical method of transferring canisters of irradiated fuel and basin sludge from the KE Basin to the 105KW fuel storage basin (KW Basin). Six alternatives were identified during the performance of this study as possible methods for transferring the fuel and sludge from the KE Basin to the KW Basin. These methods were then assessed with regard to operations, safety, radiation exposure, packaging, environmental concerns, waste management, cost, and schedule; and the most feasible and practical methods of transfer were identified. The methods examined in detail in this study were based on shipment without cooling water except where noted: Transfer by rail using the previously used transfer system and water cooling; Transfer by rail using the previously used transfer system (without water cooling); Transfer by truck using the K Area fuel transfer cask (K Area cask); Transfer by truck using a DOE shipping cask; Transfer by truck using a commercial shipping cask; and Transfer by truck using a new fuel shipping cask

  11. Challenging Futures Studies To Enhance Participatory River Basin Management (United States)

    van der Helm, R.

    Can the field of futures research help advance participatory management of river basins? This question is supposed to be answered by the present study of which this paper will mainly address the theoretical and conceptual point of view. The 2000 EU Framework directive on water emphasises at least two aspects that will mark the future management of river basins: the need for long-term planning, and a demand for participation. Neither the former nor the latter are new concepts as such, but its combination is in some sense revolutionary. Can long-term plans be made (and implemented) in a participative way, what tools could be useful in this respect, and does this lead to a satisfactory situation in terms of both reaching physical targets and enhancing social-institutional manageability? A possibly rich way to enter the discussion is to challenge futures research as a concept and a practice for enabling multiple stakeholders to design appropriate policies. Futures research is the overall field in which several methods and techniques (like scenario analysis) are mobilised to systematically think through and/or design the future. As such they have proven to be rich exercises to trigger ideas, stimulate debate and design desirable futures (and how to get there). More importantly these exercises have the capability to reconstitute actor relations, and by nature go beyond the institutional boundaries. Arguably the relation between futures research and the planning process is rather distant. Understandably commitments on the direct implementation of the results are hardly ever made, but its impact on changes in the capabilities of the network of actors involved may be large. As a hypothesis we consider that the distant link between an image of the future and the implementation in policy creates sufficient distance for actors to participate (in terms of responsibilities, legal constraints, etc.) and generate potentials, and enough degrees of freedom needed for a successful

  12. Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Z.; Liu, J.; Koeneman, P.H.; Zarate, E.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert


    Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF) at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this

  13. Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Z; Liu, J.; Koeneman, P.H.; Zarate, E.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert


    Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF) at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this

  14. Organizing cross-sectoral collaboration in river basin management : Case studies from the Rhine and the Zhujiang (Pearl River) basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silveira, André; Junier, S.J.; Hüesker, Frank; Qunfang, Fan; Rondorf, Andreas


    ABSTRACT: This paper analyses the drivers and constraints for effective cross-sectoral collaboration in river basin management and the extent to which factors identified in related literature determine success or failure of collaboration in selected case studies. Cases selected were from

  15. Analysis of efficiency of pollution reduction measures in rural basin using MIKE Basin model. Case study: Olšava River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiglová Jana


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of testing the applicability of the MIKE Basin model for simulating the efficiency of scenarios for reducing water pollution. The model has been tested on the Olšava River Basin (520 km2 which is a typical rural region with a heterogeneous mix of pollution sources with variable topography and land use. The study proved that the model can be calibrated successfully using even the limited amount of data typically available in rural basins. The scenarios of pollution reduction were based on implementation and intensification of municipal wastewater treatment and conversion of arable land on fields under the risk of soil erosion to permanent grassland. The application of simulation results of these scenarios with proposed measures proved decreasing concentrations in downstream monitoring stations. Due to the practical applicability of proposed measures, these could lead to fulfilment of the water pollution limits required by the Czech and EU legislation. However, there are factors of uncertainty that are discussed that may delay or limit the effect of adopted measures in small rural basins.

  16. Cretaceous-Paleogene ostracods from the Paraíba Basin, northeastern Brazil (United States)

    de Lima Barros, Cecília; Piovesan, Enelise Katia; Oliveira Agostinho, Sonia Maria


    This work presents a detailed taxonomic study on the marine ostracods from the Paraíba Basin, northeastern Brazil, in wells from the wells Itamaracá-1IT-03-PE and Poty-1PO-01-PE, which record the Maastrichtian-Danian boundary. Besides the taxonomic data, this paper contributes to the paleoenvironmental knowledge of Cretaceous-Paleogene ostracods from the Paraíba Basin. The analysis of 98 samples of the well Itamaracá-1IT-03-PE and 59 samples of the Poty-1PO-01-PE resulted in the record of 34 ostracode species, all representative of a marine environment with normal salinity. Seven new species are proposed: Cytherella centrocompressa sp. nov.; Cytherella paraibensis sp. nov.; Neonesidea potyensis sp. nov.; Bythoceratina spinosa sp. nov.; Eucytherura ventrotuberculata sp. nov.; Langiella fauthi sp. nov. and Protobuntonia punctatum sp. nov.

  17. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study (United States)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.


    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at

  18. The Baltic Sea - from environmental monitoring data to paleoenvironmental reconstructions in a marine/brackish system (United States)

    Arz, Helge W.; Dellwig, Olaf; Häusler, Katharina; Kaiser, Jérôme; Leipe, Thomas; Moros, Matthias; Pollehne, Falk


    Instrumental observations in the Baltic Sea are reaching back into the 19th century, but a comprehensive ecosystem monitoring by means of coastal stations, research vessels, moorings, permanent stations, and satellites was developed stepwise after WWII and significantly intensified after founding of the HELCOM (Helsinki Commission) in 1975 for protecting the Baltic marine environment against anthropogenic influences. Such influences are well recorded in surface sediments of the different Baltic Sea sub-basins, where i.a. heavy metal and organic pollutants accumulated in the course of the last century with characteristic rates. However, despite of the vast amount of instrumental data, calibration of paleoenvironmental proxies is often complicated due to weakly constraint chronologies of these young sediments. In many cases sedimentation is not continuous and sediments are subject to erosion, re-suspension, lateral transport, and focusing due to intense wind driven waves and current activity. Therefore, a direct link of sedimentary proxies with instrumental water column observations is not always straightforward and generally not well established. Recently developed event stratigraphic and radionuclide based chronologies in some restricted Baltic Sea areas like the central Baltic deeps form now a solid base for the in depth proxy development and validation with instrumental time series. Promising results come from e.g. the solid-phase Mn and trace element signatures and organic biomarkers in recent/sub-recent sediments from the central Baltic Sea enhancing the potential of reconstructing the Littorina-Stage environmental development.

  19. Interdisciplinary cooperation and studies in geoscience in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU


    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field, as the more innovative studies are increasingly crossing discipline boundaries and thus benefitting from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by supporting and promoting the creation of “meeting places” able to provide a framework for researchers and scholars involved in geoscience research to find common grounds for discussion and collaboration. Most recently, this was achieved by organizing the 1st Workshop on “Interdisciplinarity in Geosciences in the Carpathian Basin” (IGCB held in the Department of Geography at the University of Suceava (Romania, between the 18th and 22nd October 2012. This event brought together both an international group of scientists and local researchers which created opportunities for collaboration in research topics such as geography, environment, geology and botany, biology and ecology in the Carpathian Basin.

  20. Organic petrology and geochemistry of the Carboniferous coal seams from the Central Asturian Coal Basin (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedad-Sanchez, Noe; Martinez, Luis; Izart, Alain; Elie, Marcel [UMR G2R/7566, Geologie et Gestion des Ressources Minerales et Energetiques, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy 1, BP-239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex 54506 (France); Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), C/ Francisco Pintado Fe, 26, Ap. Co., 73, Oviedo 33011 (Spain); Keravis, Didier [Institut des Sciences de la Terre (ISTO), CNRS-Universite d' Orleans, Batiment Geosciences, BP 6759, Orleans 45067 (France)


    This paper presents for the first time a petrological and geochemical study of coals from the Central Asturian Coal Basin (North Spain) of Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian), mainly of Moscovian, age. A paleoenvironmental approach was used, taking into account both petrographic and organic geochemical studies. Vitrinite reflectance (R{sub r}) ranges from 0.5% to 2.5%, which indicates a high volatile bituminous to semianthracite and anthracite coal rank. The coal samples selected for paleoenvironmental reconstruction are located inside the oil-gas-prone phase, corresponding to the interval between the onset of oil generation and first gas generation and efficient expulsion of oil. This phase is represented by coals that have retained their hydrocarbon potential and also preserved biomarker information. Paleodepositional reconstruction based on maceral and petrographic indices points to a swamp environment with vitrinite-rich coal facies and variable mineral matter content. The gelification index (GI) and groundwater influence index (GWI) indicate strong gelification and wet conditions. The biomarkers exhibit a high pristane/phytane ratio, suggesting an increase in this ratio from diagenetic processes, and a high diterpanes ratio. This, in turn, would seem to indicate a high swamp water table and a humid climate. The maximum point of coal accumulation occurred during the regressive part of the Late Moscovian sequence and in the most humid climate described for this period of time in the well-known coal basins of Europe and North America.

  1. 105KE and 105KW Basins fuel and sludge consolidation study, summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, R.G.


    This study is a summary report that examines and evaluates the feasibility of consolidating irradiated fuel and sludge currently in KE Basin with that in the KW Basin. This study was conducted in support of TPA Milestone (target date) M-34-00-T03. The report summarizes three supporting engineering studies involving: (1) spent fuel consolidation into the single basin, (2) transport of the encapsulated fuel between KE and KW Basins, and (3) dispositioning contaminated water remaining in KE Basin. From the three reports, and preferred storage method, transfer method and water disposition method were defined. These consolidation methods were then evaluated against the no action alternative of continued storage using both KE and KW Basins. The report concluded that the fuel and sludge currently stored in KE Basin not be consolidated in the KW Basin, primarily due to increased cost and radiation exposure required to consolidate the fuel and sludge. Consolidation is more attractive for storage periods beyond the year 2002, which is the study period of the report

  2. Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins in Pernambuco State, Brazil (United States)

    Montenegro, S. M. G. L.; da Silva, B. B.; Antonino, A. C. D.; Lima, J. R. S.; de Souza, E. S.; de Oliveira, L. M. M.; de Moura, A. E. S. S.; Souza, R. M. S.


    Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins are of fundamental importance for water resources management. This paper presents some activities of hydrological research in experimental and representative basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The study areas are located at Tapacurá and Mundaú representative basins and at the Gameleira experimental basin, and in experimental plots in Pajeú basin. In the Tapacurá basin, three studies were performed: (1) different monthly coefficients "k" of the Thornthwaite method were tested to calculate the effective temperature and, consequently, the reference evapotranspiration, giving rise to the method identified as Modified Thornthwaite; (2) the spatial variability of the retention curve and hydraulic conductivity parameters were analysed using the Beerkan method; (3) changes in vegetation cover were evaluated through the NDVI and NDWI indexes using TM-Landsat 5 images. In the Mundaú representative basin, the performance of different evapotranspiration methods was evaluated and compared to the FAO standard method, Penman-Monteith. In the Pajeú basin, the experimental plot is covered by pasture and sensors were installed to monitor the following variables: rainfall, air temperature, the energy balance components (net radiation, latent and sensible heat, and soil heat flux), wind velocity and CO2 flux into atmosphere, soil moisture and runoff.

  3. The PRISM4 (mid-Piacenzian) paleoenvironmental reconstruction (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Rowley, David; Moucha, Robert; Forte, Alessandro; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Pound, Matthew; Salzmann, Ulrich; Robinson, Marci M.; Chandler, Mark; Foley, Kevin M.; Haywood, Alan M.


    The mid-Piacenzian is known as a period of relative warmth when compared to the present day. A comprehensive understanding of conditions during the Piacenzian serves as both a conceptual model and a source for boundary conditions as well as means of verification of global climate model experiments. In this paper we present the PRISM4 reconstruction, a paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the mid-Piacenzian ( ∼ 3 Ma) containing data for paleogeography, land and sea ice, sea-surface temperature, vegetation, soils, and lakes. Our retrodicted paleogeography takes into account glacial isostatic adjustments and changes in dynamic topography. Soils and lakes, both significant as land surface features, are introduced to the PRISM reconstruction for the first time. Sea-surface temperature and vegetation reconstructions are unchanged but now have confidence assessments. The PRISM4 reconstruction is being used as boundary condition data for the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project Phase 2 (PlioMIP2) experiments.

  4. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic control on early diagenetic processes and fossil record in Cretaceous continental sandstones of Brazil (United States)

    Garcia, Antônio J. V.; da Rosa, Átila A. S.; Goldberg, Karin


    The Early Cretaceous, pre-rift continental rock sequences of northeastern Brazil (Rio do Peixe, Araripe, Recôncavo-Tucano, and Sergipe-Alagoas basins), deposited in a wide intracontinental basin (Afro-Brazilian Depression), and the Late Cretaceous, post-rift continental deposits of the Paraná Basin (Bauru Group, Minas Gerais) reflect the controlling processes related to the Brazilian record of nonmarine fossil vertebrates. These sequences were deposited in braided fluvial, eolian, and lacustrine environments in a semi-arid to arid climate. Sedimentary and diagenetic processes ascribed to paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental conditions are among the major factors that control fossil preservation in fluvial deposits. The pre-rift successions contain a rare record of a dinosaur fauna that lived near more humid highlands in the northern portion of the Afro-Brazilian Depression, relative to its southern counterpart, where hardly any fossil remains would have been preserved in the adverse climatic conditions. The Afro-Brazilian Depression is interpreted as a large pathway for dinosaurs before the breakup of Gondwana. Conversely, abundant dinosaur remains (bones, eggs, and teeth) and other vertebrates (turtles, crocodiles, frogs, and fish) are found in the Bauru Group in the Paraná Basin. In this unit, the seasonal paleoclimate provided sufficient conditions for the maintenance of bodies of water that served as nesting and living sites for various vertebrate forms. Paleoclimatic conditions are assumed to account for the different preservation of bones in the Paraná Basin relative to the Afro-Brazilian Depression, because the latter was subject to more arid conditions, and the humid environment was restricted to the northern margin.

  5. Paleoenvironmental conditions in the late Paleogene, Sumatra, Indonesia (United States)

    O'shea, Natalie; Arthur Bettis, E.; Zaim, Yahdi; Rizal, Yan; Aswan, Aswan; Gunnell, Gregg F.; Zonneveld, John-Paul; Ciochon, Russell L.


    A stratified paleosol sequence exposed in an open pit mine in central Sumatra provides a record of the paleoenvironmental conditions in the lower reaches of a large river system in the late Paleogene (latest Eocene or Oligocene). Morphological, geochemical, and stable isotope data suggest that the sequence represents a mosaic of local environmental conditions changing from estuarine to riverine up section. Weakly expressed soils formed on low-lying estuary surfaces, while more well expressed soils formed on higher, better drained surfaces. Peatlands (coal) with clayey subsoils were along the estuary margins. Well-expressed soils with evidence of clay translocation and chemical weathering become more common higher in the section where alluvial deposits associated with a meandering river are dominant. Stable carbon isotope ratios support a paleolandscape dominated by C3 plants with input by C4 vegetation limited to a few intervals. Finally, whole-rock geochemistry suggests moderate chemical weathering consistent with a tropical locality. This multi-proxy paleoenvironmental reconstruction suggests a highly productive lowland forest environment at this locality in the late Paleogene and provides the first direct examination of the terrestrial environment in Sumatra at this time. The limited fossil record in Island Southeast Asia during this time period is likely a result of poor bone and shell preservation in tropical forest environments combined with a general lack of systematic prospecting. However, our continuing work in this area has produced a relatively diverse assemblage of fossil vertebrates, now including fishes, amphibians, turtles, crocodiles, and mammals, as well as a growing diversity of fossil plants.

  6. Paleoenvironmental inference models from sediment diatom assemblages in Baffin Island lakes (Nunavut, Canada) and reconstruction of summer water temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joynt, E. H. III; Wolfe, A. P. [Colorado Univ., Inst. of Arctic and Alpine Research, Boulder, CO (United States)


    Lake sediments are attractive repositories for paleoclimate proxy data because they are temporally continuous, undisturbed and datable. It is particularly true of lakes which are ubiquitous throughout the Arctic regions, enabling dense spatial coverage of sampling sites. In more recent times diatoms have been applied to a a variety of paleoenvironmental questions. However, these studies have been of limited usefulness because they lack a regional training set that would facilitate making quantitative paleoenvironmental inferences. This article provides this inferential tool, together with an example of its application. Conductivity, pH, summer lake water temperature, and mean annual air temperature have been identified as the significant controls over diatom assemblages from the surface sediments of 61 lakes on Baffin Island. Using weighted-averaging regression and calibration, predictive models for these parameters have been developed. Results show that the summer lake water temperature model provides realistic reconstructions when compared with other paleoenvironmental records. Over the past 5000 years the amplitude of reconstructed summer lake water temperature was found to be on the order of 4 degrees C, expressed primarily as progressive neoglacial cooling culminating in the Little Ice Age. Diatom-inferred summer water temperatures have increased by about 2 degrees C in the past 150 years, which is also in agreement with independent paleoclimatic reconstructions. The data obtained in this study complements similar efforts from the western Canadian Arctic and the northern reaches of Scandinavia, however, this is the first training set developed for lakes situated entirely north of the tree line. As such, it extends the applicability of diatoms for paleotemperature reconstructions well into the Arctic tundra biome. 45 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs., 1 appendix.

  7. Studies in living and fossil foraminifers from seasonally productive regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barmawidjaja, D.M.


    Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental analysis of benthic and planktonic foraminiferal associations from sediments from the northern Adriatic Sea, the Kau Basin (Halmahera) and the Molucca Sea shed new light on the way in which various environmental factors influence foraminiferal distribution

  8. Sustainable development indicators: Case study for South Morava river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Nebojša D.


    Full Text Available The subject of research is elaboration and evaluation of indicators of sustainable development in the field of river basin management. Aggregate indicator entitled Ecoregion Sustainable Development Index is identified by calculation of average value by the procedure of leveling of proportion changes of three key indicators (demographic emission index, water quality index, industrial production index. Developed aggregate indicator of sustainable development is calculated and analyzed for South Morava river basin in Serbia, for the period from 1980 to 2010. The beneficiaries of these indicators are the experts from the field of environmental protection and water management who should use it for elaboration of reports directed towards the creators of economic development policy and river basin management planning. Elaborated according to the given methodology, the indicator Ecoregion Sustainable Development Index is available for the decision makers on the national level, internationally comparative and it provides the conditions for further elaboration and application.

  9. Study on metallogenetic prospect of interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit in Shanganning basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinping


    As Compared with orogenic zone basin, which the interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposits are found, the Shanganning basin a continental platform type basin is distinct either in the geodynamic background and the post-basin hydrogeological evolution or in the appearance of the metallogenetic dynamics-orogenesis. The prediction criteria summarized for interlayer oxidation zone type U-deposits in Middle Asia therefore can not be completely applied in such a basin. Based on analysis of the typical regional geological setting, the hydrogeology of the Meso-Cenozoic cover is studied in detail. Three hydrogeological cycles have been divided, and prospects of uranium deposits have been clarified and the most promising target have been proposed

  10. A case study from two intracratonic basins of In

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    1991; Moitra 1995). Bhander Limestone of Vind- hyan Basin is considered to be of marginal marine origin (Banerjee 1974; Chanda and Bhattacharya. 1982; Prasad and Varma 1991). Sarkar et al (1996) identified five distinctive facies of wide palaeogeo- graphic significance, ranging between beach shore face to distal shelf ...

  11. GAMA-LLNL Alpine Basin Special Study: Scope of Work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, M J; Visser, A; Esser, B K; Moran, J E


    For this task LLNL will examine the vulnerability of drinking water supplies in foothills and higher elevation areas to climate change impacts on recharge. Recharge locations and vulnerability will be determined through examination of groundwater ages and noble gas recharge temperatures in high elevation basins. LLNL will determine whether short residence times are common in one or more subalpine basin. LLNL will measure groundwater ages, recharge temperatures, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, major anions and carbon isotope compositions on up to 60 samples from monitoring wells and production wells in these basins. In addition, a small number of carbon isotope analyses will be performed on surface water samples. The deliverable for this task will be a technical report that provides the measured data and an interpretation of the data from one or more subalpine basins. Data interpretation will: (1) Consider climate change impacts to recharge and its impact on water quality; (2) Determine primary recharge locations and their vulnerability to climate change; and (3) Delineate the most vulnerable areas and describe the likely impacts to recharge.

  12. Case study applications of the BASINS climate assessment tool (CAT) (United States)

    This EPA report will illustrate the application of different climate assessment capabilities within EPA’s BASINS modeling system for assessing a range of potential questions about the effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality in different watershed settings and us...

  13. Studies on heavy metal contamination in Godavari river basin (United States)

    Hussain, Jakir; Husain, Ikbal; Arif, Mohammed; Gupta, Nidhi


    Surface water samples from Godavari river basin was analyzed quantitatively for the concentration of eight heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel and zinc using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analyzed data revealed that iron and zinc metals were found to be the most abundant metals in the river Godavari and its tributaries. Iron (Fe) recorded the highest, while cadmium (Cd) had the least concentration. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, iron and zinc metals are within the acceptable limit of BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 1050 (2012) Specification for drinking water, pp 1-5). The analysis of Godavari river and its tributary's water samples reveals that the water is contaminated at selected points which are not suitable for drinking. Nickel and Copper concentration is above acceptable limit and other metal concentration is within the acceptable limit. Comprehensive study of the results reveals that out of 18 water quality stations monitored, water samples collected at 7 water quality stations are found to be within the permissible limit for all purposes. While Rajegaon, Tekra, Nandgaon, P. G. Bridge, Bhatpalli, Kumhari, Pauni, Hivra, Ashti, Bamini, and Jagda stations were beyond the desirable limit due to presence of copper and nickel metals. The contents of copper metal ions were higher at some water quality stations on Wunna river (Nandgaon); Wardha river (Hivra) and Wainganga river (Kumhari, Pauni, Ashti) during Feb. 2012, while nickel concentration during Feb. 2012, June 2012, March 2013 and Aug. 2013 at some water quality stations on rivers Bagh, Indravati, Pranhita, Wunna, Penganga, Peddavagu, Wainganga and Wardha. It can be concluded that rapid population growth and industrialization have brought about resource degradation and a decline in environmental quality.

  14. BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report) (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications. This report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the Better Assessment Science Integrating point & ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report documents laboratory results obtained under test plan RPP-21533 for samples submitted by the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) from the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) Basin 42 (Reference 1). The LERF Basin 42 contains process condensate (PC) from the 242-A Evaporator and landfill leachate. The ETF processes one PC campaign approximately every 12 to 18 months. A typical PC campaign volume can range from 1.5 to 2.5 million gallons. During the September 2003 ETF Basin 42 processing campaign, a recurring problem with 'gelatinous buildup' on the outlet filters from 60A-TK-I (surge tank) was observed (Figure 1). This buildup appeared on the filters after the contents of the surge tank were adjusted to a pH of between 5 and 6 using sulfuric acid. Biological activity in the PC feed was suspected to be the cause of the gelatinous material. Due to this buildup, the filters (10 {micro}m CUNO) required daily change out to maintain process throughput.

  16. Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins radionuclide transport: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotson, W.L.; Peterson, D.E.


    The current estimates of increased utilization of nuclear power have brought into focus the problem of the cumulative interaction of several nuclear facilities with the biosphere of a region. An engineering analysis tool to make the necessary calculations from which reasonable estimates of potential radiation dose and dose commitment to individuals and population groups in such a region has been devised by Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This paper discusses the application of the radionuclide transport elements of this computer code to the Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins. The radionuclide transport simulator codes (HERMES) were designed to evaluate the environment impact of nuclear facilities in or near the year 2000

  17. Holocene paleoenvironmental change in southeastern Africa (Makwe Rockshelter, Zambia): Implications for the spread of pastoralism (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua R.; Rowan, John


    The paleoenvironmental conditions surrounding the origins of pastoralism and the movement of herders from eastern to southern Africa sometime between ∼4000 and 2000 ybp have been much debated. We lack, however, detailed paleoenvironmental data from sites sampling the hunter-to-herder transition in southeastern Africa, the likely corridor from eastern to southern Africa for early pastoralists. Here we report on new paleoenvironmental data from a site in the under-sampled area of eastern Zambia, Makwe Rockshelter, which has two aggregates of archaeological horizons representing the mid-Holocene (∼5700-5000 ybp) and the late Holocene (∼1600-800 ybp). The mid-Holocene sediments at Makwe document a foraging society, whereas the late Holocene sediments include both wild game and domestic livestock. Using stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) of herbivore enamel (n = 107), we show that the shift from mid-Holocene to late Holocene paleoenvironments was characterized by an increase in C4 vegetation. These data are complemented by paleoenvironmental records from Lake Malawi that show that C4 vegetation peaked after ∼2000 ybp and was coincident with the onset of cooler, more arid climates. This combined paleoenvironmental record has implications for the spread of pastoralism across southeastern Africa between ∼3000 and 2000 ybp and potential 'animal disease barriers' these early herders may have faced.

  18. Identifying the groundwater basin boundaries, using environmental isotopes: a case study (United States)

    Demiroğlu, Muhterem


    Groundwater, which is renewable under current climatic conditions separately from other natural sources, in fact is a finite resource in terms of quality and fossil groundwater. Researchers have long emphasized the necessity of exploiting, operating, conserving and managing groundwater in an efficient and sustainable manner with an integrated water management approach. The management of groundwater needs reliable information about changes on groundwater quantity and quality. Environmental isotopes are the most important tools to provide this support. No matter which method we use to calculate the groundwater budget and flow equations, we need to determine boundary conditions or the physical boundaries of the domain. The Groundwater divide line or basin boundaries that separate the two adjacent basin recharge areas from each other must be drawn correctly to be successful in defining complex groundwater basin boundary conditions. Environmental isotope data, as well as other methods provide support for determining recharge areas of the aquifers, especially for karst aquifers, residence time and interconnections between aquifer systems. This study demonstrates the use of environmental isotope data to interpret and correct groundwater basin boundaries giving as an example the Yeniçıkrı basin within the main Sakarya basin.

  19. Studies on water resources carrying capacity in Tuhai river basin based on ecological footprint (United States)

    Wang, Chengshuai; Xu, Lirong; Fu, Xin


    In this paper, the method of the water ecological footprint (WEF) was used to evaluate water resources carrying capacity and water resources sustainability of Tuhai River Basin in Shandong Province. The results show that: (1) The WEF had a downward trend in overall volatility in Tuhai River Basin from 2003 to 2011. Agricultural water occupies high proportion, which was a major contributor to the WEF, and about 86.9% of agricultural WEF was used for farmland irrigation; (2) The water resources carrying capacity had a downward trend in general, which was mostly affected by some natural factors in this basin such as hydrology and meteorology in Tuhai River Basin; (3) Based on analysis of water resources ecological deficit, it can be concluded that the water resources utilization mode was in an unhealthy pattern and it was necessary to improve the utilization efficiency of water resources in Tuhai River Basin; (4) In view of water resources utilization problems in the studied area, well irrigation should be greatly developed at the head of Yellow River Irrigation Area(YRIA), however, water from Yellow River should be utilized for irrigation as much as possible, combined with agricultural water-saving measures and controlled exploiting groundwater at the tail of YRIA. Therefore, the combined usage of surface water and ground water of YRIA is an important way to realize agricultural water saving and sustainable utilization of water resources in Tuhai River Basin.

  20. Paleoenvironmental and sclerochronological reconstruction of Crassostrea gryphoides Miocene biostromes from Crete island (Greece) (United States)

    Koskeridou, E.; Agiadi, K.


    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar (Adanson, 1757) is a keystone species mainly along the African Atlantic coasts. It forms biostromes on muddy coasts and typically associated with river mouths in the intertidal zone in depths of 0.60 up to 1 m1. Similarly, many biostrome structures of the fossilized Crassostrea gryphoides are found within Cenozoic deposits of Greece2. Since Crassostrea gasar is the phyllogenetically corresponding species of Crassostrea gryphoides, it is investigated whether the fossil biostromes formed under environmental conditions similar to those favored by modern Crassostrea gasar and if growth rate and longevity are comparable. A biostrome from the Tortonian of Heraklion district, Crete island (southern Greece) was studied to investigate the paleoenvironmental conditions and the life history of these oysters. The shells are big, ranging up to 40 cm in length, thick and positioned mainly horizontally. The biostrome is approximately 2 m in thickness and a few meters in length. Individual oysters, associated fauna and lithologic samples were collected. Paleoenvironmental interpretation was based on the analysis of the oyster taphonomy, the associated fauna and the sclerochronology/stable isotopic geochemistry of the oyster shells. The biostrome is observed in sandy marl which laterally contains Veneridae, Melongena, Terebralia bidentata and oligospecific microfossils, mainly Ammonia beccarii and Miliolids. Borings by many ichnotaxa occur on the external and internal surface of the oyster shells during the pre and /or post-mortem. Using a micromill, successive samples were taken along the hinge/ligament region of an oyster for isotopic analyses. The δ18O values ranged from -2.9 to 0.1. The wide range of values supports the interpretation of changing environmental conditions. The δ13C values ranged from -2.6 to -0.1. A correlation between δ18O and δ13C was observed. The profiles exhibit cyclicity with respect to isotopic and Sr/Ca ratios

  1. Hydrological effects of cropland and climatic changes in arid and semi-arid river basins: A case study from the Yellow River basin, China (United States)

    Li, Huazhen; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun; Sun, Peng


    The Yellow River basin is a typical semi-arid river basin in northern China. Serious water shortages have negative impacts on regional socioeconomic development. Recent years have witnessed changes in streamflow processes due to increasing human activities, such as agricultural activities and construction of dams and water reservoirs, and climatic changes, e.g. precipitation and temperature. This study attempts to investigate factors potentially driving changes in different streamflow components defined by different quantiles. The data used were daily streamflow data for the 1959-2005 period from 5 hydrological stations, daily precipitation and temperature data from 77 meteorological stations and data pertaining to cropland and large reservoirs. Results indicate a general decrease in streamflow across the Yellow River basin. Moreover significant decreasing streamflow has been observed in the middle and lower Yellow River basin with change points during the mid-1980s till the mid-1990s. The changes of cropland affect the streamflow components and also the cumulative effects on streamflow variations. Recent years have witnessed moderate cropland variations which result in moderate streamflow changes. Further, precipitation also plays a critical role in changes of streamflow components and human activities, i.e. cropland changes, temperature changes and building of water reservoirs, tend to have increasing impacts on hydrological processes across the Yellow River basin. This study provides a theoretical framework for the study of the hydrological effects of human activities and climatic changes on basins over the globe.

  2. Diapiric activities and intraslope basin development offshore of SW Taiwan: A case study of the Lower Fangliao Basin gas hydrate prospect (United States)

    Hsu, Ho-Han; Liu, Char-Shine; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Jih-Hsin; Ko, Chia-Chun; Chiu, Shye-Donq; Chen, Song-Chuen


    The architecture and distribution of mud diapirs are shaped by tectonic activity, sediment filling and unbalanced loading characteristics. Mud diapir development also controls spatial variations of intraslope basins in slope areas and can spur upward fluid migration with diapiric intrusion. The offshore area of southwestern Taiwan is an incipient collision zone in which thick sequences of deep marine sediments filled a rapidly subsided foredeep basin during the Pliocene. Large volumes of deposited sediment serve as source materials of diapiric ridges that extend NNE-SSW, and some mud diapirs even extend to on land SW Taiwan with subsurface signatures of gas. This study examines relationships between mud diapir and intraslope basin development in convergent tectonics through seismic and bathymetry data analyses. Four types of mud diapirs are identified: (1) buried symmetrical diapirs; (2) symmetrical diapirs extruded above the seafloor; (3) asymmetric and irregular diapirs; and (4) small individual diapirs manifested as mud intrusions found in local areas. A 3-stage model is proposed as a tool for describing the development and distribution of these types of diapirs. We further examine the relationship between mud diapirs and intraslope basin development patterns by analyzing 2D and 3D seismic images to reveal structural and sedimentary processes occurring in the Lower Fangliao Basin. This basin is characterized by BSR and amplitude anomalies of seismic profiles and is a prospect of the Taiwanese gas hydrate investigation project. An 8-stage development model with six depositional units is proposed as a means to explain the evolution of diapirs, submarine canyons, and fold and fault activities in the Lower Fangliao Basin, in turn revealing the relationship between mud diapir formation and intraslope basin development offshore of southwestern Taiwan.

  3. New insights into Gondwana paleography based on palinological data from Morro do Chaves Formation (Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, Brazil) (United States)

    Gonçalves Garcia, Gustavo; Vasconcellos Garcia, Antônio Jorge; Henriques, Maria Helena


    The Sergipe-Alagoas basin (NE Brazil) has been widely studied in the frame of oil exploration, because it displays the most complete exposition of the stratigraphic sequences from the basins of the Brazilian continental margin. In this context, the aim of this workis to present the results of the bio-stratigraphic and paleo-environmental analysis of Morro do Chaves Formation (Lower Cretaceous), in Alagoas Sub-basin, part of the transitional section situated between the rift phase and restricted marine environment associated with the South Atlantic ocean opening. The material was analyzed from the palynological point of view and was collected in the InterCement quarry, located in São Miguel dos Campos, State of Alagoas. From 17 outcrop rock samples collected, nine had palynological content; among these only six were considered for biostratigraphic analysis purposes. In addition to outcrop samples, 28 samples were processed from four core drill. The paleoenvironmental analysis was based on the palynological content of the collected samples and on the paleontological and geological information available. The studied sedimentary package corresponds to carbonate and fine siliciclastic deposits, with approximately 70.0 m in thickness. The unit in question is formed by carbonatic "coquinóides" rocks interspersed with shale levels of dark green color. Palinofloristic assemblages were recuperated between 5.0 m and 70.0 m of the outcropping section. In the recovered material it was possible to identify 9 kinds of spores and 8 kinds of pollen grains, and two genera of fungi. Due to the degree of preservation of the material, age was established by the occurrence of Dicheiropollis etruscus specimens, which has enabled the recognition of the Dicheiropollis etruscus palinozone (upper Barremian). In microscopic observations under fluorescent light some algalic vesicles components were also recognized and classified as possible algae of the Prasinophyceae class, indicating

  4. Discriminating Between Tectonic and Climatic Controls on Early Hominin Paleoenvironments From the Koobi Fora Region, Northeastern Turkana Basin, Kenya: Part I (United States)

    Lepre, C. J.; Quinn, R. L.


    Understanding controls on environmental records from Plio-Pleistocene Africa is critical for interpreting human origins. Recent geological studies from East Africa have focused on the relationship between Plio-Pleistocene patterns of hominin evolution, environmental change, and climate preserved in stratigraphic records of sedimentary basins (e.g. deMenocal, 2004; Wynn, 2004). Despite the fact that tectonics is a primary control on sedimentation in East African basins (e.g. Baker, 1986; Frostick, 1997), relatively few studies have either investigated its potential influence on early hominin evolution or attempted to discriminate between tectonic and climate controls on paleoenvironmental change. Presented is a study that explores these issues. Within the Koobi Fora Formation, between 4.0 and 2.5 Ma, environmental change is related to an overall trend of linear rates of tectonic subsidence. However, smaller-scale fluctuations in subsidence rates established lakes during times of increased subsidence followed by the transition to rivers during times of decreased subsidence and basin infilling (Feibel, 1994a, 2000). In contrast, environmental change during the period between 2.5 and 1.5 Ma was forced by changes in half-graben propagation, fault movement, and subsidence. This change is recorded within a stratigraphic sequence that is defined by major (erosional) boundary surface unconformities. The sequence is internally comprised of stable-lacustrine; stable-lacustrine, delta, and ephemeral-lacustrine; and fluvial environments of deposition. This environmental progression defines lowstand, transgressive, and highstand systems tracts respectively. Transition between systems tracts and depositional environments was controlled by rates of tectonic subsidence. The formation of stable-lacustrine environments of deposition during the lowstand systems tract was due to subsidence rates out-pacing sedimentation rates that was associated with a major tectonic event


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luli Gustiani


    Full Text Available A 30m-long sediment core covering the Holocene period was taken from the area of Gombong in the southern part of Central Java. The sediments were deposited in a shallow marine to lagoonal environment that was confirmed by the dominance of Ammonia beccarii along the core intervals. In addition, the species Quinqueloculina poeyana, Miliolinella lakemacquariensis, and Miliolinella subrotunda were also found in the sediments that are typical of normal shallow marine conditions. The decrease and increase in the abundance of these species throughout the core is an expression of sea level change in the area, which results the environmental changes. Low sea level is expressed by the dominance of Ammonia beccarii, and the low abundances or absence of the other three species. In contrast, high sea level stands are reflected by the presence of all four species. The high sea level would imply favorable conditions for benthic foraminifera because it would result in normal shallow marine conditions in the area. Finally, from this benthic assemblages study, it can be assumed that the environmental transformation from the originally shallow marine environment into land was occurred at level 5.5m depths of the sediment core, when all benthic foraminifera were terminated, including Ammonia beccarii. These new results from the shallow marine deposits in the Gombong area are a new contribution to the understanding of paleoenvironmental change in the region, which in turn is important for understanding sea level change as well as climate change in the region.

  6. Petroleum generation and migration in the Ghadames Basin, north Africa: A two-dimensional basin-modeling study


    Underdown, Ruth; Redfern, Jonathan


    The Ghadames Basin contains important oil- and gas-producing reservoirs distributed across Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. Regional two-dimensional (2-D) modeling, using data from more than 30 wells, has been undertaken to assess the timing and distribution of hydrocarbon generation in the basin. Four potential petroleum systems have been identified: (1) a Middle-Upper Devonian (Frasnian) and Triassic (Triassic Argilo Gréseux Inférieur [TAG-I]) system in the central-western basin; (2) a Lower Si...

  7. Towards a digital watershed, with a case study in the Heihe River Basin of northwest China (United States)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.-D.; Ma, M.-G.; Lu, L.; Ge, Y.-C.


    Integrated watershed study and river basin management needs integrated database and integrated hydrological and water resource models. We define digital watershed as a web-based information system that integrates data from different sources and in different scales through both information technology and hydrological modeling. In the last two years, a “digital basin” of the Heihe River Basin, which is a well-studied in-land catchment in China’s arid region was established. More than 6 Gb of in situ observation data, GIS maps, and remotely sensed data have been uploaded to the Heihe web site. Various database and dynamic web techniques such as PHP, ASP, XML, VRML are being used for data service. In addition, the DIAL (Data and Information Access Link), IMS (Internet Map Server) and other Web-GISs are used to make GIS and remote sensing datasets of the Heihe River Basin available and accessible on the Internet. We also have developed models for estimating the evapotranspiration, bio-physical parameters, and snow runoff. These methods can be considered as the elements to build up the integrated watershed model that can be used for integrated management of the Heihe River Basin. The official domain name of the digital Heihe River Basin is

  8. Large-Diameter Burrows of the Triassic Ischigualasto Basin, NW Argentina: Paleoecological and Paleoenvironmental Implications (United States)

    Colombi, Carina E.; Fernández, Eliana; Currie, Brian S.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Martínez, Ricardo; Correa, Gustavo


    Large-diameter ichnofossils comprising three morphotypes have been identified in the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto and Los Colorados formations of northwestern Argentina. These burrows add to the global record of the early appearance of fossorial behavior during early Mesozoic time. Morphotypes 1 and 2 are characterized by a network of tunnels and shafts that can be assigned to tetrapod burrows given similarities with previously described forms. However, differences in diameter, overall morphology, and stratigraphic occurrence allow their independent classification. Morphotype 3 forms a complex network of straight branches that intersect at oblique angles. Their calcareous composition and surface morphology indicate these structures have a composite biogenic origin likely developed due to combined plant/animal interactions. The association of Morphotypes 1 and 2 with fluvial overbank lithologies deposited under an extremely seasonal arid climate confirms interpretations that the early appearance of burrowing behavior was employed by vertebrates in response to both temperature and moisture-stress associated with seasonally or perpetually dry Pangean paleoclimates. Comparisons of burrow morphology and biomechanical attributes of the abundant paleovertebrate fauna preserved in both formations permit interpretations regarding the possible burrow architects for Morphotypes 1 and 2. In the case of the Morphotype 1, the burrow constructor could be one of the small carnivorous cynodonts, Ecteninion or Probelesodon. Assigning an architect for Morphotype 2 is more problematic due to mismatches between the observed burrow morphology and the size of the known Los Colorados vertebrates. PMID:23227195

  9. A quarter-million years of paleoenvironmental change at Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho (United States)

    Kaufman, D.S.; Bright, Jordon; Dean, W.E.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Moser, K.; Anderson, R. Scott; Colman, Steven M.; Heil, C.W.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Reheis, M.C.; Simmons, K.R.


    A continuous, 120-m-long core (BL00-1) from Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho, contains evidence of hydrologic and environmental change over the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. The core was taken at 41.95??N, 111.31??W, near the depocenter of the 60-m-deep, spring-fed, alkaline lake, where carbonate-bearing sediment has accumulated continuously. Chronological control is poor but indicates an average sedimentation rate of 0.54 mm yr-1. Analyses have been completed at multi-centennial to millennial scales, including (in order of decreasing temporal resolution) sediment magnetic properties, oxygen and carbon isotopes on bulk-sediment carbonate, organic- and inorganiccarbon contents, palynology; mineralogy (X-ray diffraction), strontium isotopes on bulk carbonate, ostracode taxonomy, oxygen and carbon isotopes on ostracodes, and diatom assemblages. Massive silty clay and marl constitute most of the core, with variable carbonate content (average = 31 ?? 19%) and oxygen-isotopic values (??18O ranging from -18??? to -5??? in bulk carbonate). These variations, as well as fluctuations of biological indicators, reflect changes in the water and sediment discharged from the glaciated headwaters of the dominant tributary, Bear River, and the processes that influenced sediment delivery to the core site, including lake-level changes. Although its influence has varied, Bear River has remained a tributary to Bear Lake during most of the last quarter-million years. The lake disconnected from the river and, except for a few brief excursions, retracted into a topographically closed basin during global interglaciations (during parts of marine isotope stages 7, 5, and 1). These intervals contain up to 80% endogenic aragonite with high ??18O values (average = -5.8 ?? 1.7???), indicative of strongly evaporitic conditions. Interglacial intervals also are dominated by small, benthic/tychoplanktic fragilarioid species indicative of reduced habitat availability associated with low lake levels

  10. Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin Water Quality Study. Technical Report No. 1. (United States)

    Dickas, Albert B., Ed.

    This hydrologic study focuses on Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin. Water is the most important natural resource in this area which includes Douglass, Bayfield, Ashland, and Iron counties. This study was undertaken to determine the character of this hydrologic base and to determine the effects and extent of man-influenced disturbances. It includes…

  11. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: index maps of included studies: Chapter B.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    This chapter B.1 of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1708 provides index maps for many of the studies described in other chapters of the report. Scientists of the USGS and State geological surveys studied coal and petroleum resources in the central and southern Appalachian structural basins. In the southern Appalachian basin, studies focused on the coal-bearing parts of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The scientists used new and existing geologic data sets to create a common spatial geologic framework for the fossil-fuel-bearing strata of the central Appalachian basin and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama.

  12. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu


    Full Text Available Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  13. Study on radon thoron levels in dwellings along Godavari basin Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasa Reddy, B.; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.


    As a part of mapping the radon and thoron concentration levels in the Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh, a study has been undertaken along the Godavari basin. The estimated average radon and thoron activities in dwellings are found to be 46±13 Bq/m 3 and 16±19 Bq/m 3 , respectively, along the Godavari river basin. Measured gamma levels for one quarter of the year are also presented here. Though the gamma concentration levels are higher than the national average level but very much below than the permissible levels. (author)

  14. Study on tertiary in-situ leachable uranium mineralization conditions in South Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenqiang; Li Guokuan; Zhao Zonghua; Zhang Jingxun


    Tertiary in-situ leachable mineralization in Songliao Basin was analyzed in theory in the past. Since 1998, regional investigation at 1:200000 scale has been done with about 120 holes drilled. Based on drill holes recording, section compiling and sample analysis, the authors investigate into the Tertiary in-situ leachable conditions including rock character, sedimentary facies, rock chemistry, organic substances, uranium content, sandstone porosity, sandstone bodies, interlayer oxidation, and hydro-dynamic value. The study would play important role in prospecting for in-situ leachable uranium in South Songliao basin

  15. Spatial Misfit in Participatory River Basin Management: Effects on Social Learning, a Comparative Analysis of German and French Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Borowski


    Full Text Available With the introduction of river basin management, as prescribed by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, participatory structures are frequently introduced at the hydrological scale without fully adapting them to the decision-making structure. This results in parallel structures and spatial misfits within the institutional settings of river basin governance systems. By analyzing French and German case studies, we show how social learning (SL is impeded by such misfits. We also demonstrate that river basin-scale institutions or actors that link parallel structures are essential for promoting river basins as management entities, and for encouraging SL between actors at the river basin scale. In the multi-scale, multi-level settings of river basin governance, it is difficult to fully exclude spatial misfits. Thus, it is important to take our insights into account in the current transition of water management from the administrative to the hydrological scale to get the greatest benefit from SL processes.

  16. Testing multivariate analysis in paleoenvironmental reconstructions using pollen records from Lagoa Salgada, NE Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro B. de Toledo


    Full Text Available Despite the indisputable significance of identification of modern analogs for Paleoecology research, relatively few studies attempted to integrate modern and fossil samples on paleoenvironmental reconstructions. In Palynology, this general pattern is not different from other fields of Paleoecology. This study demonstrates the practical application of modern pollen deposition data on paleoenvironmental reconstructions based on fossil pollen by using multivariate analysis. The main goal of this study was to use Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA to compare pollen samples from two sediment cores collected at Lagoa Salgada, a coastal lagoon located at northeastern Rio de Janeiro State. Furthermore, modern surface samples were also statistically compared with samples from both cores, providing new paleoecological insights. DCA demonstrated that samples from both cores are more similar than previously expected, and that a strong pattern, related to a paleoenvironmental event, is present within the fossil data, clearly identifying in the scatter plot samples that represent pre- and post-environmental change. Additionally, it became apparent that modern vegetation and environmental conditions were established in this region 2500 years before present (BP. Multivariate Analysis allowed a more reliable integration of modern and fossil pollen data, proving to be a powerful tool in Paleoecology studies that should be employed more often on paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental reconstructions.Apesar da indiscutível importância da identificação de análogos modernos para estudos de Paleoecologia, relativamente poucos estudos procuraram integrar amostras modernas e fósseis em reconstruções paleoambientais. Na Palinologia este padrão não é diferente de outras áreas da Paleoecologia. Este estudo demonstra a aplicação prática de dados de deposição polínica atual em reconstruções paleoambientais baseadas em pólen fóssil utilizando an

  17. Characterization of shallow groundwater quality in the Lower St. Johns River Basin: a case study (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Jia-En Zhang; Prem. Parajuli


    Characterization of groundwater quality allows the evaluation of groundwater pollution and provides information for better management of groundwater resources. This study characterized the shallow groundwater quality and its spatial and seasonal variations in the Lower St. Johns River Basin, Florida, USA, under agricultural, forest, wastewater, and residential land...

  18. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Great Salt Lake basins study unit (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.


    The Great Salt Lake Basins NAWQA study will increase the scientific understanding of the factors that influence surface- and ground-water quality. This information will benefit water-resources managers that need, but often lack, the data required to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  19. BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (External Review Draft) (United States)

    This draft report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the BASINS and WEPP climate assessment tools. The report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for conducting scenario based assessments...

  20. Issues concerning a diagnostic study of an action plan for the San Juan river basin (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Futamura, Hisanori; Nakayama, Mikiyasu


    An action plan is being formulated for the San Juan River basin, shared by Costa Rica and Nicaragua in Central America. The action plan is assumed to be a planning tool designed to ensure the availability of the goods and services that water resources provide for the conservation of ecosystems and for social and economic development. Development of the action plan comprises two phases, namely elaboration of the diagnostic study and drafting of the action plan. The diagnostic study was published in 1997. After examining previous cases in international water systems, for which the diagnostic study was developed as the precursor of an action plan, the author felt that the existing diagnostic study for the San Juan River basin still had room for improvements, in particular in the following aspects: (a) inventory of past, ongoing and future projects; (b) impacts of reserved areas on the basin as a whole; (c) instruments to promote public participation; (d) support by central decision makers; (e) mechanisms for information transparency. These aspects, which need enhancements, seem to suggest that more emphasis should be put on the soft aspects of the sciences. While the diagnostic study addresses issues of natural environment in detail, both data and analysis of human environments are in low profile. The lesson gained from the Zambezi River basin project is that lack of a proper strategy and political commitments by the central decision makers (of the riparian states) will lead to an impasse in implementation of the project, due mainly to paucity of support within basin countries. Lack of support by the general public may also lead to a failure in the implementation phase. These aspects should have been sufficiently addressed in the diagnostic study, so that appropriate actions (to be listed in the action plan) should be elaborated for implementation.

  1. Drowning unconformity of lacustrine rift basins: A case study from the Dongying Sag in Bohai Bay Basin, China (United States)

    Chen, R.; Fan, J.


    The concept of drowning unconformity of lacustrine rift basins was proposed in this paper. This paper utilized 3D seismic data, well-log and the principles methods associated with structural geology, sedimentology and geochemistry, to analyze the drowning unconformity and discuss the origins of drowning unconformity in Dongying Sag in Bohai Bay Basin.Researching on it is not only important for a better understanding of tectonic evolution, palaeogeography and sedimentation of hydrocarbon source rocks, but also a vital guiding significance for the exploration of beach-bar sandstone reservoirs and shale oil.1. The concept of drowning unconformity of lacustrine rift basins is defined. With the consequences of rapid tectonic subsidence in basin, the sharp rise of lake-level and the increased rate of accommodation(A) in basin exceeded the rate of sediment supply(S),namely A>>S, the basin suddenly transformed into deep-water settings from shallow-water settings with sudden change of sediment transport and sediment dispersal patterns. 2.The sequence surface between Sha4 and Sha3 Member of Shahejie Formation is the drowning unconformity(43.5Ma). There are the sedimentary association of the reefs in shallow lacustrine, beach-bar sandstones and glutenite fan bodies under the surface. By contrast, there are the sedimentary association of deep-lake oil shales and shales over the surface. The drowning unconformity in Dongying Sag is a tectonic revolution surface which is changed from extensional tectonics to transtensional tectonics and it is also the surface of discontinuity from shallow lacustrine to deep lacustrine. The responses to sudden changes appeared in the parameters of geophysics, geochemistry and paleontology. 3. With the penetration of India into Asia plate in NNE trending,the subduction zones of Pacific Plate retreated. It caused the rapid downwelling of asthenospheric mantle, followed by the extensive drowning unconformity.

  2. Molecular marker to identify radiolarian species -toward establishment of paleo-environmental proxy- (United States)

    Ishitani, Y.


    Marine fossilized unicellular plankton are known to have many genetically divergent species (biological species) in the single morphological species and these biological species show the species-specific environments much more precisely than that of morphological species. Among these plankton, Radiolaria are one of the best candidates for time- and environmental-indicators in the modern and past oceans, because radiolarians are the only group which represent entire water column from shallow to deep waters. However, the ecology and evolution of radiolarian were traditionally studied in paleontology and paleoceanography by morphological species. Even Radiolaria has a huge potential for novel proxy of wide and deep environments, there is no criterion to identify the biological species. The motivation for this study is setting the quantitative delimitation to establish the biological species of radiolarians based on molecular data, for leading the future ecological and paleo-environmental study. Identification of the biological species by ribosomal DNA sequences are mainly based on two ways: one is the evolutionary distance of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS1 and 2), and the large subunit (LSU) rDNA; and the other is the secondary structure of ITS2. In the present study, all four possible genetic markers (SSU, ITS1, ITS2, and LSU rDNA) were amplified from 232 individuals of five radiolarian morphological species and applied to examine the evolutionary distance and secondary structure of rDNA. Comprehensive survey clearly shows that evolutionary distance of ITS1 rDNA and the secondary structure of ITS2 is good to identify the species. Notably, evolutionary distance of ITS1 rDNA is possible to set the common delimitation to identify the biological species, as 0.225 substitution per site. The results show that the ITS1 and ITS 2 rDNA could be the criterion for radiolarian species identification.

