WorldWideScience

Sample records for basin office watershed

  1. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  2. The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon John Day Basin Office : Watershed Restoration Projects : 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. John Day Basin Office.

    2003-06-30

    The John Day is the nation's second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous United States and the longest containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, Oregon's fourth largest drainage basin, and incorporates portions of eleven counties. Originating in the Strawberry Mountains near Prairie City, the John Day River flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead, westslope cutthroat, and redband and bull trout, the John Day system is truly a basin with national significance. The majority of the John Day basin was ceded to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) formed a partnership with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day, who contracts the majority of the construction implementation activities for these projects from the JDBO. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of most projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 2002, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of their successful partnership between the two agencies

  3. The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon John Day Basin Office: watershed restoration projects: annual report, 1999.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The John Day River is the second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous United States and one of the few major subbasins in the Columbia River basin containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, the fourth largest drainage area in Oregon. With its beginning in the Strawberry Mountains near the town of Prairie City, the John Day flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead, red band, westslope cutthroat, and redband trout, the John Day system is truly one of national significance. The entire John Day basin was granted to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) initiated contracting the majority of its construction implementation actions with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of the projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 1999, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of a successful partnership between the two agencies and basin landowners to implement an additional eleven (11

  4. The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon John Day Basin Office: FY 1999 Watershed Restoration Projects : Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Shawn W.

    2001-03-01

    The John Day River is the second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous United States and one of the few major subbasins in the Columbia River basin containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, the fourth largest drainage area in Oregon. With its beginning in the Strawberry Mountains near the town of Prairie City, the John Day flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead, red band, westslope cutthroat, and redband trout, the John Day system is truly one of national significance. The entire John Day basin was granted to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) initiated contracting the majority of its construction implementation actions with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of the projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 1999, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of a successful partnership between the two agencies and basin landowners to implement an additional eleven (11

  5. The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon John Day Basin Office: watershed restoration projects: annual report, 1998.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The John Day River is the second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous US and one of the few major subbasins in the Columbia River basin containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, the fourth largest drainage area in Oregon. With its beginning in the Strawberry Mountains near the town of Prairie City, the John Day flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead, red band, westslope cutthroat, and redband trout, the John Day system is truly one of national significance. The entire John Day basin was granted to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) initiated contracting the majority of its construction implementation actions with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of the projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 1998, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of a successful partnership between the two agencies and basin landowners to implement an additional ten (10) watershed

  6. Minnesota Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Statewide minor watershed delineations with major/minor watershed identifiers and names for provinces, major watersheds, and basins. Also included are watershed...

  7. Hydrological characterization of watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gebrehiwot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two watersheds (31–4350 km2, in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, were hydrologically characterized with data from a study of water and land resources by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (USBR published in 1964. The USBR document contains data on flow, topography, geology, soil type, and land use for the period 1959 to 1963. The aim of the study was to identify watershed variables best explaining the variation in the hydrological regime, with a special focus on low flows. Moreover, this study aimed to identify variables that may be susceptible to management policies for developing and securing water resources in dry periods. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Partial Least Square (PLS were used to analyze the relationship between five hydrologic response variables (total flow, high flow, low flow, runoff coefficient, low flow index and 30 potential explanatory watershed variables. The explanatory watershed variables were classified into three groups: land use, climate and topography as well as geology and soil type. Each of the three groups had almost equal influence on the variation in hydrologic variables (R2 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.4. Specific variables from within each of the three groups of explanatory variables were better in explaining the variation. Low flow and low flow index were positively correlated to land use types woodland, dense wet forest and savannah grassland, whereas grazing land and bush land were negatively correlated. We concluded that extra care for preserving low flow should be taken on tuffs/basalts which comprise 52% of the Blue Nile Basin. Land use management plans should recognize that woodland, dense wet forest and savannah grassland can promote higher low flows, while grazing land diminishes low flows.

  8. Stakeholder participation to watershed management: A case study from Beysehir Lake Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Fadim; Baycan, Tozin

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses Beyehir Lake Basin, which is the largest freshwater lake in Turkey. The aim of the study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions and behaviors of local communities regarding; the critical problems of the basin; technical and political situation of the water management in the basin; possible strategies ensuring positive change towards the sustainability of the basin; and the watershed management strategies which could contribute to success in this case. The participatory level of the local water users of the basin was also examined. The results revealed that local communities were aware of the basin's problems and contribution of the participatory approaches to watershed management. Also, collaboration between the public and public institutions was accepted as key to successful watershed management. The stakeholders, who considered that current water policies to solve the problems of the basin were ineffectual, relied on the local environmental groups more than central government and local authorities regarding their water policies.

  9. Assessing Watershed Integrity in the Matanuska-Susitna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Index of Watershed Integrity (IWI) is used to calculate and visualize the status of natural watershed infrastructure that supports ecological processes (e.g., nutrient cycling) and services provided to society (e.g., subsistenc...

  10. Capacity for Watershed Cumulative Effects Assessment and Management: Lessons from the Lower Fraser River Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Stephanie; Noble, Bram F.; Patrick, Robert J.

    2013-08-01

    This study examines the capacity to support the cumulative effects assessment and management for watersheds. The research is set in the Lower Fraser River Basin, a densely populated sub-watershed in British Columbia's lower mainland. Eight requirements or requisites for the watershed cumulative effects assessment and management are applied to evaluate current capacity for implementation in the Lower Fraser, and to identify the areas in need of capacity development. Results show that advancing watershed cumulative effects assessment and management requires not only good science but also leadership in the coordination of monitoring programs, and in ensuring the appropriate incentives and penalties for engagement and nonengagement. The lack of leadership in this regard is the result of existing governance structures arranged around the political boundaries, which have produced over time multiple agencies and jurisdictional fragmentation. Notwithstanding this, we argue that the watershed is the most appropriate scale for assessing and managing the cumulative effects to complex ecosystems.

  11. Capacity for watershed cumulative effects assessment and management: lessons from the Lower Fraser River Basin, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Stephanie; Noble, Bram F; Patrick, Robert J

    2013-08-01

    This study examines the capacity to support the cumulative effects assessment and management for watersheds. The research is set in the Lower Fraser River Basin, a densely populated sub-watershed in British Columbia's lower mainland. Eight requirements or requisites for the watershed cumulative effects assessment and management are applied to evaluate current capacity for implementation in the Lower Fraser, and to identify the areas in need of capacity development. Results show that advancing watershed cumulative effects assessment and management requires not only good science but also leadership in the coordination of monitoring programs, and in ensuring the appropriate incentives and penalties for engagement and nonengagement. The lack of leadership in this regard is the result of existing governance structures arranged around the political boundaries, which have produced over time multiple agencies and jurisdictional fragmentation. Notwithstanding this, we argue that the watershed is the most appropriate scale for assessing and managing the cumulative effects to complex ecosystems.

  12. Basin Subsegments from LDEQ source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [basin_subsegments_LDEQ_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon data set of watershed basin subsegments for Louisiana. The dataset was developed for the LDEQ Office of Water Resources' watershed assessment and...

  13. Towards a digital watershed, with a case study in the Heihe River Basin of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.-D.; Ma, M.-G.; Lu, L.; Ge, Y.-C.

    2003-04-01

    Integrated watershed study and river basin management needs integrated database and integrated hydrological and water resource models. We define digital watershed as a web-based information system that integrates data from different sources and in different scales through both information technology and hydrological modeling. In the last two years, a “digital basin” of the Heihe River Basin, which is a well-studied in-land catchment in China’s arid region was established. More than 6 Gb of in situ observation data, GIS maps, and remotely sensed data have been uploaded to the Heihe web site. Various database and dynamic web techniques such as PHP, ASP, XML, VRML are being used for data service. In addition, the DIAL (Data and Information Access Link), IMS (Internet Map Server) and other Web-GISs are used to make GIS and remote sensing datasets of the Heihe River Basin available and accessible on the Internet. We also have developed models for estimating the evapotranspiration, bio-physical parameters, and snow runoff. These methods can be considered as the elements to build up the integrated watershed model that can be used for integrated management of the Heihe River Basin. The official domain name of the digital Heihe River Basin is heihe.westgis.ac.cn

  14. Basin of Mexico: A history of watershed mismanagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis A. Bojorquez Tapia; Exequiel Ezcurra; Marisa Mazari-Hiriart; Salomon Diaz; Paola Gomez; Georgina Alcantar; Daniela Megarejo

    2000-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) is located within the Basin of Mexico. Because of its large population and demand for natural resources, several authors have questioned the viability of the city, especially in terms of water resources. These are reviewed at the regional and the local scales. It is concluded that a multi-basin management approach is necessary to...

  15. A coupled modeling framework for sustainable watershed management in transboundary river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furqan Khan, Hassaan; Yang, Y. C. Ethan; Xie, Hua; Ringler, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing recognition among water resource managers that sustainable watershed management needs to not only account for the diverse ways humans benefit from the environment, but also incorporate the impact of human actions on the natural system. Coupled natural-human system modeling through explicit modeling of both natural and human behavior can help reveal the reciprocal interactions and co-evolution of the natural and human systems. This study develops a spatially scalable, generalized agent-based modeling (ABM) framework consisting of a process-based semi-distributed hydrologic model (SWAT) and a decentralized water system model to simulate the impacts of water resource management decisions that affect the food-water-energy-environment (FWEE) nexus at a watershed scale. Agents within a river basin are geographically delineated based on both political and watershed boundaries and represent key stakeholders of ecosystem services. Agents decide about the priority across three primary water uses: food production, hydropower generation and ecosystem health within their geographical domains. Agents interact with the environment (streamflow) through the SWAT model and interact with other agents through a parameter representing willingness to cooperate. The innovative two-way coupling between the water system model and SWAT enables this framework to fully explore the feedback of human decisions on the environmental dynamics and vice versa. To support non-technical stakeholder interactions, a web-based user interface has been developed that allows for role-play and participatory modeling. The generalized ABM framework is also tested in two key transboundary river basins, the Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia and the Niger River basin in West Africa, where water uses for ecosystem health compete with growing human demands on food and energy resources. We present modeling results for crop production, energy generation and violation of eco

  16. Application of the PRMS model in the Zhenjiangguan watershed in the Upper Minjiang River basin

    OpenAIRE

    L. Fang; C. Liu; G. Qin; B. Zhang; T. Liu

    2015-01-01

    The PRMS model was established for Zhenjiangguan watershed in the upper reach of the Minjiang River basin, China. The results showed that PRMS had an acceptable performance in simulating monthly runoff in the study area. The analysis on the impacts of precipitation changes on hydrological processes indicated that both runoff and evapotranspiration increased with the increase of precipitation. Moreover, evapotranspiration had larger sensitivity to the change of precipitation than runoff.

  17. Application of the PRMS model in the Zhenjiangguan watershed in the Upper Minjiang River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The PRMS model was established for Zhenjiangguan watershed in the upper reach of the Minjiang River basin, China. The results showed that PRMS had an acceptable performance in simulating monthly runoff in the study area. The analysis on the impacts of precipitation changes on hydrological processes indicated that both runoff and evapotranspiration increased with the increase of precipitation. Moreover, evapotranspiration had larger sensitivity to the change of precipitation than runoff.

  18. Application of the PRMS model in the Zhenjiangguan watershed in the Upper Minjiang River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L.; Liu, C.; Qin, G.; Zhang, B.; Liu, T.

    2015-05-01

    The PRMS model was established for Zhenjiangguan watershed in the upper reach of the Minjiang River basin, China. The results showed that PRMS had an acceptable performance in simulating monthly runoff in the study area. The analysis on the impacts of precipitation changes on hydrological processes indicated that both runoff and evapotranspiration increased with the increase of precipitation. Moreover, evapotranspiration had larger sensitivity to the change of precipitation than runoff.

  19. Budgeting suspended sediment fluxes in tropical monsoonal watersheds with limited data: the Lake Tana basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimale Fasikaw A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion decreases soil fertility of the uplands and causes siltation of lakes and reservoirs; the lakes and reservoirs in tropical monsoonal African highlands are especially affected by sedimentation. Efforts in reducing loads by designing management practices are hampered by lack of quantitative data on the relationship of erosion in the watersheds and sediment accumulation on flood plains, lakes and reservoirs. The objective of this study is to develop a prototype quantitative method for estimating sediment budget for tropical monsoon lakes with limited observational data. Four watersheds in the Lake Tana basin were selected for this study. The Parameter Efficient Distributed (PED model that has shown to perform well in the Ethiopian highlands is used to overcome the data limitations and recreate the missing sediment fluxes. PED model parameters are calibrated using daily discharge data and the occasionally collected sediment concentration when establishing the sediment rating curves for the major rivers. The calibrated model parameters are then used to predict the sediment budget for the 1994-2009 period. Sediment retained in the lake is determined from two bathymetric surveys taken 20 years apart whereas the sediment leaving the lake is calculated based on measured discharge and observed sediment concentrations. Results show that annually on average 34 t/ha/year of sediment is removed from the gauged part of the Lake Tana watersheds. Depending on the up-scaling method from the gauged to the ungauged part, 21 to 32 t/ha/year (equivalent to 24-38 Mt/year is transported from the upland watersheds of which 46% to 65% is retained in the flood plains and 93% to 96% is trapped on the flood plains and in the lake. Thus, only 4-7% of all sediment produced in the watersheds leaves the Lake Tana Basin.

  20. Preliminary hydrologic budget studies, Indian Creek watershed and vicinity, Western Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackston, J.W.; Mangarella, P.A.; Preslo, L.M.

    1986-05-01

    Preliminary quantitative estimates of ground-water discharge into the Colorado River System in the western Paradox Basin were prepared on the basis of existing climatological and streamflow records. Ground-water outflow to the river was deduced as a residual from hydrologic budget equations for two different study areas: (1) the region between gaging stations at Cisco, Green River, and Hite, Utah; and (2) the Indian Creek watershed. An empirical correlation between recharge rates and precipitation amounts derived for several basins in eastern Nevada was applied to estimate recharge amounts for the Indian Creek watershed. A simple Darcian flow model was then used to approximate the ground-water flux outward from the watershed for comparison. Salinity measurements in the Colorado River were also used to approximate ground-water outflow to a river reach in Cataract Canyon in order to provide another comparison with the hydrologic budget results. Although these estimates should be considered only gross approximations, all approaches used provide values of ground-water outflow that are much less than estimates of similar parameters provided by the US Geological Survey in recent hydrologic reconnaissance reports. Estimates contained herein will be refined in future numerical modeling and data collection studies

  1. Watershed System Model: The Essentials to Model Complex Human-Nature System at the River Basin Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Cheng, Guodong; Lin, Hui; Cai, Ximing; Fang, Miao; Ge, Yingchun; Hu, Xiaoli; Chen, Min; Li, Weiyue

    2018-03-01

    Watershed system models are urgently needed to understand complex watershed systems and to support integrated river basin management. Early watershed modeling efforts focused on the representation of hydrologic processes, while the next-generation watershed models should represent the coevolution of the water-land-air-plant-human nexus in a watershed and provide capability of decision-making support. We propose a new modeling framework and discuss the know-how approach to incorporate emerging knowledge into integrated models through data exchange interfaces. We argue that the modeling environment is a useful tool to enable effective model integration, as well as create domain-specific models of river basin systems. The grand challenges in developing next-generation watershed system models include but are not limited to providing an overarching framework for linking natural and social sciences, building a scientifically based decision support system, quantifying and controlling uncertainties, and taking advantage of new technologies and new findings in the various disciplines of watershed science. The eventual goal is to build transdisciplinary, scientifically sound, and scale-explicit watershed system models that are to be codesigned by multidisciplinary communities.

  2. Watershed Response to Climate Change and Fire-Burns in the Upper Umatilla River Basin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Yazzie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed watershed response to climate change and forest fire impacts in the upper Umatilla River Basin (URB, Oregon, using the precipitation runoff modeling system. Ten global climate models using Coupled Intercomparison Project Phase 5 experiments with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5 were used to simulate the effects of climate and fire-burns on runoff behavior throughout the 21st century. We observed the center timing (CT of flow, seasonal flows, snow water equivalent (SWE and basin recharge. In the upper URB, hydrologic regime shifts from a snow-rain-dominated to rain-dominated basin. Ensemble mean CT occurs 27 days earlier in RCP 4.5 and 33 days earlier in RCP 8.5, in comparison to historic conditions (1980s by the end of the 21st century. After forest cover reduction in the 2080s, CT occurs 35 days earlier in RCP 4.5 and 29 days earlier in RCP 8.5. The difference in mean CT after fire-burns may be due to projected changes in the individual climate model. Winter flow is projected to decline after forest cover reduction in the 2080s by 85% and 72% in RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, in comparison to 98% change in ensemble mean winter flows in the 2080s before forest cover reduction. The ratio of ensemble mean snow water equivalent to precipitation substantially decreases by 81% and 91% in the 2050s and 2080s before forest cover reduction and a decrease of 90% in RCP 4.5 and 99% in RCP 8.5 in the 2080s after fire-burns. Mean basin recharge is 10% and 14% lower in the 2080s before fire-burns and after fire-burns, and it decreases by 13% in RCP 4.5 and decreases 22% in RCP 8.5 in the 2080s in comparison to historical conditions. Mixed results for recharge after forest cover reduction suggest that an increase may be due to the size of burned areas, decreased canopy interception and less evaporation occurring at the watershed surface, increasing the potential for infiltration. The effects of fire on the watershed system are

  3. Watershed scale response to climate change--Trout Lake Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    General Circulation Model simulations of future climate through 2099 project a wide range of possible scenarios. To determine the sensitivity and potential effect of long-term climate change on the freshwater resources of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey Global Change study, "An integrated watershed scale response to global change in selected basins across the United States" was started in 2008. The long-term goal of this national study is to provide the foundation for hydrologically based climate change studies across the nation.

  4. Turbidity as an Indicator of Water Quality in Diverse Watersheds of the Upper Pecos River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M. Huey

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS and turbidity vary with stream hydrology and land use. Turbidity, TSS, and microbial concentrations, loads and yields from four watersheds were assessed: an unburned montane forest, a catastrophically burned montane forest, urban land use and rangeland prairie. Concentrations and loads for most water quality variables were greatest during storm events. Turbidity was an effective indicator of TSS, E. coli and Enterococci spp. The greatest threat to public health from microbial contamination occurs during storm runoff events. Efforts to manage surface runoff and erosion would likely improve water quality of the upper Pecos River basin in New Mexico, USA.

  5. Predicting the Impacts of Climate Change on Runoff and Sediment Processes in Agricultural Watersheds: A Case Study from the Sunflower Watershed in the Lower Mississippi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkadiri, R.; Momm, H.; Yasarer, L.; Armour, G. L.

    2017-12-01

    Climatic conditions play a major role in physical processes impacting soil and agrochemicals detachment and transportation from/in agricultural watersheds. In addition, these climatic conditions are projected to significantly vary spatially and temporally in the 21st century, leading to vast uncertainties about the future of sediment and non-point source pollution transport in agricultural watersheds. In this study, we selected the sunflower basin in the lower Mississippi River basin, USA to contribute in the understanding of how climate change affects watershed processes and the transport of pollutant loads. The climate projections used in this study were retrieved from the archive of World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Phase 5 (CMIP5) project. The CMIP5 dataset was selected because it contains the most up-to-date spatially downscaled and bias corrected climate projections. A subset of ten GCMs representing a range in projected climate were spatially downscaled for the sunflower watershed. Statistics derived from downscaled GCM output representing the 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 time periods were used to generate maximum/minimum temperature and precipitation on a daily time step using the USDA Synthetic Weather Generator, SYNTOR. These downscaled climate data were then utilized as inputs to run in the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollution watershed model to estimate time series of runoff, sediment, and nutrient loads produced from the watershed. For baseline conditions a validated simulation of the watershed was created and validated using historical data from 2000 until 2015.

  6. Lineament and Morphometric Analysis for Watershed Development of Tarali River Basin, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bartakke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tarali river is major tributary of River Krishna, which is flowing in western India. The study area lies between latitude 17°23' to 17°38' N and longitude 73°48' to 74°7' E. The area has steep to moderate slope and elevation ranges from 584 - 1171m above mean sea level. Basin exhibits hilly and mountain terrain forming ridges and Western Ghats with deep valley, plateaus and plain. The whole area can be obtained in topographical maps i.e. 47 G/14, 47 G/15 47 K/2, 47 K/3 covering area of about 627 sq.km, acquired from Survey of India. Present study includes lineament and morphometric analysis of Tarali River basin for management and conservation of watershed.

  7. Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and West Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound Basin, North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound basin and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) West Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and West Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for West Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for West Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.

  8. Evaluating Hydrologic Transience in Watershed Delineation, Numerical Modeling and Solute Transport in the Great Basin. Clayton Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underdown, C. G.; Boutt, D. F.; Hynek, S. A.; Munk, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Importance of transience in managed groundwater systems is generally determined by timeframe of management decisions. Watersheds with management times shorter than the aquifer (watershed) response time, or the time it takes a watershed to recover from a change in hydrologic state, would not include the new state and are treated as steady-state. However, these watersheds will experience transient response between hydrologic states. Watershed response time is a function of length. Therefore flat, regional watersheds characteristic of the Great Basin have long response times. Defining watershed extents as the area in which the water budget is balanced means inputs equal outputs. Steady-state budgets in the Great Basin have been balanced by extending watershed boundaries to include more area for recharge; however, the length and age of requisite flow paths are poorly constrained and often unrealistic. Inclusion of stored water in hydrologic budget calculations permits water balance within smaller contributing areas. As groundwater flow path lengths, depths, and locations differ between steady-state and transient systems, so do solute transport mechanisms. To observe how transience affects response time and solute transport, a refined (transient) version of the USGS steady-state groundwater flow model of the Great Basin is evaluated. This model is used to assess transient changes in contributing area for Clayton Valley, a lithium-brine producing endorheic basin in southwestern Nevada. Model runs of various recharge, discharge and storage bounds are created from conceptual models based upon historical climate data. Comparing results of the refined model to USGS groundwater observations allows for model validation and comparison against the USGS steady-state model. The transient contributing area to Clayton Valley is 85% smaller than that calculated from the steady-state solution, however several long flow paths important to both water and solute budgets at Clayton Valley

  9. A hybrid regional approach to model discharge at multiple sub-basins within the Calapooia Watershed, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling is a useful tool for quantifying ecosystem services and understanding their temporal dynamics. Here we describe a hybrid regional modeling approach for sub-basins of the Calapooia watershed that incorporates both a precipitation-runoff model and an indexed regression mo...

  10. Western Lake Erie Basin: Soft-data-constrained, NHDPlus resolution watershed modeling and exploration of applicable conservation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex watershed simulation models are powerful tools that can help scientists and policy-makers address challenging topics, such as land use management and water security. In the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB), complex hydrological models have been applied at various scales to help describe relat...

  11. Impacts of forest changes on hydrology: a case study of large watersheds in the upper reach of Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, X.; Liu, S.; Wei, X.

    2012-05-01

    Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River Basin plays a strategic role in environmental protection and economic and social wellbeing for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze Basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a size of 24 000 km2. Due to its strategic significance, severe historic deforestation and high sensitivity to climate change, the watershed has long been one of the highest priority watersheds in China for scientific research and resource management. The purpose of this review paper is to provide a state-of-the-art summary on what we have learned from several recently-completed research programs (one of them known as "973 of the China National Major Fundamental Science" with funding of 3.5 million USD in 2002 to 2008). This summary paper focused on how land cover or forest change affected hydrology at both forest stand and watershed scales in this large watershed. Inclusion of two different spatial scales is useful because the results from a small spatial scale (e.g. forest stand level) can help interpret the findings at a large spatial scale. Our review suggests that historic forest harvesting or land cover change has caused significant water increase due to reduction of forest canopy interception and evapotranspiration caused by removal of forest vegetation at both spatial scales. The impact magnitudes caused by forest harvesting indicate that the hydrological effects of forest or land cover changes can be as important as those caused by climate change, while the opposite impact directions suggest their offsetting effects on water yields in the Minjiang River watershed. In addition, different types of forests have different magnitudes of ET with old-growth natural

  12. USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Laboratory at Tifton, GA:Index Site Design for the Suwannee Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, D.; Strickland, T.; Sheridan, J.; Lowrance, R.; Truman, C.; Hubbard, R.; Potter, T.; Wauchope, D.; Vellidis, G.; Thomas, D.

    2001-12-01

    The Southeast Watershed Hydrology Research Center (SEWHRC) was established in 1966 by order of the U.S. Senate "to identify and characterize those elements that control the flow of water from watersheds in the southeast". A 129 sq.mi. area within the headwaters of Little River Watershed (LRW) in central south Georgia was instrumented to provide data for evaluating and characterizing Coastal Plain hydrologic processes and for development and testing of prediction methodologies for use in ungaged watersheds in regions of low topographic relief. Pesticide analytical capabilities were added in 1976, and inorganic chemistry and sediment transport research were expanded. In 1980, the Center was renamed as the Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory (SEWRL), and laboratories were constructed for nutrient analysis and soil physics. A pesticide analysis laboratory was constructed in 1987. In the early 1990s, a hydraulics laboratory was established for sediment and chemical transport studies, and research on riparian buffers was expanded. The SEWRL research program continues to focus on hydrologic and environmental concerns. Major components of the program are hydrology, pesticides behavior, buffer systems, animal waste management, erosion, remote sensing of watershed condition, and relationships between site-specific agricultural management (BMPs) and small-to-large watershed response. SEWRL's program will be expanded over the next five years to include two additional watersheds comparable in size and instrumentation to the LRW; nesting the LRW within the full Little River drainage and subsequently...all three watersheds within the full Suwannee Basin; and mapping and quantifying irrigation water removals within the Suwannee Basin. We will instrument the three intensive study watersheds and the full Suwannee Basin to provide real-time characterization of precipitation, soil moisture, hydrologic flow, and water quality at a range of spatial and temporal scales. We will

  13. Effects of hydrology, watershed size, and agricultural practices on sediment yields in two river basins in Iowa and Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Gustavo Henrique; Welch, Heather L.; Tomer, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    The specific sediment yield (SSY) from watersheds is the result of the balance between natural, scale-dependent erosion and deposition processes, but can be greatly altered by human activities. In general, the SSY decreases along the course of a river as sediments are trapped in alluvial plains and other sinks. However, this relation between SSY and basin area can actually be an increasing one when there is a predominance of channel erosion relative to hillslope erosion. The US Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study of suspended sediment in the Iowa River basin (IRB), Iowa, and the Yazoo River basin (YRB), Mississippi, from 2006 through 2008. Within each river basin, the SSY from four largely agricultural watersheds of various sizes (2.3 to 35,000 km2 [0.9 to 13,513 mi2]) was investigated. In the smallest watersheds, YRB sites had greater SSY compared to IRB sites due to higher rain erosivity, more erodible soils, more overland flow, and fluvial geomorphological differences. Watersheds in the YRB showed a steady decrease in SSY with increasing drainage basin area, whereas in the IRB, the maximum SSY occurred at the 30 to 500 km2 (11.6 to 193 mi2) scale. Subsurface tile drainage and limits to channel downcutting restrict the upstream migration of sediment sources in the IRB. Nevertheless, by comparing the SSY-basin size scaling relationships with estimated rates of field erosion under conservation and conventional tillage treatments reported in previous literature, we show evidence that the SSY-basin size relationship in both the IRB and YRB remain impacted by historical erosion rates that occurred prior to conservation efforts.

  14. Geoinformatics for assessing the morphometric control on hydrological response at watershed scale in the Upper Indus Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Bhat, Shakeel Ahmad; Rashid, Irfan

    2012-06-01

    Five watersheds (W1, W2, W3, W4 and W5) in the upper Indus basin were chosen for detailed studies to understand the influences of geomorphology, drainage basin morphometry and vegetation patterns on hydrology. From the morphometric analysis, it is evident that the hydrologic response of these watersheds changes significantly in response to spatial variations in morphometric parameters. Results indicate that W1, W2 and W5 contribute higher surface runoff than W3 and W4. Further, the topographic and land cover analyses reveal that W1, W2 and W5 generate quick runoff that may result in flooding over prolonged rainy spells. A physically based semi-distributed hydrologic model (soil and water assessment tool, SWAT) was used for simulating the hydrological response from the watersheds. As per the simulations, W5 watershed produces the highest runoff of 11.17 mm/year followed by W1 (7.9 mm/year), W2 (6.6 mm/year), W4 (5.33 mm/year) and W3 (4.29 mm/year). Thus, W5 is particularly more vulnerable to flooding during high rain spells followed by W1, W2, W4 and W3, respectively. Synthetic unit hydrograph analysis of the five watersheds also reveals high peak discharge for W5. The simulated results on the hydrological response from the five watersheds are quite in agreement with those of the morphometric, topographic, vegetation and unit hydrograph analyses. Therefore, it is quite evident that these factors have significant impact on the hydrological response from the watersheds and can be used to predict flood peaks, sediment yield and water discharge from the ungauged watersheds.

  15. Scaling up watershed model parameters--Flow and load simulations of the Edisto River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Conrads, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The Edisto River is the longest and largest river system completely contained in South Carolina and is one of the longest free flowing blackwater rivers in the United States. The Edisto River basin also has fish-tissue mercury concentrations that are some of the highest recorded in the United States. As part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to expand the understanding of relations among hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes that affect fish-tissue mercury concentrations within the Edisto River basin, analyses and simulations of the hydrology of the Edisto River basin were made with the topography-based hydrological model (TOPMODEL). The potential for scaling up a previous application of TOPMODEL for the McTier Creek watershed, which is a small headwater catchment to the Edisto River basin, was assessed. Scaling up was done in a step-wise process beginning with applying the calibration parameters, meteorological data, and topographic wetness index data from the McTier Creek TOPMODEL to the Edisto River TOPMODEL. Additional changes were made with subsequent simulations culminating in the best simulation, which included meteorological and topographic wetness index data from the Edisto River basin and updated calibration parameters for some of the TOPMODEL calibration parameters. Comparison of goodness-of-fit statistics between measured and simulated daily mean streamflow for the two models showed that with calibration, the Edisto River TOPMODEL produced slightly better results than the McTier Creek model, despite the significant difference in the drainage-area size at the outlet locations for the two models (30.7 and 2,725 square miles, respectively). Along with the TOPMODEL hydrologic simulations, a visualization tool (the Edisto River Data Viewer) was developed to help assess trends and influencing variables in the stream ecosystem. Incorporated into the visualization tool were the water-quality load models TOPLOAD, TOPLOAD-H, and LOADEST

  16. Parcelling out the Watershed: The Recurring Consequences of Organising Columbia River Management within a Basin-Based Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Vogel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a 75-year history of North America’s Columbia river to answer the question: what difference does a river basin territory actually make? Advocates reason that river basins and watersheds are natural and holistic water management spaces, and can avoid the fragmentations and conflicts endemic to water management within traditional political territories. However, on the Columbia, this reasoning has not played out in practice. Instead, basin management has been shaped by challenges from and negotiations with more traditional jurisdictional spaces and political districts. The recurring result has been 'parcelling out the watershed': coordinating river management to produce a few spreadable benefits, and distributing these benefits, as well as other responsibilities and policy-making influence, to jurisdictional parts and political districts. To provide generous spreadable benefits, river management has unevenly emphasised hydropower, resulting in considerable environmental losses. However, benefits have been widely spread and shared – and over time challengers have forced management to diversify. Thus a river basin territory over time produced patterns of both positive and negative environmental, social, economic, and democratic outcomes. To improve the outcomes of watershed-based water management, we need more interactive and longer-term models attentive to dynamic politics and geographies.

  17. Characterization and Modelling of a Tropical Groundwater Basin:La Villa Watershed, Republic of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrellon Romero, M. G.; Foglia, L.; Fogg, G. E.; Pulido Silva, G.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater resources in the tropics are often poorly understood due to lack of systematic data gathering. In the case of Panama, abundance of water resources for many years created the myth that groundwater was "infinite" and no research had been done to characterize and quantify this resource until very recently. Therefore, basic information such as a complete database of all the wells in the country is missing and hydrogeological maps have been constructed only at a national scale, which is not enough to develop studies for regional groundwater analysis. The study area chosen, La Villa Watershed, is a predominantly agricultural and cattle farming watershed located in the Azuero Peninsula (South Central Panama). Average annual precipitation in this region corresponds to 1,400 mm/year, which is about half the national average of 2,924 mm/year. About 90% of the rain occurs during the wet season (May-December) and 10% occurs during the dry season (January-April). The geology is characterized by intercalation of volcanic rocks, volcaniclastic sediments and consolidated sedimentary rocks, thus, the aquifer characteristics likely depend on secondary permeability of the rocks. Understanding the groundwater dynamics in this complex system is crucial for securing water availability for future generations. The presented work illustrates the challenges of setting up effective monitoring and field-based data gathering campaigns and also explains our approach for characterizing and modelling a groundwater basin with fractured-rock hydrogeology and very little information. The model reveals a pattern of groundwater flow that closely follows the topography of the region and also gives insights of the volume of groundwater available for extraction.

  18. Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-03-01

    to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources. The Rainwater project is much more than a wildlife project--it is a watershed project with potential to benefit resources at the watershed scale. Goals and objectives presented in the following sections include both mitigation and non-mitigation related goals and objectives.

  19. EPA Office of Water (OW): Clean Watersheds Needs Survey NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Clean Watersheds Needs Survey (CWNS) is a comprehensive assessment of the capital needs to the water quality goals set in the Clean Water Act. Every four years,...

  20. Risk of flooding: Activities, parameters and regional peculiarities, Case study: Varbitsa watershed basin, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubenov Todor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the activities overtaken during risk of flooding situations, in one of the more often flooding region - the watershed of Varbitsa river (Southeastern part of Bulgaria - has been performed. The main cognitive parameters for risk perception and risk definition, depending on regional, social and historical factors have been examined. The existing information and instructions for mass media communication in relation to the process of interaction in a disaster situation have been discussed. In connection to determination of the risky segments in the basin and plans for announcement, the prevention communication measures have been outlined. On the basis of the Bulgarian normative legislation, the activities concerning organization of communications in a risk-of-disaster situation and mutual aid between authorities, which are part of the Integrated Help System have been indicated. It has been accented on the necessity of a more effective realization of the action plans during natural disasters and especially flooding, in order to improve the partnership between authorities and participants in the communication process during risk-of-flooding situations.

  1. A database on post-fire erosion rates and debris flows in Mediterranean-Basin watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, M.; Cannon, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    proceedings. The database derives from critical analysis of the existing literature, integrated by case studies directly studied by the authors. Studies on recently burned areas in the Mediterranean basin are most frequently carried out on small experimental plots, often with simulated rainfall A problem of scale therefore exists when trying to extrapolate the erosion rates (also reported as sediment yields or as sediment losses) from these studies to a watershed scale. Very few articles, on the other hand, were found that document the watershed-scale response of basins to rainfall-induced erosion and debris flows following wildfires. The few reported cases of debris flows in the Mediterranean Basin describe erosion of sediment from the hillslopes and the channels (sometimes down to bedrock), and, for a limited number of sites, failure of discrete landslides. This information indicates that debris-flow generation from recently burned areas in the Mediterranean basin appears to occur primarily through sediment bulking processes. Nevertheless, the database so far compiled shows a distribution of post-fire erosion and debris flows in the western Mediterranean basin (Spain, essentially, but also Portugal), followed by the eastern Mediterranean area (Israel), and then by France, Italy and Greece. Even though still in a preliminary version, that needs to be integrated and updated from further sources, our data compilation allows for the unique opportunity to examine issues related to the generation of post-wildfire debris flows across a variety of environments and under a variety of conditions, and to move from a qualitative conception of the controls on post-fire debris-flow generation to the definition of specific conditions that result in their occurrence. Future activities of the project will include: i) updating and integration of the preliminary version of the database; ii) development of models that can be used to identify the probability of debris-flow occurrence and the

  2. Soil loss estimation and prioritization of sub-watersheds of Kali River basin, Karnataka, India, using RUSLE and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markose, Vipin Joseph; Jayappa, K S

    2016-04-01

    Most of the mountainous regions in tropical humid climatic zone experience severe soil loss due to natural factors. In the absence of measured data, modeling techniques play a crucial role for quantitative estimation of soil loss in such regions. The objective of this research work is to estimate soil loss and prioritize the sub-watersheds of Kali River basin using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. Various thematic layers of RUSLE factors such as rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), topographic factor (LS), crop management factor (C), and support practice factor (P) have been prepared by using multiple spatial and non-spatial data sets. These layers are integrated in geographic information system (GIS) environment and estimated the soil loss. The results show that ∼42 % of the study area falls under low erosion risk and only 6.97 % area suffer from very high erosion risk. Based on the rate of soil loss, 165 sub-watersheds have been prioritized into four categories-very high, high, moderate, and low erosion risk. Anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, construction of dams, and rapid urbanization are the main reasons for high rate of soil loss in the study area. The soil erosion rate and prioritization maps help in implementation of a proper watershed management plan for the river basin.

  3. Cu-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of a small watershed (Loire river basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaulty, A. M.; Millot, R.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2015-12-01

    Combating metal pollution in surface water is a major environmental, public health and economic issue. Knowledge of the behavior of metals, such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in sediments and dissolved load, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. Recent advances in mass spectrometry related to the development of MC-ICPMS allow to analyze the isotopic composition of these elements, and previous studies show the effectiveness of isotopic analyses to determine the anthropogenic sources of pollution in environment. The goal of this study is to use the Cu-Zn-Pb multi-isotopic signature to track the pollutions in surface water, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in environment. More particularly we investigate the mechanisms of distribution between the dissolved load and particulate load, known to play an important role in the transport of metals through river systems. As case study, we chose a small watershed, poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is in a pristine area, while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. First a sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Then to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions, we made sequential extraction protocol using various reagents on the sediments. Isotopic analyzes were performed also on the various extracting solutions. Isotopic ratios were measured using a Neptune MC-ICPMS at the BRGM, after a protocol of purification for Zn and Cu. The results showed that, these isotopic systematics reveal important informations about the mechanists of mobilization and transport of metals through river systems. However experiments performed under laboratory conditions will be necessary

  4. Using regression tree analysis to improve predictions of low-flow nitrate and chloride in Willamette River Basin watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, Cara J; Ullman, Jeffrey L

    2010-11-01

    The use of regression tree analysis is examined as a tool to evaluate hydrologic and land use factors that affect nitrate and chloride stream concentrations during low-flow conditions. Although this data mining technique has been used to assess a range of ecological parameters, it has not previously been used for stream water quality analysis. Regression tree analysis was conducted on nitrate and chloride data from 71 watersheds in the Willamette River Basin to determine whether this method provides a greater predictive ability compared to standard multiple linear regression, and to elucidate the potential roles of controlling mechanisms. Metrics used in the models included a variety of watershed-scale landscape indices and land use classifications. Regression tree analysis significantly enhanced model accuracy over multiple linear regression, increasing nitrate R² values from 0.38 to 0.75 and chloride R² values from 0.64 to 0.85 and as indicated by the ΔAIC value. These improvements are primarily attributed to the ability for regression trees to more effectively handle interactions and manage non-linear functions associated with watershed heterogeneity within the basin. Whereas hydrologic factors governed the conservative chloride tracer in the model, land use dominated control of nitrate concentrations. Watersheds containing higher agricultural activity did not necessarily yield high nitrate concentrations, but agricultural areas combined with either small proportions of forested land or greater urbanization generated nitrate levels far exceeding water quality standards. Although further refinements are recommended, we conclude that regression tree analysis presents water resource managers a promising tool that improves on the predictive ability of standard statistical methods, provides insight into controlling mechanisms, and helps identify catchment characteristics associated with water quality impairment.