  3. Assessment of droughts at a continental scale under different climate change scenarios. Case study: La Plata Basin (United States)

    Sordo-Ward, Alvaro; Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Bejarano, Maria Dolores; Asenjo, Victor; Bianucci, Paola


    In this study, we characterized and diagnosed the droughts across La Plata Basin for the reference (1961 - 2005) and future (2007 - 2040, 2041 - 2070 and 2071 - 2099) scenarios. La Plata Basin is located in the Centre-South of South America and comprises 3.174.229 km2 and five countries. Despite the significant impact of droughts on agriculture, cattle, water supply, natural water courses and wetlands, droughts are still difficult to predict in the region, both in time and space. We used the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) to characterize droughts based on Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) and Precipitation (P) at a monthly scale. PET and P were obtained for all 10 x 10 km-size cells within the basin by using the regional climatic model Eta, under the boundary conditions of the HadGEM2-ES model and the CO2 emissions scenario RCP 4.5. Cell to cell information was integrated into a sub-basin level in order to show and analyze the results. For each sub-basin, climate scenario, and temporal scale of SPEI (1, 3, 6 and 12 months), we identified the beginning of each drought, calculated its duration, magnitude, maximum and mean intensities, and the duration between drought events. Additionally, for each SPEI temporal scale and sub-basin, we described the spatial coverage of droughts for the temporal series of all climate scenarios. Spatially, we found a decrease of PET from North to South. Temporally, results showed a future increase of PET for the Paraguay river basin and upper Parana river basin but similar to present values for the remaining basin. Results showed that P will be similar in the future for the Paraguay river basin and upper Parana river basin, but will increase within the remaining basin. During the 2007 - 2040 scenario, we expect that the northern sub-basins suffer from several droughts while the southern ones have wetter climate with few short drought events. As we analyzed more distant future scenarios the wet climate

  4. Water-Level and land-subsidence studies in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Glockhoff, Carolyn S.; McPherson, Kelly R.; Julich, Raymond J.


    What's New! Water-level data, contours, and meta data for spring 2008 are included in Version 2.0 of SIR 2007-5097 ( All the original data are still available on the web site. Introduction Since 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Mojave Water Agency (MWA), has constructed a series of regional water-table maps for intermittent years in a continuing effort to monitor groundwater conditions in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins. The previously published data, which were used to construct these maps, can be accessed on the interactive map. The associated reports describing the groundwater conditions for the Mojave River groundwater basin for 1992 (Stamos and Predmore, 1995), the Morongo groundwater basin for 1994 (Trayler and Koczot, 1995), and for both groundwater basins for 1996 (Mendez and Christensen, 1997); for 1998 (Smith and Pimentel, 2000), for 2000 (Smith, 2002), for 2002 (Smith and others, 2004), for 2004 (Stamos and others, 2004), and for 2006 (Stamos and others, 2007) can be accessed using this web site. Spatially detailed maps of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods were used to characterize land subsidence associated with groundwater-level declines during various intervals of time between 1992 and 1999 in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins (Sneed and others, 2003). Concerns related to the potential for new or renewed land subsidence in the basins resulted in a cooperative study between the MWA and the USGS in 2006. InSAR data were developed to determine the location, extent, and magnitude of vertical land-surface changes in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins for time intervals ranging from about 35 days to 14 months between 1999 and 2000 and between 2003 and 2004. (interactive Google map) The results from many future land-subsidence studies, which are scheduled about every 10 years, will be available on this

  5. River water quality assessment using environmentric techniques: case study of Jakara River Basin. (United States)

    Mustapha, Adamu; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Juahir, Hafizan; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Kura, Nura Umar


    Jakara River Basin has been extensively studied to assess the overall water quality and to identify the major variables responsible for water quality variations in the basin. A total of 27 sampling points were selected in the riverine network of the Upper Jakara River Basin. Water samples were collected in triplicate and analyzed for physicochemical variables. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship of water quality parameters and revealed a significant relationship between salinity, conductivity with dissolved solids (DS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and nitrogen in form of ammonia (NH4). Partial correlation analysis (r p) results showed that there is a strong relationship between salinity and turbidity (r p=0.930, p=0.001) and BOD5 and COD (r p=0.839, p=0.001) controlling for the linear effects of conductivity and NH4, respectively. Principal component analysis and or factor analysis was used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter in the Jakara Basin and identified three major factors explaining 68.11 % of the total variance in water quality. The major variations are related to anthropogenic activities (irrigation agricultural, construction activities, clearing of land, and domestic waste disposal) and natural processes (erosion of river bank and runoff). Discriminant analysis (DA) was applied on the dataset to maximize the similarities between group relative to within-group variance of the parameters. DA provided better results with great discriminatory ability using eight variables (DO, BOD5, COD, SS, NH4, conductivity, salinity, and DS) as the most statistically significantly responsible for surface water quality variation in the area. The present study, however, makes several noteworthy contributions to the existing knowledge on the spatial variations of surface water quality and is believed to serve as a baseline data for further studies. Future


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Sarıyılmaz


    Full Text Available The Sazlidere Basin is located on the European side of Istanbul within the borders of Arnavutkoy and Basaksehir districts. The total area of the basin, which is largely located within the province of Arnavutkoy, is approximately 177 km2. The Sazlidere Basin is faced with intense urbanization pressures and land use / cover change due to the Northern Marmara Motorway, 3rd airport and Channel Istanbul Projects, which are planned to be realized in the Arnavutkoy region. Due to the mentioned projects, intense land use /cover changes occur in the basin. In this study, 2000 and 2012 dated LANDSAT images were supervised classified based on CORINE Land Cover first level to determine the land use/cover classes. As a result, four information classes were identified. These classes are water bodies, forest and semi-natural areas, agricultural areas and artificial surfaces. Accuracy analysis of the images were performed following the classification process. The supervised classified images that have the smallest mapping units 0.09 ha and 0.64 ha were generalized to be compatible with the CORINE Land Cover data. The image pixels have been rearranged by using the thematic pixel aggregation method as the smallest mapping unit is 25 ha. These results were compared with CORINE Land Cover 2000 and CORINE Land Cover 2012, which were obtained by digitizing land cover and land use classes on satellite images. It has been determined that the compared results are compatible with each other in terms of quality and quantity.

  7. Evaluation of seismic reflection data in the Davis and Lavender Canyons study area, Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitcho, C.A.; Wong, I.G.; Turcotte, F.T.


    Seismic reflection data purchased from petroleum industry brokers and acquired through group speculative surveys were interpreted for information on the regional subsurface geologic structure and stratigraphy within and surrounding the Davis and Lavender Canyons study area in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. Structures of interest were faults, folds, joints, and collapse structures related to salt dissolution. The seismic reflection data were used to interpret stratigraphy by identifying continuous and discontinuous reflectors on the seismic profiles. Thickening and thinning of strata and possible areas of salt flowage or dissolution could be identified from the seismic data. Identifiable reflectors included the tops of the Precambrian and Mississippian, a distinctive interbed close to the middle of the Pennsylvanian Paradox salt formation (probably the interval between Salt Cycles 10 and 13), and near the top of the Paradox salt. Of the 56 faults identified from the seismic reflection interpretation, 33 trend northwest, west-northwest, or west, and most affect only the deeper part of the stratigraphic section. These faults are part of the deep structural system found throughout the Paradox Basin, including the fold and fault belt in the northeast part of the basin. The faults bound basement Precambrian blocks that experienced minor activity during Mississippian and early Pennsylvanian deposition, and showed major displacement during early Paradox salt deposition as the Paradox Basin subsided. Based on the seismic data, most of these faults appear to have an upward terminus between the top of the Mississippian and the salt interbed reflector

  8. Producing Information for Corine Database by Using Classification Method: a Case Study of Sazlidere Basin, Istanbul (United States)

    Sarıyılmaz, F. B.; Musaoğlu, N.; Uluğtekin, N.


    The Sazlidere Basin is located on the European side of Istanbul within the borders of Arnavutkoy and Basaksehir districts. The total area of the basin, which is largely located within the province of Arnavutkoy, is approximately 177 km2. The Sazlidere Basin is faced with intense urbanization pressures and land use / cover change due to the Northern Marmara Motorway, 3rd airport and Channel Istanbul Projects, which are planned to be realized in the Arnavutkoy region. Due to the mentioned projects, intense land use /cover changes occur in the basin. In this study, 2000 and 2012 dated LANDSAT images were supervised classified based on CORINE Land Cover first level to determine the land use/cover classes. As a result, four information classes were identified. These classes are water bodies, forest and semi-natural areas, agricultural areas and artificial surfaces. Accuracy analysis of the images were performed following the classification process. The supervised classified images that have the smallest mapping units 0.09 ha and 0.64 ha were generalized to be compatible with the CORINE Land Cover data. The image pixels have been rearranged by using the thematic pixel aggregation method as the smallest mapping unit is 25 ha. These results were compared with CORINE Land Cover 2000 and CORINE Land Cover 2012, which were obtained by digitizing land cover and land use classes on satellite images. It has been determined that the compared results are compatible with each other in terms of quality and quantity.

  9. Paleoenvironmental evolution and geomorphic dynamics recorded in the Homo-bearing Pleistocene stratigraphic succession of Aalat (Eritrea, East Africa): A pedological perspective (United States)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Mercatante, Giuseppe; Donato, Paola; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Carnevale, Giorgio; Delfino, Massimo; Oms, Oriol; Papini, Mauro; Pavia, Marco; Sani, Federico; Rook, Lorenzo


    The Aalat stratigraphic succession represents a 300 m-thick continental archive in the northern sector of the African Rift Valley (Dandiero basin, Eritrea). Based on high-resolution magnetostratigraphy, along with tephrostratigrapic, paleontological and paleoanthropological data and correlations, the chronological constraints for the emplacement of this succession can be fixed at two stages characterized by normal polarity of the Earth's magnetic field, i.e. the base of the Jaramillo event and the lower part of the Brunhes chron, marking the Early to Middle Pleistocene transition. Remains of Homo erectus/ergaster and abundant fossil vertebrates were identified. Despite nowadays the study area has a typical arid, hot desert climate, the sedimentary succession records repeated shifts from fluvial to lacustrine facies, in line with dominant mammalian taxa characterized by strong water dependence and ichthyofauna typical of shallow-water fluvio-lacustrine paleoenvironments. The dominance of these water-controlled depositional environments over more than 250 ka suggests a major tectonic control, even though a clear overprinting of Pleistocene climate changes can be detected. The main morphological soil features, along with physico-chemical, mineralogical, geochemical and micromorphological data of selected soil profiles and horizons depict an overall poor to moderate degree of soil development, coherently with high rates of sedimentation of about 1 mm/year and local erosive phases. Nonetheless, the presence of calcic and especially petrocalcic horizons and one petrogypsic horizon at different stratigraphic heights clearly indicates cyclical phases of geomorphic stability, which allowed important leaching and accumulation of carbonate (or gypsum). Their complex, polygenetic fabric, often showing brecciation and re-dissolution features, points to a polyphased genesis, caused by changes in soil moisture conditions over time. This finding, together with the alternation of

  10. Active tectonics of NE Gujarat (India) by morphometric and morphostructural studies of Vatrak River basin (United States)

    Raj, Rachna


    Landscape owes its shape to the combination of tectonic and climatic forces. Differential displacement of land by tectonic processes changes the elevation of earth's surface locally and in turn affects the rate of geomorphic processes which are altitude dependent. The tectonic and geomorphic processes are very tightly coupled and their results are intertwined. To extract the tectonic signal, the numerical modelling of the landscape of the Vatrak River basin, part of which falls in the northern part of the Gujarat Alluvial Plains of western India, has been undertaken applying morphometric and morphostructural approach. The study helped in understanding the role of tectonic elements in the evolution of the basin. Demarcation of geomorphic indicators of active tectonics (which include the analyses of asymmetry factor, valley floor ratio, gradient, basin elongation ratio, long profile and related parameters, pseudo hypsometric integral, drainage basin asymmetry), drainage pattern analysis and azimuthal distribution of stream channels have been performed for each drainage network and associated basin. The morphological field evidence of tectonics combined with the results of morphometric analysis has been used to obtain information about the orientation of tectonic elements and the possible reconstruction of their activity in recent times. The analyses indicate eastward tilting of the drainage systems, strong asymmetry in some reaches, pronounced elongation of certain tributaries, long profiles indicating base level lowering, poor organisation of the hydrographic network, and close alignment between lower order streams and active faults. All these analyses point towards the active tectonism in the area. Data obtained through the statistical analysis of preferred stream orientations confirm that the old tectonic directions markedly influenced the drainage network development of the older order streams, whereas, streams of lower order which preferentially follow the N

  11. Preservation of REE and Fe isotopes in altered stromatolites and the paleo-environmental record (United States)

    Nies, S. M.; Shapiro, R. S.; Lalonde, S.


    Geochemical proxies are increasingly being used to unravel ancient ecosystems and environmental perturbations back to the earliest rock record on Earth. Along with more traditional fossils (stromatolites) and other biosignatures (e.g., lipids), the geochemical record is used specifically to evaluate biogenecity and to understand oxygenation of the atmosphere and ocean in the Archean and Paleoproterozoic. However, the effects of diagenesis, metamorphism, and other modes of secondary alteration are still poorly constrained, particularly as technological advances allow us to expand farther across the periodic table. Our study focused on the robustness and preservation of rare earth element (REE) and Fe isotope compositions of two stromatolitic units that have undergone contact and regional metamorphism. 18 samples were collected from cores, open pit mines, and field locations in Minnesota and Ontario from silicified iron formation (Biwabik-Gunflint formations). The samples were carefully constrained to one of two meter-scale stromatolitic units. Metamorphic grade ranged from essentially unmetamorphosed through prehnite-pumpellyite up to amphibolite (fayalite+hypersthene). Samples were also collected that represented deep secondary weathering, likely related to Cretaceous climatic extremes. Polished samples were first analyzed by electron microprobe and selected samples were further analyzed via laser ablation HR-ICP-MS to constrain trace element (n=13) and Fe isotopic variations (n=8). Preliminary results indicate that transition metal concentrations are surprisingly resilient to high-temperature metamorphic recrystallization. REE concentrations were analyzed in individual iron oxide grains, with full resolution (La to Lu) achieved for some samples and partial resolution (La to Nd) achieved for all samples. Core samples exhibited a relatively stable positive Ce anomaly occurring from low to extremely high alteration. Outcrop and mine samples indicate a shift from a

  12. New insights in postglacial paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental changes in Central Europe derived from isotope analyses of laminated lake sediments and peat deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, B.; Schwark, L.; Zink, K.G.; Buhay, W.M.; Lechterbeck, J.


    Isotope ratio determinations in concert with geochemical and palynological analyses performed on material from German continental archives (lake sediments, peat cores) provided information about paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental changes in Central Europe throughout the last 15,000 years. Oxygen isotope ratio variations of (i) bulk carbonates from lake sediments (Lake Steisslingen) and of (ii) cellulose extracted from peat cores suggest the following climatic trends: an early postglacial climate optimum in the Boelling; a distinct cooling phase during the Younger Dryas; an early Holocene warming period in the Preboreal; another warming phase in the Boreal leading into the mid-Holocene warm period; a gradual decrease of mean annual air temperatures since the mid- Holocene warm period. Evaluation of other isotopic proxy data in concert with geochemical and palynological information revealed that the above-described climatic variations in Central Europe triggered marked paleoenvironmental changes in the study region between the Boelling and the onset of the mid-Holocene warm period. Elevated organic carbon contents in lake sediments and increasing δ 13 C values of organic carbon were typically associated with climatic warm phases and seem to indicate enhanced in-lake productivity. Pollen counts and biomarker data suggest a predominance of Betula during climatic warm phases and a predominance of Pinus during colder periods. The Mid Younger Dryas event was observable in pollen and biomarker data, but oxygen isotope ratios of bulk carbonates from Lake Steisslingen did not record temperature variations at that time. The data presented for the chronozones Bolling through Boreal provide evidence that the elucidation of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental variations on our continents can benefit greatly from a joint interpretation of isotope analyses, palynological evidence, and inorganic and organic geochemistry data derived from continental archives. (author)

  13. Probabilistic evaluation of the water footprint of a river basin: Accounting method and case study in the Segura River Basin, Spain. (United States)

    Pellicer-Martínez, Francisco; Martínez-Paz, José Miguel


    In the current study a method for the probabilistic accounting of the water footprint (WF) at the river basin level has been proposed and developed. It is based upon the simulation of the anthropised water cycle and combines a hydrological model and a decision support system. The methodology was carried out in the Segura River Basin (SRB) in South-eastern Spain, and four historical scenarios were evaluated (1998-2010-2015-2027). The results indicate that the WF of the river basin reached 5581 Mm 3 /year on average in the base scenario, with a high variability. The green component (3231 Mm 3 /year), mainly generated by rainfed crops (62%), was responsible for the great variability of the WF. The blue WF (1201 Mm 3 /year) was broken down into surface water (56%), renewable groundwater (20%) and non-renewable groundwater (24%), and it showed the generalized overexploitation of aquifers. Regarding the grey component (1150 Mm 3 /year), the study reveals that wastewater, especially phosphates (90%), was the main culprit producing water pollution in surface water bodies. The temporal evolution of the four scenarios highlighted the successfulness of the water treatment plans developed in the river basin, with a sharp decrease in the grey WF, as well as the stability of the WF and its three components in the future. So, the accounting of the three components of the WF in a basin was integrated into the management of water resources, it being possible to predict their evolution, their spatial characterisation and even their assessment in probabilistic terms. Then, the WF was incorporated into the set of indicators that usually is used in water resources management and hydrological planning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A baseline limnological study of Wagendrift Dam (Thukela basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basic features of the physical and biological limnology of Wagendrift Dam, a moderately large impoundment on the Boesmans River, were studied between July 1989 and May 1990. This man-made lake showed a typical monomictic pattern of summer stratification (November through April) and holomictic winter circulation ...

  15. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment survey (NURE). Preliminary report on the Smoke Creek Desert Basin pilot study (Nevada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) is conducting a hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment survey in the seven western states as part of ERDA's National Uranium Resources Evaluation (NURE) Program. The objective of this survey is to develop a geochemical data base for use by the private sector to locate regions of anomalous uranium content. Prior to wide area coverage, several pilot studies are being undertaken to develop and evaluate sampling and analytical techniques. The second through fifth of these studies were conducted in four playa basins in Nevada, selected to represent different regional geology and uranium occurrence. This study in the Smoke Creek Desert Basin, characterizes igneous surface geology with known uranium occurrences. The Smoke Creek Desert Basin is the largest of the four playa basins and contains an areaof about 2700 square kilometers (1003 square miles). The basin is bordered on the east by the Fox Hills and on the north and east by the Granite Ranges which are characterized by granite, pegmatites, and Tertiary rocks very similar to the lithology of the Winnemucca Basin boundary ranges (study UCID-16911-P-2). On the west the Desert is bordered by an area of extensive basalt flow. There is no known uranium occurrence in the area, and metallization of any kind is scarce. This study is applicable to the western igneous portion of the Basin and Range Province which includes southeastern Oregon, western Nevada, and southeastern California. This report contains only analytical data and sample locations

  16. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: California GAMA Priority Basin Project (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth


    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile (1,639-square-kilometer) Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The study unit is composed of two study areas (Interior Basins and Coastal Basins) and is located in northern California in Napa, Sonoma, Lake, Colusa, Mendocino, Glenn, Humboldt, and Del Norte Counties. The GAMA-PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the USGS and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  17. Regional summary and recommended study areas for the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarizes the regional geologic and environmental characterizations that have been completed for the Permian region of study, and describes the procedure used to identify study areas for the next phase of investigation. The factors evaluated in the Permian region fall into three broad areas: health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic, and engineering and economic considerations. Health and safety considerations included salt depth and thickness, faults, seismic activity, groundwater, salt dissolution, energy and mineral resources, presence of boreholes, and interactive land uses. Salt depth and thickness was the key health and safety factor, and when mapped, provded to be a discriminator. The evaluation of environmental and socioeconomic conditions focused primarily on the presence of urban areas and on designated land uses such as parks, wildlife areas, and historic sites. Engineering and economic considerations centered primarily on salt depth, which was already evaluated in the health and safety area. The Palo Duro and Dalhart basins are recommended for future studies on the basis of geology. In these two basins, salt depth and thickness appear promising, and there is less likelihood of past or future oil and gas exploratory holes. Environmental and socioeconomic factors did not preclude any of the basins from further study. 66 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  18. Genesee River Basin Study. Volume 1. Main Report. (United States)


    consideration because of lack of economic justification. These projects are: The Red Creek Project (Plate 4.1) in Brighton and Henrietta , was deauthorized...deauthorized due to a lack of economic justification. This report presents the considered alternatives and resulting recommendations. SECTION I...consideration because of lack of economic justification, or because of their failure to achieve the primary water resource needs considered. 1-4 STUDY

  19. Retrospective Case Study in the Raton Basin, Colorado, Study of hte Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources. (United States)

    This report describes the retrospective case study that was conducted in the Colorado portion of the Raton Basin, located within Las Animas and Huerfano counties. These locations are the focus of unconventional gas production of coalbed methane (CBM) from several coal-bearing st...

  20. Estimation of flow components by recursive filters: case study of Paracatu River Basin (SF-7), Brazil


    Renato Moreira Hadad; Paulo Pereira Martins Junior; Vitor Vieira Vasconcelos


    The quantification of flow components is important for water resource management. The base, interflow, and runoff flows of nested basins of the Paracatu River (SF-7) were estimated with recursive signal filters in this study. At first, stationary analysis and multivariate gap filling were applied to the flow data. A methodology is presented, proposing filter calibration with the runoff influence and inflection of the recession curve for dry season. Filters are improved with a logic constraint...

  1. Isotope hydrology study of Kalamos region (Attiki) and of the Assopos river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontiadis, J.L.


    The isotopic composition of the water was used to determine the mechanism of recharge of the Assopos river basin and that of the Kalamos springs issuing brackish water near the coast. The results of the study permitted the catchment of the water before its salinization. A quantity of 73000 m 3 per day is now pumped and used as additional drinkable water for the major area of Athens covering about the 1/6 of the corresponding mean daily consumption. (T.A.)

  2. Visual aesthetics study: Gibson Dome area, Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Visual Aesthetics study was performed as an initial assessment of concerns regarding impacts to visual resources that might be associated with the construction of a geologic nuclear waste repository and associated rail routes in the Gibson Dome location of southeastern Utah. Potential impacts to visual resources were evaluated by predicting visibility of the facility and railway routes using the US Forest Service (USFS) computer program, VIEWIT, and by applying the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Visual Resource Management (VRM) methodology. Five proposed facility sites in the Gibson Dome area and three proposed railway routes were evaluated for visual impact. 10 references, 19 figures, 5 tables

  3. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Arkoma Basin, Kansas Basins, and Midcontinent Rift Basin study areas: Chapter F in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources (United States)

    Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Phillip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.


    2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. This methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of three storage assessment units (SAUs) in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Arkoma Basin study area, and two SAUs in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Kansas Basins study area. The Arkoma Basin and Kansas Basins are adjacent with very similar geologic units; although the Kansas Basins area is larger, the Arkoma Basin is more structurally complex. The report focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in the SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are usually provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information herein was employed, as specified in the USGS methodology, to calculate a probabilistic distribution of potential storage resources in each SAU. The Midcontinent Rift Basin study area was not assessed, because no suitable storage formations meeting our size, depth, reservoir quality, and regional seal guidelines were found. Figures in this report show study area boundaries along with the SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one-square mile and are

  4. Landslide Frequency and Failure Mechanisms at NE Gela Basin (Strait of Sicily) (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J.; Asioli, A.; Trincardi, F.; Klügel, A.; Huhn, K.


    Despite intense research by both academia and industry, the parameters controlling slope stability at continental margins are often speculated upon. Lack of core recovery and age control on failed sediments prevent the assessment of failure timing/frequency and the role of prefailure architecture as shaped by paleoenvironmental changes. This study uses an integrated chronological framework from two boreholes and complementary ultrahigh-resolution acoustic profiling in order to assess (1) the frequency of submarine landsliding at the continental margin of NE Gela Basin and (2) the associated mechanisms of failure. Accurate age control was achieved through absolute radiocarbon dating and indirect dating relying on isotope stratigraphic and micropaleontological reconstructions. A total of nine major slope failure events have been recognized that occurred within the last 87 kyr ( 10 kyr return frequency), though there is evidence for additional syndepositional, small-scaled transport processes of lower volume. Preferential failure involves translational movement of mudflows along subhorizontal surfaces that are induced by sedimentological changes relating to prefailure stratal architecture. Along with sequence-stratigraphic boundaries reflecting paleoenvironmental fluctuations, recovered core material suggests that intercalated volcaniclastic layers are key to the basal confinement and lateral movement of these events in the study area. Another major predisposing factor is given by rapid loading of fine-grained homogenous strata and successive generation of excess pore pressure, as expressed by several fluid escape structures. Recurrent failure, however, requires repeated generation of favorable conditions, and seismic activity, though low if compared to many other Mediterranean settings, is shown to represent a legitimate trigger mechanism.

  5. Powder River Basin Coalbed Methane Development and Produced Water Management Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Coalbed methane resources throughout the entire Powder River Basin were reviewed in this analysis. The study was conducted at the township level, and as with all assessments conducted at such a broad level, readers must recognize and understand the limitations and appropriate use of the results. Raw and derived data provided in this report will not generally apply to any specific location. The coal geology in the basin is complex, which makes correlation with individual seams difficult at times. Although more than 12,000 wells have been drilled to date, large areas of the Powder River Basin remain relatively undeveloped. The lack of data obviously introduces uncertainty and increases variability. Proxies and analogs were used in the analysis out of necessity, though these were always based on sound reasoning. Future development in the basin will make new data and interpretations available, which will lead to a more complete description of the coals and their fluid flow properties, and refined estimates of natural gas and water production rates and cumulative recoveries. Throughout the course of the study, critical data assumptions and relationships regarding gas content, methane adsorption isotherms, and reservoir pressure were the topics of much discussion with reviewers. A summary of these discussion topics is provided as an appendix. Water influx was not modeled although it is acknowledged that this phenomenon may occur in some settings. As with any resource assessment, technical and economic results are the product of the assumptions and methodology used. In this study, key assumptions as well as cost and price data, and economic parameters are presented to fully inform readers. Note that many quantities shown in various tables have been subject to rounding; therefore, aggregation of basic and intermediate quantities may differ from the values shown

  6. Application of Discriminant Analysis for Studying the Source Rock Potential of Probable Formations in the Lorestan Basin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Negahdari


    Full Text Available Understanding the performance and role of each formation in a petroleum play is crucial for the efficient and precise exploration and exploitation of trapped hydrocarbons in a sedimentary basin. The Lorestan basin is one of the most important hydrocarbon basins of Iran, and it includes various oil-prone potential source rocks and reservoir rocks. Previous geochemical studies of the basin were not accurate and there remain various uncertainties about the potential of the probable source rocks of the basin. In the present research, the geochemical characteristics of four probable source rocks of the Lorestan basin are studied using Rock-Eval pyrolysis and discriminant analysis. In achieving this goal, several discriminant functions are defined to evaluate the discriminant factor for the division of samples into two groups. The function with the highest discriminant factor was selected for the classification of probable source rocks into two groups: weak and strong. Among the studied formations, Garau and Pabdeh had the richest and poorest source rocks of the Lorestan basin, respectively. The comparison of the obtained results with the previous literature shows that the proposed model is more reliable for the recognition of the richness of source rock in the area.

  7. Geomechanical wellbore stability modeling of exploratory wells - study case at middle Magdalena basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvajal Jimenez, Jenny Mabel; Valera Lara, Luz Carime; Rueda, Alexander; Saavedra Trujillo, Nestor Fernando


    This paper presents the geomechanical wellbore stability modal of an exploratory well sited of middle Magdalena basin (MMB), which is based on the validity of linear elastic deformational theory for porous media; the use of correlations and field tools such as well and image logs to indirect determination of mechanical properties and stress state, additionally, it is shown the modal calibration and validation using drilling events which occurred at other previously drilled wells in the study area, of the exploratory well itself and experimentally evaluated mechanical properties on outcrop and core samples from the basin formations. this application allowed the Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo (ICP) of ECOPETROL S.A. to formally perform the geomechanical modeling of Colombian formations and to accomplish a complete and appropriate methodology to do so; such methodology has been standardized as part of the drilling support process of ECOPETROL S.A., supplying the possibility for taking decisions that contribute to reduce drilling costs and risks during operations

  8. Elements for an integrated resource planning in the framework of river basins: a study for the Cuiaba River Basin; Elementos para um planejamento integrado de recursos no ambito de bacias hidrograficas: um estudo para a bacia do rio Cuiaba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorileo, Ivo Leandro; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Dept. de Energia], e-mail:, e-mail:


    A new approach in energy planning in Brazil, IRP - Integrated Resources Planning for River Basins, gathers three main determinants of development: water, electricity and piped gas. This paper argues, briefly, the need of this planning, of indicative character, integrated with the River Basin Plans, and it presents a retrospective analysis concerning water, electricity and LPG demands of the economy sectors from Cuiaba River Basin region, priority elements to aid the prospective studies and to carry out process related to the IRP. (author)

  9. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy study of organic rich sediment (source rocks) from test well K-263 of Cambay Basin, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Amita [J.N.V. University Jodhpur, Department of Physics (India); Kulshreshtha, Abhijit [Jodhpur Engineering College and Research Center (India); Patel, K. R. [J.N.V. University Jodhpur, Department of Physics (India); Sharma, Y. K. [University of Rajasthan, Department of Physics (India); Tripathi, R. P., E-mail: [J.N.V. University Jodhpur, Department of Physics (India)


    {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy study was carried out on the samples collected from different depth interval of a representative well K-263 of the North Cambay basin (India). The results obtained were compared with the basins already studied. Comparison show that general trend of relative distribution of iron containing minerals as a function of depth for well K-263 is more or less similar to that reported for Eastern Krishna Godavari Basin. Interestingly both these basins have similar hydrocarbon prospecting (hence nature of organic content) also. On the other hand we found that distribution pattern of iron minerals of Cambay basin is markedly different from the basins (viz North Sea and Jaisalmer) having different prospecting and organic properties in comparison to Cambay Basin. So some correlation exists between distribution of iron minerals and prospects of a basin.

  10. Integral study of the quantity and quality of the underground water in the Santa Lucia basin in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This work study different aspects about the underground water in the Santa Lucia sedimentary basin in Uruguay. It is situated between the San Jose and Santa Lucia river as well as the adyacent Rio de La Plata coast.

  11. Phase I Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (904-83G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)


    This report presents the completed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study (CMS/FS) for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (LAOCB)/L-Area Acid Caustic Basin (9LAACB) Solid Waste Management Unit/Operable Unit (SWMU/OU) at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  12. Preliminary study of the uranium potential of the Wadesboro Triassic basin, North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, P.A.; Harris, W.B.


    This report presents results of a four-channel spectrometric survey of the Wadesboro Triassic basin and adjacent Piedmont, North and South Carolina. A total of 216 gamma-ray spectrometric measurements was taken at 165 sites in the Wadesboro Basin and at 37 sites in the adjacent Piedmont. The normal sampling density in the Wadesboro Basin is one site per 4.5 km 2 . Surface radiometric surveys reveal no anomalous radioactivity. Estimated uranium concentrations (eU) from the area are from 0.1 to 4.9 ppM. Average eU content of Triassic sandstones is 1.5 ppM, which is nearly the average for adjacent metavolcanic rocks (1.6 ppM). Granitic intrusives of the Pageland and Lilesville plutons display the highest eU concentrations in the area, averaging 3.3 ppM. The uranium/thorium ratio is consistently low throughout the area, from 0.01 to 0.54; the log uranium/log thorium ratio is from -1.11 to a maximum of 0.66. Triassic sandstones have the highest values, averaging 0.25. Granites of the Pageland and Lilesville plutons have an average uranium/thorium ratio of 0.21, and Slate Belt metavolcanic rocks average 0.15. On the basis of surface radiometric surveys and geologic studies, it is believed that sedimentary strata of the Wadesboro Basin are poor targets for further uranium exploration. This conclusion is based on the lack of many favorable characteristics associated with fluvial uranium deposits

  13. Paleomagnetic Study of the Devonian Reef Complexes of the Canning Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Yan, M.; Tohver, E.; Cawood, P. A.; Kirschvink, J.; Peek, S.; Playton, T.; Hocking, R.; Haines, P.; Montgomery, P.


    The reef systems in the Canning Basin, Western Australia perhaps are the best exposed and least deformed examples of ancient reef systems known in the world. The recently commenced multi-disciplinary research project in the Devonian reef complex of the Canning Basin is a broad investigation of the depositional history of a carbonate platform using paleomagnetic, stable isotope geochemistry (inorganic and organic), sedimentology, and biostratigraphy. By focusing on the world-class exposures in the Canning Basin, this project seeks to provide a global stratigraphic reference frame for key intervals in life history such as the Frasnian-Fammenian mass extinction event, as well as providing a useful analogue for resource models of other carbonate reef systems elsewhere in the world. This reference frame will consist of a high resolution magnetostratigraphic profile to supplement the presently-sparse Global Polarity Timescale (GPTS) for the Devonian, as well as a chemostratigraphic profile (chiefly carbon isotopes) to identify possible shifts in the global carbon budget associated with biotic crises and/or climate change. Additional goals include identification of the conditions leading up to, and possible causes of the mass extinction event, and testing for a possible mid-Paleozoic episode of True Polar Wander. We report here on a paleomagnetic study of two magnetostratigraphic sections in the Canning Basin to address the goals mentioned above. Paleomagnetic samples have been drilled on the Late Frasnian limestones in the north of the Windjana Gorge National Park, with a total number of 400 core samples. So far preliminary paleomagnetic analysis on pilot samples reveals two characteristic remanent components. One component has a blocking temperatures less than 400 degree Celsius, probably a component of secondary overprint; another component has a blocking temperature around 580 and around 680 degree Celsius, indicating the presence of magnetite and hematite

  14. Simulating Water Resource Disputes of Transboundary River: A Case Study of the Zhanghe River Basin, China (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; He, Weijun; Liao, Zaiyi; Mulugeta Degefu, Dagmawi; An, Min; Zhang, Zhaofang


    Water resource disputes within transboundary river basin has been hindering the sustainable use of water resources and efficient management of environment. The problem is characterized by a complex information feedback loop that involves socio-economic and environmental systems. This paper presents a system dynamics based model that can simulate the dynamics of water demand, water supply, water adequacy and water allocation instability within a river basin. It was used for a case study in the Zhanghe River basin of China. The base scenario has been investigated for the time period between 2000 and 2050. The result shows that the Chinese national government should change the water allocation scheme of downstream Zhanghe River established in 1989, more water need to be allocated to the downstream cities and the actual allocation should be adjusted to reflect the need associated with the socio-economic and environmental changes within the region, and system dynamics improves the understanding of concepts and system interactions by offering a comprehensive and integrated view of the physical, social, economic, environmental, and political systems.

  15. Tidal River Management (TRM and Tidal Basin Management (TBM: A case study on Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talchabhadel Rocky


    Full Text Available Bangladesh is the biggest delta of the world. Construction of numbers of polders is one of the flood resilient approach. But the presence of coastal polders de-linked the flood plain. The siltation in river causes riverbeds to become higher than the adjacent crop lands, and vast area under the polders became permanently water logged rendering large tract of land uncultivable. The current practice is temporarily de-poldering by cutting embankment. This is a natural water management process with very little human interventions but it needs strong participation and consensus with a great deal of sacrifice by the stakeholders for a specific period (3 to 5 years or even more[1]. An attempt has been made to study the phenomena of tidal basin management reviewing some secondary data and processes involved in successfully operated tidal basins of Bangladesh. And preliminary laboratory experiments are carried out to precisely look into the suspended sediment transport. With varying outflow discharge and sediment supply, the transport processes are investigated. 3D sediment transport model developed using openFOAM has good agreement with experimental result and can be used to better understand effectiveness of tidal basin management.

  16. An experimental study on single basin solar still augmented with evacuated tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar K.


    Full Text Available The productivity of the solar still is determined by the temperature of water in the basin and the glass temperature. Various active methods have been adopted to increase the temperature of the basin, so as to improve the productivity of solar still. Most of the previous research works have been focusing on flat plate collector and concentrating collector. In this experimental study, a single slope solar still directly augmented with evacuated tubes was used to increase the daily productivity by reducing heat losses. Evacuated tubes were directly coupled to the lower side of the single slope solar still with an area of 1m2. Black gravel is used to increase the productivity by means of reducing quantity of water in the basin. Extensive experiments were conducted to explore the performance of solar still in several modes namely still alone, still with black stones, still with evacuated tubes, and still with evacuated tubes and black gravel. The experimental setup was designed and installed at Solar Energy Park, Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Coimbatore (77˚E, 11˚N, Tamilnadu, India. These experiments were conducted using tap water as feed. It was found that, after augmentation of the evacuated tubes, the daily production rate has increased by 49.7 % and it increased by 59.48% with black stones. Economic analysis was also done and payback period of this experimental setup is 235 days.

  17. Ecosystem studies, endangered species survey - Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge study areas, Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report is published as a product of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. The objective of this program is the development of terminal waste storage facilities in deep stable geologic formations for high-level nuclear wastes, including spent fuel elements from commercial power reactors and transuranic nuclear waste for which the federal government is responsible. This report is part of the location and site characterization phase and contains threatened and endangered species information for the Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge study areas of the Paradox Region. The threatened and endangered species information was obtained through site surveys designed and implemented by area experts. The site surveys were performed during the period late summer 1981 - spring 1982 in the Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge Study Areas. No threatened or endangered species were identified in either Lavender or Davis canyons. Additional studies at the borehole locations in Beef Basin did identify the nearest occurrence of a species proposed for endangered status (Astragalus monumentalis, a monument milkvetch, member of the legume family). The species was identified approximately 160 to 300 m (500 to 1000 ft) from a hydro testing drill site. Consequently, construction and operation activity should not cause any adverse impacts. This report will be used to satisfy Section 7 requirements of the Endangered Species Act (PL 93-205 as amended) and to allow the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to verify that no protected species are subject to disturbance as the result of project activities occurring in the Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge study areas

  18. Importance of isotope hydrology techniques in water resources management: A case study of the Makutupora basin in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senguji, F.H.


    Makutupora groundwater basin has been the main source of water supply for Dodoma town since 1950s. the water is mainly used for domestic water supply to over one million inhabitants, for industrial purposes and livestock watering. Conventional hydrogeological investigations have been carried out in the basin to gather information on the groundwater potential of the basin to meet the ever-increasing demand for water. However, firm conclusions could not be reached with conventional methods. This paper highlights on the isotope techniques applied in an integrated manner with conventional hydrogeological methods to study the groundwater regime of the Makutupora basin. Results of isotope techniques have provided adequate information on recharge locations, recharge rates and age of groundwater in the basin, that is very important and open up prospects for further investigations using isotope techniques. The ongoing investigation in the basin regarding pollution and depletion of the groundwater resource, has not succeeded in defining specific pumping limits or groundwater protection zones. Isotope data are sought to provide a clear basis for regulatory and future groundwater management in the Makutupora basin. (author)

  19. Paleoclimatic variations in Maknassy Basin (central Tunisia) during the Holocene period using multidisciplinary approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouari, K.; Chkir, N.; Ouda, B.


    The signature of humid climatic episodes in the Holocene paleoclimatic history of Tunisia are evident in outcroppings along riverbanks almost all over the Tunisian drainage network. Previous multidisciplinary studies have already identified some sites where these remnants can contribute valuable information for reconstruction of paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic variations in the presently hyper-arid zone of the Northern Sahara. Sedimentary deposits outcropping on Wadi Leben and Wadi Ben Sellam banks, in the Maknassy Basin (Central Tunisia), have been sampled. Multidisciplinary studies, including prehistory, sedimentology, mineralogy, ecology and radiochronology have been conducted to improve palaeoenvironmental interpretations and to determine a precise chronological history of humid episodes during the Holocene in Tunisia. This paper deals with the interpretation of results obtained from the Maknassy Basin in comparison with some other Tunisian sites in order to highlight Holocene humid episodes. Establishment of a precise chronological framework is prerequisite to exploring potential relationships between the occurrence of humid phases and recharge of aquifers located in this area. (author)

  20. Integrated interpretation to improve subsalt imaging: a case study from the Nordkapp Basin, Norwegian Barents Sea (United States)

    Olaf Müller, Christian; Brönner, Marco; Götze, Hans-Jürgen


    Seismic imaging of subsalt structures is still a difficult task and remaining uncertanties in the salt geometries makes exploration in the vicinity of such complex structures challenging. Gravity and magnetic data have proofed in the past their potential in combination with seismics to better delineate the shape of such salt structures. The current work deals with the improvement of subsalt imaging by combined interpretation of seismic and potential field data examined at a case study from the southern Nordkapp Basin. The Nordkapp Basin is a deep, narrow saliferous basin located in the southwestern Barents Sea. It comprises more than 30 salt diapirs, which are likely to create traps for hydrocarbons at their flanks and overhangs. Consequently exploration of the Nordkapp Basin with seismic methods started already in the 1980s, but until today solely seismics was not sufficient to reveal the nature and geometry for large parts of the basin. Therefore 2D and 3D seismic data were interpreted and used as stratigraphic constraints for the potential field modeling. For this purpose high resolution gravity and full tensor gravity gradient (FTG) data as well as a regional magnetic dataset were available. After processing the potential field data the 3D modeling was conducted by means of the interactive gravity and magnetic modeling software IGMAS+. Furthermore constraints for the rock properties, provided by well logs and susceptibility measurements of adjacent sedimentary well cores, were integrated. The favoured models indicate for both major salt structures a bulky base and a small root. The depth of the base of salt can vary in a range of about ± 300 m. Remaining mother salt is found in the northern part of the survey area and has no connection to the diapiric salt. Due to its higher sensibility to shallower sources the FTG data was used to model the flanks of the salt diapirs. In agreement with adjacent diapirs and encountered sequences a cap rock coverage was

  1. Preliminary results on quaternary studies from Bajestan Basin (Kavir-e Namak), Iran (United States)

    Majid Padashi, Seyed; Büdel, Christian; Ullmann, Tobias; Tintrup, Angela; Baumhauer, Roland


    The increasing population and demand for developing infrastructures on the one hand, and the recent issues on water and air quality on the other hand, in addition to droughts and the shrinking of many wetlands and lakes, have encouraged Iran recently to invest more in palaeoenvironmental research - specifically on quaternary basins. Preliminary results of our study through field work, satellite imagery processing, SRTM data analysis and drilling, have created new insights on the Iranian playas and the history of the lakes. A combined geological and geomorphological approach for studying young lakes and playas of Iran has led to the identification of at least five major types of lakes and playas in different parts of Iran; for example the Bajestan basin which ranks the second biggest playa of Iran, is placed in the edge of the central Iranian microplate and Lut structural block. The Bajestan Playa (Kavir-e Namak) is surrounded by cretaceous limestones in the south and Paleozoic formations in the north. The basin comprises several kinds of quaternary deposits including sand dunes and Aeolian deposits, fluvial sediments, alluvial fans and lake sediments. The aeolian activity in the basin is primarily shaping landforms in the southwest and the north of the area. The major fluvial activity is considered to be driven from east and south of the playa. The integration of field observations and data derived from the analysis of SRTM digital elevation model (90m) and Landsat satellite imagery shows that the major part of the playa has flat slope. In addition, the morphometric assessment and the hydrological modelling showed that the major current alluvial channels have SW/NE trend with the highest density and intensity of activity in south west of the basin. The major alluvial deposits in the north and south of the playa represent a dissimilar geomorphology. While the northern part of the basin, from the rock unit outcrops to the edge of playa, is occupied by a narrow

  2. Groundwater quality studies: A Case study of the Densu Basin, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater samples from 68 communities within the Densu basin were sampled and analysed over a period of 1 year for various physico-chemical water quality parameters using appropriate certified and acceptable international procedures, in order to assess the water types as well as the suitability of groundwater within ...

  3. Paleoenvironmental Implications of Clay Minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Bristow, Thomas F.; Blake, David F.


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity spent approx 150 sols at Yellowknife Bay (YKB) studying a section of fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary rocks (with potential indications of volcanic influence), informally known as the Yellowknife Bay formation. YKB lies in a distal region of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan, which extends from the northern rim of Gale Crater toward the dune field at the base of Mt Sharp. Sedimentological and stratigraphic observations are consistent with the Yellowknife Bay formation being part of a distal fan deposit, which could be as young as middle Hesperian to even early Amazonian in age (approx. 3.5 to 2.5 Ga). The Yellowknife Bay formation hosts a unit of mudstone called the Sheepbed member. Curiosity obtained powdered rock samples from two drill holes in the Sheepbed Member, named John Klein and Cumberland, and delivered them to instruments in Curiosity. Data from CheMin, a combined X-ray diffraction (XRD)/X-ray fluorescence instrument (XRF), has allowed detailed mineralogical analysis of mudstone powders revealing a clay mineral component of approx. 20 wt.% in each sample. The clay minerals are important indicators of paleoenvironmental conditions and sensitive recorders of post-depositional alteration processes. The XRD pattern of John Klein reveals a 02l band consistent with a trioctahedral phyllosilicate. A broad peak at approx. 10A with a slight inflexion at approx. 12A indicates the presence of 2:1 type clay minerals in the John Klein sample. The trioctahedral nature of the clay minerals, breadth of the basal reflection, and presence of a minor component with larger basal spacing suggests that John Klein contains a trioctahedral smectite (probably saponite), whose interlayer is largely collapsed because of the low-humidity conditions. The XRD patterns show no evidence of corrensite (mixed-layer chlorite/smectite) or chlorite, which are typical diagenetic products of trioctahedral smectites when subjected to burial and

  4. Stable isotopes in modern ostrich eggshell: a calibration for paleoenvironmental applications in semi-arid regions of southern Africa (United States)

    Johnson, Beverly J.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Miller, Gifford H.


    An isotopic study of modern ostrich eggshell (OES) is presented as a calibration for terrestrial paleoenvironmental applications. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionations of OES were determined for various organic fractions of eggshell by measuring the isotopic ratios of modern OES samples collected from controlled settings (i.e., zoos and farms) and corresponding ostrich diet. These fractionations were used to evaluate the relationship between the isotope composition of OES laid by free-range birds living in South Africa and their environment. The carbon isotope composition of the total organic and inorganic fractions of OES were enriched by 2 and 16‰, respectively, relative to the diet. In natural settings, the δ 13C values of both the organic and inorganic fractions of OES reflected that of ambient vegetation, with a noted dietary preference for C 3 plants. The nitrogen isotope composition of the total organic fraction of OES was 3‰ enriched relative to the diet, and varied inversely with mean annual precipitation (MAP) in natural settings. A decrease in MAP of 100 mm was accompanied by an increase in δ 15N values of approximately 1‰. The oxygen isotope composition of the inorganic fraction of the OES varied linearly with that of the drinking water in controlled settings. However, in natural settings, the δ 18O of OES values were highly variable and are thought to be controlled primarily by the δ 18O of ingested plant leaf-water. The stability of the isotopic signal in the organic fraction of OES through geologic time was evaluated through a series of heating experiments. The δ 13C and δ 15N values of the total organic fraction of heated OES increased by less than 0.6 and 0.2‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, in spite of extensive diagenetic alteration and changes in the amino acid composition of the samples. The results of this study indicate that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of OES is relatively stable

  5. Geology and geohydrology of the east Texas Basin. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies (1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitler, C.W.; Agagu, O.K.; Basciano, J.M.


    The program to investigate the suitability of salt domes in the east Texas Basin for long-term nuclear waste repositories addresses the stability of specific domes for potential repositories and evaluates generically the geologic and hydrogeologic stability of all the domes in the region. Analysis during the second year was highlighted by a historical characterization of East Texas Basin infilling, the development of a model to explain the growth history of the domes, the continued studies of the Quaternary in East Texas, and a better understanding of the near-dome and regional hydrology of the basin. Each advancement represents a part of the larger integrated program addressing the critical problems of geologic and hydrologic stabilities of salt domes in the East Texas Basin

  6. Repeated fault rupture recorded by paleoenvironmental changes in a wetland sedimentary sequence ponded against the Alpine Fault, New Zealand (United States)

    Clark, K.; Berryman, K. R.; Cochran, U. A.; Bartholomew, T.; Turner, G. M.


    At Hokuri Creek, in south Westland, New Zealand, an 18 m thickness of Holocene sediments has accumulated against the upthrown side of the Alpine Fault. Recent fluvial incision has created numerous exposures of this sedimentary sequence. At a decimetre to metre scale there are two dominant types of sedimentary units: clastic-dominated, grey silt packages, and organic-dominated, light brown peaty-silt units. These units represent repeated alternations of the paleoenvironment due to fault rupture over the past 7000 years. We have located the event horizons within the sedimentary sequence, and identified evidence to support earthquake-driven paleoenvironmental change (rather than climatic variability), and developed a model of paleoenvironmental changes over a typical seismic cycle. To quantitatively characterise the sediments we use high resolution photography, x-ray imaging, magnetic-susceptibility and total carbon analysis. To understand the depositional environment we used diatom and pollen studies. The organic-rich units have very low magnetic susceptibility and density values, with high greyscale and high total carbon values. Diatoms indicate these units represent stable wetland environments with standing water and predominantly in-situ organic material deposition. The clastic-rich units are characterised by higher magnetic susceptibility and density values, with low greyscale and total carbon. The clastic-rich units represent environments of flowing water and deep pond settings that received predominantly catchment-derived silt and sand. The event horizon is located at the upper contact of the organic-rich horizons. The event horizon contact marks a drastic change in hydrologic regime as fault rupture changed the stream base level and there was a synchronous influx of clastic sediment as the catchment responded to earthquake shaking. During the interseismic period the flowing-water environment gradually stabilised and returned to an organic-rich wetland. Such

  7. Model study of the impacts of future climate change on the hydrology of Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin (United States)

    Masood, M.; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Hanasaki, N.; Takeuchi, K.


    The intensity, duration, and geographic extent of floods in Bangladesh mostly depend on the combined influences of three river systems, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM). In addition, climate change is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basins and might ultimately lead to more serious floods in Bangladesh. However, the assessment of climate change impacts on basin-scale hydrology by using well-constrained hydrologic modelling has rarely been conducted for GBM basins due to the lack of data for model calibration and validation. In this study, a macro-scale hydrologic model H08 has been applied regionally over the basin at a relatively fine grid resolution (10 km) by integrating the fine-resolution (~0.5 km) DEM data for accurate river networks delineation. The model has been calibrated via analyzing model parameter sensitivity and validated based on a long-term observed daily streamflow data. The impact of climate change on not only the runoff, but also the basin-scale hydrology including evapotranspiration, soil moisture and net radiation have been assessed in this study through three time-slice experiments; present-day (1979-2003), near-future (2015-2039) and far-future (2075-2099) periods. Results shows that, by the end of 21st century (a) the entire GBM basin is projected to be warmed by ~3°C (b) the changes of mean precipitation are projected to be +14.0, +10.4, and +15.2%, and the changes of mean runoff to be +14, +15, and +18% in the Brahmaputra, Ganges and Meghna basin respectively (c) evapotranspiration is predicted to increase significantly for the entire GBM basins (Brahmaputra: +14.4%, Ganges: +9.4%, Meghna: +8.8%) due to increased net radiation (Brahmaputra: +6%, Ganges: +5.9%, Meghna: +3.3%) as well as warmer air temperature. Changes of hydrologic variables will be larger in dry season (November-April) than that in wet season (May-October). Amongst three basins, Meghna shows the largest hydrological

  8. Integrated regional assessment of global climatic change. Lessons from the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Stewart J.


    This paper outlines the potential role integrated regional assessments of global climatic change scenarios could play in building better links between science and related policy concerns. The concept is illustrated through description of an ongoing case study from Canada-the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS). As part of the Government of Canada's Green Plan, the Global Warming Science Program includes a study of regional impacts of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, located in northwestern Canada. The MBIS is a six-year program focussing on potential climate-induced changes in the land and water resource base, and the implications of four scenarios of global climatic change on land use and economic policies in this region. These policy issues include interjurisdictional water management, sustainability of native lifestyles, economic development opportunities (agriculture, forestry, tourism, etc.), sustainability of ecosystems and infrastructure maintenance. MBIS is due to be completed in 1997. MBIS represents an attempt to address regional impacts by incorporating a 'family of integrators' into the study framework, and by directly involving stakeholders in planning and research activities. The experience in organizing and carrying out this project may provide some lessons for others interested in organizing regional or country studies

  9. Provenance studies in Amazon basin by means of chemical composition obtained by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.O.; Munita, C.S.; Soares, E.A.A.


    This study determines the provenance of the 106 sediments samples deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the tectonic depressions in Manaus, Amazon state, Brazil. Twenty-four chemical elements in the sediment samples collected before the confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers have been determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA. It is inferred from the multivariate statistical methods that samples from the basin of the Solimoes river and tectonic depression 1 (the most significant of the region) are not significantly different. These results indicate the contribution this river in the sedimentary fill during the evolution in the Quaternary. (author)

  10. Volcanic ash and its enigma: A case study from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.

    is mainly responsible for the elevated Al/Ti ratio in the bulk sediment. In the present study, the behaviour of element concentration in a sediment core where ash layer was present is relooked into and its possible implications are discussed... silica (wt%), (d) Al excess (wt%). (e) Fe (wt%), (f) AI/Al+Fe+Mn. (g) K (wt%). (1,) Mg (wt%), (i) Ti(wt%). (j) Mn (wt%), (k) Cu (ppm) and (I) Ni (ppm) in a sediment core (NR-54) from Centra Indian Ocean basin. Ash layer is present at 30-35 cm...

  11. Paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental context of the Early Pleistocene hominins from Dmanisi (Georgia, Lesser Caucasus) inferred from the herpetofaunal assemblage (United States)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Agustí, Jordi; Lordkipanidze, David; Rook, Lorenzo; Delfino, Massimo


    Dmanisi is currently the oldest Early Palaeolithic site discovered out of Africa. It has produced over 40 hominin remains, including a set of very informative skulls, in direct association with faunal remains and numerous lithic artifacts. Given the relevance of this locality, every effort is being made to reconstruct the landscapes where these hominins once lived. Amphibian and reptile remains from Dmanisi are here described for the first time and used as paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental proxies. They comprise at least six taxa: a green toad (Bufo gr. Bufo viridis), the Greek tortoise (Testudo graeca), a green lizard (Lacerta gr. Lacerta viridis), a four-lined snake (Elaphe gr. Elaphe quatuorlineata), an indeterminate colubrid and a water snake (Natrix sp.). As these taxa are not extinct and their ecology can be directly studied, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. The application of the Mutual Climatic Range method provides quantitative data indicating that during the hominin presence at Dmanisi climate was warm and dry, similar to the present-day Mediterranean climate. In comparison with today climate of Dmanisi, estimated mean annual temperature was 3.1 °C higher, with a greater increase of temperature in summer (+7.1 °C) than in winter (+4.7 °C). The mean annual precipitation was slightly lower (-65 mm) than the current level, with precipitation higher than current one during winter (+104 mm) but strongly lower during the other seasons, suggesting a stronger contrast in the rainfall regime during the year. From a paleoenvironmental point of view, fossil amphibians and reptiles all suggest the predominance of arid environments, from steppe or semi-desert to open Mediterranean forest, with stony or rocky substrate and bushy areas. The presence of permanent aquatic environments is also documented. These results mainly agree with those for large mammals, small mammals and the archaeobotanical analysis that indicate an

  12. On the intensity and type transition of land use at the basin scale using RS/GIS: a case study of the Hanjiang River Basin. (United States)

    Yu, Guangming; Zeng, Qun; Yang, Shan; Hu, Limei; Lin, Xiaowei; Che, Yi; Zheng, Yuge


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the land use intensity and land use change type at the basin scale in the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin (in Hubei Province, China) by combining the Landsat TM images in 1995 and 2000 with the land use database (in scale 1:10,000) and relative data. In this study, the basic data is acquired from the interpretation of remote sensing (RS) images. The intensity of land use and the rate of change in double-directions of land use dynamics are calculated with the support of software ARC/INFO. The intensity of land use is indicated by the intensity coefficient of land use, and the transition of land use types is quantified as the rate of change in double-direction of land use types and also expressed as the transition matrix of land use types. The results are expressed in space by Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Results of this study show that (1) the intensity of land use is high in the study region, the intensity coefficients of land use in 1995 and 2000 are 260.025 and 290.526, respectively, and the intensity of development and utilization of land is trend to increscent; and (2) the rate of land use change in double directions in the whole study region is 0.52 with great spatial variation and the differentiation of land use types. In the differentiation of land use types, the unutilized land (with the rate to 4.391) is developed fast, the grassland (with 2.836) and water area (with 1.664) are disturbed severely, and these changes will influence the eco-environment in the Hanjiang River Basin and all the Yangtze Basin. The rates of the farmland and the woodland are 0.424 and 0.344, respectively, meaning that the fundamentals of regional human-environmental system are relative stable. With this study, we can conclude that (1) the patterns of land use are increasingly changing in the study region, the environmental impacts are escalated on this stage, and the further outcomes are destined to

  13. An integrated workflow to assess the remaining potential of mature hydrocarbon basins: a case study from Northwest Germany (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous, Lower Saxony Basin) (United States)

    Seyfang, Björn; Aigner, Thomas; Munsterman, Dirk K.; Irmen, Anton


    Mature hydrocarbon provinces require a high level of geological understanding in order to extend the lives of producing fields, to replace reserves through smaller targets and to reduce the risks of exploring for more and more subtle hydrocarbon traps. Despite a large number of existing wells in the area studied in this paper, the depositional environments and the stratigraphic architecture were still poorly known. In order to improve the geological understanding, we propose a workflow to assess the remaining reservoir potential of mature hydrocarbon areas, integrating cores, cuttings, well-logs, biostratigraphy and seismic data. This workflow was developed for and is exemplified with the northwest of the Lower Saxony Basin (LSB), a mature hydrocarbon province in northwest Germany, but can be applied in a similar fashion to other areas. Systematic integration of lithofacies analysis, chrono- and sequence stratigraphy, combined with electrofacies analysis and modern digital methods like neural network-based lithology determination and 3D facies modelling provides a high-resolution understanding of the spatial facies and reservoir architecture in the study area. Despite widely correlatable litho-units in the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous in the LSB, complex heterogeneous sedimentary systems can be found in the basin's marginal parts. Two new play types were determined in the study area, showing a remaining potential for stratigraphic hydrocarbon traps. The results of this exploration scale study also provide the basis for re-evaluations on a field development scale. On a basin scale, this study may encourage further data acquisition and re-evaluations to discover previously unknown reservoirs.

  14. Strategic planning for instream flow restoration: a case study of potential climate change impacts in the central Columbia River basin. (United States)

    Donley, Erin E; Naiman, Robert J; Marineau, Mathieu D


    We provide a case study prioritizing instream flow restoration activities by sub-basin according to the habitat needs of Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed salmonids relative to climate change in the central Columbia River basin in Washington State (USA). The objective is to employ scenario analysis to inform and improve existing instream flow restoration projects. We assess the sensitivity of late summer (July, August, and September) flows to the following scenario simulations - singly or in combination: climate change, changes in the quantity of water used for irrigation and possible changes to existing water resource policy. Flows for four sub-basins were modeled using the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) under historical and projected conditions of 2020 and 2040 for each scenario. Results indicate that Yakima will be the most flow-limited sub-basin with average reductions in streamflow of 41% under climate conditions of 2020 and 56% under 2040 conditions; 1.3-2.5 times greater than those of other sub-basins. In addition, irrigation plays a key role in the hydrology of the Yakima sub-basin - with flow reductions ranging from 78% to 90% under severe to extreme (i.e., 20-40%) increases in agricultural water use (2.0-4.4 times the reductions in the other sub-basins). The Yakima and Okanogan sub-basins are the most responsive to simulations of flow-bolstering policy change (providing salmon with first priority water allocation and at biologically relevant flows), as demonstrated by 91-100% target flows attained. The Wenatchee and Methow sub-basins do not exhibit similar responsiveness to simulated policy changes. Considering climate change only, we conclude that flow restoration should be prioritized first in the Yakima and Wenatchee sub-basins, and second in the Okanogan and Methow. Considering both climate change and possible policy changes, we recommend that the Yakima sub-basin receive the highest priority for flow restoration activities to sustain

  15. Use-inspired Paleoenvironmental Science and Data: A Deep Whole-Earth Time Dimension (United States)

    Overpeck, J. T.


    The field of paleoenvironmental science has matured dramatically over the last 30 years, and paleo-data are now widely used to inform policy and other decision-making. The IPCC now incorporates paleo-perspectives in a prominent manner - centuries to millennia-long paleo records are key to assessing the full range of possible climate system behavior, how the Earth's climate system responds to large changes in forcing, how climate change may impact ecological, hydrological, oceanographic and many other systems that humans are concerned about. Paleohydroclimatic data increasingly are used by water managers, just as forest managers use paleo-fire data to understand the natural rhythms and processes so critical to healthy ecosystems and the services they provide. Paleo-data are now widely used for model evaluation, and for understanding what models may be missing - in this sense, the millennia-long observational record provided by paleoenvironmental data helps us avoid costly surprises. Success comes with responsibility, however. The more paleo-data and paleo-based understanding informs policy and other decisions, the more critical it is that paleo-data and the results built on them need to be openly shared, easily accessible and reproducible. The value of paleo-data grows with use, and thus data sharing serves to grow value to the society that ultimately pays for the research. The tradition of sharing paleo-data is built on an even longer tradition of sharing samples, and yet innovations are still needed to make sure samples are managed for future use, particularly as natural archives like glaciers, caves and corals are lost to climate change and other human activity. Scientific journals and data centers are constantly innovating; paleoenvironmental scientists must all play their part as well.

  16. Preliminary study on soil to rock spectral ratio method of microtremor measurement in Taipei Basin, Taiwan (United States)

    Huang, Jyun Yan; Wen, Kuo Liang; Te Chen, Chun; Chang, Shun Chiang


    Taipei city is the capital of Taiwan which located in Taipei basin and covered with hundreds meter of alluvial layer that might cause serious damage during huge earthquake. Prediction of possible strong motion levels occurred in the basin then became popular. Engineers most like to use Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPEs) as common tool for seismic hazard calculation but GMPEs were usually debated that it can only give one prediction value (PGA, PGV, Sa etc.) rather than time history or spectrum. Seismologists tried theoretical simulation (1D, 2D, 3D method) but could only give low frequency (usually less than 1 Hz) results restricted to that the shallow structures were not clear enough. Resent years, wide frequency simulation techniques such as empirical green's function added stochastic simulation method (hybrid method) were applied to several different purposes but site effect still plays an important role that need to be considered. Traditionally soil to rock spectral ratio of shear wave (denoted as S/R) was widely applied to check basin effect for decades but the technique needs lots of permanent stations and several years to get enough records. If some site located within strong motion network but not close enough to the strong motion stations, interpolate or extrapolate results needed to be used. Wen and Huang (2012) conducted a dense microtremor measurement network in whole Taiwan and applied microtremor H/V to discuss dominant frequency with traditional transfer functions from earthquake shear wave and found good agreement between them. Furthermore, in this study, the ability of soil to rock spectral ratio of microtremor (denoted as MS/R) measurement was tested in Taipei basin. The preliminary results showed MS/R had good agreement with S/R between 0.2 to 5 Hz. And distance from soil site to reference rock site should no greater than 8 to 10 km base on degree of spectrum difference (DSPD) calculation. If the MS/R works that site effect study from this

  17. Hydrogeochemistry of high iodine groundwater: a case study at the Datong Basin, northern China. (United States)

    Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun; Zhang, Liping; Guo, Wei


    High iodine concentrations in groundwater have seldom been reported and there have been few systematic studies on high iodine groundwater worldwide. To better understand the sources and processes responsible for iodine enrichment in the groundwater of the Datong Basin, the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater and geochemical features of aquifer sediments were studied. High iodine groundwater mainly occurs in the center of the Datong Basin with iodine concentrations ranging between 3.31 and 1890 μg L(-1). Most samples with iodine concentrations higher than 500 μg L(-1) are from wells with depths between 75 and 120 m. High pH and a reducing environment are favorable for iodine enrichment in the groundwater, with iodide as the dominant species that accounts for 63.2-99.3% of the total iodine. Sediment samples from a borehole specifically drilled for this study contain 0.18-1.46 mg kg(-1) iodine that is moderately correlated with total organic carbon (TOC). The results of sequential extraction experiments show that iodine is mostly bound to iron oxyhydroxides and organic matter in the sediments. The mobilization processes of iodine are proposed to include reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides and transformations among iodide, iodate and organic iodine driven by microbial activities under alkaline and reducing conditions.

  18. Investigation of potential alternate study areas in the Paradox Basin region, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, T.A.


    The Paradox Basin was re-evaluated to determine if any parts of the Basin that had not been identified in previous studies might be suitable for a more detailed evaluation as a nuclear waste repository site. The factors used in this re-evaluation were depth to salt and dedicated lands, because these factors directly address the engineering and environmental feasibility of a repository. Six areas (Happy Canyon, Green River, Dolores River, Expectation Mountain, Dark Canyon, and Kane Springs Canyon) were identified on this basis as potentially suitable areas for further study. These areas were assessed in more detail to review the feasibility of siting a repository. None of the six areas was recommended for further study as a repository site because the size of the areas, thickness of the salt beds, topography, and engineering factors resulting from the loading of nearby mesas generally did not allow the construction of a feasible repository. The content of this report was effective as of May 1983. 41 references, 17 figures

  19. The role of microorganisms in the formation of a stalactite in Botovskaya Cave, Siberia – paleoenvironmental implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pacton


    Full Text Available Calcitic speleothems in caves can form through abiogenic or biogenic processes, or through a combination of both. Many issues conspire to make the assessment of biogenicity difficult, especially when focusing on old speleothem deposits. This study reports on a multiproxy analysis of a Siberian stalactite, combining high-resolution microscopy, isotope geochemistry and microbially enhanced mineral precipitation laboratory experiments. The contact between growth layers in a stalactite exhibits a biogenic isotopic signature; coupled with morphological evidence, this supports a microbial origin of calcite crystals. SIMS δ13C data suggest that microbially mediated speleothem formation occurred repeatedly at short intervals before abiotic precipitation took over. The studied stalactite also contains iron and manganese oxides that have been mediated by microbial activity through extracellular polymeric substance (EPS-influenced organomineralization processes. The latter reflect paleoenvironmental changes that occurred more than 500 000 yr ago, possibly related to the presence of a peat bog above the cave at that time. Microbial activity can initiate calcite deposition in the aphotic zone of caves before inorganic precipitation of speleothem carbonates. This study highlights the importance of microbially induced fractionation that can result in large negative δ13C excursions. The microscale biogeochemical processes imply that microbial activity has only negligible effects on the bulk δ13C signature in speleothems, which is more strongly affected by CO2 degassing and the host rock signature.

  20. Preliminary hydrologic budget studies, Indian Creek watershed and vicinity, Western Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackston, J.W.; Mangarella, P.A.; Preslo, L.M.


    Preliminary quantitative estimates of ground-water discharge into the Colorado River System in the western Paradox Basin were prepared on the basis of existing climatological and streamflow records. Ground-water outflow to the river was deduced as a residual from hydrologic budget equations for two different study areas: (1) the region between gaging stations at Cisco, Green River, and Hite, Utah; and (2) the Indian Creek watershed. An empirical correlation between recharge rates and precipitation amounts derived for several basins in eastern Nevada was applied to estimate recharge amounts for the Indian Creek watershed. A simple Darcian flow model was then used to approximate the ground-water flux outward from the watershed for comparison. Salinity measurements in the Colorado River were also used to approximate ground-water outflow to a river reach in Cataract Canyon in order to provide another comparison with the hydrologic budget results. Although these estimates should be considered only gross approximations, all approaches used provide values of ground-water outflow that are much less than estimates of similar parameters provided by the US Geological Survey in recent hydrologic reconnaissance reports. Estimates contained herein will be refined in future numerical modeling and data collection studies

  1. Northern Rivers Basins ecological and human health studies : summary, relevance and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Residents in northern Alberta expressed concerns that the original Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) only examined the impacts of contaminants on ecological health and did not include impacts on human health. In response to these concerns, Alberta Health established the Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This document links the ecological information collected by the original NRBS program with the information provided by the health program. Issues regarding health impacts from pulp mills and oil sand mining were also discussed. The findings of the health program were summarized and recommendations were made for future studies. The contaminants of potential concern (COPC) arising from the original NRBS were described in terms of their sources and any known connections between exposure and human health. The COPCs included arsenic, dioxins, chlorinated furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) mercury, chlorinated phenolics, toxaphene, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulphur dioxide, acid sulphates and particulate matter. Examples of Canadian regulatory criteria for these contaminants were also presented. 41 refs., 1 tab

  2. Geology and geohydrology of the East Texas Basin. A report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies (1980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitler, C.W.; Collins, E.W.; Davidson, E.D. Jr.


    The third year of research was highlighted by the integration of regional basinal studies with growth histories for specific domes, studies of cap-rock diagenesis and salt deformation, preliminary studies of ground-water flow and geochemistry around Oakwood Dome, and preliminary studies of microseismicity in the Mount Enterprise fault zone. 119 figures, 15 tables

  3. Combining data sets of satellite-retrieved products for basin-scale water balance study: 2. Evaluation on the Mississippi Basin and closure correction model (United States)

    Munier, Simon; Aires, Filipe; Schlaffer, Stefan; Prigent, Catherine; Papa, Fabrice; Maisongrande, Philippe; Pan, Ming


    In this study, we applied the integration methodology developed in the companion paper by Aires (2014) by using real satellite observations over the Mississippi Basin. The methodology provides basin-scale estimates of the four water budget components (precipitation P, evapotranspiration E, water storage change ΔS, and runoff R) in a two-step process: the Simple Weighting (SW) integration and a Postprocessing Filtering (PF) that imposes the water budget closure. A comparison with in situ observations of P and E demonstrated that PF improved the estimation of both components. A Closure Correction Model (CCM) has been derived from the integrated product (SW+PF) that allows to correct each observation data set independently, unlike the SW+PF method which requires simultaneous estimates of the four components. The CCM allows to standardize the various data sets for each component and highly decrease the budget residual (P - E - ΔS - R). As a direct application, the CCM was combined with the water budget equation to reconstruct missing values in any component. Results of a Monte Carlo experiment with synthetic gaps demonstrated the good performances of the method, except for the runoff data that has a variability of the same order of magnitude as the budget residual. Similarly, we proposed a reconstruction of ΔS between 1990 and 2002 where no Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment data are available. Unlike most of the studies dealing with the water budget closure at the basin scale, only satellite observations and in situ runoff measurements are used. Consequently, the integrated data sets are model independent and can be used for model calibration or validation.

  4. Comparison of the petrography, palynology and paleobotany of the Stockton coal bed, West Virginia and implications for paleoenvironmental interpretations (United States)

    Pierce, B.S.; Stanton, R.W.; Eble, C.F.


    The Stockton coal bed (Middle Pennsylvanian) is a relatively high ash coal composed primarily of moderately thin banded, sparsely thin banded, and nonbanded coal (splint and cannel coal). Comparisons of petrographic, palynologic, and paleobotanic data gathered from the same sample sets from a single column of the Stockton coal bed indicate that compositional correspondences among the sets exist regardless of coal type. Some correspondences are believed to exist because of original plant constituents and others because of the paleoenvironment of peat formation. Using some combination of these data is critical when interpreting paleoenvironmental conditions because (1) a direct correspondence is lacking between many of the data and (2) each of the three data sets provides a unique and important perspective on the paleomire. The Stockton paleomire in the area of this study supported a diverse flora that consisted of both small and arboreous lycopsids, small ferns and tree ferns, calamites, cordaites, and pteridosperms. There appear to have been two successions of Lycospora spore-dominated, vitrinite-rich, liptinite-poor peat formation, which were followed by inertinite-rich peat formation marked by a tree fern-dominant spore assemblage and abundant unidentifiable plant tissues. These are interpreted to be two water-laden or topogenous peat formational stages followed by slightly domed, better drained peat formation. ?? 1993.

  5. Preliminary study of the hydrologic response of an urban drainage basin at two different scales (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla; Ferreira, António; Coelho, Celeste; de Lima João, Pedroso


    Predicted changes in climate and urban sprawl areas are expected to cause significant modification in rainfall pattern and hydrological regimes. Urbanization can alter the hydrologic response by increasing streamflow, reducing time of concentration, altering soil moisture levels and increasing overland flow, thereby increasing the size, frequency and speed of peak flow responses. However, despite the profusion of works, effective methodologies to investigate the impacts of potential land-use change on how spatial variability of soil moisture and precipitation affect runoff production at a range of scales and on different land uses remain largely undeveloped. This has important implications for flood prediction accuracy. The main aim of this work is to assess the hydrological response and to understand the influence of different land uses. The study is based on a small urban drainage basin (7 Km2), undergoing rapid urbanization, located in central Portugal: Ribeira dos Covões. It considers a combined approach of field survey and data acquisition to access spatiotemporal dynamics and land uses contributions to surface hydrology, based on drainage basins and small plot scales. At drainage basin scale, the study is based on three years rainfall and stream flow data analysis (collected through an automatic water level recorder and rain gauges). Rainfall-runoff relationship was assessed over the time and isolated events were studied. To understand land uses on the hydrology, rainfall simulations were conducted at the small plot scale (0.25 m2) during a dry period, in forested and deforested areas, agricultural areas, including tilled and abandoned areas, as well as built-up areas (21 experiments with 1 hour duration, with a rain intensity of 43±3 mm h-1). During the experiments hydrophobicity was monitored (Molarity of an Ethanol Droplet technique), soil moisture content was assessed every minute, and runoff volume was measured every 5 minutes. This work has shown the

  6. Radionuclide levels in fish from Lake Athabasca February 1993. Northern River Basins Study project report no.26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithson, G.


    The Northern River Basins Study was initiated through the 'Canada-Alberta-Northwest Territories Agreement Respecting the Peace-Athabasca-Slave River Basin Study, Phase II - Technical Studies' which was signed September 27, 1991. The purpose of the study is to understand and characterize the cumulative effects of development on the water and aquatic environment of the Study Area by coordinating with existing programs and undertaking appropriate new technical studies. This publication reports the method and findings of particular work conducted as part of the Northern River Basins Study. As such, the work was governed by a specific terms of reference and is expected to contribute information about the Study Area within the context of the overall study as described by the Study Final Report. This report has been reviewed by the Study Science Advisory Committee in regards to scientific content and has been approved by the Study Board of Directors for public release. It is explicit in the objectives of the Study to report the results of technical work regularly to the public. This objective is served by distributing project reports to an extensive network of libraries, agencies, organizations and interested individuals and by granting universal permission to reproduce the material. This report contains referenced data obtained from external to the Northern River Basins Study. Individuals interested in using external data must obtain permission to do so from the donor agency. (author). 47 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Inventory of Selected Freshwater-Ecology Studies From the New England Coastal Basins (Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island), 1937-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tessler, Steven; Coles, James F; Beaulieu, Karen M


    An inventory of published studies that address freshwater ecology within the New England Coastal Basins was created through computerized bibliographic literature searches and consultation with environmental agencies...

  8. Geophysical study of the Mendoza triassic sedimentary basin; Estudio geofisico de la Cuenca Sedimentaria Triasica en Mendoza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castiglione, E. Bibiana; Mamani, Manuel; Moyano, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Aplicadas de Ciencias Espaciales, mendoza (Argentina). Unidad Geofisica


    A magnetotelluric study along a NS profile, placed on a sedimentary basin East of Mendonza province was carried out. The objective of this study was the determination of total sedimentary thickness and the study of the Crust. For to do this, 8 magnetotelluric soundings were carried out. The Natural Electromagnetic field was measured in range of periods between 0,1 and 300 sec. In 3 soundings this range of periods was extended to 10.000 sec. using a flux-gate magnetometer. The results corresponding to 1 D modelling show in average 7,5 Km depth for the basin, including triassic and tertiary formations. The results also show variations in the thickness of the basin along the profile. The basement detach surface at 12,5 km depth is also visible in 2 soundings sites. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs

  9. Can we assess intra-basin tradeoffs using approaches derived from Global Hydrological Modeling? Case studies from Asia (United States)

    Shaad, K.; Vollmer, D.; Regan, H.; Souter, N. J.; Andelman, S.; Chen, X.; Yanjun, D.


    Advances in GHMs, LSMs and related River-routing algorithms provide a consistent and coherent approach to link global hydrological processes and remotely-sensed satellite data to regional-scales. While progress has been made in characterizing regulating mechanisms on the rivers and LULC changes' impacts to basin hydrology, gaps remain in making these global tools relevant to local basin management. Here we show how adapting the approaches developed for the global models while allowing local input on regulating mechanism/land-cover changes, can work around the constraint of gaps in local data availability and technical capability, leading to basin-relevant insights in the context of integrated water resource management. Within the case study sites of Dongjiang (China) and Lower Mekong, a semi-distributed `network of network' framework for assessing impacts of tradeoffs within a basin is developed, composed of (a) a simple hydrological and routing model using HydroBASIN[1] sub-basin network as underlying grid; with for each sub-basin, (b) a "relations" network for derivation of ecosystem services, based on hydrologic and ecosystem processes as well as local demand. With this framework, we validate the impact of the local inputs by using the evaluation approach proposed by [2], based on ability of the model to represent the observed covariance structures between forcings and outflow. We then apply this semi-distributed framework to explore potential tradeoffs using development scenarios (e.g., urban expansion, water reallocation). Advances in the ability to swiftly link comprehensive global-scale hydrological information to local-scale issues may improve our capability to anticipate and respond to freshwater resource availability and management challenges. [1] Lehner, B., & Grill, G. (2013). Hydrological Processes, 27(15), 2171-2186. [2] Vogel, R. M., & Sankarasubramanian, A. (2003). Water Resources Research, 39(10).

  10. Radial ooids from Great Salt Lake (Utah) as paleoenvironmental archives: Insights from radiocarbon chronology and stable isotopes (United States)

    Paradis, O. P.; Corsetti, F. A.; Bardsley, A.; Hammond, D. E.; Xu, X.; Walker, J. C.


    Ooids (laminated, carbonate coated grains) are ubiquitous in the geologic record in marine and lacustrine settings, and thus remain a common target for geochemical analysis to understand modern and ancient aqueous environments. However, the processes governing ooid formation remain unclear. Recently, radiocarbon dating has revealed that modern marine ooids grow slowly (Beaupre et al. 2015), and laboratory experiments have highlighted the importance of sediment transport and abrasion on net growth rates and ooid size (Trower et al. 2017). Ooid cortex structure includes micritic, tangential and/or radially oriented fabrics. Most modern marine ooids have tangential or micritic cortices, whereas many ancient ooids have radial cortices—thus, there is a need to understand how radial ooids in ancient rocks might inform us about their depositional environment. The Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, provides a unique environment to assess the growth rate of primary radial aragonitic ooids. Ooids collected near Antelope Island in the south arm of GSL were sieved, the 355-500 µm fraction was sequentially leached, and 14C of the evolved gas was analyzed to provide a time series of growth. The oldest inorganic carbon of this size fraction has an apparent 14C age of 6600 yr BP, with subsequent growth spanning over 6,000 years. Closed-basin lakes are particularly susceptible to a "reservoir effect" which results in anomalously old apparent radiocarbon ages. The 14C age of the modern dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the south arm was measured to be 295 yr BP, a reservoir age comparable to estimates from lacustrine cave carbonates (McGee et al. 2012). Net growth rate of south arm ooids ranges between 0.01-0.025 µm per year. The δ13C of the outermost cortex suggests that the ooids resemble the modern DIC in the south arm water, suggesting ooids precipitate in equilibrium with lake water. Finer-scale structure in the δ13C of the ooid cortex through time suggests lake level changed

  11. Modeling The Hydrology And Water Allocation Under Climate Change In Rural River Basins: A Case Study From Nam Ngum River Basin, Laos (United States)

    Jayasekera, D. L.; Kaluarachchi, J.; Kim, U.


    Rural river basins with sufficient water availability to maintain economic livelihoods can be affected with seasonal fluctuations of precipitation and sometimes by droughts. In addition, climate change impacts can also alter future water availability. General Circulation Models (GCMs) provide credible quantitative estimates of future climate conditions but such estimates are often characterized by bias and coarse scale resolution making it necessary to downscale the outputs for use in regional hydrologic models. This study develops a methodology to downscale and project future monthly precipitation in moderate scale basins where data are limited. A stochastic framework for single-site and multi-site generation of weekly rainfall is developed while preserving the historical temporal and spatial correlation structures. The spatial correlations in the simulated occurrences and the amounts are induced using spatially correlated yet serially independent random numbers. This method is applied to generate weekly precipitation data for a 100-year period in the Nam Ngum River Basin (NNRB) that has a land area of 16,780 km2 located in Lao P.D.R. This method is developed and applied using precipitation data from 1961 to 2000 for 10 selected weather stations that represents the basin rainfall characteristics. Bias-correction method, based on fitted theoretical probability distribution transformations, is applied to improve monthly mean frequency, intensity and the amount of raw GCM precipitation predicted at a given weather station using CGCM3.1 and ECHAM5 for SRES A2 emission scenario. Bias-correction procedure adjusts GCM precipitation to approximate the long-term frequency and the intensity distribution observed at a given weather station. Index of agreement and mean absolute error are determined to assess the overall ability and performance of the bias correction method. The generated precipitation series aggregated at monthly time step was perturbed by the change factors

  12. Heritability of the Structures and 13C Fractionation in Tomato Leaf Wax Alkanes: A Genetic Model System to Inform Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. D. Bender


    Full Text Available Leaf wax n-alkanes are broadly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental information. However, the utility of n-alkanes as a paleoenvironmental proxy may be modulated by the extent to which biological as well as environmental factors influence the structural and isotopic variability of leaf waxes. In paleoclimate applications, there is usually an implicit assumption that most variation of leaf wax traits through a time series can be attributed to environmental change and that biological sources of variability within plant communities are small. For example, changes in hydrology affect the δ2H of waxes via rainwater and the δ13C of leaf waxes by changing plant communities. We measured the degree of genetic control over δ13C variation in leaf waxes within closely related species with an experimental greenhouse growth study. We measured the proportion of variability in structural and isotopic leaf wax traits that is attributable to genetic variation using a set of 76 introgression lines (ILs between two interfertile Solanum (tomato species: S. lycopersicum cv M82 (hereafter cv M82 and S. pennellii. Leaves of S. pennellii, a wild desert tomato relative, produced significantly more iso-alkanes than cv M82, a domesticated tomato cultivar adapted to water-replete conditions. We report a methylation index to summarize the ratio of branched (iso- and anteiso- to total alkanes. Between Solanum pennellii and cv M82, the iso-alkanes were found to be enriched in 13C by 1.2–1.4‰ over n-alkanes. The broad-sense heritability values (H2 of leaf wax traits describe the degree to which genetic variation contributes to variation of these traits. Variation of individual carbon isotopic compositions of alkanes were of low heritability (H2 = 0.13–0.19, suggesting that most variation in δ13C of leaf waxes in this study can be attributed to environmental variance. This supports the interpretation that variation in the δ13C of wax compounds recorded in sediments

  13. Heritability of the structures and 13C fractionation in tomato leaf wax alkanes: a genetic model system to inform paleoenvironmental reconstructions (United States)

    Bender, Amanda L. D.; Chitwood, Daniel H.; Bradley, Alexander S.


    Leaf wax n-alkanes are broadly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental information. However, the utility of n-alkanes as a paleoenvironmental proxy may be modulated by the extent to which biological as well as environmental factors influence the structural and isotopic variability of leaf waxes. In paleoclimate applications, there is usually an implicit assumption that most variation of leaf wax traits through a time series can be attributed to environmental change and that biological sources of variability within plant communities are small. For example, changes in hydrology affect the δ2H of waxes via rainwater and the δ13C of leaf waxes by changing plant communities. We measured the degree of genetic control over δ13C variation in leaf waxes within closely related species with an experimental greenhouse growth study. We measured the proportion of variability in structural and isotopic leaf wax traits that is attributable to genetic variation using a set of 76 introgression lines (ILs) between two interfertile Solanum (tomato) species: S. lycopersicum cv M82 (hereafter cv M82) and S. pennellii. Leaves of S. pennellii, a wild desert tomato relative, produced significantly more iso-alkanes than cv M82, a domesticated tomato cultivar adapted to water-replete conditions. We report a methylation index to summarize the ratio of branched (iso- and anteiso-) to total alkanes. Between S. pennellii and cv M82, the iso-alkanes were found to be enriched in 13C by 1.2-1.4‰ over n-alkanes. The broad-sense heritability values (H2) of leaf wax traits describe the degree to which genetic variation contributes to variation of these traits. Variation of individual carbon isotopic compositions of alkanes were of low heritability (H2 = 0.13-0.19), suggesting that most variation in δ13C of leaf waxes in this study can be attributed to environmental variance. This supports the interpretation that variation in the δ13C of wax compounds recorded in sediments reflects

  14. Preliminary study of the uranium potential of Tertiary rocks in the central San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizcaino, H.P.; O'Neill, A.J.


    Three formations in the Tertiary of the San Juan Basin were investigated for their uranium favorability. They are the Ojo Alamo Sandstone, the Nacimiento Formation, and the San Jose Formation. The study comprised a literature survey and a basin analysis, which consisted of subsurface lithofacies, stratigraphic, and radiometric mapping. Field work in preparation for the subsurface analysis consisted of examination of outcrop and measured sections, surface radiometric traverses, and checking of reported surface radioactive anomalies. Interpretation of subsurface mapping provided the primary basis for favorability assessment. The sandstone trends depicted in lithofacies maps, and stratigraphic cross sections reflect large channel complexes and major fluvial systems originating in favorable source areas. Although surface radioactivity anomalies were found to be few, weak, and widespread, the San Juan Basin has abundant favorable host rocks. The subsurface anomalies, although weak, are widespread and sometimes persist throughout thickness intervals greater than 50 ft. Subsurface anomalies were mapped on a wide-spaced grid and are generalized. On the basis of apparent source, lithology, differential permeability, contents of carbonaceous detritus, and geometry, the Nacimiento Formation and the basal facies of the San Jose Formation in the north-central basin have the greatest potential. The Ojo Alamo Sandstone is less favorable, and the Nacimiento Formation in the southern part of the basin and the upper San Jose Formation are the least favorable of the units studied

  15. Isotope techniques in hydrological studies: application to Chacabuco-Polpaico basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orphanopoulus Stehr, D.


    A hydrogeological study was carried out in a small alluvial valley, 45 kms. north of Santiago, Chile. Although the main economical activity is the agriculture, the valley only has small seasonal rivers. The irrigation water comes from a near basin through a channel of about 100 kms. and from the ground water. The study include aspects like: pumping tests evaluations, well stratigraphy, potentiometric surface fluctuation, water chemistry, stable isotopes and water balances. Isotopes, oxygen-18 and deuterium were used to identify the origin of the ground water in different sections of the valley and the importance of the infiltration. Also experiences were made to evaluate the evaporation of a small damm, using isotopes and the classical water balance methods. (O.S.)

  16. Study of the geothermal production potential in the Williston Basin, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Min H.


    Preliminary studies of geothermal production potential for the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin have been carried out. Reservoir data such as formation depth, subsurface temperatures, and water quality were reviewed for geothermal brine production predictions. This study, in addition, provides important information about net pay thickness, porosity, volume of geothermal water available, and productivity index for future geothermal direct-use development. Preliminary results show that the Inyan Kara Formation of the Dakota Group is the most favorable geothermal resource in terms of water quality and productivity. The Madison, Duperow, and Red River Formations are deeper formations but because of their low permeability and great depth, the potential flow rates from these three formations are considerably less than those of the Inyan Kara Formation. Also, poor water quality and low porosity will make those formations less favorable for geothermal direct-use development.

  17. A systematic study of distribution characters of infiltration parameters in an experimental basin by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Weizu; Lu Jieju; Lu Mingjiang; Chen Tingyang


    A case study of spatial variability of Philip's infiltration parameters was carried out in a small experimental catchment with an area of 0.8 ha by nuclear monitoring methods. Relationships between sorptivity S, parameter A and the average initial soil water content within 0.5 m depth of soil profiles over the catchment have been plotted. A watershed infiltration parameter distribution curve is set up and fitted approximately by f/F=1-(1-S/S M ) n . The parameters of composite infiltration response related to whole catchment are suggested. The author has studied it on an experimental basin by combined method of nuclear technology and micro-geomorphic analysis. The results are satisfactory. (author). 6 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Comparative Paleomagnetic Study of the Quaternary-Pliocene Sedimentation Rates in the Arctic Basin: First Results (United States)

    Elkina, D.; Piskarev, A.


    Accurate dating of marine sediments from the Arctic Basin continues to remain a subject of great debates over the last decades. Due to the lack of adequate materials for biostratigraphy, and isotope analyses, paleomagnetic reconstructions came on line here but still yielded ambivalent interpretations. Moreover, sedimentation rates, estimated for isolated morphological features in the Arctic Ocean, are often extended to the whole Basin and, therefore, lead to significant approximations of the sedimentation pattern distribution. Paleomagnetic study of two sediment cores up to 8 meter long, collected at the Mendeleev Rise, and the Lomonosov Ridge, have provided the opportunity to compare sedimentation regimes on these two profound structures of the Arctic Basin. Cores PS72/396 and PS87/023 were carried out along the cruises of RV Polarstern at the Mendeleev Rise (Stein et. al, 2010), and the Lomonosov Ridge (Stein, 2015) respectively. Measurements of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and anhysteretic remanence (ARM) acquisition with the following alternating field (AF) demagnetization were performed on u-channel samples, obtained from the cores, at the Center for Geo-Environmental Research and Modeling (GEOMODEL) of the Research Park, St. Petersburg State University. According to preliminary results, core PS72/396 has shown a change from positive to negative inclinations at ca. 120 cm below sea floor (cmbsf), prevailed up to ca. 360 cmbsf where it gets back to the positive ones. This trend is comparable with some previous paleomagnetic results, conducted on cores from the Mendeleev Rise (Piskarev et al., 2013; Elkina, 2014). In contrast, for core PS87/023, a relevant drop to negative inclinations can be observed only after 330 cmbsf. That could signify a dramatic difference in sedimentation rates between the sites during the Quaternary and Pliocene. Nevertheless, a rather complicated picture of the AF data assumes effects of secondary overprints, having influenced

  19. The disappearing Environmental Kuznets Curve: a study of water quality in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB). (United States)

    Wong, Yoon Loong Andrew; Lewis, Lynne


    The literature is flush with articles focused on estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for various pollutants and various locations. Most studies have utilized air pollution variables; far fewer have utilized water quality variables, all with mixed results. We suspect that mixed evidence of the EKC stems from model and error specification. We analyze annual data for four water quality indicators, three of them previously unstudied - total phosphorus (TOTP), dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonium (NH4) and nitrites (NO2) - from the Lower Mekong Basin region to determine whether an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is evident for a transboundary river in a developing country and whether that curve is dependent on model specification and/or pollutant. We build upon previous studies by correcting for the problems of heteroskedasticity, serial correlation and cross-sectional dependence. Unlike multi-country EKC studies, we mitigate for potential distortion from pooling data across geographically heterogeneous locations by analyzing data drawn from proximate locations within a specific international river basin in Southeast Asia. We also attempt to identify vital socioeconomic determinants of water pollution by including a broad list of explanatory variables alongside the income term. Finally, we attempt to shed light on the pollution-income relationship as it pertains to trans-boundary water pollution by examining data from an international river system. We do not find consistent evidence of an EKC for any of the 4 pollutant indicators in this study, but find the results are entirely dependent on model and error specification as well as pollutant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin, environmental setting and study design (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Andrews, W.J.; Fallon, J.D.; Fong, A.L.; Goldstein, R.M.; Hanson, P.E.; Kroening, S.E.; Lee, K.E.


    The Upper Mississippi River Basin is diverse in ways that can control the areal distribution and flow of water and the distribution and concentration of constituents that affect water quality. A review of the environmental setting of the Upper Mississippi River Basin study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program is intended to put water quality in perspective with the geology, soils, climate, hydrology, ecology and historical uses of the land and provides a basis for the sampling design of the study.

  1. A Case Study: Climate Change Decision Support for the Apalachicola, Chattahoochee, Flint Basins (United States)

    Day, G. N.; McMahon, G.; Friesen, N.; Carney, S.


    Riverside Technology, inc. has developed a Climate Change Decision Support System (DSS) to provide water managers with a tool to explore a range of current Global Climate Model (GCM) projections to evaluate their potential impacts on streamflow and the reliability of future water supplies. The system was developed as part of a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project. The DSS uses downscaled GCM data as input to small-scale watershed models to produce time series of projected undepleted streamflow for various emission scenarios and GCM simulations. Until recently, water managers relied on historical streamflow data for water resources planning. In many parts of the country, great effort has been put into estimating long-term historical undepleted streamflow accounting for regulation, diversions, and return flows to support planning and water rights administration. In some cases, longer flow records have been constructed using paleohydrologic data in an attempt to capture climate variability beyond what is evident during the observed historical record. Now, many water managers are recognizing that historical data may not be representative of an uncertain climate future, and they have begun to explore the use of climate projections in their water resources planning. The Climate Change DSS was developed to support water managers in planning by accounting for both climate variability and potential climate change. In order to use the information for impact analysis, the projected streamflow time series can be exported and substituted for the historical streamflow data traditionally applied in their system operations models for water supply planning. This paper presents a case study in which climate-adjusted flows are coupled with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) ResSim model for the Apalachicola, Chattahoochee, and Flint (ACF) River basins. The study demonstrates how climate scenarios can be used

  2. A generic Froude scale model study of massive bedload deposition in a debris basin (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Recking, Alain


    Sediment trapping structures, such as gravel deposition basins, are regularly implemented in mountainous context for flood hazard mitigation. These structures should ultimately trap gravels when their excess may aggravate the downstream flood hazard, while, the remaining time, allowing a suitable background sediment continuity. Such optimized designs require a sufficient knowledge of the flow features and geomorphic processes implied in gravel trapping. A generic Froude scale model of a 10%-steep, bedload deposition basin, with a slit dam and without outlet structure, is presented in this work. Accurate photogrammetry and large scale particle image velocimetry (LS-PIV) were combined to study the geomorphic patterns and to reconstruct the flows. The emergence of self induced cycles of braided and channelized flows, with intense grain size sorting, is described. It sheds light on the similarity of bedload trapping with alluvial fan formation or fluvial delta development. The deposition slope, a key parameter in the structure design, is more precisely studied. The measurements are correctly estimated by a new simple equation, which is developed from prior works dedicated to steep slope stream hydraulics and bedload transport. The analysis demonstrates additionally that, despite the steepness of the studied conditions, most flows are subcritical due to roughness adjustment. We finally highlight that morphologically-active flows, i.e., with dimensionless shear stress higher than the threshold for motion, have Froude number ≈ 1; i.e., that a critical flow hypothesis seems reasonable, as a first approximation, to describe flows over massive bedload depositions. This new dataset, with complete geomorphic and flow measurements, in diverse conditions, may be used as reference to try and test numerical approaches of the phenomena.

  3. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.


    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area

  4. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.


    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  5. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.


    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10`` to 20`` API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  6. Pollen-based paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change at Lake Ohrid (south-eastern Europe) during the past 500 ka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadori, Laura; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos; Masi, Alessia; Bertini, Adele; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Francke, Alexander; Kouli, Katerina; Joannin, Sébastien; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Peyron, Odile; Torri, Paola; Wagner, Bernd; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sinopoli, Gaia; Donders, Timme H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290469872


    Lake Ohrid is located at the border between FYROM (Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia) and Albania and formed during the latest phases of Alpine orogenesis. It is the deepest, the largest and the oldest tectonic lake in Europe. To better understand the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental

  7. Case study Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico, USA: Chapter 12 (United States)

    Plummer, Niel; Sanford, W.


    Chemical and isotopic patterns in groundwater can record characteristics of water sources, flow directions, and groundwater-age information. This hydrochemical information can be useful in refining conceptualization of groundwater flow, in calibration of numerical models of groundwater flow, and in estimation of paleo and modern recharge rates. This case study shows how chemical and isotopic data were used to characterize sources and flow of groundwater in the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) of New Mexico, USA. The 14C model ages of the groundwater samples are on the tens of thousands of year timescale. These data changed some of the prevailing ideas about flow in the MRGB, and were used to improve a numerical model of the aquifer system.

  8. Comparative Study Of Alluvial Cnidion-Type Meadows In The Lower Danube River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider-Binder Erika


    Full Text Available Alluvial Cnidion-type meadows (Habitat type 6440 of the Habitats Directive, mostly characteristic for the lower courses of large rivers in continental climate conditions of Europe are presented from the Lower Danube upstream the municipality of Giurgiu (river-km 510-524. The ecological requirements of the characteristic species, as well as their sensitivity to human-induced changes that derive from regular flooding, drainage, intensification of use and/or abandonment, are highlighted; these changes frequently lead to a decrease of biodiversity of the Cnidion-type meadows or to their total loss The studied meadows are compared with similar alluvial meadows from other sites of the lower Danube River basin. Finally, the strong interlocking of Cnidion type meadows with those of the Agropyro-Rumicion, Molinion and Deschampsion caespitosae alliances are discussed.

  9. Study of radionuclide leaching from the residues of K Basin sludge dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, D.B.


    The sludges remaining in the K Basins after removal of the spent N Reactor nuclear fuel will be conditioned for disposal. After conditioning, an acid-insoluble residue will remain that may require further leaching to properly condition it for disposal. This document presents a literature study to identify and recommend one or more chemical leaching treatments for laboratory testing, based on the likely compositions of the residues. The processes identified are a nitric acid cerate leach, a silver-catalyzed persulfate leach, a nitric hydrofluoric acid leach, an oxalic citric acid reactor decontamination leach, a nitric hydrochloric acid leach, a ammonium fluoride nitrate leach, and a HEOPA formate dehydesulfoxylate leach. All processes except the last two are recommended for testing in that order

  10. Synthesis of the Paleoenvironmental changes in the Colombian lowlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrio, Juan Carlos


    This chapter includes a summary of all cores studied for this thesis, and one important factor to mention about the origin of the lakes at the Colombian lowlands, out of the climatic change, is the riverine influence that have been driven their evolution, some times with stronger dynamic than others, but enough as to be repercussive over the vegetation communities. This sort of dynamics made possible to accumulate different kind of sediments, which can be correlated with the pollen assemblages found in the pollen records. Moreover, multivariate analysis of raw pollen data standardizes the zonation of pollen records (Grimm, 1987), which contribute to get better interpretation from the pollen spectra. The sites of this thesis mainly belongs to the 5 major ecosystems of Colombia as follow: Boquillas in the lower Magdalena valley in the north, savannahs pollen records from the Llanos Orientales in the east, Amazonian pollen records in south and the tropical rain forest in the west and the interandean dry forest in the southwest

  11. Integrated water resources management : A case study in the Hehei river basin, China (United States)

    Jia, Siqi; Deng, Xiangzheng


    The lack of water resources experienced in different parts of the world has now been recognized and analyzed by different international organizations such as WHO, the World Bank, etc. Add to this the growing urbanization and the fast socio-economic development, the water supply of many urban areas is already or will be severely threatened. Recently published documents from the UN Environmental Program confirms that severe water shortage affects 400 million people today and will affect 4 billion people by 2050. Water nowadays is getting scarce, and access to clean drinking water and water for agricultural usage is unequally distributed. The biggest opportunity and challenge for future water management is how to achieve water sustainability to reduce water consumption. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. We take the Heibe river basin where agriculture water there accounted for 90% of total water consumption as an example to study the impacts of IWRM on regional water resources. We calculated the elasticity of substitution values between labor and land, water by each irrigation areas to find the variable elastic value among irrigation areas, and the water-use efficiency based on NPP estimation with the C-fix model and WUE estimation with NPP and ET. The empirical analysis indicated that the moderate scale of farmland is 0.27-0.53hm2 under the condition of technical efficiency of irrigation water and production. Agricultural water use accounted for 94% of the social and economic water consumption in 2012, but water efficiency and water productivity were both at a low stage. In conclusion, land use forms at present in Heihe river basin have a detrimental impact on the availability of ecological water use. promoting water

  12. Assessment of bio-physical drought hazards. A case study of Karkheh River basin in Iran (United States)

    Kamali, Bahareh; Abbaspour, Karim; Houshmand Kouchi, Delaram; Yang, Hong


    Iran has been affected by frequent droughts. Climate change is expected to intensify the situation in the future. Extreme drought events have had serious impacts on hydrological and agricultural sector. Thus, identification of bio-physical drought hazard is critically important for formulating effective adaptive measures to improve water and food security. This study aims to investigate temporal and spatial pattern of drought hazards in meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural (inclusively biophysical) sectors in the Karkheh River Basin of Iran in the historical and future climate change context. To do so, drought hazard indices were built based on the severity and frequency of standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized runoff index (SRI), and standardized soil moisture index (SSMI), which represent the three aspects of drought hazards. Variables required for calculating these indices were obtained from SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model constructed for the basin. The model was calibrated based on monthly runoff using the Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI-2) algorithm in SWAT-CUP. Based on the climate variability and drought analysis, three drought hazard classes, namely low, medium and high, were defined. This help identify how agricultural and hydrological sectors are related to meteorological droughts. Additionally, the bio-physical drivers of drought hazards were identified for each class. Comparing the results during historic and future scenarios revealed that the frequency of high- severity hazards will increase, whereas the same is not predicted for the area with medium hazard intensity. Inferred from findings of this study, the combined application of the SWAT model with bio-physical drought hazard concept helps better understanding of climate risks to water and food security. The developed approach is replicable at different scales to provide a robust planning tool for policy makers.

  13. Modeling the hydrologic effects of land and water development interventions: a case study of the upper Blue Nile river basin (United States)

    Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Meshesha, Derege; Adgo, Enyew; Poesen, Jean; Schütt, Brigitta


    Over 67% of the Ethiopian landmass has been identified as very vulnerable to climate variability and land degradation. These problems are more prevalent in the Upper Blue Nile (UBN, often called Abay) river basin covering a drainage area of about 199,800 km2. The UBN River runs from Lake Tana (NW Ethiopia) to the Ethiopia-Sudan border. To enhance the adaptive capacity to the high climate variability and land degradation in the basin, different land and water management measures (stone/soil bunds, runoff collector trenches, exclosures) have been extensively implemented, especially since recent years. Moreover, multipurpose water harvesting schemes including the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD, reservoir area of ca. 4000 km2) and 17 other similar projects are being or to be implemented by 2025. However, impact studies on land and water management aspects rarely include detailed hydrological components especially at river basin scale, although it is generally regarded as a major determinant of hydrological processes. The main aim of this study is therefore to model the significance of land and water management interventions in surface runoff response at scale of UBN river basin and to suggest some recommendations. Spatially-distributed annual surface runoff was simulated for both present-day and future (2025) land and water management conditions using calibrated values of the proportional loss model in ArcGIS environment. Average annual rainfall map (1998-2012) was produced from calibrated TRMM satellite source and shows high spatial variability of rainfall ranging between ca. 1000 mm in the Eastern part of the basin to ca. 2000 mm in the southern part of the basin. Present-day land use day condition was obtained from Abay Basin Master Plan study. The future land use map was created taking into account the land and water development interventions to be implemented by 2025. Under present-day conditions, high spatial variability of annual runoff depth was observed

  14. Tracking the source of mineralisation in the Tampere Basin (southern Finland), insights from structure, sedimentology and geophysics studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Torvela, Taija; Kalliomäki, Henrik


    -(sulphides-)rich deposits occur. However most of the sulphides seems to be associated with an important tectonic structure. The structural study suggests that these sulphide-bearing horizons originally localised within relatively low-angle thrusts that later rotated into a subvertical orientation. The suggested model......The ancient basins are of a wide interest to geoscientists as they archive the early development of plate tectonics, life, and ore-bearing systems. Several basins, especially those involving volcanic-derived materials, contain ore and mineral deposits. The formation of these ores is often related...... implies that early gently dipping thrusts acted as both channels and traps for the mineralising fluids that possibly sourced from relatively shallow depths from the base of the basin infill. The origin of the fluids might therefore be either in relation with early metamorphosis of the sedimentary pile and...

  15. Magnetic and bathymetric studies in the vicinity of the 73 degree E fracture zone, Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A.

    and bounded in the south by the South- tailed studies were carried out in the Central east Indian Ridge, represents a relatively un- Indian Basin in order to delineate the finer disturbed ocean basin with no major top.- scale features (Kamesh Raju... conspicuous bathymetric feature corn- near 35 °S with an approximately N10E prising an approximately 1000 m step-like un- spreading direction. When comparing the ob- 150 OBSERVED PROFILES 25 S 24 N v ,/~ - ;, /'~ J, )~ CIOB-I , <:=:79eE FZ I I ~ ClOB-5...