  5. Controls of event-based nutrient transport within nested headwater agricultural watersheds of the western Lake Erie basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark R.; Livingston, Stanley J.; Penn, Chad J.; Smith, Douglas R.; King, Kevin W.; Huang, Chi-hua

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the processes controlling nutrient delivery in headwater agricultural watersheds is essential for predicting and mitigating eutrophication and harmful algal blooms in receiving surface waters. The objective of this study was to elucidate nutrient transport pathways and examine key components driving nutrient delivery processes during storm events in four nested agricultural watersheds (298-19,341 ha) in the western Lake Erie basin with poorly drained soils and an extensive artificial drainage network typical of the Midwestern U.S. Concentration-discharge hysteresis patterns of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and particulate phosphorus (PP) occurring during 47 storm events over a 6 year period (2004-2009) were evaluated. An assessment of the factors producing nutrient hysteresis was completed following a factor analysis on a suite of measured environmental variables representing the fluvial and wider watershed conditions prior to, and during the monitored storm events. Results showed the artificial drainage network (i.e., surface tile inlets and subsurface tile drains) in these watersheds was the primary flow pathway for nutrient delivery to streams, but nutrient behavior and export during storm events was regulated by the flow paths to and the intensity of the drainage network, the availability of nutrients, and the relative contributions of upland and in-stream nutrient sources. Potential sources and flow pathways for transport varied among NO3-N, PP, and DRP with results underscoring the challenge of mitigating nutrient loss in these watersheds. Conservation practices addressing both nutrient management and hydrologic connectivity will likely be required to decrease nutrient loss in artificially drained landscapes.

  6. Spatial heterogeneity of stream environmental conditions and macroinvertebrates community in an agriculture dominated watershed and management implications for a large river (the Liao River, China) basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Niu, Cuijuan; Chen, Yushun; Yin, Xuwang

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the effects of watershed land uses (e.g., agriculture, urban industry) on stream ecological conditions is important for the management of large river basins. A total of 41 and 56 stream sites (from first to fourth order) that were under a gradient of watershed land uses were monitored in 2009 and 2010, respectively, in the Liao River Basin, Northeast China. The monitoring results showed that a total of 192 taxa belonging to four phyla, seven classes, 21 orders and 91 families were identified. The composition of macroinvertebrate community in the Liao River Basin was dominated by aquatic insect taxa (Ephemeroptera and Diptera), Oligochaeta and Molluscs. The functional feeding group GC (Gatherer/Collector) was dominant in the whole basin. Statistical results showed that sites with less watershed impacts (lower order sites) were characterized by higher current velocity and habitat score, more sensitive taxa (e.g., Ephemeroptera), and the substrate was dominated by high percentage of cobble and pebble. The sites with more impacts from agriculture and urban industry (higher order sites) were characterized by higher biochemical (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), more tolerant taxa (e.g., Chironominae), and the substrate was dominated by silt and sand. Agriculture and urban-industry activities have reduced habitat condition, increased organic pollutants, reduced macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity, and sensitive taxa in streams of the lower Liao River Basin. Restoration of degraded habitat condition and control of watershed organic pollutants could be potential management priorities for the Basin.

  7. Using Spatial Information Technologies as Monitoring Devices in International Watershed Conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A. Twumasi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies—Geographic Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing—in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region’s entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing

  8. Using spatial information technologies as monitoring devices in international watershed conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merem, Edmund C; Twumasi, Yaw A

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies-Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing-in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region's entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing techniques by generating spatially referenced data to supplement

  9. Assessment of water retention function as tool to improve integrated watershed management (case study of Poprad river basin, Slovakia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šatalová, Barbora; Kenderessy, Pavol

    2017-12-01

    The presented study concentrates on assessing the ecosystem function of water retention. The water retention function is defined as the ability of the landscape to retain water, slow runoff and encourage water infiltration. The water retention function was expressed by calculating the hydric significance (HS) indicator. This method is based on scoring the individual input parameters according to their overall impact on watershed hydrology. The study was conducted on a sample area of Poprad River basin. The final results presented a spatial distribution of hydric function within the watershed classified according to its significance into four classes (from limited to excellent significance). A breakdown of the results on the level of elementary watersheds was used in order to examine those with low hydric function. The results showed a significant influence of land-use on retention function; however, this impact could be limited by extreme precipitation or high soil water saturation. The methodology of hydric significance represents an innovative approach towards assessment of ecosystem function of water retention on regional level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing Climate Change Impact on Gilgel Abbay and Gumara Watershed Hydrology, the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailu Sheferaw Ayele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability have significant influences on hydrological cycles and the availability of water in the Horn of Africa. Projections of six General Circulation Models (GCMs in association with high (A2 and low (B1 emission scenarios were adopted in this study from the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES for the period 2020 - 2039 to assess the impacts of climate changes on the Gilgel Abbay and Gumara watershed hydrology, the upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The GCMs selected were screened in accordance with baseline climate statistics of study areas. A weather generator was employed to generate daily temperature and precipitation to drive the General Water Loading Function (GWLF hydrological model for simulating runoffs. Projected changes in temperature differences and precipitation ratios relative to the baseline were analyzed to explain the variations in evapotranspiration and the influences on runoff. Despite the fact that the projected magnitude varies among GCMs, increasing runoff in both wet and dry seasons was observed for both watersheds, attributable mainly to the increase in precipitation projected by most GCMs. In contrast to the great increases in runoff, variations in evapotranspiration are less significant. The projected runoff in both watersheds implies increased potential for promoting agricultural irrigation in the dry season. Furthermore, it would allow greater inflow to Lake Tana, the largest contributor to the Ethiopian Renaissance Dam on the Blue Nile. Therefore, concerned local, state, and federal government organizations shall be prepared to harness opportunities from the projected increase in runoff.

  11. Low-flow water-quality characterization of the Gore Creek watershed, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado, August 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Kirby H.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1998-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCOL) is one of 59 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study units designed to assess the status and trends of the Nation?s water quality (Leahy and others, 1990). The UCOL study unit began operation in 1994, and surface-water-quality data collection at a network of 14 sites began in October 1995 (Apodaca and others, 1996; Spahr and others, 1996). Gore Creek, which flows through Vail, Colorado, originates in pristine alpine headwaters and is designated a gold-medal trout fishery. The creek drains an area of about 102 square miles and is a tributary to the Eagle River. Gore Creek at the mouth near Minturn (site 13 in fig. 1) is one of the 14 sites in the UCOL network. This site was selected to evaluate water quality resulting from urban development and recreational land use. The Gore Creek watershed has undergone rapid land-use changes since the 1960?s as the Vail area shifted from traditional mountain ranchlands to a four-season resort community. Residential, recreational, commercial, and transportation development continues near Gore Creek and its tributaries to support the increasing permanent and tourist population of the area. Interstate 70 runs through the watershed from Vail Pass near site 14, along the eastern side of Black Gore Creek, and along the northern side of the main stem of Gore Creek to the mouth of the watershed (fig. 1). A major local concern is how increasing urbanization/recreation affects the water quality, gold-medal trout fishery, and aesthetic values of Gore Creek. An evaluation of the spatial characteristics of water quality in the watershed upstream from site 13 at the mouth of Gore Creek (fig. 1) can provide local water and land managers with information necessary to establish water policy and make land-use planning decisions to maintain or improve water quality. Historical data collected at the mouth of Gore Creek provide information about water quality resulting from land use, but a synoptic

  12. River basins as social-ecological systems: linking levels of societal and ecosystem water metabolism in a semiarid watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Cabello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available River basin modeling under complexity requires analytical frameworks capable of dealing with the multiple scales and dimensions of environmental problems as well as uncertainty in the evolution of social systems. Conceptual and methodological developments can now be framed using the wide socio-eco-hydrological approach. We add hierarchy theory into the mix to discuss the conceptualization of river basins as complex, holarchic social-ecological systems. We operationalize the social-ecological systems water metabolism framework in a semiarid watershed in Spain, and add the governance dimension that shapes human-environment reciprocity. To this purpose, we integrate an eco-hydrological model with the societal metabolism accounting scheme for land use, human activity, and water use. We explore four types of interactions: between societal organization and water uses/demands, between ecosystem organization and their water requirements/supplies, between societal metabolism and aquatic ecosystem health, and between water demand and availability. Our results reveal a metabolic pattern of a high mountain rural system striving to face exodus and agricultural land abandonment with a multifunctional economy. Centuries of social-ecological evolution shaping waterscapes through traditional water management practices have influenced the eco-hydrological functioning of the basin, enabling adaptation to aridity. We found a marked spatial gradient on water supply, use pattern, and impact on water bodies from the head to the mouth of the basin. Management challenges posed by the European water regulatory framework as a new driver of social-ecological change are highlighted.

  13. Watershed-scale response to climate change through the twenty-first century for selected basins across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven; Ward-Garrison, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrologic response of different climate-change emission scenarios for the twenty-first century were evaluated in 14 basins from different hydroclimatic regions across the United States using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a process-based, distributed-parameter watershed model. This study involves four major steps: 1) setup and calibration of the PRMS model in 14 basins across the United States by local U.S. Geological Survey personnel; 2) statistical downscaling of the World Climate Research Programme’s Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 climate-change emission scenarios to create PRMS input files that reflect these emission scenarios; 3) run PRMS for the climate-change emission scenarios for the 14 basins; and 4) evaluation of the PRMS output.This paper presents an overview of this project, details of the methodology, results from the 14 basin simulations, and interpretation of these results. A key finding is that the hydrological response of the different geographical regions of the United States to potential climate change may be very different, depending on the dominant physical processes of that particular region. Also considered is the tremendous amount of uncertainty present in the climate emission scenarios and how this uncertainty propagates through the hydrologic simulations. This paper concludes with a discussion of the lessons learned and potential for future work.

  14. Analyzing the variability of sediment yield: A case study from paired watersheds in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebabu, Kindiye; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Adgo, Enyew; Meshesha, Derege Tsegaye; Aklog, Dagnachew; Masunaga, Tsugiyuki; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Sultan, Dagnenet; Fenta, Ayele Almaw; Yibeltal, Mesenbet

    2018-02-01

    Improved knowledge of watershed-scale spatial and temporal variability of sediment yields (SY) is needed to design erosion control strategies, particularly in the most severely eroded areas. The present study was conducted to provide this knowledge for the humid tropical highlands of Ethiopia using the Akusity and Kasiry paired watersheds in the Guder portion of the Upper Blue Nile basin. Discharge and suspended sediment concentration data were monitored during the rainy season of 2014 and 2015 using automatic flow stage sensors, manual staff gauges and a depth-integrated sediment sampler. The SY was calculated using empirical discharge-sediment curves for different parts of each rainy season. The measured mean daily sediment concentration differed greatly between years and watersheds (0.51 g L- 1 in 2014 and 0.92 g L- 1 in 2015 for Kasiry, and 1.04 g L- 1 in 2014 and 2.20 g L- 1 in 2015 for Akusity). Sediment concentrations at both sites decreased as the rainy season progressed, regardless of the rainfall pattern, owing to depletion of the sediment supply and limited transport capacity of the flows caused by increased vegetation cover. Rainy season SYs for Kasiry were 7.6 t ha- 1 in 2014 and 27.2 t ha- 1 in 2015, while in Akusity SYs were 25.7 t ha- 1 in 2014 and 71.2 t ha- 1 in 2015. The much larger values in 2015 can be partly explained by increased rainfall and larger peak flow events. The magnitude and timing of peak flow events are major determinants of the amount and variability of SYs. Thus, site-specific assessment of such events is crucial to reveal SY dynamics of small watersheds in tropical highland environments.

  15. Estimation of Annual Average Soil Loss, Based on Rusle Model in Kallar Watershed, Bhavani Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, S. Abdul; Aruchamy, S.; Jegankumar, R.; Ajeez, S. Abdul

    2015-10-01

    Soil erosion is a widespread environmental challenge faced in Kallar watershed nowadays. Erosion is defined as the movement of soil by water and wind, and it occurs in Kallar watershed under a wide range of land uses. Erosion by water can be dramatic during storm events, resulting in wash-outs and gullies. It can also be insidious, occurring as sheet and rill erosion during heavy rains. Most of the soil lost by water erosion is by the processes of sheet and rill erosion. Land degradation and subsequent soil erosion and sedimentation play a significant role in impairing water resources within sub watersheds, watersheds and basins. Using conventional methods to assess soil erosion risk is expensive and time consuming. A comprehensive methodology that integrates Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), coupled with the use of an empirical model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation- RUSLE) to assess risk, can identify and assess soil erosion potential and estimate the value of soil loss. GIS data layers including, rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodability (K), slope length and steepness (LS), cover management (C) and conservation practice (P) factors were computed to determine their effects on average annual soil loss in the study area. The final map of annual soil erosion shows a maximum soil loss of 398.58 t/ h-1/ y-1. Based on the result soil erosion was classified in to soil erosion severity map with five classes, very low, low, moderate, high and critical respectively. Further RUSLE factors has been broken into two categories, soil erosion susceptibility (A=RKLS), and soil erosion hazard (A=RKLSCP) have been computed. It is understood that functions of C and P are factors that can be controlled and thus can greatly reduce soil loss through management and conservational measures.

  16. Stream-channel and watershed delineations and basin-characteristic measurements using lidar elevation data for small drainage basins within the Des Moines Lobe landform region in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eash, David A.; Barnes, Kimberlee K.; O'Shea, Padraic S.; Gelder, Brian K.

    2018-02-14

    Basin-characteristic measurements related to stream length, stream slope, stream density, and stream order have been identified as significant variables for estimation of flood, flow-duration, and low-flow discharges in Iowa. The placement of channel initiation points, however, has always been a matter of individual interpretation, leading to differences in stream definitions between analysts.This study investigated five different methods to define stream initiation using 3-meter light detection and ranging (lidar) digital elevation models (DEMs) data for 17 streamgages with drainage areas less than 50 square miles within the Des Moines Lobe landform region in north-central Iowa. Each DEM was hydrologically enforced and the five stream initiation methods were used to define channel initiation points and the downstream flow paths. The five different methods to define stream initiation were tested side-by-side for three watershed delineations: (1) the total drainage-area delineation, (2) an effective drainage-area delineation of basins based on a 2-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) 12-hour rainfall, and (3) an effective drainage-area delineation based on a 20-percent AEP 12-hour rainfall.Generalized least squares regression analysis was used to develop a set of equations for sites in the Des Moines Lobe landform region for estimating discharges for ungaged stream sites with 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent AEPs. A total of 17 streamgages were included in the development of the regression equations. In addition, geographic information system software was used to measure 58 selected basin-characteristics for each streamgage.Results of the regression analyses of the 15 lidar datasets indicate that the datasets that produce regional regression equations (RREs) with the best overall predictive accuracy are the National Hydrographic Dataset, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, and profile curvature of 0.5 stream initiation methods combined with

  17. Historical Causes and Future Projections of Hydrological Drought Change over a Semi-arid Watershed in the Yellow River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y.; Yuan, X.; Yang, D.

    2017-12-01

    During the past five decades, significant decreasing trends in streamflow records were observed at many hydrological gauges within the middle reaches of the Yellow River basin, China, leading to an intensified water resource shortage and a rising hydrological drought risk. This phenomenon is generally considered as a consequence of climate changes and human interventions, such as greenhouse gas emissions, regional land use/cover changes, dam and reservoir constructions and direct water withdrawals. There are many studies on the attribution of streamflow decline and hydrological drought change in this region, while a consolidated conclusion is missing.In this study, we focus on historical and future hydrological drought characteristics over a semi-arid watershed located in the middle reaches of the Yellow River basin. Daily climate simulations from several IPCC CMIP5 models were collected to drive a newly developed eco-hydrological model CLM-GBHM with detailed description of river network and sub-basin topological relationship, to simulate streamflow series under different forcings and scenarios. The standard streamflow index was calculated and used to figure out the characteristics (e.g., frequency, duration and severity) of both historical and future hydrological droughts. The causes and contributions in terms of natural and anthropogenic influences will be investigated based on an optimal fingerprinting method, and the relative importance of internal variability, model and scenario uncertainties for future projections will also be estimated using a separation method. This study will facilitate the implementation of adaptation strategies for hydrological drought over the semi-arid watershed in a changing environment.

  18. Water towers of the Great Basin: climatic and hydrologic change at watershed scales in a mountainous arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of climate change in the Great Basin will manifest through changes in the hydrologic cycle. Downscaled climate data and projections run through the Basin Characterization Model (BCM) produce time series of hydrologic response - recharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration (AET), and climatic water deficit (CWD) - that directly affect water resources and vegetation. More than 50 climate projections from CMIP5 were screened using a cluster analysis of end-century (2077-2099) seasonal precipitation and annual temperature to produce a reduced subset of 12 climate futures that cover a wide range of macroclimate response. Importantly, variations among GCMs in summer precipitation produced by the SW monsoon are captured. Data were averaged within 84 HUC8 watersheds with widley varying climate, topography, and geology. Resultant time series allow for multivariate analysis of hydrologic response, especially partitioning between snowpack, recharge, runoff, and actual evapotranspiration. Because the bulk of snowpack accumulation is restricted to small areas of isolated mountain ranges, losses of snowpack can be extreme as snowline moves up the mountains with warming. Loss of snowpack also affects recharge and runoff rates, and importantly, the recharge/runoff ratio - as snowpacks fade, recharge tends to increase relative to runoff. Thresholds for regime shifts can be identified, but the unique topography and geology of each basin must be considered in assessing hydrologic response.

  19. An adaptive watershed management assessment based on watershed investigation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  20. Geomorphic controls on Great Basin riparian vegetation at the watershed and process zone scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake Meneken Engelhardt

    2009-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems supply valuable resources in all landscapes, but especially in semiarid regions such as the Great Basin of the western United States. Over half of Great Basin streams are thought to be in poor ecological condition and further deterioration is of significant concern to stakeholders. A thorough understanding of how physical processes acting at...

  1. Seasonal Changes of Precipitation and Temperature of Mountainous Watersheds in Future Periods with Approach of Fifth Report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Case study: Kashafrood Watershed Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhosein Aghakhani Afshar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hydrology cycle of river basins and water resources availability in arid and semi-arid regions are highly affected by climate changes, so that recently the increase of temperature due to the increase of greenhouse gases have led to anomaly in the Earth’ climate system. At present, General Circulation Models (GCMs are the most frequently used models for projection of different climatic change scenarios. Up to now, IPCC has released four different versions of GCM models, including First Assessment Report models (FAR in 1990, Second Assessment Report models (SAR in 1996, Third Assessment Report models (TAR in 2001 and Fourth Assessment Report models (AR4 in 2007. In 2011, new generation of GCM, known as phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5 released which it has been actively participated in the preparation of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC fifth Assessment report (AR5. A set of experiments such as simulations of 20th and projections of 21st century climate under the new emission scenarios (so called Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs are included in CMIP5. Iran is a country that located in arid and semi-arid climates mostly characterized by low rainfall and high temperature. Anomalies in precipitation and temperature in Iran play a significant role in this agricultural and quickly developing country. Growing population, extensive urbanization and rapid economic development shows that Iran faces intensive challenges in available water resources at present and especially in the future. The first purpose of this study is to analyze the seasonal trends of future climate components over the Kashafrood Watershed Basin (KWB located in the northeastern part of Iran and in the Khorsan-e Razavi province using fifth report of Intergovernmental Panel on climate change (IPCC under new emission scenarios with Mann-Kendall (MK test. Mann-Kendall is one of the most commonly used nonparametric

  2. Large-scale Watershed Modeling: NHDPlus Resolution with Achievable Conservation Scenarios in the Western Lake Erie Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, H.; White, M. J.; Arnold, J. G.; Keitzer, S. C.; Johnson, M. V. V.; Atwood, J. D.; Daggupati, P.; Herbert, M. E.; Sowa, S. P.; Ludsin, S.; Robertson, D. M.; Srinivasan, R.; Rewa, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    By the substantial improvement of computer technology, large-scale watershed modeling has become practically feasible in conducting detailed investigations of hydrologic, sediment, and nutrient processes. In the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB), water quality issues caused by anthropogenic activities are not just interesting research subjects but, have implications related to human health and welfare, as well as ecological integrity, resistance, and resilience. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the finest resolution stream network, NHDPlus, were implemented on the WLEB to examine the interactions between achievable conservation scenarios with corresponding additional projected costs. During the calibration/validation processes, both hard (temporal) and soft (non-temporal) data were used to ensure the modeling outputs are coherent with actual watershed behavior. The results showed that widespread adoption of conservation practices intended to provide erosion control could deliver average reductions of sediment and nutrients without additional nutrient management changes. On the other hand, responses of nitrate (NO3) and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) dynamics may be different than responses of total nitrogen and total phosphorus dynamics under the same conservation practice. Model results also implied that fewer financial resources are required to achieve conservation goals if the goal is to achieve reductions in targeted watershed outputs (ex. NO3 or DIP) rather than aggregated outputs (ex. total nitrogen or total phosphorus). In addition, it was found that the model's capacity to simulate seasonal effects and responses to changing conservation adoption on a seasonal basis could provide a useful index to help alleviate additional cost through temporal targeting of conservation practices. Scientists, engineers, and stakeholders can take advantage of the work performed in this study as essential information while conducting policy

  3. Scaling up watershed model parameters: flow and load simulations of the Edisto River Basin, South Carolina, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Conrads, Paul

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to expand the understanding of relations among hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes that affect fish-tissue mercury concentrations within the Edisto River Basin, analyses and simulations of the hydrology of the Edisto River Basin were made using the topography-based hydrological model (TOPMODEL). A primary focus of the investigation was to assess the potential for scaling up a previous application of TOPMODEL for the McTier Creek watershed, which is a small headwater catchment to the Edisto River Basin. Scaling up was done in a step-wise manner, beginning with applying the calibration parameters, meteorological data, and topographic-wetness-index data from the McTier Creek TOPMODEL to the Edisto River TOPMODEL. Additional changes were made for subsequent simulations, culminating in the best simulation, which included meteorological and topographic wetness index data from the Edisto River Basin and updated calibration parameters for some of the TOPMODEL calibration parameters. The scaling-up process resulted in nine simulations being made. Simulation 7 best matched the streamflows at station 02175000, Edisto River near Givhans, SC, which was the downstream limit for the TOPMODEL setup, and was obtained by adjusting the scaling factor, including streamflow routing, and using NEXRAD precipitation data for the Edisto River Basin. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of model-fit efficiency and Pearson’s correlation coefficient for simulation 7 were 0.78 and 0.89, respectively. Comparison of goodness-of-fit statistics between measured and simulated daily mean streamflow for the McTier Creek and Edisto River models showed that with calibration, the Edisto River TOPMODEL produced slightly better results than the McTier Creek model, despite the substantial difference in the drainage-area size at the outlet locations for the two models (30.7 and 2,725 square miles, respectively). Along with the TOPMODEL

  4. Evaluation of morphometric parameters derived from Cartosat-1 DEM using remote sensing and GIS techniques for Budigere Amanikere watershed, Dakshina Pinakini Basin, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikpal, Ramesh L.; Renuka Prasad, T. J.; Satish, K.

    2017-12-01

    The quantitative analysis of drainage system is an important aspect of characterization of watersheds. Using watershed as a basin unit in morphometric analysis is the most logical choice because all hydrological and geomorphic processes occur within the watershed. The Budigere Amanikere watershed a tributary of Dakshina Pinakini River has been selected for case illustration. Geoinformatics module consisting of ArcGIS 10.3v and Cartosat-1 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) version 1 of resolution 1 arc Sec ( 32 m) data obtained from Bhuvan is effectively used. Sheet and gully erosion are identified in parts of the study area. Slope in the watershed indicating moderate to least runoff and negligible soil loss condition. Third and fourth-order sub-watershed analysis is carried out. Mean bifurcation ratio ( R b) 3.6 specify there is no dominant influence of geology and structures, low drainage density ( D d) 1.12 and low stream frequency ( F s) 1.17 implies highly infiltration subsoil material and low runoff, infiltration number ( I f)1.3 implies higher infiltration capacity, coarse drainage texture ( T) 3.40 shows high permeable subsoil, length of overland flow ( L g) 0.45 indicates under very less structural disturbances, less runoff conditions, constant of channel maintenance ( C) 0.9 indicates higher permeability of subsoil, elongation ratio ( R e) 0.58, circularity ratio ( R c) 0.75 and form factor ( R f) 0.26 signifies sub-circular to more elongated basin with high infiltration with low runoff. It was observed from the hypsometric curves and hypsometric integral values of the watershed along with their sub basins that the drainage system is attaining a mature stage of geomorphic development. Additionally, Hypsometric curve and hypsometric integral value proves that the infiltration capacity is high as well as runoff is low in the watershed. Thus, these mormometric analyses can be used as an estimator of erosion status of watersheds leading to prioritization for taking

  5. Deep-sea coral record of human impact on watershed quality in the Mississippi River Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prouty, N.G.; Roark, E.B.; Koenig, A.E.; Demopoulos, A.W.J.; Batista, F.C.; Kocar, B.D.; Selby, D.; McCarthy, M.D.; Mienis, F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest drivers of historical nutrient and sediment transport into the Gulf of Mexico is the unprecedented scale and intensity of land use change in the Mississippi River Basin. These landscape changes are linked to enhanced fluxes of carbon and nitrogen pollution from the Mississippi

  6. Western Lake Erie Basin: Soft-data-constrained, NHDPlus resolution watershed modeling and exploration of applicable conservation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Haw; White, Michael J.; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Keitzer, S. Conor; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Atwood, Jay D.; Daggupati, Prasad; Herbert, Matthew E.; Sowa, Scott P.; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Robertson, Dale M.; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Rewa, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Complex watershed simulation models are powerful tools that can help scientists and policy-makers address challenging topics, such as land use management and water security. In the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB), complex hydrological models have been applied at various scales to help describe relationships between land use and water, nutrient, and sediment dynamics. This manuscript evaluated the capacity of the current Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2012) to predict hydrological and water quality processes within WLEB at the finest resolution watershed boundary unit (NHDPlus) along with the current conditions and conservation scenarios. The process based SWAT model was capable of the fine-scale computation and complex routing used in this project, as indicated by measured data at five gaging stations. The level of detail required for fine-scale spatial simulation made the use of both hard and soft data necessary in model calibration, alongside other model adaptations. Limitations to the model's predictive capacity were due to a paucity of data in the region at the NHDPlus scale rather than due to SWAT functionality. Results of treatment scenarios demonstrate variable effects of structural practices and nutrient management on sediment and nutrient loss dynamics. Targeting treatment to acres with critical outstanding conservation needs provides the largest return on investment in terms of nutrient loss reduction per dollar spent, relative to treating acres with lower inherent nutrient loss vulnerabilities. Importantly, this research raises considerations about use of models to guide land management decisions at very fine spatial scales. Decision makers using these results should be aware of data limitations that hinder fine-scale model interpretation.

  7. Interpreting the suspended sediment dynamics in a mesoscale river basin of Central Mexico using a nested watershed approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvert, C.; Némery, J.; Gratiot, N.; Prat, C.; Collet, L.; Esteves, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Cointzio river basin is located within the Mexican Transvolcanic Belt, in the Michoacán state. Land-use changes undergone over last decades lead to significant erosion processes, though affecting limited areas of the basin. Apart from generating a minor depletion of arable land by incising small headwater areas, this important sediment delivery contributed to siltation in the reservoir of Cointzio, situated right downstream of the basin. During 2009 rainy season, a detailed monitoring of water and sediment fluxes was undertaken in three headwater catchments located within the Cointzio basin (Huertitas, Potrerillos and La Cortina, respectively 2.5, 9.3 and 12.0 km2), as well as at the outlet of the main river basin (station of Santiago Undameo, 627 km2). Preliminary tests realized in 2008 underlined the necessity of carrying out a high-frequency monitoring strategy to assess the sediment dynamics in the basins of this region. In each site, water discharge time-series were obtained from continuous water-level measurements (5-min time-step), and stage-discharge rating curves. At the river basin outlet, Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) was estimated every 10 minutes through turbidity measurements calibrated with data from automatic sampling. In the three sub-catchments, SSC time-series were calculated using stage-triggered automatic water samplers. The three upland areas monitored in our study present distinct landforms, morphology and soil types. La Cortina is underlain by andisols, rich in organic matter and with an excellent microstructure under wet conditions. Huertitas and Potrerillos both present a severely gullied landscape, bare and highly susceptible to water erosion in degraded areas. As a result, suspended sediment yields in 2009 were expectedly much higher in these two sub-catchments (≈320 t.km-2 in Huertitas and ≈270 t.km-2 in Potrerillos) than in La Cortina (≈40 t.km-2). The total suspended sediment export was approximately of 30 t.km-2

  8. Integrated watershed scale response to climate change for selected basins across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstrom, Steven; Hay, Lauren E.

    2009-01-01

    As the questions of climate change has moved from “if” it is happening to “how” it is changing our environment, it has become important to have regional assessment designs to allow us to better understand how changes are occurring now and in the future. The authors are using the Precipitatation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) to assess the potential effects of long-term climate change on 15 basins representing different hydroclimatic regions in the United States.

  9. Integrated watershed-scale response to climate change for selected basins across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Ward-Garrison, D. Christian; Risley, John C.; Battaglin, William A.; Bjerklie, David M.; Chase, Katherine J.; Christiansen, Daniel E.; Dudley, Robert W.; Hunt, Randall J.; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Mastin, Mark C.; Regan, R. Steven; Viger, Roland J.; Vining, Kevin C.; Walker, John F.

    2012-01-01

    A study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) evaluated the hydrologic response to different projected carbon emission scenarios of the 21st century using a hydrologic simulation model. This study involved five major steps: (1) setup, calibrate and evaluated the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model in 14 basins across the United States by local USGS personnel; (2) acquire selected simulated carbon emission scenarios from the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project; (3) statistical downscaling of these scenarios to create PRMS input files which reflect the future climatic conditions of these scenarios; (4) generate PRMS projections for the carbon emission scenarios for the 14 basins; and (5) analyze the modeled hydrologic response. This report presents an overview of this study, details of the methodology, results from the 14 basin simulations, and interpretation of these results. A key finding is that the hydrological response of the different geographical regions of the United States to potential climate change may be different, depending on the dominant physical processes of that particular region. Also considered is the tremendous amount of uncertainty present in the carbon emission scenarios and how this uncertainty propagates through the hydrologic simulations.

  10. An assessment to prioritise the critical erosion-prone sub-watersheds for soil conservation in the Gumti basin of Tripura, North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Istak; Das Pan, Nibedita; Debnath, Jatan; Bhowmik, Moujuri

    2017-10-31

    Erosion-induced land degradation problem has emerged as a serious environmental issue across the world. Assessment of this problem through modelling can generate valuable quantitative information for the planners to identify priority areas for proper soil conservation measures. The Gumti River basin of Tripura falls under humid tropical climate and experiences soil erosion for a prolonged period which has turned into a major environmental issue. Increased sediment supply through top soil erosion is one of the major reasons for reduced navigability of this river. Thus, the present study is an attempt to prioritize the sub-watersheds of the Gumti basin by estimating soil loss through the USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) model. For that purpose, five parameters of the USLE model were processed, computed and overlaid in a GIS environment. The result shows that potential mean annual soil loss of the Gumti basin ranges between 0.03 and 114.08 t ha -1  year -1 . The resultant values of soil loss were classified into five categories considering the minimum and maximum values. It has been identified that low, moderate, high, very high and severe soil loss categories occupy 68.71, 8.94, 5.86, 5.02 and 11.47% of the basin respectively. Moreover, it has been recognised that sub-watersheds like SW7, SW8, SW12, SW21, SW24 and SW29 fall under very high priority class for which mitigation measures are essential. Therefore, the present study recommends mitigation measures through terrace cultivation, as an alternative of shifting cultivation in the hilly areas and through construction of check dams at the appropriate sites of the erosion prone sub-watersheds. Moreover, proper afforestation programmes that have been implemented successfully in other parts of Tripura through the Japan International Cooperation Agency, Joint Forest Management, and National Afforestation Programme should be initiated in the highly erosion-prone areas of the Gumti River basin.

  11. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  12. Low fidelity of CORDEX and their driving experiments indicates future climatic uncertainty over Himalayan watersheds of Indus basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Böhner, Jürgen; Chishtie, Farrukh

    2018-03-01

    Assessment of future water availability from the Himalayan watersheds of Indus Basin (Jhelum, Kabul and upper Indus basin—UIB) is a growing concern for safeguarding the sustainable socioeconomic wellbeing downstream. This requires, before all, robust climate change information from the present-day state-of-the-art climate models. However, the robustness of climate change projections highly depends upon the fidelity of climate modeling experiments. Hence, this study assesses the fidelity of seven dynamically refined (0.44° ) experiments, performed under the framework of the coordinated regional climate downscaling experiment for South Asia (CX-SA), and additionally, their six coarse-resolution driving datasets participating in the coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5). We assess fidelity in terms of reproducibility of the observed climatology of temperature and precipitation, and the seasonality of the latter for the historical period (1971-2005). Based on the model fidelity results, we further assess the robustness or uncertainty of the far future climate (2061-2095), as projected under the extreme-end warming scenario of the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5. Our results show that the CX-SA and their driving CMIP5 experiments consistently feature low fidelity in terms of the chosen skill metrics, suggesting substantial cold (6-10 ° C) and wet (up to 80%) biases and underestimation of observed precipitation seasonality. Surprisingly, the CX-SA are unable to outperform their driving datasets. Further, the biases of CX-SA and of their driving CMIP5 datasets are higher in magnitude than their projected changes under RCP8.5—and hence under less extreme RCPs—by the end of 21st century, indicating uncertain future climates for the Indus Basin watersheds. Higher inter-dataset disagreements of both CMIP5 and CX-SA for their simulated historical precipitation and for its projected changes reinforce uncertain future wet/dry conditions

  13. Delineating groundwater/surface water interaction in a karst watershed: Lower Flint River Basin, southwestern Georgia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Rugel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: Karst watershed in Lower Flint River Basin (LFRB, southwestern Georgia, USA. Study focus: Baseflow discharges in the LFRB have declined for three decades as regional irrigation has increased; yet, the location and nature of connectivity between groundwater and surface water in this karstic region are poorly understood. Because growing water demands will likely be met by further development of regional aquifers, an important management concern is the nature of interactions between groundwater and surface water components under natural and anthropogenic perturbations. We conducted coarse and fine-scale stream sampling on a major tributary of the Lower Flint River (Ichawaynochaway Creek in southwestern Georgia, USA, to identify locations and patterns of enhanced hydrologic connectivity between this stream and the Upper Floridan Aquifer. New hydrological insights for the region: Prior water resource studies in the LFRB were based on regional modeling that neglected local heterogeneities in groundwater/surface water connectivity. Our results demonstrated groundwater inputs were concentrated around five of fifty sampled reaches, evidenced by increases in multiple groundwater indicators at these sites. These five reaches contributed up to 42% of the groundwater detected along the entire 50-km sampling section, with ∼24% entering through one groundwater-dominated tributary, Chickasawhatchee Creek. Intermittent flows occurred in two of these upstream reaches during extreme drought and heavy groundwater pumping, suggesting reach-scale behaviors should be considered in resource management and policy. Keywords: Karst hydrogeology, Hydrologic connectivity, Groundwater/surface water interaction, Upper Floridan Aquifer, Groundwater Irrigation

  14. Impact of Climate Change on Runoff in the Gilgel Abbay Watershed, the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

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    Hailu Sheferaw Ayele

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological assessment is critical to the successful implementation of adaption measures. In this study, projections of seven global circulation models (GCMs associated with high and medium–low Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 8.5 and RCP 4.5 for the period 2021–2040 and 2081–2100 were adopted to assess changes on runoffs in the Gilgel Abbay watershed, the upper Blue Nile basin. A weather generator was employed to generate daily temperature and precipitation to drive a hydrological model for impact assessment. Despite the projected magnitude of changes varied among different GCMs and RCPs, increasing runoffs in wet-season and decreasing in dry-season are observed in both periods, mainly attributed to the change in projected precipitation. Such changes are profound in cases of RCP 8.5 with respect to those of RCP 4.5 and in cases of 2081–2100 with respect to those of 2021–2040. Although the increasing runoffs would provide greater inflow to Lake Tana, the increase of precipitation in wet-season would imply a higher possibility of flash floods. On the other hand, decrease runoffs in dry-season further intensify existing shortage of irrigation water demand. These changes will have deleterious consequences on the economic wellbeing of the country and require successful implementation of adaption measures to reduce vulnerability.

  15. The Human Threat to River Ecosystems at the Watershed Scale: An Ecological Security Assessment of the Songhua River Basin, Northeast China

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    Yuan Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human disturbances impact river basins by reducing the quality of, and services provided by, aquatic ecosystems. Conducting quantitative assessments of ecological security at the watershed scale is important for enhancing the water quality of river basins and promoting environmental management. In this study, China’s Songhua River Basin was divided into 204 assessment units by combining watershed and administrative boundaries. Ten human threat factors were identified based on their significant influence on the river ecosystem. A modified ecological threat index was used to synthetically evaluate the ecological security, where frequency was weighted by flow length from the grids to the main rivers, while severity was weighted by the potential hazard of the factors on variables of river ecosystem integrity. The results showed that individual factors related to urbanization, agricultural development and facility construction presented different spatial distribution characteristics. At the center of the plain area, the provincial capital cities posed the highest level of threat, as did the municipal districts of prefecture-level cities. The spatial relationships between hot spot locations of the ecological threat index and water quality, as well as the distribution areas of critically endangered species, were analyzed. The sensitivity analysis illustrated that alteration of agricultural development largely changed the ecological security level of the basin. By offering a reference for assessing ecological security, this study can enhance water environmental planning and management.

  16. Streamflow and Sediment Yield Prediction for Watershed Prioritization in the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia

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    Gebiaw T. Ayele

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate use of land and poor ecosystem management have accelerated land degradation and reduced the storage capacity of reservoirs. To mitigate the effect of the increased sediment yield, it is important to identify erosion-prone areas in a 287 km2 catchment in Ethiopia. The objectives of this study were to: (1 assess the spatial variability of sediment yield; (2 quantify the amount of sediment delivered into the reservoir; and (3 prioritize sub-catchments for watershed management using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. The SWAT model was calibrated and validated using SUFI-2, GLUE, ParaSol, and PSO SWAT-CUP optimization algorithms. For most of the SWAT-CUP simulations, the observed and simulated river discharge were not significantly different at the 95% level of confidence (95PPU, and sources of uncertainties were captured by bracketing more than 70% of the observed data. This catchment prioritization study indicated that more than 85% of the sediment was sourced from lowland areas (slope range: 0–8% and the variation in sediment yield was more sensitive to the land use and soil type prevailing in the area regardless of the terrain slope. Contrary to the perception of the upland as an important source of sediment, the lowland in fact was the most important source of sediment and should be the focus area for improved land management practice to reduce sediment delivery into storage reservoirs. The research also showed that lowland erosion-prone areas are typified by extensive agriculture, which causes significant modification of the landscape. Tillage practice changes the infiltration and runoff characteristics of the land surface and interaction of shallow groundwater table and saturation excess runoff, which in turn affects the delivery of water and sediment to the reservoir and catchment evapotranspiration.

  17. Hydroclimate temporal variability in a coastal Mediterranean watershed: the Tafna basin, North-West Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulariah, Ouafik; Longobardi, Antonia; Meddi, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    One of the major challenges scientists, practitioners and stakeholders are nowadays involved in, is to provide the worldwide population with reliable water supplies, protecting, at the same time, the freshwater ecosystems quality and quantity. Climate and land use changes undermine the balance between water demand and water availability, causing alteration of rivers flow regime. Knowledge of hydro-climate variables temporal and spatial variability is clearly helpful to plan drought and flood hazard mitigation strategies but also to adapt them to future environmental scenarios. The present study relates to the coastal semi-arid Tafna catchment, located in the North-West of Algeria, within the Mediterranean basin. The aim is the investigation of streamflow and rainfall indices temporal variability in six sub-basins of the large catchment Tafna, attempting to relate streamflow and rainfall changes. Rainfall and streamflow time series have been preliminary tested for data quality and homogeneity, through the coupled application of two-tailed t test, Pettitt test and Cumsum tests (significance level of 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01). Subsequently maximum annual daily rainfall and streamflow and average daily annual rainfall and streamflow time series have been derived and tested for temporal variability, through the application of the Mann Kendall and Sen's test. Overall maximum annual daily streamflow time series exhibit a negative trend which is however significant for only 30% of the station. Maximum annual daily rainfall also e exhibit a negative trend which is intend significant for the 80% of the stations. In the case of average daily annual streamflow and rainfall, the tendency for decrease in time is unclear and, in both cases, appear significant for 60% of stations.