  16. Hydrochemical and isotopic studies of ground water from Botucatu Aquifer - Partial results for North region of Parana Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.B.G. da; Kimmelmann, A.A.; Cunha Reboucas, A. da


    The first results of an investigation, to study the flow path, the processes controlling the chemical composition, the recharge, as well as, the origin, apparent ages and dynamic of the groundwater of the Botucatu Aquifer in the Brazilian part of the Parana Basin (818.000 Km 2 ), using hydrochemical and environmental isotope technics ( 2 H, 18 O, 13 C, 3 H, 14 C), are presented. Samples of 20 deep wells, located in the northern part of the Basin (states of Sao Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Goias), were analysed. (Author) [pt

  17. Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental records from the Chatanika River valley near Fairbanks (Alaska) (United States)

    Schirrmeister, Lutz; Meyer, Hanno; Andreev, Andrei; Wetterich, Sebastian; Kienast, Frank; Bobrov, Anatoly; Fuchs, Margret; Sierralta, Melanie; Herzschuh, Ulrike


    Perennially-frozen deposits are considered as excellent paleoenvironmental archives similar to lacustrine, deep marine, and glacier records because of the long-term and good preservation of fossil records under stable permafrost conditions. A permafrost tunnel in the Vault Creek Valley (Chatanika River Valley, near Fairbanks) exposes a sequence of frozen deposits and ground ice that provides a comprehensive set of proxies to reconstruct the late Quaternary environmental history of Interior Alaska. The multi-proxy approach includes different dating techniques (radiocarbon-accelerator mass spectrometry [AMS 14C], optically stimulated luminescence [OSL], thorium/uranium radioisotope disequilibria [230Th/U]), as well as methods of sedimentology, paleoecology, hydrochemistry, and stable isotope geochemistry of ground ice. The studied sequence consists of 36-m-thick late Quaternary deposits above schistose bedrock. Main portions of the sequence accumulated during the early and middle Wisconsin periods. The lowermost unit A consists of about 9-m-thick ice-bonded fluvial gravels with sand and peat lenses. A late Sangamon (MIS 5a) age of unit A is assumed. Spruce forest with birch, larch, and some shrubby alder dominated the vegetation. High presence of Sphagnum spores and Cyperaceae pollen points to mires in the Vault Creek Valley. The overlying unit B consists of 10-m-thick alternating fluvial gravels, loess-like silt, and sand layers, penetrated by small ice wedges. OSL dates support a stadial early Wisconsin (MIS 4) age of unit B. Pollen and plant macrofossil data point to spruce forests with some birch interspersed with wetlands around the site. The following unit C is composed of 15-m-thick ice-rich loess-like and organic-rich silt with fossil bones and large ice wedges. Unit C formed during the interstadial mid-Wisconsin (MIS 3) and stadial late Wisconsin (MIS 2) as indicated by radiocarbon ages. Post-depositional slope processes significantly deformed both, ground

  18. Architecture of buried reverse fault zone in the sedimentary basin: A case study from the Hong-Che Fault Zone of the Junggar Basin (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Wu, Kongyou; Wang, Xi; Liu, Bo; Guo, Jianxun; Du, Yannan


    It is widely accepted that the faults can act as the conduits or the barrier for oil and gas migration. Years of studies suggested that the internal architecture of a fault zone is complicated and composed of distinct components with different physical features, which can highly influence the migration of oil and gas along the fault. The field observation is the most useful methods of observing the fault zone architecture, however, in the petroleum exploration, what should be concerned is the buried faults in the sedimentary basin. Meanwhile, most of the studies put more attention on the strike-slip or normal faults, but the architecture of the reverse faults attracts less attention. In order to solve these questions, the Hong-Che Fault Zone in the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang Province, is chosen for an example. Combining with the seismic data, well logs and drill core data, we put forward a comprehensive method to recognize the internal architectures of buried faults. High-precision seismic data reflect that the fault zone shows up as a disturbed seismic reflection belt. Four types of well logs, which are sensitive to the fractures, and a comprehensive discriminated parameter, named fault zone index are used in identifying the fault zone architecture. Drill core provides a direct way to identify different components of the fault zone, the fault core is composed of breccia, gouge, and serpentinized or foliated fault rocks and the damage zone develops multiphase of fractures, which are usually cemented. Based on the recognition results, we found that there is an obvious positive relationship between the width of the fault zone and the displacement, and the power-law relationship also exists between the width of the fault core and damage zone. The width of the damage zone in the hanging wall is not apparently larger than that in the footwall in the reverse fault, showing different characteristics with the normal fault. This study provides a

  19. Study on groundwater flow system in a sedimentary rock area. Case study for the Yoro river basin, Chiba Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Ryutaro; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo


    In the safety assessment for a geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste such as high-level radioactive waste and TRU waste etc, it is important to estimate radionuclide migration to human society associated with groundwater flow. Groundwater flow systems for many domestic areas including Tono Mine, Kamaishi Mine and Horonobe district have been studied, but deep groundwater flow circumstances, and mixing between deep groundwater and shallow groundwater flow system are not well understood. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started to investigate a sedimentary rock area in the Yoro river basin, in Chiba Prefecture, where the topographic and geological features are relatively simple for mathematical modeling, and hydraulic data as well as data from river and well water are available. Hydro-chemical conditions of the regional groundwater were discussed based on temperature, chemical compositions, isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and the isotopic age of radioactive carbon for water samples collected from wells, rivers and springs in the Yoro river basin. It was found that the groundwater system in this basin consists of types of water: Ca-HCO 3 type water, Na-HCO 3 type water and NaCl type water. The Ca-HCO 3 type water is meteoric water cultivated several thousand years or after, the Na-HCO 3 type water is meteoric water cultivated under cold climates several to twenty thousand years ago. The NaCl type water is fossil brine water formed twenty thousand years ago. It was also observed that the Na-HCO 3 type water upwelled at the surface originates from GL-200m to -400m. This observation indicates that the Na-HCO 3 type water upwelled through the Ca-HCO 3 type water area with the both waters partially mixed. (author)

  20. A gravity study along a profile across the Sichuan Basin, the Qinling Mountains and the Ordos Basin (central China): Density, isostasy and dynamics (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqian; Teng, Jiwen; Wang, Qianshen; Lü, Qingtian; Si, Xiang; Xu, Tao; Badal, José; Yan, Jiayong; Hao, Zhaobing


    In order to investigate the structure of the crust beneath the Middle Qinling Mountains (MQL) and neighboring areas in the North China Block and South China Block, a north-south gravity profile from Yuquan in the Sichuan Basin to Yulin in the Ordos Basin was conducted in 2011. The Bouguer gravity anomaly is determined from a high-quality gravity dataset collected between 31°N and 36°N of latitude, and varies between -200 and -110 mGal in the study region. Using accredited velocity density relationships, an initial crust-mantle density model is constructed for MQL and adjacent areas, which is later refined interactively to simulate the observed gravity anomaly. The present study reveals the features of the density and Bouguer gravity with respect to the tectonic units sampled by the profile. The lithosphere density model shows typical density values that depict a layered structure and allow differentiate the blocks that extend along the reference profile. The gravity field calculated by forward modeling from the final density distribution model correlates well with the measured gravity field within a standard deviation of 1.26 mGal. The density in the crystalline crust increases with depth from 2.65 g/cm3 up to the highest value of 2.95 g/cm3 near the bottom of the crust. The Conrad interface is identified as a density jump of about 0.05 g/cm3. The average density of the crust in MQL is clearly lower than the density in the formations on both sides. Starting from a combined Airy-Pratt isostatic compensation model, a partly compensated crust is found below MQL, suggesting future growth of the crust, unlike the Ordos and Sichuan basins that will remain stable. On the basis of the density and isostatic state of the crust and additional seismological research, such as the P-wave velocity model and Poisson's ratio, it is concluded that the lower crust delamination is a reasonable interpretation for the geophysical characteristics below the Qinling Orogen.

  1. An analytical study on nested flow systems in a Tóthian basin with a periodically changing water table (United States)

    Zhao, Ke-Yu; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Wan, Li; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Wang, Heng; Li, Hailong


    Classical understanding on basin-scale groundwater flow patterns is based on Tóth's findings of a single flow system in a unit basin (Tóth, 1962) and nested flow systems in a complex basin (Tóth, 1963), both of which were based on steady state models. Vandenberg (1980) extended Tóth (1962) by deriving a transient solution under a periodically changing water table in a unit basin and examined the flow field distortion under different dimensionless response time, τ∗. Following Vandenberg's (1980) approach, we extended Tóth (1963) by deriving the transient solution under a periodically changing water table in a complex basin and examined the transient behavior of nested flow systems. Due to the effect of specific storage, the flow field is asymmetric with respect to the midline, and the trajectory of internal stagnation points constitutes a non-enclosed loop, whose width decreases when τ∗ decreases. The distribution of the relative magnitude of hydraulic head fluctuation, Δh∗ , is dependent on the horizontal distance away from a divide and the depth below the land surface. In the shallow part, Δh∗ decreases from 1 at the divide to 0 at its neighboring valley under all τ∗, while in the deep part, Δh∗ reaches a threshold, whose value decreases when τ∗ increases. The zones with flowing wells are also found to change periodically. As water table falls, there is a general trend of shrinkage in the area of zones with flowing wells, which has a lag to the declining water table under a large τ∗. Although fluxes have not been assigned in our model, the recharge/discharge flux across the top boundary can be obtained. This study is critical to understand a series of periodically changing hydrogeological phenomena in large-scale basins.

  2. Evaluation and identification of significant quality parameters for the bodies of water in bahia's semi-arid region. Case study: salitre river hydrographic basin


    Oliveira, Clélia Nobre de; Campos, Vânia P.; Medeiros, Yvonilde Dantas Pinto


    Objective of this work was identifying superficial water quality parameters, significant to semi-arid hydrographic basins, minimizing costs of water monitoring. The Salitre river basin, an important sub-basin of the São Francisco river, was used as a case study. STD, Cl-, DO, BOD, pH, NO3-, PO4(3-), Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb were considered the most significant parameters, with concentration levels found in some stretches of the basin not compliant with the current legislation. Some of the Sa...

  3. Evaluating water policy options in agriculture: a whole-farm study for the broye river basin (switzerland)†

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, N.; Finger, R.


    In this study, we evaluate the impact of an increased volumetric water price and the implementation of a water quota on management decisions, income, income risk and utility of an arable farmer in the Broye River Basin, western Switzerland. We develop a bio-economic whole-farm model, which couples

  4. Impact of farm dams on river flows; A case study in the Limpopo River basin, Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Querner, E.P.; Boesveld, H.


    The study analysed the impact of a farm dam on the river flow in the Limpopo River basin. Two methods are used to calculate the water inflow: one uses the runoff component from the catchment water balance; the other uses the drainage output of the SIMFLOW model. The impact on the flow in a

  5. Estimating migratory fish distribution from altitude and basin area: a case study in a large Neotropical river (United States)

    Jose Ricardo Barradas; Lucas G. Silva; Bret C. Harvey; Nelson F. Fontoura


    1. The objective of this study was to identify longitudinal distribution patterns of large migratory fish species in the Uruguay River basin, southern Brazil, and construct statistical distribution models for Salminus brasiliensis, Prochilodus lineatus, Leporinus obtusidens and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans. 2. The sampling programme resulted in 202 interviews with old...

  6. A river basin as a commom-pool resource: a case study fot the Jaguaribe basin in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert


    This paper applies 'common-pool resource' concepts to analyse to which extent the physical characteristics of a river basin facilitate or impede good management of water in different parts of a river basin. In addition, we compare the apparent manageability of water in the different parts of the

  7. Study of nonpoint source nutrient loading in the Patuxent River basin, Maryland (United States)

    Preston, S.D.


    Study of nonpoint-source (NPS) nutrient loading in Maryland has focused on the Patuxent watershed because of its importance and representativeness of conditions in the State. Evaluation of NPS nutrient loading has been comprehensive and has included long-term monitoring, detailed watershed modeling, and synoptic sampling studies. A large amount of information has been compiled for the watershed and that information is being used to identify primary controls and efficient management strategies for NPS nutrient loading. Results of the Patuxent NPS study have identified spatial trends in water quality that appear to be related to basin charcteristics such as land use, physiography, andgeology. Evaluation of the data compiled by the study components is continuing and is expected to provide more detailed assessments of the reasons for spatial trends. In particular, ongoing evaluation of the watershed model output is expected to provide detailed information on the relative importance of nutrient sources and transport pathways across the entire watershed. Planned future directions of NPS evaluation in the State of Maryland include continued study of water quality in the Patuxent watershed and a shift in emphasis to a statewide approach. Eventually, the statewide approach will become the primary approach usedby the State to evaluate NPS loading. The information gained in the Patuxent study and the tools developed will represent valuable assets indeveloping the statewide NPS assessment program.

  8. Dealing with uncertainties in impact studies of climate change on hydrometeorological series over Segura River Basin (Spain) (United States)

    Garcia Galiano, S. G.; Garcia Cardenas, R.; Tetay Botia, C.; Giraldo Osorio, J.; Erena Arrabal, M.; Baille, A.


    The Segura River Basin (SRB) located in the South East of Spain, is affected by recurrent drought and water scarcity episodes. This basin presents the lowest percentage of renewable water resources of all the Spanish basins. Intensive reforestation has been carried out in the region, to halt desertification and erosion, which added to climate change and variability, do not allow the default assumption of stationarity in the water resources systems. Therefore, the study of effects in hydrometeorological series should be addressed by nonstationary probabilistic models that allow describing the time evolution of their probability distribution functions (PDFs). In the present work, the GAMLSS (Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shaper) approach is applied to identify of spatio-temporal trends in observed precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET), at basin scale. Several previous studies have addressed the potential impacts of climate change in water supply systems, focusing on the sensitivity analysis of runoff to climate. Considering the use of a conceptual hydrological model with few parameters, the impacts on runoff and its trend from historical data, are assessed. The conclusions of this study represent a breakthrough in the development of methodologies to understand and anticipate the impacts on water resources systems, in the light of current and future climate conditions, considering hydroclimatic non-stationarity. These findings are expected to contribute to the management of conditions of water resources scarcity and droughts, such as the observed in the SRB, as support to decision-making process by stakeholders.

  9. Paleoenvironmental and Paleoecological Reconstruction of the Ancient Maya Port Site of Vista Alegre, Quintana Roo, Mexico (United States)

    Rissolo, D.; Jaijel, R.; Glover, J. B.; Goodman, B.; Beddows, P. A.; Carter, A.; Smith, D.


    Ancient Maya ports along the largely unstudied northeast coast of the Yucatan Peninsula once supported a network of trade routes linking people, goods, and ideas from across Mesoamerica. The Costa Escondida Project has focused on the interrelationships between the ancient Maya and their dynamic coastal environment along the shores of the Laguna Holbox. Central to our interdisciplinary efforts is a paleoenvironmental and paleoecological reconstruction of the key port of Vista Alegre - a low-lying island surrounded by a complex mosaic of costal ecosystems, sedimentological facies, and hydrological conditions. Geoarchaeological field methods, such as sediment coring, have made possible multiproxy analyses that enable us to better understand sea level fluctuations and the morphology of the shoreline and harboring locations over time, as well as changes in ecosystem biodiversity, which would have presented the maritime Maya with unique challenges and opportunities.

  10. Tectono-sedimentary analysis using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility: a study of the terrestrial and freshwater Neogene of the Orava Basin (United States)

    Łoziński, Maciej; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Wysocka, Anna


    The Orava Basin is an intramontane depression filled with presumably fine-grained sediments deposited in river, floodplain, swamp and lake settings. The basin infilling constitutes a crucial record of the neoalpine evolution of the Inner/Outer Carpathian boundary area since the Neogene, when the Jurassic-Paleogene basement became consolidated, uplifted and eroded. The combination of sedimentological and structural studies with anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements provided an effective tool for recognition of terrestrial environments and deformations of the basin infilling. The lithofacies-oriented sampling and statistical approach to the large dataset of AMS specimens were utilized to define 12 AMS facies based on anisotropy degree (P) and shape (T). The AMS facies allowed a distinction of sedimentary facies ambiguous for classical methods, especially floodplain and lacustrine sediments, as well as revealing their various vulnerabilities to tectonic modification of AMS. A spatial analysis of facies showed that tuffites along with lacustrine and swamp deposits were generally restricted to marginal and southern parts of the basin. Significant deformations were noticed at basin margins and within two intrabasinal tectonic zones, which indicated the tectonic activity of the Pieniny Klippen Belt after the Middle Miocene. The large southern area of the basin recorded consistent N-NE trending compression during basin inversion. This regional tectonic rearrangement resulted in a partial removal of the southernmost basin deposits and shaped the basin's present-day extent.

  11. Potential ground water resources of Hat Yai Basin in Peninsular Thailand by gravity study

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    Warawutti Lohawijarn


    Full Text Available Residual gravity anomaly with a minimum of about -140 mm s-2 with approximately NS trend and a limited axial length was observed over Hat Yai Basin in Peninsular Thailand. The modeled Hat Yai basin is about 1 km deep at its deepest, 60 km long and 20 km wide. The porosity of basin sediment and the amount of potential ground water reserves within the basin are estimated to be 39% and 121.7±0.8 km3 respectively, assuming full saturation. Within the topmost 80 m of ground where the present extraction is concentrated, the estimated ground water reserve is 12.5±0.5 km3.

  12. Regional study is the next important stage in evaluation of oil and gas industry potential of sedimentary basins of Western Kazakhstan

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    D.K. Azhgaliev


    Full Text Available The article presents the general state of exploration and regional geotectonic characteristics of the structure of the basins of Western Kazakhstan (the Caspian Basin, Ustyurt-Bozashi and Mangyshlak. Principal results of regional studies carried out on the «Comprehensive study of sedimentary basins of the Republic of Kazakhstan» project for 2009-2013 are given. Based on this, topical issues in the study of the deep structure of basins are emphasized, from the perspective of further assessment of the forecasted hydrocarbon potential. In accordance with the new deep drilling data (5.5-7.0 km and more in recent years, the importance and necessity of specifying the structure and high prospects of the Paleozoic deposits are substantiated. In this regard, it is stated that it is advisable to post a parametric well in the future with an anomalous projected depth (14-15 km in the central part of the Caspian Basin (Eurasia Project. Also, the program of regional studies (geotraverses and 2D seismic profiles on the most important geological «cuttings» from the sides of the Caspian basin to the center, the zones of its articulation with the other basins that apply in the south, was considered. The characteristic of the problems solved by the program of regional study of the basins of Western Kazakhstan is given.

  13. Nitrogen isotopes in lake sediments (Tiefer See, NE Germany) and their potential for paleoenvironmental and human impact reconstruction (United States)

    Plessen, Birgit; Kienel, Ulrike; Dräger, Nadine; Brauer, Achim


    The light stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon can be widely used to reconstruct past paleoenvironmental conditions, agricultural landscape development, and industrial pollution. They may reflect human impact by extensive land use, manure, sewage input, and atmospheric nitrogen compounds. To understand the lake nitrogen cycle depending on natural variability and anthropogenic forcing, we study the sediment record of Lake Tiefer See (Mecklenburg/NE-Germany) together with the recent input and productivity monthly monitored in sediment traps in the hypo-, meta- and epilimnion. The monitoring of the dimictic to monomictic Lake Tiefer See (62.5 m water depth) over the last three years clearly shows high δ15N (+7 to +14‰ ), and low δ113Corg (-28 to -33‰ ) values of the deposited matter mainly corresponding to internal organic productivity driven by nutrient loading and the development of anoxia in the hypolimnion. Compared to that, surface soil and terrestrial plant materials are characterised by lower δ15N (+3 to +6‰ ), and higher δ13Corg (-28 to -25‰ ) values. Recent high δ15N values of the phytoplankton in the lake water reflect assimilation of dissolved nitrogen compounds enriched in 15N, whereas the lower δ15N of surface core sedimentary matter indicate partly decomposition of organic matter in the anoxic zone and release of 15N enriched components into the lake water. We furthermore identified in the lake sedimentary record a continuous increase in δ15N from +3 to +8‰ over the last 400 years interrupted by short term phases of decreasing 15N enrichment implying an intrusion of human activity in the nitrogen cycle starting at ca. AD 1590. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis -ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association, grant number VH-VI-415.

  14. Contribution of the gravimetry to the structural study of the Haouz basin (Morocco

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    El Goumi, N.


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to improve the knowledge of the Haouz basin structure using gravity data analysis. First of all, a residual anomaly map was computed from the Bouguer anomaly, greatly affected by an important regional gravity gradient. The calculated map provides information on the ground density variations mainly attributed to the top of the Paleozoic basement undulations under the sedimentary cover. However, in order to further study this map, it has been later analyzed with a method that allows evidencing different buried geological structures, combining the horizontal gradient and the upward continuations processing. The obtained results allows us to establish a structural map of the Haouz basin which confirms the existence of structures already recognized or assumed by the classic geological studies, and highlights accidents, as yet, unknown until the present time. This map shows that the fault system of the Haouz basin is organized in two families of directions NE-SW and NW-SE.

    [fr] La présente étude a pour objectif d’améliorer la connaissance de la structure du bassin du Haouz en se basant sur l’analyse des données gravimétriques. Dans un premier temps, une carte des anomalies résiduelle a été calculée à partir de la carte de l’anomalie de Bouguer, fortement affectée par un gradient régional. La carte calculée fournit des informations sur la variation de la densité du sous-sol, expliquée principalement par des ondulations du toit du socle paléozoïque sous la couverture sédimentaire. Toutefois, afin d’exploiter davantage cette carte, celle-ci a été analysée à l’aide d’une méthode qui permet de mettre en évidence les différentes structures géologiques, en combinant le calcul du gradient horizontal et du prolongement vers le haut. Les résultats obtenus ont permis d’établir une carte structurale du bassin du Haouz qui confirme l’existence de structures déjà reconnues ou

  15. Study of the Ouarzazate basin structure by seismic reflection: hydrogeological implications

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    Jaffal, M.


    Full Text Available A large number of seismic reflection lines have been carried out in the Ouarzazate basin by the oil industry. The present study is concerned with the interpretation of a part of these data in order to characterize the structure of the Eocene aquifer system. The reflector corresponding to the base of this system, made up of sandstone and limestone, was first identified then digitized on each time-migrated seismic section. An isochrone map of this reflector was realized. The analysis of this map shows that the area under study is subdivided into two structurally contrasted domains. The first, the northern one, is intensively deformed; while the second, the southern one, is slightly folded. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the deep geological structure of the Ouarzazate basin. This allows us to better comprehend the functioning of the Eocene aquifer system, and to rationalize the future potential underground water exploration in the Ouarzazate basin.

    Les campagnes d’exploration pétrolière menées dans le bassin d’Ouarzazate ont permis l’acquisition d’une importante base de données de sismique réflexion. La présente étude concerne l’interprétation d’une partie de ces données dans l’objectif de caractériser la tectonique de l’Eocène et la structure de son système aquifère. Dans un premier temps, le réflecteur correspondant à la base de cet étage, représenté de grès et de calcaires, a été identifié, puis numérisé sur les différentes sections sismiques migrées-temps; ce qui nous a permis d’en établir une carte d’isochrones. Celle-ci montre que le secteur étudié est subdivisé en deux domaines très contrastés d’un point de vue structural. Le premier, septentrional, est affecté par une structuration intense de direction atlasique, tandis que le second, méridional, est faiblement plissé. Les résultats de la présente étude permettent une meilleure connaissance de la

  16. Impact of potash mining in streams: the Llobregat basin (northeast Spain as a case study

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    Ruben Ladrera


    Full Text Available Potash mining is significantly increasing the salt concentration of rivers and streams due to lixiviates coming from the mine tailings. In the present study, we have focused on the middle Llobregat basin (northeast Spain, where an important potash mining activity exists from the beginning of the XX century. Up to 50 million tonnes of saline waste have been disposed in the area, mainly composed of sodium chloride. We assessed the ecological status of streams adjacent to the mines by studying different physicochemical and hydromorphological variables, as well as aquatic macroinvertebrates. We found extraordinary high values of salinity in the studied streams, reaching conductivities up to 132.4 mS/cm. Salt-polluted streams were characterized by a deterioration of the riparian vegetation and the fluvial habitat. Both macroinvertebrate richness and abundance decreased with increasing salinity. In the most polluted stream only two families of macroinvertebrates were found: Ephydridae and Ceratopogonidae. According to the biotic indices IBMWP and IMMi-T, none of the sites met the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD; i.e., good ecological status. Overall, we can conclude that potash-mining activities have the potential to cause severe ecological damage to their surrounding streams. This is mainly related to an inadequate management of the mine tailings, leading to highly saline runoff and percolates entering surface waters. Thus, we urge water managers and policy makers to take action to prevent, detect and remediate salt pollution of rivers and streams in potash mining areas.

  17. Comparative study of vent and seep macrofaunal communities in the Guaymas Basin (United States)

    Portail, M.; Olu, K.; Escobar-Briones, E.; Caprais, J. C.; Menot, L.; Waeles, M.; Cruaud, P.; Sarradin, P. M.; Godfroy, A.; Sarrazin, J.


    Understanding the ecological processes and connectivity of chemosynthetic deep-sea ecosystems requires comparative studies. In the Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California, Mexico), the presence of seeps and vents in the absence of a biogeographic barrier, and comparable sedimentary settings and depths offers a unique opportunity to assess the role of ecosystem-specific environmental conditions on macrofaunal communities. Six seep and four vent assemblages were studied, three of which were characterised by common major foundation taxa: vesicomyid bivalves, siboglinid tubeworms and microbial mats. Macrofaunal community structure at the family level showed that density, diversity and composition patterns were primarily shaped by seep- and vent-common abiotic factors including methane and hydrogen sulfide concentrations, whereas vent environmental specificities (higher temperature, higher metal concentrations and lower pH) were not significant. The type of substratum and the heterogeneity provided by foundation species were identified as additional structuring factors and their roles were found to vary according to fluid regimes. At the family level, seep and vent similarity reached at least 58 %. All vent families were found at seeps and each seep-specific family displayed low relative abundances (< 5 %). Moreover, 85 % of the identified species among dominant families were shared between seep and vent ecosystems. This study provides further support to the hypothesis of continuity among deep-sea seep and vent ecosystems.

  18. Neutron Activation Analysis and Moessbauer Correlations of Archaeological Pottery from Amazon Basin for Classification Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido, A. V. B.; Latini, R. M.; Nicoli, I.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Solorzano, P. M.


    The aim of the present work was to investigate the correlation between data obtained by means of two analytical methods, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and Moessbauer Spectroscopy of pottery samples combined with multivariate statistical analysis in order to optimize quantitative analysis in the classification studies. Ceramics recently discovered in archaeological earth circular structures sites in Acre state Brazil. 199 samples were analyzed by INAA, allowing simultaneous determination of twenty elements chemical concentrations, and 44 samples by using Moessbauer Spectroscopy, allowing the determination of fourteen hyperfine parameters. For the correlation study, data were treated by two multivariate statistical methods: cluster analysis for the classification and the principal component analysis for the data correlations. INAA data show that some of REE (rare earth elements) were the discriminating variables for this technique. Mossbauer parameters that exhibit the same behavior are being investigated, remarkable improve can be seem for the combined REE and the Mossbauer variables showing a good results considering the limited number of samples. This data matrix is being used for the understanding in the studies of classification and provenance of ceramics prehistory of the Amazonic basin.

  19. First record of Annonaceae wood for the Neogene of South America, Amazon Basin, Brazil

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    Emilio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The relief of the regions of Manaus and Itacoatiara, Central Amazon, is supported by Neogene siliciclastic rocks, bounded at the base and top by lateritic paleosols and covered by quaternary sedimentary deposits from the Solimões-Amazon river system. This unit is informally assigned to the Novo Remanso Formation, consists of usually reddish and ferruginized sandstones, conglomerates and pelites, with few identified fossil records, a fact that has hindered its stratigraphic position, and the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last phase of the Amazon Basin settling. This study describes, for the first time, the occurrence of fossil wood in outcroppings of the left bank of the Amazon River, where anatomical and morphological data has enabled its characterization to the species level. Thus, the data marks the record of the Annonaceae in South America, as well as the depositional processes related to incorporation of organic material in the sandy layer and the fossilization processes that allowed its preservation. In an unprecedented way, this study has described Duguetiaxylon amazonicum nov. gen and sp. and provided information on the anatomical and systematic character, as well as data on plant-insect interaction, and a better understanding of the family.

  20. Paleoecology of benthic foraminifera from the Miocene of the San Jacinto Basin, Colombia (United States)

    Poveda, John Sebastian; Fiorini, Flavia; Andres Trejos, Raul; Vallejo, Diego Felipe; Pardo, Andres


    Quantitative benthic foraminifera analysis was conducted on 34 samples collected from a borehole core (393.72m deep) drilled by Colombian Hydrocarbon Agency (ANH) on 2009 in the San Jacinto basin (Northern Colombia). The aims of the research were to define a taxonomical data-bank of Miocene benthic foraminifera for this region, to use the benthic foraminifera assemblages to interpret the paleoenvironment and to identify paleoenvironmental changes. The bottom of the section was dated between lowest Burdigalian to middle Langhian (20.393-17.721 Ma) based on calcareous nannofossils bioevents: LO Helicosphaera ampliaperta, HCO Sphenolithus belemnos and LCO Sphenolithus heteromorphus. The benthic foraminifera fauna identified in the studied samples is composed for the majority of calcareous hyaline tests and is dominated by infaunal taxas. Species belonging to the genera Uvigerina and Lenticulina are commonly occurring in the studied section together with other species typical of outer-shelf upper-bathyal environment. Cibicidoides spp., abundant in the lower part of the section, abruptly decreases in abundance in the upper part. Species belonging to the opportunistic genera Bulimina and Bolivina are more abundant in the upper part of the section. Variability in the abundance of opportunistic species can be associated with tectonic disturbance on the Sinu-San Jacinto fold belt (NW of Colombia) as a result of collision of the Caribbean plate against NW of South America. The tectonics could lead a perturbation on deep ocean sedimentation and circulation.

  1. Sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting: a case study for the Yellow River basin (United States)

    Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.


    Water Footprint Assessment is a fast-growing field of research, but as yet little attention has been paid to the uncertainties involved. This study investigates the sensitivity of and uncertainty in crop water footprint (in m3 t-1) estimates related to uncertainties in important input variables. The study focuses on the green (from rainfall) and blue (from irrigation) water footprint of producing maize, soybean, rice, and wheat at the scale of the Yellow River basin in the period 1996-2005. A grid-based daily water balance model at a 5 by 5 arcmin resolution was applied to compute green and blue water footprints of the four crops in the Yellow River basin in the period considered. The one-at-a-time method was carried out to analyse the sensitivity of the crop water footprint to fractional changes of seven individual input variables and parameters: precipitation (PR), reference evapotranspiration (ET0), crop coefficient (Kc), crop calendar (planting date with constant growing degree days), soil water content at field capacity (Smax), yield response factor (Ky) and maximum yield (Ym). Uncertainties in crop water footprint estimates related to uncertainties in four key input variables: PR, ET0, Kc, and crop calendar were quantified through Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the sensitivities and uncertainties differ across crop types. In general, the water footprint of crops is most sensitive to ET0 and Kc, followed by the crop calendar. Blue water footprints were more sensitive to input variability than green water footprints. The smaller the annual blue water footprint is, the higher its sensitivity to changes in PR, ET0, and Kc. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop due to combined uncertainties in climatic inputs (PR and ET0) were about ±20% (at 95% confidence interval). The effect of uncertainties in ET0was dominant compared to that of PR. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop as a result of combined key input

  2. Utilization of Neutron Activation Analysis for geochemical study of major and trace elements in Bouregreg river basin (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounouira, H.; Bounakhla, M.; Embarch, K.; Choukri, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.; Treuil, M.; Chakiri, S.


    The Bouregreg river basin is located in the moroccan central massif which consists mainly of palaeozoic formations that were subject to the Hercynian orogeny. This study documents the backround geochemistry and hydrochemistry of the Bouregreg river basin, focusing on the distribution of major and trace elements, Rock samples were collected at 9 locations along the bouregreg river and its tributaries in the winter of 2005. Major (Al, fe, Mn, Na, K and Ti) and trace (Rb, Cs, Sr, Sc, Ba, Cr, V, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Sb, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Mo, Th and U) elements were anlysed using instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Data show that most of the geochemistry and hydrochemistry are related to regional and local geology. the geochemical heritage of geological environment in the Bouregreg river basin is very important, that results from the more compatible behaviour and the inertia of some elements during the weathering (3d transition elements (Co, Ni, Cr,...), interne transition elements f (lanthanides, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta,...)). The geochemical homogeneity of the basin shows also heritage during the crustal accretion (magmatism-metamorphism-sedimention) and the typology of this continental area is the same that the Upper Continental Crust (UCC). Some anomalously high heavy metal analyses, particulary for As and Sb, may be related to anthropogenic activities

  3. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Main Glauconite Bed in the Middle Eocene of Texas: Paleoenvironmental Implications for the Verdine Facies (United States)

    Harding, Sherie C.; Nash, Barbara P.; Petersen, Erich U.; Ekdale, A. A.; Bradbury, Christopher D.; Dyar, M. Darby


    The Main Glauconite Bed (MGB) is a pelleted greensand located at Stone City Bluff on the south bank of the Brazos River in Burleson County, Texas. It was deposited during the Middle Eocene regional transgression on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Stratigraphically it lies in the upper Stone City Member, Crockett Formation, Claiborne Group. Its mineralogy and geochemistry were examined in detail, and verdine facies minerals, predominantly odinite, were identified. Few glauconitic minerals were found in the green pelleted sediments of the MGB. Without detailed mineralogical work, glaucony facies minerals and verdine facies minerals are easily mistaken for one another. Their distinction has value in assessing paleoenvironments. In this study, several analytical techniques were employed to assess the mineralogy. X-ray diffraction of oriented and un-oriented clay samples indicated a clay mixture dominated by 7 and 14Å diffraction peaks. Unit cell calculations from XRD data for MGB pellets match the odinite-1M data base. Electron microprobe analyses (EMPA) from the average of 31 data points from clay pellets accompanied with Mössbauer analyses were used to calculate the structural formula which is that of odinite: Fe3+ 0.89 Mg0.45 Al0.67 Fe2+ 0.30 Ti0.01 Mn0.01) Σ = 2.33 (Si1.77 Al0.23) O5.00 (OH)4.00. QEMSCAN (Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy) data provided mineral maps of quantitative proportions of the constituent clays. The verdine facies is a clay mineral facies associated with shallow marine shelf and lagoonal environments at tropical latitudes with iron influx from nearby runoff. Its depositional environment is well documented in modern nearshore locations. Recognition of verdine facies clays as the dominant constituent of the MGB clay pellets, rather than glaucony facies clays, allows for a more precise assessment of paleoenvironmental conditions. PMID:24503875

  4. Linking Governance to Sustainable Management Outcomes: Applying Dynamic Indicator Profiles to River Basin Organization Case Studies around the World. (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Bouckaert, F. W.


    Institutional best practice for integrated river basin management advocates the river basin organisation (RBO) model as pivotal to achieve sustainable management outcomes and stakeholder engagement. The model has been widely practiced in transboundary settings and is increasingly adopted at national scales, though its effectiveness remains poorly studied. A meta-analysis of four river basins has been conducted to assess governance models and linking it to evaluation of biophysical management outcomes. The analysis is based on a Theory of Change framework, and includes functional dynamic governance indicator profiles, coupled to sustainable ecosystem management outcome profiles. The governance and outcome profiles, informed by context specific indicators, demand that targets for setting objectives are required in multiple dimensions, and trajectory outlines are a useful tool to track progress along the journey mapped out by the Theory of Change framework. Priorities, trade-offs and objectives vary in each basin, but the diagnostics tool allows comparison between basins in their capacity to reach targets through successive evaluations. The distance between capacity and target scores determines how program planning should be prioritized and resources allocated for implementation; this is a dynamic process requiring regular evaluations and adaptive management. The findings of this study provide a conceptual framework for combining dimensions of integrated water management principles that bridge tensions between (i) stakeholder engagement and participatory management (bottom-up approach) using localized knowledge and (ii) decision-making, control-and-command, system-scale, accountable and equitable management (top-down approach).The notion of adaptive management is broadened to include whole-of-program learnings, rather than single hypothesis based learning adjustments. This triple loop learning combines exploitative methods refinement with explorative evaluation of

  5. Streamflow profile classification using functional data analysis: A case study on the Kelantan River Basin (United States)

    Jamaludin, Suhaila


    Extreme rainfall events such as floods and prolonged dry spells have become common phenomena in tropical countries like Malaysia. Floods are regular natural disasters in Malaysia, and happen nearly every year during the monsoon season. Recently, the magnitude of streamflow seems to have altered frequently, both spatially and temporally. Therefore, in order to have effective planning and an efficient water management system, it is advisable that streamflow data are analysed continuously over a period of time. If the data are treated as a set of functions rather than as a set of discrete values, then this ensures that they are not restricted by physical time. In addition, the derivatives of the functions may themselves be treated as functional data, which provides new information. The objective of this study is to develop a functional framework for hydrological applications using streamflow as the functional data. The daily flow series from the Kelantan River Basin were used as the main input in this study. Seven streamflow stations were employed in the analysis. Classification between the stations was done using the functional principal component, which was based on the results of the factor scores. The results indicated that two stations, namely the Kelantan River (Guillemard Bridge) and the Galas River, have a different flow pattern from the other streamflow stations. The flow curves of these two rivers are considered as the extreme curves because of their different magnitude and shape.

  6. Finite Element Method Application in Areal Rainfall Estimation Case Study; Mashhad Plain Basin

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    M. Irani


    Full Text Available Introduction: The hydrological models are very important tools for planning and management of water resources. These models can be used for identifying basin and nature problems and choosing various managements. Precipitation is based on these models. Calculations of rainfall would be affected by displacement and region factor such as topography, etc. Estimating areal rainfall is one of the basic needs in meteorological, water resources and others studies. There are various methods for the estimation of rainfall, which can be evaluated by using statistical data and mathematical terms. In hydrological analysis, areal rainfall is so important because of displacement of precipitation. Estimating areal rainfall is divided to three methods: 1- graphical. 2-topographical. 3-numerical. This paper represented calculating mean precipitation (daily, monthly and annual using Galerkin’s method (numerical method and it was compared with other methods such as kriging, IDW, Thiessen and arithmetic mean. In this study, there were 42 actual gauges and thirteen dummies in Mashhad plain basin which is calculated by Galerkin’s method. The method included the use of interpolation functions, allowing an accurate representation of shape and relief of catchment with numerical integration performed by Gaussian quadrature and represented the allocation of weights to stations. Materials and Methods:The estimation of areal rainfall (daily, monthly,… is the basic need for meteorological project. In this field ,there are various methods that one of them is finite element method. Present study aimed to estimate areal rainfall with a 16-year period (1997-2012 by using Galerkin method ( finite element in Mashhad plain basin for 42 station. Therefore, it was compared with other usual methods such as arithmetic mean, Thiessen, Kriging and IDW. The analysis of Thiessen, Kriging and IDW were in ArcGIS10.0 software environment and finite element analysis did by using of Matlab

  7. Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin. (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang


    In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (pecosystem. The case study would be an example for polluted urban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base.

  8. Groundwater quality in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.


    Water quality in groundwater resources used for public drinking-water supply in the Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) was investigated by the USGS in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) as part of its Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The WSJV includes two study areas: the Delta–Mendota and Westside subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin. Study objectives for the WSJV study unit included two assessment types: (1) a status assessment yielding quantitative estimates of the current (2010) status of groundwater quality in the groundwater resources used for public drinking water, and (2) an evaluation of natural and anthropogenic factors that could be affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.The status assessment was based on data collected from 43 wells sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project (USGS-GAMA) in 2010 and data compiled in the SWRCB Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database for 74 additional public-supply wells sampled for regulatory compliance purposes between 2007 and 2010. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and SWRCB-DDW regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a spatially weighted, grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources used for public drinking water that has concentrations for particular constituents or class of constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale within the WSJV study unit, and permits comparison of the two study areas to other areas assessed by the GAMA Priority Basin Project

  9. Model study of the impacts of future climate change on the hydrology of Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin (United States)

    Masood, M.; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Hanasaki, N.; Takeuchi, K.


    The intensity, duration, and geographic extent of floods in Bangladesh mostly depend on the combined influences of three river systems, the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM). In addition, climate change is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basin and may ultimately lead to more serious floods in Bangladesh. However, the assessment of climate change impacts on the basin-scale hydrology by using well-calibrated hydrologic modeling has seldom been conducted in the GBM basin due to the lack of observed data for calibration and validation. In this study, a macroscale hydrologic model H08 has been applied over the basin at a relatively fine grid resolution (10 km) by integrating the fine-resolution DEM (digital elevation model) data for accurate river networks delineation. The model has been calibrated via the analysis of model parameter sensitivity and validated based on long-term observed daily streamflow data. The impacts of climate change (considering a high-emissions path) on runoff, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture are assessed by using five CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) GCMs (global circulation models) through three time-slice experiments; the present-day (1979-2003), the near-future (2015-2039), and the far-future (2075-2099) periods. Results show that, by the end of 21st century, (a) the entire GBM basin is projected to be warmed by ~4.3 °C; (b) the changes of mean precipitation (runoff) are projected to be +16.3% (+16.2%), +19.8% (+33.1%), and +29.6% (+39.7%) in the Brahmaputra, Ganges, and Meghna, respectively; and (c) evapotranspiration is projected to increase for the entire GBM (Brahmaputra: +16.4%, Ganges: +13.6%, Meghna: +12.9%) due to increased net radiation as well as warmer temperature. Future changes of hydrologic variables are larger in the dry season (November-April) than in the wet season (May-October). Amongst the three basins, the Meghna shows the highest increase in

  10. Comparison of long-term geochemical interactions at two natural CO2-analogues : Montmiral (Southeast Basin, France) and Messokampos (Florina Basin, Greece) case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaus, I.; Le Guern, C.; Pauwels, H.; Pearce, J.; Shepherd, T.; Hatziyannis, G.; Metaxas, A.


    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage is considered to be a viable strategy to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere. When assessing the feasibility of current or future CO 2 storage projects, mineral trapping within a reservoir is considered as a key mechanism for the permanent sequestration of CO 2 . There are many occurrences worldwide, where natural CO 2 has been trapped in geological reservoirs. These natural CO 2 analogues provide a unique opportunity to study the reactivity, due to CO 2 interactions, which occurred in the reservoirs over a geologic timeframe. Therefore, the study of analogous natural CO 2 -rich reservoirs, which act as long-term laboratories, are an important part of the assessment of the long-term geochemical effects of geological CO 2 storage. This paper referred to 2 natural CO 2 sites studied under the Natural Analogues for the Storage of CO2 in the Geological Environment (NASCENT) Project. The Montmiral reservoir in France's Southeast Basin is a high-temperature and high-pressure reservoir at great depth (100 degrees C and 36 MPa). The Messokampos reservoir in Greece's Florina Basin is a shallow, low temperature and low-pressure reservoir (25 degrees C and 0.5 MPa). Both are sandstone reservoirs, and feldspar alteration is the key interaction in both cases between dissolved CO 2 , the formation water and the reservoir rock. Both natural analogues were studied in detail petrographically and through geochemical modelling in order to characterize and explain the water-rock-gas interactions in the different geological contexts. The purpose was to assess the consequences of these interactions on CO 2 storage capacity and porosity of the host rock. It was concluded that the reservoir's temperature and pressure conditions determine the impact of CO 2 interactions, with elevated temperatures significantly increasing the reaction rates of mineral-trapping reactions. This is particularly significant when choosing

  11. Planning and design of studies for river-quality assessment in the Truckee and Carson River basins, California and Nevada (United States)

    Nowlin, Jon O.; Brown, W.M.; Smith, L.H.; Hoffman, R.J.


    The objectives of the Geological Survey 's river-quality assessment in the Truckee and Carson River basins in California and Nevada are to identify the significant resource management problems; to develop techniques to assess the problems; and to effectively communicate results to responsible managers. Six major elements of the assessment to be completed by October 1981 are (1) a detailing of the legal, institutional, and structural development of water resources in the basins and the current problems and conflicts; (2) a compilation and synthesis of the physical hydrology of the basins; (3) development of a special workshop approach to involve local management in the direction and results of the study; (4) development of a comprehensive streamflow model emcompassing both basins to provide a quantitative hydrologic framework for water-quality analysis; (5) development of a water-quality transport model for selected constituents and characteristics on selected reaches of the Truckee River; and (6) a detailed examination of selected fish habitats for specified reaches of the Truckee River. Progress will be periodically reported in reports, maps, computer data files, mathematical models, a bibliography, and public presentations. In building a basic framework to develop techniques, the basins were viewed as a single hydrologic unit because of interconnecting diversion structures. The framework comprises 13 hydrographic subunits to facilitate modeling and sampling. Several significant issues beyond the scope of the assessment were considered as supplementary proposals; water-quality loadings in Truckee and Carson Rivers, urban runoff in Reno and management alternatives, and a model of limnological processes in Lahontan Reservoir. (USGS)

  12. Natural and human forcing in recent geomorphic change; case studies in the Rio de la Plata basin. (United States)

    Bonachea, Jaime; Bruschi, Viola M; Hurtado, Martín A; Forte, Luis M; da Silva, Mario; Etcheverry, Ricardo; Cavallotto, José L; Dantas, Marcilene F; Pejon, Osni J; Zuquette, Lázaro V; Bezerra, Maria Angélica de O; Remondo, Juan; Rivas, Victoria; Gómez-Arozamena, José; Fernández, Gema; Cendrero, Antonio


    An analysis of geomorphic system's response to change in human and natural drivers in some areas within the Río de la Plata basin is presented. The aim is to determine whether an acceleration of geomorphic processes has taken place in recent years and, if so, to what extent it is due to natural (climate) or human (land-use) drivers. Study areas of different size, socio-economic and geomorphic conditions have been selected: the Río de la Plata estuary and three sub-basins within its watershed. Sediment cores were extracted and dated ((210)Pb) to determine sedimentation rates since the end of the 19th century. Rates were compared with time series on rainfall as well as human drivers such as population, GDP, livestock load, crop area, energy consumption or cement consumption, all of them related to human capacity to disturb land surface. Data on river discharge were also gathered. Results obtained indicate that sedimentation rates during the last century have remained essentially constant in a remote Andean basin, whereas they show important increases in the other two, particularly one located by the São Paulo metropolitan area. Rates in the estuary are somewhere in between. It appears that there is an intensification of denudation/sedimentation processes within the basin. Rainfall remained stable or varied very slightly during the period analysed and does not seem to explain increases of sedimentation rates observed. Human drivers, particularly those more directly related to capacity to disturb land surface (GDP, energy or cement consumption) show variations that suggest human forcing is a more likely explanation for the observed change in geomorphic processes. It appears that a marked increase in denudation, of a "technological" nature, is taking place in this basin and leading to an acceleration of sediment supply. This is coherent with similar increases observed in other regions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrogeochemical and isotope study of perched aquifers in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin, Namibia. (United States)

    Hamutoko, Josefina T; Wanke, Heike; Koeniger, Paul; Beyer, Matthias; Gaj, Marcel


    A hydrogeochemical and stable isotope study ( 2 H and 18 O) was carried out in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in order to characterize available groundwater and to identify possible recharge mechanisms for the perched aquifers. Data were collected during seven field campaigns between 2013 and 2015 from a total of 24 shallow and deep groundwater hand-dug wells. In the investigated groundwaters, hydrogencarbonate is the dominating anion in both well types, whereas cations vary between calcium and magnesium in deep wells, and sodium and potassium in shallow wells. Groundwater chemistry is controlled by dissolution of carbonate minerals, silicate weathering and ion exchange. Stable isotopic composition suggests that deep groundwater is recharged by high-intensity/large rainfall events, whereas the shallow wells can even be recharged by less-intense/small rainfall events. Water in deep wells reflect a mixture of water influenced by evaporation during or before infiltration and water that infiltrated through fast preferential pathways, whereas shallow wells are strongly influenced by evaporation. The findings of this research contribute to improve the understanding of hydrogeochemistry, recharge paths and temporal variations of perched aquifers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Using the Fournier Index in Estimating Rainfall Erosivity. Case Study - The Secaşul Mare Basin. Climatic aggressiveness is one of the most important factors in relief dynamic. Of all climatic parameters, rainfall is directly involved in versant dynamic, in the loss of soil quality and through pluvial denudation and the processes associated with it, through the erosivity of torrential rain. We analyzed rainfall aggressiveness based on monthly and annual average values through the Fournier's index (1970 and Fournier's index modified by Arnoldus (1980. They have the advantage that they can be used not only for evaluating the land susceptibility to erosion and the calculation of erodibility of land and soil losses, but also in assessing land susceptibility to sliding (Aghiruş, 2010. The literature illustrates the successful use of this index which provides a summary assessment of the probability of rainfall with significant erosive effects. The results obtained allow observation of differences in space and time of the distribution of this index.

  15. Fault assessment for basement reservoir compartmentalization: Case study at Northeast Betara gas field, South Sumatra Basin (United States)

    Risyad, M.; Suta, I. N.; Haris, A.


    Northeast Betara field is situated on the northern part of prolific South Sumatra Basin. It has produced gas from Lower Talang Akar Formation sandstone and over 90 wells have been drilled. A 3D seismic data was acquired in 2000 and reprocessed in 2012 to enhance the subsurface image. In 2013 an exploratory well NEB Base-1 was drilled and made gas and condensate discovery from the subsequent pre-tertiary basement which is confirmed as granite. The well proved fractured basement reservoir play on paleo high of the structure. The absence of full-diameter conventional core prompts well logs and seismic data analysis by using a workstation. Main methods for fracture prediction have been seismic attributes extraction and structural geology studies of basement provided by image logs on a few exploration wells. Ant tracking attribute is widely employed to image seismic event discontinuities due to extensive faults which generated the natural fractures. Delineations well NEB Base-2 was drilled on second paleo high and unfortunately, it did not find any gas indication from pre-tertiary basement target. Seismic structural interpretation and seismic attributes are conducted to image distribution of event discontinuities related to faults or fracture. We found that compartmentalization on basement involved old faults and both paleo high have undergone different structural history and stress character which resulted in separated fractures distribution.

  16. Mercury Studies around the Mediterranean Sea Basin: Ten years of Measurements and Modeling results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprovieri F.


    Full Text Available Only a few years ago the presence of Reactive Gaseous Mercury (RGM was believed to be almost exclusively the result of anthropogenic emissions and that sustained high RGM concentrations in the MBL were not considered likely. During the past ten years, an in-depth investigation was carried out in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL of the Mediterranean Sea to quantify and possibly explain spatial and temporal patterns of Hg-species concentrations. This paper provides an overview of modeling results and atmospheric measurements performed during several cruise campaigns performed aboard the Research Vessel (RV URANIA of the CNR over the Mediterranean sea basin. RGM concentrations have been modelled using a photochemical box model of the MBL and compared to measured data obtained during the research cruises. The comparison results supports the hypothesis that there are daytime mercury oxidation reactions occurring which have not yet been identified. Major findings of key studies carried out during ten years of ship-borne activities have been highlighted.

  17. Assessment of groundwater potentiality using geophysical techniques in Wadi Allaqi basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt - Case study (United States)

    Helaly, Ahmad Sobhy


    Electrical resistivity surveying has been carried out for the determination of the thickness and resistivity of layered media in Wadi Allaqi, Eastern Desert, Egypt. That is widely used geophysical tool for the purpose of assessing the groundwater potential and siting the best locations for boreholes in the unconfined Nubian Sandstone aquifers within the study area. This has been done using thirteen 1D Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) surveys. 1D-VES surveys provide only layered model structures for the subsurface and do not provide comprehensive information for interpreting the structure and extent of subsurface hydro-geological features. The integration of two-dimensional (2D) geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting has been done to provide a more detailed identification for the subsurface hydro-geological features from which potential sites for successful borehole locations are recognized. In addition, five magnetic profiles were measured for basement depth determination, expected geological structures and thickness of sedimentary succession that could include some basins suitable for groundwater accumulation as groundwater aquifers.

  18. A Study on Regional Frequency Analysis using Artificial Neural Network - the Sumjin River Basin (United States)

    Jeong, C.; Ahn, J.; Ahn, H.; Heo, J. H.


    Regional frequency analysis means to make up for shortcomings in the at-site frequency analysis which is about a lack of sample size through the regional concept. Regional rainfall quantile depends on the identification of hydrologically homogeneous regions, hence the regional classification based on hydrological homogeneous assumption is very important. For regional clustering about rainfall, multidimensional variables and factors related geographical features and meteorological figure are considered such as mean annual precipitation, number of days with precipitation in a year and average maximum daily precipitation in a month. Self-Organizing Feature Map method which is one of the artificial neural network algorithm in the unsupervised learning techniques solves N-dimensional and nonlinear problems and be shown results simply as a data visualization technique. In this study, for the Sumjin river basin in South Korea, cluster analysis was performed based on SOM method using high-dimensional geographical features and meteorological factor as input data. then, for the results, in order to evaluate the homogeneity of regions, the L-moment based discordancy and heterogeneity measures were used. Rainfall quantiles were estimated as the index flood method which is one of regional rainfall frequency analysis. Clustering analysis using SOM method and the consequential variation in rainfall quantile were analyzed. This research was supported by a grant(2017-MPSS31-001) from Supporting Technology Development Program for Disaster Management funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security(MPSS) of the Korean government.

  19. Pollution from animal husbandry in China: a case study of the Han River Basin. (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Wu, Hongjuan


    Animal husbandry is one of the major agricultural pollution sources in China. The Xiangyang Reach of the Han River Basin was used as a case study to identify pollutants from animal rearing. The gross amount of pollutants from livestock and poultry rearing in the Xiangyang Reach was estimated using two empirical models with different data sets. The pig, cattle, sheep, and poultry population in 2009 amounted to 2.6, 0.6, 0.5, and 39.2 million head, respectively. The total annual pollutant loads generated from the feces and urine of livestock and poultry were 270,400 t of chemical oxygen demand; 228,900 t of biochemical oxygen demand; 26,500 t of ammonia nitrogen; 16,500 t of total phosphorus; and 63,900 t of total nitrogen. Approximately 12% of these pollutant loads were estimated to enter the Han River through the watershed outlet. Animal breeding has been one of the main pollution sources in this area, followed by domestic sewage and industrial wastewater. Cattle produced the most pollution, with the heaviest pollution load in downtown Xiangyang City. Several recommendations are presented to control the pollution caused by livestock and poultry breeding.

  20. Anthropogenic nexus on organochlorine pesticide pollution: a case study with Tamiraparani river basin, South India. (United States)

    Kumarasamy, P; Govindaraj, S; Vignesh, S; Rajendran, R Babu; James, R Arthur


    The levels of 17 organochlorine pesticides residues (OCPs) in surface water and sediments from Tamiraparani river basin, South India were investigated to evaluate their potential pollution and risk impacts. A total of 96 surface water and sediment samples at 12 sampling stations were collected along the river in four seasons during 2008-2009. The ΣOCP concentrations in surface water and sediments were in the range of 0.1 to 79.9 ng l(-1) and 0.12 to 3,938.7 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. Among the OCPs, the levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), aldrin, dieldrin, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, and mirex were dominant in the sediments. The dominant OCPs in water samples are heptachlor, o,p'-DDE, dieldrin, o,p'-DDD, and mirex, which show different source of contamination pattern among sampling seasons. The distribution pattern of DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane, and other OCPs in the present study shows heterogenic nature of nonpoint source of pollution. Notable contamination of water and sediment sample that was observed in upstream (S2) 58 ng l(-1) and downstream (S11) 1,693 ng g(-1) dw explains agricultural and municipal outfalls, whereas frequent damming effect reduces the concentration level in the midstream. The overall spatial-temporal distribution pattern of ΣOCP residues are illustrated by GIS package.

  1. Eco policy: Environmental Stress and Conflicts in Africa. Case Study of Drainage Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okidi, C.O


    The main cause for African misery is limited supply of water which has a direct impact on agricultural production. The continent of Africa has a reticulation of 54 drainage basins including rivers which either traverse boundaries or form part of such boundaries. These basins cover approximately half of the continent but only 2% of the total water is utilized leaving 98% to replenish the oceans. In future Africa should focus attention on control, apportionment and utilization of the waters of it's drainage basins in order to ameliorate the the problems brought about by scarcity of rainfall and consequent drought and famine. After the drought in the late 1970s and mid-1980s, there has been efforts to control the promising rivers and transfer the water to to centres of agriculture and human settlements and this is likely to cause international conflicts. The author recommends that, in order to control such conflicts the basin states there should be systematic collaboration among the basin states in the management of such waters

  2. Hydrochemical and isotopic studies in two neighboring river basins in semiarid regions of Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Vinícius G.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Carvalho, Carlos A., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Serviço de Meio Ambiente


    Groundwater is the largest reservoir of fresh water on Earth and the depletion of aquifer systems is a reality, both in semi-arid and humid regions. The hydrology of watersheds is a field of study that is concerned with the movement of waters from the rains and its physical-chemical changes. Groundwater resources in these regions are a sensitive issue, requiring careful management to avoid quality degradation. The present study focuses the groundwater system at the interface of the Pandeiros and Peruaçu river basins in the northwest region of Minas Gerais State. The methods used were the evaluations of the hydrochemistry, as well as isotopic, and physicochemical parameters, allied to geological studies to investigate surface and groundwater, their possible interactions and spatial distribution. The hydrochemical results correlated with the physicochemical measurements show water contrasts in the study area, which is geologically composed from bottom to top by gneisses and granites (Januaria Complex), limestone and siltstones (Bambuí Group), sandstones and eluvial sediments (Urucuia Group), eluvio-coluvial cover and alluvial deposits. It has been observed that waters in the context of sandstones and siliceous sediments are sodium bicarbonate waters, slightly acidic pH and low in TDS, whereas waters in pedological / geologic context of limestones are calcium bicarbonate waters exhibiting basic pH and high TDS. The deuterium (D) and oxygen-18 signatures of the groundwater are compared to the global meteoric water line (GMWL). The average values of the isotopes in the study area are slightly variable, indicating that the isotopic signatures are related to rainfall precipitation. It has been possible to suggest an evaporation line pattern starting from the position of springs, passing though streams and finally ending in the lagoon. The local evaporation line can be represented by the equation δD = 5,8 δ{sup 18}O - 2,4. (author)

  3. Plate interior polyphase fault systems and sedimentary basin evolution: A case study of the East Gobi Basin and East Gobi Fault Zone, southeastern Mongolia (United States)

    Heumann, Matthew J.; Johnson, Cari L.; Webb, Laura E.


    Structural interpretation of 2-D seismic reflection data and subsurface-outcrop correlations reveal six distinct phases of deformation recorded in the Paleozoic basement rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill of the East Gobi Basin (EGB), southeastern Mongolia. These phases include arc accretion and arc-continent collision in late Paleozoic time, Late Triassic sinistral shear-zone development, Early Jurassic fold and thrust belt style shortening, Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous extension and rift basin development, middle Cretaceous shortening with basin inversion and regional unconformity development, and Late Cretaceous-Oligocene thermal subsidence with renewed Paleogene left-lateral strike slip faulting across the fault zone. The five post-amalgamation deformation phases are localized along the East Gobi Fault Zone, suggesting that preexisting structures and boundary conditions exert fundamental controls on the long term evolution of intracontinental basins such as the EGB. Subsurface geophysical data and outcrop correlations demonstrate that the main subbasins of the EGB contain major differences in basement metamorphic and structural fabrics, basin fill patterns, and distinct Mesozoic-Cenozoic fault generations. Potential causes related to far-field boundary conditions and other driving factors are suggested for each of the major deformation phases.

  4. Flood modeling using WMS model for determining peak flood discharge in southwest Iran case study: Simili basin in Khuzestan Province (United States)

    Hoseini, Yaser; Azari, Arash; Pilpayeh, Alireza


    It is of high importance to determine the flood discharge of different basins, in studies on water resources. However, it is necessary to use new models to determine flood hydrograph parameters. Therefore, it will be beneficial to conduct studies to calibrate the models, keeping in mind the local conditions of different regions. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the peak flood discharge of a basin located in Southwest Iran, using the TR-20, TR55, and HEC-1 methods of the WMS model (watershed modeling system). The obtained results were compared with empirical values, as well as those of the soil conservation service (SCS) approach. Based on the results obtained, the TR55 method of the WMS model recorded the highest agreement with empirical values in Southwest Iran.

  5. Hydrocarbons prospecting using an integrated approach of petrography, geochemistry and modeling of organic matter transformation. Analysis and reconstitution of the thermal history of the central carboniferous basins of Asturias (Spain) and of the Sabinas - Piedras Negras basin (Coahuila, Mexico); Prospection des hydrocarbures par une approche integree de petrographie, geochimie et modelisation de la transformation de la matiere organique. Analyse et reconstitution de l'histoire thermique des Bassins Carbonifere Central des Asturies (Espagne) et Sabinas - Piedras Negras (Coahuila, Mexique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedad-Sanchez, N.


    Solid knowledge of the transformation and evolution of organic matter during hydrocarbon generation in sedimentary basins serves to improve natural gas exploration. With this geological problem in mind, the thermal influence on organic matter was analyzed in two basins containing different characteristics (age, composition of organic matter, litho-stratigraphy, depth, thickness of the layers of rock, the maturation of organic matter, etc.) in order to understand the natural processes in generating oil and natural gas. With a view to studying this geological phenomenon, this work outlines the study of the chemical and macerals composition, the coal rank and geochemical characteristics of organic matter in these two sedimentary basins for the first time: The Asturian Central Carboniferous Basin (Spain) and Sabinas - Piedras Negras Basin (Mexico). Moreover, an approach to shed light on the thermal history and evolution of organic matter through 1D modeling in the two basins is developed. The Central Carboniferous Basin in Asturias is an important coal mining area where coal types range from bituminous carbons with high content in volatile matter to anthracite. The petrographical and geochemical study in this region has shown that at the moment of oil and gas exploration, the coals correspond to an efficient expulsion of oil and have been formed in an environment of swamp with a facies rich in vitrinite, low in sulfur and ash and varying in mineral content. As regards the paleo-environmental reconstruction, the bio-markers suggest a swamp with a relatively high water table and a humid climate. The coal type, the vitrinite reflectance and the volatile matter content in the basin show a N-S trend which could be correlated to the paleo-temperatures calculated in this study. These data point to the influence of two thermal gradients in the region: A normal thermal gradient of long duration and an oblique thermal gradient of short duration due to a pluton. The evolution of

  6. K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beary, M.M.; Honekemp, J.R.; Winters, N. [Science Applications International Corp., Richland, WA (United States)


    Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE`s commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path.

  7. Impacts of Land Use on Surface Water Quality in a Subtropical River Basin: A Case Study of the Dongjiang River Basin, Southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Ding


    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between land use and surface water quality is necessary for effective water management. We estimated the impacts of catchment-wide land use on water quality during the dry and rainy seasons in the Dongjiang River basin, using remote sensing, geographic information systems and multivariate statistical techniques. The results showed that the 83 sites can be divided into three groups representing different land use types: forest, agriculture and urban. Water quality parameters exhibited significant variations between the urban-dominated and forest-dominated sites. The proportion of forested land was positively associated with dissolved oxygen concentration but negatively associated with water temperature, electrical conductivity, permanganate index, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and chlorophyll-a. The proportion of urban land was strongly positively associated with total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Forested and urban land use had stronger impacts on water quality in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, agricultural land use did not have a significant impact on water quality. Our study indicates that urban land use was the key factor affecting water quality change, and limiting point-source waste discharge in urban areas during the dry season would be critical for improving water quality in the study area.

  8. Comparison of the Various Methodologies Used in Studying Runoff and Sediment Load in the Yellow River Basin (United States)

    Xu, M., III; Liu, X.


    In the past 60 years, both the runoff and sediment load in the Yellow River Basin showed significant decreasing trends owing to the influences of human activities and climate change. Quantifying the impact of each factor (e.g. precipitation, sediment trapping dams, pasture, terrace, etc.) on the runoff and sediment load is among the key issues to guide the implement of water and soil conservation measures, and to predict the variation trends in the future. Hundreds of methods have been developed for studying the runoff and sediment load in the Yellow River Basin. Generally, these methods can be classified into empirical methods and physical-based models. The empirical methods, including hydrological method, soil and water conservation method, etc., are widely used in the Yellow River management engineering. These methods generally apply the statistical analyses like the regression analysis to build the empirical relationships between the main characteristic variables in a river basin. The elasticity method extensively used in the hydrological research can be classified into empirical method as it is mathematically deduced to be equivalent with the hydrological method. Physical-based models mainly include conceptual models and distributed models. The conceptual models are usually lumped models (e.g. SYMHD model, etc.) and can be regarded as transition of empirical models and distributed models. Seen from the publications that less studies have been conducted applying distributed models than empirical models as the simulation results of runoff and sediment load based on distributed models (e.g. the Digital Yellow Integrated Model, the Geomorphology-Based Hydrological Model, etc.) were usually not so satisfied owing to the intensive human activities in the Yellow River Basin. Therefore, this study primarily summarizes the empirical models applied in the Yellow River Basin and theoretically analyzes the main causes for the significantly different results using

  9. Nitrogen uptake and regeneration pathways in the equatorial Pacific: a basin scale modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Le Borgne


    Full Text Available It is well known that most primary production is fueled by regenerated nitrogen in the open ocean. Therefore, studying the nitrogen cycle by focusing on uptake and regeneration pathways would advance our understanding of nitrogen dynamics in the marine ecosystem. Here, we carry out a basin-scale modeling study, by assessing model simulations of nitrate and ammonium, and rates of nitrate uptake, ammonium uptake and regeneration in the equatorial Pacific. Model-data comparisons show that the model is able to reproduce many observed features of nitrate, ammonium, such as the deep ammonium maximum (DAM. The model also reproduces the observed de-coupling of ammonium uptake and regeneration, i.e., regeneration rate greater than uptake rate in the lower euphotic zone. The de-coupling largely explains the observed DAM in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Our study indicates that zooplankton excretion and remineralization of organic nitrogen play a different role in nitrogen regeneration. Rates of zooplankton excretion vary from <0.01 mmol m−3 d−1 to 0.1 mmol m−3 d−1 in the upper euphotic zone while rates of remineralization fall within a narrow range (0.015–0.025 mmol m−3 d−1 . Zooplankton excretion contributes up to 70% of total ammonium regeneration in the euphotic zone, and is largely responsible for the spatial variability of nitrogen regeneration. However, remineralization provides a steady supply of ammonium in the upper ocean, and is a major source of inorganic nitrogen for the oligotrophic regions. Overall, ammonium generation and removal are approximately balanced over the top 150 m in the equatorial Pacific.

  10. Study of Aerosol - Cloud Interaction over Indo - Gangetic Basin During Normal Monsoon and Drought Years (United States)

    Tiwari, S.; Ramachandran, S.


    Clouds are one of the major factors that influence the Earth's radiation budget and also change the precipitation pattern. Atmospheric aerosols play a crucial role in modifying the cloud properties acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It can change cloud droplet number concentration, cloud droplet size and hence cloud albedo. Therefore, the effects of aerosol on cloud parameters are one of the most important topics in climate change study. In the present study, we investigate the spatial variability of aerosol - cloud interactions during normal monsoon years and drought years over entire Indo - Gangetic Basin (IGB) which is one of the most polluted regions of the world. Based on aerosol loading and their major emission sources, we divided the entire IGB in to six major sub regions (R1: 66 - 71 E, 24 - 29 N; R2: 71 - 76 E, 29 - 34 N; R3: 76 - 81 E, 26 - 31 N; R4: 81 - 86 E, 23 - 28 N; R5: 86 - 91 E, 22 - 27 N and R6: 91 - 96 E, 23 - 28 N). With this objective, fifteen years (2001 - 2015), daily mean aerosol optical depth, cloud parameters and rainfall data obtained from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board of Terra satellite and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is analyzed over each sub regions of IGB for monsoon season (JJAS : June, July, August and September months). Preliminary results suggest that a slightly change in aerosol optical depth can affect the significant contribution of cloud fraction and other cloud properties which also show a large spatial heterogeneity. During drought years, higher cloud effective radius (i.e. CER > 20µm) decreases from western to eastern IGB suggesting the enhancement in cloud albedo. Relatively week correlation between cloud optical thickness and rainfall is found during drought years than the normal monsoon years over western IGB. The results from the present study will be helpful to reduce uncertainty in understanding of aerosol - cloud interaction over IGB. Further details will be

  11. Mapping of groundwater quality in the Turonian aquifer of Oum Er-Rabia Basin, Morocco: a case study (United States)

    Ettazarini, Said


    This study takes the groundwater of the Moroccan limestone aquifer of Oum Er-Rabia as an example of statistical and cartographical approaches in water resources management. Statistical analyses based on frequency distribution and PCA methods revealed the homogeneity of waters with the existence of abnormal points and have helped to assess correlations between the studied variables. The mapping approach illustrated that waters are influenced by the lithology of the surrounding rocks and are of Ca Mg HCO3, Ca Mg Cl SO4, and mixed types according to the Piper classification. The quality of water is of high to medium, north of the basin, but it is of medium to bad, NE and south, due to excessive contents of chloride, sulfate and nitrate. According to the US Salinity Laboratory classification, water used for irrigation in the eastern and the southern parts of the basin should take into consideration the drainage conditions, the nature of plants and the addition of gypsum doses.

  12. Regionally heterogeneous paleoenvironmental responses in the West African and South American monsoon systems on glacial to millennial timescales (United States)

    Shanahan, T. M.; Hughen, K. A.; van Mooy, B.; Overpeck, J. T.; Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S.; Peck, J. A.; Scholz, C. A.; King, J. W.


    Although millennial-scale paleoenvironmental changes have been well characterized for high latitude sites, short-term climate variability in the tropics is less well understood. While the Intertropical Convergence Zone may act as an integrator of tropical climate changes, regional factors also play an important role in controlling the tropical response to climate forcing. Understanding these influences, and how they modulate the response to global climate forcing under different mean climate states is thus important for assessing how the tropics may respond to future climate change. Here, we examine new centennial-resolution records of paleoenvironmental change from isotopic and relative abundance data from molecular biomarkers in sediment cores from Lake Bosumtwi and Lake Titicaca. We assess the relative response of the West African and South American monsoon systems to millennial and suborbital-scale climate variability over the last ca. 30,000 years. While there is evidence for synchronous climate variability in the two systems, the dominant paleoenvironmental changes appear largely decoupled, highlighting the importance of regional climatology in controlling the response to climate forcing in tropical regions.

  13. Regional summary and recommended study areas for the Texas panhandle portion of the Permian Basin. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarizes the regional geologic and environmental characterizations that have been completed for the Permian region of study, and describes the procedure used to identify study areas for the next phase of investigation. The factors evaluated in the Permian region fall into three broad areas: health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic, and engineering and economic considerations. Health and safety considerations included salt depth and thickness, faults, seismic activity, groundwater, salt dissolution, energy and mineral resources, presence of boreholes, and interactive land uses. Salt depth and thickness was the key health and safety factor, and when mapped, proved to be a discriminator. The evaluation of environmental and socioeconomic conditions focused primarily on the presence of urban areas and on designated land uses such as parks, wildlife areas, and historic sites. Engineering and economic considerations centered primarily on salt depth, which was already evaluated in the health and safety area. The Palo Duro and Dalhart basins are recommended for future studies on the basis of geology. In these two basins, salt depth and thickness appear promising, and there is less likelihood of past or future oil and gas exploratory holes. Environmental and socioeconomic factors did not preclude any of the basins from further study

  14. Status of groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Study Unit, 2011: California GAMA Priority Basin Project (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.


    Groundwater quality in the 48-square-mile Santa Barbara study unit was investigated in 2011 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The study unit is mostly in Santa Barbara County and is in the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer system of California. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database for the Santa Barbara study unit. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the Santa Barbara study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.The status assessment for the Santa Barbara study unit was based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey from 23 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health database for January 24, 2008–January 23, 2011. The data used for the assessment included volatile organic compounds; pesticides; pharmaceutical compounds; two constituents of special interest, perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA); and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used to evaluate groundwater quality for those constituents that have federal or California regulatory and non

  15. Assessment the Economic Damage of Inter-Basin Water Transfer on Cropping Pattern and Farmers’ Income Situation in the Origin Basin (Case Study: Water Transfer of Alamoutrood to Qazvin Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parhizkari


    building the dam, canals, streams and aqueducts. Even today, many projects are implemented in Iran that water transfer project of Alamoutrood to Qazvin plain is one of the most important of these projects. According to reports of Regional Water Company of Qazvin province and the specifications of inter-basin water transfer project of Alamoutrood to Qazvin plain will be out from the farmers availability of Alamut region about 370 million cubic meters of irrigation water. This issue has the huge impacts on cropping pattern and farmers economic and livelihood condition in the origin basin (Alamout region. Therefore, in this study a hydrological-economic modeling system to analysis the effects of water transfer project of Alamoutrood to Qazvin plain on cropping pattern, farmers gross profit and economic value of irrigation water in the Alamut region (origin basin was used. Materials and Methods: Nowadays different methods to analysis of the issues related to the management of water resources and agriculture are used. One of the most important of these methods is mathematical programming that in recent years are in use to solve problems of water resource management sector and analysis of the agricultural policies. In this study a hydrological-economic modeling system consists of the Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP and product function with Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES to analysis of the effects of inter-basin water transfer on land use, farmers income situation and economic value of irrigation water in the origin basin (Alamout region was used. The first time PMP model developed by Howitt (1995 to calibrate agricultural supply models have been used to link biophysical and economic information in an integrated biophysical and economic modelling framework and to assess impacts of agricultural policies and scenarios. These models are also accepted for analysing the impact of water resources management policies and scenarios. PMP model used in this paper is a

  16. The Challenges and Opportunities of Hydrologic Remote Sensing in Data-Poor Regions: Case Study of Nile River Basin (United States)

    Hasan, E.; Kirstetter, P.; Zhang, K.; Hong, Y.


    The Nile River Basin (NRB) is one of the largest trans-boundary watercourses; it is the lifeline for more than 300 million people belonging to 11 African nations sharing the NRB. The riparian countries are challenged by their infirm relationships, lack of information sharing and insufficient monitoring stations. Thus, to understand the water future along the NRB under the changing climate, reliable, and sufficient information are needed. This to assess and understand: whether will be more rainfall and induced flooding events, or the drought conditions with less surface runoff will be dominant over the Nile Basin? In addition, to what extent the available remote sensing and model reanalysis data can substitute the lack of detailed ground information, and help to determine the size and risk associated to the climatic impact on the Nile Basin? In the current study, we utilizing multi-scale remote sensing, and model reanalysis datasets for hydrologic monitoring along the NRB in Africa. The list of remote sensing, and model reanalysis datasets that implemented: several MODIS satellite products such as the NDVI, LAI, LST, and LULC datasets. Three GRACE satellite derivative products: TWS, EWT, and DTWS, and TRMM satellite precipitation product. In addition to number of model reanalysis datasets including Global Precipitation Climatological Center (GPCC) datasets, Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) products, Climate Research Unit (CRU) datasets, Physical Science Division (PSD) gridded climate dataset, and in situ Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) datasets. The main objective of our research is to monitor the hydrological changes and the variation in water balance along the NRB. The study approach accomplished through: (1) developing a distributed storage changes based grid, (2) trend analysis and inter-annual variability shift detections using regime shift analysis, (3) define the water stress and water deficit periods along the Nile Basins, (4) applying multi

  17. The hydrochemistry of a semi-arid pan basin case study: Sua Pan, Makgadikgadi, Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckardt, Frank D.; Bryant, Robert G.; McCulloch, Graham; Spiro, Baruch; Wood, Warren W.


    This study presents results on the fluid and salt chemistry for the Makgadikgadi, a substantial continental basin in the semi-arid Kalahari. The aims of the study are to improve understanding of the hydrology of such a system and to identify the sources of the solutes and the controls on their cycling within pans. Sampling took place against the backdrop of unusually severe flooding as well as significant anthropogenic extraction of subsurface brines. This paper examines in particular the relationship between the chemistry of soil leachates, fresh stream water, salty lake water, surface salts and subsurface brines at Sua Pan, Botswana with the aim of improving the understanding of the system's hydrology. Occasionally during the short wet season (December-March) surface water enters the saline environment and precipitates mostly calcite and halite, as well as dolomite and traces of other salts associated with the desiccation of the lake. The hypersaline subsurface brine (up to TDS 190,000 mg/L) is homogenous with minor variations due to pumping by BotAsh mine (Botswana Ash (Pty) Ltd.), which extracts 2400 m 3 of brine/h from a depth of 38 m. Notable is the decrease in TDS as the pumping rate increases which may be indicative of subsurface recharge by less saline water. Isotope chemistry for Sr ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr average 0.722087) and S (δ 34 S average 34.35) suggests subsurface brines have been subject to a lithological contribution of undetermined origin. Recharge of the subsurface brine from surface water including the Nata River appears to be negligible

  18. Reexamining the late Cenozoic geologic evolution of the Amazon basin (United States)

    Rigsby, C. A.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Baker, P. A.; Silva, C. G.


    The recent geologic evolution of the Amazon basin has been the focus of many recent studies. Our own research and our review of the literature suggest a need for reevaluation of many aspects of this history including several key questions: What was the timing of Andean uplift (especially, the Western Cordillera)? What is the relationship between the northernmost Solimões Formation and northern Andean tectonic activity? What is the precise age of the lowermost levels of the Solimões Formation? Were there marine incursions? Are tidal deposits recorded in Amazonia? Was there a very large, long-lived, Miocene "Pebas" megalake in the western Amazon? When did the trans-continental, eastern outlet, Amazon drainage become established? What is the antiquity of the Amazon fan? Correct answers to these questions are essential in order to gain a better understanding of the climatic and biogeographic history of the Amazon basin. Although several authors have suggested the existence of late Miocene tidal sediments deposited during a sea-level high stand and marine transgressions into the Amazon basin from the north (Caribbean Sea) or from the south (Paranáense Sea), both the existence of a late Miocene seaway through western Amazonia and the existence of thousands of square kilometers affected by tides are difficult to support. The faunal composition and pollen content of the upper Miocene Solimões Formation are inconsistent with tidal/marine environments. And, as we have demonstrated, deposits in Peruvian Amazonia that have been attributed to Miocene tidal environments are actually fluvial sediments that have been environmentally and chronologically misinterpreted. Further, the existence of a giant paleolake in western Amazonia during the middle to late Miocene is inconsistent with our paleoenvironmental reconstructions of shifting rivers in aggradational conditions - reconstructions that are consistent with the interpretations of the Solimões Formation in other parts of

  19. (Dahomey) Basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    13 km maximum width in the onshore at the basin axis along Nigerian and Republic of Benin boundary. This narrows westwards and eastwards to about 5 km (Coker and Ejedawe, 1987; Coker,. 2002). Detailed geology, evolution, stratigraphy and hydrocarbon occurrence of the basin have been described by Jones and ...

  20. Determination of Cenozoic sedimentary structures using integrated geophysical surveys: A case study in the Barkol Basin, Xinjiang, China (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Chen, Chao; Du, Jinsong; Wang, Limin; Lei, Binhua


    Thickness estimation of sedimentary basin is a complex geological problem, especially in an orogenic environment. Intense and multiple tectonic movements and climate changes result in inhomogeneity of sedimentary layers and basement configurations, which making sedimentary structure modelling difficult. In this study, integrated geophysical methods, including gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) sounding and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), were used to estimate basement relief to understand the geological structure and evolution of the eastern Barkol Basin in China. This basin formed with the uplift of the eastern Tianshan during the Cenozoic. Gravity anomaly map revealed the framework of the entire area, and ERT as well as MT sections reflected the geoelectric features of the Cenozoic two-layer distribution. Therefore, gravity data, constrained by MT, ERT and boreholes, were utilized to estimate the spatial distribution of the Quaternary layer. The gravity effect of the Quaternary layer related to the Tertiary layer was later subtracted to obtain the residual anomaly for inversion. For the Tertiary layer, the study area was divided into several parts because of lateral difference of density contrasts. Gravity data were interpreted to determine the density contrast constrained by the MT results. The basement relief can be verified by geological investigation, including the uplift process and regional tectonic setting. The agreement between geophysical survey and prior information from geology emphasizes the importance of integrated geophysical survey as a complementary means of geological studies in this region.

  1. Temporal evolution of fault systems in the Upper Jurassic of the Central German Molasse Basin: case study Unterhaching (United States)

    Budach, Ingmar; Moeck, Inga; Lüschen, Ewald; Wolfgramm, Markus


    The structural evolution of faults in foreland basins is linked to a complex basin history ranging from extension to contraction and inversion tectonics. Faults in the Upper Jurassic of the German Molasse Basin, a Cenozoic Alpine foreland basin, play a significant role for geothermal exploration and are therefore imaged, interpreted and studied by 3D seismic reflection data. Beyond this applied aspect, the analysis of these seismic data help to better understand the temporal evolution of faults and respective stress fields. In 2009, a 27 km2 3D seismic reflection survey was conducted around the Unterhaching Gt 2 well, south of Munich. The main focus of this study is an in-depth analysis of a prominent v-shaped fault block structure located at the center of the 3D seismic survey. Two methods were used to study the periodic fault activity and its relative age of the detected faults: (1) horizon flattening and (2) analysis of incremental fault throws. Slip and dilation tendency analyses were conducted afterwards to determine the stresses resolved on the faults in the current stress field. Two possible kinematic models explain the structural evolution: One model assumes a left-lateral strike slip fault in a transpressional regime resulting in a positive flower structure. The other model incorporates crossing conjugate normal faults within a transtensional regime. The interpreted successive fault formation prefers the latter model. The episodic fault activity may enhance fault zone permeability hence reservoir productivity implying that the analysis of periodically active faults represents an important part in successfully targeting geothermal wells.

  2. Temporal evolution of fault systems in the Upper Jurassic of the Central German Molasse Basin: case study Unterhaching (United States)

    Budach, Ingmar; Moeck, Inga; Lüschen, Ewald; Wolfgramm, Markus


    The structural evolution of faults in foreland basins is linked to a complex basin history ranging from extension to contraction and inversion tectonics. Faults in the Upper Jurassic of the German Molasse Basin, a Cenozoic Alpine foreland basin, play a significant role for geothermal exploration and are therefore imaged, interpreted and studied by 3D seismic reflection data. Beyond this applied aspect, the analysis of these seismic data help to better understand the temporal evolution of faults and respective stress fields. In 2009, a 27 km2 3D seismic reflection survey was conducted around the Unterhaching Gt 2 well, south of Munich. The main focus of this study is an in-depth analysis of a prominent v-shaped fault block structure located at the center of the 3D seismic survey. Two methods were used to study the periodic fault activity and its relative age of the detected faults: (1) horizon flattening and (2) analysis of incremental fault throws. Slip and dilation tendency analyses were conducted afterwards to determine the stresses resolved on the faults in the current stress field. Two possible kinematic models explain the structural evolution: One model assumes a left-lateral strike slip fault in a transpressional regime resulting in a positive flower structure. The other model incorporates crossing conjugate normal faults within a transtensional regime. The interpreted successive fault formation prefers the latter model. The episodic fault activity may enhance fault zone permeability hence reservoir productivity implying that the analysis of periodically active faults represents an important part in successfully targeting geothermal wells.

  3. K Basin sludge treatment project chemical procesing baseline time diagram study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This document provides an initial basis for determining the duration of operating steps and the required resources for chemically treating K Basin sludge before transporting it to Tank Farms. It was assumed that all operations would take place within a TPA specified 13-month timeframe

  4. Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin Water Quality Study. Supplement. Technical Report No. 2. (United States)

    Whisnant, David M., Ed.

    During the period extending from May 1972 through April 1973, an investigation of the overall water quality conditions of streams flowing into Lake Superior from the entire state of Wisconsin was conducted. The goal of this publication was to provide much needed regional information on water quality, drainage basins, pollution sources and loads,…

  5. A seismic refraction study of the boundary between Bida basin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The average velocity of the second layer is 6100 ms-1, which indicates that the basement in the survey area consists of rocks mostly of granite schists, with other ... part, the thickness reduced to 2.3m indicating that the survey area lies over the boundary between the Zaria basement complex and the Bida sedimentary basin.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Guadalquivir foreland basin, located between the Iberian basement northward and the Betic orogen to the South, represents the western sector of the earlier foredeep basin of the Betic Cordillera. Along the northern foreland margin, the sedimentary fill of this basin includes a Tortonian Basal Transgressive Complex (BTC, composed of five internal sequences bounded by transgressive surfaces. Two main parts are distinguished within each sequence: the lower transgressive lag deposits, and the upper stillstand/prograding sediments. Three facies associations were distinguished within this stratigraphic succession along the central sector of this basin margin: unfossiliferous conglomerates and coarse-grained sands (A, fossiliferous conglomerates and coarse-grained sands (B, and yellow medium-coarse-grained fossiliferous sands (C. A fourth facies association (D: blue silty marlstones and shales overlies the BTC. Deposits of alluvial sediments (facies association A and shallow-marine/foreshore sediments (facies association C, were recurrently interrupted by transgressive pulses (facies associations B and C. Every pulse is recorded by an erosional, cemented sandy-conglomerate bar with bivalves (Ostreidae, Isognomon, balanids, gastropods and other marine bioclasts; or their transgressive equivalents. The lateral facies changes in each individual sequence of the BTC are related to: (1 the influence on the northern foreland margin of the tectonic activity of the southern orogenic margin; (2 the palaeorelief formed by irregularities of the substrate which controls the sediment dispersal; and (3 the evolution stages of the sedimentary systems. 

  7. A Preliminary Study of Water Quality Index in Terengganu River Basin, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratman, S.; Mohd, S.M.I.; Hee, Y.Y.; Bedurus, E.A.; Latif, M.T.


    The Malaysian Department of Environment-Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) was determined for the Terengganu River basin which is located at the coastal water of the southern South China Sea between July and October 2008. Monthly samplings were carried out at ten sampling stations within the basin. Six parameters listed in DOE-WQI were measured based on standard methods: pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonical nitrogen (AN). The results indicated the impact of various anthropogenic activities which contribute to high values of BOD, COD, TSS and AN at middle and downstream stations, as compared with the upstream of the basin. The reverses were true for the pH and DO values. The DOE-WQI ranged from 71.5-94.6 % (mean 86.9 %), which corresponded to a classification status range from slightly polluted to clean. With respect to the Malaysia National Water Quality Standards (NWQS), the level of most of the parameters measured remained at Class I which is suitable for the sustainable conservation of the natural environment, for water supply without treatment and as well as for very sensitive aquatic species. It is suggested that monitoring should be carried out continuously for proper management of this river basin. (author)

  8. Marginal economic value of streamflow: A case study for the Colorado River Basin (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Benjamin L. Harding; Elizabeth A. Payton


    The marginal economic value of streamflow leaving forested areas in the Colorado River Basin was estimated by determining the impact on water use of a small change in streamflow and then applying economic value estimates to the water use changes. The effect on water use of a change in streamflow was estimated with a network flow model that simulated salinity levels and...

  9. River levels derived with CryoSat-2 SAR data classification - A case study in the Mekong River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boergens, Eva; Nielsen, Karina; Andersen, Ole Baltazar


    ) waveforms. After the classification, classes representing water and land are identified. Better results are obtained when the Mekong River Basin is divided into different geographical regions: upstream, middle stream, and downstream. The measurements classified as water are used in a next step to estimate......In this study we use CryoSat-2 SAR (delay-Doppler synthetic-aperture radar) data in the Mekong River Basin to estimate water levels. Compared to classical pulse limited radar altimetry, medium- and small-sized inland waters can be observed with CryoSat-2 SAR data with a higher accuracy due...... to the smaller along track footprint. However, even with this SAR data the estimation of water levels over a medium-sized river (width less than 500 m) is still challenging with only very few consecutive observations over the water. The target identification with land-water masks tends to fail as the river...

  10. Connecting Climate Variability with Water Supply Reliability: A Case Study in the Trinity River Basin, Texas (United States)

    Zhao, G.; Gao, H.


    Supplying water to two of the top ten largest cities in the U.S. (Dallas and Houston), the Trinity River Basin (TRB) plays a pivotal role in Texas' growth. To meet the needs of the increasing water demand, and to mitigate flood risks, a number of reservoirs have been constructed during the past 60 years. However, due to global warming, water resources management has become increasingly challenged by extreme events such as floods and droughts. The objective of this study is to evaluate how climate variability will impact water supply reliability in the TRB. To this end, future forcings generated from an ensemble of General Circulation Models (GCMs) under a series of Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenarios were used to drive a fully distributed hydrologic model that was equipped with a multi-purpose reservoir module. The Quantile Mapping Downscaling method was adopted to represent the climatic heterogeneity at a fine scale. Results for future time periods were analyzed and compared with the historical baseline to explore the long-term trend. When compared with the period from 1970 to 1999, the precipitation variance will increase by 30% during the period from 2070 to 2099. This leads to a decreased reliability in the water supply, especially for the upstream reservoirs. An increase in the number of mandatory quick release events due to more peak flows and extended long term low flows will exacerbate the water availability issues (which are already at risk). Therefore, efficient adaptive strategies are necessary for local water supply sustainability.

  11. Source rock contributions to the Lower Cretaceous heavy oil accumulations in Alberta: a basin modeling study (United States)

    Berbesi, Luiyin Alejandro; di Primio, Rolando; Anka, Zahie; Horsfield, Brian; Higley, Debra K.


    The origin of the immense oil sand deposits in Lower Cretaceous reservoirs of the Western Canada sedimentary basin is still a matter of debate, specifically with respect to the original in-place volumes and contributing source rocks. In this study, the contributions from the main source rocks were addressed using a three-dimensional petroleum system model calibrated to well data. A sensitivity analysis of source rock definition was performed in the case of the two main contributors, which are the Lower Jurassic Gordondale Member of the Fernie Group and the Upper Devonian–Lower Mississippian Exshaw Formation. This sensitivity analysis included variations of assigned total organic carbon and hydrogen index for both source intervals, and in the case of the Exshaw Formation, variations of thickness in areas beneath the Rocky Mountains were also considered. All of the modeled source rocks reached the early or main oil generation stages by 60 Ma, before the onset of the Laramide orogeny. Reconstructed oil accumulations were initially modest because of limited trapping efficiency. This was improved by defining lateral stratigraphic seals within the carrier system. An additional sealing effect by biodegraded oil may have hindered the migration of petroleum in the northern areas, but not to the east of Athabasca. In the latter case, the main trapping controls are dominantly stratigraphic and structural. Our model, based on available data, identifies the Gordondale source rock as the contributor of more than 54% of the oil in the Athabasca and Peace River accumulations, followed by minor amounts from Exshaw (15%) and other Devonian to Lower Jurassic source rocks. The proposed strong contribution of petroleum from the Exshaw Formation source rock to the Athabasca oil sands is only reproduced by assuming 25 m (82 ft) of mature Exshaw in the kitchen areas, with original total organic carbon of 9% or more.

  12. Estimation of Groundwater Storage Change via GRACE over a Small Watershed - A Case Study over Konya Closed Basin (United States)

    Karasu, İ. G.; Yilmaz, K. K.; Yilmaz, M. T.


    Estimation of the groundwater storage change and its interannual variability is critical over Konya Closed Basin which has excessive agricultural production. The annual total precipitation falling over the region is not sufficient to compensate the agricultural irrigation needs of the region. This leds many to use groundwater as the primary water resource, which resulted in significant drop in the groundwater levels. Accordingly, monitoring of the groundwater change is critical for sustainable water resources management. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) have been succesfully used over many locations to monitor the change in the groundwater storages. In this study, GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage estimates and GLDAS model soil moisture, canopy water, snow water equivalent and surface runoff simulations are used to retrieve the change in the groundwater storage over Konya Closed Basin streching over 50,000 km2 area. Initial comparisons show the declining trend in GRACE and GLDAS combined groundwater storage change estimates between 2002 and 2016 are consistent with the actual groundwater level change observed at ground stations. Even though many studies recommend GRACE observations to be used over regions larger than 100,000 km2 - 200,000 km2 area, results show GRACE remote sensing and GLDAS modeled groundwater change information are skillful to monitor the large mass changes occured as a result of the excessive groundwater exploitation over Konya Closed Basin with 50,000 km2 area.

  13. Geology and geohydrology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, S.P.; Finley, R.J.; Galloway, W.E.; Gustavson, T.C.; Handford, C.R.; Presley, M.W.


    Early in 1977 the Bureau of Economic Geology was invited to assemble and evaluate geologic data on several salt-bearing basins within the State of Texas as a contribution to the national nuclear repository program. In response to this request, the Bureau, acting as a technical research unit of the University of Texas at Austin and the State of Texas, initiated a long-term program to assemble and interpret all geologic and hydrologic information necessary for delineation, description, and evaluation of salt-bearing strata in the Panhandle area. The technical program can be subdivided into three broad research tasks, which are addressed by a basin analysis group, a surface studies group, and a basin geohydrology group. The basin analysis group has assembled the regional stratigraphic and structural framework of the total basin fill, initiated evaluation of natural resources, and selected stratigraphic core sites for sampling the salt and associated beds. Two drilling sites have provided nearly 8000 feet (2400 m) of core material for analysis and testing of the various lithologies overlying and interbedded with salt units. Concurrently, the surface studies group has collected ground and remotely-sensed data to describe surficial processes, including carbonate and evaporate solution, geomorphic evolution, and fracture system development. The newly formed basin geohydrology group will evaluate both shallow and deep circulation of fluids within the basins. This paper, a summary report of progress, reviews principal conclusions and illustrates the methodologies used and the types of data and displays generated

  14. The project for the study of Wurno irrigation scheme area in the Rima hydrological basin, Sokoto State, Nigeria for Fadama irrigation and water supply, using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduabuchi, C.


    This publication summarizes the result of the project on the use of isotope techniques for the study of recharge and discharge of the Sokoto-Rima hydrological basin in the semi-arid and northwestern part of Nigeria

  15. Hydrological and hydrochemical impact studies in the urbanised Petrusse river basin (Luxembourg) (United States)

    Pfister, L.; Iffly, J.; Guignard, C.; Krein, A.; Matgen, P.; Salvia-Castellvi, M.; van den Bos, R.; Tailliez, C.; Barnich, F.; Hofmmann, L.


    On the basis of ancient topographical maps, the growing urbanisation of the Petrusse river basin (42.9 km2) has been documented on 50-year time steps since 1770. While until the 1950's urban areas remained below 10% of total basin area, they are now close to 50%. This rapid change has consisted mainly in a change from cropland into built areas. As a direct consequence of these considerable changes in landuse, the basin presumably has undergone significant modifications of both its hydrological regime and the quality of the flowing surface waters. In the framework of a national monitoring programme, the Petrusse basin has been progressively equipped with 3 recording streamgauges between 1999 and 2003. Several meteorological stations are located in the immediate vicinity of the basin. The hydrological regime revealed by the 15-minute recordings of the streamgauges is very specific to heavily urbanised basins, i.e. characterised by quick reactions to incoming rainfall, as well as very limited contributions from sub-surface and groundwater reservoirs. A conceptual hydrological model has been used to evaluate roughly the impact of the progressive urbanisation of the Petrusse basin since 1770 on the rainfall-runoff relationship. Major changes were found for summer months, with significantly higher peak discharges and increasingly rapid reactions to rainfall events. However, the limitations of the spatial density of rainfall recordings (only 1 rainfall measurement site available between 1854 - 1949) cause severe shortcomings in the accuracy of the incoming rainfall estimations, especially in the case of convective rainfall events. This in turn also considerably reduces the accuracy of the historical rainfall-runoff simulations. Between 2002 and 2004, several monitoring campaigns have been carried out in the Petrusse basin in order to determine the impact of sewer system contributions from the urbanised areas to the water quality within the Petrusse. The investigations

  16. A Permian methane seep system as a paleoenvironmental analogue for the pre-metazoan carbonate platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Veríssimo Warren

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Following the rise of metazoans, the beginning of bioclasticity and substrate competition, the saga of microbial mats was in a fluctuating decline in the end of the Neoproterozoic era. Increases in diversity during the Phanerozoic and punctual upturns in the microbial carbonate production occured after the events of global mass extinctions. Gradually along the Phanerozoic, the microbial colonies occupied isolated niches and grazers-free environments, characterized by physically and/or geochemically stressful conditions, such as those found in saline bays, alkaline lakes and hydrothermal or cold seep vents. Here we report one of the oldest occurrences of a vent camp coupled with cold seepage of methane in the geologic record, associated with well-preserved microbialites and elephant skin structures. During the seep activity, oxygen depletion and high salinity conditions are prohibitive for complex animal life, clearing the way to microbial colonies to flourish. Due to the co-occurrence of high adaptability and low competitiveness of microbial forms, they became highly specialized in stressful conditions. We argue that the sporadic microbial mat upturns in Earth’s history are not restricted to geological periods, following massive death of metazoan species; they also may occur in response to punctual paleoenvironmental conditions that enable microbial colonies to growth. Indeed, the Phanerozoic geological record is punctuated of these examples, in a kind of hide-and-seek game of Precambrian times.

  17. Cytogenetic studies on Apareiodon affinis (Pisces, Characiformes) from Paraná river basin: sex chromosomes and polymorphism. (United States)

    Jorge, L C; Moreira-Filho, O


    Comparative cytogenetic studies were carried out on Apareiodon affinis from an important hydrographic system at South America, the Paraná river basin. Two distant regions were chosen, which were separated by Guaíra Falls (formerly Sete Quedas); the region in the upper part of the hydrographic basin is called Upper Parana (Brazil), whereas and the other in the lower part is called Lower Parana (Argentina). Individuals from Upper Parana have diploid numbers of 2n = 54 (NF= 108) for males and 2n = 55 (NF = 110) for females, showing female heterogamety with a ZZ/ZW1W2 multiple sex chromosomes system that is endemic for the region. In different localities at Lower Paraná, the specimens presented diploid number of 2n = 54 for both sexes, without any sex chromosomes heteromorphism. However, they have an accentuated polymorphism characterized by variation in number of acrocentric chromosomes, constituting something new for family Parodontidae. The most likely hypothesis to explain the origin of such polymorphism is based on successive pericentric inversions giving rise to acrocentric chromosomes. Thus, it was possible to detect 10 cytotypes along the Lower Parana basin. Such chromosomal variations possibly are the consequence of an adaptative process. Our data probably indicate the occurrence of distinct species in each region that share the same denomination.

  18. Hydroecological characteristic of coal-mining regions with crucial anthropogenic load (in the case study of the Yaiva river basin) (United States)

    Berezina, O. A.; Maksimovich, N. G.; Pyankov, S. V.


    Coal mines closure is usually associated with a list of environmental problems and one of them is their negative impact on a region’s river system. Hydroecological features of the Yaiva river basin located on the Kizel coal basin territory have been assessed. This river basin is typical for the Kizel coal basin territory that is why it has been taken as a model to verify the research algorithms. Further these algorithms will be applied for the investigation of other rivers running in the Kizel coal basin territory. The main negative consequences of anthropogenic impact on the Yaiva river basin watercourse have been revealed.

  19. Impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Mekong River basin : A case study of the Nam Ou basin, Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, B.; Babel, M.S.; Maskey, S.; Van Griensven, A.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Green, A.; Akkharath, I.


    This paper evaluates the impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Nam Ou basin located in northern Laos. Future climate (temperature and precipitation) from four general circulation models (GCMs) that are found to perform well in the Mekong region and a regional circulation model (PRECIS)

  20. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 1: Kinematics of Basin-Range intraplate extension (United States)

    Eddington, P. K.; Smith, R. B.; Renggli, C.


    Strain rates assessed from brittle fracture and total brittle-ductile deformation measured from geodetic data were compared to estimates of paleo-strain from Quaternary geology for the intraplate Great Basin part of the Basin-Range, western United States. These data provide an assessment of the kinematics and mode of lithospheric extension that the western U.S. Cordillera has experienced from the past few million years to the present. Strain and deformation rates were determined by the seismic moment tensor method using historic seismicity and fault plane solutions for sub-regions of homogeneous strain. Contemporary deformation in the Great Basin occurs principally along the active seismic zones. The integrated opening rate across the entire Great Basin is accommodated by E-E extension at 8 to 10 mm/a in the north that diminishes to NW-SE extension of 3.5 mm/a in the south. Zones of maximum lithospheric extension correspond to belts of thin crust, high heat flow, and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, suggesting that these parameters are related through mechanism of extension such as a stress relaxation, allowing bouyant uplift and ascension of magmas.

  1. Study of uranium mineralization in rock samples from marwat range bannu basin by fission track analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.Z.; Ullah, K.; Ullah, N.; Akram, M.


    The Geophysics Division, Atomic Energy Minerals Centre (AEMC), Lahore has planned a uranium exploration program in Marwat Range, Bannu Basin. In this connection 30 thin sections of rock samples, collected from four areas; namely, Darra Tang, Simukili, Karkanwal and Sheikhillah from Marwat Range, and one from Salt Range were provided to Nuclear Geology Group of Physics Research Division, PINSTECH for the study of nature and mechanism of uranium mineralization These studies are aimed to help in designing uranium exploration strategy by providing the loci of uranium sources in the Marwat and Salt Ranges. The samples have been studied using fission track analysis technique. (author)

  2. Validation studies on indexed sequential modeling for the Colorado River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labadie, J.W.; Fontane, D.G.; Salas, J.D.; Ouarda, T.


    This paper reports on a method called indexed sequential modeling (ISM) that has been developed by the Western Area Power Administration to estimate reliable levels of project dependable power capacity (PDC) and applied to several federal hydro systems in the Western U.S. The validity of ISM in relation to more commonly accepted stochastic modeling approaches is analyzed by applying it to the Colorado River Basin using the Colorado River Simulation System (CRSS) developed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Performance of ISM is compared with results from input of stochastically generated data using the LAST Applied Stochastic Techniques Package. Results indicate that output generated from ISM synthetically generated sequences display an acceptable correspondence with results obtained from final convergent stochastically generated hydrology for the Colorado River Basin

  3. Water reuse in the Apatlaco River Basin (México): a feasibility study. (United States)

    Moeller-Chávez, G; Seguí-Amórtegui, L; Alfranca-Burriel, O; Escalante-Estrada, V; Pozo-Román, F; Rivas-Hernández, A


    The aim of this work is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of implementing different reclamation and reuse projects that improve the quality of the Apatlaco river basin located in the central part of Mexico. A special methodology based on a decision support system was developed. This methodology allows to decide if it is convenient or not to finance a reclamation or reuse project for the most common water uses in the basin. This methodology is based on the net present value criteria (NPV) of the effective cash flow during the useful life of the project. The results obtained reveal a technical and economical feasibility for industrial reuse in Jiutepec and for agricultural reuse in Zacatepec and Emiliano Zapata. On the other hand, sanitation projects are not feasible in all cases analyzed. Therefore, Mexican Regulation (Ley Federal de Derechos en Materia de Agua) as currently implemented, does not promote and support this kind of projects.

  4. Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin


    The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

  5. CO2-induced mechanical behaviour of Hawkesbury sandstone in the Gosford basin: An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathnaweera, T.D.; Ranjith, P.G.; Perera, M.S.A.; Haque, A.; Lashin, A.; Al Arifi, N.; Chandrasekharam, D; Yang, SQ; Xu, T; Wang, SH; Yasar, E


    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sequestered in saline aquifers undergoes a variety of chemically-coupled mechanical effects, which may cause CO 2 -induced mechanical changes and time-dependent reservoir deformation. This paper investigates the mineralogical and microstructural changes that occur in reservoir rocks following injection of CO 2 in deep saline aquifers and the manner in which these changes influence the mechanical properties of the reservoir rocks. In this study, cylindrical sandstone specimens, 38 mm in diameter and 76 mm high, obtained from the Gosford basin, were used to perform a series of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests. Different saturation conditions: dry, water- and brine-saturated sandstone samples with and without scCO 2 (super-critical carbon dioxide) injection, were considered in the study to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the impact of scCO 2 injection during the CO 2 sequestration process on saline aquifer mechanical properties. An acoustic emission (AE) system was employed to identify the stress threshold values of crack closure, crack initiation and crack damage for each testing condition during the whole deformation process of the specimens. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses were performed to evaluate the chemical and mineralogical changes that occur in reservoir rocks during CO 2 injection. From the test results, it is clear that the CO 2 -saturated samples possessed a lower peak strength compared to non-CO 2 saturated samples. According to SEM, XRD and XRF analyses, considerable quartz mineral corrosion and dissolution of calcite and siderite were observed during the interactions of the CO 2 /water/rock and CO 2 /brine/rock systems, which implies that mineralogical and geochemical rock alterations affect rock mechanical properties by accelerating the collapse mechanisms of the pore matrix. AE results also reveal the weakening effect of rock pore

  6. Environmental impact studies for gas hydrate production test in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea (United States)

    Ryu, Byong-Jae


    To develop potential future energy resources, the Korean National Gas Hydrate Program has been carried out since 2005. The program has been supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE), and carried out by the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), the Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) and the Korea National Oil Corporation (KNOC) under the management of Gas Hydrate R&D Organization (GHDO). As a part of this national program, geophysical surveys, geological studies on gas hydrates and two deep drilling expeditions were performed. Gas hydrate-bearing sand layers suitable for production using current technologies were found during the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) in 2010. Environmental impact studies (EIS) also have been carried out since 2012 by KIGAM in cooperation with domestic and foreign universities and research organizations to ensure safe production test that will be performed in near future. The schedule of production test is being planned. The EIS includes assessment of environmental risks, examination on domestic environmental laws related with production test, collection of basic oceanographic information, and baseline and monitoring surveys. Oceanographic information and domestic environmental laws are already collected and analyzed. Baseline survey has been performed using the in-house developed system, KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) since 2013. It will also be performed. R/V TAMHAE II of KIGAM used for KISOS operation. As a part of this EIS, pseudo-3D Chirp survey also was carried out in 2014 to determine the development of fault near the potential testing site. Using KIGAM Seafloor Monitoring System (KIMOS), monitoring survey is planned to be performed from three month before production test to three months after production test. The geophysical survey for determining the change of gas hydrate reservoirs and production-efficiency around the production well would also be

  7. Indications of regional scale groundwater flows in the Amazon Basins: Inferences from results of geothermal studies (United States)

    Pimentel, Elizabeth T.; Hamza, Valiya M.