  18. Watershed prioritization in the upper Han River basin for soil and water conservation in the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (middle route) of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibing

    2018-01-01

    Watershed prioritization with the objective of identifying critical areas to undertake soil and water conservation measures was conducted in the upper Han River basin, the water source area of approximately 95,000 km 2 for the middle route of China's South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Based on the estimated soil erosion intensity in uplands and clustering analysis of measured nutrient concentrations in rivers, the basin was grouped into very-high-, high-, moderate-, and low-priority regions for water and soil conservation, respectively. The results indicated that soil erosion was primarily controlled by topography, and nutrients in rivers were associated with land use and land cover in uplands. Also, there was large spatial disparity between soil erosion intensity in the uplands and nutrient concentrations in the rivers across the basin. Analysis was then performed to prioritize the basin by the integration of the soil erosion intensity and water quality on a GIS platform in order to identify critical areas for water and soil conservation in the basin. The identified high-priority regions which occupy 5.74% of the drainage areas need immediate attention for soil and water conservation treatments, of which 5.28% is critical for soil erosion prevention and 0.46% for water conservation. Understandings of the basin environment and pollutant loading with spatial explicit are critical to the soil and water resource conservation for the interbasin water transfer project.

  19. East Fork Watershed Cooperative: Toward better system-scale ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The East Fork Watershed Cooperative is a group intent on understanding how to best manage water quality in a large mixed-use Midwestern watershed system. The system contains a reservoir that serves as a source of drinking water and is popular for water recreation. The reservoir is experience harmful algal blooms. The system including the reservoir has become a significant case study for EPA ORD research and development. The Cooperative includes affiliates from the USACE, the OHIO EPA, the USGS, the USDA, and local Soil and Water Conservation districts as well as utility operators and water quality protection offices. The presentation includes a description of the water quality monitoring and modeling program in the watershed, followed by the results of using the watershed model to estimate the costs associated with nutrient reduction to Harsha Lake, and then ends with an explanation of temporal changes observed for important factors controlling harmful algae in Harsha Lake and how this lake relates to other reservoirs in the Ohio River Basin. This presentation is an invited contribution to the Ohio River Basin Water Quality Workshop sponsored by the US ACE and the US EPA. The presentation describes the activities of the East Fork Watershed Cooperative and the knowledge it has gained to help better manage a case study watershed system over the last few years. The East Fork of the Little Miami River is the focal watershed. It is a significant tributary to the Lit

  20. Assessment of sediment yield using RS and GIS at two sub-basins of Dez Watershed, Iran

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    Hamed Noori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a serious threat to soil and water resources in semi-arid regions. Modified Pacific South-west Inter Agency Committee (MPSIAC and Erosion Potential Method (EPM, as two well-known models, have shown their performance in many case studies. The goal of present study is to assess the efficiency of these methods for estimating the sediments yield and erosion intensity within short-term and long-term timeframes over two sub-basins of Dez watershed, west of Iran. The results showed that the study area can be categorized into slight, moderate, high and very high erosion zones. Almost half of the study area is highly susceptible to erosion due to the geological formations and land cover. Moreover, the long-term (i.e. 30 years sediment yield of 387 and 615 (kton y−1 estimated by MPSIAC and EPM models demonstrated the superiority of EPM. Compared to the measured value of 612 (kton y−1, the performance of EPM was astonishing. By splitting the dataset into six periods of five years, the sediment yield was predicted in short-term periods by both aforementioned methods. Such segmentation provides the opportunity to evaluate the impact of extreme flooding events on the models performances. The results showed that both models failed in estimation of sediment load during flood conditions. Nevertheless, the correlation coefficients for estimating the sediment yield were found to be R=0.93 and R=0.85 for EPM and MPSIAC models respectively, for short-term simulations.

  1. Deep-sea coral record of human impact on watershed quality in the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N.; Roark, B.; Koenig, A.; Batista, F. C.; Kocar, B. D.; Selby, D. S.; Mccarthy, M. D.; Mienis, F.; Ross, S. W.; Demopoulos, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    One of the greatest drivers of historical nutrient and sediment transport into the Gulf of Mexico is the unprecedented scale and intensity of land use change in the Mississippi River Basin. These landscape changes are linked to enhanced fluxes of carbon and nitrogen pollution from the Mississippi River, and persistent eutrophication and hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Increased terrestrial runoff is one hypothesis for recent enrichment in bulk nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values, a tracer for nutrient source, observed in a Gulf of Mexico deep-sea coral record. However, unambiguously linking anthropogenic land use change to whole scale shifts in downstream Gulf of Mexico biogeochemical cycles is difficult. Here we present a novel approach, coupling a new tracer of agro-industrialization to a multiproxy record of nutrient loading in long-lived deep-sea corals collected in the Gulf of Mexico. We found that coral bulk δ15N values are enriched over the last 150-200 years relative to the last millennia, and compound-specific amino acid δ15N data indicate a strong increase in baseline δ15N of nitrate as the primary cause. Coral rhenium (Re) values are also strongly elevated during this period, suggesting that 34% of Re is of anthropogenic origin, consistent with Re enrichment in major world rivers. However, there are no pre-anthropogenic measurements of Re to confirm this observation. For the first time, an unprecedented record of natural and anthropogenic Re variability is documented through coral Re records. Taken together, these novel proxies link upstream changes in water quality to impacts on the deep-sea coral ecosystem.

  2. Deep-sea coral record of human impact on watershed quality in the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Roark, E. Brendan; Koenig, Alan E.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Batista, Fabian C.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Selby, David; McCarthy, Matthew D.; Mienis, Furu

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest drivers of historical nutrient and sediment transport into the Gulf of Mexico is the unprecedented scale and intensity of land use change in the Mississippi River Basin. These landscape changes are linked to enhanced fluxes of carbon and nitrogen pollution from the Mississippi River, and persistent eutrophication and hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Increased terrestrial runoff is one hypothesis for recent enrichment in bulk nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values, a tracer for nutrient source, observed in a Gulf of Mexico deep-sea coral record. However, unambiguously linking anthropogenic land use change to whole scale shifts in downstream Gulf of Mexico biogeochemical cycles is difficult. Here we present a novel approach, coupling a new tracer of agro-industrialization to a multiproxy record of nutrient loading in long-lived deep-sea corals collected in the Gulf of Mexico. We found that coral bulk δ15N values are enriched over the last 150–200 years relative to the last millennia, and compound-specific amino acid δ15N data indicate a strong increase in baseline δ15N of nitrate as the primary cause. Coral rhenium (Re) values are also strongly elevated during this period, suggesting that 34% of Re is of anthropogenic origin, consistent with Re enrichment in major world rivers. However, there are no pre-anthropogenic measurements of Re to confirm this observation. For the first time, an unprecedented record of natural and anthropogenic Re variability is documented through coral Re records. Taken together, these novel proxies link upstream changes in water quality to impacts on the deep-sea coral ecosystem.

  3. Cross-Analysis of Land and Runoff Variations in Response to Urbanization on Basin, Watershed, and City Scales with/without Green Infrastructures

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    Jin-Cheng Fu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating land and runoff variations caused by urbanization is crucial to ensure the safety of people living in highly developed areas. Based on spatial scales, runoff analysis involves different methods associated with the interpretation of land cover and land use, the application of hydrological models, and the consideration of flood mitigation measures. Most studies have focused on analyzing the phenomenon on a certain scale by using a single data source and a specific model without discussing mutual influences. In this study, the runoff changes caused by urbanization are assessed and cross-analyzed on three sizes of study areas in the Zhuoshui River Basin in Taiwan, including basin (large, watershed (medium, and city (small scales. The results demonstrate that, on the basin scale, land-cover changes interpreted from satellite images are very helpful for identifying the watersheds with urbanization hotspots that might have larger runoff outputs. However, on the watershed scale, the resolution of the land-cover data is too low, and land-cover data should be replaced by investigated land-use data for sophisticated hydrological modeling. The mixed usage of land-cover and land-use data is not recommended because large discrepancies occur when determining hydrological parameters for runoff simulation. According to present and future land-use scenarios, the influence of urbanization on runoff is simulated by HEC-1 and SWMM on watershed and city scales, respectively. The results of both models are in agreement and show that runoff peaks will obviously increase as a result of urbanization from 2008 to 2030. For low return periods, the increase in runoff as a result of urbanization is more significant and the city’s contribution to runoff is much larger than its area. Through statistical regression, the watershed runoff simulated by HEC-1 can be perfectly predicted by the city runoff simulated by SWMM in combination with other land

  4. Watershed-scale evaluation of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model in the Lake Tahoe basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin S. Brooks; Mariana Dobre; William J. Elliot; Joan Q. Wu; Jan Boll

    2016-01-01

    Forest managers need methods to evaluate the impacts of management at the watershed scale. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) has the ability to model disturbed forested hillslopes, but has difficulty addressing some of the critical processes that are important at a watershed scale, including baseflow and water yield. In order to apply WEPP to...

  5. Changes in streamflow, concentrations, and loads in selected nontidal basins in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, 1985-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langland, Michael J.; Moyer, Douglas; Blomquist, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality and streamflow data from 34 sites in nontidal parts of the Chesapeake Bay watershed are presented to document annual nutrient and sediment loads and trends for 1985 through 2006, as part of an annual evaluation of water-quality conditions by the U.S. EPA Chesapeake Bay Program. This study presents the results of trends analysis for streamflow, loads, and concentrations. Annual mean flow to the bay for 2006 (78,650 cubic feet per second) was approximately 1 percent above the long-term annual mean flow from 1937 to 2005. Total freshwater flow entering the bay for the summer season (July-August-September) was the only season classified as 'wet' in 2006. For the period 1985 through 2006, streamflow was significantly increasing at two of the 34 sites. Observed (bias-corrected) concentration summaries indicate higher ranges in concentrations of total nitrogen in the northern major river basins (Pennsylvania, Maryland, and northern Virginia) than in the southern basins in Virginia. Results indicate almost half of the monitoring sites in the northern basins exhibited significant downward bias-corrected concentration trends in total nitrogen over time; results were similar for total phosphorus and sediment. Generally, loads for all constituents at the nine River Input Monitoring Program (RIM) sites, which comprise 78 percent of the streamflow entering the bay, were lower in 2006 than in 2005. The loads for total nitrogen are below the long-term average loads at eight of the nine RIM sites and total phosphorus and sediment loads are also below the long-term average at seven RIM sites. Combined annual mean total nitrogen flow-weighted concentrations from the nine RIM sites indicated an upward tendency in 2006; in contrast, total phosphorus and sediment indicated a downward tendency. From 1990 to 2006 for the 9 RIM sites, the mean concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and sediment were 3.49, 0.195, and 116 milligrams per liter, respectively. Flow

  6. The seasonal fluctuations and accumulation of iodine-129 in relation to the hydrogeochemistry of the Wolf Creek Research Basin, a discontinuous permafrost watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herod, Matthew N., E-mail: mattherod@gmail.com [André Lalonde AMS Lab, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton St., Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Li, Tianjiao [André Lalonde AMS Lab, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton St., Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Pellerin, André [Center for Geomicrobiology, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 116, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Kieser, William E.; Clark, Ian D. [André Lalonde AMS Lab, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton St., Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2016-11-01

    The long lived radioisotope {sup 129}I is a uranium fission product, and an environmental contaminant of the nuclear age. Consequently, it can trace anthropogenic releases of {sup 129}I in watersheds, and has been identified as a potential means to distinguish water sources in discharge (Nimz, 1998). The purpose of this work was to identify the sources and mass input of {sup 129}I and trace the transport, partitioning and mass balance of {sup 129}I over time in a remote watershed. We monitored {sup 129}I and other geochemical and isotope tracers (e.g. δ{sup 14}C{sub DIC}, δ{sup 13}C{sub DIC}, δ{sup 2}H, δ{sup 18}O, etc.) in precipitation and discharge from the Wolf Creek Research Basin (WCRB), a discontinuous permafrost watershed in the Yukon Territory, Canada, and evaluated the use of {sup 129}I as a water end-member tracer. Radiocarbon and geochemical tracers of weathering show that discharge is comprised of (i) groundwater baseflow that has recharged under open system conditions, (ii) spring freshet meltwater that has derived solutes through closed-system interaction with saturated soils, and (iii) active layer drainage. The abundance of {sup 129}I and the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio correlated with geochemical tracers suggests varying contributions of these three water end-members to discharge. The {sup 129}I concentration was highest at the onset of freshet, reaching 17.4 × 10{sup 6} atoms/L, and likely reflects the lack of interaction between meltwater and organic matter at that time. This peak in {sup 129}I was followed by a decline over the summer to its lowest value. Mass balance calculations of the {sup 129}I budget show that the input to the watershed via precipitation is nearly one order of magnitude higher than the output suggesting that such arctic watersheds accumulate nearly 90% of the annual input, primarily in soil organic matter. Temporal variations in discharge {sup 129}I concentrations correlated with changes in discharge water sources

  7. Application of a Process Based Hydrologic Model in a Snow Dominant WaterShed: Upper Feather River Basin in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, F. I.; Kadir, T.; Galef, J.

    2008-12-01

    Milly et al. in a recent article (Science, Vol319, 1February, 2008, pp573-574) declared that "stationarity is dead." They went on stating, "Finding a suitable successor is crucial for human adaptation to changing climate." California's Department of Water Resources' (DWR's) search for a suitable successor led to the conclusion that a "temperature based approach" might be a good candidate to replace or supplement the traditional "precipitation based" hydrology. In this paper application of a physically based model that begins with ambient air temperature is presented. The projections of precipitation by various GCM's are wide spread and uncertainties on the wetness (or dryness) are abound whereas the future temperature projections, through also wide spread, are unanimous in directional sense-going up or getting warmer over time. Noting this robust nature of the future temperature projections and also noting that the cause of the future precipitation changes is due to the rising temperature, the authors take an approach that the temperature, rather than the precipitation, should be the commencing point in the development of the changing future hydrology. We claim that the main cause of the "death" of the stationarity in a snow dominant high elevation watershed is the warming temperature. Therefore, by commencing with the temperature in the hydrologic process, either the form of precipitation or the melting of the accumulated snow can be captured and the non-stationary future hydrology can be generated for water resources planning and management. The USGS under a contract to DWR completed development of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) application for simulating daily streamflow for the Upper Feather River Basin. PRMS simulates all the major snowmelt/precipitation related physical processes including snowpack accumulation/melting, sublimation, evapotranspiration, surface runoff, subsurface flow, and ground water flow. The model was calibrated for Water

  8. Incorporating Climate Change Predictions into Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategies (WRAPS) in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. P.; Foreman, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Development of the Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategies (WRAPS) for the Pine and Leech Lake River Watersheds is underway in Minnesota. Project partners participating in this effort include the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA), Crow Wing Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD), Cass County, and other local partners. These watersheds are located in the Northern Lakes and Forest ecoregion of Minnesota and drain to the Upper Mississippi River. To support the Pine and Leech Lake River WRAPS, watershed-scale hydrologic and water-quality models were developed with Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF). The HSPF model applications simulate hydrology (discharge, stage), as well as a number of water quality constituents (sediment, temperature, organic and inorganic nitrogen, total ammonia, organic and inorganic phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand, and algae) continuously for the period 1995-2009 and provide predictions at points of interest within the watersheds, such as observation gages, management boundaries, compliance points, and impaired water body endpoints. The model applications were used to evaluate phosphorus loads to surface waters under resource management scenarios, which were based on water quality threats that were identified at stakeholder meetings. Simulations of land use changes including conversion of forests to agriculture, shoreline development, and full build-out of cities show a watershed-wide phosphorus increases of up to 80%. The retention of 1.1 inches of runoff from impervious surfaces was not enough to mitigate the projected phosphorus load increases. Changes in precipitation projected by climate change models led to a 20% increase in annual watershed phosphorus loads. The scenario results will inform the implementation strategies selected for the WRAPS.

  9. Scenario-Based Impact Assessment of Land Use/Cover and Climate Changes on Watershed Hydrology in Heihe River Basin of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated hydrological impacts of potential climate and land use changes in Heihe River Basin of Northwest China. The future climate data for the simulation with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT were prepared using a dynamical downscaling method. The future land uses were simulated with the Dynamic Land Use System (DLS model by establishing Multinomial Logistic Regression (MNL model for six land use types. In 2006–2030, land uses in the basin will experience a significant change with a prominent increase in urban areas, a moderate increase in grassland, and a great decrease in unused land. Besides, the simulation results showed that in comparison to those during 1981–2005 the temperature and precipitation during 2006–2030 will change by +0.8°C and +10.8%, respectively. The land use change and climate change will jointly make the water yield change by +8.5%, while they will separately make the water yield change by −1.8% and +9.8%, respectively. The predicted large increase in future precipitation and the corresponding decrease in unused land will have substantial impacts on the watershed hydrology, especially on the surface runoff and streamflow. Therefore, to mitigate negative hydrological impacts and utilize positive impacts, both land use and climate changes should be considered in water resource planning for the Heihe River Basin.

  10. Status of groundwater quality in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed, November 2006--March 2007--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile (2,590-square-kilometer) Upper Santa Ana Watershed (USAW) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southern California in Riverside and San Bernardino Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA USAW study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in the study unit. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) are defined as the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the USAW study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from 90 wells during November 2006 through March 2007, and water-quality data from the CDPH database. The status of the current quality of the groundwater resource was assessed based on data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifers of the USAW study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal or California regulatory or

  11. Influences of Human-induced Habitat Modifications on Basin-wide Fish Species Richness in the Danshuei River Watershed of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S. T.; Yu, C. J.; Tsai, W. P.; Chang, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    The intensive exploitation of water resources has seriously degraded riverine environments and threatened inhabitant biota. In this study, we aim to assess the influences of human-induced habitat modifications on basin-wide fish species richness based on multi-year heterogeneous datasets collected from the Danshuei River Watershed of Taiwan. We aggregated long-term datasets (2003-2012) of fish composition, river network structures, dam locations and water quality parameters including water temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and total phosphorus, at 45 sampling sites across the Danshuei River Watershed. We first used a multiple linear regression model to relate river network structures, water quality parameters, land-use changes and dam locations with fish species richness. Then we performed an unsupervised learning and clustering method, the self-organizing map (SOM), to nonlinearly interrelate the complex hydro-chemo-ecosystems. Following that, we compared the major forcing factors detected by different models to evaluate the anthropogenic influences on fish species richness. Our results showed that although based on the same datasets, the forcing factors identified by different methods may not be consistent, and therefore would result in distinct method-oriented stressor-response relationships. Patterns described by linear models focused on the changes of fish species richness with the use of the selected predictors; while patterns described by nonlinear models tended to systematically link multiple variables without the identification of major predictors. Based on the results of our analysis, we recommend that a more effective watershed management strategy should consider landscape as well as riverine habitats as a whole and maintain long-term monitoring programs as a key element to river conservation.

  12. Study design, water quality, morphometrics and age of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, in sub-watersheds of the Yamaska River drainage basin, Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Philip A; Boily, Monique; Giroux, Isabelle; Deblois, Christian; Leclair, Maria Helena; Levasseur, Marc; Leclair, Raymond

    2009-01-31

    The Yamaska River basin is renowned for its poor water quality, which has been attributed to intensive agriculture (corn, soya, high-density pork and poultry production). Six locations within the Yamaska watershed were selected to evaluate the impact of agriculture on water habitats and study the bullfrog as a sentinel species of potential exposure and effects. The selected sub-watersheds were chosen according to the percentage of surface area under cultivation and classified as low (0-19%), moderate (20-59%) or high (>60%). In 2004 and 2005, analysis of surface water samples demonstrated that pesticide concentrations and most water quality parameters increased with increasing agricultural activity. Sixteen adult bullfrogs were sampled from each site. Animals were weighed, measured for length (total, snout-vent, tibia, tympanum), sexed, and evaluated for the colour of the throat. Skeletochronology was used to estimate the growth and age of the frogs. Cross-sections of decalcified phalanges and femurs were treated in order to count LAGs (lines of arrest growth) and for the observations of other parameters related to bone growth. The bullfrogs from highly contaminated sites had the lowest mean age and the smallest snout-vent length compared to sites of low contamination.

  13. A Watershed Integrity Definition and Assessment Approach to Support Strategic Management of Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although defined hydrologically as a drainage basin, watersheds are systems that physically link the individual social and ecological attributes that comprise them. Hence the structure, function, and feedback systems of watersheds are dependent on interactions between these soci...

  14. Road-impacted sediment and water in a Lake Ontario watershed and lagoon, City of Pickering, Ontario, Canada: An example of urban basin analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Nick; Meriano, Mandana

    2010-03-01

    The world is increasingly urban but there are few studies of how contaminated water and sediment move through urban basins with their built landscapes and complexly disturbed geology. The central Canadian city of Pickering, Ontario sprawls across a small (27 km 2) densely urbanized (pop: 53,000) watershed and is underlain by Pleistocene glacial sediments and thick artificial fill deposits. Almost 80% of the area is hardened by impervious cover; road and rail lines cover 40% and include Canada's busiest highway (12-lane Highway 401: 177,000 vehicles per day in 2003). The basin discharges to Lake Ontario through a small (85 ha) shallow (resistivity) boreholes and 3400 digital water wells. It identifies the subsurface stratigraphy and hydrostratigraphic function of deposits and the rates of groundwater flow. Year-round monitoring of groundwater, creek and lagoon water quality shows that transportation infrastructure is the primary source of contaminated water and sediment. Some 7600 tonnes of de-icing salt are applied to watershed roads each year; 52% accumulates in groundwater where it continues to be released as brackish baseflow to creeks in summer. The remainder is rapidly delivered by surface runoff to Frenchman's Bay where chloride contents are more than double the average values in waters across the Great Lakes. Highway 401 is the largest single source of salt contamination to the lagoon; it receives 26% of all road salt applied to the watershed but covers just 1.3% of its area. Prominent spikes in chloride content (> 2000 mg L - 1 ) occur during winter thaws in creeks downstream of the highway. Enhanced stream bank erosion as a consequence of flashy storm runoff from road surfaces moves ˜ 100 tonnes of contaminated sediment to Frenchman's Bay each year. Instantaneous suspended sediment concentrations in storm runoff are as high as 1600 g m - 3 and loadings of sulphate (SO 4- 2 ) nutrients reach 594 kg h - 1 . Metals and E. coli in road runoff are all elevated

  15. Basin characterization and determination of hydraulic connectivity of mega basins using integrated methods: (The case of Baro-Akobo and mega watershed beyond)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Taye; Kebede, Tesfaye; Liu, Lanbo

    2018-01-01

    Despite being the longest river and the fourth in drainage area, Nile River has the lowest discharge per unit areas among the top ten rivers of the world. Understanding the hydrologic significance of the regional litho-stratigraphy and structures help to better understand the hydrodynamics. This work is aimed at characterizing the Baro-Akobo-Sobbat sub-basin of Nile and determine trans-basin flows. Integrated method is used to characterize the basin and determine the Baro-Akobo-Sobbat sub-basin's relationship with African Mesozoic Rifts. Oil and water well drilling logs; aeromagnetic, gravity and vertical electrical sounding data; and various study reports are used to establish regional lithostratigraphic correlations and determine trans-regional hydrogeological connectivity. A total of 633 samples collected from wells, springs, rivers, lakes, swamps and rain water are analysed for their chemical, stable isotopes, tritium and radon properties. The Baro-Akobo river basin is commonly presumed to have good groundwater potential, particularly in its lowland plain. However, it has poor exploitable groundwater potential and recharge rate due to the extensive clay cover, limited retention capacity and the loss of the bulk of the groundwaters through regional geological structures to the deep seated continental sediments; presumably reaching the hydraulically connected African Mesozoic Rifts; mainly Melut and Muglad. The deep underground northward flows, along Nile River is, presumably, retarded by Central African Shear Zone in the Sudan.

  16. Water Resource Assessment, Gaps, and Constraints of Vegetable Production in Robit and Dangishta Watersheds, Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worqlul, A. W.; Dile, Y.; Jeong, J.; Schmitter, P.; Bizimana, J. C.; Gerik, T.; Srinivasan, R.; Richardson, J. W.; Clarke, N.

    2017-12-01

    Rainfed agriculture supports the majority of the poor in sub-Saharan Africa. However, rainfall variability, land degradation and low soil fertility lessen their effectiveness for feeding the growing population. This study aims to estimate the water resources potential to sustain small-scale irrigation (SSI) in Ethiopia into the dry season to expand the food supply by growing vegetable and to understand the gaps and constraints of irrigated vegetable production. The case studies were located in Robit and Dangishta watersheds of the Ethiopian highlands near Lake Tana, where detailed field-level data were collected. The study focused on data from 18 households who have been cultivating tomato and onion during the dry season using irrigation in each watershed. The two components of the Integrated Decision Support System (IDSS) - the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) - were used to assess impacts of SSI at multiple scales. Results suggest that there is a substantial amount of surface runoff and shallow groundwater recharge at watershed scale. The field-scale analysis within the Robit watershed indicated that optimal tomato yield could be obtained with 450 mm of irrigation and 200 to 250 kg/ha of urea with 50 kg/ha of diammonium phosphate (DAP). In Dangishta, optimum onion yield can be obtained by applying 550 mm irrigation and 120 to 180 kg/ha of urea with 50 kg/ha of DAP. Studying field scale water balance, the average shallow groundwater recharge (after accounting other groundwater users such as household and livestock uses) was not sufficient to meet tomato and onion water demand. The field-scale analysis also indicated that soil evaporation attributed a significant proportion of evapotranspiration (i.e. 60% of the evapotranspiration for onion and 40% for tomato). Use of mulching or other soil and water conservation interventions could increase water for cropping by reducing soil evaporation thereby enhancing

  17. Limnological study of Piraquara river (Upper Iguaçu basin: spatiotemporal variation of physical and chemical variables and watershed zoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique C. Marques

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Piraquara river basin (Upper Iguaçu River basin - Brazil was studied as an ecological system throughout a complete seasonal cycle, comprising the rainy and dry season. Analyzes of 16 physical and chemical water variables (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, temperature, pH, conductivity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ortophosphates, nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, reagent silicate, total suspended solids, chlorophyll - a, flow velocity and depth showed correlations between water composition and watershed physiographic features, and the Principal Component Analysis allowed to evidence spatial gradients and seasonal differences. The sampling points were clustered in patches with homogeneous behavior, according to ecologycal concepts: patch 1, with strong influence of Serra do Mar mountains; patch 2, medium course, under Piraquara Dam influence and patch 3, under wetlands influence. Two main factors of serial discontinuity were identified: the Piraquara dam effect and the influence of wetlands. The watershed zoning based on limnological characteristics seeks to subsidize research and biomonitoring for this public springs area.A bacia hidrográfica do rio Piraquara (Bacia do Alto Rio Iguaçu - PR foi estudada como sistema ecológico ao longo de um ciclo sazonal completo, abrangendo os períodos seco e chuvoso. Análises de 16 variáveis físicas e químicas da água (oxigênio dissolvido, pH, condutividade, DBO5, temperatura, nitrogênio total, fósforo total, ortofosfato, nitrito, nitrato, amônio, silicato, sólidos totais em suspensão, clorofila-a, profundidade e velocidade da corrente demonstraram correlações entre a composição da água e as características fisiográficas da bacia. Os gradiente espaciais e as diferenças sazonais foram evidenciadas pela Análise de Componentes Principais, e a bacia foi dividida em trechos de comportamento homogêneo, sendo identificadas descontinuidades seriais: Trecho 1, com forte influ

  18. Use of a watershed-modeling approach to assess hydrologic effects of urbanization, North Fork Pheasant Branch basin near Middleton, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Jeffrey J.; Hunt, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The North Fork Pheasant Branch Basin in Dane County, Wisconsin is expected to undergo development. There are concerns that development will adversely affect water resources with increased flood peaks, increased runoff volumes, and increased pollutant loads. To provide a scientific basis for evaluating the hydrologic system response to development the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) was used to model the upper Pheasant Branch Creek watershed with an emphasis on the North Fork Basin. The upper Pheasant Branch Creek (18.3 mi2; 11,700 acres) Basin was represented with 21 Hydrologic Response Units (daily time step) and 50 flow planes (5-minute time steps). Precipitation data from the basin outlet streamflow-gaging station located at Highway 12 and temperature data from a nearby airport were used to drive the model. Continuous discharge records at three gaging stations were used for model calibration. To qualitatively assess model representation of small subbasins, periodic reconnaissance, often including a depth measurement, was made after precipitation to determine the occurrence of flow in ditches and channels from small subbasins. As a further effort to verify the model on a small subbasin scale, continuous-stage sensors (15-minute intervals) measured depth at the outlets of three small subbasins (500 to 1,200 acres). Average annual precipitation for the simulation period from 1993 to 1998 was 35.2 inches. The model simulations showed that, on average, 23.9 inches were intercepted by vegetation, or lost to evapotranspiration, 6.0 inches were infiltrated and moved to the regional ground-water system, and 4.8 inches contributed to the upper Pheasant Branch streamflow. The largest runoff event during the calibration interval was in July 1993 (746 ft3/sec; with a recurrence interval of approximately 25 years). Resulting recharge rates from the calibrated model were subsequently used as input into a ground-water-flow model. Average annual recharge varied

  19. Improving the effectiveness of interventions and investment in Andean watersheds through a participatory network of research basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Buytaert, W.; De Bièvre, B.

    2016-12-01

    Many watershed interventions in remote data-scarce areas respond to information gaps by extrapolating conventional approaches based on very limited local evidence. However, most interventions, including conservation strategies and adaptation measures, have not been evaluated properly for their hydrological benefits. This is particularly the case for the Andean region, where the complex climatic and hydrological characteristics combined with a very dynamic anthropogenic disturbance, require better monitoring. Here, we present the experience of a partnership of academic and non-governmental institutions who pioneered participatory hydrological monitoring in the Andes. Established in 2009, the Regional Initiative for Hydrological Monitoring of Andean Ecosystems (iMHEA), is a bottom-up initiative that complements the national monitoring networks and more conventional scientific observatories. Using a design based on a trading-space-for-time approach, over 30 paired catchments with a variety of watershed interventions are currently being monitored by 18 local stakeholders in 15 sites in the tropical Andes. Pooling these data into a hydrological impact model allowed the consortium to make more robust predictions about the effectiveness of catchment interventions to improve water resources management and to reduce risks. The collaborative nature of iMHEA has several strengths. We identify as most important of those the ability to: (i) standardize monitoring practices; (ii) ensure quality and technical support; (iii) share responsibility of monitoring activities; (iv) obtain project co-funding and complementarity; and, (v) promote decision maker-scientist engagement. As a result, this network has started to deliver useful information to multi-scale and multi-stakeholder decision making arenas. For example, in the context of growing investment in hydrological ecosystem services in Peru, the sites provide a new generation of hydrological information that allows for evidence

  20. Estimation of Groundwater Storage Change via GRACE over a Small Watershed - A Case Study over Konya Closed Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, İ. G.; Yilmaz, K. K.; Yilmaz, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    Estimation of the groundwater storage change and its interannual variability is critical over Konya Closed Basin which has excessive agricultural production. The annual total precipitation falling over the region is not sufficient to compensate the agricultural irrigation needs of the region. This leds many to use groundwater as the primary water resource, which resulted in significant drop in the groundwater levels. Accordingly, monitoring of the groundwater change is critical for sustainable water resources management. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) have been succesfully used over many locations to monitor the change in the groundwater storages. In this study, GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage estimates and GLDAS model soil moisture, canopy water, snow water equivalent and surface runoff simulations are used to retrieve the change in the groundwater storage over Konya Closed Basin streching over 50,000 km2 area. Initial comparisons show the declining trend in GRACE and GLDAS combined groundwater storage change estimates between 2002 and 2016 are consistent with the actual groundwater level change observed at ground stations. Even though many studies recommend GRACE observations to be used over regions larger than 100,000 km2 - 200,000 km2 area, results show GRACE remote sensing and GLDAS modeled groundwater change information are skillful to monitor the large mass changes occured as a result of the excessive groundwater exploitation over Konya Closed Basin with 50,000 km2 area.

  1. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's report on the Organic Geochemistry of Deep Groundwaters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenster, D.F.; Brookins, D.G.; Harrison, W.; Seitz, M.G.; Lerman, A.; Stamoudis, V.C.

    1984-08-01

    This report summarizes Argonne's review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's (ONWI's) final report entitled The Organic Geochemistry of Deep Ground Waters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas, dated September 1983. Recommendations are made for improving the ONWI report. The main recommendation is to make the text consistent with the title and with the objective of the project as stated in the introduction. Three alternatives are suggested to accomplish this

  2. Local climate change induced by groundwater overexploitation in a high Andean arid watershed, Laguna Lagunillas basin, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheihing, Konstantin; Tröger, Uwe

    2017-08-01

    The Laguna Lagunillas basin in the arid Andes of northern Chile exhibits a shallow aquifer and is exposed to extreme air temperature variations from 20 to -25 °C. Between 1991 and 2012, groundwater levels in the Pampa Lagunillas aquifer fell from near-surface to 15 m below ground level (bgl) due to severe overexploitation. In the same period, local mean monthly minimum temperatures started a declining trend, dropping by 3-8 °C relative to a nearby reference station. Meanwhile, mean monthly maximum summer temperatures shifted abruptly upwards by 2.7 °C on average in around 1996. The observed air temperature downturns and upturns are in accordance with detected anomalies in land-surface temperature imagery. Two major factors may be causing the local climate change. One is related to a water-table decline below the evaporative energy potential extinction depth of 2 m bgl, which causes an up-heating of the bare soil surface and, in turn, influences the lower atmosphere. At the same time, the removal of near-surface groundwater reduces the thermal conductivity of the upper sedimentary layer, which consequently diminishes the heat exchange between the aquifer (constant heat source of 10 °C) and the lower atmosphere during nights, leading to a severe dropping of minimum air temperatures. The observed critical water-level drawdown was 2-3 m bgl. Future and existing water-production projects in arid high Andean basins with shallow groundwater should avoid a decline of near-surface groundwater below 2 m bgl and take groundwater-climate interactions into account when identifying and monitoring potential environmental impacts.

  3. Local climate change induced by groundwater overexploitation in a high Andean arid watershed, Laguna Lagunillas basin, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheihing, Konstantin; Tröger, Uwe

    2018-05-01

    The Laguna Lagunillas basin in the arid Andes of northern Chile exhibits a shallow aquifer and is exposed to extreme air temperature variations from 20 to -25 °C. Between 1991 and 2012, groundwater levels in the Pampa Lagunillas aquifer fell from near-surface to 15 m below ground level (bgl) due to severe overexploitation. In the same period, local mean monthly minimum temperatures started a declining trend, dropping by 3-8 °C relative to a nearby reference station. Meanwhile, mean monthly maximum summer temperatures shifted abruptly upwards by 2.7 °C on average in around 1996. The observed air temperature downturns and upturns are in accordance with detected anomalies in land-surface temperature imagery. Two major factors may be causing the local climate change. One is related to a water-table decline below the evaporative energy potential extinction depth of 2 m bgl, which causes an up-heating of the bare soil surface and, in turn, influences the lower atmosphere. At the same time, the removal of near-surface groundwater reduces the thermal conductivity of the upper sedimentary layer, which consequently diminishes the heat exchange between the aquifer (constant heat source of 10 °C) and the lower atmosphere during nights, leading to a severe dropping of minimum air temperatures. The observed critical water-level drawdown was 2-3 m bgl. Future and existing water-production projects in arid high Andean basins with shallow groundwater should avoid a decline of near-surface groundwater below 2 m bgl and take groundwater-climate interactions into account when identifying and monitoring potential environmental impacts.

  4. Water quality of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and Ocmulgee river basins related to flooding from Tropical Storm Alberto; pesticides in urban and agricultural watersheds, and nitrate and pesticides in ground water, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippe, D.J.; Wangsness, D.J.; Frick, E.A.; Garrett, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents preliminary water-quality information from three studies that are part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basin and the adjacent Ocmulgee River basin. During the period July 3-7, 1994, heavy rainfall from tropical storm Alberto caused record flooding on the Ocmulgee and Flint Rivers and several of their tributaries. Much of the nitrogen load transported during the flooding was as organic nitrogen generally derived from organic detritus, rather than nitrate derived from other sources, such as fertilizer. More than half the mean annual loads of total phosphorus and organic nitrogen were trans- ported in the Flint and Ocmulgee Rivers during the flood. Fourteen herbicides, five insecticides, and one fungicide were detected in floodwaters of the Ocmulgee, Flint, and Apalachicola Rivers. In a second study, water samples were collected at nearly weekly intervals from March 1993 through April 1994 from one urban and two agricultural watersheds in the ACF River basin, and analyzed for 84 commonly used pesticides. More pesticides were detected and at generally higher concentrations in water from the urban watershed than the agricultural water- sheds, and a greater number of pesticides were persistent throughout much of the year in the urban watershed. Simazine exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking-water standards in one of 57 samples from the urban watershed. In a third study, 38 wells were installed in surficial aquifers adjacent to and downgradient of farm fields within agricultural areas in the southern ACF River basin. Even though regional aquifers are generally used for irrigation and domestic- and public-water supplies, degradation of water quality in the surficial aquifers serves as an early warning of potential contamination of regional aquifers. Nitrate concentrations were less than 3 mg/L as N (indicating minimal effect of human activities) in water

  5. Multidisciplinary work on barium contamination of the karstic upper Kupa River drainage basin (Croatia and Slovenia); calling for watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisković-Bilinski, S; Bilinski, H; Grbac, R; Zunić, J; Necemer, M; Hanzel, D

    2007-02-01

    as for bioremediation of contaminated gardens and for watershed management of vulnerable karstic aquifers.

  6. Whole Watershed Management to Maximize Total Water Storage: Case Study of the American-Cosumnes River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharian, E.; Gailey, R.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Maples, S.; Adams, L. E.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Fogg, G. E.; Dahlke, H. E.; Harter, T.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Drought and unrelenting water demands by urban, agricultural and ecological entities present a need to manage and perhaps maximize all the major stores of water, including mountain snowpack and soil moisture, surface reservoirs, and groundwater reservoirs for the future. During drought, the over-exploitations of groundwater, which supplies up to 60% of California's agricultural water demand, has caused serious overdraft in many areas. Moreover, owing to climate change, faster and earlier snowmelt in Mediterranean climate systems such as California dictates that less water can be stored in reservoirs. If we are to substantially compensate for this loss of stored water without drastically cutting back water supply, a new era of radically increased groundwater recharge will be needed. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has become a common and fast-growing management option, especially in areas with high water availability variation intra- and inter-annually. Enhancing the recharge by the use of peak runoff requires integrated river basin management to improve prospects to downstream users and ecology. This study implements a quantitative approach to assess the physical and economic feasibility of MAR for American-Cosumnes River basin, CA. For this purpose, two scenarios are considered, the pre-development condition which is represented by unimpaired flows, and the other one in which available peak flow releases from Folsom reservoir derived from the CalSim II hydrologic simulation model will be employed to estimated available water for recharge. Preliminary results show peak flows during winter (Dec-Feb) and extended winter (Nov-Mar) from the American River flow can be captured within a range of 64,000 to 198,000 af/month through the Folsom South Canal for recharge. Changes in groundwater storage are estimated by using California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model (C2VSim). Results show increasing groundwater recharge benefits not only the regional

  7. Development of Land Segmentation, Stream-Reach Network, and Watersheds in Support of Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) Modeling, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, and Adjacent Parts of Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Sarah K.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Hopkins, Katherine J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Chesapeake Bay Program Office, Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin, Maryland Department of the Environment, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, and the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science are collaborating on the Chesapeake Bay Regional Watershed Model, using Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN to simulate streamflow and concentrations and loads of nutrients and sediment to Chesapeake Bay. The model will be used to provide information for resource managers. In order to establish a framework for model simulation, digital spatial datasets were created defining the discretization of the model region (including the Chesapeake Bay watershed, as well as the adjacent parts of Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia outside the watershed) into land segments, a stream-reach network, and associated watersheds. Land segmentation was based on county boundaries represented by a 1:100,000-scale digital dataset. Fifty of the 254 counties and incorporated cities in the model region were divided on the basis of physiography and topography, producing a total of 309 land segments. The stream-reach network for the Chesapeake Bay watershed part of the model region was based on the U.S. Geological Survey Chesapeake Bay SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) model stream-reach network. Because that network was created only for the Chesapeake Bay watershed, the rest of the model region uses a 1:500,000-scale stream-reach network. Streams with mean annual streamflow of less than 100 cubic feet per second were excluded based on attributes from the dataset. Additional changes were made to enhance the data and to allow for inclusion of stream reaches with monitoring data that were not part of the original network. Thirty-meter-resolution Digital Elevation Model data were used to delineate watersheds for each

  8. The distribution of phosphorus in Popes Creek, VA, and in the Pocomoke River, MD: Two watersheds with different land management practices in the Chesapeake Bay Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, N.S.; Bricker, O.P.; Newell, W.; McCoy, J.; Morawe, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares phosphorus (P) concentrations in sediments from two watersheds, one with, and one without, intensive animal agriculture. The watersheds are in the coastal plain of the Chesapeake Bay and have similar physiographic characteristics. Agriculture in the Pocomoke River, MD, watershed supplied 2.7 percent of all broiler chickens produced in the USA in 1997. Poultry litter is an abundant, local source of manure for crops. Broiler chickens are not produced in the Popes Creek, VA, watershed and poultry manure is, therefore, not a major source of fertilizer. The largest concentrations of P in sediment samples are found in floodplain and main-stem bottom sediment in both watersheds. Concentrations of total P and P extracted with 1N HCl are significantly larger in main-stem bottom sediments from the Pocomoke River than in main-stem bottom sediments from Popes Creek. Larger concentrations of P are associated with what are potentially redox sensitive iron oxyhydroxides in sediment samples from the Pocomoke River watershed than are associated with what are potentially redox sensitive iron oxyhydroxides in sediment samples from the Popes Creek watershed. Data for P and iron (Fe) concentrations in sediments from the Popes Creek watershed provide a numerical framework (baseline) with which to compare P and Fe concentrations in sediment from the Pocomoke River watershed. ?? Springer 2005.

  9. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed Study Unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy; Burton, Carmen

    2017-06-20

    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed (BEAR) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit comprises two study areas (Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed) in southern California in San Bernardino County. The GAMA-PBP is conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The GAMA BEAR study was designed to provide a spatially balanced, robust assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater from the primary aquifer systems in the two study areas of the BEAR study unit. The assessment is based on water-quality collected by the USGS from 38 sites (27 grid and 11 understanding) during 2010 and on water-quality data from the SWRCB-Division of Drinking Water (DDW) database. The primary aquifer system is defined by springs and the perforation intervals of wells listed in the SWRCB-DDW water-quality database for the BEAR study unit.This study included two types of assessments: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resource as of 2010 by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements, and (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments were intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the BEAR study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers. Bear Valley study area and the Lake Arrowhead Watershed study area were also compared statistically on the basis of water-quality results and factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality.Relative concentrations (RCs

  10. Identifying Watershed Regions Sensitive to Soil Erosion and Contributing to Lake Eutrophication--A Case Study in the Taihu Lake Basin (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; He, Bin

    2015-12-24

    Taihu Lake in China is suffering from severe eutrophication partly due to non-point pollution from the watershed. There is an increasing need to identify the regions within the watershed that most contribute to lake water degradation. The selection of appropriate temporal scales and lake indicators is important to identify sensitive watershed regions. This study selected three eutrophic lake areas, including Meiliang Bay (ML), Zhushan Bay (ZS), and the Western Coastal region (WC), as well as multiple buffer zones next to the lake boundary as the study sites. Soil erosion intensity was designated as a watershed indicator, and the lake algae area was designated as a lake quality indicator. The sensitive watershed region was identified based on the relationship between these two indicators among different lake divisions for a temporal sequence from 2000 to 2012. The results show that the relationship between soil erosion modulus and lake quality varied among different lake areas. Soil erosion from the two bay areas was more closely correlated with water quality than soil erosion from the WC region. This was most apparent at distances of 5 km to 10 km from the lake, where the r² was as high as 0.764. Results indicate that soil erosion could be used as an indicator for identifying key watershed protection areas. Different lake areas need to be considered separately due to differences in geographical features, land use, and the corresponding effects on lake water quality.

  11. Identifying Watershed Regions Sensitive to Soil Erosion and Contributing to Lake Eutrophication—A Case Study in the Taihu Lake Basin (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; He, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Taihu Lake in China is suffering from severe eutrophication partly due to non-point pollution from the watershed. There is an increasing need to identify the regions within the watershed that most contribute to lake water degradation. The selection of appropriate temporal scales and lake indicators is important to identify sensitive watershed regions. This study selected three eutrophic lake areas, including Meiliang Bay (ML), Zhushan Bay (ZS), and the Western Coastal region (WC), as well as multiple buffer zones next to the lake boundary as the study sites. Soil erosion intensity was designated as a watershed indicator, and the lake algae area was designated as a lake quality indicator. The sensitive watershed region was identified based on the relationship between these two indicators among different lake divisions for a temporal sequence from 2000 to 2012. The results show that the relationship between soil erosion modulus and lake quality varied among different lake areas. Soil erosion from the two bay areas was more closely correlated with water quality than soil erosion from the WC region. This was most apparent at distances of 5 km to 10 km from the lake, where the r2 was as high as 0.764. Results indicate that soil erosion could be used as an indicator for identifying key watershed protection areas. Different lake areas need to be considered separately due to differences in geographical features, land use, and the corresponding effects on lake water quality. PMID:26712772

  12. Using tracer-derived groundwater transit times to assess storage within a high-elevation watershed of the upper Colorado River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgek, Jennifer L.; Kip Solomon, D.; Heilweil, Victor M.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2018-03-01

    Previous watershed assessments have relied on annual baseflow to evaluate the groundwater contribution to streams. To quantify the volume of groundwater in storage, additional information such as groundwater mean transit time (MTT) is needed. This study determined the groundwater MTT in the West Fork Duchesne watershed in Utah (USA) with lumped-parameter modeling of environmental tracers (SF6, CFCs, and 3H/3He) from 21 springs. Approximately 30% of the springs exhibited an exponential transit time distribution (TTD); the remaining 70% were best characterized by a piston-flow TTD. The flow-weighted groundwater MTT for the West Fork watershed is about 40 years with approximately 20 years in the unsaturated zone. A cumulative distribution of these ages revealed that most of the groundwater is between 30 and 50 years old, suggesting that declining recharge associated with 5-10-year droughts is less likely to have a profound effect on this watershed compared with systems with shorter MTTs. The estimated annual baseflow of West Fork stream flow based on chemical hydrograph separation is 1.7 × 107 m3/year, a proxy for groundwater discharge. Using both MTT and groundwater discharge, the volume of mobile groundwater stored in the watershed was calculated to be 6.5 × 108 m3, or 20 m thickness of active groundwater storage and recharge of 0.09 m/year (assuming porosity = 15%). Future watershed-scale assessments should evaluate groundwater MTT, in addition to annual baseflow, to quantify groundwater storage and more accurately assess watershed susceptibility to drought, groundwater extraction, and land-use change.

  13. Watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed management is aimed at land and water resources, and is applied to an area of land that drains to a defined location along a stream or river. Watershed management aims to care for natural resources in a way that supports human needs for water, food, fiber, energy, and habitation, while sup...

  14. Structural organization of process zones in upland watersheds of central Nevada and its influence on basin connectivity, dynamics, and wet meadow complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry R. Miller; Mark L. Lord; Lionel F. Villarroel; Dru Germanoski; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2012-01-01

    The drainage network within upland watersheds in central Nevada can be subdivided into distinct zones each dominated by a unique set of processes on the basis of valley form, the geological materials that comprise the valley floor, and the presence or absence of surficial channels. On hillslopes, the type and structure (frequency, length, and spatial arrangement) of...

  15. Watershed District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Boundaries show on this map are derived from legal descriptions contained in petitions to the Kansas Secretary of State for the creation or extension of watershed...

  16. Curative vs. preventive management of nitrogen transfers in rural areas: lessons from the case of the Orgeval watershed (Seine River basin, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, J; Billen, G; Vilain, G; Benoit, M; Passy, P; Tallec, G; Tournebize, J; Anglade, J; Billy, C; Mercier, B; Ansart, P; Azougui, A; Sebilo, M; Kao, C

    2014-11-01

    The Orgeval watershed (104 km(2)) is a long-term experimental observatory and research site, representative of rural areas with intensive cereal farming of the temperate world. Since the past few years, we have been carrying out several studies on nitrate source, transformation and transfer of both surface and groundwaters in relation with land use and agriculture practices in order to assess nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching, contamination of aquifers, denitrification processes and associated nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. A synthesis of these studies is presented to establish a quantitative diagnosis of nitrate contamination and N2O emissions at the watershed scale. Taking this watershed as a practical example, we compare curative management measures, such as pond introduction, and preventive measures, namely conversion to organic farming practices, using model simulations. It is concluded that only preventive measures are able to reduce the NO3(-) contamination level without further increasing N2O emissions, a result providing new insights for future management bringing together water-agro-ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

  18. How spatial and temporal rainfall variability affect runoff across basin scales: insights from field observations in the (semi-)urbanised Charlotte watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Smith, J. A.; Zhou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of rainfall variability on runoff response are highly scale-dependent. Sensitivity analyses based on hydrological model simulations have shown that impacts are likely to depend on combinations of storm type, basin versus storm scale, temporal versus spatial rainfall variability. So far, few of these conclusions have been confirmed on observational grounds, since high quality datasets of spatially variable rainfall and runoff over prolonged periods are rare. Here we investigate relationships between rainfall variability and runoff response based on 30 years of radar-rainfall datasets and flow measurements for 16 hydrological basins ranging from 7 to 111 km2. Basins vary not only in scale, but also in their degree of urbanisation. We investigated temporal and spatial variability characteristics of rainfall fields across a range of spatial and temporal scales to identify main drivers for variability in runoff response. We identified 3 ranges of basin size with different temporal versus spatial rainfall variability characteristics. Total rainfall volume proved to be the dominant agent determining runoff response at all basin scales, independent of their degree of urbanisation. Peak rainfall intensity and storm core volume are of secondary importance. This applies to all runoff parameters, including runoff volume, runoff peak, volume-to-peak and lag time. Position and movement of the storm with respect to the basin have a negligible influence on runoff response, with the exception of lag times in some of the larger basins. This highlights the importance of accuracy in rainfall estimation: getting the position right but the volume wrong will inevitably lead to large errors in runoff prediction. Our study helps to identify conditions where rainfall variability matters for correct estimation of the rainfall volume as well as the associated runoff response.

  19. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  20. Watershed management in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    Watershed degradation, watershed management, background of watershed management in Myanmar (condition of watershed, manpower), discussion and recommendation (proposed administrative structure, the need for watershed survey and planning, bottom-up approach) are emphasized. Watershed management, after all can be seen that it is the interphase between the forest, agriculture, soil, wildlife and the local communities

  1. Suitability Analysis of Office Building Design against Maintenance Cost (Case Study of Serayu Opak River Basin Organization, Yogyakarta Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Puji Hersanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of building design's inaccuracy against the cost of maintenance, by taking the research in Serayu Opak River Basin Organization, Water Resources Field and Water Resources Management Center in Yogyakarta Special Region. The first step is to analyze the inaccuracy of building design based on the result of interview and observation during field survey. The second step is to analyze the cost of building maintenance. The third step is to analyze the maintenance costs used to minimize the effects of the inaccurate design of the building. The result shows the inaccuracy of building design in the form of the use of clear glass without coated glass film and the absence of heat insulator on the roof of the building cause the room to become hot. The installation of rain gutters without vertical pipes, toilet facilities in the entire building is not yet complete, inadequate accessibility for persons with disabilities, and inadequate corridor design. There is a small portion of the maintenance budget used for reducing the impact of building design's inaccuracy, so it can be concluded that the design of the building is less meet the requirements of the Government regulations.

  2. Modeling the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality in a typical highly intensive agricultural small watershed, Dongting lake basin, south central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqing; Liu, Liming; Ji, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality is critically important for estimating pollution potential and reducing pollution risk. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality at both spatial and temporal scales. The study took place in the Jinjing River watershed in 2010; seven landscape types and four water quality pollutions were chosen as analysis parameters. Three different buffer areas along the river were drawn to analyze the relationship as a function of spatial scale. The results of a Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis suggest that "source" landscape, namely, tea gardens, residential areas, and paddy lands, have positive effects on water quality parameters, while forests exhibit a negative influence on water quality parameters because they represent a "sink" landscape and the sub-watershed level is identified as a suitable scale. Using the principal component analysis, tea gardens, residential areas, paddy lands, and forests were identified as the main landscape index. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was employed to model the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality for each season. The results demonstrate that both landscape composition and configuration affect water quality. In summer and winter, the landscape metrics explained approximately 80.7 % of the variance in the water quality variables, which was higher than that for spring and fall (60.3 %). This study can help environmental managers to understand the relationships between landscapes and water quality and provide landscape ecological approaches for water quality control and land use management.

  3. Effect of irrigation pumpage during drought on karst aquifer systems in highly agricultural watersheds: example of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river basin, southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Subhasis; Srivastava, Puneet; Singh, Sarmistha

    2016-09-01

    In the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) river basin in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida (USA), population growth in the city of Atlanta and increased groundwater withdrawal for irrigation in southwest Georgia are greatly affecting the supply of freshwater to downstream regions. This study was conducted to understand and quantify the effect of irrigation pumpage on the karst Upper Floridan Aquifer and river-aquifer interactions in the lower ACF river basin in southwest Georgia. The groundwater MODular Finite-Element model (MODFE) was used for this study. The effect of two drought years, a moderate and a severe drought year, were simulated. Comparison of the results of the irrigated and non-irrigated scenarios showed that groundwater discharge to streams is a major outflow from the aquifer, and irrigation can cause as much as 10 % change in river-aquifer flux. The results also show that during months with high irrigation (e.g., June 2011), storage loss (34 %), the recharge and discharge from the upper semi-confining unit (30 %), and the river-aquifer flux (31 %) are the major water components contributing towards the impact of irrigation pumpage in the study area. A similar scenario plays out in many river basins throughout the world, especially in basins in which underlying karst aquifers are directly connected to a nearby stream. The study suggests that improved groundwater withdrawal strategies using climate forecasts needs to be developed in such a way that excessive withdrawals during droughts can be reduced to protect streams and river flows.

  4. A watershed-based spatially-explicit demonstration of an integrated environmental modeling framework for ecosystem services in the Coal River Basin (WV, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Johnston; Mahion C. Barber; Kurt Wolfe; Mike Galvin; Mike Cyterski; Rajbir Parmar; Luis Suarez

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a spatially-explicit regional assessment of current condition of aquatic ecoservices in the Coal River Basin (CRB), with limited sensitivity analysis for the atmospheric contaminant mercury. The integrated modeling framework (IMF) forecasts water quality and quantity, habitat suitability for aquatic biota, fish biomasses, population densities, ...

  5. Assessing the impacts of climate change on discharge and nutrient losses from a karstic agricultural sub-basin in the Upper Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health of the Chesapeake Bay Basin ecosystem, which lies within the heavily populated Northeastern United States, relies on reducing nutrient loading to the Chesapeake Bay by the 2025 TMDL deadline and on into the future. Doing so requires evaluating the impact of current agricultural management...

  6. A geochemical approach to the restoration plans for the Odiel River basin (SW Spain), a watershed deeply polluted by acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Francisco; Pérez-López, Rafael; Caraballo, Manuel A; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Cánovas, Carlos R; Nieto, Jose M; Olías, Manuel; Ayora, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The Odiel River Basin (SW Spain) drains the central part of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), a world-class example of sulfide mining district and concomitantly of acid mine drainage (AMD) pollution. The severe AMD pollution and the incipient state of remediation strategies implemented in this region, coupled with the proximity of the deadline for compliance with the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), urge to develop a restoration and water resources management strategy. Furthermore, despite the presence of some reservoirs with acid waters in the Odiel basin, the construction of the Alcolea water reservoir has already started. On the basis of the positive results obtained after more than 10 years of developing a specific passive remediation technology (dispersed alkaline substrate (DAS)) for the highly polluted AMD of this region, a restoration strategy is proposed. The implementation of 13 DAS treatment plants in selected acid discharges along the Odiel and Oraque sub-basins and other restoration measurements of two acidic creeks is proposed as essential to obtain a good water quality in the future Alcolea reservoir. This restoration strategy is also suggested as an economically and environmentally sustainable approach to the extreme metal pollution affecting the waters of the region and could be considered the starting point for the future compliance with the WFD in the Odiel River Basin.

  7. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's reports on preferred repository sites within the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenster, D.; Edgar, D.; Gonzales, S.; Domenico, P.; Harrison, W.; Engelder, T.; Tisue, M.

    1984-04-01

    Documents are being submitted to the Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to satisfy milestones of the Salt Repository Project of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Some of these documents are being reviewed by multidisciplinary groups of peers to ensure DOE of their adequacy and credibility. Adequacy of documents refers to their ability to meet the standards of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as enunciated in 10 CFR 60, and the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Credibility of documents refers to the validity of the assumptions, methods, and conclusions, as well as to the completeness of coverage. This report summarizes Argonne's review of ONWI's two-volume draft report entitled Identification of Preferred Sites within the Palo Duro Basin: Vol. 1 - Palo Duro Location A, and Vol. 2 - Palo Duro Location B, dated January 1984. Argonne was requested by DOE to review these documents on January 17 and 24, 1984 (see App. A). The review procedure involved obtaining written comments on the reports from three members of Argonne's core peer review staff and three extramural experts in related research areas. The peer review panel met at Argonne on February 6, 1984, and reviewer comments were integrated into this report by the review session chairman, with the assistance of Argonne's core peer review staff. All of the peer review panelists concurred in the way in which their comments were represented in this report (see App. B). A letter report and a draft of this report were sent to SRPO on February 10, 1984, and April 17, 1984, respectively. 5 references

  8. National Dam Safety Program. Millbrook Watershed Project Site I (inventory Number NY 715) Susquehanna River Basin, Chenango County, New York. Phase 1 Inspection Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-30

    Milibrook Watershed Project Site T fn~ %/ V National. Darm Safety Program Albny 1223 6. PJERMN ORG RAE04 NUBE Department of th Ar4 Neworek, No 128 9...4U CA > c~ 9%1 Ul NU.LUr -w Z CC 00 tn U.0D L ft SA. .4 ft 0WO ’ O ~02 cmi at 0 0 LA . 30S-U 30 0 ... J 00 z A ~0 3l zu 0 &u .ft~z ft 0 00 -. Q U. m...m m -4 4( -- jC 1- h .0 m -14 0. ~~Ia U% -4-4 tI L.4ET ID eu - - - - - N CU44-. -4..-4 - -L U SlU 20 uv0. 0. zcc f 0 LL U W LA N 0 - a U~ a. C.cr r L

  9. Results of mineral, chemical, and sulfate isotopic analyses of water, soil, rocks, and soil extracts from the Pariette Draw Watershed, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jean M.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Fahy, Juli W.

    2015-08-06

    In 2010, Utah Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) Division of Water Quality (UDWQ, 2010) determined that water quality in Pariette Draw was in violation of Federal and State water quality criteria for total dissolved solids (TDS), selenium (Se), and boron (B). The measure of total dissolved solids is the sum of all the major ion concentrations in solution and in this case, the dominant ions are sodium (Na) and sulfate (SO4), which can form salts like thenardite (Na2SO4) and mirabilite (Na2SO4⋅H2O). The Utah Department of Environmental Quality (2010) classified the contamination as natural background and from nonpoint sources related to regional lithology and irrigation practices. Although the daily loads of the constituents of concern and water chemistry have been characterized for parts of the watershed, little is known about the controls that bedrock and soil mineralogy have on salt, Se, and B storage and the water-rock interactions that influence the mobility of these components in ground and surface waters. Studies in the Uncompahgre River watershed in Colorado by Tuttle and others (2014a, 2014b) show that salt derived from weathering of shale in a semiarid climate is stored in a variety of minerals that contribute solutes to runoff and surface waters based on a complex set of conditions such as water availability, geomorphic position (for example, topography controls the depth of salt accumulation in soils), water-table fluctuations, redox conditions, mineral dissolution kinetics, ion-exchange reactions, and secondary mineral formation. Elements like Se and B commonly reside in soluble salt phases, so knowledge of the behavior of salt minerals also sheds light on the behavior of associated contaminants.

  10. Hydrochemical and isotopic patterns in a calc-alkaline Cu- and Au-rich arid Andean basin: The Elqui River watershed, North Central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyarzún, Jorge; Carvajal, María José; Maturana, Hugo; Núñez, Jorge; Kretschmer, Nicole; Amezaga, Jaime M.; Rötting, Tobias S.; Strauch, Gerhard; Thyne, Geoffrey; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Major ions are provided by rock weathering and NaCl recycling. ► Aridity and cal-alkaline lithology effects abate acid drainage. ► Factors affecting hydrochemistry in mineral rich zone are addressed. ► Stable isotopes confirm the meteoric origin of groundwaters. ► High sulfate contents are explained by widespread sulfide minerals. - Abstract: The geochemistry of surface water and groundwater from the Elqui River basin, North-Central Chile, was studied in spring 2007 and fall 2008 to obtain a general understanding of the factors and mechanisms controlling the water chemistry of steep rivers located in mineral-rich, arid to semi arid zones. Besides its uniform intermediate igneous lithology, this basin is known for acid drainage and high As contents in the El Indio Au–Cu–As district, in its Andean head. Abundant tailings deposits are present in the middle part of the basin, where agricultural activities are important. According to the results, the chemical and isotopic composition of the Elqui basin surface water and groundwater is related to uniform calc-alkaline lithology and the major polluting system of the chemically reactive, but closed El Indio mining district. The resulting compositional imprints in surface and ground-water are, (a) high SO 4 levels, reaching about 1000 mg/L in the Toro River water, directly draining the mining area; (b) a major depletion of Fe and pollutant metals in surface water after the confluence of the Toro and La Laguna rivers; (c) similar chemical composition of surface and ground-waters that differ in H and O isotopic composition, reflecting the effect of differential evaporation processes downstream of the Puclaro dam; and (d) seasonal variations of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in surface water. In contrast, the groundwater chemistry exhibits moderate seasonal changes, mainly in HCO 3 - content. In spite of the acid drainage pollution, water quality is adequate for human consumption and irrigation. This is a

  11. Effect of watershed land use on water quality: a case study in Córrego da Olaria Basin, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simedo, M B L; Martins, A L M; Pissarra, T C T; Lopes, M C; Costa, R C A; Valle-Junior, R F; Campanelli, L C; Rojas, N E T; Finoto, E L

    2018-02-05

    The water quality is related to the hydrologic and limnologic properties of ground and surface water, and significant efforts have been made to monitor water sources to understand the effects of land use changes in agricultural areas, with significant socioeconomic activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the qualitative aspects of surface water in subbasins related to land use. Samples were analyzed in terms of physical and chemical parameters on monthly discrete water quality sampling in four representative sites at first order subbasin streams, located at the Polo Regional Centro Norte, Pindorama County, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The land use classification was made by visual detection technique in a multispectral satellite data obtained from LandSat8- spectral bands of the OLI sensor. The watershed was classified into major land cover/use classes and overlay maps generated in ArcGIS 10 indicated a significant shift from natural vegetation to agriculture activities. Water quality monitoring was according to the brazilian protocol and the results were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA). The values obtained differ significantly at each sampling point - subbasins, reflecting the effects of land use on water quality. Soil conservation management is important to optimize soil use in order to contribute to the control of water pollution and the formulation of a public policy is necessary for the conservation of water and soil resources.

  12. Modelling the flood-risk extent using LISFLOOD-FP in a complex watershed: case study of Mundeni Aru River Basin, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, G.; Umer, Y. M.; Alahacoon, N.; Inada, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Flood management is adopting a more risk-based approach, whereby flood risk is the product of the probability and consequences of flooding. Two-dimensional flood inundation modeling is a widely used tool to aid flood-risk management. The aim of this study is to develop a flood inundation model that uses historical flow data to produce flood-risk maps, which will help to identify flood protection measures in the rural areas of Sri Lanka. The LISFLOOD-FP model was developed at the basin scale using available historical data, and also through coupling with a hydrological modelling system, to map the inundation extent and depth. Results from the flood inundation model were evaluated using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images to assess product accuracy. The impacts of flooding on agriculture and livelihoods were analyzed to assess the flood risks. It was identified that most of the areas under paddy cultivation that were located near the middle and downstream part of the river basin are more susceptible to flood risks. This paper also proposes potential countermeasures for future natural disasters to prevent and mitigate possible damages.

  13. EXPLORING CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON WATERSHED SEDIMENT YIELD AND LAND COVER-BASED MITIGATION MEASURES USING SWAT MODEL, RS AND GIS: CASE OF CAGAYAN RIVER BASIN, PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Principe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change in the Philippines was examined in the country's largest basin–the Cagayan River Basin–by predicting its sediment yield for a long period of time. This was done by integrating the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model, Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS. A set of Landsat imageries were processed to include an atmospheric correction and a filling procedure for cloud and cloud-shadow infested pixels was used to maximize each downloaded scene for a subsequent land cover classification using Maximum Likelihood classifier. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM-DEM was used for the digital elevation model (DEM requirement of the model while ArcGIS™ provided the platform for the ArcSWAT extension, for storing data and displaying spatial data. The impact of climate change was assessed by varying air surface temperature and amount of precipitation as predicted in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC scenarios. A Nash-Sutcliff efficiency (NSE > 0.4 and coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.5 for both the calibration and validation of the model showed that SWAT model can realistically simulate the hydrological processes in the study area. The model was then utilized for land cover change and climate change analyses and their influence on sediment yield. Results showed a significant relationship exists among the changes in the climate regime, land cover distributions and sediment yield. Finally, the study suggested land cover distribution that can potentially mitigate the serious negative effects of climate change to a regional watershed's sediment yield.

  14. Understanding hydrologic budgets, dynamics in an arid basin and explore spatial scaling properties using Process-based Adaptive Watershed Simulator (PAWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, K.; Shen, C.; Salve, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Southern California hot desert hosts a fragile ecosystem as well as a range of human economic activities, primarily mining, energy production and recreation. This inland arid landscape is characterized by occasional intensive precipitation events and year-round strong potential evapotranspiration. In this landscape, water and especially groundwater is vital for ecosystem functions and human use. However, the impact of recent development on the sustainability of groundwater resources in the area has not been thoroughly investigated. We apply an integrated, physically-based hydrologic-land surface model, the Process-based Adaptive Watershed Simulator + Community Land Model (PAWS+CLM) to evaluate the sustainability of the groundwater resources in the area. We elucidate the spatio-temporal patterns of hydrologic fluxes and budgets. The modeling results indicate that mountain front recharge is the essential recharging mechanism for the alluvial aquifer. Although pumping activities do not exceed annual-average recharge values, they are still expected to contribute significantly to groundwater drawdown in business-as-usual scenario. The impact of groundwater withdrawals is significant on the desert ecosystem. The relative importance of groundwater flow on NPP rises significantly as compared to other ecosystems. We further evaluate the fractal scaling properties of soil moisture in this very arid system and found the relationship to be much more static in time than that found in a humid continental climate system. The scaling exponents can be predicted using simple functions of the mean. Therefore, multi-scale model based on coarse-resolution surrogate model is expected to perform well in this system. The modeling result is also important for assessing the groundwater sustainability and impact of human activities in the desert environment.

  15. Adapting to Climate Change through Improved Watershed ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adapting to Climate Change through Improved Watershed Management and Payment for Environmental Services in Morocco's Tensift Basin. Morocco's growing urban ... Adaptation aux changements climatiques grâce à une gestion améliorée des bassins versants dans le bassin du Tensift, au Maroc. Au Maroc, la ...

  16. A proposed international watershed research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    An “International Watershed Research Network” is to be an initial project of the Sino-U. S. Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection. The Network will provide a fundamental database for research personnel of the Centers, as well as of the global research community, and is viewed as an important resource for their successful operation. Efforts are under way to (a) identify and select candidate watersheds, (b) develop standards and protocols for data collection and dissemination, and (c) specify other data sources on erosion, sediment transport, hydrology, and ancillary information of probable interest and use to participants of the Centers. The initial focus of the Network will be on water-deficient areas. Candidate watersheds for the Network are yet to be determined although likely selections include the Ansai Research Station, northern China, and the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, USA. The Network is to be patterned after the Vigil Network, an open-ended group of global sites and small drainage basins for which Internet-accessible geomorphic, hydrologic, and biological data are periodically collected or updated. Some types of data, using similar instruments and observation methods, will be collected at all watersheds selected for the Network. Other data from the watersheds that may reflect individual watershed characteristics and research objectives will be collected as well.

  17. Watershed characterization for precipitation-runoff modeling system, north fork, American River and east fork, Carson River watersheds, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. LaRue; Reece, Brian D.

    1995-01-01

    As part of its Global Change Hydrology Program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating the potential effects of climate change on the water resources of several river basins in the United States. The American River Basin in California represents the windward slope of the north-central Sierra Nevada, and the California part of the Carson River Basin, most of which is in Nevada, represents the leeward slope. Parts of the American River and Carson River Basins—the North Fork American River and East Fork Carson River watersheds, both in California—were studied to determine the sensitivity of water resources to potential climate change. The water resources of both basins are derived primarily from snowmelt. A geographic information system (GIS) data base has been created to facilitate paired-basin analysis. The GIS data base incorporates (1) land-surface data, which include elevation, land use and land cover, soil type, and geology; (2) hydrologic data, such as stream networks and streamflow-gaging stations; and (3) climatic data, such as snow-course, snow-telemetry, radiosonde, and meteorological data. Precipitation-runoff models were developed and calibrated for the North Fork watershed within the American River Basin and for the East Fork watershed within the Carson River Basin. (These watersheds were selected to represent the climatic and physiographic variability of the two larger basins.) Synthesized climate scenarios then were used in the model to predict potential effects of climate change.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF WATER BALANCE OF A WATERSHED USING SWAT MODEL FOR WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra George; Sathian, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    An attempt has been made in this study to assess the hydrological behavior of the Kurumali sub basin of Karuvannur river basin using SWAT model and other geospatial technologies. All the thematic maps and attribute information of the watershed have been collected from various Government agencies. SWAT model has been set up for the Kurumali sub basin by inputting the digital thematic maps, physical properties of soil and climatic parameters. Total area of the watershed corresponding to the out...

  19. Different responses of functional traits and diversity of stream macroinvertebrates to environmental and spatial factors in the Xishuangbanna watershed of the upper Mekong River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Yang, Weifang; Zhou, Yunlei; González-Bergonzoni, Ivan; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Kai; Vidal, Nicolas; Jeppesen, Erik; Liu, Zhengwen; Wang, Beixin

    2017-01-01

    Functional traits and diversity indices have provided new insights into community responses to stressors. Most traits of aquatic organisms have frequently been tested for predictability and geographical stability in response to environmental variables, but such tests of functional diversity indices are rare. We sampled macroinvertebrates at 18 reference sites (RS) and 35 disturbed sites (DS) from headwater streams in the upper Mekong River Basin, Xishuangbanna (XSBN), China. We selected 29 qualitative categories of eight traits and then calculated five functional diversity indices, namely functional richness (FRic), functional evenness (FEve), functional dispersion (FDis), functional divergence (FDiv) and Rao's Quadratic Entropy (RaoQ), and two trait diversity indices, namely trait richness (TR) and trait diversity (TD). We used combination of RLQ and fourth-corner to examine the response of traits and functional diversity to the disturbance and environmental variables. We used variance partitioning to explore the relative role of environmental variables and spatial factors in constraining trait composition and functional diversity. We found that the relative frequency of ten trait categories, and the values of TD, TR, FRic and FDis in RS were significantly different (pfunctional diversity and trait diversity. However, spatial variables were mainly significant in shaping ecological traits, FRic and FEve. Our results confirm the dominant role of environmental variables in the determination of community trait composition and functional diversity, and substantiate the contribution of spatial vectors in explaining the variance of functional traits and diversity. We conclude that the traits "Refuge", "External protection", "Respiration" and "Body shape", and diversity indices FDis, TD, and TR are promising indicators of stream conditions at XSBN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simulation of natural flows in major river basins in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Alexandria M.; García, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Water Resources (OWR) in the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs (ADECA) is charged with the assessment of the State’s water resources. This study developed a watershed model for the major river basins that are within Alabama or that cross Alabama’s borders, which serves as a planning tool for water-resource decisionmakers. The watershed model chosen to assess the natural amount of available water was the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). Models were configured and calibrated for the following four river basins: Mobile, Gulf of Mexico, Middle Tennessee, and Chattahoochee. These models required calibrating unregulated U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow gaging stations to estimate natural flows, with emphases on low-flow calibration. The target calibration criteria required the errors be within the range of: (1) ±10 percent for total-streamflow volume, (2) ±10 percent for low-flow volume, (3) ±15 percent for high-flow volume, (4) ±30 percent for summer volume, and (5) above 0.5 for the correlation coefficient (R2). Seventy-one of the 90 calibration stations in the watershed models for the four major river basins within Alabama met the target calibration criteria. Variability in the model performance can be attributed to limitations in correctly representing certain hydrologic conditions that are characterized by some of the ecoregions in Alabama. Ecoregions consisting of predominantly clayey soils and (or) low topographic relief yield less successful calibration results, whereas ecoregions consisting of loamy and sandy soils and (or) high topographic relief yield more successful calibration results. Results indicate that the model does well in hilly regions with sandy soils because of rapid surface runoff and more direct interaction with subsurface flow.

  1. Identifying and Classifying Pollution Hotspots to Guide Watershed Management in a Large Multiuse Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fangli; Kaplan, David; Li, Lifeng; Li, Haifu; Song, Fei; Liu, Haisheng

    2017-03-03

    In many locations around the globe, large reservoir sustainability is threatened by land use change and direct pollution loading from the upstream watershed. However, the size and complexity of upstream basins makes the planning and implementation of watershed-scale pollution management a challenge. In this study, we established an evaluation system based on 17 factors, representing the potential point and non-point source pollutants and the environmental carrying capacity which are likely to affect the water quality in the Dahuofang Reservoir and watershed in northeastern China. We used entropy methods to rank 118 subwatersheds by their potential pollution threat and clustered subwatersheds according to the potential pollution type. Combining ranking and clustering analyses allowed us to suggest specific areas for prioritized watershed management (in particular, two subwatersheds with the greatest pollution potential) and to recommend the conservation of current practices in other less vulnerable locations (91 small watersheds with low pollution potential). Finally, we identified the factors most likely to influence the water quality of each of the 118 subwatersheds and suggested adaptive control measures for each location. These results provide a scientific basis for improving the watershed management and sustainability of the Dahuofang reservoir and a framework for identifying threats and prioritizing the management of watersheds of large reservoirs around the world.

  2. Office of Inspector General report on audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s contract with Basin Electric Power Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-25

    At the request of the Western Area Power Administration (Western), an audit of 17 areas was conducted with respect to possible overcharges on a power contract between Western and Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin), Contract No. DE-MP65-82WP-19001. The contract for Western`s purchase of electric power from Basin was entered into on April 15, 1982, and was in effect from January 1, 1986, through October 31, 1990. During this 58-month period, Basin billed Western approximately $197.6 million. Overall, it was found that Basin overcharged Western approximately $23.8 million. These overcharges occurred because Basin: (1) did not recognize or amortize as gain its overestimate of completion and correction costs for Antelope Valley Station (AVS) Unit 2; (2) did not amortize the gain on the sale/leaseback of AVS Unit 2 as an offset to lease costs; (3) billed Western prematurely for lease and interest costs; (4) overcharged for the cost of coal by including administrative and general expenses and profit, as well as incorrectly calculating discounts, royalty payments, and imputed interest costs; (5) made faulty calculations of amortization rates for deferred costs; (6) used a shorter depreciation period for AVS common facilities than it had used for other power plants; (7) retained tax benefit transfers; and (8) charged Western for interest and depreciation that had been paid by others. In addition to the $23.8 million in overcharges, interest accrued on the overcharges through December 31, 1996 was estimated to be approximately $22.1 million, resulting in a total of $45.9 million due Western.

  3. Watershed Management Partnership Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 19, 2004, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers signed the Watershed Management Partnership Agreement to promote watershed health, economic sustainability and community vitality through effective manageme

  4. Managing Watersheds with WMOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) allows water-resource managers and planners to screen a wide range of practices for cost-effectiveness in achieving watershed or water utilities management goals.

  5. Adopt Your Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adopt Your Watershed is a Website that encourages stewardship of the nation's water resources and serves as a national inventory of local watershed groups and...

  6. Watershed-based Morphometric Analysis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukristiyanti, S.; Maria, R.; Lestiana, H.

    2018-02-01

    Drainage basin/watershed analysis based on morphometric parameters is very important for watershed planning. Morphometric analysis of watershed is the best method to identify the relationship of various aspects in the area. Despite many technical papers were dealt with in this area of study, there is no particular standard classification and implication of each parameter. It is very confusing to evaluate a value of every morphometric parameter. This paper deals with the meaning of values of the various morphometric parameters, with adequate contextual information. A critical review is presented on each classification, the range of values, and their implications. Besides classification and its impact, the authors also concern about the quality of input data, either in data preparation or scale/the detail level of mapping. This review paper hopefully can give a comprehensive explanation to assist the upcoming research dealing with morphometric analysis.

  7. Morphometric analysis of sub-watershed in parts of Western Ghats, South India using ASTER DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric analysis is a key to understand the hydrological process and hence is a prerequisite for the assessment of hydrological characteristics of surface water basin. Morphometric analysis to determine the drainage characteristics of Palar sub-watershed, a part of Shanmukha watershed in the Amaravati sub-catchment is done using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM data, and is supplemented with topographical maps in geographical information systems platform. This study uses ASTER GDEM data to extract morphometric features of a mountain stream at micro-watershed level. The sub-watershed is divided into six micro-watersheds. The sub-watershed includes a sixth-order stream. Lower stream orders, in particular first-order streams, dominate the sub-watershed. Development of stream segments is controlled by slope and local relief. Drainage pattern of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds is dendritic in general. The mean bifurcation ratio of the sub-watershed is 3.69 but its variation between the various stream orders suggests structural control in the development of stream network. The shape factors reveal the elongation of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds.The relief ratio reveals the high discharge capability of the sub-watershed and meagre groundwater potential. This study is a useful tool for planning strategies in control of soil erosion and soil conservation.

  8. Composite measures of watershed health from a water quality perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallya, Ganeshchandra; Hantush, Mohamed; Govindaraju, Rao S

    2018-05-15

    Water quality data at gaging stations are typically compared with established federal, state, or local water quality standards to determine if violations (concentrations of specific constituents falling outside acceptable limits) have occurred. Based on the frequency and severity of water quality violations, risk metrics such as reliability, resilience, and vulnerability (R-R-V) are computed for assessing water quality-based watershed health. In this study, a modified methodology for computing R-R-V measures is presented, and a new composite watershed health index is proposed. Risk-based assessments for different water quality parameters are carried out using identified national sampling stations within the Upper Mississippi River Basin, the Maumee River Basin, and the Ohio River Basin. The distributional properties of risk measures with respect to water quality parameters are reported. Scaling behaviors of risk measures using stream order, specifically for the watershed health (WH) index, suggest that WH values increased with stream order for suspended sediment concentration, nitrogen, and orthophosphate in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Spatial distribution of risk measures enable identification of locations exhibiting poor watershed health with respect to the chosen numerical standard, and the role of land use characteristics within the watershed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Watershed evaluation and habitat response to recent storms : annual report for 1998; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, Charles W.; Rhodes, Jonathan J.

    1999-01-01

    Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995-96, triggering widespread flooding, mass erosion, and, possibly altering salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin

  10. Watershed Evaluation and Habitat Response to Recent Storms : Annual Report for 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995-96, triggering widespread flooding, mass erosion, and, possibly altering salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin.

  11. SWAT-based streamflow and embayment modeling of Karst-affected Chapel branch watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; M. Jha; A.E. Edwards; T.M. Williams; D.R. Hitchcock

    2011-01-01

    SWAT is a GIS-based basin-scale model widely used for the characterization of hydrology and water quality of large, complex watersheds; however, SWAT has not been fully tested in watersheds with karst geomorphology and downstream reservoir-like embayment. In this study, SWAT was applied to test its ability to predict monthly streamflow dynamics for a 1,555 ha karst...