    The present work deals with determination groundwater flows in the Amazon region, based on analysis of geothermal data acquired in shallow and deep wells. The method employed is based on the model of simultaneous heat transfer by conduction and advection in permeable media. Analysis of temperature data acquired in water wells indicates down flows of groundwaters with velocities in excess of 10-7 m/s at depths less than 300 m in the Amazonas basin. Bottom-hole temperature (BHT) data sets have been used in determining characteristics of fluid movements at larger depths in the basins of Acre, Solimões, Amazonas, Marajó and Barreirinhas. The results of model simulations point to down flow of groundwaters with velocities of the order of 10-8 to 10-9 m/s, at depths of up to 4000 m. No evidence has been found for up flow typical of discharge zones. The general conclusion compatible with such results is that large-scale groundwater recharge systems operate at both shallow and deep levels in all sedimentary basins of the Amazon region. However, the basement rock formations of the Amazon region are relatively impermeable and hence extensive down flow systems through the sedimentary strata are possible only in the presence of generalized lateral movement of groundwater in the basal parts of the sedimentary basins. The direction of this lateral flow, inferred from the basement topography and geological characteristics of the region, is from west to east, following roughly the course of surface drainage system of the Amazon River, with eventual discharge into the Atlantic Ocean. The estimated flow rate at the continental margin is 3287 m3/s, with velocities of the order of 218 m/year. It is possible that dynamic changes in the fluvial systems in the western parts of South American continent have been responsible for triggering alterations in the groundwater recharge systems and deep seated lateral flows in the Amazon region.

  8. Comparative Study of Guaymas Basin Microbiomes: Cold Seeps vs. Hydrothermal Vents Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Cruaud


    Full Text Available In the Guaymas Basin, the presence at a few tens of kilometers of cold seeps and hydrothermal vents coupled with comparable sedimentary settings and depths offer a unique opportunity to assess and compare the microbial community composition of these deep-sea ecosystems. The microbial diversity in sediments from three cold seep and two hydrothermal vent assemblages were investigated using high-throughput 16S rRNA-sequencing. Numerous bacterial and archaeal lineages were detected in both cold seep and hydrothermal vent sediments. Various potential organic matter degraders (e.g., Chloroflexi, Atribacteria, MBG-D and methane and sulfur cycling related microorganisms (e.g., ANME and methanogenic lineages, sulfate-reducing lineages were detected in both ecosystems. This suggests that analogous metabolic processes such as organic matter degradation and anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction, were probably occurring in these two contrasted ecosystems. These highlighted “core microbiome” of the Guaymas Basin chemosynthetic ecosystems might therefore result from the combined presence of up-rising fluid emissions and high sedimentary rates of organic matter in the Basin. These results, coupled with the detailed ribotype analysis of major archaeal lineages (ANME-1, ANME-2, and MBG-D, also suggest a potential connectivity among deep-sea ecosystems of the Guaymas Basin likely due to the sedimentary context and the absence of physical border. However, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic lineages (e.g., Thermodesulfobacteria, Desulfurococcales, etc. were exclusively identified in hydrothermally impacted sediments highlighting the strong influence of temperature gradients and other hydrothermally-related factors such as thermogenic sulfate reduction and sulfide formation on microbial community composition.

  9. Study of site effect in the Most basin area, Czech Republic


    Lednická, M. (Markéta); Kaláb, Z. (Zdeněk); Knejzlík, J. (Jaromír)


    Blasting operations are used as a part of mining technology in open-pit mines and this mining activity represents the main source of seismic loading of inhabited areas in the surroundings of the mine. The vibration effect caused by blasting operations takes an unusual shape at the Most Basin area. Seismic noise measurements were performed in the surroundings of the open-pit mine and gained resonant frequencies were compared to prevailing frequencies resulting from the analysed records of blas...

  10. Hydrocarbon-Rich Groundwater above Shale-Gas Formations: A Karoo Basin Case Study. (United States)

    Eymold, William K; Swana, Kelley; Moore, Myles T; Whyte, Colin J; Harkness, Jennifer S; Talma, Siep; Murray, Ricky; Moortgat, Joachim B; Miller, Jodie; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H


    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have enhanced unconventional hydrocarbon recovery but raised environmental concerns related to water quality. Because most basins targeted for shale-gas development in the USA have histories of both active and legacy petroleum extraction, confusion about the hydrogeological context of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers overlying shales remains. The Karoo Basin, located in South Africa, provides a near-pristine setting to evaluate these processes, without a history of conventional or unconventional energy extraction. We conducted a comprehensive pre-industrial evaluation of water quality and gas geochemistry in 22 groundwater samples across the Karoo Basin, including dissolved ions, water isotopes, hydrocarbon molecular and isotopic composition, and noble gases. Methane-rich samples were associated with high-salinity, NaCl-type groundwater and elevated levels of ethane, 4 He, and other noble gases produced by radioactive decay. This endmember displayed less negative δ 13 C-CH 4 and evidence of mixing between thermogenic natural gases and hydrogenotrophic methane. Atmospheric noble gases in the methane-rich samples record a history of fractionation during gas-phase migration from source rocks to shallow aquifers. Conversely, methane-poor samples have a paucity of ethane and 4 He, near saturation levels of atmospheric noble gases, and more negative δ 13 C-CH 4 ; methane in these samples is biogenic and produced by a mixture of hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic sources. These geochemical observations are consistent with other basins targeted for unconventional energy extraction in the USA and contribute to a growing data base of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers globally, which provide a framework for evaluating environmental concerns related to unconventional energy development (e.g., stray gas). © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  11. Basin F Overburden and Soil Sampling and Analysis Study, Rocky Mountain Arsenal (United States)


    re,,al action is required for the Basin F--sediment re- ardles : of the rentuirements imposed by the RCMA regulations. 29 FX.: IV: CO:CLUS i6S .AND... modeling complex physical processes some importance to the fact that t!,ere is may remain contaminated for a number wtashrtemet.Alacteno variance or...characte.-stics. The most model which incorporated thesie ensure that the EP only captures wastes ’Important of these comments are - assumptions and on

  12. Chemical and environmental isotope study of the basaltic aquifer systems of Yarmouk Basin (Syria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.


    The water in the fissured basalt aquifer system, the Upper Jurassic aquifer of the Yarmouk Basin and the atmospheric precipitation have been investigated using chemical and environmental isotope techniques. The groundwaters flowing through the different aquifers are differentiated by their chemical ratios and their isotopic compositions. The evolution of chemical facies of groundwater from the recharge area towards the basin outlet is characterized by increasing of sodium and magnesium contents as a result of silicate leaching. The stable isotope compositions of precipitation and mountainous spring waters match the Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line, while the groundwaters from the central zone and from the major springs of the Yarmouk Basin are mixtures of freshwater, which is isotopically depleted and salty groundwater of Laja plateau area. The interpretations of tritium and radiocarbon ( 14 C) data indicate that the recharge zones of the groundwater in the Yarmouk Basin occur on the high-land of more than 1000 m of altitude. The residence time of the mountainous springs is short (of about 40 years or less). However, water ages corrected by Vogel's concept and Gonfiantini's Model show, in general, a range from 1000 to 11000 years for the central zone groundwater. The groundwater moves from the Mt. Hermon and Mt. Arab towards the central zone and from the north-east (i.e. the Laja plateau) towards south-west (i.e. the major springs). The radiometric flow velocities range from 20 to 60 m/year within the central zone, while the flow velocities from both sides of Mt. Hermon and Mt. Arab are lower (1-7 m/year). (author). 43 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Hydroclimatic variability in East Asia: A case study in the Yangtze river basin (United States)

    Chun, K. P.; Fok, H. S.; Sapriza Azuri, G.; Klaus, J.; Mamet, S.


    New regional patterns of droughts and flooding are emerging at south and east Asia river basins, but the causal climatic mechanisms underlying these new hydrological extreme events are yet unknown. The Southern Oscillation, monsoons, and sea surface temperatures affect hydrological conditions in Asia at different spatiotemporal scales. During the negative phase of the Southern Oscillation, anticyclone systems occur more frequently and modulate precipitation patterns near the southeast coast of China. Monsoons related to the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) locations have been used to explain regional droughts and flooding. Moreover, sea surface temperatures affect wind anomalies and thermocline adjustments across the Pacific and Indian oceans. Here we propose using a major catchment in China, the Yangtze river basin, to understand regional modes of climate variability influencing local hydrological dynamics in Asia. By decomposing the variance of precipitation and hydrological time series, we are able to quantify the relative contributions of the Southern Oscillation, monsoons, and sea surface temperatures to the Yangtze river discharges. Our results suggest that the Southern Oscillation has a relatively weak effect on discharges, whereas the Indian and western North Pacific monsoons are important for the upstream and downstream Yangtze river, respectively. Furthermore, rising Pacific sea surface temperatures may be related to more intensive precipitation at the downstream basin. Based on the hydroclimatic relationships identified here, we discuss future scenarios of changing environmental conditions in the region.

  14. Reconnaissance Study for the Western Lake Huron Basin, Watershed Study, Michigan, Section 905(b) (United States)


    identify potential local cost-share sponsors. The following paragraphs elaborate on each of the method sections. With a study area of over 8,700...Muck  a. Problem at Oak Beach area since 2001  b. Identified around shoreline  c. Foamy/ chocolate  colored water at shore  d. Bird Creek beach

  15. Status of groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel study unit, 2005--California GAMA Priority Basin Project (United States)

    Land, Michael; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth


    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile San Fernando--San Gabriel (FG) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is in Los Angeles County and includes Tertiary-Quaternary sedimentary basins situated within the Transverse Ranges of southern California. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA FG study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) throughout California. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 35 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the FG study unit. The quality of groundwater in primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the FG study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.

  16. The Neogene-Quaternary geodynamic evolution of the central Calabrian Arc: A case study from the western Catanzaro Trough basin (United States)

    Brutto, F.; Muto, F.; Loreto, M. F.; Paola, N. De; Tripodi, V.; Critelli, S.; Facchin, L.


    The Catanzaro Trough is a Neogene-Quaternary basin developed in the central Calabrian Arc, between the Serre and the Sila Massifs, and filled by up to 2000 m of continental to marine deposits. It extends from the Sant'Eufemia Basin (SE Tyrrhenian Sea), offshore, to the Catanzaro Basin, onshore. Here, onshore structural data have been integrated with structural features interpreted using marine geophysical data to infer the main tectonic processes that have controlled the geodynamic evolution of the western portion of the Catanzaro Trough, since Upper Miocene to present. The data show a complex tectonostratigraphic architecture of the basin, which is mainly controlled by the activity of NW-SE and NE-SW trending fault systems. In particular, during late Miocene, the NW-SE oriented faults system was characterized by left lateral kinematics. The same structural regime produces secondary fault systems represented by E-W and NE-SW oriented faults. The ca. E-W lineaments show extensional kinematics, which may have played an important role during the opening of the WNW-ESE paleo-strait; whereas the NE-SW oriented system represents the conjugate faults of the NW-SE oriented structural system, showing a right lateral component of motion. During the Piacenzian-Lower Pleistocene, structural field and geophysical data show a switch from left-lateral to right-lateral kinematics of the NW-SE oriented faults, due to a change of the stress field. This new structural regime influenced the kinematics of the NE-SW faults system, which registered left lateral movement. Since Middle Pleistocene, the study area experienced an extensional phase, WNW-ESE oriented, controlled mainly by NE-SW and, subordinately, N-S oriented normal faults. This type of faulting splits obliquely the western Catanzaro Trough, producing up-faulted and down-faulted blocks, arranged as graben-type system (i.e Lamezia Basin). The multidisciplinary approach adopted, allowed us to constrain the structural setting of

  17. Influence of urbanization on the original vegetation cover in urban river basin: case study in Campinas/SP, Brazil (United States)

    Leite Silva, Alessandra; Márcia Longo, Regina


    ABSTRACT: In most Brazilian municipalities, urban development was not based on adequate planning; one of the consequences was the reduction of the original vegetation, limiting the forest formations to scarce and isolated fragments. In Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, the vegetation fragmentation was mainly related to the expeditions and to the cycles of sugar cane and coffee. In this way, the present study aims to identify, quantify and evaluate the remaining arboreal vegetation spatial distribution in the Anhumas River Basin - Campinas/SP, Brazil. This study was developed with the aid of GIS software and field visits in order to construct a diagnosis of these areas and subsidize future actions required and to discuss the influence of urbanization on the original vegetation cover. The area was initially occupied by the Atlantic Forest (semi-deciduous forest) and drains one of the oldest urban occupation areas in the municipality; according to researchers, based on the water and geomorphological conditions of the basin, it can be subdivided into high, medium and low course. With a total area of 156,514 km2, only 16.74% are classified as green areas; where just 1.07% and 6.17% of total area represents forests and reforestation areas, respectively. The remaining green areas consists of: wetlands close to water bodies, but with no presence of trees and shrubs (area of 0.12% of the basin); urban green space, including parks and squares (2.19%); and natural field, constituted by natural non-arboreous vegetation (7.18%). In a scenario like this, a characteristic situation is the forest fragmentation; this process results in native vegetation remnants, isolated and more susceptible to external interference, coming from, for example, the proximity to agricultural areas or others land uses. The ecological knowledge of the remnants and their correct management can not only make it possible to diagnose current problems and to estimate future influences, but also to point out the

  18. Annual report on paleoclimate studies for the Yucca Mountain project site characterization conducted by the Desert Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The prospect that Yucca Mountain may become a repository for high-level radionuclides with especially long half-lives means that the intended waste containment area must be well beyond the reach of the hydrologic system for at least ten millennia. Through the integration of several avenues of paleoclimatic proxy data, the authors intend to arrive at definite conclusions regarding rates of change, and extremes and stabilities of past climate regimes. These will in turn lead to rough estimates of: the amounts of rainfall available for recharge during past periods of effectively wetter climate, and the durations and frequencies of recharge periods. The paper gives summaries of the following studies: Late Quaternary and Holocene climate derived from vegetation history and plant cellulose stable isotope records from the Great basin of western North America; Accomplishments of paleofaunal studies, 1993--1994; Geomorphology studies in the Great Basin; Alluvial fan response to climatic change, Buena Vista Valley, central Nevada; Sedimentology, stratigraphy, and chronology of lacustrine deposition in the Fernley Basin, west-central Nevada; Tree-rings, lake chronologies, alluvial sequences and climate--Implications for Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies; Stable isotopic validation studies--Fossil snails; and Late Pleistocene and Holocene eolian activity in the Mojave Desert.

  19. Geoarchaeologic and paleopedologic evidences for the holocene paleoenvironmental evolution of the Crisuri plain (Western Romania

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    Nicolae Josan


    Full Text Available This study is based mainly on the correlation established between the fossil soils identified within several archaeological sites from Crisuri Plain as well as the information that could be obtained by analysing their content in artefacts and paleozoological remains and takes into account the validity of some consecrated points of view, almost unanimously accepted concerning the paleoenvironmental evolution of the North Western part of Romania. Some very popular "clichés" such as the supposition of the warm and pregnant humid climate during the Atlantic period, fact which determined the wide spreading of the forests or that explains the appearance of the steppe and forest-steppe elements as a result of an intense deforestation process, seems to be contested by paleopedologic and geoarchaelogic arguments that prove the existence of several periods of climatic optimum separated by paleoenvironmental crisis periods.L'étude a pour objectif de préciser l'évolution holocène des secteurs inférieurs de la Plaine de Crişuri, domaine marqué par des mouvements de subsidence et par une tectonique encore active. La méthode utilisée s'appuie sur les relations entre différents éléments : les sols fossiles dans lesquels ont été trouvés des fragments de céramiques dont l'appartenance culturelle et de l'âge peuvent être déterminés à l'aide des méthodes archéologiques ; le rapport spatial entre les sites archéologiques et les facteurs géomorphologiques ; les données des recherches paléobotaniques et paléozoologiques existantes ; les connaissances sur les sols fossiles dont des profils représentatifs sont décrits dans des études récentes sur l'évolution holocène des paysages de la Plaine de la Transylvanie ; les travaux récents sur la reconstruction paléoenvironnementale de l'Holocène supérieur de l'Europe Centrale.Les sites contenant des vestiges de plusieurs périodes successives sont nombreux dans la plaine de Cri

  20. Simulation of Snowmelt Runoff Using SRM Model and Comparison With Neural Networks ANN and ANFIS (Case Study: Kardeh dam basin

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    morteza akbari


    Full Text Available Introduction: Snowmelt runoff plays an important role in providing water and agricultural resources, especially in mountainous areas. There are different methods to simulate the process of snowmelt. Inter alia, degree-day model, based on temperature-index is more cited. Snowmelt Runoff Model is a conceptual hydrological model to simulate and predict the daily flow of rivers in the mountainous basins on the basis of comparing the accuracy of AVHRR and TM satellite images to determine snow cover in Karun Basin. Additionally, overestimation of snow-covered area decreased with increasing spatial resolution of satellite data.Studies conducted in the Zayandehrood watershed dam, showed that in the calculation of the snow map cover, changes from MODIS satellite imagery, at the time that the image does not exist, using the digital elevation model and regression analysis can provide to estimate the appropriate data from satellites. In the study of snow cover in eastern Turkey, in the mountainous regions of the Euphrates River, data from five meteorological stations and MODIS images were used with a resolution of 500 m. The results showed that satellite images have a good accuracy in estimating snow cover. In a Watershed in northern Pakistan in the period from 2000 to 2006, SRM model was used to estimate the snow cover using MODIS images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the snowmelt runoff using remote sensing data and SRM model for flow simulation, based on statistical parameters in the Kardeh dam basin. Materials and Methods: Kardeh dam basin has an area of about 560 square kilometers and is located in the north of Mashhad. This area is in the East of Hezarmasjed – kopehdagh zone that is one of the main basins of Kashafrood. This basin is a mountainous area. About 261 km of the basin is located at above 2000 m. The lowest point of the basin is at the watershed outlet with1300 meters and the highest point in the basin, in the North West part

  1. GC51D-0831: A Study of the Impact of Dams on Sediment Retention in the Mekong River Basin (United States)

    Munroe, Thailynn; Griffin, Robert; Anderson, Eric; Markert, Kel


    Dam construction in the Mekong Basin has many cascading effects on the ecology, economy, and hydrology of the surrounding region. The focus of this study is to utilize the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), developed at Texas A & M, a rainfall-runoff hydrologic model to determine change in sedimentation in the Mekong Basin after the construction of dams. This study uses land cover land use and reservoir datasets created by the NASA SERVIR-Mekong Regional Land Cover Monitoring System and Dam Inundation Mapping Tool as inputs into the model. The study also builds on the capabilities of the SWAT model by using the sediment trapping efficiency (STE) equation from Brune (1953), rewritten by Kummu & Varis (2007), to calculate STE of dams and estimate change in sediment concentration downstream. The outputs from this study can be used to inform dam operation policies, study the correlation between dams and delta subsidence, and study the impact of dams on river fisheries, which are all pressing issues in the Mekong region.

  2. A Study of the Impact of Dams on Streamflow and Sediment Retention in the Mekong River Basin (United States)

    Munroe, T.; Anderson, E.; Markert, K. N.; Griffin, R.


    Dam construction in the Mekong Basin has many cascading effects on the ecology, economy, and hydrology of the surrounding region. Current studies that assess the hydrological impact of dams in the region focus on only one or a small subset (SWAT), a rainfall-runoff hydrologic model to determine change in streamflow and sedimentation in the Mekong Basin before and after the construction of dams. This study uses land cover land use and reservoir datasets created by the NASA SERVIR-Mekong Regional Land Cover Monitoring System and Dam Inundation Mapping Tool as inputs into the model. The study also builds on the capabilities of the SWAT model by using the sediment trapping efficiency (STE) equation from Brune (1953), rewritten by Kummu (2007), to calculate STE of dams and estimate change in sediment concentration downstream. The outputs from this study can be used to inform dam operation policies, study the correlation between dams and delta subsidence, and study the impact of dams on river fisheries, which are all pressing issues in the Mekong region.

  3. Plio-Pleistocene magnetostratigraphy of the Turkana basin, Kenya (United States)

    Lepre, C. J.; Quinn, R.; Feibel, C. S.; Brown, F. H.; Kent, D. V.


    .g., Vrica Subchron, upper and lower Reunion Subchrons, Kaena and Mammoth Subchrons) typically often not observed in continental records. Across-basin (50-100 km) comparisons of the stratigraphic positions for the same reversal boundaries demonstrate not only heterogeneity in paleoenvironmental records based on the stable-isotopic composition of paleosol carbonates and sedimentary facies, but also diachroneity for the onset of lacustrine systems that mark transitions from fluvial-dominated intervals of the basin's history. Although some lake-level oscillations might be linked with global climate changes operating at timescales on the order of 20-40 thousand years, differences between the nature and timing of the spatially disparate paleoenvironmental records are interpreted to reflect a strong influence on sedimentary patterns by local reorganizations of basin-boundary faults, underlying half-graben structure, and volcano-tectonic events. Conflicting aridity and humidity hypotheses of human evolution for the period of 3.5-1.5 Ma are compared using the newly constructed magnetostratigraphy to directly integrate the basin's paleoenvironmental and evolutionary records with dust-flux chronologies, Mediterranean sapropel sequences, and oxygen isotope proxies of global ice volume.

  4. Facies and depositional environments for the coquinas of the Morro do Chaves Formation, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, defined by taphonomic and compositional criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Tavares

    Full Text Available Lacustrine carbonate rocks form important hydrocarbon accumulations along the Brazilian continental margin, some of which are contained in oil fields in which coquinas are one of the main reservoirs (viz. Campos Basin. The complexity and heterogeneity of these deposits make them a challenge in terms of reservoir description. For the necessary classification and paleoenvironmental interpretation of the coquinas, it is essential to evaluate many aspects including biological (such as carbonate productivity, sedimentological (energy regime in the depositional environment, transport of bioclasts, terrigenous supply, taphonomic (fragmentation of shells, abrasion and diagenetic processes. The facies analysis applied in this study is considered a more appropriate classification approach to understand these coquinas, since it is more flexible and comprehensive than the existing classifications for carbonate rocks. The material investigated here consists of rock samples of the coquinas from the Atol Quarry of the Morro do Chaves Formation (Barremian/Aptian, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin. These rocks that crop out in the Atol quarry complex can be considered as a case study for similar coquinas reservoirs found in the Brazilian continental margin basins. Six sedimentary facies were described, using the main taphonomic (fragmentation of shells and compositional (presence of micrite and siliciclastic matrix features as a diagnostic criteria. Two carbonate facies, two mixed carbonate-siliciclastic facies and two siliciclastic facies (mudstones were identified. From the facies succession, combined with a review of the literature on the subject, the following depositional paleoenvironments were defined: high-energy lake platform, lacustrine delta in a high-energy lake platform and lake-centre. In this paper, a new facies model for the studied coquinas succession is proposed.

  5. Material Exchange and Migration between Pore Fluids and Sandstones during Diagenetic Processes in Rift Basins: A Case Study Based on Analysis of Diagenetic Products in Dongying Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China

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    W. Meng


    Full Text Available The exchange and migration of basin materials that are carried by pore fluids are the essence of diagenesis, which can alter physical properties of clastic rocks as well as control formation and distribution of favorable reservoirs of petroliferous basins. Diagenetic products and pore fluids, resulting from migration and exchange of basin materials, can be used to deduce those processes. In this study, 300 core samples from 46 wells were collected for preparation of casting thin sections, SEM, BSE, EDS, inclusion analysis, and isotope analysis in Dongying Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China. Combined with geochemical characteristics of pore fluids and geological background of the study area, the source and exchange mechanisms of materials in the pore fluids of rift basins were discussed. It was revealed that the material exchange of pore fluids could be divided into five stages. The first stage was the evaporation concentration stage during which mainly Ca2+, Mg2+, and CO32- precipitated as high-Mg calcites. Then came the shale compaction stage, when mainly Ca2+ and CO32- from shale compaction water precipitated as calcites. The third stage was the carboxylic acid dissolution stage featured by predominant dissolution of plagioclases, during which Ca2+ and Na+ entered pore fluids, and Si and Al also entered pore fluids and then migrated as clathrates, ultimately precipitating as kaolinites. The fourth stage was the organic CO2 stage, mainly characterized by the kaolinization of K-feldspar as well as dissolution of metamorphic lithic fragments and carbon cements. During this stage, K+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, HCO3-, and CO32- entered pore fluids. The fifth stage was the alkaline fluid stage, during which the cementation of ferro-carbonates and ankerites as well as illitization or chloritization of kaolinites prevailed, leading to the precipitation of K+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and CO32- from pore fluids.

  6. Water allocation assessment in low flow river under data scarce conditions: a study of hydrological simulation in Mediterranean basin. (United States)

    Bangash, Rubab F; Passuello, Ana; Hammond, Michael; Schuhmacher, Marta


    River Francolí is a small river in Catalonia (northeastern Spain) with an average annual low flow (~2 m(3)/s). The purpose of the River Francolí watershed assessments is to support and inform region-wide planning efforts from the perspective of water protection, climate change and water allocation. In this study, a hydrological model of the Francolí River watershed was developed for use as a tool for watershed planning, water resource assessment, and ultimately, water allocation purposes using hydrological data from 2002 to 2006 inclusive. The modeling package selected for this application is DHI's MIKE BASIN. This model is a strategic scale water resource management simulation model, which includes modeling of both land surface and subsurface hydrological processes. Topographic, land use, hydrological, rainfall, and meteorological data were used to develop the model segmentation and input. Due to the unavailability of required catchment runoff data, the NAM rainfall-runoff model was used to calculate runoff of all the sub-watersheds. The results reveal a potential pressure on the availability of groundwater and surface water in the lower part of River Francolí as was expected by the IPCC for Mediterranean river basins. The study also revealed that due to the complex hydrological regime existing in the study area and data scarcity, a comprehensive physically based method was required to better represent the interaction between groundwater and surface water. The combined ArcGIS/MIKE BASIN models appear as a useful tool to assess the hydrological cycle and to better understand water allocation to different sectors in the Francolí River watershed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Paleoenvironmental and paleohydrochemical conditions of dolomite formation within a saline wetland in arid northwest Australia (United States)

    Mather, Caroline C.; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dogramaci, Shawan; Grierson, Pauline F.


    Groundwater dolocrete occurring within the Fortescue Marsh, a large inland wetland in the Pilbara region of northwest Australia, has been investigated to provide paleoenvironmental and paleohydrological records and further the understanding of low temperature dolomite formation in terrestrial settings over the Quaternary Period. Two major phases of groundwater dolocrete formation are apparent from the presence of two distinct units of dolocrete, based on differences in depth, δ18O values and mineral composition. Group 1 (G1) occurs at depth 20-65 m b.g.l. (below ground level) and contains stoichiometric dolomite with δ18O values of -4.02-0.71‰. Group 2 (G2) is shallower (0-23 m b.g.l.), occurring close to the current groundwater level, and contains Ca-rich dolomite ± secondary calcite with a comparatively lower range of δ18O values (-7.74 and -6.03‰). Modelled δ18O values of paleogroundwater from which older G1 dolomite precipitated indicated highly saline source water, which had similar stable oxygen isotope compositions to relatively old brine groundwater within the Marsh, developed under a different hydroclimatic regime. The higher δ18O values suggest highly evaporitic conditions occurred at the Marsh, which may have been a playa lake to saline mud flat environment. In contrast, G2 dolomite precipitated from comparatively fresher water, and modelled δ18O values suggested formation from mixing between inflowing fresher groundwater with saline-brine groundwater within the Marsh. The δ18O values of the calcite indicates formation from brackish to saline groundwater, which suggests this process may be associated with coeval gypsum dissolution. In contrast to the modern hydrology of the Marsh, which is surface water dependent and driven by a flood and drought regime, past conditions conducive to dolomite precipitation suggest a groundwater dependent system, where shallow groundwaters were influenced by intensive evaporation.

  8. Study of human occupation impacts in the Batedor river basin in the Mantiqueira Mountain in the municipal district of Cruzeiro, SP, Brazil

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    Marcelo dos Santos Targa


    Full Text Available The study of hydrographic basins as territorial units integrating the management of hydric resources is essential to guarantee sustainable use of natural resources in these basins. The establishment of the Paraíba do Sul hydrographic basins committee, in 1994, determined the need for management planning and action integration in the Paraíba do Sul basin which incorporates a variety of industries and intense land use. The Batedor river, in the municipality of Cruzeiro, SP, flows into the Passa Vinte which is an affluent of Paraíba do Sul river. Its mouth is located at 22°31’0.63”S and 45°01’2.07”W. Its farthest water contributing source lies about 8.5 km, near the Itaguaré peak 2,308 m high, in the Mantiqueira Mountain on the border of São Paulo and Minas Gerais States. To characterize land use in the Batedor hydrographic basin, Landsat imagery and topographic charts were analyzed based on remote sensing and geoprocessing techniques. This paper describes the study of impacts related to land and water resources use in the Batedor river basin and the generation of educational environmental material. Results have shown that this basin has good water supply, has no flooding risk and has several springs running down the Mantiqueira Moutain slopes that form young creeks with few meanders. Irregular human occupation for housing and subsistence agriculture, mainly banana plantations can be seen in deep slopes and riparian areas, as well as degraded pastures that indicate inappropriate land use and no conformance to pertinent legislation. The decrease in forest vegetation cover can cause severe erosion with significant soil loss and sediment deposition in the river, thus reducing water quality and quantity during the dry season. This basin is currently responsible for 70% of the Cruzeiro, SP water supply.

  9. SWAT use of gridded observations for simulating runoff – a Vietnam river basin study

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    M. T. Vu


    Full Text Available Many research studies that focus on basin hydrology have applied the SWAT model using station data to simulate runoff. But over regions lacking robust station data, there is a problem of applying the model to study the hydrological responses. For some countries and remote areas, the rainfall data availability might be a constraint due to many different reasons such as lacking of technology, war time and financial limitation that lead to difficulty in constructing the runoff data. To overcome such a limitation, this research study uses some of the available globally gridded high resolution precipitation datasets to simulate runoff. Five popular gridded observation precipitation datasets: (1 Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE, (2 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, (3 Precipitation Estimation from Remote Sensing Information using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN, (4 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP, (5 a modified version of Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN2 and one reanalysis dataset, National Centers for Environment Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR are used to simulate runoff over the Dak Bla river (a small tributary of the Mekong River in Vietnam. Wherever possible, available station data are also used for comparison. Bilinear interpolation of these gridded datasets is used to input the precipitation data at the closest grid points to the station locations. Sensitivity Analysis and Auto-calibration are performed for the SWAT model. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE and Coefficient of Determination (R2 indices are used to benchmark the model performance. Results indicate that the APHRODITE dataset performed very well on a daily scale simulation of discharge having a good NSE of 0.54 and R2 of 0.55, when compared to the discharge simulation using station data (0

  10. SWAT use of gridded observations for simulating runoff - a Vietnam river basin study (United States)

    Vu, M. T.; Raghavan, S. V.; Liong, S. Y.


    Many research studies that focus on basin hydrology have applied the SWAT model using station data to simulate runoff. But over regions lacking robust station data, there is a problem of applying the model to study the hydrological responses. For some countries and remote areas, the rainfall data availability might be a constraint due to many different reasons such as lacking of technology, war time and financial limitation that lead to difficulty in constructing the runoff data. To overcome such a limitation, this research study uses some of the available globally gridded high resolution precipitation datasets to simulate runoff. Five popular gridded observation precipitation datasets: (1) Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), (2) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), (3) Precipitation Estimation from Remote Sensing Information using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN), (4) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), (5) a modified version of Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN2) and one reanalysis dataset, National Centers for Environment Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) are used to simulate runoff over the Dak Bla river (a small tributary of the Mekong River) in Vietnam. Wherever possible, available station data are also used for comparison. Bilinear interpolation of these gridded datasets is used to input the precipitation data at the closest grid points to the station locations. Sensitivity Analysis and Auto-calibration are performed for the SWAT model. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and Coefficient of Determination (R2) indices are used to benchmark the model performance. Results indicate that the APHRODITE dataset performed very well on a daily scale simulation of discharge having a good NSE of 0.54 and R2 of 0.55, when compared to the discharge simulation using station data (0.68 and 0.71). The GPCP proved to be the

  11. Chemical characteristics of rainwater in Sichuan basin, a case study of Ya'an. (United States)

    Li, Yun-Chun; Zhang, Meng; Shu, Man; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Liu, Zi-Fang; Wang, Xian-Xiang; Zhao, Xiao-Qing


    Rainwater chemistry was investigated at a semi-rural site in Ya'an, Sichuan basin with rain samples collected from May 2013 to July 2014. The rainwater pH values ranged from 3.25 to 6.86, with an annual volume-weighted mean (VWM) of 4.38, and the acid rain frequency was 74 %. Such severe acidification, 15 % of the total events showed a pH below 4.0, attributed to the deficiency of Ca(2+), significant anthropogenic pollution contribution, and rainy pattern to this area. The annual VWM of total ions concentration was 477.19 μeq/L. NH4 (+) was the most abundant ionic species, followed by SO4 (2-), NO3 (-), Ca(2+), Cl(-), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and F(-) in a descending order. The total ionic concentrations presented a seasonal trend of lower values in autumn and summer but higher ones in winter and spring. Based on enrichment factor, correlation analysis and principle component analysis, three factors were identified: factor 1 (NH4 (+), SO4 (2-), NO3 (-), K(+), and Cl(-), 47.45 % of the total variance) related to anthropogenic sources (coal/fuel combustion, biomass burning and agriculture), factor 2 (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and Cl(-), 34.01 % of the total variance) associated with natural sources, and factor 3 (H(+), 11.78 % of the total variance) related to free acidity. Back trajectory analysis indicates that the rainwater chemistry in Ya'an was mainly affected by regional air masses from Sichuan basin. Long-range transported air masses from southwest with heavy anthropogenic pollution increased the total ion concentration and acidity of rainwater. Considering its special topography, anthropogenic emissions from regional and long-range transport (especially from southwest) must be controlled effectively to improve the acid rain condition of non-urban areas in Sichuan basin.

  12. Identifying stakeholder-relevant climate change impacts: a case study in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, USA (United States)

    Jenni, K.; Graves, D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Hatten, James R.; Mastin, Mark C.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Montag, J.; Nieman, Timothy; Voss, Frank D.; Maule, Alec G.


    Designing climate-related research so that study results will be useful to natural resource managers is a unique challenge. While decision makers increasingly recognize the need to consider climate change in their resource management plans, and climate scientists recognize the importance of providing locally-relevant climate data and projections, there often remains a gap between management needs and the information that is available or is being collected. We used decision analysis concepts to bring decision-maker and stakeholder perspectives into the applied research planning process. In 2009 we initiated a series of studies on the impacts of climate change in the Yakima River Basin (YRB) with a four-day stakeholder workshop, bringing together managers, stakeholders, and scientists to develop an integrated conceptual model of climate change and climate change impacts in the YRB. The conceptual model development highlighted areas of uncertainty that limit the understanding of the potential impacts of climate change and decision alternatives by those who will be most directly affected by those changes, and pointed to areas where additional study and engagement of stakeholders would be beneficial. The workshop and resulting conceptual model highlighted the importance of numerous different outcomes to stakeholders in the basin, including social and economic outcomes that go beyond the physical and biological outcomes typically reported in climate impacts studies. Subsequent studies addressed several of those areas of uncertainty, including changes in water temperatures, habitat quality, and bioenergetics of salmonid populations.

  13. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 4. Pacific basin spent fuel logistics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarizes the conceptual framework for a Pacific Basin Spent Fuel Logistics System (PBSFLS); and preliminarily describes programatic steps that might be taken to implement such a system. The PBSFLS concept is described in terms of its technical and institutional components. The preferred PBSFLS concept embodies the rationale of emplacing a fuel cycle system which can adjust to the technical and institutional non-proliferation solutions as they are developed and accepted by nations. The concept is structured on the basis of initially implementing a regional spent fuel storage and transportation system which can technically and institutionally accommodate downstream needs for energy recovery and long-term waste management solutions.

  14. Site effects and soil-structure resonance study in the Kobarid basin (NW Slovenia using microtremors

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    A. Gosar


    Full Text Available The town of Kobarid is located in one of three areas with the highest seismic hazard in Slovenia. It was hit by several 1976–1977 Friuli sequence earthquakes and recently by the 1998 and 2004 Krn Mountains earthquakes which caused damage of intensity up to VII EMS-98 scale. The town is located in a small basin filled with heterogeneous glaciofluvial Quaternary sediments in which site effects due to soft sediments are expected. The existing microzonation which is based on surface geological data only is inadequate, and no borehole or geophysical data are available in the basin that would allow a modelling approach of site effects assessment. The microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR method was therefore applied in order to assess the fundamental frequency of the sediments. Investigations were performed on a 100×100 m dense grid and 106 free-field measurements acquired. Clear HVSR peaks were obtained in the majority of the surveyed area. The eastern part of the basin is characterized by two well separated peaks which indicate distinct shallow and deep impedance contrasts. The iso-frequency map of sediments shows a distribution in a broad range of 1.8–22.2 Hz. The observed frequencies can be related to the total thickness of Quaternary sediments (sand, gravel in the western part of the basin only. They are deposited over bedrock built of Cretaceous flysch. In the eastern part the obtained fundamental frequencies are influenced by the presence of a shallow conglomerate layer inside sandy gravel or lacustrine chalk. The extent of these layers was not known before. Microtremor measurements were also performed inside 19 characteristic buildings of various heights (from two to four stories, and longitudinal and transverse fundamental frequencies determined from amplitude spectra. A potential of soil-structure resonance was assessed by comparing building frequencies with the free-field sediments frequencies derived from the iso

  15. Survey of artisanal fishing gear and craft. A case study of Kainji Lake lower basin, Nigeria


    Ogundiwin, Damilare Ibukun


    Despite the considerable importance of artisanal fishing in Kainji Lake lower basin, knowledge about gear and craft being used is deficient and outdated. Little is also known as to why fishermen adopted the diverse fishing gear and craft they use in the Lake, as well as the relationship of these input factors to the socio-economic status of the fishermen and ecology of the lake. To address these issues, a survey of sixty (60) artisanal fishers and twelve (12) village leaders drawn from 12 sel...

  16. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 4. Pacific basin spent fuel logistics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarizes the conceptual framework for a Pacific Basin Spent Fuel Logistics System (PBSFLS); and preliminarily describes programatic steps that might be taken to implement such a system. The PBSFLS concept is described in terms of its technical and institutional components. The preferred PBSFLS concept embodies the rationale of emplacing a fuel cycle system which can adjust to the technical and institutional non-proliferation solutions as they are developed and accepted by nations. The concept is structured on the basis of initially implementing a regional spent fuel storage and transportation system which can technically and institutionally accommodate downstream needs for energy recovery and long-term waste management solutions

  17. Trilobites, scolecodonts and fish remains occurrence and the depositional paleoenvironment of the upper Monte Alegre and lower Itaituba formations, Lower - Middle Pennsylvanian of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil (United States)

    Moutinho, Luciane Profs; Nascimento, Sara; Scomazzon, Ana Karina; Lemos, Valesca Brasil


    This study aims to characterize the scolecodonts, trilobite pygidium fragments and fish remains of an outcropped region in the southern Amazonas Basin, comprising the uppermost section of the Monte Alegre Formation and the basal section of the Itaituba Formation. These, correspond to part of the marine portion of the Tapajós Group, related to an intracratonic carbonate platform. The Monte Alegre Formation includes a deposition of fluvial-deltaic and aeolian sandstones, siltstones and shales of interdunes and lakes, intercalated with transgressive carbonates of a shallow restrict nearshore marine environment. The Itaituba Formation comprises a thickest deposit of marine carbonates, representing the establishment of widespread marine conditions, and is the richest interval containing organisms of shallow marine environment in the Pennsylvanian of the Amazonas Basin. The associated fauna includes brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, crinoids, echinoids, bryozoans, corals, foraminifers, sponges, ostracods, trilobites, scolecodonts, fish remains and conodonts, mainly in the packstones, and subordinately in the wackestones and mudstones. Conodonts Neognathodus atokaensis, Diplognathodus orphanus, Idiognathodus incurvus, and foraminifers Millerella extensa, Millerella pressa, Millerella marblensis, Eostaffella ampla, Eostaffella pinguis and Eostaffella advena characterizes a predominant Atokan age to the analyzed profile. The fossil association herein presented is taxonomically diversified and biologically interesting, comprising an important and well preserved, for the first time occurrence of two molds and two fragments of Proetida trilobites. Well preserved Eunicida and Phyllodocida scolecodonts and paleonisciform fish remains. These fossils help in the paleoenvironmental establishment of the studied interval in the Amazonas Basin and as a potential biostratigraphic and paleoecological tool to correlate regionally and globally the Pennsylvanian.

  18. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto with Imaging Radar: Understanding the Origins of the Modern Amazon Basin (United States)

    McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Cracraft, J.


    Amazonia is Earth's most iconic center of biological diversity and endemism and, owing to its contributions to global systems ecology, is arguably Earth's most important terrestrial biome . Amazonia includes a vast landscape of mostly lowland rainforest found in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Venezuela. It harbors the world's highest species diversity, the largest fresh-water ecosystem in the world, and contributes substantially to shaping the Earth's atmospheric gasses and oceans and consequently its climate. Despite this global importance, we still have an incomplete understanding of how this biodiversity-rich biome developed over time. Knowing its history is crucially important for understanding how the short and long-term effects of biodiversity loss and climate change will impact the region, and the globe, in the future. Hence, we seek to understand the evolutionary and environmental-ecological history of Amazonia over the past 10 million years through a comparative approach that integrates across the disciplines of systematic biology, population biology, ecosystem structure and function, geology, Earth systems modeling and remote sensing, and paleoenvironmental history. During springtime 2013, the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over many regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired over the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon's planalto, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian planalto is variously described as either an erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess (1) the utility of these high quality imaging radar

  19. Comprehensive assessment of soil erosion risk for better land use planning in river basins: Case study of the Upper Blue Nile River. (United States)

    Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Poesen, Jean; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Meshesha, Derege Tsegaye; Fenta, Ayele Almaw; Nyssen, Jan; Adgo, Enyew


    In the drought-prone Upper Blue Nile River (UBNR) basin of Ethiopia, soil erosion by water results in significant consequences that also affect downstream countries. However, there have been limited comprehensive studies of this and other basins with diverse agroecologies. We analyzed the variability of gross soil loss and sediment yield rates under present and expected future conditions using a newly devised methodological framework. The results showed that the basin generates an average soil loss rate of 27.5tha -1 yr -1 and a gross soil loss of ca. 473Mtyr -1 , of which, at least 10% comes from gully erosion and 26.7% leaves Ethiopia. In a factor analysis, variation in agroecology (average factor score=1.32) and slope (1.28) were the two factors most responsible for this high spatial variability. About 39% of the basin area is experiencing severe to very severe (>30tha -1 yr -1 ) soil erosion risk, which is strongly linked to population density. Severe or very severe soil erosion affects the largest proportion of land in three subbasins of the UBNR basin: Blue Nile 4 (53.9%), Blue Nile 3 (45.1%), and Jema Shet (42.5%). If appropriate soil and water conservation practices targeted ca. 77.3% of the area with moderate to severe erosion (>15tha -1 yr -1 ), the total soil loss from the basin could be reduced by ca. 52%. Our methodological framework identified the potential risk for soil erosion in large-scale zones, and with a more sophisticated model and input data of higher spatial and temporal resolution, results could be specified locally within these risk zones. Accurate assessment of soil erosion in the UBNR basin would support sustainable use of the basin's land resources and possibly open up prospects for cooperation in the Eastern Nile region. Copyright © 2016 Office national des forêts. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Drainage basins features and hydrological behaviour river Minateda basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Sarria, F.


    Nine basin variables (shape, size and topology) have been analyzed in four small basins with non-permanent run off (SE of Spain). These geomorphological variables have been selected for their high correlation with the Instantaneous unit hydrograph parameters. It is shown that the variables can change from one small basin to another within a very short area; because of it, generalizations about the behaviour of the run off are not possible. In conclusion, it is stated that the variations in geomorphological aspects between different basins, caused mainly by geological constraints, are a very important factor to be controlled in a study of geoecological change derived from climatic change

  1. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis- INAA: environmental studies in Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo V, M.A.; Andrade Q, M.T. [Researcher of National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, CNPq, Center University of the East of Minas Gerais State, UNILESTE-MG (Brazil); Araujo M, R. [CDTN (Brazil); Albernaz A, I. [SCA- CNRS/USR/059, Lyon (France); Oliveira, A.H. de [Federal University of Minas Gerais State (Brazil)]. e-mail:


    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA was applied to determine concentrations of several elements in unpolluted areas and in the mining and farming region of the Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. INAA was applied using the TRIGA Mark I IPR - R1 reactor at the Nuclear Technology Development Center of the National Committee of Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State. At 100 kW of potency the flux of neutrons is 6.6 10{sup 11}{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. The samples analyzed were: water; sediment; gravel of gold mine and forage. The obtained results for the Das Velhas Basin in water and sediment samples - mining companies region - show a high level ({mu}g/g) of contamination with the analyzed elements, mainly in the sediment samples. During the period of floods, in farming region hundreds of kilometers away, contamination is found in fish and forage, reaching and harming both people and animals that live in the marginal region. (Author)

  2. Elaboration of climatic maps using GIS. Case study: Olãnesti drainage basin, Romania. (United States)

    Tîrlã, Laura


    Creating precise climatic maps (temperature and precipitation map especially) on small areas such as drainage basins or landform units is always very useful for ecology of plants, distribution of vegetation and also different types of agricultural land. The geographic information system (GIS) analysis of several key-factors (aspect and slope of terrain, insolation degree, thermal gradient, geology and structure of landforms) offers the necessary tools to operate with in order to create an accurate climatic map. This method was applied in order to create a map showing the distribution of temperatures in the Olanesti drainages basin, a 235 km2 area located at middle latitude, in Romania. After creating the DEM, aspect and slope of the terrain, reclassifying categories and calculating the thermal gradient, a map showing the distribution of the annual mean temperature is obtained. Other climatic parameters could be calculated for small areas too, with precise results. These demonstrate that not only elevation and mathematical location of an area are important factors in the distribution of temperature, but also the aspect, the gradient, the insolation, the type of rock and the structure.

  3. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis- INAA: environmental studies in Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo V, M.A.; Andrade Q, M.T.; Araujo M, R.; Albernaz A, I.; Oliveira, A.H. de


    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA was applied to determine concentrations of several elements in unpolluted areas and in the mining and farming region of the Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. INAA was applied using the TRIGA Mark I IPR - R1 reactor at the Nuclear Technology Development Center of the National Committee of Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State. At 100 kW of potency the flux of neutrons is 6.6 10 11 -2 .s -1 . The samples analyzed were: water; sediment; gravel of gold mine and forage. The obtained results for the Das Velhas Basin in water and sediment samples - mining companies region - show a high level (μg/g) of contamination with the analyzed elements, mainly in the sediment samples. During the period of floods, in farming region hundreds of kilometers away, contamination is found in fish and forage, reaching and harming both people and animals that live in the marginal region. (Author)

  4. Landslide inventory updating by means of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI: the Setta basin (Italy case study

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    Frangioni Sara


    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the contribution of Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry (PSInSAR technique to landslide detection, using interferometric data acquired in C-band by European remote-sensing satellite (ERS 1/2 and environmental satellite (ENVISAT satellites. The main purpose is to update a pre-existing landslide inventory map, by changing or confirming the landslide geometry and state of activity and eventually, identifying new phenomena.This work presents an application of satellite remote sensing to analyse ground displacement movements in the Setta basin, located on the northern Appennine (Bologna province, Italy and extended up 268 km2.The proposed methodology, resting upon pre-existing works already consolidated in the scientific community, combines interferometric measures with aerial imagery and other auxiliary data, in order to detect landslide indicators, finally validated with field surveys. The use of an activity matrix allows the identification of the state of activity of landslide phenomena with respect to the velocity of the radar displacement rates. Field validations are carried out in the areas that are more relevant because of the highest ground velocities and the presence of structures extensively affected by ground movements.The final updated landslide database of the Setta basin, based on Persistent Scatterer Interferometry analysis and in situ checks, consists of 1550 landslides, 236 of which have persistent scatterer information.

  5. Study of ceramics from circular archaeological sites of Amazonic Basin by geochemical methods: dating and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoli, Ieda Gomes


    The aim of this work is to examine by means of characterization and dating pottery recently discovery inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. These sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen which provide the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre, in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. The X-ray diffraction mineral analysis made possible to identify two types of crystal structures of ceramic minerals: quartz and M-Kaolinite. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were applied for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from all the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamanu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. The Lobao's urns presented a homogeneous group. Geochronology of these materials was carried out by Thermoluminescence. The Xipamanu I was the oldest site and Lobao the youngest. The average age of Xipamanu I and Alto Alegre were 2600 and 2070 years respectively. The average age of of occupation was 400 years to Alto Alegre and 970 years to Xipamanu I. The most probably date for Lobao was 1880 years. (author)

  6. A review of the gravity and magnetic studies in the Tyrrhenian Basin and its volcanic districts

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    A. Rapolla


    Full Text Available Since the Sixties, the turning point marked by the Plate Tectonics global theory has provided new ideas for the interpretation of the complex geodynamic evolution of the Mediterranean area. The renewed interest that followed gave a strong impulse to the geological and geophysical investigations of the Mediterranean area and, more specifically, of the Tyrrhenian Basin. Therefore, large scale geophysical surveys and oceanographic cruises were carried out until the end of the Eighties to fill the gap of geophysical information existing in the area until then. Afterwards, short scale surveys were prevalent to improve the detail of the information in areas of geodynamic interest. The gathered data sets allowed new models to be formulated, improving the knowledge of the crustal and lithospheric structure of the Tyrrhenian Basin (and surrounding areas and the reconstruction of its complex geodynamic evolution. In this frame, the contribution of gravity and magnetic investigations has been unquestionable and deserves a wide-ranging review both on large and small scale. The main features of the potential fields resulting from these surveys will be described and the interpretative models suggested by several authors will be summarized.


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    S. E. Laouini


    Full Text Available Energy sources play an important role in the development of humanity, with the industrial and technological evolution of our century. Energy demand is increasing every year, for this reason we must seek an alternate source of energy more specifically new and renewable energy including solar energy. Note that solar energy is abundant, especially the south-eastern Algeria, where solar radiation is significant in any year. Given that it is the cheapest of all other energy, many researches and experiments have been conducted to recover the maximum amount of renewable energy and to address the problems of use and operation to reduce and save energy traditional.This work concerns the development of a new device is a basin filled with water used as a solar plane and a storage medium. The results obtained are very important in terms of heating water, the water temperature at outlet of basin reaches up to 74 ° C, also the inlet temperature is 29 ° C.