  12. Nitrogen management challenges in major watersheds of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio; Machado Lins, Silvia Rafaela; Pérez, Tibisay; Rasse, Rafael; Marquina, Sorena; Ometto, Jean Pierre H B; Siqueira Pacheco, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization and land use changes alter the nitrogen (N) cycle, with critical consequences for continental freshwater resources, coastal zones, and human health. Sewage and poor watershed management lead to impoverishment of inland water resources and degradation of coastal zones. Here we review the N contents of rivers of the three most important watersheds in South America: the Amazon, La Plata, and Orinoco basins. To evaluate potential impacts on coastal zones, we also present data on small- and medium-sized Venezuelan watersheds that drain into the Caribbean Sea and are impacted by anthropogenic activities. Median concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) were 325 μg L −1 and 275 μg L −1 in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, respectively, increasing to nearly 850 μg L −1 in La Plata Basin rivers and 2000 μg L −1 in small northern Venezuelan watersheds. The median TDN yield of Amazon Basin rivers (approximately 4 kg ha −1 yr −1 ) was larger than TDN yields of undisturbed rivers of the La Plata and Orinoco basins; however, TDN yields of polluted rivers were much higher than those of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers. Organic matter loads from natural and anthropogenic sources in rivers of South America strongly influence the N dynamics of this region. (letter)

  13. Compilation of watershed models for tributaries to the Great Lakes, United States, as of 2010, and identification of watersheds for future modeling for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) during 2009–10, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled a list of existing watershed models that had been created for tributaries within the United States that drain to the Great Lakes. Established Federal programs that are overseen by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are responsible for most of the existing watershed models for specific tributaries. The NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) uses the Large Basin Runoff Model to provide data for the management of water levels in the Great Lakes by estimating United States and Canadian inflows to the Great Lakes from 121 large watersheds. GLERL also simulates streamflows in 34 U.S. watersheds by a grid-based model, the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model. The NOAA National Weather Service uses the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model to predict flows at river forecast sites. The USACE created or funded the creation of models for at least 30 tributaries to the Great Lakes to better understand sediment erosion, transport, and aggradation processes that affect Federal navigation channels and harbors. Many of the USACE hydrologic models have been coupled with hydrodynamic and sediment-transport models that simulate the processes in the stream and harbor near the mouth of the modeled tributary. Some models either have been applied or have the capability of being applied across the entire Great Lakes Basin; they are (1) the SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model, which was developed by the USGS; (2) the High Impact Targeting (HIT) and Digital Watershed models, which were developed by the Institute of Water Research at Michigan State University; (3) the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L–THIA) model, which was developed by researchers at Purdue University; and (4) the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, which was

  14. Watershed geomorphology modifies the temperature sensitivity of aquatic ecosystem metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, K. J.; Schindler, D.

    2015-12-01

    How carbon cycles are regulated by temperature remains a substantial uncertainty in our understanding of how watersheds will respond to ongoing climate change. Aquatic ecosystems are significant components of carbon flux to the atmosphere and ocean, yet we have limited understanding of how changing thermal regimes will alter rates of ecosystem metabolic processes, and, therefore, aquatic contributions to carbon cycles at watershed to global scales. Watershed geomorphology controls the landscape-scale distribution of organic material that can form the metabolic base of aquatic ecosystems, which will likely affect the temperature sensitivity of aquatic ecosystem metabolism. Across 23 streams in a boreal river basin, we estimated how temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (ER), an important component of the aquatic C cycle, varied among streams with different watershed characteristics. We found that geomorphic conditions imposed strong ultimate controls on temperature sensitivity: ER in streams draining flat watersheds was much more sensitive to temperature than streams draining steeper watersheds. Further, we show that the link between watershed geomorphology and temperature sensitivity was related to changes in the quality of carbon substrates across the gradient in watershed slope. These results suggest that geomorphic conditions will ultimately control how carbon processing responds to warming climate, thereby affecting carbon transport and storage, and likely food web responses, in river networks.

  15. Storytelling to support watershed research on emerging issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip Hellman

    2016-01-01

    Projections of budget deficits by the Congressional Budget Office imply ever-increasing pressure on federal spending for all purposes, including long-term watershed research. This presentation will argue that, since federal funding is ultimately a political decision, those responsible for maintaining long-term watershed research programs should not try to provide ...

  16. Assessment of integrated watershed health based on the natural environment, hydrology, water quality, and aquatic ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Ahn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Watershed health, including the natural environment, hydrology, water quality, and aquatic ecology, is assessed for the Han River basin (34 148 km2 in South Korea by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. The evaluation procedures follow those of the Healthy Watersheds Assessment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. Six components of the watershed landscape are examined to evaluate the watershed health (basin natural capacity: stream geomorphology, hydrology, water quality, aquatic habitat condition, and biological condition. In particular, the SWAT is applied to the study basin for the hydrology and water-quality components, including 237 sub-watersheds (within a standard watershed on the Korea Hydrologic Unit Map along with three multipurpose dams, one hydroelectric dam, and three multifunction weirs. The SWAT is calibrated (2005–2009 and validated (2010–2014 by using each dam and weir operation, the flux-tower evapotranspiration, the time-domain reflectometry (TDR soil moisture, and groundwater-level data for the hydrology assessment, and by using sediment, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen data for the water-quality assessment. The water balance, which considers the surface–groundwater interactions and variations in the stream-water quality, is quantified according to the sub-watershed-scale relationship between the watershed hydrologic cycle and stream-water quality. We assess the integrated watershed health according to the U.S. EPA evaluation process based on the vulnerability levels of the natural environment, water resources, water quality, and ecosystem components. The results indicate that the watershed's health declined during the most recent 10-year period of 2005–2014, as indicated by the worse results for the surface process metric and soil water dynamics compared to those of the 1995–2004 period. The integrated watershed health tended to decrease farther downstream within the watershed.

  17. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  18. Shoreline Elevation Sabine Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Sabine_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  19. Shoreline Elevation Vermilion Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Vermilion_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  20. Shoreline Elevation Calcasieu Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Calcasieu_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  1. Shoreline Elevation Atchafalaya Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Atchafalaya_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  2. Shoreline Elevation Mermentau Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Mermentau_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  3. Shoreline Elevation Terrebonne Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Terrebonne_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  4. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-09-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  5. Assessing and managing water scarcity within the Nile River Transboundary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, M. B.; Wendi, D.; Jessen, O. Z.; Riegels, N. D.

    2012-04-01

    The Nile Basin is the main source of water in the North Eastern Region of Africa and is perhaps one of the most critical river basins in Africa as the riparian countries constitute 40% of the population on the continent but only 10% of the area. This resource is under considerable stress with rising levels of water scarcity, high population growth, watershed degradation, and loss of environmental services. The potential impacts of climate change may significantly exacerbate this situation as the water resources in the Nile Basin are critically sensitive to climate change (Conway, Hanson, Doherty, & Persechino, 2007). The motivation for this study is an assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation potential for floods and droughts within the UNEP project "Adapting to climate change induced water stress in the Nile River Basin", supported by SIDA. This project is being carried out as collaboration between DHI, the UK Met Office, and the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI). The Nile Basin exhibits highly diverse climatological and hydrological characteristics. Thus climate change impacts and adaptive capacity must be addressed at both regional and sub-basin scales. While the main focus of the project is the regional scale, sub-basin scale modelling is required to reflect variability within the basin. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability is the scarcity of data. This paper presents an initial screening modelling study of the water balance of the Nile Basin along with estimates of expected future impacts of climate change on the water balance. This initial study is focussed on the Ethiopian Highlands and the Lake Victoria regions, where the impact of climate change on rainfall is important. A robust sub-basin based monthly water balance model is developed and applied to selected sub-basins. The models were developed and calibrated using publicly available data. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability within the basin is the

  6. PROFILE: Management of Sedimentation in Tropical Watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAGLE; FAHEY; LASSOIE

    1999-05-01

    / The sedimentation of reservoirs is a serious problem throughout the tropics, yet most attempts to control sedimentation in large river basins have not been very successful. Reliable information on erosion rates and sources of sediments has been lacking. In regions where geologically unstable terrain combines with high rainfall, natural erosion rates might be so high that the effects of human activity are limited. Estimates of natural erosion in these situations often have been poor because of the episodic nature of most erosion during large storms and because mass-wasting may supply much of the sediment. The predominance of mass-wasting in some watersheds can result in an unexpectedly high ratio of bedload to suspended load, shifting sedimentation to "live" rather than "dead" storage within reservoirs. Furthermore, the inappropriate use of the Universal Soil Loss Equation to assess the effectiveness of erosion control measures has led to inaccurate estimates of the sediment reduction benefits that could accrue to watershed treatment efforts. Although reducing erosion from cultivated areas is desirable for other reasons, efforts aimed at reducing reservoir sedimentation by controlling agricultural sources of erosion may have limited benefits if the principal sources are of natural origin or are associated with construction of the dams and reservoirs and with rural roads and trails. Finally, the most appropriate locations for watershed rehabilitation depend on the magnitude of temporary storage of colluvium and alluvium within the river basin: Where storage volume is large and residence time of sediment very long, reducing agricultural erosion may have limited impacts on sedimentation within the expected life of a reservoir. Systematic development and analysis of sediment budgets for representative watersheds is needed to address these limitations and thereby improve both the planning of river basin development schemes and the allocation of resources towards

  7. Establishment of a non-governmental regional approach to La Plata River Basin integrated watershed management promoted throughout three international workshops supported by UN and Japanese agencies, led by ILEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Alberto; Yamashiki, Yosuke; Mugetti, Ana

    2002-08-01

    The La Plata River Basin is one of the largest international river basins in the world, with an area of about 3 million km2. It spreads across five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), and its water resources are essential for their economic development. Together with reservoir development, extensive deforestation, intensive agriculture practices and large urban developments took place in the Paraná, Paraguay and Uruguay basins, affecting environmental conditions and raising important issues concerning water resources use and conservation. Therefore, the need to promote participatory and cooperative efforts among water resources stakeholders, as well as the systematic exchange of information and experiences on common regional problems among organizations and experts from throughout the basin who are devoted to water resources use and management, was reported by researchers and managers gathered at the First and Second International Workshops on Regional Approaches for Reservoir Development and Management in the La Plata River Basin (held in 1991 and 1994). As a concrete response to this need, the efforts of a number of organizations from various countries within the basin, with the support of international and national governmental organizations, resulted in the foundation of La Plata River Basin Environmental Research and Management Network (RIGA) in March 2001. This was within the framework of the Third International Workshop, which was precisely one of the short-term activities included in the RIGA Action Plan. During the preparatory processes for the RIGA Network, the presence of Japanese cooperation supporting the La Plata River Basin Workshops through a non-governmental international organization (ILEC) played an important role in stimulating such an organization-based joint approach in the basin. This outcome, although not originally planned, constituted a welcomed byproduct of its main specific interest in the region, which was the

  8. Drainage network structure and hydrologic behavior of three lake-rich watersheds on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, C.D.; Whitman, M.S.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Kemnitz, R.; Grosse, G.; Urban, F.E.

    2012-01-01

    Watersheds draining the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska are dominated by permafrost and snowmelt runoff that create abundant surface storage in the form of lakes, wetlands, and beaded streams. These surface water elements compose complex drainage networks that affect aquatic ecosystem connectivity and hydrologic behavior. The 4676 km2 Fish Creek drainage basin is composed of three watersheds that represent a gradient of the ACP landscape with varying extents of eolian, lacustrine, and fluvial landforms. In each watershed, we analyzed 2.5-m-resolution aerial photography, a 5-m digital elevation model, and river gauging and climate records to better understand ACP watershed structure and processes. We show that connected lakes accounted for 19 to 26% of drainage density among watersheds and most all channels initiate from lake basins in the form of beaded streams. Of the > 2500 lakes in these watersheds, 33% have perennial streamflow connectivity, and these represent 66% of total lake area extent. Deeper lakes with over-wintering habitat were more abundant in the watershed with eolian sand deposits, while the watershed with marine silt deposits contained a greater extent of beaded streams and shallow thermokarst lakes that provide essential summer feeding habitat. Comparison of flow regimes among watersheds showed that higher lake extent and lower drained lake-basin extent corresponded with lower snowmelt and higher baseflow runoff. Variation in baseflow runoff among watersheds was most pronounced during drought conditions in 2007 with corresponding reduction in snowmelt peak flows the following year. Comparison with other Arctic watersheds indicates that lake area extent corresponds to slower recession of both snowmelt and baseflow runoff. These analyses help refine our understanding of how Arctic watersheds are structured and function hydrologically, emphasizing the important role of lake basins and suggesting how future lake change may impact hydrologic

  9. Streambank erosion rates and loads within a single watershed: Bridging the gap between temporal and spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of streambank erosion to watershed-scale sediment export is being increasingly recognized. However few studies have quantified bank erosion and watershed sediment flux at the basin scale across temporal and spatial scales. In this study we evaluated the spatial distribution, extent, a...

  10. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2016-03-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  11. Hydrological modeling of the Jiaoyi watershed (China) using HSPF model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chang-An; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie

    2014-01-01

    A watershed hydrological model, hydrological simulation program-Fortran (HSPF), was applied to simulate the spatial and temporal variation of hydrological processes in the Jiaoyi watershed of Huaihe River Basin, the heaviest shortage of water resources and polluted area in China. The model was calibrated using the years 2001-2004 and validated with data from 2005 to 2006. Calibration and validation results showed that the model generally simulated mean monthly and daily runoff precisely due to the close matching hydrographs between simulated and observed runoff, as well as the excellent evaluation indicators such as Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of correlation (R (2)), and the relative error (RE). The similar simulation results between calibration and validation period showed that all the calibrated parameters had a certain representation in Jiaoyi watershed. Additionally, the simulation in rainy months was more accurate than the drought months. Another result in this paper was that HSPF was also capable of estimating the water balance components reasonably and realistically in space through the whole watershed. The calibrated model can be used to explore the effects of climate change scenarios and various watershed management practices on the water resources and water environment in the basin.

  12. Stormwater Impaired Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Stormwater impaired watersheds occuring on both the Priority Waters (Part D - Completed TMDL) and 303(d) list of waters (Part A - need TMDL) The Vermont State...

  13. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aquatic and riparian habitats in the longitudinal, lateral, vertical, and temporal dimensions helps ensure the flow of ... live there. A watershed – the land area that drains to a stream, lake or river – affects the ...

  14. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case - Crasna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  15. Potential implications of climate change and urbanization on watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumo, D.; Arnone, E.; Francipane, A.; Caracciolo, D.; Noto, L. V.

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a modeling framework able to analyze the alterations in watershed hydrology induced by two recurrent drivers for hydrological changes: climate change and urbanization. The procedure is based on the coupling of a stochastic weather generator with a land use change model for the generation of some hypothetical scenarios. The generated scenarios are successively used to force a physically-based and spatial distributed hydrological model to reconstruct the basin response under different conditions. Several potential climate alterations are simulated by imposing negative and positive variations in the mean annual precipitation and a simultaneous temperature increase. Urbanization is conceptualized by an increase in the impervious fraction of the basin. The procedure is applied to a large basin and a much smaller sub-basin; the results show how climate and land use changes may interact and affect the fundamental hydrological dynamics and how the processes governing basin hydrological response may change with spatial scale.

  16. Effects of streambank fencing of pasture land on benthic macroinvertebrates and the quality of surface water and shallow ground water in the Big Spring Run basin of Mill Creek watershed, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Low, Dennis J.; O'Brien, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Streambank fencing along stream channels in pastured areas and the exclusion of pasture animals from the channel are best-management practices designed to reduce nutrient and suspended-sediment yields from drainage basins. Establishment of vegetation in the fenced area helps to stabilize streambanks and provides better habitat for wildlife in and near the stream. This study documented the effectiveness of a 5- to 12-foot-wide buffer strip on the quality of surface water and near-stream ground water in a 1.42-mi2 treatment basin in Lancaster County, Pa. Two miles of stream were fenced in the basin in 1997 following a 3- to 4-year pre-treatment period of monitoring surface- and ground-water variables in the treatment and control basins. Changes in surface- and ground-water quality were monitored for about 4 years after fence installation. To alleviate problems in result interpretation associated with climatic and hydrologic variation over the study period, a nested experimental design including paired-basin and upstream/downstream components was used to study the effects of fencing on surface-water quality and benthic-macroinvertebrate communities. Five surface-water sites, one at the outlet of a 1.77-mi2 control basin (C-1), two sites in the treatment basin (T-3 and T-4) that were above any fence installation, and two sites (one at an upstream tributary site (T-2) and one at the outlet (T-1)) that were treated, were sampled intensively. Low-flow samples were collected at each site (approximately 25-30 per year at each site), and stormflow was sampled with automatic samplers at all sites except T-3. For each site where stormflow was sampled, from 35 to 60 percent of the storm events were sampled over the entire study period. Surface-water sites were sampled for analyses of nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal streptococcus (only low-flow samples), with field parameters (only low-flow samples) measured during sample collection. Benthic-macroinvertebrate samples

  17. Geospatial tool-based morphometric analysis using SRTM data in Sarabanga Watershed, Cauvery River, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulbalaji, P.; Gurugnanam, B.

    2017-11-01

    A morphometric analysis of Sarabanga watershed in Salem district has been chosen for the present study. Geospatial tools, such as remote sensing and GIS, are utilized for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM-30 m resolution) data have been used for morphometric analysis and evaluating various morphometric parameters. The morphometric parameters of Sarabanga watershed have been analyzed and evaluated by pioneer methods, such as Horton and Strahler. The dendritic type of drainage pattern is draining the Sarabanga watershed, which indicates that lithology and gentle slope category is controlling the study area. The Sarabanga watershed is covered an area of 1208 km2. The slope of the watershed is various from 10 to 40% and which is controlled by lithology of the watershed. The bifurcation ratio ranges from 3 to 4.66 indicating the influence of geological structure and suffered more structural disturbances. The form factor indicates elongated shape of the study area. The total stream length and area of watershed indicate that mean annual rainfall runoff is relatively moderate. The basin relief expressed that watershed has relatively high denudation rates. The drainage density of the watershed is low indicating that infiltration is more dominant. The ruggedness number shows the peak discharges that are likely to be relatively higher. The present study is very useful to plan the watershed management.

  18. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  19. Groundwater circulation, connection between aquifers and relation with surface water in a karstified and faulted watershed: Constraint by Sr isotopes in the upper Sèvre-Niortaise basin (western France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocent, C.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Kloppmann, W.; Guerrot, C.; Bichot, F.; Thinon-Larminach, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sevre-Niortaise watershed, upstream of the Niort City and the Poitevine Marsh ("Green Venice", France) is under strong anthropogenic pressure, especially with diffuse pollution from agricultural activities, this watershed being representative of the problem of nitrate contamination on a large scale. This led to exemptions for the drinking water supply for many catchments. Nitrate concentrations can vary greatly over the yearly hydrological cycle, but following mechanisms that are still poorly understood, given the very complex structure in terms of hydrogeological and hydrological exchanges between groundwater and surface network. This results in a close relationship between the quality of the groundwaters and that of the rivers also used for drinking water supply. The specificity of this area also consists in a multilayer limestone aquifers mainly composed of the Infra-Toarcian and Dogger layers, partly karstified, and isolated by a pseudo-impermeable layer, the Toarcian marls, and crossed by numerous faults. One of the objectives of the project, in addition to tracking the sources of nitrate contamination, consists in understanding of the watershed functioning in terms of (1) relations between aquifer layers all along the hydrological cycle, (2) relations between surface and groundwaters both spatially and temporarily. For that purpose, Sr isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) are used as a tracer of water-rock interaction and are studied together with major element chemistry and selected trace elements (Rb, Sr). Two spatial sampling campaigns were conducted in low and high flow periods (oct-2009 and march-2010) where 26 spring samples emerging from the two main aquifers (Dogger and Infra-Toarcian) were sampled, as well as the main river (Sèvre-Niortaise) draining the area. In addition to these snapshots, 6 representative springs and the river were monthly sampled over one hydrological cycle (13 months, from oct-2009 to oct-2010). In this study we present the Sr isotopic

  20. Use of hydrological modelling and isotope techniques in Guvenc basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinbilek, D.

    1991-07-01

    The study covers the work performed under Project No. 335-RC-TUR-5145 entitled ''Use of Hydrologic Modelling and Isotope Techniques in Guvenc Basin'' and is an initial part of a program for estimating runoff from Central Anatolia Watersheds. The study presented herein consists of mainly three parts: 1) the acquisition of a library of rainfall excess, direct runoff and isotope data for Guvenc basin; 2) the modification of SCS model to be applied to Guvenc basin first and then to other basins of Central Anatolia for predicting the surface runoff from gaged and ungaged watersheds; and 3) the use of environmental isotope technique in order to define the basin components of streamflow of Guvenc basin. 31 refs, figs and tabs

  1. Watershed Central: A New Gateway to Watershed Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many communities across the country struggle to find the right approaches, tools and data to in their watershed plans. EPA recently posted a new Web site called "Watershed Central, a “onestop" tool, to help watershed organizations and others find key resources to protect their ...

  2. Assessment of morphometric characteristics of Chakrar watershed in Madhya Pradesh India using geospatial technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Sandeep

    2017-09-01

    The quantitative analysis of the watershed is important for the quantification of the channel network and to understand its geo-hydrological behaviour. Assessment of drainage network and their relative parameters have been quantitatively carried out for the Chakrar watershed of Madhya Pradesh, India, to understand the prevailing geological variation, topographic information and structural setup of the watershed and their interrelationship. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) has been used for the delineation and calculation of the morphometric parameters of the watershed. The Chakrar watershed is sprawled over an area of 415 km2 with dendritic, parallel and trellis drainage pattern. It is sub-divided into nine sub-watersheds. The study area is designated as sixth-order basin and lower and middle order streams mostly dominate the basin with the drainage density value of 2.46 km/km2 which exhibits gentle to steep slope terrain, medium dense vegetation, and less permeable with medium precipitation. The mean bifurcation value of the basin is 4.16 and value of nine sub-watersheds varies from 2.83 to 4.44 which reveals drainage networks formed on homogeneous rocks when the influences of geologic structures on the stream network is negligible. Form factor, circularity ratio and elongation ratio indicate an elongated basin shape having less prone to flood, lower erosion and sediment transport capacities. The results from the morphometric assessment of the watershed are important in water resources evaluation and its management and for the selection of recharge structure in the area for future water management.

  3. Impacts of reforestation upon sediment load and water outflow in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Theodor D. Leininger; Matt Moran

    2013-01-01

    Among the world’s largest coastal and river basins, the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMRAV)is one of the most disturbed by human activities. This study ascertained the impacts of reforestation on water outflow attenuation (i.e., water flow out of the watershed outlet) and sediment load reduction in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed (LYRW) within the LMRAV...

  4. McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrailkil, Jim

    2003-12-01

    BPA funding, in conjunction with contributions from numerous partners organizations, supports the McKenzie Watershed Council's efforts to coordinate restoration and monitoring programs of federal, state, local government, and residents within the watershed. A primary goal of the Council's program is to improve resource stewardship and conserve fish, wildlife, and water quality resources. The MWC will always have a baseline program centered on relationship building and information sharing. This watershed program is strengthened by the completion of the BPA funded Sub-basin Assessment, Conservation Strategy and the establishment of a Benchmarks system, thus, providing the MWC a prioritized framework for restoration efforts. Objectives for FY03 included: (1) Continued coordination of McKenzie Watershed activities among diverse groups that restore fish and wildlife habitat in the watershed, with a focus on the lower McKenzie, including private lands and the McKenzie-Willamette confluence area; (2) Influence behavior of watershed residents to benefit watershed function though a strategic and comprehensive outreach and education program, utilizing Assessment and Conservation Strategy information to provide a context for prioritized action; (3) Continue to maintain and sustain a highly functional watershed council; (4) Maintain and improve water quality concerns through the continuation of Council-sponsored monitoring and evaluation programs; and (5) Continue to secure other funding for watershed restoration and protection projects and council operations.

  5. Small Reservoir Impact on Simulated Watershed-Scale Nutrient Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane J. Prochnow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT is used to assess the influence of small upland reservoirs (PL566 on watershed nutrient yield. SWAT simulates the impact of collectively increasing and decreasing PL566 magnitudes (size parameters on the watershed. Totally removing PL566 reservoirs results in a 100% increase in total phosphorus and an 82% increase in total nitrogen, while a total maximum daily load (TMDL calling for a 50% reduction in total phosphorus can be achieved with a 500% increase in the magnitude of PL566s in the watershed. PL566 reservoirs capture agriculture pollution in surface flow, providing long-term storage of these constituents when they settle to the reservoir beds. A potential strategy to reduce future downstream nutrient loading is to enhance or construct new PL566 reservoirs in the upper basin to better capture agricultural runoff.

  6. Watershed processes, fish habitat, and salmonid distribution in the Tonsina River (Copper River watershed), Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, D. B.; Ligon, F. K.; Sloat, M. R.; Amerson, B.; Ralph, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    The Copper River watershed is a critical resource for northeastern Pacific salmon, with annual escapements in the millions. The Tonsina River basin, a diverse 2100-km2 tributary to the Copper River that supports important salmonid populations, offers an opportunity to integrate watershed-scale channel network data with field reconnaissance of physical processes and observed distribution of salmonid species. Our long-term goals are to characterize habitats critical to different salmonid life stages, describe the geologic context and current geologic processes that support those habitats in key channel reaches, and predict their watershed-wide distribution. The overarching motivation for these goals is resource conservation, particularly in the face of increased human activity and long-term climate change. Channel geomorphology within the Tonsina River basin reflects inherited glacial topography. Combinations of drainage areas, slopes, channel confinement, and sediment-delivery processes are unique to this environment, giving rise to channel "types" that are recognizable but that do not occur in the same positions in the channel network as in nonglaciated landscapes. We also recognize certain channel forms providing fish habitat without analog in a nonglacial landscape, notably relict floodplain potholes from once-stranded and long-melted ice blocks. Salmonid species dominated different channel types within the watershed network. Sockeye salmon juveniles were abundant in the low-gradient, turbid mainstem; Chinook juveniles were also captured in the lower mainstem, with abundant evidence of spawning farther downstream. Coho juveniles were abundant in upper, relatively large tributaries, even those channels with cobble-boulder substrates and minimal woody debris that provide habitats more commonly utilized by Chinook in low-latitude systems. More detailed field sampling also revealed that patterns of species composition and abundance appeared related to small

  7. Fish Passage Assessment: Big Canyon Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Richard

    2004-02-01

    This report presents the results of the fish passage assessment as outlined as part of the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project as detailed in the CY2003 Statement of Work (SOW). As part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP), this project is one of Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) many efforts at off-site mitigation for damage to salmon and steelhead runs, their migration, and wildlife habitat caused by the construction and operation of federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The proposed restoration activities within the Big Canyon Creek watershed follow the watershed restoration approach mandated by the Fisheries and Watershed Program. Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program vision focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects. We strive toward maximizing historic ecosystem productive health, for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations. The Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program (NPTFWP) sponsors the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project. The NPTFWP has the authority to allocate funds under the provisions set forth in their contract with BPA. In the state of Idaho vast numbers of relatively small obstructions, such as road culverts, block thousands of miles of habitat suitable for a variety of fish species. To date, most agencies and land managers have not had sufficient, quantifiable data to adequately address these barrier sites. The ultimate objective of this comprehensive inventory and assessment was to identify all barrier crossings within the watershed. The barriers were then prioritized according to the

  8. Impacts of forest changes on hydrology: a case study of large watersheds in the upper reaches of Minjiang River watershed in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, X.; Liu, S.; Wei, X.

    2012-11-01

    Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed, located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River basin, plays a strategic role in the environmental protection and economic and social well-being for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze River basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a size of 24 000 km2. Due to its strategic significance, severe historic deforestation and high sensitivity to climate change, the watershed has long been recognized as one of the highest priority watersheds in China for scientific research and resource management. The purpose of this review paper is to provide a state-of-the-art summary on what we have learned from several recently completed research programs (one of them known as "973 of the China National Major Fundamental Science" from 2002 to 2008). This summary paper focused on how land cover or forest change affected hydrology at both forest stand and watershed scales in this large watershed. Inclusion of two different spatial scales is useful, because the results from a small spatial scale (e.g. forest stand level) can help interpret the findings on a large spatial scale. Our review suggests that historic forest harvesting or land cover change has caused significant water yield increase due to reduction of forest canopy interception and evapotranspiration caused by removal of forest vegetation on both spatial scales. The impact magnitude caused by forest harvesting indicates that the hydrological effects of forest or land cover changes can be as important as those caused by climate change, while the opposite impact directions suggest their offsetting effects on water yield in the Minjiang River watershed. In addition, different types of forests have different magnitudes of evapotranspiration (ET), with

  9. Impacts of forest changes on hydrology: a case study of large watersheds in the upper reaches of Minjiang River watershed in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Cui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed, located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River basin, plays a strategic role in the environmental protection and economic and social well-being for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze River basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a size of 24 000 km2. Due to its strategic significance, severe historic deforestation and high sensitivity to climate change, the watershed has long been recognized as one of the highest priority watersheds in China for scientific research and resource management. The purpose of this review paper is to provide a state-of-the-art summary on what we have learned from several recently completed research programs (one of them known as "973 of the China National Major Fundamental Science" from 2002 to 2008. This summary paper focused on how land cover or forest change affected hydrology at both forest stand and watershed scales in this large watershed. Inclusion of two different spatial scales is useful, because the results from a small spatial scale (e.g. forest stand level can help interpret the findings on a large spatial scale. Our review suggests that historic forest harvesting or land cover change has caused significant water yield increase due to reduction of forest canopy interception and evapotranspiration caused by removal of forest vegetation on both spatial scales. The impact magnitude caused by forest harvesting indicates that the hydrological effects of forest or land cover changes can be as important as those caused by climate change, while the opposite impact directions suggest their offsetting effects on water yield in the Minjiang River watershed. In addition, different types of forests have different magnitudes of

  10. Assessment Of Morphometric Characteristics Of Karwadi-Nandapur Micro Watershed Using Remote Sensing And Geographical Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Patil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study area is Karwadi-Nandapur watershed is a micro watershed which falls in the Kayadhu river watershed in Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Using the remotely sensed images of the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite P6 IRS P6 Linear Imaging Self Scanner IIILISS III images captured in October 2010 and November 2011 having resolution of 23.5m X 23.5m and images from Google Earth Pro of study area were used and cartosat satellites. Map of India with scale 11500000 and soil maps of India were used for the experimental study. The thematic maps like drainage map land use and land cover map soil maps and contour map were prepared adopting the PCI Geomatica10.0 software. The geographical information systems GIS analysis was made for the said themes using the Arc GIS ArcMap10.0. The Karwadi- Nandapur watershed was found to be the third order basin. The present study aims to assess the morphometric characteristics of the watershed basin and it has been assessed by applying GIS techniques. Strahlers method has been employed to assess the fluvial characteristics of the study watershed. Each morphometric characteristic is considered as a single parameter and knowledge based weight age has been assigned by considering its role in soil erosion. The morphometric properties determined for this watershed as a whole and for each watershed will be useful for the efficient planning of water harvesting and groundwater projects on watershed basis.

  11. Using the analytical hierarchy process to assess the environmental vulnerabilities of basins in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ling; Chao, Yu-Chi

    2012-05-01

    Every year, Taiwan endures typhoons and earthquakes; these natural hazards often induce landslides and debris flows. Therefore, watershed management strategies must consider the environmental vulnerabilities of local basins. Because many factors affect basin ecosystems, this study applied multiple criteria analysis and the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to evaluate seven criteria in three phases (geographic phase, hydrologic phase, and societal phase). This study focused on five major basins in Taiwan: the Tan-Shui River Basin, the Ta-Chia River Basin, the Cho-Shui River Basin, the Tseng-Wen River Basin, and the Kao-Ping River Basin. The objectives were a comprehensive examination of the environmental characteristics of these basins and a comprehensive assessment of their environmental vulnerabilities. The results of a survey and AHP analysis showed that landslide area is the most important factor for basin environmental vulnerability. Of all these basins, the Cho-Shui River Basin in central Taiwan has the greatest environmental vulnerability.

  12. Morphometric evaluation of Swarnrekha watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India: an integrated GIS-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhishek; Singh, Prafull; Pratap, Kamleshwar

    2017-07-01

    The quantitative analysis of the watershed is vital to understand the hydrological setup of any terrain. The present study deals with quantitative evaluation of Swarnrekha Watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India based on IRS satellite data and SRTM DEM. Morphometric parameters of the watershed were evaluated by computations of linear and areal aspect using standard methodology in GIS environment. ARC GIS software was utilized for morphometric component analysis and delineation of the watershed using SRTM digital elevation model (DEM). The watershed is drained by a fifth-order river and shown a dendritic drainage pattern, which is a sign of the homogeneity in texture and lack of structural control. The drainage density in the area has been found to be low which indicates that the area possesses highly permeable soils and low relief. The bifurcation ratio varies from 3.00 to 5.60 and elongation ratio is 0.518 which reveals that the basin belongs to the elongated shape basin and has the potential for water management. The main objective of the paper is to extract the morphometric parameters of the watershed and their relevance in water resource evaluation management. The results observed from this work would be useful in categorization of watershed for future water management and selection recharge structure in the area.

  13. WATERSHED SELECTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION USING MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Francisco

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Anhumas creek watershed, in the region of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, is degraded also as a result of unplanned land use of its riparian zones, considered Permanent Preservation Areas (APP. Therefore, river flow is unstable, promoting frequent flood damages, besides the lack of several environmental functions of its APPs. Environmental recovery of a degraded area requires a comprehensive effort, often multidisciplinary. Multicriterial analysis is a tool which allows gathering a diversity of attributes of the studied subject, weighing and valuating them, helping in the decision making effort. This work aims to apply two methods of multicriteria analysis to optimize the selection of a watershed for an environmental recovery study of APPs in the Anhumas watershed. The Anhumas watershed was divided in 7 sub-basins aiming the selection of one of those to implement an environmental planning study and to establish and rank areas that should be prioritized for recovery. Thirteen environmental criteria were selected for application of multicriteria analysis using the methods of Compromise Programming (PC and Cooperative Game Theory (CGT. Relevance of each criterion to the analysis was given by a questionnaire answered by specialists. Basin selection results showed no difference neither between PC and CGT nor between mean or mode used to standardize weights given by specialists. Multicriteria analysis was effective, but allowed enough flexibility for the decision maker (DM to adjust undesired analysis distortions. After DM adjustments, the priority basins were ranked as basins 4 > 7 > 5 > 6 > 2 > 3 > 1. Important procedures when carrying out such an analysis were to avoid conceptual overlapping among different criteria, to implement appropriate value judgment for each criterion and to use decision maker expertise to supplement weights obtained with specialists.

  14. Fundamentals of watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    This is a primer about hydrology, the science of water. Watersheds are the basic land unit for water resource management and their delineation, importance, and variation are explained and illustrated. The hydrologic cycle and its components (precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, soil water, groundwater, and streamflow) which collectively provide a foundation for...

  15. Watershed hydrology. Chapter 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elons S. Verry; Kenneth N. Brooks; Dale S. Nichols; Dawn R. Ferris; Stephen D. Sebestyen

    2011-01-01

    Watershed hydrology is determined by the local climate, land use, and pathways of water flow. At the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), streamflow is dominated by spring runoff events driven by snowmelt and spring rains common to the strongly continental climate of northern Minnesota. Snowmelt and rainfall in early spring saturate both mineral and organic soils and...

  16. Watersheds in disordered media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José S. Andrade Jr.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watershedsseparating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have beenused to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes betweencountries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance,slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in awatershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arisesnaturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide,and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields suchas image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scalingproperties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a moreprofound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed andstatistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of awatershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometricaland physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificialmodel landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be ingood qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.

  17. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execution of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and KINEmatic Runoff and EROSion (KINEROS2) hydrologic models. The application of these two models allows AGWA to conduct hydrologic modeling and watershed assessments at multiple temporal and spatial scales. AGWA’s current outputs are runoff (volumes and peaks) and sediment yield, plus nitrogen and phosphorus with the SWAT model. AGWA uses commonly available GIS data layers to fully parameterize, execute, and visualize results from both models. Through an intuitive interface the user selects an outlet from which AGWA delineates and discretizes the watershed using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the individual model requirements. The watershed model elements are then intersected with soils and land cover data layers to derive the requisite model input parameters. The chosen model is then executed, and the results are imported back into AGWA for visualization. This allows managers to identify potential problem areas where additional monitoring can be undertaken or mitigation activities can be focused. AGWA also has tools to apply an array of best management practices. There are currently two versions of AGWA available; AGWA 1.5 for

  18. Allegheny County Watershed Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the 52 isolated sub-Watersheds of Allegheny County that drain to single point on the main stem rivers. Created by 3 Rivers 2nd Nature based...

  19. Identification of Flood Source Areas in Pahang River Basin, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of upland watersheds in flood source contribution towards downstream areas in a river basin system are generally neglected in the inclusion of management strategy related to downstream flood management. In this study an assessment on the flood source area of Pahang river basin was attempted. The concept of unit flood response as an index of hydrologic response was used in identifying the flood source areas for the basin. The results indicated that among the 16 sub-basins of Pahang river basin, sub-basin of Sungai Pahang is ranked first in production of flood discharge while Sungai Perting sub-basin is ranked last in term of production of flood discharge. Comparison between maximum daily discharge of upper and lower segments of Pahang river basin indicated that up-stream watershed contributes significantly high and more flood (94.78% than down-stream (5.22%. In addition, the upland watersheds were found to more efficient in producing surface runoff and send the floodwater to the lower receiving basin of Sungai Pahang. Considering that basin flood response is generally a nonlinear function of many factors, the sub-basins that are located nearest to and most distance from the basin outlet do not necessarily generate the highest and lowest contribution to the flood peak at the outlet. Similarly, sub-basins producing the highest or lowest absolute or specific discharge at their own outlet may not necessarily ranked first and last in flood index.

  20. 77 FR 33194 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Bay Watershed Education and Training Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Bay Watershed Education and Training Program National Evaluation System AGENCY... to Bronwen Rice, NOAA Office of Education, (202) 482-6797 or [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract This request is for a new information collection. The NOAA Office of Education's Bay...

  1. 2011 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Quinault River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Quinault River Basin survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium and...

  2. [Decision support system for watershed management: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Yan, Jing

    2012-07-01

    Watershed management decision support system (DSS) is an intellectual system developed for the optimal allocation of water resources by watershed managers, and the simulation results of the system can directly affect the scientificity and practicability of watershed management. This paper summarized the related researches from the aspects of water quantity simulation and deployment systems, water quality monitoring and evaluation systems, and integrated watershed management systems. The main features and problems in existing DSS were analyzed, and the model structure and development status of the representative systems such as AQUA-Tool, Elbe-DSS, and HD were introduced. It was suggested that the accuracy and stability of simulated results, the succinctness of working process, and the high degree of user visualization would be the focuses in developing the DSS in the future, and the optimization of program-selecting models and 3D visualization tools, the research and development of inter-basin integrated management DSS, and the improvement of stakeholder participation would be the development trend for the future watershed management DSS.

  3. Effects of hurricane disturbance on stream water concentrations and fluxes in eight tropical forest watersheds of the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOUGLAS. A. SCHAEFER; WILLIAM H. McDOWELL; FREDRICK N. SCATENA; CLYDE E. ASBURY

    2000-01-01

    Stream water chemistry responds substantially to watershed disturbances, but hurricane effects have not been extensively investigated in tropical regions. This study presents a long-term (2.5±11 y) weekly record of stream water chemistry on eight forested watersheds (catchment basins) in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. This includes a period before and at least...

  4. Sacaton riparian grasslands of the Sky Islands: Mapping distribution and ecological condition using state-and-transition models in Upper Cienega Creek Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron Tiller; Melissa Hughes; Gita Bodner

    2013-01-01

    Riparian grasslands dominated by Sporobolus wrightii (big sacaton) were once widely distributed in the intermountain basins of the Madrean Archipelago. These alluvial grasslands are still recognized as key resources for watershed function, livestock, and wildlife. The upper Cienega Creek watershed in SE Arizona is thought to harbor some of the region’s most extensive...

  5. Priority targets for environmental research in the Sinos River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FR. Spilki

    Full Text Available The Sinos River Basin is often mentioned as a highly degraded watershed. A series of impacts on water quality, soil and air has been reported in this environment on a recurring basis over the years. This situation of environmental degradation has its origins in a process of huge economic development uncoupled from environmental conservation concerns. The intense consequent urbanization observed for the municipalities within the watershed was not preceded by urban planning proper zoning. The time has arrived for initiatives in scientific research in the Sinos River basin that are applicable to a more efficient and integrated management and recovery of the basin. In this article, a set of targets for research is suggested which the authors consider as the main priorities for the next few years, aiming for better knowledge and better management of the watershed. Some are still in course, while others have to be initiated as soon as possible.

  6. Optimal Subdivision for Treatment and Management of Catastrophic Landslides in a Watershed Using Topographic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Yuan; Fu, Kuei-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Yu

    2016-11-01

    Recent extreme rainfall events led to many landslides due to climate changes in Taiwan. How to effectively promote post-disaster treatment and/or management works in a watershed/drainage basin is a crucial issue. Regarding the processes of watershed treatment and/or management works, disaster hotspot scanning and treatment priority setup should be carried out in advance. A scanning method using landslide ratio to determine the appropriate outlet of an interested watershed, and an optimal subdivision system with better homogeneity and accuracy in landslide ratio estimation were developed to help efficient executions of treatment and/or management works. Topography is a key factor affecting watershed landslide ratio. Considering the complexity and uncertainty of the natural phenomenon, multivariate analysis was applied to understand the relationship between topographic factors and landslide ratio in the interested watershed. The concept of species-area curve, which is usually adopted at on-site vegetation investigation to determinate the suitable quadrate size, was used to derive the optimal threshold in subdivisions. Results show that three main component axes including factors of scale, network and shape extracted from Digital Terrain Model coupled with areas of landslide can effectively explain the characteristics of landslide ratio in the interested watershed, and a relation curve obtained from the accuracy of landslide ratio classification and number of subdivisions could be established to derive optimal subdivision of the watershed. The subdivision method promoted in this study could be further used for priority rank and benefit assessment of landslide treatment in a watershed.

  7. The hydrographic basin a space for the environmental planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunoyer Mejia Monica

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of the work done in watershed management in the framework of sustainable development in Caldas, it describes different points of view to the watershed management approaches as well as its legal aspects developed in the recent history of Colombia. You will also find different basins delineations according to the size, spatial scale used, and the proposed objectives to achieve different goals in watershed management as a way to do environmental planning. At the end of this paper you will find a description of the methodological faces used to achieve a so-called ordering plan, based on legal. Parameters used to date in Colombia

  8. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kootenai River Network, (Kootenai River Network, Libby, MT)

    2005-07-01

    The Kootenai River Network (KRN) was contracted by the Bonneville Power Administration; PPA Project Number 96087200 for the period June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2005 to provide Kootenai River basin watershed coordination services. The prime focus of the KRN Watershed Coordination Program is coordinating projects and disseminating information related to watershed improvement and education and outreach with other interest groups in the Kootenai River basin. The KRN willingly shares its resources with these groups. The 2004-2005 BPA contract extended the original Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks contract, which was transferred to the Kootenai River Network through a Memorandum of Understanding in November 2001. The KRN objectives of this contract were carried out by one half-time Watershed Coordinator position in Montana-Idaho (Nancy Zapotocki) and one half-time Watershed Coordination team in British Columbia (Laura and Jim Duncan). Nancy Zapotocki was hired as the KRN US Watershed Coordinator in July 2004. Her extensive work experience in outreach and education and watershed planning complements the Duncans in British Columbia. To continue rejuvenating and revitalizing the KRN, the Board conducted a second retreat in November 2004. The first retreat took place in November 2003. Board and staff members combined efforts to define KRN goals and ways of achieving them. An Education and Outreach Plan formulated by the Watershed Coordinators was used to guide much of the discussions. The conclusions reached during the retreat specified four ''flagship'' projects for 2005-2006, to: (1) Provide leadership and facilitation, and build on current work related to the TMDL plans and planning efforts on the United States side of the border. (2) Continue facilitating trans-boundary British Columbia projects building on established work and applying the KRN model of project facilitation to other areas of the Kootenai basin. (3) Finalize and implement the KRN Education

  9. Diagnosis of agricultural activity in the Guamá watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González Breijo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in the Guamá River Basin with 305 km2 of extension, bounded on the north by the divide or part of the central waters in the heights of the slates next to the community of El Moncada, on the south it is limited by the intersection of the river Ugly with Guamá, on the east with the Paso Viejo River basin and on the west with the Rio Feo Basin. It includes the municipalities of Viñales, Pinar del Río and San Luis. The research aims to diagnose the main problems that justify the implementation of a project for agroecological management in the agricultural activity of the Guamá watershed in the sections belonging to the Pinar del Río and San Luis municipalities. To achieve this objective, historical, dialectical and empirical methods were used. In addition, the studies carried out in the Guamá watershed were systematized and it was determined that the current situation of the basin is unfavorable, characterized by a decrease in productive yields, the increase in soil erosion, as well as insufficient and inadequate agricultural practices that guarantee sustainable management of resources and production.

  10. Adaptive Management Fitness of Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Porzecanski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management (AM promises to improve our ability to cope with the inherent uncertainties of managing complex dynamic systems such as watersheds. However, despite the increasing adherence and attempts at implementation, the AM approach is rarely successful in practice. A one-size-fits-all AM strategy fails because some watersheds are better positioned at the outset to succeed at AM than others. We introduce a diagnostic tool called the Index of Management Condition (IMC and apply it to twelve diverse watersheds in order to determine their AM "fitness"; that is, the degree to which favorable adaptive management conditions are in place in a watershed.

  11. Modeling Mitigation Activities in North Carolina Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient enrichment and excessive sediment loadings have contributed to the degradation of rivers, lakes and estuaries in North Carolina. The North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality (NCDEQ) has implemented several basin-wide nutrient and sediment management strategies, yet gaps remain in understanding the impact of these strategies given the complexities in quantifying the processes that govern the transport of nutrient and sediment. In particular, improved assessment of the status of nutrient and sediment loadings to lakes and estuaries throughout the state is needed, including characterizing their sources and describing the relative contributions of different areas. The NCDEQ Division of Mitigation Services (DMS) uses watershed planning to identify and prioritize the best locations to implement stream, wetland, and riparian-buffer restoration to improve water quality. To support better decision-making for watershed restoration activities we are developing a SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) model framework specifically for North Carolina. The SPARROW analysis (developed by the U.S. Geological Survey) relates water-quality monitoring data to better understand the effects of human activities and natural processes on surface-water quality. The core of the model consists of using a nonlinear-regression equation to describe the non-conservative transport of contaminants from point and nonpoint sources on land to rivers, lakes and estuaries through the stream and river network. In this presentation, preliminary total Nitrogen, total Phosphorus, and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) NC-SPARROW models are described that illustrate the SPARROW modeling framework incorporating specific restoration datasets and activity metrics, such as extent of riparian buffer and easements.

  12. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Bob; Munson, Vicki (Kootenai River Network, Libby, MT); Rogers, Rox (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Libby, MT)

    2003-10-01

    The Kootenai River Network Inc. (KRN) was incorporated in Montana in early 1995 with a mission ''to involve stakeholders in the protection and restoration of the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Kootenai River Basin waters''. The KRN operates with funding from donations, membership dues, private, state and federal grants, and with funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a Focus Watershed Coordinator Program. The Focus Watershed Program is administered to KRN as of October 2001, through a Memorandum of Understanding. Katie Randall resigned her position as Watershed Coordinator in late January 2003 and Munson Consulting was contracted to fill that position through the BPA contract period ending May 30, 2003. To improve communications with in the Kootenai River watershed, the board and staff engaged watershed stakeholders in a full day KRN watershed conference on May 15 and 16 in Bonners Ferry, Idaho. This Annual General Meeting was a tremendous success with over 75 participants representing over 40 citizen groups, tribes and state/provincial/federal agencies from throughout northern Montana and Idaho as well as British Columbia and Alberta. Membership in the KRN increased during the course of the BPA 02/03 grant period. The board of directors grew in numbers during this same time frame and an Advisory Council was formed to assist in transboundary efforts while developing two reorganized KRN committees (Habitat/Restoration/Monitoring (HRM) and Communication/Education/Outreach (CEO)). These committees will serve pivotal roles in communications, outreach, and education about watershed issues, as well as habitat restoration work being accomplished throughout the entire watershed. During this BPA grant period, the KRN has capitalized on the transboundary interest in the Kootenai River watershed. Jim and Laura Duncan of Kimberley, British Columbia, have been instrumental volunteers who have acted as Canadian

  13. Wind River Watershed restoration: 1999 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-01-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey-Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination-Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring-Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment-Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration-Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  14. Influences of watershed geomorphology on extent and composition of riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake M. Engelhardt; Peter J. Weisberg; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2011-01-01

    Watershed (drainage basin) morphometry and geology were derived from digital data sets (DEMs and geologic maps). Riparian corridors were classified into five vegetation types (riparian forest, riparian shrub, wet/mesic meadow, dry meadow and shrub dry meadow) using high-resolution aerial photography. Regression and multivariate analyses were used to relate geomorphic...

  15. Holistic impact assessment and cost savings of rainwater harvesting at the watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the impacts of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems in three watersheds within the Albemarle-Pamlico river basin (southeastern U.S.) using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost assessment. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) categori...

  16. Mail Office

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    The Mail Office wishes to remind users that the CERN mail service is exclusively reserved for official CERN mail. All external official mail must be sent to the Mail Office in an unstamped envelope on which your name and Department must be clearly indicated below the official CERN address (see example) to help us to find you in the event that it cannot be delivered. If you wish to send private mail from the CERN site you must use the post offices at Meyrin (63-R-011) or Prévessin (866-R-C02). Please use "PRIORITY" envelopes only in the case of urgent mail. Any mail containing merchandise (i.e. anything other than documents) must be sent using an EDH shipping request form. INTERNAL MAIL Please remember to include the recipient’s MAILBOX number on the internal mail envelopes, either in the relevant box (new envelopes) or next to the name (old envelopes). This information, which can be found in the CERN PHONEBOOK, simplifies our t...

  17. Alaska Index of Watershed Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Index of Watershed Integrity (IWI) is used to calculate and visualize the status of natural watershed infrastructure that supports ecological processes (e.g., nutrient cycling) and services provided to society (e.g., subsistenc...

  18. Global perspective of watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth N. Brooks; Karlyn Eckman

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of watershed management in moving towards sustainable natural resource and agricultural development. Examples from 30 field projects and six training projects involving over 25 countries are presented to illustrate watershed management initiatives that have been implemented over the last half of the 20th century. The level of success has...

  19. Watershed area ratio accurately predicts daily streamflow in nested catchments in the Catskills, New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris C. Gianfagna

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Watershed area ratio was the most important basin parameter for estimating flow at upstream sites based on downstream flow. The area ratio alone explained 93% of the variance in the slopes of relationships between upstream and downstream flows. Regression analysis indicated that flow at any upstream point can be estimated by multiplying the flow at a downstream reference gage by the watershed area ratio. This method accurately predicted upstream flows at area ratios as low as 0.005. We also observed a very strong relationship (R2 = 0.79 between area ratio and flow–flow slopes in non-nested catchments. Our results indicate that a simple flow estimation method based on watershed area ratios is justifiable, and indeed preferred, for the estimation of daily streamflow in ungaged watersheds in the Catskills region.

  20. Determination of predevelopment denudation rates of an agricultural watershed (Cayaguas River, Puerto Rico) using in-situ-produced 10Be in river-borne quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E.T.; Stallard, R.F.; Larsen, M.C.; Bourles, D.L.; Raisbeck, G.M.; Yiou, F.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate estimates of watershed denudation absent anthropogenic effects are required to develop strategies for mitigating accelerated physical erosion resulting from human activities, to model global geochemical cycles, and to examine interactions among climate, weathering, and uplift. We present a simple approach to estimate predevelopment denudation rates using in-situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be in fluvial sediments. Denudation processes in an agricultural watershed (Cayaguas River Basin, Puerto Rico) and a matched undisturbed watershed (Icacos River Basin) were compared using 10Be concentrations in quartz for various size fractions of bed material. The coarse fractions in both watersheds bear the imprint of long subsurface residence times. Fine material from old shallow soils contributes little, however, to the present-day sediment output of the Cayaguas. This confirms the recent and presumably anthropogenic origin of the modern high denudation rate in the Cayaguas Basin and suggests that pre-agricultural erosional conditions were comparable to those of the present-day Icacos.

  1. Chesapeake Bay watershed pesticide use declines but toxicity increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, S Ian

    2011-05-01

    Large areas of the Chesapeake Bay, USA, watershed are in agricultural land use, but there is no baywide program to track application rates of current-use pesticides in any of the watershed jurisdictions. Watershed studies demonstrate that several pesticides are present in surface and groundwater throughout the region. Between 1985 and 2004, the Maryland Department of Agriculture conducted surveys to estimate pesticide application within the state. Application rates of the dominant insecticides and herbicides were compiled over the survey period. Toxicity of the pesticides was tabulated, and the toxic units (TU) of applied active ingredients were calculated for several animal and plant species. The total mass of pesticides being applied to the watershed declined during the survey period. Due to increasing potency of the chemicals, however, total TUs applied have remained static or have significantly increased depending on the species of bioassay test organism used to assess toxicity. Applying estimates of pesticide transport into rivers in the Mississippi River basin show that significant quantities of pesticides may be entering Chesapeake Bay. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  2. Geomorphometry through remote sensing and GIS for watershed management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswarlu, P.; Reddy, M.A.; Gokhale, K.V.G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Application of remote sensing and GIS for effective determination of the quantitative description of drainage basin geometry for watershed management prioritization forms the theme of this paper. In the present study, each of the eight sub watersheds of Racherla watershed of Prakasam (District) Andhra Pradesh, have been studied in terms of the morphometric parameters -stream length, bifurcation ratio, length ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form factor area, perimeter, circularity ratio, elongation ratio and sediment yield index. The prioritization of the eight sub watersheds is carried out considering morphometry and sediment yield index. Using IRS IC satellite imagery, a computerized database is created availing ARC / INFO software. The initial drainage map prepared from the survey of India toposheets was later unified with satellite imagery. The prioritization of sub sheds based on morphometry compared with sediment yield prioritization and found nearly same for the study area. The information obtained from all the thematic map is integrated and action plan is suggested for land and water resources development on a sustainable basis. (author)

  3. The assessment of land use change impact on watersheds runoff using SWAT: case study of Urmia Lake in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Anahita; Jarihani, Ben; Rezaie, Hossein

    2015-04-01

    Lake Urmia, long counted among the world's largest saltwater lakes, contains only 5% of the amount of water it did just 20 years ago. The decline is generally blamed on a combination of drought, increased water diversion for irrigated agriculture within the lake's watershed and land use mismanagement. It has been believed that land use changes in Lake Urmia basin is one of the most important factors in shrinkage of Urmia Lake in recent decades. Transforming the traditional agricultural practices (i.e., wheat) to the more water consuming practices (i.e., apple orchards) is one of the most important reasons increased agricultural water consumption in the watershed. In this study we assessed the effect of the land use changes of watershed in hydrological runoff processing in the Nazloo chai watershed, one of the most important river basins of the Urmia Lake basin. Actually the rapid and at the same time unreasonable transformations of land use in farm lands of Urmia lake sub basins, extremely has been raised the amount of blue water (surface or groundwater) consumption in watershed which leads to dramatic decrement of watershed runoff amounts. One of the most unfavorable consequences of land use change was changing the blue and green (rainwater insofar as it does not become runoff) water usage patterns in watershed, in addition to water use increment. The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), one of the most important and reliable models which was used to model the rainfall runoff, has been used in current study. The land use maps were extracted from Landsat images archives for the most severe turning points in respect of land use change in the recent 30 years. After calibrating the model, several land use patterns of historical data were used in the model to produce the runoff. The results showed the strong relation between land use change and runoff reduction in the Lake Urmia basin.

  4. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Surface Water Protection: A Watershed Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coty, J

    2009-03-16

    is largely developed yet its surface water system encompasses two arroyos, an engineered detention basin (Lake Haussmann), storm channels, and wetlands. Conversely, the more rural Site 300 includes approximately 7,000 acres of largely undeveloped land with many natural tributaries, riparian habitats, and wetland areas. These wetlands include vernal pools, perennial seeps, and emergent wetlands. The watersheds within which the Laboratory's sites lie provide local and community ecological functions and services which require protection. These functions and services include water supply, flood attenuation, groundwater recharge, water quality improvement, wildlife and aquatic habitats, erosion control, and (downstream) recreational opportunities. The Laboratory employs a watershed approach to protect these surface water systems. The intent of this approach, presented in this document, is to provide an integrated effort to eliminate or minimize any adverse environmental impacts of the Laboratory's operations and enhance the attributes of these surface water systems, as possible and when reasonable, to protect their value to the community and watershed. The Laboratory's watershed approach to surface water protection will use the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed Framework and guiding principles of geographic focus, scientifically based management and partnerships1 as a foundation. While the Laboratory's unique site characteristics result in objectives and priorities that may differ from other industrial sites, these underlying guiding principles provide a structure for surface water protection to ensure the Laboratory's role in environmental stewardship and as a community partner in watershed protection. The approach includes pollution prevention, continual environmental improvement, and supporting, as possible, community objectives (e.g., protection of the San Francisco Bay watershed).

  5. Great Basin Research and Management Project: Restoring and maintaining riparian ecosystem integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2000-01-01

    The Great Basin Research and Management Project was initiated in 1994 by the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station’s Ecology, Paleoecology, and Restoration of Great Basin Watersheds Project to address the problems of stream incision and riparian ecosystem degradation in central Nevada. It is a highly interdisciplinary project that is being conducted in...

  6. A GIS-Based Estimation of Soil Loss in the Densu Basin in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distributed erosion simulation models are useful in evaluation of different strategies for land-use and soil management improvement in watersheds. The increased soil erosion in Densu basin of Ghana has led to siltation of the river channel that is causing flooding in some parts of Accra, Ghana. The most urbanized basin in ...

  7. Zonation of flood production potential in Kabutar Ali Chai watershed using SCS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jananeh, Keristineh

    2015-04-01

    Kabutar Ali Chai watershed is located on the southern hillsides of Mishow mountains, 75 km northwest of Tabriz, NW Iran. This watershed is confined to 1390 and 3230 m elevation levels, where the general dip is from north to south. The watershed area is 67.46 km2 and the length of the main stream is about 24.5 km. This is one of the flood basins in the region and considering the availability of precipitation data for the 20 year interval and the possibility of flood occurrence threatening the downstream villages, the flood production investigations in order to prioritize the sub-basins regarding their flood-potential were carried out using the SCS method. In this regard, the watershed area was divided into 4 sections based on physiographic and topographic characteristics and the existing stream network: A1 (the southern and the low-height end of the watershed), A2 (the mid-western half), A3 (the mid-eastern half) and A4 (the northern and highest part). The precipitation data for 20 year interval were gathered from the nearby weather stations of Tabriz, Sahand, Marand and Sharafkhaneh based on which, the average annual precipitation is about 294 mm, with the highest amounts of 415 to 450 mm in A4 sub-basin and the lowest value of 253 mm in the southern A1 sub-basin. According to the time of concentration estimates based on the stream lengths and the elevation differences, this parameter is highest in A1 sub-basin with the rate of 1.64 h and lowest at A3 sub-basin with the rate of 0.35 h. This parameter has negative correlation with the flood production potential. The runoff height is estimated using the SCS method. In order to determine the CN curve Number, the maps of hydrologic groups of soil, land use and vegetation were prepared and combined with each other and then, by taking into account the area of each homogeneous unit, the CN number was calculated for the watershed and the related CN map was prepared. The peak discharge of the hydrologic units across the

  8. (Dahomey) Basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    13 km maximum width in the onshore at the basin axis along Nigerian and Republic of Benin boundary. This narrows westwards and eastwards to about 5 km (Coker and Ejedawe, 1987; Coker,. 2002). Detailed geology, evolution, stratigraphy and hydrocarbon occurrence of the basin have been described by Jones and ...

  9. Iskuulpa Watershed Management Plan : A Five-Year Plan for Protecting and Enhancing Fish and Wildlife Habitats in the Iskuulpa Watershed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2003-01-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat and watershed resources in the Iskuulpa Watershed. The Iskuulpa Watershed Project was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Fish and Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1998. Iskuulpa will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the John Day and McNary Hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Iskuulpa Watershed, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Iskuulpa Watershed management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Iskuulpa Watershed will be managed over the next three years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management.

  10. Watershed-based survey designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detenbeck, N.E.; Cincotta, D.; Denver, J.M.; Greenlee, S.K.; Olsen, A.R.; Pitchford, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Watershed-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Section 303(d), and development of empirical relationships between causes or sources of impairment and biological responses. Creation of GIS databases for hydrography, hydrologically corrected digital elevation models, and hydrologic derivatives such as watershed boundaries and upstream–downstream topology of subcatchments would provide a consistent seamless nationwide framework for these designs. The elements of a watershed-based sample framework can be represented either as a continuous infinite set defined by points along a linear stream network, or as a discrete set of watershed polygons. Watershed-based designs can be developed with existing probabilistic survey methods, including the use of unequal probability weighting, stratification, and two-stage frames for sampling. Case studies for monitoring of Atlantic Coastal Plain streams, West Virginia wadeable streams, and coastal Oregon streams illustrate three different approaches for selecting sites for watershed-based survey designs.

  11. Community participation and implementation of water management instruments in watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alejandro Perez Rincon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current model of water resources management in Brazil is decentralized, participative and integrated, and adopted the river basin as a planning unit. It is based on the performance of watershed committees; each committee has its own composition and rules of procedure, governed by its statute. The basic principles of this management have been established by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and detailed by the National Water Resources Policy in 1997. At the State level, São Paulo enacted its water resources policy in 1991. This paper examined the participatory process in basin committees of the São Paulo State and its implications in the implementation of the instruments of water management, based in a case study of the Tiete - Jacaré Watershed Committee, using questionnaires filled by the Committee’s members (2009 - 2011. Engagement and integration among the stakeholders was observed. Still, the interviews’ results have shown that the Committee’s statute should be reviewed due to differences between the Federal and the State legislation, mainly regarding the participating sectors and representatives. It also showed a need for more information about water resource issues in this basin and in the State of São Paulo, as a whole. At the same time, it is recommended that representativeness of the institutions within the water council management be improved and that the work produced by the technical chambers be recognised at the committee decision-making level.

  12. Wellspring characteristics in Rawapening watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidah, A. D.; Damayanti, A.; Waryono, T.

    2017-07-01

    Rawapening watershed is formed in a volcanic region and is the headwater of Tuntang River that disembogues into Rawa Pening Lake. Rawa Pening Lake was formed due to gravitational tectonic events that form many faults and folds. Those events result in aquifers that create many wellsprings in Rawapening watershed. This research is conducted to determine the wellsprings distribution based on physical characteristics of the discharge area and the types of wellsprings in Rawapening watershed. Associative and descriptive analysis are used to explain the wellsprings' condition based on height, slopeness, geological formation, and the soil utilization.

  13. Values, Watersheds and Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to articulate and present some arguments for the following main hypothesis concerning the handling of water (HOW) in the urban landscapes of our times of climate change. During industrialism water in urban areas to a very high degree was handled by ‘undergrounding......’ it in systems of water provision, sewagesystems etc. Under conditions of climate change this ‘undergrounding’ approach has shown its limitations. In extreme weather conditions water is ‘resurfacing’ which creates both problems and a new condition of HOW in urban landscapes. Problems of water cannot be ‘buried......’ anymore; they also have to be handled at surface levels. This has two interconnected implications: firstly, watersheds gains new importance for HOW at surface-levels, and secondly, such surfacing of water problems leads to a rise in the potential levels of value-disputes and conflicts of interest...

  14. Case study applications of the BASINS climate assessment tool (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA report will illustrate the application of different climate assessment capabilities within EPA’s BASINS modeling system for assessing a range of potential questions about the effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality in different watershed settings and us...

  15. Struggling with scales: revisiting the boundaries of river basin management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.; Wester, P.; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews, illustrated by two case studies, how struggles around scales play out in three globally hegemonic trends in river governance: (1) stakeholder participation for (2) integrated water resources management (IWRM), conceived at (3) the watershed or river basin level. This ‘holy

  16. Basin Assessment Spatial Planning Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-07-26

    The tool is intended to facilitate hydropower development and water resource planning by improving synthesis and interpretation of disparate spatial datasets that are considered in development actions (e.g., hydrological characteristics, environmentally and culturally sensitive areas, existing or proposed water power resources, climate-informed forecasts). The tool enables this capability by providing a unique framework for assimilating, relating, summarizing, and visualizing disparate spatial data through the use of spatial aggregation techniques, relational geodatabase platforms, and an interactive web-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Data are aggregated and related based on shared intersections with a common spatial unit; in this case, industry-standard hydrologic drainage areas for the U.S. (National Hydrography Dataset) are used as the spatial unit to associate planning data. This process is performed using all available scalar delineations of drainage areas (i.e., region, sub-region, basin, sub-basin, watershed, sub-watershed, catchment) to create spatially hierarchical relationships among planning data and drainages. These entity-relationships are stored in a relational geodatabase that provides back-end structure to the web GIS and its widgets. The full technology stack was built using all open-source software in modern programming languages. Interactive widgets that function within the viewport are also compatible with all modern browsers.

  17. Linking Watershed Nitrogen Sources with Nitrogen Dynamics in Rivers of Western Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, D. J.; Compton, J.; Goodwin, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    We constructed contemporary nitrogen (N) budgets for 25 river basins in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon, USA, to improve the understanding of how recent trends in human-driven N loading have influenced riverine N dynamics in the region. Nearly 20% of WRB stream length is currently in fair or poor condition because of high N concentrations. Additionally, nitrate contamination of drinking water affects at least 8,000 people in the WRB. We hypothesized that 1) the majority of N inputs in the WRB would originate from agricultural activities in lowland portions of watersheds, 2) annual riverine N yield (kg/ha/yr) would correspond to annual per area watershed N inputs, and 3) riverine N yields would be seasonal and highest during winter due to the region's Mediterranean climate. We calculated average annual N inputs for each study basin by summing newly available datasets describing spatially explicit N inputs of synthetic fertilizer, atmospheric deposition, crop biological N2 fixation, biological N2 fixation by red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), livestock manure, and point sources for the period 1996 - 2007. Annual and seasonal riverine N exports were estimated with the USGS model LOADEST calibrated to N concentration data collected during the study period. We estimated that two-thirds of total N input to the WRB study basins in the 2000s came from synthetic fertilizer application. Nearly all fertilizer application occurred on the lowlands near watershed mouths. We found a wide range of riverine N yields from the study basins, ranging from one to 70 kg N/ha/yr. Across the study basins, N export was more strongly correlated to fertilizer application rates than to percent of agricultural area in the watershed. Low watershed N yields reflected a high proportion of watershed area in the forested Cascade Mountain Range, which received low N inputs mainly from atmospheric deposition. N yields from study basins were strongly seasonal, with at least 50%, and

  18. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  19. Evaporation Ponds or Recharge Structures ? the Role of Check Dams in Arkavathy River Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, K.; Srinivasan, V.; R, A.

    2014-12-01

    "Watershed development" has been the dominant paradigm for water management in India for the last two decades. Current spending on watershed development programmes rivals spending on large dams. In practice, watershed development involves a range of soil and water conservation measures including building check dams, gully plugs, contour bunds etc. Despite their dominance in water management paradigms, relatively little empirical data exists on these structures. Importantly, even though the benefits of individual watershed structures are recognized, the cumulative impact of building hundreds of such structures on hydrologic partitioning of a watershed remains unknown. We investigated the role of check dams in two small milli-watersheds in the Arkavathy River basin in South India. We conducted a comprehensive census of all check dams in the two milli-watersheds with a total area of 26 sq km. 40 check dams (representing a density of 1.35/sq km of watershed area) were geotagged, photographed, measured and their condition was recorded. We then selected twelve check dams and monitored the water stored using capacitance sensors. We also set up Automatic Weather Stations in each watershed. Inflows, evaporation and infiltration were calculated at each site to evaluate how check dams alter hydrologic partitioning in the watershed as a whole.

  20. Watershed and longitudinal monitoring events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold Harbert; Steven Blackburn

    2016-01-01

    Georgia Adopt-A-Stream partners annually with many organizations, universities and watershed groups to conduct sampling events with volunteers at a watershed level. These monitoring events range from one-day snapshots to week-long paddle trips. One-day sampling events, also called “Blitzs,” River Adventures and River Rendezvous, generally target 20-50 sites within a...

  1. Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Maeda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon Basin. We used in situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (∼ 1497 mm year−1 and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (∼ 986 mm year−1. For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

  2. Dynamic Model Of Suspended Sediment Concentration River Discharge And Rainfall Intensity At Padang Watershed North Sumatra Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemala Sari Lubis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sediment transport has relationship with hydrologic input primarily river discharge and rainfall intensity. Fluctuation of river discharge and rainfall intensity have great effect on suspended sediment concentration. Bayesian Dynamic Linear Model DLMs is used to study relation of input hydrology and basin response variables. Response variables were taken from suspended sediment concentration and river discharge from a year July 2012 to June 2013 at two outlets at Padang sub-watershed upstream and Padang Hilir sub-watershed downstream of Padang watershed North Sumatra. Datas were analyzed by regression analysis of Suspended Sediment Concentration SSC as a dependent variables while river discharge and rainfall intensity as independent variables. The results showed that river discharge value are the highest on July 2012 and October 2012 at upstream and downstream of Padang watershed respectively. The SSC value are the highest on July 2012 and April 2013 at upstream and downstream of Padang watershed respectively. There is a weak correlation r2 0.002 between SSC and rainfall intensity at source points of outlet at upstream of Padang watershed. There is decreasing of forest paddy and plantation areas but increasing of bush and farming areas from 2012 to 2015 at upstream of Padang watershed. Meanwhile at downstream of Padang watershed were increasing of plantation areas since 2012 to 2015

  3. Prioritization of watersheds in order to perform administrative measures using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Abdolhossein Arami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prioritization of watersheds in order to perform administrative measures is necessary and inevitable. Determining areas of top priority for flood control projects is a managerial decision that should be approved by studies of physical, social and economic status of the region of interesrt and by assessing the outcomes of the past operations. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study morphological and physiographic characteristics, and to use geographic information systems (GIS and multi-criteria decision-making methods (MCDM, to identify the critical sub-basins which have the tendency to be destructed, in Galikesh watershed, Golestan province. This watershed is important, yet critical, in terms of land use change, erosion and flooding in the Golestan Province, Iran. In total, nine morphological parameters were used to prioritize sub-watersheds using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP. The morphological parameters were by some means linked to watershed drainage system. Based on FAHP approach, sub-basins, as vulnerable zones, have been evaluated and cetegorized in five priority levels (very low, low, medium, high and very high levels. The results showed that 44.44% and 22.22% of sub-basins were categorized respectively under average, and high to very high levels, suggesting that the conservation and management measures are essential in order to maintain stability in the region. Thus, the FAHP technique is a practical and convenient method to show potential zones in order to implement effective management strategies, especially in areas where data availability is low and soil diversity is high. Finally, it can be said that without having to encounter high costs and a waste of time, sub-basins could be categorized by means of morphometric parameters in order to implement conservational measures to simutaneously conserve soil and the environment

  4. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project, Segment II, 2000-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, Brian; Olegario, Anthony; Powers, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its second year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey - Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW).

  5. Post decommissioning monitoring of uranium mines; a watershed monitoring program based on biological response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, C.; Coggan, A.; Ludgate, I.

    2006-01-01

    Rio Algom Limited and Denison Mines own and operated uranium mines in the Elliot Lake area. The mines operated from the late 1950's to the mid 1960's and again for the early 1970's to the 1990's when the mines ceased operations. There are eleven decommissioned mines in the Serpent River watershed. At the time of decommissioning each mine had it's own monitoring program, which had evolved over the operating life of the mine and did not necessarily reflect the objectives associated with the monitoring of decommissioned sites. In order to assess the effectiveness of the decommissioning plans and monitoring the cumulative effects within the watershed, a single watershed monitoring program was developed in 1999: the Serpent River Watershed Monitoring Program which focused on water and sediment quality within the watershed and response of the biological community over time. In order to address other 'source area' monitoring, three complimentary objective-focused programs were developed 1) the In- Basin Monitoring Program, 2) the Source Area Monitoring Program and 3) the TMA Operational Monitoring Program. Through development this program framework and monitoring programs that were objective- focused, more meaningful data has been provided while providing a significant reduction in the cost of monitoring. These programs allow for the reduction in scope over time in response to improvement in the watershed. This talk will describe the development of these programs, their implementation and effectiveness. (author)

  6. Altered Ecological Flows Blur Boundaries in Urbanizing Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd R. Lookingbill

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the boundary concept to ecological processes has been recently questioned. Humans in the post-industrial era have created novel lateral transport fluxes that have not been sufficiently considered in watershed studies. We describe patterns of land-use change within the Potomac River basin and demonstrate how these changes have blurred traditional ecosystem boundaries by increasing the movement of people, materials, and energy into and within the basin. We argue that this expansion of ecological commerce requires new science, monitoring, and management strategies focused on large rivers and suggest that traditional geopolitical and economic boundaries for environmental decision making be appropriately revised. Effective mitigation of the consequences of blurred boundaries will benefit from a broad-scale, interdisciplinary framework that can track and explicitly account for ecological fluxes of water, energy, materials, and organisms across human-dominated landscapes.

  7. Lake Brownwood Modification Pecan Bayou Watershed, Colorado River Basin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    temperature of approximately 97 degrees. The average relative humidity at midnight is 66 percent; at 6 a.m., 75 percent; at noon, 48 percent; and at 6:00...buckthorn, greenbrier, grape , and poison ivy. Prickly pear and yucca are also prevalent. There are no known plant species considered to be rare...one high school with a student body of 776, Howard Payne Junior College with a total enrollment of 1,525, one business college, and one beauty college

  8. Forecasting contaminant concentrations: Spills in the White Oak Creek Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borders, D.M.; Hyndman, D.W.; Huff, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation (SSARR) model has been installed and sufficiently calibrated for use in managing accidental release of contaminants in surface waters of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed at ORNL. The model employs existing watershed conditions, hydrologic parameters representing basin response to precipitation, and a Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) to predict variable flow conditions throughout the basin. Natural runoff from each of the hydrologically distinct subbasins is simulated and added to specified plant and process water discharges. The resulting flows are then routed through stream reaches and eventually to White Oak Lake (WOL), which is the outlet from the WOC drainage basin. In addition, the SSARR model is being used to simulate change in storage volumes and pool levels in WOL, and most recently, routing characteristics of contaminant spills through WOC and WOL. 10 figs

  9. Development of an effects-based approach for watershed scale aquatic cumulative effects assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison J; Dubé, Monique G

    2013-07-01

    Environmental impacts can manifest themselves in a cumulative manner over very large spatial (watershed) and temporal (decadal) scales. In response to these challenges, scientists have been developing methods that attempt to assess the complex interactions between our environment and the current and future demands of society. This article proposes a framework for quantifying cumulative changes in water quality and quantity and demonstrates its implementation in an entire watershed, the Athabasca River Basin in Alberta, Canada. The Athabasca River Basin is an ideal watershed for this study as it has undergone significant increase in urban and industrial developments that have the potential to impact this aquatic ecosystem. This framework addresses the problems of setting a historical baseline and comparing it to the current state in a quantitative way. This framework also creates the potential for predicting future impacts by creating thresholds specific to the study area. The outcome of this framework is the identification and quantification of specific stressors (dissolved Na, chloride, and sulfate) showing significant change across the entire Athabasca River Basin, as well as the development of thresholds for these parameters. This information can be used in future assessments of proposed development and possible mitigation in the basin. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  10. Improving Watershed-Scale Hydrodynamic Models by Incorporating Synthetic 3D River Bathymetry Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, S.; Saksena, S.; Merwade, V.

    2017-12-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) have an incomplete representation of river bathymetry, which is critical for simulating river hydrodynamics in flood modeling. Generally, DEMs are augmented with field collected bathymetry data, but such data are available only at individual reaches. Creating a hydrodynamic model covering an entire stream network in the basin requires bathymetry for all streams. This study extends a conceptual bathymetry model, River Channel Morphology Model (RCMM), to estimate the bathymetry for an entire stream network for application in hydrodynamic modeling using a DEM. It is implemented at two large watersheds with different relief and land use characterizations: coastal Guadalupe River basin in Texas with flat terrain and a relatively urban White River basin in Indiana with more relief. After bathymetry incorporation, both watersheds are modeled using HEC-RAS (1D hydraulic model) and Interconnected Pond and Channel Routing (ICPR), a 2-D integrated hydrologic and hydraulic model. A comparison of the streamflow estimated by ICPR at the outlet of the basins indicates that incorporating bathymetry influences streamflow estimates. The inundation maps show that bathymetry has a higher impact on flat terrains of Guadalupe River basin when compared to the White River basin.

  11. Simulating Multi-Scale Mercury Fate and Transport in a Coastal Plain Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightes, C. D.; Davis, G. M.; Golden, H. E.; Conrads, P. A.; Bradley, P. M.; Journey, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury is the toxicant responsible for the largest number of fish advisories across the United States, with 1.1 million river miles under advisory. The processes governing fate, transport, and transformation of mercury in streams and rivers are not well understood, in large part, because these systems are intimately linked with their surrounding watersheds and are often highly spatially variable. In this study, we applied a linked watershed hydrology and biogeochemical cycling (N, C, and Hg) model (VELMA, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessment) to simulate daily flow, fluxes, and soil and stream concentrations of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) at multiple spatial scales in McTier Creek, a Coastal Plain watershed within the Edisto River basin of South Carolina, USA. Our goals were to (1) calibrate and simulate Hg fate and transport processes at a focused reach scale (0.1 km2) and (2) assess how representative the reach-scale parameters and processes are when multi-scale watershed information is included in Hg cycling simulations. Thus, reach-scale parameterization was applied to multi-scaled watersheds, including two headwater sub-watersheds (28 km2 and 25 km2) nested within the McTier Creek watershed (79 km2), to evaluate model performance and how well reach-scale parameterization and processes characterize nested watersheds with increasing drainage areas. The current VELMA simulations suggest that stream water column THg concentration predictions perform reasonably well at different scales based on reach-scale calibrations, but the model simulations of MeHg reach, sub-watershed, and watershed stream concentrations are out-of-phase with observed MeHg concentrations. This result suggests that processes governing MeHg loading to the main channel may be under-represented in the current model structure and underscores the complexity of simulating MeHg dynamics in watershed models. This work supports the importance of hydrology in

  12. The influence of changes in land use and landscape patterns on soil erosion in a watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanghong; Fan, Weiwei; Li, Yueqiang; Yi, Yujun

    2017-01-01

    It is very important to have a good understanding of the relation between soil erosion and landscape patterns so that soil and water conservation in river basins can be optimized. In this study, this relationship was explored, using the Liusha River Watershed, China, as a case study. A distributed water and sediment model based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was developed to simulate soil erosion from different land use types in each sub-basin of the Liusha River Watershed. Observed runoff and sediment data from 1985 to 2005 and land use maps from 1986, 1995, and 2000 were used to calibrate and validate the model. The erosion modulus for each sub-basin was calculated from SWAT model results using the different land use maps and 12 landscape indices were chosen and calculated to describe the land use in each sub-basin for the different years. The variations in instead of the absolute amounts of the erosion modulus and the landscape indices for each sub-basin were used as the dependent and independent variables, respectively, for the regression equations derived from multiple linear regression. The results indicated that the variations in the erosion modulus were closely related to changes in the large patch index, patch cohesion index, modified Simpson's evenness index, and the aggregation index. From the regression equation and the corresponding landscape indices, it was found that watershed erosion can be reduced by decreasing the physical connectivity between patches, improving the evenness of the landscape patch types, enriching landscape types, and enhancing the degree of aggregation between the landscape patches. These findings will be useful for water and soil conservation and for optimizing the management of watershed landscapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical characterization of a watershed through GIS: a study in the Schmidt stream, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Reis

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and geoprocessing are essential tools for obtaining and maintaining records of human actions on space over the course of time; these tools offer the basis for diagnoses of land use, environmental interference and local development. The Schmidt stream watershed, located in the Sinos River basin, in southern Brazil, has an environmental situation similar to that of the majority of small streams draining rural and urban areas in southern Brazil: agricultural and urbanization practices do not recognize the riparian area and there is removal of original vegetation, disregarding the suitability of land use; removal of wetlands; intensive water use for various activities; and lack of control and monitoring in the discharge of wastewater, among other factors, deteriorate the quality of this important environment.This article aims to achieve a physical characterization of the Schmidt stream watershed (Sinos river basin identifying elements such as land use and occupation, soil science, geology, climatology, extent and location of watershed, among others, so as to serve as the basis for a tool that helps in the integrated environmental management of watersheds. By applying geographic information system - GIS to the process of obtaining maps of land use and occupation, pedologicaland geological, and using climatological data from the Campo Bom meteorological station, field visit, review of literature and journals, and publicly available data, the physical characterization of the Schmidt stream watershed was performed, with a view to the integrated environmental management of this watershed. Out of the total area of the Schmidt stream watershed (23.92 km2, in terms of geology, it was observed that 23.7% consist of colluvial deposits, 22.6% consist of grass facies, and 53.7% consist of Botucatu formation. Major soil types of the watershed: 97.4% Argisols and only 2.6% Planosols. Land use and occupation is characterized by wetland (0.5%, Native

  14. Water security evaluation in Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guiqin; He, Liyuan; Jing, Juan

    2018-03-01

    Water security is an important basis for making water security protection strategy, which concerns regional economic and social sustainable development. In this paper, watershed water security evaluation index system including 3 levels of 5 criterion layers (water resources security, water ecological security and water environment security, water disasters prevention and control security and social economic security) and 24 indicators were constructed. The entropy weight method was used to determine the weights of the indexes in the system. The water security index of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 in Yellow River basin were calculated by linear weighting method based on the relative data. Results show that the water security conditions continue to improve in Yellow River basin but still in a basic security state. There is still a long way to enhance the water security in Yellow River basin, especially the water prevention and control security, the water ecological security and water environment security need to be promoted vigorously.