  8. Incorporating rainfall uncertainty in a SWAT model: the river Zenne basin (Belgium) case study (United States)

    Tolessa Leta, Olkeba; Nossent, Jiri; van Griensven, Ann; Bauwens, Willy


    The European Union Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD) called its member countries to achieve a good ecological status for all inland and coastal water bodies by 2015. According to recent studies, the river Zenne (Belgium) is far from this objective. Therefore, an interuniversity and multidisciplinary project "Towards a Good Ecological Status in the river Zenne (GESZ)" was launched to evaluate the effects of wastewater management plans on the river. In this project, different models have been developed and integrated using the Open Modelling Interface (OpenMI). The hydrologic, semi-distributed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is hereby used as one of the model components in the integrated modelling chain in order to model the upland catchment processes. The assessment of the uncertainty of SWAT is an essential aspect of the decision making process, in order to design robust management strategies that take the predicted uncertainties into account. Model uncertainty stems from the uncertainties on the model parameters, the input data (e.g, rainfall), the calibration data (e.g., stream flows) and on the model structure itself. The objective of this paper is to assess the first three sources of uncertainty in a SWAT model of the river Zenne basin. For the assessment of rainfall measurement uncertainty, first, we identified independent rainfall periods, based on the daily precipitation and stream flow observations and using the Water Engineering Time Series PROcessing tool (WETSPRO). Secondly, we assigned a rainfall multiplier parameter for each of the independent rainfall periods, which serves as a multiplicative input error corruption. Finally, we treated these multipliers as latent parameters in the model optimization and uncertainty analysis (UA). For parameter uncertainty assessment, due to the high number of parameters of the SWAT model, first, we screened out its most sensitive parameters using the Latin Hypercube One-factor-At-a-Time (LH-OAT) technique

  9. Annual report on paleoclimate studies for the Yucca Mountain project site characterization conducted by the Desert Research Institute for the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The prospect that Yucca Mountain may become a repository for high-level radionuclides with especially long half-lives means that the intended waste containment area must be well beyond the reach of the hydrologic system for at least ten millennia. Through the integration of several avenues of paleoclimatic proxy data, the authors intend to arrive at definite conclusions regarding rates of change, and extremes and stabilities of past climate regimes. These will in turn lead to rough estimates of: the amounts of rainfall available for recharge during past periods of effectively wetter climate, and the durations and frequencies of recharge periods. The paper gives summaries of the following studies: Late Quaternary and Holocene climate derived from vegetation history and plant cellulose stable isotope records from the Great basin of western North America; Accomplishments of paleofaunal studies, 1993--1994; Geomorphology studies in the Great Basin; Alluvial fan response to climatic change, Buena Vista Valley, central Nevada; Sedimentology, stratigraphy, and chronology of lacustrine deposition in the Fernley Basin, west-central Nevada; Tree-rings, lake chronologies, alluvial sequences and climate--Implications for Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies; Stable isotopic validation studies--Fossil snails; and Late Pleistocene and Holocene eolian activity in the Mojave Desert

  10. Quantification of structural uncertainties in multi-scale models; case study of the Lublin Basin, Poland (United States)

    Małolepszy, Zbigniew; Szynkaruk, Ewa


    The multiscale static modeling of regional structure of the Lublin Basin is carried on in the Polish Geological Institute, in accordance with principles of integrated 3D geological modelling. The model is based on all available geospatial data from Polish digital databases and analogue archives. Mapped regional structure covers the area of 260x80 km located between Warsaw and Polish-Ukrainian border, along NW-SE-trending margin of the East European Craton. Within the basin, the Paleozoic beds with coalbearing Carboniferous and older formations containing hydrocarbons and unconventional prospects are covered unconformably by Permo-Mesozoic and younger rocks. Vertical extent of the regional model is set from topographic surface to 6000 m ssl and at the bottom includes some Proterozoic crystalline formations of the craton. The project focuses on internal consistency of the models built at different scales - from basin (small) scale to field-scale (large-scale). The models, nested in the common structural framework, are being constructed with regional geological knowledge, ensuring smooth transition in the 3D model resolution and amount of geological detail. Major challenge of the multiscale approach to subsurface modelling is the assessment and consistent quantification of various types of geological uncertainties tied to those various scale sub-models. Decreasing amount of information with depth and, particularly, very limited data collected below exploration targets, as well as accuracy and quality of data, all have the most critical impact on the modelled structure. In deeper levels of the Lublin Basin model, seismic interpretation of 2D surveys is sparsely tied to well data. Therefore time-to-depth conversion carries one of the major uncertainties in the modeling of structures, especially below 3000 m ssl. Furthermore, as all models at different scales are based on the same dataset, we must deal with different levels of generalization of geological structures. The

  11. Origin and paleoenvironmental interpretation of aluminum phosphate-sulfate minerals in a Neoproterozoic Baltic paleosol (United States)

    Vircava, Ilze; Somelar, Peeter; Liivamägi, Sirle; Kirs, Juho; Kirsimäe, Kalle


    Aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) mineral solid-solutions occur as accessory phases in different sedimentary and hydrothermal deposits. Their composition is a sensitive environmental indicator recording changes in pH, temperature and chemical composition of the weathering, diagenetic or hydrothermal fluids. In this contribution we studied APS mineralization in a Neoproterozoic paleotropical paleosol developed on Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crystalline basement in the Baltic Basin. Small and disseminated APS minerals occur in high abundance (up to 4 wt.% of crystalline phases) in the weathering profile developed on gabbroic rocks rich in magmatic apatite. APS minerals belonging to a goyazite-florencite-svanbergite-woodhouseite solid-solution series occur in the uppermost part of the weathering profile and are replaced down-profile with secondary apatite. The change from APS minerals to secondary apatite precipitates reflects a paleo-pH gradient in the weathering profile from acidic (pH meters in the APS precipitation zone, to neutral or near neutral at 4-5 m-depth from the paleoweathered surface where secondary apatite occurs. Typically uniform < 5 μm-size APS crystallites suggest rapid precipitation in a highly supersaturated solution, but these crystals show a fine zonal structure whose nature and formation mechanism remain unclear.

  12. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) to Model the Hydrocarbon Migration: Case Study from North-East Malay Basin, Malaysia (United States)

    Rudini; Nasir Matori, Abd; Talib, Jasmi Ab; Balogun, Abdul-Lateef


    The purpose of this study is to model the migration of hydrocarbon using Geographic Information System (GIS). Understanding hydrocarbon migration is important since it can mean the difference between success and failure in oil and gas exploration project. The hydrocarbon migration modeling using geophysical method is still not accurate due to the limitations of available data. In recent years, GIS has emerged as a powerful tool for subsurface mapping and analysis. Recent studies have been carried out about the abilities of GIS to model hydrocarbon migration. Recent advances in GIS support the establishment and monitoring of prediction hydrocarbon migration. The concept, model, and calculation are based on the current geological situation. The spatial data of hydrocarbon reservoirs is determined by its geometry of lithology and geophysical attributes. Top of Group E horizon of north-east Malay basin was selected as the study area due to the occurrence of hydrocarbon migration. Spatial data and attributes data such as seismic data, wells log data and lithology were acquired and processed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was constructed from the selected horizon as a result of seismic interpretation using the Petrel software. Furthermore, DEM was processed in ArcGIS as a base map to shown hydrocarbon migration in north-east Malay Basin. Finally, all the data layers were overlaid to produce a map of hydrocarbon migration. A good data was imported to verify the model is correct.

  13. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS to Model the Hydrocarbon Migration: Case Study from North-East Malay Basin, Malaysia

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    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to model the migration of hydrocarbon using Geographic Information System (GIS. Understanding hydrocarbon migration is important since it can mean the difference between success and failure in oil and gas exploration project. The hydrocarbon migration modeling using geophysical method is still not accurate due to the limitations of available data. In recent years, GIS has emerged as a powerful tool for subsurface mapping and analysis. Recent studies have been carried out about the abilities of GIS to model hydrocarbon migration. Recent advances in GIS support the establishment and monitoring of prediction hydrocarbon migration. The concept, model, and calculation are based on the current geological situation. The spatial data of hydrocarbon reservoirs is determined by its geometry of lithology and geophysical attributes. Top of Group E horizon of north-east Malay basin was selected as the study area due to the occurrence of hydrocarbon migration. Spatial data and attributes data such as seismic data, wells log data and lithology were acquired and processed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM was constructed from the selected horizon as a result of seismic interpretation using the Petrel software. Furthermore, DEM was processed in ArcGIS as a base map to shown hydrocarbon migration in north-east Malay Basin. Finally, all the data layers were overlaid to produce a map of hydrocarbon migration. A good data was imported to verify the model is correct.

  14. Soil erosion assessment using geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) study from Ankara-Guvenc Basin, Turkey. (United States)

    Dengiz, Orhan; Yakupoglu, Tugrul; Baskan, Oguz


    The objective of this research was to assess vulnerable soil erosion risk with qualitative approach using GIS in Ankara-Guvenc Basin. The study area is located about 44 km north of Ankara and covers 17.5 km2. The selected theme layers of this model include topographic factor, soil factors (depth, texture, impermeable horizon) and land use. Slope layer and land use-land cover data were prepared by using DEM and Landsat-TM satellite image. According to land use classification, the most common land use type and land cover are rangeland (50.5%) then, rainfed (36.4%), week forest land (3.2%), irrigated land (0.7%) and other various lands (rock out crop and lake) (9.2%). Each land characteristic is also considered as a thematic layer in geographical information systems (GIS) process. After combination of the layers, soil erosion risk map was produced. The results showed that 44.4% of the study area is at high soil erosion risk, whereas 42% of the study area is insignificantly and slightly susceptible to erosion risk. In addition, it was found that only 12.6% of the total area is moderately susceptible to erosion risk. Furthermore, conservation land management measures were also suggested for moderate, high and very high erosion risk areas in Ankara-Guvenc Basin.

  15. Evaluating the impacts of climate and land-use change on the hydrology and nutrient yield in a transboundary river basin: A case study in the 3S River Basin (Sekong, Sesan, and Srepok). (United States)

    Trang, Nguyen Thi Thuy; Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Datta, Avishek; Kawasaki, Akiyuki


    Assessment of the climate and land-use change impacts on the hydrology and water quality of a river basin is important for the development and management of water resources in the future. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of climate and land-use change on the hydrological regime and nutrient yield from the 3S River Basin (Sekong, Srepok, and Sesan) into the 3S River system in Southeast Asia. The 3S Rivers are important tributaries of the Lower Mekong River, accounting for 16% of its annual flow. This transboundary basin supports the livelihoods of nearly 3.5 million people in the countries of Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia. To reach a better understanding of the process and fate of pollution (nutrient yield) as well as the hydrological regime, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate water quality and discharge in the 3S River Basin. Future scenarios were developed for three future periods: 2030s (2015-2039), 2060s (2045-2069), and 2090s (2075-2099), using an ensemble of five GCMs (General Circulation Model) simulations: (HadGEM2-AO, CanESM2, IPSL-CM5A-LR, CNRM-CM5, and MPI-ESM-MR), driven by the climate projection for RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways): RCP4.5 (medium emission) and RCP8.5 (high emission) scenarios, and two land-use change scenarios. The results indicated that the climate in the study area would generally become warmer and wetter under both emission scenarios. Discharge and nutrient yield is predicted to increase in the wet season and decrease in the dry. Overall, the annual discharge and nutrient yield is projected to increase throughout the twenty-first century, suggesting sensitivity in the 3S River Basin to climate and land-use change. The results of this study can assist water resources managers and planners in developing water management strategies for uncertain climate change scenarios in the 3S River Basin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Time scale and conditions of weathering under tropical climate: Study of the Amazon basin with U-series (United States)

    Dosseto, A.; Bourdon, B.; Gaillardet, J.; Allègre, C. J.; Filizola, N.


    The Rio Solimões/Amazonas (Amazon River) and its major tributaries have been analyzed for U-series nuclides. 238U- 234U- 230Th- 226Ra disequilibria have been measured in the dissolved (0.2 μm) as well as bed sands. U-series disequilibria are closely related to major and trace element compositions and therefore reflect elemental fractionation during chemical weathering. Moreover, while the dissolved load records present-day weathering, suspended particles integrate the erosion history over much longer time scales (>100 ka). Lowland rivers are characterized by long time scales of chemical erosion (⩾100 ka) resulting in a high weathering intensity. Moreover, exchange between suspended particles and the dissolved load may explain the U-series signature for these rivers. By combining U-series and Pb isotopes in suspended particles, we show that erosion in the Rio Madeira basin occurred as a multi-step process, whereby the pristine continental crust was eroded several hundreds of Ma ago to produce sediments that have then been integrated in the Cordillera by crustal shortening and are currently eroded. In contrast, recent erosion of a pristine crust is more likely for the Rio Solimões/Amazonas (rivers draining the Andes (Solimões/Amazonas, Madeira) suggest time scales of weathering ranging between 4 and 20 ka. This indicates that suspended particles transported by those rivers are not stored for long periods in the Andean foreland basin and the tropical plain. The sediments delivered to the ocean have resided only a few ka in the Amazon basin (6.3 ± 1 ka for the Rio Amazonas at Óbidos). Nevertheless, a large fraction of the sediments coming out from the Andes are trapped in the foreland basin and may never reach the ocean. Erosion in the Andes is not operating in steady state. U-series systematics shows unambiguously that rivers are exporting a lot more sediments than predicted by steady-state erosion and that is a consequence of soil destruction greater than

  17. Provenance of loess in the central Great Plains, U.S.A. based on Nd-Sr isotopic composition, and paleoenvironmental implications (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Mason, Joseph A.; Zhang, Hanzhi; Lu, Huayu; Ji, Junfeng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Lianwen


    Loess of the central Great Plains, U.S.A., records intervals of Quaternary aeolian dust accumulation at rates among the highest known worldwide. This study used Nd-Sr isotopic analysis to investigate the provenance of Middle Pleistocene to Holocene loess in western and central Nebraska, U.S.A., essential information for understanding the paleoenvironmental conditions that allowed such rapid accumulation to occur at some times and not others. Nd-Sr isotopic data suggest that dust from unglaciated Great Plains landscapes has been the primary component of loess accumulated at both very high and low rates since the Middle Pleistocene. However, loess isotopic compositions all require an additional minor source with higher 87Sr/86Sr and lower εNd, most likely debris from Precambrian rocks in the Rocky Mountains, carried to the Great Plains by the Platte River system. The contribution from this secondary source-probably including glacially eroded sediment-was greater in Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 and early MIS 2, but decreased somewhat just after the last glacial maximum (LGM) at the Bignell Hill section. Earlier research showed that the highest accumulation rates in that section also occurred after the LGM; thus our results likely indicate increased dust emission from unglaciated landscapes at that time. Greater plant moisture stress in a warming climate with still-low CO2 could have played a role in that increased dust production, along with lagged vegetation response; however, a strengthened westerly component of surface winds is the most straightforward explanation.

  18. Sediment provenance and paleoenvironmental changes in the northwestern shelf mud area of the South China Sea since the mid-Holocene (United States)

    Xu, Fangjian; Hu, Bangqi; Dou, Yanguang; Liu, Xiting; Wan, Shiming; Xu, Zhaokai; Tian, Xu; Liu, Zhaoqing; Yin, Xuebo; Li, Anchun


    The late Quaternary paleoceanography and paleoenvironment of the South China Sea (SCS) have been well reconstructed over the last decade. In contrast, the provenance of the terrigenous sediments that have accumulated in the northwestern continental shelf mud area remains enigmatic. This study investigated the provenance of these sediments and the paleoenvironmental changes archived in Core X2 via the analysis of geochemical elements, grain size, and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages. Based on the upper continental crust (UCC)-normalized REE patterns and REE fractionation parameters, southwestern and western Taiwanese rivers and the Pearl River were identified as the main sources of the fine-grained sediment deposited in the northwestern shelf mud area off Hainan Island. This finding further confirms the long-distance transport (> 1000 km) of fine-grained sediment from Taiwanese rivers to the northern SCS shelf and slope. Obvious changes in the grain size and Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) record occurred at approximately 4.0 cal kyr BP and were likely caused by increased Hainan Island inputs due to sea level changes.

  19. The Effects of Mg and Al on Diagenetically Induced Phase Changes in Biogenic Opal-A: Implications for Biogenic Silica as Paleoenvironmental Proxy (United States)

    Pryer, A. D.; Dodd, J. P.


    Oxygen variations in biogenic opal (e.g. diatom frustules, sponge spicules) have been shown to be reliable proxies of paleoenvironmental conditions such as water temperature and salinity; however, diagenetic processes may alter these values by several permil. In marine sediments, a primary concern is the effect of opal phase changes on the chemical and structural composition of the diatom silica. For example, oxygen isotope values of opal in the Monterey Formation, California, are well correlated with the phase change from opal-A to opal-CT and microcrystal quartz as a result of increasing geothermal temperatures with depth (Murata et al., 1997). Additionally, a number of studies have suggested that the presence of metallic cations (e.g. Mg, Al, Fe) in host sediments may affect the rate of phase transitions from opal-A to opal-CT during diagenesis. However, the timing and oxygen isotope fractionation associated with opal phase changes is not well constrained. Opal-A from cultured marine diatoms (Thalassiosira weissflogii) was subjected to elevated temperatures (150°C) in acid digestion vessels for 4 - 6 weeks to initiate opal-CT phase changes. During the experiments, magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) were added to pure diatom silica to constrain the effects of Mg and Al on the timing of opal-CT formation and quantify the structural and isotopic (δ18O) changes that occur during these transitions.


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    Full Text Available The hydrological studies will provide the characteristic parameters for the floods occurred for the calculus discharges with overflow probabilities of 0,1%; 1%, 5%, 10%. The hydrologic and hydraulic models will be made by using the hydro-meteorological data base and the topographical measurements on site; them calibration will be done according to the records of the historical floods. The studies on the hydrologic and hydraulic models will be necessary for the establishment of the carrying capacity of the riverbeds, for the delimitation of the flood plains and for the detection of the transit discharges at the hydro-technical installations, but also for the establishment of the parameters needed for the structural measures’ projects. These will be based on the 1D and 2D unstable hydro-dynamic models. Therefore, the users would be able to assess the proposed measures and the impact over the river’s system; of course with the potential combination of the 1D and 2D. The main objectives followed by the project are: • identification of the river basins or river sub-basins with flood risks; • regionalization of the flood hazard; • presentation of the main flash floods occurred during the last 30 years, which induced floods; • assessment of the consequences of eventual flood over the population, properties and environment; • the establishment of the protection degree, accepted for the human settlements, for the economic and social objectives, for the farm areas, etc.;

  1. A robust multi-objective bargaining methodology for inter-basin water resource allocation: a case study. (United States)

    Nasiri-Gheidari, Omid; Marofi, Safar; Adabi, Farzaneh


    In this study, a new methodology is proposed to balance environmental and economic issues in water allocation under uncertainty. Two objective functions, including maximizing economic income (EI) and minimizing environmental pollution (EP), were considered as two groups of players to construct a deterministic multi-objective bargaining methodology (DMOBM). In the next step, it is enhanced to a robust multi-objective bargaining methodology (RMOBM), which is capable of incorporating the main uncertainties exist in the problem. A large-scale inter-basin water transfer case study was utilized to investigate the applicability of the developed model. The outputs of the models showed that Nash equilibrium provide a rather narrow range of solutions. According to the results, the required rounds to reach Nash equilibrium raised as the uncertainty level increased. In addition, higher levels of uncertainty lead to higher reduction in water allocating of receiving basin. Sensitivity analysis showed that economic income values are less sensitive to changes of uncertain parameters than the environmental objective function. The developed methodology could provide a framework to incorporate the behavior of different stakeholders. Furthermore, the proposed method can be reliable under the condition of facing water allocation uncertainties.

  2. Understanding the impacts of climate change and human activities on streamflow: a case study of the Soan River basin, Pakistan (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Cong, Zhentao; Zhang, Danwu


    Climate change and land use change are the two main factors that can alter the catchment hydrological process. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relative contribution of climate change and land use change to runoff change of the Soan River basin. The Mann-Kendal and the Pettit tests are used to find out the trends and change point in hydroclimatic variables during the period 1983-2012. Two different approaches including the abcd hydrological model and the Budyko framework are then used to quantify the impact of climate change and land use change on streamflow. The results from both methods are consistent and show that annual runoff has significantly decreased with a change point around 1997. The decrease in precipitation and increases in potential evapotranspiration contribute 68% of the detected change while the rest of the detected change is due to land use change. The land use change acquired from Landsat shows that during post-change period, the agriculture has increased in the Soan basin, which is in line with the positive contribution of land use change to runoff decrease. This study concludes that aforementioned methods performed well in quantifying the relative contribution of land use change and climate change to runoff change.

  3. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth


    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  4. Geology and geohydrology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, T.C.; Presley, M.W.; Handford, C.R.; Finley, R.J.; Dutton, S.P.; Baumgardner, R.W. Jr.; McGillis, K.A.; Simpkins, W.W.


    Since early 1977, the Bureau of Economic Geology has been evaluating several salt-bearing basins within the State of Texas as part of the national nuclear repository program. The Bureau, a research unit of The University of Texas at Austin and the State of Texas, is carrying out a long-term program to gather and interpret all geologic and hydrologic information necessary for description, delineation, and evaluation of salt-bearing strata in the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basins of the Texas Panhandle. The program in FY 79 has been subdivided into four broad research tasks, which are addressed by a basin analysis group, a surface studies group, a geohydrology group, and a host-rock analysis group. The basin analysis group has delineated the structural and stratigraphic framework of the basins, initiated natural resource assessment, and integrated data from 8000 ft (2400 m) of core material into salt-stratigraphy models. Salt depth and thickness have been delineated for seven salt-bearing stratigraphic units. Concurrently, the surface studies group has collected ground and remotely sensed data to describe surficial processes, including salt solution, slope retreat/erosion mechanisms, geomorphic evolution, and fracture system development. The basin geohydrology group has begun evaluating both shallow and deep fluid circulation within the basins. The newly formed host-rock analysis group has initiated study of cores from two drilling sites for analysis of salt and the various lithologies overlying and interbedded with salt units. This paper, a summary report of progress in FY 79, presents principal conclusions and reviews methods used and types of data and maps generated

  5. Seismic Data Interpretation: A Case Study of Southern Sindh Monocline, Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabeer Ahmed Abbasi


    Full Text Available The Sindh monocline in Lower Indus Basin is an important oil and gas producing area of Pakistan where a large number of oil, gas and condensate fields have been discovered from structural traps. This research involves the interpretation of stratigraphic and structural styles of Sindh Monocline using 2D (Two-Dimensional seismic reflection and well log. Four reflectors of different formations have been marked and were named as Reflector-1 as of Khadro Formation, Reflector-2 as Upper Goru Member, Reflector-3 as Lower Goru Formation and Reflector-4 as Chiltan Limestone. The average depth of Khadro Formation was marked at 449.0m, Upper Goru Member at 968m, Lower Goru Formation at 1938m and Chiltan Limestone at 2943m. Faults were marked on seismic sections which collectively form horsts and grabens which is the evidence of extensional tectonic in the area. Seismic interpretation was carried out through window based Kingdom Software

  6. Study of airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data procedures: Wind River Basin, Wyoming, Thermopolis Quadrangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This volume contains the following data from the Thermopolis Quadrangle, Wind River Basin, Wyoming: statistical summary tables; flight-line averages; geologic map units; geologic map with record locations; uranium mines and occurrences, uranium location map; eU symbol anomaly map; eU/eTh symbol anomaly map; eU/K symbol anomaly map; eTh symbol anomaly map; K symbol anomaly map; eU profile anomaly map; eU/eTh profile anomaly map; eU/K profile anomaly map; eTh profile anomaly map; K profile anomaly map; eTh/K profile anomaly map; preferred anomaly maps (4- and 7-point), combined 4- and 7-point preferred anomaly map; and stacked significance factor profiles

  7. A new framework to evaluate ecosystem health: a case study in the Wei River basin, China. (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Zhan, Chesheng; Yin, Xuwang; Yu, Songyan


    water and watershed management of the Wei River basin, or even the Yellow River basin.

  8. Hydrological Impacts of Climate Change: A Case Study on the Ebro River Basin (Spain) (United States)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, M.; Bellin, A.; Majone, B.; Bovolo, C. I.; Blenkinsop, S.


    Uncertainty in projections from climate models limits the understanding of future hydrological impacts and complicates the assessment of mitigation policies. This work presents hydrological simulations of the Ebro River Basin (Spain), using both control (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) climate scenarios, in order to investigate the effect of climate change on the water availability of the basin. Using the SWAT model, hydrological simulations were carried out for four catchments with different climatological regimes. Sets of model parameters were identified using sensitivity analysis, long-term calibration and uncertainty analysis procedures, which enabled the historical behaviour of the catchments to be reproduced. Following validation, the parameters were used to simulate the effects of climate change on future streamflow. Bias-corrected daily time series of precipitation and mean temperature from an ensemble of 6 Regional Climate Models (RCMs), using the SRES A2 emissions scenario, were used as drivers of the hydrological simulations during the future scenarios. Important annual and seasonal differences in the projected future precipitation and temperature fields were observed among the RCMs. However, a general decrease in annual mean precipitation and an increase in annual mean temperature relative to the control period were observed, with the strongest differences during the summer season. When these changes were used to project future streamflows, a general decrease was observed at the outlet of the catchments. Changes in streamflows were in general agreement with the projections of daily precipitation and temperature fields, with a larger drop in predicted monthly streamflows for catchments with more semi-arid climatological regimes, and seasonal differences that are related to the elevation range of the catchments.

  9. Seasonal study of concentration of heavy metals in waters from lower São Francisco River basin, Brazil. (United States)

    Souza, A M; Salviano, A M; Melo, J F B; Felix, W P; Belém, C S; Ramos, P N


    In this study we determined the concentration of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the water lower São Francisco River basin, to evaluate the influence of urbanization and industrialization on environmental changes in the water resource. All samples were analyzed using the IUPAC adapted method and processed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The sampling stations located near the industrial areas were influenced by industrialization because they presented higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Cu. The other sampled locations showed changes with regard the trace elements probably originating in the soil, like Fe, Zn and Pb. There was a gradual increase in the concentrations of metals, in general, in the period of highest rainfall of the hydrographic network. Overall, except for Zn and Mn, the trace elements exceeded the maximum allowed value established by national legislation (CONAMA). Lower São Francisco River basin has suffered interference from urbanization and industrialization, so awareness programs should be developed so as to control and lessen future problems.

  10. Seasonal study of contamination by metal in water and sediment in a sub-basin in the southeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAC. Chiba

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal occurrence of heavy metals (Al, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni in water and sediment samples was investigated in a sub-basin in the southeast of Brazil (São Carlos, SP. All samples were analysed using the USEPA adapted metal method and processed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The discriminant analysis demonstrated that there are significant seasonal differences of metal distribution in the water data, but there are no differences to sediment. The basin studied has high levels of contamination by toxic metals in superficial water and sediment. The superficial water, in the rainy season, presented high levels of Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd, while in the dry season it presented high levels of Zn and Ni. The Principal Component Analysis demonstrated that the season has a huge influence on the levels, types and distribution of metals found in water. The source of contamination was probably diffuse, due to products such as batteries and fluorescent lamps, whose dump discharge can contaminate the bodies of water in the region in the rainy season. Due to fires from the harvest of sugar cane, high levels of Zn were found into the environment, in the dry season.

  11. The Importance of Water Temperature Fluctuations in Relation to the Hydrological Factor. Case Study – Bistrita River Basin (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojoc Gianina Maria


    Full Text Available The increase in most components of the climate over the past 50 years, including air and water temperature, is a real phenomenon, as attested by the numerous specialized researches according to IPCC (2013. The water temperature is one of the most important climatic components in analyzing the hydrological regime of the Bistrita River (Romania. The thermal regime of the Bistrita River basin and the frost phenomena associated with the risk factor are particularly important and frequently appear in this area. In recent years, under the Siret Water Basin Administration, this parameter was permanently monitored, so we could do an analysis, which shows that the water temperature fluctuations, influenced by air temperature, lead to the emergence of the ice jam phenomenon. The present study aims to analyze the water temperature, as compared to the air temperature, and the effect of these components on the liquid flow regime (the values were recorded at the hydrological stations on the main course of the Bistrita River. The negative effects resulted from the ice jam phenomenon require developing methods of damage prevention and defense. The frost phenomena recorded after the construction of the Bicaz dam are analyzed in this article

  12. National Water-Quality Assessment Program— Pesticides in the Trinity River Basin study unit, Texas, 1968-91 (United States)

    Ulery, R.L.


    The Trinity River Basin National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study-unit staff began assessment activities in 1991, and in 1992, undertook a retrospective review of existing data on pesticides. The main purpose of this review was to aid in the design of a pesticide-sampling network for the study unit. The review consisted of the compilation, screening, and analysis of available pesticide-sample information. In addition, important environmental factors, which influence the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the study unit, were identified and compiled. A report of this review and analysis will be released in 1995 (Ulery and Brown, in press). This fact sheet provides a brief overview of significant findings.

  13. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada Regional study unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth


    Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada Regional (SNR) study unit was investigated as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program Priority Basin Project. The study was designed to provide statistically unbiased assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater within the primary aquifer system of the Sierra Nevada. The primary aquifer system for the SNR study unit was delineated by the depth intervals over which wells in the State of California’s database of public drinking-water supply wells are open or screened. Two types of assessments were made: (1) a status assessment that described the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) an evaluation of relations between groundwater quality and potential explanatory factors that represent characteristics of the primary aquifer system. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, rather than the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.

  14. Analysis of land cover change impact on flood events using remote sensing, GIS and hydrological models: a case study of the Nyando River Basin in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olang, L. O.


    In this study, land cover changes in the Nyando River basin (3500 km 2 ) of Kenya were analyzed and their impact of floods quantified. Three Landsat satellite images for 1973, 1986 and 2000 were acquired, processed and classified based on seven major land cover classes prevalent in the basin using a hybrid of supervised and non supervised classification procedures. The detected land cover changes, together with a DEM and a soil map of the basin, were then used to estimate physically based parameters for the selected hydrological models. The models were then used to estimate local and flood peak discharges and volumes arising from selected storm events for each state of the classified land cover dataset. To further understand how changes in the land cover may impact on the flood hydrology, three scenarios that represent quite extreme alternatives were formulated to study the possible bandwidth during floods. Land cover classification results revealed immense land degradation over the span of study. Forests reduced by an area of 488 km 2 representing a 20% decline, while agricultural fields expanded by 581 km 2 representing a 16% increase over the same period of time (1973-2000). Hydrological modeling results indicated that the basin underwent significant increase in the peak discharge value. The flood peak discharges in the whole basin were noted to have increased by at least 16% over the period of 1973 -2000.Flood volumes were also noted to have increased by at least 10% over the same period of time. (author) [de

  15. Integrating Global Satellite-Derived Data Products as a Pre-Analysis for Hydrological Modelling Studies: A Case Study for the Red River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Simons


    Full Text Available With changes in weather patterns and intensifying anthropogenic water use, there is an increasing need for spatio-temporal information on water fluxes and stocks in river basins. The assortment of satellite-derived open-access information sources on rainfall (P and land use/land cover (LULC is currently being expanded with the application of actual evapotranspiration (ETact algorithms on the global scale. We demonstrate how global remotely sensed P and ETact datasets can be merged to examine hydrological processes such as storage changes and streamflow prior to applying a numerical simulation model. The study area is the Red River Basin in China in Vietnam, a generally challenging basin for remotely sensed information due to frequent cloud cover. Over this region, several satellite-based P and ETact products are compared, and performance is evaluated using rain gauge records and longer-term averaged streamflow. A method is presented for fusing multiple satellite-derived ETact estimates to generate an ensemble product that may be less susceptible, on a global basis, to errors in individual modeling approaches. Subsequently, monthly satellite-derived rainfall and ETact are combined to assess the water balance for individual subcatchments and types of land use, defined using a global land use classification improved based on auxiliary satellite data. It was found that a combination of TRMM rainfall and the ensemble ETact product is consistent with streamflow records in both space and time. It is concluded that monthly storage changes, multi-annual streamflow and water yield per LULC type in the Red River Basin can be successfully assessed based on currently available global satellite-derived products.

  16. Water-ecosystem-economy nexus under human intervention and climate change: a study in the Heihe River Basin (China) (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Tian, Y.; Wu, X.; Feng, D.


    Recently, "One Belt and One Road" initiative, namely, building the "Silk Road Economic Belt" and "21st Century Maritime Silk Road", has become a global strategy of China and has been discussed as China's "Marshall Plan". The overland route of "One Belt" comes across vast arid lands, where the local population and ecosystem compete keenly for limited water resources. Water and environmental securities represent an important constraint of the "One Belt" development, and therefore understanding the complex water-ecosystem-economy nexus in the arid inland areas is very important. One typical case is Heihe River Basin (HRB), the second largest inland river basin of China, where the croplands in its middle part sucked up the river flow and groundwater, causing serious ecological problems in its lower part (Gobi Desert). We have developed an integrated hydrological-ecological model for the middle and lower HRB (the modeling domain has an area of 90,589 km2), which served as a platform to fuse multi-source data and provided a coherent understanding on the regional water cycle. With this physically based model, we quantitatively investigated how the nexus would be impacted by human intervention, mainly the existing and potential water regulations, and what would be the uncertainty of the nexus under the climate change. In studying the impact of human intervention, simulation-optimization analyses based on surrogate modeling were performed. In studying the uncertainty resulted from the climate change, outputs of multiple GCMs were downscaled for this river basin to drive ecohydrological simulations. Our studies have demonstrated the significant tradeoffs among the crop production in the middle HRB, the water and environmental securities of the middle HRB, and the ecological health of the lower HRB. The underlying mechanisms of the tradeoffs were also systematically addressed. The climate change would cause notable uncertainty of the nexus, which makes the water resources

  17. Studying relations between radionuclide contents and water quality and quantity indices for Rivers Kura-Araks basin, Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, A.G.; Saghatelyan, A.K.; Kyureghyan, A.A; Mikayelyan, M.G.


    We initiated a research in late 2005 as a constituent and logical expansion of an ongoing NATO Science for Peace/OSCE project 'South Caucasus River Monitoring' which has been performed since 2002 and was initially focused on indication of river water quality and quantity indices and determination of heavy metals. It should be stressed that this radioactivity research is the first ever attempt of this kind and that all the data obtained are unique. This paper is focused on a study of relations between radionuclide contents and water quality and quantity indices for Armenia's section of Rivers Kura-Araks basin and highlights data obtained for the studied period 2006-2007 (author)(tk)

  18. Pollen-based paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change at Lake Ohrid (south-eastern Europe) during the past 500 ka (United States)

    Sadori, Laura; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos; Masi, Alessia; Bertini, Adele; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Francke, Alexander; Kouli, Katerina; Joannin, Sébastien; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Peyron, Odile; Torri, Paola; Wagner, Bernd; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sinopoli, Gaia; Donders, Timme H.


    Lake Ohrid is located at the border between FYROM (Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia) and Albania and formed during the latest phases of Alpine orogenesis. It is the deepest, the largest and the oldest tectonic lake in Europe. To better understand the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental evolution of Lake Ohrid, deep drilling was carried out in 2013 within the framework of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions (SCOPSCO) project that was funded by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). Preliminary results indicate that lacustrine sedimentation of Lake Ohrid started between 1.2 and 1.9 Ma ago. Here we present new pollen data (selected percentage and concentration taxa/groups) of the uppermost ˜ 200 m of the 569 m long DEEP core drilled in the depocentre of Lake Ohrid. The study is the fruit of a cooperative work carried out in several European palynological laboratories. The age model of this part of the core is based on 10 tephra layers and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters. According to the age model, the studied sequence covers the last ˜ 500 000 years at a millennial-scale resolution ( ˜ 1.6 ka) and records the major vegetation and climate changes that occurred during the last 12 (13 only pro parte) marine isotope stages (MIS). Our results indicate that there is a general good correspondence between forested/non-forested periods and glacial-interglacial cycles of the marine isotope stratigraphy. The record shows a progressive change from cooler and wetter to warmer and drier interglacial conditions. This shift in temperature and moisture availability is visible also in vegetation during glacial periods. The period corresponding to MIS11 (pollen assemblage zone OD-10, 428-368 ka BP) is dominated by montane trees such as conifers. Mesophilous elements such as deciduous and semi-deciduous oaks dominate forest periods of MIS5 (PASZ OD-3, 129-70 ka BP) and MIS1 (PASZ OD-1, 14 ka BP to

  19. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Interior Basins Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Ray, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth


    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated from August to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to Legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater used as public supply for municipalities in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). SCI was the 27th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies within SCI, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 54 wells within the three study areas [Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama] of SCI in Alameda, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Kern Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids (TDS), and alkalinity

  20. Pore Pressure and Field stress variation from Salt Water Injection; A case Study from Beaver Lodge Field in Williston Basin (United States)

    Mohammed, R. A.; Khatibi, S.


    One of the major concerns in producing from oil and gas reservoirs in North American Basins is the disposal of high salinity salt water. It is a misconception that Hydro frack triggers Earthquakes, but due to the high salinity and density of water being pumped to the formation that has pore space of the rock already filled, which is not the case in Hydro-frack or Enhanced Oil Recovery in which fracturing fluid is pumped into empty pore space of rocks in depleted reservoirs. A review on the Bakken history showed that the concerns related to induce seismicity has increased over time due to variations in Pore pressure and In-situ stress that have shown steep changes in the region over the time. In this study, we focused on Pore pressure and field Stress variations in lower Cretaceous Inyan Kara and Mississippian Devonian Bakken, Inyan Kara is the major source for class-II salt-water disposal in the basin. Salt-water disposal is the major cause for induced seismicity. A full field study was done on Beaver Lodge Field, which has many salt-water disposal wells Adjacent to Oil and Gas Wells. We analyzed formation properties, stresses, pore-pressure, and fracture gradient profile in the field and. The constructed Mechanical Earth Model (MEM) revealed changes in pore pressure and stresses over time due to saltwater injection. Well drilled in the past were compared to recently drilled wells, which showed much stress variations. Safe mud weight Window of wells near proximity of injection wells was examined which showed many cases of wellbore instabilities. Results of this study will have tremendous impact in studying environmental issues and the future drilling and Fracking operations.

  1. Development of a high resolution chemostratigraphy for the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic Newark Basin (United States)

    Kinney, S.; Olsen, P. E.; Chang, C.


    The 6.7 km of continuous core recovered from the paleo-tropical Triassic-Jurassic Newark rift basin during the Newark Basin Coring Project (NBCP) has provided a wealth of data since the conclusion of drilling 25 years ago. These cores comprise the longest ( 30 Myr) continuously-cored record of orbitally-paced environmental change and have informed our understanding in several different areas including tropical climate change, history of CO­2, mass extinctions, the geological time scale, and solar system dynamics. Despite the utility of NBCP cores for these endeavors, a critical missing dataset is a comprehensive characterization of their geochemical variations relevant to paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic interests, largely a consequence of the cost of analyses at an appropriate resolution using conventional techniques. With the advent of new technology permitting the rapid acquisition of reliable geochemical data, such limitations may no longer be an obstacle for constructing a high-resolution chemostratigraphic record for the NBCP. We present the results of a proof-of-concept study using both ICP-MS-calibrated scanning ITRAX XRF and handheld Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) using the SciAps Z-300. We will show elemental abundances at resolutions as high as 500 mm obtained using these methods from correlative sections of the Titusville and Nursery cores (Lockatong Fm.). These sections are sufficiently long to capture orbital variations and include the range of lithologies present throughout the entire section. Our preliminary results are consistent with previous, semi-quantitative means (e.g., depth ranks) of assessing Milankovitch-scale orbital variations and are also consistent with core and hole geophysical data, demonstrating that these methods can acquire meaningful geochemical data from the entire NBCP. With continued work, we aim to provide an objective characterization of orbitally-paced lake level cyclicity using geochemical proxy

  2. Experimental study on productivity of modified single-basin solar still with a flat plate absorber (United States)

    Ramanathan, V.; Kanimozhi, B.; Bhojwani, V. K.


    Solar still is an apparatus which uses solar energyto producedistilled water from saline water. This can be used in remote areas effectively wherein electricity is not available. The output from a conventional single basin solar still is found to be very low. Hence research is required to increase the productivity of the conventional solar still. This work is an attempt to increase the productivity of solar still. A flat mica plate is embedded in the conventional solar still to augment evaporation of the water from the input saline water. The flat plate absorber is placed in such a way that it is parallel to the glass cover of the solar still so as to maximize the absorption of solar radiations. By this modification, the maximum temperature of the absorber plate achieved was 95°C in comparison to 67°C of the conventional solar still. Experimental results of modified solar still were compared with conventional solar still. It was found that distillate output increased by 25% with a flat plate absorber when compared to conventional still.

  3. Studies on the biology of schistosomiasis with emphasis on the Senegal river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Southgate VR


    Full Text Available The construction of the Diama dam on the Senegal river, the Manantali dam on the Bafing river, Mali and the ensuing ecological changes have led to a massive outbreak of Schistosoma mansoni in Northern Senegal, associated with high intensity of infections, due to intense transmission, and the creation of new foci of S. haematobium. Data on the vectorial capacity of Biomphalaria pfeifferi from Ndombo, near Richard Toll, Senegal are presented with sympatric and allopatric (Cameroon S. mansoni. Comparisons are made on infectivity, cercarial production, chronobiology of cercarial emergence and longevity of infected snails. Recent data on the intermediate host specificity of different isolates of S. haematobium from the Lower and Middle Valley of the Senegal river basin (SRB demonstrate the existence of at least two strains of S. haematobium. The role of Bulinus truncatus in the transmission of S. haematobium in the Lower and Middle Valleys of the SRB is reviewed. Both S. haematobium and S. mansoni are transmitted in the same foci in some areas of the SRB.

  4. Study of morphometry to debit drainage basin (DAS) arau Padang city (United States)

    Utama, Lusi; Amrizal, Berd, Isril; Zuherna


    High intensity rain that happened in Padang city cause the happening of floods at DAS Arau. Floods that happened in Padang besides caused high rain intensity, require to be by research about morphometry that is cause parameter the happening of floods. Morphometry drainage basin physical network (DAS) quantitatively related to DAS geomorphology that is related to form of DAS, river network, closeness of stream, ramp, usage of farm, high and gradient steepness of river. Form DAS will influence rain concentration to outlet. Make an index to closeness of stream depict closeness of river stream at one particular DAS. Speed of river stream influenced by storey, level steepness of river. Steepness storey, level is comparison of difference height of river downstream and upstream. Ever greater of steepness of river stream, excelsior speed of river stream that way on the contrary. High to lower speed of river stream influence occurrence of floods, more than anything else if when influenced by debit big. Usage of farm in glove its link to process of infiltration where if geology type which is impermeable, be difficult the happening of infiltration, this matter will enlarge value of run off. Research by descriptive qualitative that is about characteristic of DAS. Method the used is method survey with data collecting, in the form of rainfall data of year 2005 until year 2015 and Image of DEM IFSAR with resolution 5 meter, analyzed use Software ARGIS. Result of research got by DAS reside in at condition of floods gristle.

  5. California GAMA Special Study: Importance of River Water Recharge to Selected Groundwater Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Jean E. [California State Univ. East Bay (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    River recharge represents 63%, 86% and 46% of modern groundwater in the Mojave Desert, Owens Valley, and San Joaquin Valley, respectively. In pre-modern groundwater, river recharge represents a lower fraction: 36%, 46%, and 24% respectively. The importance of river water recharge in the San Joaquin valley has nearly doubled and is likely the result of a total increase of recharge of 40%, caused by river water irrigation return flows. This emphasizes the importance of recharge of river water via irrigation for renewal of groundwater resources. Mountain front recharge and local precipitation contribute to recharge of desert groundwater basins in part as the result of geological features focusing scarce precipitation promoting infiltration. River water recharges groundwater systems under lower temperatures and with larger water table fluctuations than local precipitation recharge. Surface storage is limited in time and volume, as evidenced by cold river recharge temperatures resulting from fast recharge, compared to the large capacity for subsurface storage. Groundwater banking of seasonal surface water flows therefore appears to be a natural and promising method for increasing the resilience of water supply systems. The distinct isotopic and noble gas signatures of river water recharge, compared to local precipitation recharge, reflecting the source and mechanism of recharge, are valuable constraints for numerical flow models.

  6. A 30 year study of carbon, groundwater, and climate coupling in a large boreal peat basin (United States)

    Glaser, P. H.; Siegel, D. I.; Chanton, J. P.; Reeve, A. S.; Slater, L.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Morin, P. J.; Carpenter, M.; Rhoades, J.; Nolan, J.; Parsekian, A.; O'Brien, M.; Sarkar, S.; Corbett, J. E.; D'Andrilli, J.


    Scaling biogeochemical processes across complex regional landscapes remains one of the most important challenges for deciphering the global methane cycle. For the past 30 years we have investigated the coupling of climate, groundwater, and methane cycling in the Glacial Lake Agassiz peatlands in northern Minnesota. Periodic droughts perturb the local and regional groundwater flow systems in this region altering the transport of inorganic solutes, organic acids and labile carbon substrates within the thick peat deposits. Two instrument stations at the bog crest and fen water track in the Red Lake peatland showed that large volumes of free-phase gas are trapped under confining layers in the deeper peat that episodically rupture to release large masses of methane bubbles to the atmosphere. These ebullition events are marked by abrupt depressuring cycles at depth and also by significant vertical and horizontal displacements of the peat surface. In the most recent phase of our investigations an integrated set of GPS stations and instrumented piezometers were installed to continuously pinpoint the location and calculate the magnitude of methane ebullition across a 160 square kilometer bog complex. The similarity of the vegetation patterns in this large bog complex to those found in other large peat basins in North America facilitates the transfer of these regional-scale ebullition fluxes to a broad swath of boreal America.

  7. Risk of flooding: Activities, parameters and regional peculiarities, Case study: Varbitsa watershed basin, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubenov Todor


    Full Text Available An overview of the activities overtaken during risk of flooding situations, in one of the more often flooding region - the watershed of Varbitsa river (Southeastern part of Bulgaria - has been performed. The main cognitive parameters for risk perception and risk definition, depending on regional, social and historical factors have been examined. The existing information and instructions for mass media communication in relation to the process of interaction in a disaster situation have been discussed. In connection to determination of the risky segments in the basin and plans for announcement, the prevention communication measures have been outlined. On the basis of the Bulgarian normative legislation, the activities concerning organization of communications in a risk-of-disaster situation and mutual aid between authorities, which are part of the Integrated Help System have been indicated. It has been accented on the necessity of a more effective realization of the action plans during natural disasters and especially flooding, in order to improve the partnership between authorities and participants in the communication process during risk-of-flooding situations.

  8. Small hydropower spot prediction using SWAT and a diversion algorithm, case study: Upper Citarum Basin (United States)

    Kardhana, Hadi; Arya, Doni Khaira; Hadihardaja, Iwan K.; Widyaningtyas, Riawan, Edi; Lubis, Atika


    Small-Scale Hydropower (SHP) had been important electric energy power source in Indonesia. Indonesia is vast countries, consists of more than 17.000 islands. It has large fresh water resource about 3 m of rainfall and 2 m of runoff. Much of its topography is mountainous, remote but abundant with potential energy. Millions of people do not have sufficient access to electricity, some live in the remote places. Recently, SHP development was encouraged for energy supply of the places. Development of global hydrology data provides opportunity to predict distribution of hydropower potential. In this paper, we demonstrate run-of-river type SHP spot prediction tool using SWAT and a river diversion algorithm. The use of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) with input of CFSR (Climate Forecast System Re-analysis) of 10 years period had been implemented to predict spatially distributed flow cumulative distribution function (CDF). A simple algorithm to maximize potential head of a location by a river diversion expressing head race and penstock had been applied. Firm flow and power of the SHP were estimated from the CDF and the algorithm. The tool applied to Upper Citarum River Basin and three out of four existing hydropower locations had been well predicted. The result implies that this tool is able to support acceleration of SHP development at earlier phase.

  9. Fluvial sedimentology of a major uranium-bearing sandstone - A study of the Westwater Canyon member of the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner-Peterson, C.E.


    The Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation, the main ore-bearing sandstone in the San Juan basin, consists of a sequence of vertically stacked braided stream deposits. Three fluvial units within the sequence can be delineated in the basin. Volcanic pebbles are abundant in the middle fluvial unit, in a zone that forms a crude time line. A pronounced thickening of sandstone in the Westwater Canyon Member north of Gallup, once believed to be the apex of a large alluvial fan, is now thought to merely reflect a greater accumulation of sediment in response to downwarping of the basin in that area. Provenance studies suggest that highlands that contributed detritus to Westwater Canyon streams were located several hundred kilometers to the west and southwest of the San Juan basin, and thus fan apices would also have been several hundred kilometers upstream. The fluvial units recognized in the basin may well be coalesced distal fan deposits, but are probably best interpreted as vertically stacked braided steam sequences. Facies changes in fine-grained interbeds of the Westwater Canyon probably have greater significance in terms of localizing ore than any special attribute of the fluvial sandstones themselves. Uranium ore generally occurs in sandstones that are interbedded with greenish-gray lacustrine mudstones. Pore waters that were expelled from these mudstones are thought to have been the source of the pore-filling organic matter (humate) associated with primary uranium ore in nearby sandstones

  10. Searching for the optimal drought index and timescale combination to detect drought: a case study from the lower Jinsha River basin, China (United States)

    Fluixá-Sanmartín, Javier; Pan, Deng; Fischer, Luzia; Orlowsky, Boris; García-Hernández, Javier; Jordan, Frédéric; Haemmig, Christoph; Zhang, Fangwei; Xu, Jijun


    Drought indices based on precipitation are commonly used to identify and characterize droughts. Due to the general complexity of droughts, the comparison of index-identified events with droughts at different levels of the complete system, including soil humidity or river discharges, relies typically on model simulations of the latter, entailing potentially significant uncertainties. The present study explores the potential of using precipitation-based indices to reproduce observed droughts in the lower part of the Jinsha River basin (JRB), proposing an innovative approach for a catchment-wide drought detection and characterization. Two indicators, namely the Overall Drought Extension (ODE) and the Overall Drought Indicator (ODI), have been defined. These indicators aim at identifying and characterizing drought events on the basin scale, using results from four meteorological drought indices (standardized precipitation index, SPI; rainfall anomaly index, RAI; percent of normal precipitation, PN; deciles, DEC) calculated at different locations of the basin and for different timescales. Collected historical information on drought events is used to contrast results obtained with the indicators. This method has been successfully applied to the lower Jinsha River basin in China, a region prone to frequent and severe droughts. Historical drought events that occurred from 1960 to 2014 have been compiled and cataloged from different sources, in a challenging process. The analysis of the indicators shows a good agreement with the recorded historical drought events on the basin scale. It has been found that the timescale that best reproduces observed events across all the indices is the 6-month timescale.

  11. Studying Petrophysical and Geomechanical Properties of Utica Point-Pleasant Shale and its Variations Across the Northern Appalachian Basin (United States)

    Raziperchikolaee, S.; Kelley, M. E.; Burchwell, A.


    Understanding petrophysical and geomechanical parameters of shale formations and their variations across the basin are necessary to optimize the design of a hydraulic fracturing program aimed at enhancing long term oil/gas production from unconventional wells. Dipole sonic logging data (compressional-wave and shear-wave slowness) from multiple wells across the study area, coupled with formation bulk density log data, were used to calculate dynamic elastic parameters, including shear modulus, bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio, and Young's modulus for the shale formations. The individual-well data were aggregated into a single histogram for each parameter to gain an understanding of the variation in the properties (including brittleness) of the Utica Point-Pleasant formations across the entire study area. A crossplot of the compressional velocity and bulk density and a crossplot between the compressional velocity, the shear velocity, and depth of the measurement were used for a high level petrophysical characterization of the Utica Point-Pleasant. Detailed interpretation of drilling induced fractures recorded in image logs, and an analysis of shear wave anisotropy using multi-receiver sonic logs were also performed. Orientation of drilling induced fractures was measured to determine the maximum horizontal stress azimuth. Also, an analysis of shear wave anisotropy to predict stress anisotropy around the wellbore was performed to determine the direction of maximum horizontal stress. Our study shows how the detailed interpretation of borehole breakouts, drilling induced fractures, and sonic wave data can be used to reduce uncertainty and produce a better hydraulic fracturing design in the Utica Point Pleasant formations across the northern Appalachian Basin region of Ohio.

  12. Study of the Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Meltwater Contribution to the Total Runoff in the Upper Changjiang River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hao Fang


    Full Text Available Melt runoff (MR contributes significantly to the total runoff in many river basins. Knowledge of the meltwater contribution (MCR, defined as the ratio of MR to the total runoff to the total runoff benefits water resource management and flood control. A process-based land surface model, Noah-MP, was used to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of MR and MCR in the Upper Changjiang River (as known as Yangtze River Basin (UCRB located in southwestern China. The model was first calibrated and validated using snow cover fraction (SCF, runoff, and evapotranspiration (ET data. The calibrated model was then used to perform two numerical experiments from 1981 to 2010: control experiment that considers MR and an alternative experiment that MR is removed. The difference between two experiments was used to quantify MR and MCR. The results show that in the entire UCRB, MCR was approximately 2.0% during the study period; however, MCR exhibited notable spatiotemporal variability. Four sub-regions over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP showed significant annual MCR ranging from 3.9% to 6.0%, while two sub-regions in the low plain regions showed negligible annual MCR. The spatial distribution of MCR was generally consistent with the distribution of glaciers and elevation distribution. Mann-Kendall (M-K tests of the long-term annual MCR indicated that the four sub-regions in QTP exhibited increasing trends ranging from 0.01%/year to 0.21%/year during the study period but only one displayed statistically significant trend. No trends were found for the peak time (PT of MR and MCR, in contrast, advancing trend were observed for the center time (CT of MR, ranging from 0.01 months/year to 0.02 months/year. These trends are related to the changes of air temperature and precipitation in the study area.

  13. A paleoenvironmental study of subsurface Quaternary sediments at Wainuiomata, Wellington, New Zealand, and tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begg, J.G.; Mildenhall, D.C.; Lyon, G.L.; Stephenson, W.R.; Funnell, R.H.; Van Dissen, R.J.; Bannister, S.; Brown, L.J.; Pillans, B.; Harper, M.A.; Whitton, J.