  15. The Role of Denitrification in Stormwater Detention Basin Treatment of Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Natalie R; McPhillips, Lauren E; Shapleigh, James P; Walter, M Todd

    2017-07-18

    The nitrogen (N) cycling dynamics of four stormwater basins, two often saturated sites ("Wet Basins") and two quick draining sites ("Dry Basins"), were monitored over a ∼ 1-year period. This study paired stormwater and greenhouse gas monitoring with microbial analyses to elucidate the mechanisms controlling N treatment. Annual dissolved inorganic N (DIN) mass reductions (inflow minus outflow) were greater in the Dry Basin than in the Wet Basin, 2.16 vs 0.75 g N m -2 yr -1 , respectively. The Dry Basin infiltrated a much larger volume of water and thus had greater DIN mass reductions, even though incoming and outgoing DIN concentrations were statistically the same for both sites. Wet Basins had higher proportions of denitrification genes and potential denitrification rates. The Wet Basin was capable of denitrifying 58% of incoming DIN, whereas the Dry Basin only denitrified 1%. These results emphasize the need for more mechanistic attention to basin design because the reductions calculated by comparing inflow and outflow loads may not be relevant at watershed scales. Denitrification is the only way to fully remove DIN from the terrestrial environment and receiving waterbodies. Consequently, at the watershed scale the Wet Basin may have better overall DIN treatment.

  16. Application of Watershed Scale Models to Predict Nitrogen Loading From Coastal Plain Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    George M. Chescheir; Glenn P Fernandez; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya

    2004-01-01

    DRAINMOD-based watershed models have been developed and tested using data collected from an intensively instrumented research site on Kendricks Creek watershed near Plymouth. NC. These models were applied to simulate the hydrology and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) loading from two other watersheds in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, the 11600 ha Chicod Creek watershed...

  17. Predictive Understanding of Mountainous Watershed Hydro-Biogeochemical Function and Response to Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, S. S.; Williams, K. H.; Agarwal, D.; Banfield, J. F.; Beller, H. R.; Bouskill, N.; Brodie, E.; Maxwell, R. M.; Nico, P. S.; Steefel, C. I.; Steltzer, H.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Wainwright, H. M.; Dwivedi, D.; Newcomer, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Recognizing the societal importance, vulnerability and complexity of mountainous watersheds, the `Watershed Function' project is developing a predictive understanding of how mountainous watersheds retain and release downgradient water, nutrients, carbon, and metals. In particular, the project is exploring how early snowmelt, drought, floods and other disturbances will influence mountainous watershed dynamics at seasonal to decadal timescales. Located in the 300km2 East River headwater catchment of the Upper Colorado River Basin, the project is guided by several constructs. First, the project considers the integrated role of surface and subsurface flow and biogeochemical reactions - from bedrock to the top of the vegetative canopy, from terrestrial through aquatic compartments, and from summit to receiving waters. The project takes a system-of-systems perspective, focused on developing new methods to quantify the cumulative watershed hydrobiogeochemical response to perturbations based on information from select subsystems within the watershed, each having distinct vegetation-subsurface biogeochemical-hydrological characteristics. A `scale-adaptive' modeling capability, in development using adaptive mesh refinement methods, serves as the organizing framework for the SFA. The scale-adaptive approach is intended to permit simulation of system-within-systems behavior - and aggregation of that behavior - from genome through watershed scales. This presentation will describe several early project discoveries and advances made using experimental, observational and numerical approaches. Among others, examples may include:quantiying how seasonal hydrological perturbations drive biogeochemical responses across critical zone compartments, with a focus on N and C transformations; metagenomic documentation of the spatial variability in floodplain meander microbial ecology; 3D reactive transport simulations of couped hydrological-biogeochemical behavior in the hyporheic zone; and

  18. Collaborative management and research in the Great Basin - examining the issues and developing a framework for action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Nora Devoe; Angela Evenden

    2008-01-01

    The Great Basin is one of the most imperiled regions in the United States. Sustaining its ecosystems, resources, and human populations requires strong collaborative partnerships among the region's research and management organizations. This GTR is the product of a workshop on "Collaborative Watershed Research and Management in the Great Basin" held in...

  19. Hydrogeologic framework of the middle San Pedro watershed, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Jesse; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Pool, D.R.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Parker, John T.; Macy, J.P.; Thomas, Blakemore

    2010-01-01

    Water managers in rural Arizona are under increasing pressure to provide sustainable supplies of water despite rapid population growth and demands for environmental protection. This report describes the results of a study of the hydrogeologic framework of the middle San Pedro watershed. The components of this report include: (1) a description of the geologic setting and depositional history of basin fill sediments that form the primary aquifer system, (2) updated bedrock altitudes underlying basin fill sediments calculated using a subsurface density model of gravity data, (3) delineation of hydrogeologic units in the basin fill using lithologic descriptions in driller's logs and models of airborne electrical resistivity data, (4) a digital three-dimensional (3D) hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) that represents spatial extents and thicknesses of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs), and (5) description of the hydrologic properties of the HGUs. The lithologic interpretations based on geophysical data and unit thickness and extent of the HGUs included in the HFM define potential configurations of hydraulic zones and parameters that can be incorporated in groundwater-flow models. The hydrogeologic framework comprises permeable and impermeable stratigraphic units: (1) bedrock, (2) sedimentary rocks predating basin-and-range deformation, (3) lower basin fill, (4) upper basin fill, and (5) stream alluvium. The bedrock unit includes Proterozoic to Cretaceous crystalline rocks, sedimentary rocks, and limestone that are relatively impermeable and poor aquifers, except for saturated portions of limestone. The pre-basin-and-range sediments underlie the lower basin fill but are relatively impermeable owing to cementation. However, they may be an important water-bearing unit where fractured. Alluvium of the lower basin fill, the main water-bearing unit, was deposited in the structural trough between the uplifted ridges of bedrock and (or) pre-basin-and-range sediments. Alluvium of

  20. Review of Watershed Water Quality Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deliman, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    .... Several available watershed water quality models were reviewed and rated with regard to their potential in being utilized as the building block for the development of a Corps of Engineers watershed water quality model...

  1. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 02 - HUC 04

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Level 02 Watersheds....

  2. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and...

  3. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laruelle, G.G.; Dürr, H.H.; Lauerwald, R.; Hartmann, J.; Slomp, C.P.; Goossens, N.; Regnier, P.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and

  4. Estimating nitrate load reductions from placing constructed wetlands in a HUC-12 watershed using LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitigating Gulf of Mexico hypoxia will require practices to reduce nitrate losses from tile drains throughout the upper Mississippi River basin. Wetlands are a key practice to help accomplish this but the locations of feasible wetland sites will need to be determined on a watershed specific basis. T...

  5. LONG-TERM CHANGES IN WATERSHED NUTRIENT INPUTS AND RIVERINE EXPORTS IN THE NEUSE RIVER, NORTH CAROLINA. (U915590)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared patterns of historical watershed nutrient inputs with in-river nutrient loads for the Neuse River, NC. Basin-wide sources of both nitrogen and phosphorus have increased substantially during the past century, marked by a sharp increase in the last 10 years resulting...

  6. Phosphorus run-off assessment in a watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebud, Yirgalem; Naja, Ghinwa M; Rivero, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    The Watershed Assessment Model was used to simulate the runoff volume, peak flows, and non-point source phosphorus loadings from the 5870 km(2) Lake Okeechobee watershed as a case study. The results were compared to on-site monitoring to verify the accuracy of the method and to estimate the observed/simulated error. In 2008, the total simulated phosphorus contribution was 9634, 6524 and 3908 kg (P) y(-1) from sod farms, citrus farms and row crop farmlands, respectively. Although the dairies represent less than 1% of the total area of Kissimmee basin, the simulated P load from the dairies (9283 kg (P) y(-1) in 2008) made up 5.4% of the total P load during 2008. On average, the modeled P yield rates from dairies, sod farms and row crop farmlands are 3.85, 2.01 and 0.86 kg (P) ha(-1) y(-1), respectively. The maximum sediment simulated phosphorus yield rate is about 2 kg (P) ha(-1) and the particulate simulated phosphorus contribution from urban, improved pastures and dairies to the total phosphorus load was estimated at 9%, 3.5%, and 1%, respectively. Land parcels with P oversaturated soil as well as the land parcels with high phosphorus assimilation and high total phosphorus contribution were located. The most critical sub-basin was identified for eventual targeting by enforced agricultural best management practices. Phosphorus load, including stream assimilation, incoming to Lake Okeechobee from two selected dairies was also determined.

  7. Wildfire disturbance impacts on streamflow from western USA watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadol, D.; Wine, M.; Makhnin, O.

    2017-12-01

    Worldwide rapid changes in climate overlaid on changing land management paradigms have dramatically altered ecological disturbance regimes worldwide including in western North America. Ecological disturbances impacted include woody encroachment, pest pathogen complexes, riparian forest changes, and wildfire. These disturbances impact the hydrologic cycle, though the nature of these impacts has been difficult to quantify. Perhaps the greatest challenge is that most basins worldwide are ungauged. Taking wildfire as a globally relevant example of a key ecological disturbance, even within gauged basins, post-wildfire hydrologic response is spatially and temporally variable, affected by a host of variables including fire frequency, area burned, and recovery trajectory. Hydrologic response to wildfire is further understood to be a non-linear function of watershed characteristics and climate. Here we provide a framework that utilizes remote sensing, statistical modeling, field measurements, and geospatial methods to provide first-order estimates of ecological disturbance hydrologic impacts. We apply this framework to compare ecological disturbance hydrologic impacts amongst selected watersheds in the western USA. Here we show that ecological disturbance impacts on hydrology are highly variable, and in many cases have an effect magnitude similar to that modeled for temperature and precipitation changes.

  8. Spatial distribution and output characteristics of nonpoint source pollution in the Dongjiang River basin in south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Q. Q.; Su, M. R.; Yang, Z. F.; Cai, Y. P.; Yue, W. C.; Dang, Z.

    2018-02-01

    In this research, the Dongjiang River basin was taken as the study area to analyze the spatial distribution and output characteristics of nonpoint source pollution, based on the export coefficient model. The results showed that the annual total nitrogen and phosphorus (i.e. TN and TP) loads from the Dongjiang River basin were 67916114.6 and 7215279.707 kg, respectively. Residents, forestland and pig were the main contributors for the TN load in the Dongjiang River basin, while residents, forestland and rainfed croplands were the three largest contributors for the TP load. The NPS pollution had a significant spatial variation in this area. The pollution loads overall decreased from the northeast to the southwest part of the basin. Also, the pollution loads from the gentle slope area were larger than those from steep slope areas. Among the ten tributary watersheds in the Dongjiang River basin, the TN and TP loads from the Hanxi River watershed were the largest. On the contrary, the Gongzhuang River watershed contributed least to the total pollution loads of the Dongjiang River basin. For the average pollution load intensities, Hanxi River watershed was still the largest. However, the smallest average TN and TP load intensities were in the Xinfeng River watershed.

  9. Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed, Oklahoma and Thika River Watershed, Kenya Twinning Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriasi, D.; Steiner, J.; Arnold, J.; Allen, P.; Dunbar, J.; Shisanya, C.; Gathenya, J.; Nyaoro, J.; Sang, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed (FCRW) (830 km2) is a watershed within the HELP Washita Basin, located in Caddo and Washita Counties, OK. It is also a benchmark watershed under USDA's Conservation Effects Assessment Project, a national project to quantify environmental effects of USDA and other conservation programs. Population in south-western Oklahoma, in which FCRW is located, is sparse and decreasing. Agricultural focuses on commodity production (beef, wheat, and row crops) with high costs and low margins. Surface and groundwater resources supply public, domestic, and irrigation water. Fort Cobb Reservoir and contributing stream segments are listed on the Oklahoma 303(d) list as not meeting water quality standards based on sedimentation, trophic level of the lake associated with phosphorus loads, and nitrogen in some stream segments in some seasons. Preliminary results from a rapid geomorphic assessment results indicated that unstable stream channels dominate the stream networks and make a significant but unknown contribution to suspended-sediment loadings. Impairment of the lake for municipal water supply, recreation, and fish and wildlife are important factors in local economies. The Thika River Watershed (TRW) (867 km2) is located in central Kenya. Population in TRW is high and increasing, which has led to a poor land-population ratio with population densities ranging from 250 people/km2 to over 500 people/km2. The poor land-population ratio has resulted in land sub-division, fragmentation, over- cultivation, overgrazing, and deforestation which have serious implications on soil erosion, which poses a threat to both agricultural production and downstream reservoirs. Agricultural focuses mainly on subsistence and some cash crops (dairy cattle, corn, beans, coffee, floriculture and pineapple) farming. Surface and groundwater resources supply domestic, public, and hydroelectric power generation water. Thika River supplies 80% of the water for the city of

  10. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  11. Cloud GIS Based Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediroğlu, G.; Colak, H. E.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we generated a Cloud GIS based watershed management system with using Cloud Computing architecture. Cloud GIS is used as SAAS (Software as a Service) and DAAS (Data as a Service). We applied GIS analysis on cloud in terms of testing SAAS and deployed GIS datasets on cloud in terms of DAAS. We used Hybrid cloud computing model in manner of using ready web based mapping services hosted on cloud (World Topology, Satellite Imageries). We uploaded to system after creating geodatabases including Hydrology (Rivers, Lakes), Soil Maps, Climate Maps, Rain Maps, Geology and Land Use. Watershed of study area has been determined on cloud using ready-hosted topology maps. After uploading all the datasets to systems, we have applied various GIS analysis and queries. Results shown that Cloud GIS technology brings velocity and efficiency for watershed management studies. Besides this, system can be easily implemented for similar land analysis and management studies.

  12. CLOUD GIS BASED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bediroğlu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we generated a Cloud GIS based watershed management system with using Cloud Computing architecture. Cloud GIS is used as SAAS (Software as a Service and DAAS (Data as a Service. We applied GIS analysis on cloud in terms of testing SAAS and deployed GIS datasets on cloud in terms of DAAS. We used Hybrid cloud computing model in manner of using ready web based mapping services hosted on cloud (World Topology, Satellite Imageries. We uploaded to system after creating geodatabases including Hydrology (Rivers, Lakes, Soil Maps, Climate Maps, Rain Maps, Geology and Land Use. Watershed of study area has been determined on cloud using ready-hosted topology maps. After uploading all the datasets to systems, we have applied various GIS analysis and queries. Results shown that Cloud GIS technology brings velocity and efficiency for watershed management studies. Besides this, system can be easily implemented for similar land analysis and management studies.

  13. Application of risk-based multiple criteria decision analysis for selection of the best agricultural scenario for effective watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi Sabbaghian, Reza; Zarghami, Mahdi; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Sharifi, Mohammad Bagher; Herman, Matthew R; Daneshvar, Fariborz

    2016-03-01

    Effective watershed management requires the evaluation of agricultural best management practice (BMP) scenarios which carefully consider the relevant environmental, economic, and social criteria involved. In the Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) process, scenarios are first evaluated and then ranked to determine the most desirable outcome for the particular watershed. The main challenge of this process is the accurate identification of the best solution for the watershed in question, despite the various risk attitudes presented by the associated decision-makers (DMs). This paper introduces a novel approach for implementation of the MCDM process based on a comparative neutral risk/risk-based decision analysis, which results in the selection of the most desirable scenario for use in the entire watershed. At the sub-basin level, each scenario includes multiple BMPs with scores that have been calculated using the criteria derived from two cases of neutral risk and risk-based decision-making. The simple additive weighting (SAW) operator is applied for use in neutral risk decision-making, while the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) and induced OWA (IOWA) operators are effective for risk-based decision-making. At the watershed level, the BMP scores of the sub-basins are aggregated to calculate each scenarios' combined goodness measurements; the most desirable scenario for the entire watershed is then selected based on the combined goodness measurements. Our final results illustrate the type of operator and risk attitudes needed to satisfy the relevant criteria within the number of sub-basins, and how they ultimately affect the final ranking of the given scenarios. The methodology proposed here has been successfully applied to the Honeyoey Creek-Pine Creek watershed in Michigan, USA to evaluate various BMP scenarios and determine the best solution for both the stakeholders and the overall stream health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool v3

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that facilitates integrated water management at the local or small watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed context that is, accou...

  15. Emerging tools and technologies in watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Phillip Guertin; Scott N. Miller; David C. Goodrich

    2000-01-01

    The field of watershed management is highly dependent on spatially distributed data. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made toward the capture, storage, and use of spatial data. Emerging tools and technologies hold great promise for improving the scientific understanding of watershed processes and are already revolutionizing watershed research....

  16. Effects of residential and agricultural land uses on the chemical quality of baseflow of small streams in the Croton Watershed, southeastern New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    Data on the chemical quality of baseflow from 33 small streams that drain basins of differing land-use type and intensity within the Croton watershed were collected seasonally for 1 year to identify and characterize the quality of ground-water contributions to surface water. The watershed includes twelve of New York City's water-supply reservoirs. Baseflow samples were collected a minimum of three days after the most recent precipitation and were analyzed for major ions, boron, and nutrients.

  17. Switching predominance of organic versus inorganic carbon exports from an intermediate-size subarctic watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornblaser, Mark M.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrologic exports of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC, DOC) reflect permafrost conditions in arctic and subarctic river basins. DIC yields in particular, increase with decreased permafrost extent. We investigated the influence of permafrost extent on DIC and DOC yield in a tributary of the Yukon River, where the upper watershed has continuous permafrost and the lower watershed has discontinuous permafrost. Our results indicate that DIC versus DOC predominance switches with interannual changes in water availability and flow routing in intermediate-size watersheds having mixed permafrost coverage. Large water yield and small concentrations from mountainous headwaters and small water yield and high concentrations from lowlands produced similar upstream and downstream carbon yields. However, DOC export exceeded DIC export during high-flow 2011 while DIC predominated during low-flow 2010. The majority of exported carbon derived from near-surface organic sources when landscapes were wet or frozen and from mineralized subsurface sources when infiltration increased.

  18. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of the River Sava watershed in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Kanduč

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The River Sava is a typical HCO3- – Ca2+ – Mg2+ River. Total alkalinity increases in the part of the watershed composed of carbonate and clastic rocks, which are less resistant to weathering processes. Ca2+/Mg2+ ratios are around 2 in the carbonate part of the watershed and increase in the watershed composed of carbonate and clastic rocks, indicating dissolution of calcite with magnesium. According to PHREEQC for Windows calculations, the River Sava and its tributaries are oversaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. δ18OH2O and δDH2O are related to the meteorological patterns in the drainage basin. River water temperatures fluctuate annually following air temperatures.The relationship between the temperature and δ18OH2O and δDH2O values primarily reflects the strong dependenceof δ18O and δD on precipitation and evaporative enrichment in heavy oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of infiltrating water recharging the River Sava from its slopes.The δ13CDIC values are controlled by processes in the terrestrial ecosystem and stream proces-ses such as: (1 dissolution of carbonates, (2 soil derived CO2, and (3 equilibration with atmospheric CO2. Lower δ13CDIC values are observed in the spring sampling season due to abundant precipitation related to soil leaching of CO2 in the river system. From discharge and concentration measurements of sulphate and according to the drainage area of the River Sava basin, the annual sulphur fluxat the border with Croatia was estimated to be 1.4 × 107 g SO4/km2. Assuming that the sources of SO42- to the Sava are its tributaries, precipitationand other sources, the contributions of these inputs were calculated according to steady state equations and estimated to be 52 : 8 : 40 %, respectively. Other sources are attributed to human influences such as industrial pollution and oxidation of sulphides.

  19. Understanding human impacts to tropical coastal ecosystems through integrated hillslope erosion measurements, optical coastal waters characterization, watershed modeling, marine ecosystem assessments, and natural resource valuations in two constrasting watersheds in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Zayas, J.; Melendez, J.; Barreto, M.; Santiago, L.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Figueroa, Y.; Setegn, S. G.; Guild, L. S.; Armstrong, R.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal ecosystems are an asset to many tropical island economies. In Puerto Rico, however, many invaluable coastal ecosystems are at risk due to multiple social and natural environmental stressors. To quantify the role of anthropogenic versus natural stressors, an integrated multidisciplinary approach was applied in two contrasting watersheds in Puerto Rico. The Rio Loco (RL) watershed in Southeastern Puerto Rico is hydrologically modified with interbasin water transfers, hydroelectric generation, and with water extraction for irrigation and water supply. Intensive agricultural production dominates both the lower and upper portions of the basin. In contrast, the Rio Grande de Manatí (RGM) shows a natural flow regime with minor flow regulation and limited agriculture. The Surface Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to each watershed to assess the effects of land use changes on water and sediment fluxes to coastal areas. From 1977 to 2016, forest areas increased in both watersheds due to the abandonment of farms in the mountains. However, in upper and lower RL, agricultural lands have remained active. Coffee plantations in the upper watershed contribute with high sediment loads, particularly in unpaved service roads. We hypothesize that water fluxes will be higher in the larger RGM than in RL. However, suspended sediment fluxes will be higher in the agriculturally active RL basin. A willingness-to-pay approach was applied to assess how residents from each watershed value water and coastal ecosystems revealing a general higher natural resources valuation in the RGM than in RL. Coastal ecosystems at each site revealed structural differences in benthic coral communities due to local currents influenced largely by coastal morphology. The optical properties of coastal waters are also being determined and linked to fluvial sediment fluxes. Stakeholder meetings are being held in each watershed to promote transfer of scientific insights into a sustainable coastal and

  20. Factors affecting nutrient trends in major rivers of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Langland, M.J.; Yochum, S.E.; Edwards, R.E.; Blomquist, J.D.; Phillips, S.W.; Shenk, G.W.; Preston, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    Trends in nutrient loads and flow-adjusted concentrations in the major rivers entering Chesapeake Bay were computed on the basis of water-quality data collected between 1985 and 1998 at 29 monitoring stations in the Susquehanna, Potomac, James, Rappahannock, York, Patuxent, and Choptank River Basins. Two computer models?the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Model (WSM) and the U.S. Geological Survey?s 'Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes' (SPARROW) Model?were used to help explain the major factors affecting the trends. Results from WSM simulations provided information on temporal changes in contributions from major nutrient sources, and results from SPARROW model simulations provided spatial detail on the distribution of nutrient yields in these basins. Additional data on nutrient sources, basin characteristics, implementation of management practices, and ground-water inputs to surface water were analyzed to help explain the trends. The major factors affecting the trends were changes in nutrient sources and natural variations in streamflow. The dominant source of nitrogen and phosphorus from 1985 to 1998 in six of the seven tributary basins to Chesapeake Bay was determined to be agriculture. Because of the predominance of agricultural inputs, changes in agricultural nutrient sources such as manure and fertilizer, combined with decreases in agricultural acreage and implementation of best management practices (BMPs), had the greatest impact on the trends in flow-adjusted nutrient concentrations. Urban acreage and population, however, were noted to be increasing throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, and as a result, delivered loads of nutrients from urban areas increased during the study period. Overall, agricultural nutrient management, in combination with load decreases from point sources due to facility upgrades and the phosphate detergent ban, led to downward trends in flow-adjusted nutrient concentrations atmany of the monitoring stations in the

  1. Watershed Education for Broadcast Meteorologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamos, J. P.; Sliter, D.; Espinoza, S.; Spangler, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    The National Environmental Education and Training Organization (NEETF) published a report in 2005 that summarized the findings of ten years of NEETF and Roper Research. The report stated, "Our years of data from Roper surveys show a persistent pattern of environmental ignorance even among the most educated and influential members of society." Market research has also shown that 80% of television viewers list the weather as the primary reason for watching the local news. Broadcast meteorologists, with a broader understanding of environmental and related sciences have an opportunity to use their weathercasts to inform the public about the environment and the factors that influence environmental health. As "station scientists," broadcast meteorologists can use the weather, and people's connection to it, to broaden their understanding of the environment they live in. Weather and watershed conditions associated with flooding and drought have major human and environmental impacts. Increasing the awareness of the general public about basic aspects of the hydrologic landscape can be an important part of mitigating the adverse effects of too much or too little precipitation, and of protecting the environment as well. The concept of a watershed as a person's natural neighborhood is a very important one for understanding hydrologic and environmental issues. Everyone lives in a watershed, and the health of a watershed is the result of the interplay between weather and human activity. This paper describes an online course to give broadcast meteorologists a basic understanding of watersheds and how watersheds are impacted by weather. It discusses how to convey watershed science to a media- savvy audience as well as how to model the communication of watershed and hydrologic concepts to the public. The course uses a narrative, story-like style to present its content. It is organized into six short units of instruction, each approximately 20 minutes in duration. Each unit is

  2. Characterizing Ecosystem and Watershed Response to Atmospheric Loading at the Urban Fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, V.; Lopez, S.; Hogue, T.; Rademacher, L.

    2006-12-01

    The southern California region, although highly urbanized and densely populated, is also characterized by steep mountain ranges with extensive forests and diverse ecosystems. Growing population pressure in the region has forced continuing development at the urban fringe. The large mountain systems situated on the windward side of the Los Angeles basin experience high atmospheric nitrogen deposition rates from various urban pollutants. Arroyo Seco, a watershed located on the eastern edge of the Los Angeles basin, is no exception to this trend. The present study uses hydrologic and geochemical data to assess current watershed dynamics and ecosystem responses to the impacts of regional urbanization. The Arroyo Seco stream runs through a deeply incised canyon originating in the San Gabriel Mountains and draining into the Los Angeles River. The current riparian habitat, which comprises only 15 percent of the total land cover within the watershed, contains over 705 species of plants and animals. We focused our studies on the upper reaches of the basin (~18 square miles), which remains undeveloped and consists primarily of chaparral and evergreen forests. This portion of the watershed has an average watershed slope of approximately 6 percent and relatively porous soils. However, estimated runoff ratio from the existing USGS gage and local precipitation gages indicates fairly high runoff (discharge/precipitation ratio of 0.29). Weekly stream samples have been collected over a several year period and analyzed for standard geochemical constituents and stable isotopes to assess deposition impacts on ecosystem function and overall watershed behavior. Stable isotopes of water measured in the weekly Arroyo Seco stream samples deviate from the global meteoric water line (GMWL), particularly during summer months. High evaporative rates in the summer may be responsible for the distinct summer pattern and overall deviation from the GMWL of stream isotope values. An

  3. The US Forest Service Watershed Condition Classification: Status and Path Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, D. H.; Carlson, C. P.; Eberle, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    The US Forest Service Watershed Condition Classification (WCC) was developed as a tool to characterize the condition or health of watersheds on National Forests and Grasslands and assist the Agency in prioritizing actions to restore or maintain the condition of specified watersheds. After a number of years of exploring alternative approaches to assessing the health or condition of watersheds, the WCC and the associated Watershed Condition Framework were developed in response to concerns raised by the US Office of Management and Budget that the Forest Service was not able to demonstrate success in restoring watersheds on a national scale. The WCC was initially applied in 2011 to the roughly 15,000 HUC12 watersheds with an area of Forest Service management of 5% or greater. This initial watershed classification found that 52% (or 7,882) were Functioning Properly (Class 1), 45% (or 6,751) were Functioning at Risk (Class 2), and 3% (or 431) had Impaired Function (Class 3). The basic model used in the WCC was intended to provide a reconnaissance-level evaluation of watershed condition through the use of a systematic, flexible means of classifying and comparing watersheds based on a core set of national watershed condition indicators. The WCC consists of 12 indicators in four major process categories: (1) aquatic physical, (2) aquatic biological, (3) terrestrial physical, and (4) terrestrial biological. Each of the indicators is informed by one or more attributes. The attributes fall into three primary categories: numeric, descriptive, and map-derived, each of which is to be interpreted by an interdisciplinary team at the unit level. The descriptive and map-derived attributes are considered to be semi-quantitative or based on professional judgement of the team. The original description of the attributes anticipated that many of them would be improved as better data and information become available. With the advances in geographic information systems and remote sensing

  4. Geomorphologic and geologic overview for water resources development: Kharit basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaad, Sayed

    2017-10-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of geomorphologic, geologic and hydrogeologic assessment as an efficient approach for water resources development in the Kharit watershed. Kharit is one of largest watersheds in the Eastern Desert that lacks water for agricultural and drinking purposes, for the nomadic communities. This study aims to identify and evaluate the geomorphologic, geologic and hydrogeologic conditions in the Kharit watershed relative to water resource development using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results reveal that the watershed contains 15 sub-basins and morphometric analyses show high probability for flash floods. These hazards can be managed by constructing earth dikes and masonry dams to minimize damage from flash floods and allow recharge of water to shallow groundwater aquifers. The Quaternary deposits and the Nubian sandstone have moderate to high infiltration rates and are relatively well drained, facilitating surface runoff and deep percolation into the underlying units. The sediments cover 54% of the watershed area and have high potential for groundwater extraction.

  5. Chapter 19. Cumulative watershed effects and watershed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid

    1998-01-01

    Cumulative watershed effects are environmental changes that are affected by more than.one land-use activity and that are influenced by.processes involving the generation or transport.of water. Almost all environmental changes are.cumulative effects, and almost all land-use.activities contribute to cumulative effects

  6. Comment on “Suburban watershed nitrogen retention: Estimating the effectiveness of stormwater management structures” by Koch et al. (Elem Sci Anth 3:000063, July 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Walsh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract I reassess a recent analysis of uncertainty in estimates of nitrogen export from stormwater control measures, using structured expert judgment, which concluded that nitrogen export from a watershed in the Piedmont physiographic province of the Chesapeake Bay basin was an order of magnitude greater than from a watershed in the adjacent the Coastal Plain province. Re-analysis of expert responses suggests that hydrographic measurement error is a likely large source of uncertainty in N export from one of the watersheds. Mass-balance estimates of impervious runoff into stormwater drainage systems suggest that nitrogen export from the Coastal Plain watershed is an order of magnitude larger than estimated. This analysis highlights the importance of stormwater drainage infrastructure in driving the hydrology of streams in urban catchments by quarantining impervious runoff from watershed soils.

  7. Morphometry and land cover based multi-criteria analysis for assessing the soil erosion susceptibility of the western Himalayan watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Sadaff; Meraj, Gowhar; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Complex mountainous environments such as Himalayas are highly susceptibility to natural hazards particular those that are triggered by the action of water such as floods, soil erosion, mass movements and siltation of the hydro-electric power dams. Among all the natural hazards, soil erosion is the most implicit and the devastating hazard affecting the life and property of the millions of people living in these regions. Hence to review and devise strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of soil erosion is of utmost importance to the planners of watershed management programs in these regions. This paper demonstrates the use of satellite based remote sensing data coupled with the observational field data in a multi-criteria analytical (MCA) framework to estimate the soil erosion susceptibility of the sub-watersheds of the Rembiara basin falling in the western Himalaya, using geographical information system (GIS). In this paper, watershed morphometry and land cover are used as an inputs to the MCA framework to prioritize the sub-watersheds of this basin on the basis of their different susceptibilities to soil erosion. Methodology included the derivation of a set of drainage and land cover parameters that act as the indicators of erosion susceptibility. Further the output from the MCA resulted in the categorization of the sub-watersheds into low, medium, high and very high erosion susceptibility classes. A detailed prioritization map for the susceptible sub-watersheds based on the combined role of land cover and morphometry is finally presented. Besides, maps identifying the susceptible sub-watersheds based on morphometry and land cover only are also presented. The results of this study are part of the watershed management program in the study area and are directed to instigate appropriate measures to alleviate the soil erosion in the study area.

  8. Dissolved rainfall inputs and streamwater outputs in an undisturbed watershed on highly weathered soils in the Brazilian cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewitz, Daniel; Resende, Julio C. F.; Parron, Lucilia; Bustamante, Mercedes; Klink, Carlos A.; Figueiredo, Ricardo De O.; Davidson, Eric A.

    2006-08-01

    The cerrados of Brazil cover 2 million km2. Despite the extent of these seasonally dry ecosystems, little watershed research has been focused in this region, particularly relative to the watersheds of the Amazon Basin. The cerrado shares pedogenic characteristics with the Amazon Basin in draining portions of the Brazilian shield and in possessing Oxisols over much of the landscape. The objective of this research was to quantify the stream water geochemical relationships of an undisturbed 1200 ha cerrado watershed for comparison to river geochemistry in the Amazon. Furthermore, this undisturbed watershed was used to evaluate stream discharge versus dissolved ion concentration relationships. This research was conducted in the Córrego Roncador watershed of the Reserva Ecológica do Roncador (RECOR) of the Instituto Brasileiro Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) near Brasilia, Brazil. Bulk precipitation and stream water chemistry were analysed between May 1998 and May 2000. The upland soils of this watershed are nutrient poor possessing total stocks of exchangeable elements in the upper 1 m of 81 +/- 13, 77 +/- 4, 25 +/- 3, and 1 +/- 1 kg ha-1 of K, Ca, Mg, and P, respectively. Bulk precipitation inputs of dissolved nutrients for this watershed are low and consistent with previous estimates. The nutrient-poor soils of this watershed, however, increase the relative importance of precipitation for nutrient replenishment to vegetation during episodes of ecosystem disturbance. Stream water dissolved loads were extremely dilute with conductivities ranging from 4 to 10 μS cm-1 during periods of high- and low-flow, respectively. Despite the low concentrations in this stream, geochemical relationships were similar to other Amazonian streams draining shield geologies. Discharge-concentration relationships for Ca and Mg in these highly weathered soils developed from igneous rocks of the Brazilian shield demonstrated a significant negative relationship indicating a continued

  9. Watershed dissolved organic carbon export patterns exhibit significant transport-limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnetske, J. P.; Bouda, M.; Saiers, J. E.; Raymond, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a master variable in aquatic ecosystems and drinking water quality. However, it is difficult to reveal how DOC travels from terrestrial environments to streams and is eventually exported from watersheds. Fundamentally, we need to reveal when and where DOC export is controlled by the sources of watershed DOC or the ability to hydrologically transport it. Therefore, we evaluate the importance of DOC source versus hydrologic transport limitations on watershed DOC export patterns across the United States. To do this, we analyzed empirical DOC flux (F_DOC) patterns across many watersheds (n= 655), which span a wide range of watershed sizes, flow regimes, climates, and biomes. They also represent 66% of the areal extent of the conterminous United States. We fit a power law model of F_DOC for each watershed, where F_DOC=aQ^b. This power-law model had a robust goodness of fit for the watersheds in this data set (mean NSE=0.88). We used the calibrated b value for each watershed to characterize DOC export as either transport-limited (b>1; concurrent increase in DOC concentration with flow), chemostatic (b=1; constant DOC concentration with increasing flow), or source-limited (bconcentration with increasing flow). This synthesis of watersheds demonstrates that DOC export is limited by transport processes in a large majority (69%) of the watersheds in the data set. Further, we used an ensemble method to fit statistical models (i.e., boosted regression trees) that predict the transport- vs source-limitation behavior of watersheds. The observed limitation behavior is largely associated with two land cover variables (evergreen forest and developed land extent) and climatic variables (annual precipitation and temperature seasonality). This synthesis indicates that the coupling of terrestrial and aquatic systems in terms of DOC is predominantly controlled by hydrologic transport processes. Overall, these DOC export findings suggest that future

  10. Multiagent distributed watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.

    2012-04-01

    Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing

  11. Watershed Boundaries, Frederick County, Maryland, watershed management areas that extend to the topographic watershed divide. Watersheds were developed from catchment delineations (2008) by dissolving catchments within larger drainage areas that were previously defined by Fre, Published in 2008, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Frederick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Watershed Boundaries dataset current as of 2008. Frederick County, Maryland, watershed management areas that extend to the topographic watershed divide. Watersheds...

  12. Application of the SWAT model to an endorheic watershed in the Central Spanish Pre-Pyrenees: Methodological approach and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Leticia; White, Sue; Navas, Ana; López-Vicente, Manuel; Palazón, Leticia

    2013-04-01

    Modelling runoff and sediment transport at watershed scale are key tools to predict hydrological and sediment processes, identify soil sediment sources and estimate sediment yield, with the purpose of better managing soil and water resources. This study aims to apply the SWAT model in an endorheic watershed in the Central Spanish Pre-Pyrenees, where there have been a number of previous field-based studies on sediment sources and transfers. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a process based semi-distributed watershed scale hydrologic model, which can provide a high level of spatial detail by allowing the watershed to be divided into sub-basins. This study addresses the challenge of applying the SWAT model to an endorheic watershed that drains to a central lake, without external output, and without a network of permanent rivers. In this case it has been shown that the SWAT model does not correctly reproduce the stream network when using automatic watershed delineation, even with a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (5 x 5 metres). For this purpose, different approaches needed to be considered, such as i) user-defined watersheds and streams, ii) burning in a stream network or iii) modelling each sub-watershed separately. The objective of this study was to develop a new methodological approach for correctly simulating the main hydrological processes in an endorheic and complex karst watershed of the Spanish Pre-Pyrenees. The Estanque de Arriba Lake watershed (74 ha) is an endorheic system located in the Spanish Central Pre-Pyrenees. This watershed holds a small and permanent lake of fresh water (1.7 ha) and is a Site of Community Importance (European NATURA 2000 network). The study area is characterized by an abrupt topography with altitude range between 679 and 862 m and an average slope gradient of 24 %. Steep slopes (> 24 %) occupy the northern part of the watershed, whereas gentle slopes (

  13. Simulating the Hydrologic Effects of Climate Change in 5 Research Watersheds using a Distributed-Parameter Watershed Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. F.; Hunt, R.; Aulenbach, B. T.; Clow, D. W.; Murphy, S.; Shanley, J. B.; Scholl, M. A.; Hay, L.; Regan, R. S.; Markstrom, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    A new focus of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program is the development of watershed models to predict hydrologic response to future conditions including land-use and climate change. Fine-scale models of 5 WEBB watersheds were constructed and embedded in coarse-scale models of larger stream systems. The WEBB watersheds range in size from 41 to 3,260 hectares; the coarse-scale models range in size from 1,100 to 4,800 square kilometers. The coarse-scale models were calibrated using data collected from 1980 to 2012 and included streamflow, snow-water equivalent (where appropriate), and seasonal distributions of solar radiation and potential evapotranspiration. Solar radiation and potential evapotranspiration were retrieved from a national gridded dataset using the USGS Geodata Portal (GDP) tool. Snowpack data was available as a national gridded dataset from December 2003 through November 2012, and was retrieved using the GDP. A stepwise approach was taken to identify specific hydrologic processes pertinent to the calibration targets. Calibration was carried out using the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) suite of automated calibration tools. Several climate models and three emission scenarios were selected from a range of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate projections to investigate the potential hydrologic effects of climate change in the WEBB watersheds. The GDP was used to construct input data sets for each coarse-scale model using a national dataset of downscaled climate data. Comparisons include projected changes in the dominant hydrologic processes across the five WEBB headwater basins, as well as, differences between headwater streams and higher-order streams at a regional scale.