    A stratigraphic drillhole (WS-1) sited on the floor of Wainuiomata Valley near Lower Hutt, revealed a 61.6 m thick Quaternary sequence overlying Torlesse Supergroup greywacke sandstone and argillite. The Quaternary sediments consist of three sequences separated by disconformities. The lower sequence, 10.7 m thick (61.6-50.9 m), consists of fluvial sediments of probable early Quaternary age. The middle sequence, about 48.3 m in thickness (50.9-c. 2.6 m), spans most of the Last Glaciation. Fluvial/overbnak (50.9-42.0 m), floodplain/swamp (42.9-34.5 m), and fluvial (34.5-31.3 m) sediments overlie the disconformity at 50.9 m. Conformably overlying these sediments are swamp and lacustrine deposits between 31.3 and 4.1 m. Diatoms and algal spores and coenobia show the existence of an extensive lake during much of this sequence, from 25.6 to 4.0 m. at the peak of its development, at a drillhole depth of c. 23 m, the lake was >10 m deep and had a high algal biomass. Kawakawa Tephra (22 600 yr b.p.) occurs near the top of the middle sequence at 4.1 m depth. The upper sequence, of Holocene-Recent age, is <2.6 m thick, including .06 m of fill. The existence of sediments of the lower sequence of at least Castlecliffian age (early Pleistocene) uncomformably overlying basement greywacke provides a minimum age for the K-surface in the area. The Last Glacial sediments show evidence of ponfing, which may be a result of one factor or a combination of the following: ponding behind an aggradational terrace of the Wainuiomata River; landslide blockage of the Black Stream drainage near its confluence with Wainuiomata River; and tectonic deformation. Progressive tectonic deformation since about the start of the Last Glaciation is considered the most likely dominant factor. This has resulted in the elevation of greywacke basement near the junction of Black Stream and Wainuiomata River. The nature of the deformation - faulting, tilting, and/or folding - has not been established. (authors) 38 refs., 6 figs., 2 tables

  14. Paleoenvironmental assessment of recent environmental changes in Florida Bay, USA: a biomarker based study (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Holmes, C.W.; Jaffe, R.


    The extractable lipid compositions in four Florida Bay cores were determined in order to understand environmental changes over the last 160 years. The most significant environmental change was recorded by oscillations in the amplitude and frequency of biomarkers during the 20th century. Two seagrass molecular proxies (Paq and the C25/C27n-alkan-2-one ratio) reached a maximum post 1900, suggesting that abundant seagrass communities existed during the 20th century. A sharp drop in the Paq value from 0.65 to 0.48 in the central Bay at about 1987 seems to reflect seagrass die-off. The concentrations of microbial biomarkers (C20 HBIs, C25 HBIs and dinosterol) substantially increased after 1950 in the TC, BA and NB cores, reflecting an increase in algal (planktonic organism) primary productivity. However, the RB core presented the highest abundance of C25 HBIs and dinosterol during the period of 1880–1940, suggesting historically large inputs from diatoms and dinoflagellates. A substantial rise in abundance of taraxerol (a specific biomarker of mangroves) from 20 μg/g TOC in the 1830s to 279 μg/g TOC in the l980s is likely a result of increased mangrove primary productivity along the shore of the NE Bay. These changes are most likely the result of hydrological alterations in South Florida.

  15. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.


    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Driving Factors of Grassland Degradation: A Case Study in Xilin River Basin, Inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichun Xie


    Full Text Available Current literature suggests that grassland degradation occurs in areas with poor soil conditions or noticeable environmental changes and is often a result of overgrazing or human disturbances. However, these views are questioned in our analyses. Based on the analysis of satellite vegetation maps from 1984, 1998, and 2004 for the Xilin River Basin, Inner Mongolia, China, and binary logistic regression (BLR analysis, we observe the following: (1 grassland degradation is positively correlated with the growth density of climax communities; (2 our findings do not support a common notion that a decrease of biological productivity is a direct indicator of grassland degradation; (3 a causal relationship between grazing intensity and grassland degradation was not found; (4 degradation severity increased steadily towards roads but showed different trends near human settlements. This study found complex relationships between vegetation degradation and various microhabitat conditions, for example, elevation, slope, aspect, and proximity to water.

  17. Impacts of forest changes on hydrology: a case study of large watersheds in the upper reach of Yangtze River Basin (United States)

    Cui, X.; Liu, S.; Wei, X.


    Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River Basin plays a strategic role in environmental protection and economic and social wellbeing for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze Basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a size of 24 000 km2. Due to its strategic significance, severe historic deforestation and high sensitivity to climate change, the watershed has long been one of the highest priority watersheds in China for scientific research and resource management. The purpose of this review paper is to provide a state-of-the-art summary on what we have learned from several recently-completed research programs (one of them known as "973 of the China National Major Fundamental Science" with funding of 3.5 million USD in 2002 to 2008). This summary paper focused on how land cover or forest change affected hydrology at both forest stand and watershed scales in this large watershed. Inclusion of two different spatial scales is useful because the results from a small spatial scale (e.g. forest stand level) can help interpret the findings at a large spatial scale. Our review suggests that historic forest harvesting or land cover change has caused significant water increase due to reduction of forest canopy interception and evapotranspiration caused by removal of forest vegetation at both spatial scales. The impact magnitudes caused by forest harvesting indicate that the hydrological effects of forest or land cover changes can be as important as those caused by climate change, while the opposite impact directions suggest their offsetting effects on water yields in the Minjiang River watershed. In addition, different types of forests have different magnitudes of ET with old-growth natural

  18. Preliminary study on the L ate Cretaceous ostracods from continental scientific drilling SK1 in the Songliao Basin, NE China (United States)

    Xi, Dangpeng; Qu, Haiying; Shi, Zhongye; Wan, Xiaoqiao


    Songliao Basin is one of the biggest lacustrine systems in Asia during Cretaceous age. Widespread deposits in the basin are mainly composed of clastic sediments which contain abundant fossils including gastropod, bivalves, ostracods, vertebrates and others. These well preserved ostracod fossils provide us valuable information about past climate changes and biotic responses in a greenhouse environment.The Cretaceous Continental Scientific Drilling in the Songliao Basin (SK1) offers a rare opportunity to study Late Cretaceous non-marine ostracod. The SK1 was drilled separately in two boreholes: the lower 959.55-meter-thick south core (SK1(s)), and the upper 1636.72-meter-thick north core (SK1 (n)), containing the Upper Quantou, Qingshankou, Yaojia, Nenjiang Formation, Sifangtai, Mingshui and lower Taikang formations. Here we establish high-resolution non-marine ostracod biostratigraphy based on SK1. 80 species belonging to 12 genera in the SK1(S) and 45 species assigned to 20 genera in the SK1(n) have been recovered. Nineteen ostracod assemblage zones have been recognized: 1. Mongolocypris longicaudata-Cypridea Assemblage Zone, 2.Triangulicypris torsuosus-Triangulicypris torsuosus. nota Assemblage Zone, 3. Cypridea dekhoinensis-Cypridea gibbosa Assemblage Zone, 4.Cypridea nota-Sunliavia tumida Assemblage Zone, 5.Cypridea edentula-Lycopterocypris grandis Assemblage Zone, 6.Cypridea fuyuensis-Triangulicypris symmetrica Assemblage Zone, 7.Triangulicypris vestilus-Triangulicypris fusiformis-Triangulicypris pumilis Assemblage Zone, 8.Cypridea panda-Mongolocypris obscura Assemblage Zone, 9. Cypridea exornata-Cypridea dongfangensis Assemblage Zone, 10.Cypridea favosa-Mongolocypris tabulata Assemblage Zone, 11.Cypridea formosa-Cypridea sunghuajiangensis Assemblage Zone, 12. Cypridea anonyma-Candona fabiforma Assemblage Zone, 13.Cypridea gracila-Cypridea gunsulinensis Assemblage Zone, 14.Mongolocypris magna-Mongolocypris heiluntszianensis Assemblage Zone, 15.Cypridea

  19. Evaluating methods to establish habitat suitability criteria: A case study in the upper Delaware River Basin, USA (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.; Talbert, Colin; Maloney, Kelly O.


    Defining habitat suitability criteria (HSC) of aquatic biota can be a key component to environmental flow science. HSC can be developed through numerous methods; however, few studies have evaluated the consistency of HSC developed by different methodologies. We directly compared HSC for depth and velocity developed by the Delphi method (expert opinion) and by two primary literature meta-analyses (literature-derived range and interquartile range) to assess whether these independent methods produce analogous criteria for multiple species (rainbow trout, brown trout, American shad, and shallow fast guild) and life stages. We further evaluated how these two independently developed HSC affect calculations of habitat availability under three alternative reservoir management scenarios in the upper Delaware River at a mesohabitat (main channel, stream margins, and flood plain), reach, and basin scale. In general, literature-derived HSC fell within the range of the Delphi HSC, with highest congruence for velocity habitat. Habitat area predicted using the Delphi HSC fell between the habitat area predicted using two literature-derived HSC, both at the basin and the site scale. Predicted habitat increased in shallow regions (stream margins and flood plain) using literature-derived HSC while Delphi-derived HSC predicted increased channel habitat. HSC generally favoured the same reservoir management scenario; however, no favoured reservoir management scenario was the most common outcome when applying the literature range HSC. The differences found in this study lend insight into how different methodologies can shape HSC and their consequences for predicted habitat and water management decisions. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Does internal climate variability overwhelm climate change signals in streamflow? The upper Po and Rhone basin case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatichi, S.; Rimkus, S.; Burlando, P.; Bordoy, R.


    Projections of climate change effects in streamflow are increasingly required to plan water management strategies. These projections are however largely uncertain due to the spread among climate model realizations, internal climate variability, and difficulties in transferring climate model results at the spatial and temporal scales required by catchment hydrology. A combination of a stochastic downscaling methodology and distributed hydrological modeling was used in the ACQWA project to provide projections of future streamflow (up to year 2050) for the upper Po and Rhone basins, respectively located in northern Italy and south-western Switzerland. Results suggest that internal (stochastic) climate variability is a fundamental source of uncertainty, typically comparable or larger than the projected climate change signal. Therefore, climate change effects in streamflow mean, frequency, and seasonality can be masked by natural climatic fluctuations in large parts of the analyzed regions. An exception to the overwhelming role of stochastic variability is represented by high elevation catchments fed by glaciers where streamflow is expected to be considerably reduced due to glacier retreat, with consequences appreciable in the main downstream rivers in August and September. Simulations also identify regions (west upper Rhone and Toce, Ticino river basins) where a strong precipitation increase in the February to April period projects streamflow beyond the range of natural climate variability during the melting season. This study emphasizes the importance of including internal climate variability in climate change analyses, especially when compared to the limited uncertainty that would be accounted for by few deterministic projections. The presented results could be useful in guiding more specific impact studies, although design or management decisions should be better based on reliability and vulnerability criteria as suggested by recent literature. - Highlights:

  1. Does internal climate variability overwhelm climate change signals in streamflow? The upper Po and Rhone basin case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatichi, S., E-mail:; Rimkus, S.; Burlando, P.; Bordoy, R.


    Projections of climate change effects in streamflow are increasingly required to plan water management strategies. These projections are however largely uncertain due to the spread among climate model realizations, internal climate variability, and difficulties in transferring climate model results at the spatial and temporal scales required by catchment hydrology. A combination of a stochastic downscaling methodology and distributed hydrological modeling was used in the ACQWA project to provide projections of future streamflow (up to year 2050) for the upper Po and Rhone basins, respectively located in northern Italy and south-western Switzerland. Results suggest that internal (stochastic) climate variability is a fundamental source of uncertainty, typically comparable or larger than the projected climate change signal. Therefore, climate change effects in streamflow mean, frequency, and seasonality can be masked by natural climatic fluctuations in large parts of the analyzed regions. An exception to the overwhelming role of stochastic variability is represented by high elevation catchments fed by glaciers where streamflow is expected to be considerably reduced due to glacier retreat, with consequences appreciable in the main downstream rivers in August and September. Simulations also identify regions (west upper Rhone and Toce, Ticino river basins) where a strong precipitation increase in the February to April period projects streamflow beyond the range of natural climate variability during the melting season. This study emphasizes the importance of including internal climate variability in climate change analyses, especially when compared to the limited uncertainty that would be accounted for by few deterministic projections. The presented results could be useful in guiding more specific impact studies, although design or management decisions should be better based on reliability and vulnerability criteria as suggested by recent literature. - Highlights:

  2. Building the ensemble flood prediction system by using numerical weather prediction data: Case study in Kinu river basin, Japan (United States)

    Ishitsuka, Y.; Yoshimura, K.


    Floods have a potential to be a major source of economic or human damage caused by natural disasters. Flood prediction systems were developed all over the world and to treat the uncertainty of the prediction ensemble simulation is commonly adopted. In this study, ensemble flood prediction system using global scale land surface and hydrodynamic model was developed. The system requests surface atmospheric forcing and Land Surface Model, MATSIRO, calculates runoff. Those generated runoff is inputted to hydrodynamic model CaMa-Flood to calculate discharge and flood inundation. CaMa-Flood can simulate flood area and its fraction by introducing floodplain connected to river channel. Forecast leadtime was set 39hours according to forcing data. For the case study, the flood occurred at Kinu river basin, Japan in 2015 was hindcasted. In a 1761 km² Kinu river basin, 3-days accumulated average rainfall was 384mm and over 4000 people was left in the inundated area. Available ensemble numerical weather prediction data at that time was inputted to the system in a resolution of 0.05 degrees and 1hour time step. As a result, the system predicted the flood occurrence by 45% and 84% at 23 and 11 hours before the water level exceeded the evacuation threshold, respectively. Those prediction lead time may provide the chance for early preparation for the floods such as levee reinforcement or evacuation. Adding to the discharge, flood area predictability was also analyzed. Although those models were applied for Japan region, this system can be applied easily to other region or even global scale. The areal flood prediction in meso to global scale would be useful for detecting hot zones or vulnerable areas over each region.

  3. [Clinical and immunological study of the relationship of the digestive system chronic diseases and atherosclerosis in the basin of the abdominal aorta in elderly patients]. (United States)

    Dolgushina, A I; Shaposhnik, I I; Volchegorskiĭ, I A


    Paper describes clinical and immunological study about the relationship between chronic diseases of the digestive system and atherosclerosis in the basin of the abdominal aorta in patients of elderly and senile age. There were revealed the structural and clinical features of the gastrointestinal tract diseases, depending on the extent of atherosclerosis in the basin of the abdominal aorta. Evaluation of the immune status included the determination of lymphocyte subpopulation composition, the functional state of neutrophils and cytokine levels. It is found that the progression of atherosclerosis in the basin of the abdominal aorta in patients of elderly and senile age with chronic diseases of the digestive system was accompanied by the activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms of the immune system and the accompanying intensification of oxidative stress.

  4. Coupling meteorological and hydrological models to evaluate the uncertainty in runoff forecasting: the case study of Maggiore Lake basin (United States)

    Ceppi, A.; Ravazzani, G.; Rabuffetti, D.; Mancini, M.


    observed data to run the control simulations were supplied by ARPA-Piemonte. The study is focused on Maggiore Lake basin, an alpine basin between North-West of Italy and Southern Switzerland; results and statistical testing of the re-analyses shown in this presentation, are subdivided for each of three smaller sub-basins: Toce, Ticino and Maggia, in order to demonstrate the research progress on coupling meteorological and hydrological models in particular orographic features. It is presented how the meteorological forecasts are efficient into hydrological forecasting system, how the ensemble predictions are powerful to evaluate the uncertainty of the QPF which affects the QDF and the whole hydro-meteorological alert system for a mountain catchment. Further, in order to control the quality of the hydrological predictions in the short and medium term, statistical methods are used to calculate how the skill scores can be applied for hydrological applications and how the ensemble forecasts can help the users for decision making in management situations. Two significant events are analysed in order to compare the behaviour of the model driven by different weather scenarios: one convective in June that has yielded a high peak flow and one light stratiform in November that has been studied for the snow melt temperature which has affected the liquid precipitation and therefore the forecasted runoff. It is shown how the entire rainfall, the liquid precipitation and the runoff change in function of an areal the sub-basin scale, in order to understand where the errors are more frequently encountered.

  5. Isotope and hydrogeochemical studies in waters from the Rio Verde basin - Bahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, G.A.


    In situ measurements of water level, temperature and pH in 8 wells of the limestone rocks of the Bambui and Caatinga Formation, in the Rio Verde basin, were taken in August, September, October, November and December 1979 and in April and October of 1980. Samples of precipitation and surface waters in the region and ground water of that wells were analyzed for the content of Ca ++ , Mg ++ , Na + , K + , SO =4 HCO - 3 , Cl - and isotopic ratios D/H and 18 O/ 16 O. For the groundwater samples it was also determined the radiocarbon activity and isotopic ratio 13 C/ 12 C of the dissolved carbonates the parameters determined were used to analyze the factors that control the groundwaters in the region within the hydrological cycle as well as an eventual leak into the region of water from the nearly reservoir of Sobradinho. No relation was found between the groundwaters an the Sobradinho reservoir. Their apparent carbon-14 ages range from 2300 to 13640 years. As all samples come from a small area this indicates a heterogenous and complex aquifer. The data of isotopic ratio D/H and 18 O/ 16 O and the righ carbon-14 ages of the ground water suggest neether direct recharge from precipitation or correlations between the waters of Rio Verde and the aquifer. The chemical data of the slightly saline groundwater with differences in the chemical ratios with respect to the surface samples suggests some dissolution in addition to evaporation as the mechanisms that control the salt content in the aquifer. (Author) [pt

  6. Participatory Planning for the improvement of water management in uncertain conditions: Case study of the Souss-Massa basin in Morocco (United States)

    Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Slimani, Imane; Joyce, Brian


    Due to its geographical location and to the natural features of its climate, Morocco is known as a drought prone and water scarce country. However, the country now faces, in the current context of Climate Change, an increasing and alarming water scarcity due to the combined effects of a strong decline of precipitations and a growing pressure on water resources induced by the economic development and demographic growth. Aware of this pressing issue, Morocco implemented a national water strategy based on the decentralization of water management at the river basin level and the establishment of Integrated Water Resources Management master plans for each basin. Unfortunately, these plans often underestimate the impact of uncertainty and this may lead to inefficient and unsustainable water management strategies. In this context, the aim of this study is to develop an innovative approach for robust decision making in uncertain conditions by coupling the WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning System) model and the "XLRM" robust decision making framework to support the evaluation of management options and promote long-term sustainable integrated water management strategies at the basin level. The Souss-Massa basin, located in the south-western part of the country was retained as a case study because of its strategic importance but also because it now faces, as a consequence of the irrational use of water resources during the last decades significant water resources management challenges mainly due to the overexploitation of ground water resources, the increased of water demand due to the irrigation development, the urban and industrial growth and the expansion of tourism. Thus, in this study, a three step methodology was developed. First, the WEAP model were developed and calibrated for the Souss-Massa basin. In a second step, a XLRM participatory workshop gathering the basin main stakeholders were organized in order to identify the EXogenous factors (key uncertainties

  7. Study on exploration theory and SAR technology for interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit and its application in Eastern Jungar Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Wei; Liu Dechang; Rui Benshan; Zhao Yingjun; Huang Xianfang; Huang Shutao


    Started with analyzing the features of metallogenetic epoch and space distribution of typical interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit both in China and abroad and their relations of basin evolution, the authors have proposed the idea that the last unconformity mainly controls the metallogenetic epoch and the strength of structure activity after the last unconformity determines the deposit space. An exploration theory with the kernel from new events to the old one is put forward. The means and method to use SAR technology to identify ore-controlling key factors are discussed. An application study in Eastern Jungar Basin is performed

  8. In the Land of the Sky: Recent Paleoenvironmental Research From Coastal Oaxaca, Mexico (United States)

    Goman, M. F.; Joyce, A. A.; Mueller, R. G.


    The Lower Río Verde Valley of Oaxaca has had a long and complex cultural history in part shaped by significant landscape change that ocurred 2300 years ago, when the Río Verde river changed morphology from a meandering to a braided form. These changes were precipitated by anthropogenic landuse impacts in the highland valleys of Oaxaca over 125 linear km to the north. While the lower valley's geomorphic history is well studied, little is known of its paleoecology. In order to reconstruct the history of vegetation, climate, and associated land use change, sediment cores were raised from several sites throughout the region. We present stratigraphical, palynological, and charcoal data from three sites in the region. The lower drainage basin consists entirely of the Verde's coastal valley. The climate of the lower Río Verde Valley is hot and humid with mean annual rainfall of 1000 mm to 2000 mm and average temperatures range from 25°C to 28°C. We discuss the pollen and stratigraphic record from Laguna Pastoría which is a brackish estuary protected from the Pacific Ocean by a roughly east-west trending bay barrier. The bay barrier is about 500 m wide and 2 to 4 m high. Low scrub vegetation (cacti, thorny bushes, small trees and palms) grow on the barrier. The lagoon itself is approximately 9 km long and varies in depth with a 3-4 m maximum. Tides are microtidal (1 m). The lagoon supports a diverse array of mangroves (Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Conocarpus erectus and Avicennia germinans). Two sediment cores were raised from the lagoon (LP1 and LP2) and provide a record of hurricane strikes and possible changes in the frequency of El Niño's. The LP1 core covers approximately the last 5000 yrs. Preliminary pollen analysis indicates that pollen is in excellent condition and is diverse (>60 taxa). Zea mays pollen was identified from sediments dating to the early Formative period (~ 3600 yr ago). The charcoal records analyzed from 2 paleomeanders of the

  9. New tropical carcharhinids (chondrichthyes, carcharhiniformes) from the late Eocene early Oligocene of Balochistan, Pakistan: Paleoenvironmental and paleogeographic implications (United States)

    Adnet, S.; Antoine, P.-O.; Hassan Baqri, S. R.; Crochet, J.-Y.; Marivaux, L.; Welcomme, J.-L.; Métais, G.


    New selachians (sharks and rays) have been collected from several late Eocene and early Oligocene marine localities in the Bugti Hills (Balochistan, Pakistan). Two new species of Requiem sharks (close to the Recent "Bull shark") are described : Carcharhinus balochensis and Carcharhinus perseus. The rest of the fauna is notable for the strong representation of Carcharhiniformes. These selachian faunas represent a unique tropical association for the Oligocene period and one of the first modern tropical selachian faunas, with modern taxa such as the two new species of "Bull sharks", Negaprion sp. and one of the first occurrences of Sphyrna sp. Moreover, these faunas permit paleoenvironmental interpretation of adjacent land masses. The relatively modern aspect of these faunas, compared with other contemporaneous and younger selachian associations from Atlantic and Mediterranean seas, suggests biogeographic isolation of selachian communities living in eastern and western parts of the Tethys before its final closure during the early-middle Miocene.

  10. The economic value of drought information for water management under climate change: a case study in the Ebro basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Quiroga


    Full Text Available Drought events in the Mediterranean are likely to increase in frequency, duration and intensity due to climate change, thereby affecting crop production. Information about drought is valuable for river basin authorities and the farmers affected by their decisions. The economic value of this information and the resulting decisions are of interest to these two stakeholder groups and to the information providers. Understanding the dynamics of extreme events, including droughts, in future climate scenarios for the Mediterranean is being improved continuously. This paper analyses the economic value of information on drought events taking into account the risk aversion of water managers. We consider the effects of drought management plans on rice production in the Ebro river basin. This enables us to compute the willingness to compensate the river basin authority for more accurate information allowing for better decision-making. If runoff is reduced, river basin planners can consider the reduction of water allocation for irrigation in order to eliminate the risk of water scarcity. Alternately, river basin planners may decide to maintain water allocation and accept a reduction of water supply reliability, leaving farmers exposed to drought events. These two alternatives offer different risk levels for crop production and farmers' incomes which determine the value of this information to the river basin authority. The information is relevant for the revision of River Basin Management Plans of the Water Framework Directive (WFD within the context of climate change.

  11. Development of a shelf margin delta due to uplift of Munkagrunnur Ridge at the margin of Faroe-Shetland Basin: a seismic sequence stratigraphic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Òlavsdóttir, Jana; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Andersen, Moretn S


    During the last decade several 3D digital reflection seismic datasets have been acquired in the Faroese sector of the Faroe-Shetland Basin which allow detailed seismic interpretation and mapping of parts of the area. This study presents mapping and seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation of...

  12. Estimation of human-induced changes in terrestrial water storage through integration of GRACE satellite detection and hydrological modeling: A case study of the Yangtze River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Ying; Salama, M.S.; Krol, Martinus S.; Su, Zhongbo; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Zeng, Yijian; Zhou, Yunxuan; Zhou, Yuxin


    Quantifying the human effects on water resources plays an important role in river basin management. In this study, we proposed a framework, which integrates the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite estimation with macroscale hydrological model simulation, for detection and

  13. Sub-basin-scale sea level budgets from satellite altimetry, Argo floats and satellite gravimetry: a case study in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinherenbrink, M.; Riva, R.E.M.; Sun, Y.


    . In this study, for the first time, an attempt is made to close the sea level budget on a sub-basin scale in terms of trend and amplitude of the annual cycle. We also compare the residual time series after removing the trend, the semiannual and the annual signals. To obtain errors for altimetry and

  14. Appraising timing response of paleoenvironmental proxies to the Bond cycle in the western Mediterranean over the last 20 kyr (United States)

    Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Ortega-Huertas, Miguel


    The timing of climate responses to the Bond cycle is investigated in the western Mediterranean. Periodicities had been previously reported in a marine sediment record from this region spanning the last 20 kyr, and registered by diverse paleoenvironmental proxies, in particular those associated with terrigenous input, redox conditions, productivity, sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity. Further cross-spectral analyses on these time series reveal leads-lags in the 1400 year climate cycle. Considering as reference a terrigenous input proxy (the K/Al ratio), all the paleoenvironmental proxies displayed time shifts varying from ca. 700 year to ca. 350 year. SST and salinity variations show a first leaded response with the inflow of cold and less salty Atlantic waters. Followed by a time lead of 525 year, progresively arid conditions with an increase of eolian dust transport to the area, given by the Zr/Al signal, are observed. The intensification of dust transport could have triggered a latest biological response, lead by 350 year, with an increase of productivity, as suggested by the Ba/Al ratio. Lastly changes in the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation, indicated by a selected redox proxy (the U/Th ratio), are observed. These results support that the oceanic response triggered the atmospheric response to the Bond cycle in the western Mediterranean. Changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation mode and in the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone migrations with variations in the monsoon activity or Saharan winds system, are considered as main forcing mechanisms, with a complex relationship of the involved phenomena.

  15. Appraising timing response of paleoenvironmental proxies to the Bond cycle in the western Mediterranean over the last 20 kyr (United States)

    Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Ortega-Huertas, Miguel


    The timing of climate responses to the Bond cycle is investigated in the western Mediterranean. Periodicities had been previously reported in a marine sediment record from this region spanning the last 20 kyr, and registered by diverse paleoenvironmental proxies, in particular those associated with terrigenous input, redox conditions, productivity, sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity. Further cross-spectral analyses on these time series reveal leads-lags in the 1400 year climate cycle. Considering as reference a terrigenous input proxy (the K/Al ratio), all the paleoenvironmental proxies displayed time shifts varying from ca. 700 year to ca. 350 year. SST and salinity variations show a first leaded response with the inflow of cold and less salty Atlantic waters. Followed by a time lead of 525 year, progresively arid conditions with an increase of eolian dust transport to the area, given by the Zr/Al signal, are observed. The intensification of dust transport could have triggered a latest biological response, lead by 350 year, with an increase of productivity, as suggested by the Ba/Al ratio. Lastly changes in the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation, indicated by a selected redox proxy (the U/Th ratio), are observed. These results support that the oceanic response triggered the atmospheric response to the Bond cycle in the western Mediterranean. Changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation mode and in the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone migrations with variations in the monsoon activity or Saharan winds system, are considered as main forcing mechanisms, with a complex relationship of the involved phenomena.

  16. Microseismic Monitoring of CO2 Sequestration: A Case Study in the Michigan Basin (United States)

    Bohnhoff, M.; Chiaramonte, L.; Zoback, M. D.; Gerst, J.; Gupka, N.


    In low permeability hydrocarbon or geothermal reservoirs, passive seismic monitoring of microseismicity induced through fluid-injection is a widely-used method to image fracture growth and permeability enhancement. Currently, similar techniques and approaches are being developed and tested to monitor underground storage of CO2 into different target formations such as saline reservoirs and depleted oil and gas reservoirs. Many saline reservoirs in the mid-continental U.S. appear to have declining porosity and permeability with increasing depth resulting in injectivity and storage challenges. Hence, permeability enhancement (in a manner similar to that used in low permeability hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs) may be needed to inject significant volumes of CO2 at acceptable pressures. This analysis is supported by the Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP) in collaboration with the Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The Otsego County Test Site in the Michigan Basin was proposed as a demonstration site for CO2 sequestration. A total of more than 10,000 metric tons of supercritical CO2 was injected over a period of 31 days into the target formation (Silurian age Bass Island dolomite -BILD) at 1050 m depth. The injected CO2 was separated from methane produced from the Antrim Shale gas at a nearby site. The injection experiment aimed at evaluating microseismic monitoring technologies and establishing the storage capacity and suitability of the BILD formation. Seismic monitoring of the injection was achieved by two downhole seismometer arrays that consisted of eight, three-component sensors each. The arrays were deployed in two nearby monitoring wells directly above the target horizon at 150 and 550 m lateral distance to the injection point, respectively. The sensor spacing was 15m. Calibration shots in the injection well were used to determine the orientation of the sensors at each depth in the two monitoring wells. The analysis of the

  17. San Mateo Creek Basin (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  18. Study of rock-water-nuclear waste interactions in the Pasco Basin, Washington. Part I. Distribution and composition of secondary and primary mineral phases in basalts of the Pasco Basin, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, L.V.; Teague, L.S.


    In Part I of this report the results of Task III are presented and discussed. The subject of Task III is the study and identification of secondary and primary mineral assemblages in basalts of the Pasco Basin of southeastern Washington. In particular, we have determined the relative amounts, crystallization sequence, and compositions of secondary minerals found lining vesicle and fracture surfaces. This information, together with data on the chemical composition of primary minerals and the extent to which they have undergone dissolution, has been used in theoretical simulations of mass transfer which is the subject of Part II (Task IV) of this report.

  19. Study of rock-water-nuclear waste interactions in the Pasco Basin, Washington. Part I. Distribution and composition of secondary and primary mineral phases in basalts of the Pasco Basin, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, L.V.; Teague, L.S.


    In Part I of this report the results of Task III are presented and discussed. The subject of Task III is the study and identification of secondary and primary mineral assemblages in basalts of the Pasco Basin of southeastern Washington. In particular, we have determined the relative amounts, crystallization sequence, and compositions of secondary minerals found lining vesicle and fracture surfaces. This information, together with data on the chemical composition of primary minerals and the extent to which they have undergone dissolution, has been used in theoretical simulations of mass transfer which is the subject of Part II (Task IV) of this report

  20. Estimation of Soil loss by USLE Model using GIS and Remote Sensing techniques: A case study of Muhuri River Basin, Tripura, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bera


    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a most severe environmental problem in humid sub-tropical hilly state Tripura. The present study is carried out on Muhuri river basin of Tripura state, North east India having an area of 614.54 In this paper, Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE model, with Geographic Information System (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS have been used to quantify the soil loss in the Muhuri river basin. Five essential parameters such as Runoff-rainfall erosivity factor (R, soil erodibility Factor (K, slope length and steepness (LS, cropping management factor (C, and support practice factor (P have been used to estimate soil loss amount in the study area. All of these layers have been prepared in GIS and RS platform (Mainly Arc GIS 10.1 using various data sources and data preparation methods. In these study DEM and LISS satellite data have been used. The daily rainfall data (2001-2010 of 6 rain gauge stations have been used to predict the R factor. Soil erodibility (K factor in Basin area ranged from 0.15 to 0.36. The spatial distribution map of soil loss of Muhuri river basin has been generated and classified into six categories according to intensity level of soil loss. The average annual predicted soil loss ranges between 0 to and 650 t/ha/y. Low soil loss areas (70 t/ha/y of soil erosion was found along the main course of Muhuri River.

  1. Estimation of Hydraulic Parameters and Aquifer Properties for a Managed Aquifer Recharge Pilot Study in The Lower Mississippi River Basin (United States)

    Ozeren, Y.; Rigby, J.; Holt, R. M.


    Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer (MRVAA) is the major irrigation water resource in the in the lower Mississippi River basin. MRVAA has been significantly depleted in the last two decades due to excessive pumping. A wide range of measures to ensure sustainable groundwater supply in the region is currently under investigation. One of the possible solution under consideration is to use Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) by artificial recharge. The proposed artificial recharge technique in this study is to collect water through bank filtration, transfer water via pipeline to the critically low groundwater areas by a set of injection wells. A pilot study in the area is underway to investigate the possibility of artificial recharge in the area. As part of this study, a pumping test was carried out on an existing irrigation well along banks of Tallahatchie River near Money, MS. Geophysical surveys were also carried out in the pilot study area. Hydraulic response of the observation wells was used to determine stream bed conductance and aquifer parameters. The collected hydraulic parameters and aquifer properties will provide inputs for small-scale, high-resolution engineering model for abstraction-injection hydraulics along river. Here, preliminary results of the pilot study is presented.

  2. Climate Change in the Peruvian Andes: A Case Study on Small-Scale Farmers’ Vulnerability in the Quillcay River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Heikkinen


    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that climatic changes in the Peruvian Andes pose a threat to lowland communities, mainly through changes in hydrology. This study uses a case study approach and a mixed qualitative-quantitative method to examine the vulnerability of small-scale farmers in the Quillcay River basin to variations in precipitation and enhanced glacier retreat. The findings of the study show partly contradicting results. On one hand, interpretation of semi-structured interviews suggests a strong relation between climate proxies and increased vulnerability of the smallholders. On the other hand, in the quantitative analysis enhanced glacier retreat seemed to have augmented vulnerability solely to some extent whereas precipitation did not show significant impact. The assessment of the socioeconomic dimension revealed that larger market forces, weak political entitlement and lack of social and economic capital fundamentally increased smallholders’ vulnerability. It is, therefore, suggested that a complex cluster of economic, political and social factors are the root causes of small-scale farmers’ vulnerability in the case study region whereas climate-related changes merely act as multiplying factors.

  3. Impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Mekong River basin: a case study of the Nam Ou basin, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shrestha


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Nam Ou basin located in northern Laos. Future climate (temperature and precipitation from four general circulation models (GCMs that are found to perform well in the Mekong region and a regional circulation model (PRECIS are downscaled using a delta change approach. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is used to assess future changes in sediment flux attributable to climate change. Results indicate up to 3.0 °C shift in seasonal temperature and 27% (decrease to 41% (increase in seasonal precipitation. The largest increase in temperature is observed in the dry season while the largest change in precipitation is observed in the wet season. In general, temperature shows increasing trends but changes in precipitation are not unidirectional and vary depending on the greenhouse gas emission scenarios (GHGES, climate models, prediction period and season. The simulation results show that the changes in annual stream discharges are likely to range from a 17% decrease to 66% increase in the future, which will lead to predicted changes in annual sediment yield ranging from a 27% decrease to about 160% increase. Changes in intra-annual (monthly discharge as well as sediment yield are even greater (−62 to 105% in discharge and −88 to 243% in sediment yield. A higher discharge and sediment flux are expected during the wet seasons, although the highest relative changes are observed during the dry months. The results indicate high uncertainties in the direction and magnitude of changes of discharge as well as sediment yields due to climate change. As the projected climate change impact on sediment varies remarkably between the different climate models, the uncertainty should be taken into account in both sediment management and climate change adaptation.

  4. Sedimentological and paleoenvironmental constraints of the Statherian and Stenian Espinhaço rift system, Brazil.


    Santos, Marcelo Nascimento dos; Chemale Júnior, Farid; Dussin, Ivo Antonio; Martins, Maximiliano de Souza; Assis, Tiago A. R.; Jelinek, Andréa Ritter; Guadagnin, Felipe; Armstrong, Richard


    The Espinhaço Basin in eastern Brazil contains depositional sequences developed in the São Francisco paleoplate and its margins. Detailed mapping was conducted and combined with U–Pb detrital zircon dating to determine the sedimentological-stratigraphic framework, provenance and minimum and maximum ages of the syn-rift-deposits. The two cycles have minimum ages of 1192 and 923 Ma and maximum ages of 1785 and 1685 Ma. The first depositional cycle, represented by the Bandeirinha and São João da...

  5. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP): Understanding the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic context of human origins through continental drilling (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew S.; Campisano, Christopher; Asrat, Asfawossen; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Deino, Alan; Feibel, Craig; Hill, Andrew; Kingston, John; Lamb, Henry; Lowenstein, Tim; Olago, Daniel; Bernhart Owen, R.; Renaut, Robin; Schabitz, Frank; Trauth, Martin


    The influence of climate and environmental history on human evolution is an existential question that continues to be hotly debated, in part because of the paucity of high resolution records collected in close proximity to the key fossil and archaeological evidence. To address this issue and transform the scientific debate, the HSPDP was developed to collect lacustrine sediment drill cores from basins in Kenya and Ethiopia that collectively encompass critical time intervals and locations for Plio-Quaternary human evolution in East Africa. After a 17 month campaign, drilling was completed in November, 2014, with over 1750m of core collected from 11 boreholes from five areas (1930m total drilling length, avg. 91% recovery). The sites, from oldest to youngest, include 1) N. Awash, Ethiopia (~3.5-2.9Ma core interval); 2) Baringo-Tugen Hills, Kenya (~3.3-2.5Ma); 3) West Turkana, Kenya (~1.9-1.4Ma); L. Magadi, Kenya (0.8-0Ma) and the Chew Bahir Basin, Ethiopia (~0.5-0Ma). Initial core description (ICD) and sampling for geochronology, geochemistry and paleoecology studies had been completed by mid2014, with the two remaining sites (Magadi and Chew Bahir) scheduled for ICD work in early 2015. Whereas the primary scientific targets were the lacustrine deposits from the hominin-bearing basin depocenters, many intervals of paleosols (representative of low lake stands and probable arid periods) were also encountered in drill cores. Preliminary analyses of drill core sedimentology and geochemistry show both long-term lake level changes and cyclic variability in lake levels, both of which may be indicative of climatic forcing events of interest to paleoanthropologists. Authors of this abstract also include the entire HSPDP field team.

  6. Study of the hydrological functionning of the irrigated crops in the southern mediterranean basin (United States)

    Khabba, Said; Jarlan, Lionel; Er-Raki, Salah; Le Page, Michel; Merlin, Olivier; Ezzahar, Jamal; Kharrou, Mohamed H.


    In southern Mediterranean region water consumption has significantly increased over the last decades, while available water resources are becoming increasingly scarce. In Morocco, irrigation is highly water demanding: it is estimated that 83% of available resources is dedicated to agriculture with efficiency lower than 50% (Plan Bleu, 2009). In the semiarid region of Tensift Al-Haouz (center of Morocco), typical of southern Mediterranean basin, crop irrigation is inevitable for growth and development. In this situation, and to preserve water resources, the rational management of water irrigation is necessary. This objective is one of the priorities of the research program SudMed (Chehbouni et al., 2008) and the Joint Mixed Laboratory TREMA (Khabba et al. 2013), installed in Marrakech since 2002 and 2011, respectively. In these two programs, the scientific approach adopted, to monitor water transfers in soil-plant-atmosphere system, is based on the synergistic use of the mathematical modeling, the satellite observations and in situ data. Thus, during the decade 2002-2012, 17 experiments on dominant crops in the region (wheat, olive, orange, sugar beet, apricot) were performed. In these experiments, the different terms of water and heat balances exchanged between land surface and atmosphere are controlled with different devices. Results showed that the water losses by evaporation can reach 28% of water inputs for the flooding irrigation site and are obviously lower (about 18-20 % on average) for the drip irrigation sites. Concerning the deep percolation, results are surprising: water losses for the drip irrigation are in the range 29-41% of water input, whereas theses losses are between 26 and 31% for flooding irrigation. Concerning the modeling component, several models ranging from the most simple (FAO-56) to the most complex (i.e. SVAT: Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) were implemented to estimate the spatio-temporal variability of ET. The results showed that

  7. Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly Basin Activities Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H


    This report is a summation of 3 months' drilling and testing activities in the four primary WGSP study areas: Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin. The monitoring of basin activities is part of resource assessment. (DLC)

  8. Prediction method of sediment discharge from forested basin (United States)

    Kazutoki Abe; Ushio Kurokawa; Robert R. Ziemer


    An estimation model for sediment discharge from a forested basin using Universal Soil Loss Equation and delivery ratio was developed. Study basins are North fork and South fork in Caspar Creek, north California, where Forest Service, USDA has been using water and sediment discharge from both basins since 1962. The whole basin is covered with the forest, mainly...

  9. Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction of Late Quaternary Insect Fossils, Halashazi Site, Altai Region, China. (United States)

    Zhang, Tianshu; Elias, Scott; Angus, Robert


    The Altai region northwest China, is located in the middle of arid central Asia and is therefore sensitive to climate change. However, there is a debate on the heat-moisture pattern (warm-dry pattern or cold-dry pattern) during the early Holocene in the Altai region, and a debate on the dominant atmospheric circulation (westerlies or monsoon) control for central Asian climate changes during the Holocene, and the mechanisms that cause the arid early Holocene in central Asia. Thus, the principal aim of the project is use the MCR method to produce quantified temperature and precipitation estimates, and a high-precision palaeoclimatic record for the Altai region, based on fossil beetle assemblages, to reveal the heat-moisture pattern and its mechanisms. This project will begin to fill in the blank of Quaternary beetle research in China. Using Quaternary beetles to reconstruct palaeoenvironments is a new research method for this region, and has never before been done in China, which will provide new evidence for the palaeoenvironmental study in this area. Furthermore, this project will contribute to the beetle faunal research in Eurasia. The sample site for this project - Halashazi Wetland (048°06'54"N, 088°21'48"E), is located at the crossroad of the Altai Mountains and the Dzungarian Basin, where two ecosystems meet. Thus the fossil beetle assemblages should show dramatic change in response to changes of climate. The sampled deposits are made up entirely of sedge peat. Two different profiles were sampled, with depths of 160 cm and 200 cm, respectively. Both profiles were sampled at 5 cm intervals, with approximately 2 kg of material in each unit. The results of the radiocarbon dating will be available in December 2016. Based on other previous studies, the bottom of the peat sediment is 11,500 cal yr BP, so project focuses on the Holocene period approximately from 10,000 cal yr BP. More than 80 species of Coleoptera from 55 genera, 22 families have been recognised so

  10. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic changes associated with the Deccan Volcanism, examples from terrestrial deposits from Central India (United States)

    Fantasia, Alicia; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Font, Eric; Samant, Bandana; Mohabey, Dhananjay; Thakre, Deepali; Keller, Gerta


    Since the 80's, numerous authors have established the connection between Deccan volcanism in India and the KT events. Chenet et al (2008) showed that Deccan Traps erupted in three main phases with 6% total Deccan volume in phase-1 (base C30n), 80% in phase-2 (C29r) and 14% in phase-3 (C29n). Recent works indicate that the main phase-2 (80%) occurred over a relatively short time interval in magnetic polarity C29r, which coincides with the KTB events (Blair et al., in press, Keller et al, 2012). The biotic evolution is well understood in marine environments, but only few data are available concerning the terrestrial environmental changes. In central India, sedimentary beds associated with the Deccan Traps are represented by infratrappean (Lameta Formation) and intertrappean sediments, which were deposited during periods of volcanic quiescence. These deposits are located at different stratigraphic levels within the basaltic pile and are therefore crucial to evaluate the changes on land induced by the onset of the volcanism. The sedimentary beds exposed in the central part of India in the Jabalpur-Mandla-Chhindwara sector (Madyha Pradesh) and in the Nand-Dongargaon basin (Maharashtra) were studied using a sedimentological, geophysical, geochemical and mineralogical approach. Our results indicate that the intertrappean sediments deposited during the Deccan volcanism do not reflect the same characteristics than the infratrappean sediments preceding the volcanic eruptions. Indeed, palynological studies of the Lameta Formation indicate a dominance of angiosperms and a rich canopy of gymnosperms (Conifers and Podocarpaceae) and an understory of palms and herbs. Moreover, sedimentological and mineralogical observations indicate alluvial-limnic environment under arid climate. The eruption of Deccan volcanic flows severely affected the environmental conditions. Intertrappean sediments associated with the three Deccan phases were deposited in terrestrial to lacustrine

  11. Model study of the impacts of future climate change on the hydrology of Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna basin


    M. Masood; P. J.-F. Yeh; N. Hanasaki; K. Takeuchi


    The intensity, duration, and geographic extent of floods in Bangladesh mostly depend on the combined influences of three river systems, the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM). In addition, climate change is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basin and may ultimately lead to more serious floods in Bangladesh. However, the assessment of climate change impacts on the basin-scale hydrology by using well-calibrated hydrologic mode...

  12. Geophysical study of the Ota–VF Xira–Lisbon–Sesimbra fault zone and the lower Tagus Cenozoic basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, João; Rabeh, Taha; Bielik, Miroslav; Szalaiová, Eva; Torres, Luís; Silva, Marisa; Carrilho, Fernando; Matias, Luís; Miranda, Jorge Miguel


    This paper focuses on the interpretation of seismic reflection, gravimetric, topographic, deep seismic refraction and seismicity data to study the recently proposed Ota–Vila Franca de Xira–Lisbon–Sesimbra (OVLS) fault zone and the lower Tagus Cenozoic basin (LTCB). The studied structure is located in the lower Tagus valley (LTV), an area with over 2 million inhabitants that has experienced historical earthquakes which caused significant damage and economical losses (1344, 1531 and 1909 earthquakes) and whose tectonic sources are thought to be local but mostly remain unknown. This study, which is intended as a contribution to improve the seismic hazard of the area and the neotectonics of the region, shows that the above-proposed fault zone is probably a large crustal thrust fault that constitutes the western limit of the LTCB. Gravimetric, deep refraction and seismic reflection data suggest that the LTCB is a foreland basin, as suggested previously by some authors, and that the OVLS northern and central sectors act as the major thrusts. The southern sector fault has been dominated by strike-slip kinematics due to a different orientation to the stress field. Indeed, geological outcrop and seismic reflection data interpretation suggests that, based on fault geometry and type of deformation at depth, the structure is composed of three major segments. These data suggest that these segments have different kinematics in agreement with their orientation to the regional stress field. The OVLS apparently controls the distribution of the seismicity in the area. Geological and geophysical information previously gathered also points that the central segment is active into the Quaternary. The segment lengths vary between 20 and 45 km. Since faults usually rupture only by segments, maximum expectable earthquake magnitudes and other parameters have been calculated for the three sectors of the OVLS fault zone using empirical relationships between earthquake statistics and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mensing


    Full Text Available A number of recent paleoenvironmental studies have argued that abrupt changes in climate have been the primary cause for societal collapse. Many social scientists, including anthropologists and environmental historians, reject environmental explanations as deterministic and overly simplistic. They argue that socio-political decisions contribute to environmental change and that efforts to study societal vulnerability within a human-environment system must include analysis of complex social structures. There is a gap in our understanding of how past societies responded to climate change because there are very few interdisciplinary studies that integrate both physical and behavioral sciences in paleoenvironmental reconstructions. While there is a general sense that modern societies are more insulated than pre-industrial societies from the effects of climate change, this may not prove to be true. A more complete understanding of how both natural and human-caused changes have affected the environment in the past can potentially guide decisions aimed at promoting future sustainability. Here we present a project funded by the United States National Science Foundation that will explicitly integrate paleoenvironmental reconstruction with socioeconomic history in a local context to identify linkages between social and environmental change associated with climate variability.

  14. Mid-Cenozoic tectonic and paleoenvironmental setting of the central Arctic Ocean (United States)

    O'Regan, M.; Moran, K.; Backman, J.; Jakobsson, M.; Sangiorgi, F.; Brinkhuis, Henk; Pockalny, Rob; Skelton, Alasdair; Stickley, Catherine E.; Koc, N.; Brumsack, Hans-Juergen; Willard, Debra A.


    Drilling results from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) to the Lomonosov Ridge (LR) document a 26 million year hiatus that separates freshwater-influenced biosilica-rich deposits of the middle Eocene from fossil-poor glaciomarine silty clays of the early Miocene. Detailed micropaleontological and sedimentological data from sediments surrounding this mid-Cenozoic hiatus describe a shallow water setting for the LR, a finding that conflicts with predrilling seismic predictions and an initial postcruise assessment of its subsidence history that assumed smooth thermally controlled subsidence following rifting. A review of Cenozoic tectonic processes affecting the geodynamic evolution of the central Arctic Ocean highlights a prolonged phase of basin-wide compression that ended in the early Miocene. The coincidence in timing between the end of compression and the start of rapid early Miocene subsidence provides a compelling link between these observations and similarly accounts for the shallow water setting that persisted more than 30 million years after rifting ended. However, for much of the late Paleogene and early Neogene, tectonic reconstructions of the Arctic Ocean describe a landlocked basin, adding additional uncertainty to reconstructions of paleodepth estimates as the magnitude of regional sea level variations remains unknown.

  15. Transport of solutes under transient flow conditions – A case study – Yamuna river sub basin (Kosi Kalan to Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar


    Full Text Available The imbalance between incoming and outgoing salt causes salinization of soils and sub-soils that result in increasing the salinity of stream-flows and agriculture land. This salinization is a serious environmental hazard particularly in semi-arid and arid lands. In order to estimate the magnitude of the hazard posed by salinity, it is important to understand and identify the processes that control salt movement from the soil surface through the root zone to the ground water and stream flows. In the present study, Yamuna sub-basin (both sides of Gokul dam site has been selected which has two distinct climatic zones, sub-humid (upstream of Mathura and semi-arid region (downstream of Mathura. In the upstream, both surface and ground waters are used for irrigation, whereas in the downstream mostly groundwater is used. Both soils and ground waters are more saline in downstream parts of the study area. In this study we characterized the soil salinity and groundwater quality in both areas. An attempt is also made to model the distribution of potassium concentration in the soil profile in response to varying irrigation conditions using the Soil-Water Infiltration and Movement (SWIM model. Fair agreement was obtained between predicted and measured results indicating the applicability of the model.

  16. Soil and Water Conservation Prioritization Using Geospatial Technology – a Case Study of Part of Subarnarekha Basin, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz Ahmad


    Full Text Available Changing patterns of land use and land cover have exploited the natural resources. Soil, water and forests are degraded, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Deforestation in recent years has led to changes in the environment and more of soil erosion and loss of potable water. In order to conserve and sustainably use soil and water, a watershed management approach is necessary. It helps in restoring water by increasing the infiltration and reducing the erosion of soil. Such measures should be propagated in rainfall deficit areas. The present study has attempted to study the upper watershed part of Subarnarekha basin in Jharkhand state of India. Remote sensing satellite data (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS 2013 was used for delineation of the land use/land cover and vegetation index maps. Several thematic layers like slope, drainage and rainfall were integrated to achieve a priority area map using spatial multicriteria decision making. It delineated high medium and low priority areas within the watershed for soil and water conservation. The high priority area was 16.63% of the total study area. Further, the causes were analysed and conservation measures proposed.

  17. Study of soil erosion deposition in Gorgak Basin Chahar Mahal-e Bakhtiary province using Cs-137 technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honarjoon, N.; Mahmoodi, Sh.; Charkhabi, A. H.; Ghafoorian, H.; Alimohammadi, A.


    In view of the many limitations associated with traditional approaches to documenting soil erosion and sedimentation rates, the potential for using fallout radionuclides as tracers in soil erosion investigations has been increasingly exploited. Most attention has been focused on cesium 137, and the successful use of this bomb-derived radionuclide in soil erosion studies has now been reported for many areas in the world. The main goal of this research was to study the Caesium 137 3-D distribution pattern within the key sites and to apply the obtained information for the assessment of soil redistribution. Hence, one transect on a hill slope in Gorgak basin of Chahar Mahal-e- Bakhtiary province was selected and studied. Soils were sampled along the transect and analyzed for Caesium 137. The estimated erosion rates was about 200 t/ha/yr for the top of the slope soil profile (the shoulder land form), and about 24.8 t/ha/yr for the middle of the slope soil profile (back slope land form). In the foot slope land form no erosion has been observed. Keywords: soil erosion, sedimentation, cesium-137, tracer, landforms, Chaharmahal-e-Bakhtiyari, fallout radionuclides

  18. Association between Changing Mortality of Digestive Tract Cancers and Water Pollution: A Case Study in the Huai River Basin, China

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    Hongyan Ren


    Full Text Available The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG, biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD, chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD, and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight with high FSPWQG (>50% distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS, gross domestic product (GDP, and population (POP. Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  19. Association betwe