  14. Spatial considerations of snow chemistry as a non-point contamination source in Alpine watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, K.; Williams, M.; Dozier, J.

    1991-01-01

    Alpine watersheds act as a temporary storage basin for large volumes of precipitation as snow. Monitoring these basins for the presence and effects of acid precipitation is important because these areas are often weakly buffered and sensitive to acidification. Study of these sensitive areas may provide early detection of trends resulting form anthropogenic atmospheric inputs. In an intensive study of an alpine watershed in the Sierra Nevada in 1987 and 1988, the authors carefully monitored snow distribution and chemistry through space and time. They found that the volume-weighted mean ionic concentrations within the snowpack did not vary greatly over the basin at peak accumulation. However, the distribution of total snow water equivalence (SWE) was highly variable spatially. Coefficients of variation (CV) for SWE lead to a corresponding high spatial variance in the chemical loading of their study basin. Their results show that to obtain accurate estimates of chemical loading they must measure the chemical and physical snow parameters at a resolution proportional to their individual variances. It is therefore necessary to combine many SWE measurements with fewer carefully obtained chemistry measurements. They used a classification method based on physical parameters to partition the basin into similar zones for estimation of SWE distribution. This technique can also be used for sample design

  15. Morphometric Analysis to Prioritize Sub-Watershed for Flood Risk Assessment in Central Karakoram National Park Using Gis/rs Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, N. H.; Rehman, A. A.; Hussain, D.; Ishaq, S.; Khan, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Morphometric analysis is vital for any watershed investigation and it is inevitable for flood risk assessment in sub-watershed basins. Present study undertaken to carry out critical evaluation and assessment of sub watershed morphological parameters for flood risk assessment of Central Karakorum National Park (CKNP), where Geographical information system and remote sensing (GIS & RS) approach used for quantifying the parameter and mapping of sub watershed units. ASTER DEM used as a geo-spatial data for watershed delineation and stream network. Morphometric analysis carried out using spatial analyst tool of ArcGIS 10.2. The parameters included were bifurcation ratio (Rb), Drainage Texture (Rt), Circulatory ratio (Rc), Elongated ratio (Re), Drainage density (Dd), Stream Length (Lu), Stream order (Su), Slope and Basin length (Lb) have calculated separately. The analysis revealed that the stream order varies from order 1 to 6 and the total numbers of stream segments of all orders were 52. Multi criteria analysis process used to calculate the risk factor. As an accomplished result, map of sub watershed prioritization developed using weighted standardized risk factor. These results helped to understand sensitivity of flush floods in different sub watersheds of the study area and leaded to better management of the mountainous regions in prospect of flush floods.

  16. MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS TO PRIORITIZE SUB-WATERSHED FOR FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT IN CENTRAL KARAKORAM NATIONAL PARK USING GIS/RS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Syed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric analysis is vital for any watershed investigation and it is inevitable for flood risk assessment in sub-watershed basins. Present study undertaken to carry out critical evaluation and assessment of sub watershed morphological parameters for flood risk assessment of Central Karakorum National Park (CKNP, where Geographical information system and remote sensing (GIS & RS approach used for quantifying the parameter and mapping of sub watershed units. ASTER DEM used as a geo-spatial data for watershed delineation and stream network. Morphometric analysis carried out using spatial analyst tool of ArcGIS 10.2. The parameters included were bifurcation ratio (Rb, Drainage Texture (Rt, Circulatory ratio (Rc, Elongated ratio (Re, Drainage density (Dd, Stream Length (Lu, Stream order (Su, Slope and Basin length (Lb have calculated separately. The analysis revealed that the stream order varies from order 1 to 6 and the total numbers of stream segments of all orders were 52. Multi criteria analysis process used to calculate the risk factor. As an accomplished result, map of sub watershed prioritization developed using weighted standardized risk factor. These results helped to understand sensitivity of flush floods in different sub watersheds of the study area and leaded to better management of the mountainous regions in prospect of flush floods.

  17. Groundwater quality in the Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy; Burton, Carmen; Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-20

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed study areas in southern California compose one of the study units being evaluated.

  18. Groundwater quality in the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and American River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2018-03-23

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. In the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and American River Watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, many rural households rely on private wells for their drinking-water supplies.

  19. Geochemical studies in watersheds expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, M. Robbins

    In the past, geochemical research in forested watersheds has focused on understanding the basic processes that occur in soils and rocks. Watershed geochemical processes, however, are greatly influenced by, and in turn, greatly influence, both organisms and biological process in soils, and hydrologic responses of catchments. To date, geochemical research has dealt principally with basic chemical processes in soils and rocks, and much less with questions concerning hydrologic routing through catchments and the effects such routing has on temporal variation in chemical composition of surface waters.Research on flow generation in catchments has focused on intensive field studies on plots, hillslope sections, and small catchments, with extension to larger scales necessarily involving the application of conceptual models that might (or might not) be valid. The acquisition of direct experimental evidence (for example, verifying flow generation mechanisms) on larger-scale watersheds has always been problematic. Although geochemists understand that the explanation of some geochemical observations requires that flow pathways be explicitly identified, and hydrologists understand that flow generation can be better elucidated if the geochemical history of waters is known, critical integrated communication between the disciplines is often lacking. In turn, biologists require physical and geochemical information to interpret biological effects in watersheds, and hydrologists and geochemists need to be aware of the effects of biological processes on hydrochemical response of catchments.

  20. 10 Watershed Disturbance.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    plant species and several endemic butterfly species like N. lamborni and B. ... been colonized by invasive species notably the Siam weed ..... to climate change. If these activities are not checked, the water bodies which owe their existence to the watershed will be negatively affected. Conclusion. The study examined the ...

  1. Watershed evaluation and habitat response to recent storms; annual report for 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.

    2000-01-01

    Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995--96, triggering flooding, mass erosion, and, alteration of salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin. The storms and flooding in 1995--96 provide a prime opportunity to examine whether habitat conditions are improving, because the effects of land management activities on streams and salmon habitat are often not fully expressed until triggered by storms and floods. To address these issues, they are studying the recent storm responses of watersheds and salmon habitat in systematically selected subbasins and watersheds within the Snake River system. The study watersheds include several in the Wenaha and Tucannon subbasins in Washington and Oregon, and the watersheds of Squaw Creek (roaded) and Weir Creek (unroaded) in the Lochsa River subbasin, Idaho. The study was designed to examine possible differences in the effects of the storms in broadly comparable watersheds with differing magnitudes or types of disturbance. Watershed response is examined by comparing storm response mechanisms, such as rates of mass failure, among watersheds with similar attributes, but different levels of land management. The response of salmon habitat conditions is being examined by comparing habitat conditions before and after the storms in a stream and among streams in watersheds with similar attributes but different levels of land management. If appropriate to the results, the study will identify priority measures for reducing the severity of storm responses in watersheds within the Snake River Basin with habitat for at-risk salmon. This annual report describes the attributes of the study watersheds and the criteria and methods used to select them. The report also describes the watershed and fish habitat attributes

  2. Watershed Evaluation and Habitat Response to Recent Storms : Annual Report for 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.

    2000-02-01

    Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995--96, triggering flooding, mass erosion, and, alteration of salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin. The storms and flooding in 1995--96 provide a prime opportunity to examine whether habitat conditions are improving, because the effects of land management activities on streams and salmon habitat are often not fully expressed until triggered by storms and floods. To address these issues, they are studying the recent storm responses of watersheds and salmon habitat in systematically selected subbasins and watersheds within the Snake River system. The study watersheds include several in the Wenaha and Tucannon subbasins in Washington and Oregon, and the watersheds of Squaw Creek (roaded) and Weir Creek (unroaded) in the Lochsa River subbasin, Idaho. The study was designed to examine possible differences in the effects of the storms in broadly comparable watersheds with differing magnitudes or types of disturbance. Watershed response is examined by comparing storm response mechanisms, such as rates of mass failure, among watersheds with similar attributes, but different levels of land management. The response of salmon habitat conditions is being examined by comparing habitat conditions before and after the storms in a stream and among streams in watersheds with similar attributes but different levels of land management. If appropriate to the results, the study will identify priority measures for reducing the severity of storm responses in watersheds within the Snake River Basin with habitat for at-risk salmon. This annual report describes the attributes of the study watersheds and the criteria and methods used to select them. The report also describes the watershed and fish habitat attributes

  3. Post-disturbance sediment recovery: Implications for watershed resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathburn, Sara L.; Shahverdian, Scott M.; Ryan, Sandra E.

    2018-03-01

    Sediment recovery following disturbances is a measure of the time required to attain pre-disturbance sediment fluxes. Insight into the controls on recovery processes and pathways builds understanding of geomorphic resilience. We assess post-disturbance sediment recovery in three small (1.5-100 km2), largely unaltered watersheds within the northern Colorado Rocky Mountains affected by wildfires, floods, and debris flows. Disturbance regimes span 102 (floods, debris flows) to 103 years (wildfires). For all case studies, event sediment recovery followed a nonlinear pattern: initial high sediment flux during single precipitation events or high annual snowmelt runoff followed by decreasing sediment fluxes over time. Disturbance interactions were evaluated after a high-severity fire within the South Fork Cache la Poudre basin was followed by an extreme flood one year post-fire. This compound disturbance hastened suspended sediment recovery to pre-fire concentrations 3 years after the fire. Wildfires over the last 1900 YBP in the South Fork basin indicate fire recurrence intervals of 600 years. Debris flows within the upper Colorado River basin over the last two centuries have shifted the baseline of sediment recovery caused by anthropogenic activities that increased debris flow frequency. An extreme flood on North St. Vrain Creek with an impounding reservoir resulted in extreme sedimentation that led to a physical state change. We introduce an index of resilience as sediment recovery/disturbance recurrence interval, providing a relative comparison between sites. Sediment recovery and channel form resilience may be inversely related because of high or low physical complexity in streams. We propose management guidelines to enhance geomorphic resilience by promoting natural processes that maintain physical complexity. Finally, sediment connectivity within watersheds is an additional factor to consider when establishing restoration treatment priorities.

  4. Hydrological simulation of a small ungauged agricultural watershed Semrakalwana of Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Himanshu; Denis, Derrick Mario; Suryavanshi, Shakti; Kumar, Mukesh; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Denis, Anjelo Francis; Kumar, Rajendra

    2017-10-01

    A study was conducted to develop a hydrological model for agriculture dominated Semra watershed (4.31 km2) and Semrakalwana village at Allahabad using a semi distributed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. In model evaluation it was found that the SWAT does not require much calibration, and therefore, can be employed in unguaged watershed. A seasonal (Kharif, Rabi and Zaid seasons) and annual water budget analysis was performed to quantify various components of the hydrologic cycle. The average annual surface runoff varied from 379 to 386 mm while the evapotranspiration of the village was in the range of 359-364 mm. The average annual percolation and return flow was found to be 265-272 mm and 147-255 mm, respectively. The initial soil water content of the village was found in the range of 328-335 mm while the final soil water content was 356-362 mm. The study area fall under a rain-fed river basin (Tons River basin) with no contribution from snowmelt, the winter and summer season is highly affected by less water availability for crops and municipal use. Seasonal (Rabi, Kharif and Zaid crop seasons) and annual water budget of Semra watershed and Semrakalwana village evoke the need of conservation structures such as check dams, farm ponds, percolation tank, vegetative barrier, etc. to reduce monsoon runoff and conserve it for basin requirements for winter and summer period.

  5. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  6. Officer Computer Utilization Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE 055 DENTISTRY 136 ANTHROPOLOGY 056 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 137 CRIMINAL JUSTICE 057 HEALTH ADMINISTRATION 138 GEOGRAPHY 058...154 LAW. ENVIRONMENTAL 162 VETERINARY 074 OTHER HISTORY FIELD 155 LAW. FORENSIC SCIENCE 163 OTHER 075 OTHER AREA STUDIES 156 LAW. INTERNATIONAL -7...SURVEY OFFICER 207 WEAPONS TECHNICAL INFORMATION OFFICER 208 WEAPONS TECHNICAL OFFICER -m GENERAL DENTISTRY 272 DENTA.. OFFICER GENERAL PRACTITIONER

  7. Integration of a Hydrological Model within a Geographical Information System: Application to a Forest Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Fotakis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Watershed simulation software used for operational purposes must possess both dependability of results and flexibility in parameter selection and testing. The UBC watershed model (UBCWM contains a wide spectrum of parameters expressing meteorological, geological, as well as ecological watershed characteristics. The hydrological model was coupled to the MapInfo GIS and the software created was named Watershed Mapper (WM. WM is endowed with several features permitting operational utilization. These include input data and basin geometry visualization, land use/cover and soil simulation, exporting of statistical results and thematic maps and interactive variation of disputed parameters. For the application of WM two hypothetical scenarios of forest fires were examined in a study watershed. Four major rainfall events were selected from 12-year daily precipitation data and the corresponding peak flows were estimated for the base line data and hypothetical scenarios. A significant increase was observed as an impact of forest fires on peak flows. Due to its flexibility the combined tool described herein may be utilized in modeling long-term hydrological changes in the context of unsteady hydrological analyses.

  8. Hydrological investigations in the semi-arid Makhawan watershed, using morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanday, Mohd Yousuf; Javed, Akram

    2017-11-01

    In order to understand the hydrological behavior of a catchment area, morphometric analysis of the drainage basin plays an important role to expresses the geology, geomorphology and structural antecedents. In the present study, morphometric analysis and its influence on hydrology were carried out in Makhawan watershed, Central India, using SRTM, remote sensing and GIS. SRTM data were used for preparation of DEM, slope and aspect maps. DEM was used to delineate the watershed limits and to extract the channel network, which was later updated using IRS 1D LISS III data. The hydrological module in ArcGIS was used for calculation of watershed and morphometric parameters, under linear, relief and aerial aspects. The watershed shows dendritic-to-sub-dendritic drainage pattern; however, parallel-to-sub-parallel pattern developed locally which may be due to rejuvenation of streams in mature stage with moderate drainage texture. High drainage density in the watershed is observed over impermeable subsurface material, sparse vegetation with high relief; whereas, low drainage density is found over permeable subsurface material and low relief. It has been found that low relief with low drainage density areas are favorable sites for more groundwater prospects.

  9. Office 365 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Withee, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The information you need to create a virtual office that can be accessed anywhere Microsoft Office 365 is a revolutionary technology that allows individuals and companies of all sizes to create and maintain a virtual office in the cloud. Featuring familiar Office Professional applications, web apps, Exchange Online, and Lync Online, Office 365 offers business professionals added flexibility and an easy way to work on the go. This friendly guide explains the cloud, how Office 365 takes advantage of it, how to use the various components, and the many possibilities offered by Office 365. It provi

  10. Multifractal analysis of long term records of karst watershed discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labat, David; Mangin, Alain; Schertzer, Daniel; Tchinquirinskaia, Ioulia

    2010-05-01

    multifractality of the system, the slopes of the M(l,q) function of the moment q are estimated leading to an empirical estimation of the K(q) function, leading to an estimation of the alpha and C1 multifractal parameters. The multifractal parameters determined for karst watersheds appear as slightly different from results from Tessier et al. (1996), Pandey et al. (1998) and Zhou et al. (2007). Therefore, karstic aquifers appear as original hydrological systems that exhibit significant differences with non-karstified watersheds. More precisely, it also shows that the multifractal karstic basin response is rather fast and somehow similar to small basin response. We finally propose some possible connections with the spatial organization of the karsts.

  11. Construction of a Distributed-network Digital Watershed Management System with B/S Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W. C.; Liu, Y. M.; Fang, J.

    2017-07-01

    Integrated watershed assessment tools for supporting land management and hydrologic research are becoming established tools in both basic and applied research. The core of these tools are mainly spatially distributed hydrologic models as they can provide a mechanism for investigating interactions among climate, topography, vegetation, and soil. However, the extensive data requirements and the difficult task of building input parameter files for driving these distributed models, have long been an obstacle to the timely and cost-effective use of such complex models by watershed managers and policy-makers. Recently, a web based geographic information system (GIS) tool to facilitate this process has been developed for a large watersheds of Jinghe and Weihe catchments located in the loess plateau of the Huanghe River basin in north-western China. A web-based GIS provides the framework within which spatially distributed data are collected and used to prepare model input files of these two watersheds and evaluate model results as well as to provide the various clients for watershed information inquiring, visualizing and assessment analysis. This Web-based Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment GIS (WAGWA-GIS) tool uses widely available standardized spatial datasets that can be obtained via the internet oracle databank designed with association of Map Guide platform to develop input parameter files for online simulation at different spatial and temporal scales with Xing’anjiang and TOPMODEL that integrated with web-based digital watershed. WAGWA-GIS automates the process of transforming both digital data including remote sensing data, DEM, Land use/cover, soil digital maps and meteorological and hydrological station geo-location digital maps and text files containing meteorological and hydrological data obtained from stations of the watershed into hydrological models for online simulation and geo-spatial analysis and provides a visualization tool to help the user

  12. Linking the watershed to the schoolshed: teaching sustainable development in K-12 with the Chester RIver Watershed Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembanis, A. C.; Levin, D.; Seidel, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Chester River has been the subject of ongoing scientific studies in response to both the Clean Water Act and the EPA's Chesapeake Bay Program initiatives. The Upper, Middle, and Lower Chester are on the Maryland Department of Environment's list of "impaired waters". The Chester River Watershed (CRW) Observatory is lead by the Center for Environment & Society at Washington College. Eight clusters representing 22 public and private K-12 schools in the CRW provide the sampling sites distributed throughout the watershed. Weather stations will be installed at these sites allowing monitoring of the watershed's microclimate. Each cluster will be assigned a Basic Observation Buoy (BOB), an easy to assemble inexpensive buoy platform for real-time water column and atmospheric condition measurements. The BOBs are fitted with a data sonde to collect similar data parameters (e.g. salinity, temperature) as the main stem Chesapeake Bay buoys do. These assets will be deployed and the data transmitted to the Chester River Geographic Information System site for archival and visual display. Curriculum already developed for the Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System by the NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office will be adapted to the Chester River Watershed. Social issues of water sustainability will be introduced using the Watershed Game (Northland NEMO ®). During 2011 NOAA's Chesapeake Bay Office completed curriculum projects including Chesapeake Exploration, Build-a-Buoy (BaBs) and Basic Observation Buoys (BOBs). These engaging projects utilize authentic data and hands-on activities to demonstrate the tools scientists use to understand system interactions in the Bay. Chesapeake Exploration is a collection of online activities that provides teachers and students with unprecedented access to Bay data. Students are guided through a series of tasks that explore topics related to the interrelation between watersheds, land-use, weather, water quality, and living resources. The BaBs and BOBs

  13. Quantifying the non-linearity of the response of Malagasy watersheds to precipitation anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampoulis, D.; Haddad, Z. S.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Li, L.

    2012-12-01

    Dimitrios Stampoulis, U Connecticut, das09011@engr.uconn.edu Ziad S. Haddad, JPL/Caltech, zsh@jpl.nasa.gov Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, U Connecticut, manos@engr.uconn.edu Li Li, NRL, li.li@nrl.navy.mil Motivated by a theory developed by Wilme et al. (2006) according to which, watersheds of Madagascar with headwaters at high altitude respond differently to drought from those with headwaters confined to relatively low elevations, with possibly profound effects on the biodiversity patterns of the island, we started analyzing multi-year basin-specific observations of soil moisture and vegetation water content (derived from NRL's WindSat radiometer, as well as NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI)) and their response to departures by the precipitation (derived from TRMM) from its local mean. We also looked at the basin-specific normalized radar surface-backscattering cross-sections from NASA's QuikSCAT Scatterometer, to obtain useful information on the vegetation regimes in the various Madagascar basins. Our first results indicate that the vegetation water content time series exhibit several features which are consistent with the bioclimatology of the island. Comparison with the basin-specific Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (derived from NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)) confirmed that our time series within each basin are interannually consistent. We have also quantified the speed of the response of the vegetation water content, and our analysis indicates that its response varies significantly among the different basins, but it is interannually consistent for each watershed. We then correlated the basin response to the precipitation forcing, and compared the amplitude and time lag of the correlations across watersheds. While the soil-moisture time series are noisier than the vegetation water content time series, the intra-annual trends are consistent. The result is a first step in the quantification

  14. Sustainable watershed management: an international multi-watershed case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Walter; Gawel, James; Furuma, Hiroak; De Souza, Marcelo Pereira; Teixeira, Denilson; Rios, Leonardo; Ohgaki, Shinichiro; Zehnder, Alexander J B; Hemond, Harold F

    2002-02-01

    Global freshwater resources are being increasingly polluted and depleted, threatening sustainable development and human and ecosystem health. Utilizing case studies from 4 different watersheds in the United States, Japan, Switzerland, and Brazil, this paper identifies the most relevant sustainability deficits and derives general vectors for more sustainable water management. As a consequence of the demographic and economic developments experienced in the last few decades, each watershed has suffered declines in water quality, streamflow and biotic resources. However, the extent and the cultural perception of these water-related problems vary substantially in the different watersheds, leading to specific water-management strategies. In industrialized countries, exemplified by the US, Switzerland, and Japan, these strategies have primarily consisted of finance- and energy-intensive technologies, allowing these countries to meet water requirements while minimizing human health risks. But, from a sustainability point of view, such strategies, relying on limited natural resources, are not long-term solutions. For newly industrialized countries such as Brazil, expensive technologies for water management are often not economically feasible, thus limiting the extent to which newly industrialized and developing countries can utilize the expertise offered by the industrialized world. Sustainable water management has to be achieved by a common learning process involving industrialized, newly industrialized, and developing countries, following general sustainability guidelines as exemplified in this paper.

  15. A comparison of single- and multi-site calibration and validation: a case study of SWAT in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianwen; Shen, Zhenyao; Yan, Tiezhu

    2017-09-01

    An essential task in evaluating global water resource and pollution problems is to obtain the optimum set of parameters in hydrological models through calibration and validation. For a large-scale watershed, single-site calibration and validation may ignore spatial heterogeneity and may not meet the needs of the entire watershed. The goal of this study is to apply a multi-site calibration and validation of the Soil andWater Assessment Tool (SWAT), using the observed flow data at three monitoring sites within the Baihe watershed of the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. Our results indicate that the multi-site calibration parameter values are more reasonable than those obtained from single-site calibrations. These results are mainly due to significant differences in the topographic factors over the large-scale area, human activities and climate variability. The multi-site method involves the division of the large watershed into smaller watersheds, and applying the calibrated parameters of the multi-site calibration to the entire watershed. It was anticipated that this case study could provide experience of multi-site calibration in a large-scale basin, and provide a good foundation for the simulation of other pollutants in followup work in the Miyun Reservoir watershed and other similar large areas.

  16. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Gretchen (Kootenai River Network, Libby, MT)

    2002-07-01

    The 2001-2002 Kootenai River Network Annual Report reflects the organization's defined set of goals and objectives, and how by accomplishing these goals, we continue to meet the needs of communities and landowners throughout the Kootenai River Basin by protecting the resource. Our completed and ongoing projects throughout the watershed reflect the cooperation and support received and needed to accomplish the rehabilitation and restoration of critical habitat. They show that our mission of facilitation through collaboration with public and private interests can lead to improved resource management, the restoration of water quality and the preservation of pristine aquatic resources. Our vision to empower local citizens and groups from two states, one province, two countries and affected tribal nations to collaborate in natural resource management within the basin is largely successful due to the engagement of the basin's residents--the landowners, town government, local interest groups, businesses and agency representatives who live and work here. We are proof that forging these types of cooperative relationships, such as those exhibited by the Kootenai River subbasin planning process, leads to a sense of entitlement--that the quality of the river and its resources enriches our quality of life. Communication is essential in maintaining these relationships. Allowing ourselves to network and receive ideas and information, as well as to produce quality, accessible research data such as KRIS, shared with like organizations and individuals, is the hallmark of this facilitative organization. We are fortunate in the ability to contribute such information, and continue to strive to meet the standards and the needs of those who seek us out as a model for watershed rehabilitative planning and restoration. Sharing includes maintaining active, ongoing lines of communication with the public we serve--through our web site, quarterly newsletter, public presentations and

  17. Combined effects of climate and land management on watershed vegetation dynamics in an arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peilong; Hao, Lu; Pan, Cen; Zhou, Decheng; Liu, Yongqiang; Sun, Ge

    2017-07-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key parameter to characterize vegetation dynamics and ecosystem structure that determines the ecosystem functions and services such as clean water supply and carbon sequestration in a watershed. However, linking LAI dynamics and environmental controls (i.e., coupling biosphere, atmosphere, and anthroposphere) remains challenging and such type of studies have rarely been done at a watershed scale due to data availability. The present study examined the spatial and temporal variations of LAI for five ecosystem types within a watershed with a complex topography in the Upper Heihe River Basin, a major inland river in the arid and semi-arid western China. We integrated remote sensing-based GLASS (Global Land Surface Satellite) LAI products, interpolated climate data, watershed characteristics, and land management records for the period of 2001-2012. We determined the relationships among LAI, topography, air temperature and precipitation, and grazing history by five ecosystem types using several advanced statistical methods. We show that long-term mean LAI distribution had an obvious vertical pattern as controlled by precipitation and temperature in a hilly watershed. Overall, watershed-wide mean LAI had an increasing trend overtime for all ecosystem types during 2001-2012, presumably as a result of global warming and a wetting climate. However, the fluctuations of observed LAI at a pixel scale (1km) varied greatly across the watershed. We classified the vegetation changes within the watershed as 'Improved', 'Stabilized', and 'Degraded' according their respective LAI changes. We found that climate was not the only driver for temporal vegetation changes for all land cover types. Grazing partially contributed to the decline of LAI in some areas and masked the positive climate warming effects in other areas. Extreme weathers such as cold spells and droughts could substantially affect inter-annual variability of LAI dynamics. We concluded that

  18. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2003-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NPPC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  19. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2004-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  20. San Mateo Creek Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  1. Hydrology and water quality in 13 watersheds in Gwinnett County, Georgia, 2001–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulenbach, Brent T.; Joiner, John K.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2017-02-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources, established a Long-Term Trend Monitoring (LTTM) program in 1996. The LTTM program is a comprehensive, long-term, water-quantity and water-quality monitoring program designed to document and analyze the hydrologic and water-quality conditions of selected watersheds in Gwinnett County, Georgia. Water-quality monitoring initially began in six watersheds and currently [2016] includes 13 watersheds.As part of the LTTM program, streamflow, precipitation, water temperature, specific conductance, and turbidity were measured every 15 minutes for water years 2001–15 at 12 of the 13 watershed monitoring stations and for water years 2010–15 at the other watershed. In addition, discrete water-quality samples were collected seasonally from May through October (summer) and November through April (winter), including one base-flow and three stormflow event composite samples, during the study period. Samples were analyzed for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total organic carbon, trace elements (total lead and total zinc), total dissolved solids, and total suspended sediment (total suspended solids and suspended-sediment concentrations). The sampling scheme was designed to identify variations in water quality both hydrologically and seasonally.The 13 watersheds were characterized for basin slope, population density, land use for 2012, and the percentage of impervious area from 2000 to 2014. Several droughts occurred during the study period—water years 2002, 2007–08, and 2011–12. Watersheds with the highest percentage of impervious areas had the highest runoff ratios, which is the portion of precipitation that occurs as runoff. Watershed base-flow indexes, the ratio of base-flow runoff to total runoff, were inversely correlated with watershed impervious area.Flood-frequency estimates were computed for 13 streamgages in the study area that have 10 or more years of annual

  2. Hydrogeologic setting and conceptual hydrologic model of the Spring Creek basin, Centre County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John W.; Koerkle, Edward H.; McAuley, Steven D.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Zarr, Linda F.

    2005-01-01

    The Spring Creek Basin, Centre County, Pa., is experiencing some of the most rapid growth and development within the Commonwealth. This trend has resulted in land-use changes and increased water use, which will affect the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff, surface water, ground water, and aquatic resources within the basin. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the ClearWater Conservancy (CWC), Spring Creek Watershed Community (SCWC), and Spring Creek Watershed Commission (SCWCm), has developed a Watershed Plan (Plan) to assist decision makers in water-resources planning. One element of the Plan is to provide a summary of the basin characteristics and a conceptual model that incorporates the hydrogeologic characteristics of the basin. The report presents hydrogeologic data for the basin and presents a conceptual model that can be used as the basis for simulating surface-water and ground-water flow within the basin. Basin characteristics; sources of data referenced in this text; physical characteristics such as climate, physiography, topography, and land use; hydrogeologic characteristics; and water-quality characteristics are discussed. A conceptual model is a simplified description of the physical components and interaction of the surface- and ground-water systems. The purpose for constructing a conceptual model is to simplify the problem and to organize the available data so that the system can be analyzed accurately. Simplification is necessary, because a complete accounting of a system, such as Spring Creek, is not possible. The data and the conceptual model could be used in development of a fully coupled numerical model that dynamically links surface water, ground water, and land-use changes. The model could be used by decision makers to manage water resources within the basin and as a prototype that is transferable to other watersheds.

  3. A watershed-scale approach to tracing metal contamination in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Stanley E

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionPublic policy during the 1800's encouraged mining in the western United States. Mining on Federal lands played an important role in the growing economy creating national wealth from our abundant and diverse mineral resource base. The common industrial practice from the early days of mining through about 1970 in the U.S. was for mine operators to dispose of the mine wastes and mill tailings in the nearest stream reach or lake. As a result of this contamination, many stream reaches below old mines, mills, and mining districts and some major rivers and lakes no longer support aquatic life. Riparian habitats within these affected watersheds have also been impacted. Often, the water from these affected stream reaches is generally not suitable for drinking, creating a public health hazard. The recent Department of Interior Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Initiative is an effort on the part of the Federal Government to address the adverse environmental impact of these past mining practices on Federal lands. The AML Initiative has adopted a watershed approach to determine those sites that contribute the majority of the contaminants in the watershed. By remediating the largest sources of contamination within the watershed, the impact of metal contamination in the environment within the watershed as a whole is reduced rather than focusing largely on those sites for which principal responsible parties can be found.The scope of the problem of metal contamination in the environment from past mining practices in the coterminous U.S. is addressed in a recent report by Ferderer (1996). Using the USGS1:2,000,000-scale hydrologic drainage basin boundaries and the USGS Minerals Availability System (MAS) data base, he plotted the distribution of 48,000 past-producing metal mines on maps showing the boundaries of lands administered by the various Federal Land Management Agencies (FLMA). Census analysis of these data provided an initial screening tool for prioritization of

  4. A Study of the Climate Change during 21st Century over Peninsular Malaysia Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvas, M. L.; Ercan, A.; Ishida, K.; Chen, Z. R.; Jang, S.; Amin, M. Z. M.; Shaaban, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    15 coarse-resolution (150 - 300 km) climate projections for the 21st century by 3 different coupled land-atmosphere-ocean GCMs (ECHAM5 of the Max Planck Institute of Meteorology of Germany, CCSM3 of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) of the United States, and MRI-CGCM2.3.2 of the Meteorological Research Institute of Japan) under 4 different greenhouse gas emission scenarios (B1, A1B, A2, A1FI) were dynamically downscaled at hourly intervals by a regional hydro-climate model of Peninsular Malaysia (RegHCM-PM) that consisted of Regional Atmospheric Model MM5 that was coupled with WEHY watershed hydrology model over Peninsular Malaysia (PM), at the scale of the hillslopes of 13 selected watersheds (Batu Pahat, Johor, Muda, Kelang, Kelantan, Linggi, Muar, Pahang, Perak, Selangor, Dungun, Kemaman and Kuantan) and 12 selected intervening coastal regions in order to assess the impact of climate change on the climate conditions at the selected watersheds and coastal regions of PM. From the downscaled climate projections it can be concluded that the mean annual precipitation gradually increases toward the end of the 21st century over each of the 13 watersheds and the 12 coastal regions. The basin-average mean annual temperature increases in the range of 2.50C - 2.950C over PM during the 2010 -2100 period when compared to the 1970-2000 historical period. The ensemble average basin-average annual potential evapotranspiration increases gradually throughout the 21st century over all watersheds.

  5. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  6. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v3: Theoretical Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that facilitates integrated water management at the local or small watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed context, accounting fo...

  7. Geomorphological Analysis and Hydrological Potential Zone of Baira River Watershed, Churah in Chamba District of Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Pareta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the quantitative geomorphological analysis and hydrological characterization of 95 micro-watersheds (MWS of Baira river watershed in Himachal Pradesh, India with an area of 425.25 Km2. First time in the world, total 173 morphometric parameters have been generated in a single watershed using satellite remote sensing data (i.e. IRS-P6 ResourceSAT-1 LISS-III, LandSAT-7 ETM+, and LandSAT-8 PAN & OLI merge data, digital elevation models (i.e. IRS-P5 CartoSAT-1 DEM, ASTER DEM data, and soI topographical maps of 1: 50,000 scale. The ninety-five micro-watersheds (MWS of Baira river watershed have been prioritized through the morphometric analysis of different morphometric parameters (i.e. drainage network, basin geometry, drainage texture analysis, and relief characterizes . The study has concurrently established the importance of geomorphometry as well as the utility of remote sensing and GIS technology for hydrological characterization of the watershed and there for better resource and environmental managements.

  8. Combine the soil water assessment tool (SWAT) with sediment geochemistry to evaluate diffuse heavy metal loadings at watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Shan, Yushu; Geng, Xiaojun

    2014-09-15

    Assessing the diffuse pollutant loadings at watershed scale has become increasingly important when formulating effective watershed water management strategies, but the process was seldom achieved for heavy metals. In this study, the overall temporal-spatial variability of particulate Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni losses within an agricultural watershed was quantitatively evaluated by combining SWAT with sediment geochemistry. Results showed that the watershed particulate heavy metal loadings displayed strong variability in the simulation period 1981-2010, with an obvious increasing trend in recent years. The simulated annual average loadings were 20.21 g/ha, 21.75 g/ha, 47.35 g/ha and 21.27 g/ha for Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni, respectively. By comparison, these annual average values generally matched the estimated particulate heavy metal loadings at field scale. With spatial interpolation of field loadings, it was found that the diffuse heavy metal pollution mainly came from the sub-basins dominated with cultivated lands, accounting for over 70% of total watershed loadings. The watershed distribution of particulate heavy metal losses was very similar to that of soil loss but contrary to that of heavy metal concentrations in soil, highlighting the important role of sediment yield in controlling the diffuse heavy metal loadings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  10. Water and Poverty in Two Colombian Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Johnson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Watersheds, especially in the developing world, are increasingly being managed for both environmental conservation and poverty alleviation. How complementary are these objectives? In the context of a watershed, the actual and potential linkages between land and water management and poverty are complex and likely to be very site specific and scale dependent. This study analyses the importance of watershed resources in the livelihoods of the poor in two watersheds in the Colombian Andes. Results of the participatory poverty assessment reveal significant decreases in poverty in both watersheds over the past 25 years, which was largely achieved by the diversification of livelihoods outside of agriculture. Water is an important resource for household welfare. However, opportunities for reducing poverty by increasing the quantity or quality of water available to the poor may be limited. While improved watershed management may have limited direct benefits in terms of poverty alleviation, there are important indirect linkages between watershed management and poverty, mainly through labour and service markets. The results suggest that at the level of the watershed the interests of the rich and the poor are not always in conflict over water. Sectoral as well as socio-economic differences define stakeholder groups in watershed management. The findings have implications for policymakers, planners and practitioners in various sectors involved in the implementation of integrated water resources management (IWRM.

  11. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  12. HUD's Local Office Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD is organized in 10 Regions. Each Region is managed by a Regional Administrator, who also oversees the Regional Office. Each Field Office within a Region is...

  13. Climate change impact on river flows in Chitral watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, A.S.; Rehman, H.U.; Ehsan, S.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of climate change has always been very important for water resources in the world. In countries like Pakistan where different weather conditions exist, the effects of climate change can be more crucial. Generally, the climate changes are considered in terms of global warming i.e. increase in the average temperature of earth's near surface air. The global warming can have a strong impact on river flows in Pakistan. This may be due to the melting of snow and glaciers at a higher rate and changes in precipitation patterns. Glaciers in Pakistan cover about 13,680 km/sup 2/, which is 13% of the mountainous regions of the Upper Indus Basin. Glacier and Snow melt water from these glaciers contributes significantly to the river flows in Pakistan. Due to climate change, the changes in temperature and the amount of precipitation could have diversified effects on river flows of arid and semi-arid regions of Pakistan. This paper reviews the existing research studies on climate change impact on water resources of Pakistan. The past trend of river flows in Pakistan has been discussed with respect to the available data. Further, different projections about future climate changes in terms of glacier melting and changes in temperature and precipitation have also been taken into consideration in order to qualitatively assess the future trend of river flows in Pakistan. As a case study, the flows were generated for the Chitral watershed using UBC Watershed Model. Model was calibrated for the year 2002, which is an average flow year. Model results show good agreement between simulated and observed flows. UBC watershed model was applied to a climate change scenario of 1 deg. C increase in temperature and 15% decrease in glaciated area. Results of the study reveal that the flows were decreased by about 4.2 %. (author)

  14. Storage in alluvial deposits controls the timing of particle delivery from large watersheds, filtering upland erosional signals and delaying benefits from watershed best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzuto, J. E.; Skalak, K.; Karwan, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Transport of suspended sediment and sediment-borne constituents (here termed fluvial particles) through large river systems can be significantly influenced by episodic storage in floodplains and other alluvial deposits. Geomorphologists quantify the importance of storage using sediment budgets, but these data alone are insufficient to determine how storage influences the routing of fluvial particles through river corridors across large spatial scales. For steady state systems, models that combine sediment budget data with "waiting time distributions" (to define how long deposited particles remain stored until being remobilized) and velocities during transport events can provide useful predictions. Limited field data suggest that waiting time distributions are well represented by power laws, extending from 104 years, while the probability of storage defined by sediment budgets varies from 0.1 km-1 for small drainage basins to 0.001 km-1 for the world's largest watersheds. Timescales of particle delivery from large watersheds are determined by storage rather than by transport processes, with most particles requiring 102 -104 years to reach the basin outlet. These predictions suggest that erosional "signals" induced by climate change, tectonics, or anthropogenic activity will be transformed by storage before delivery to the outlets of large watersheds. In particular, best management practices (BMPs) implemented in upland source areas, designed to reduce the loading of fluvial particles to estuarine receiving waters, will not achieve their intended benefits for centuries (or longer). For transient systems, waiting time distributions cannot be constant, but will vary as portions of transient sediment "pulses" enter and are later released from storage. The delivery of sediment pulses under transient conditions can be predicted by adopting the hypothesis that the probability of erosion of stored particles will decrease with increasing "age" (where age is defined as the

  15. Effects of snowmelt on watershed transit time distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z.; Carroll, R. W. H.; Harman, C. J.; Wilusz, D. C.; Schumer, R.

    2017-12-01

    Snowmelt is the principal control of the timing and magnitude of water flow through alpine watersheds, but the streamflow generated may be displaced groundwater. To quantify this effect, we use a rank StorAge Selection (rSAS) model to estimate time-dependent travel time distributions (TTDs) for the East River Catchment (ERC, 84 km2) - a headwater basin of the Colorado River, and newly designated as the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Watershed Function Science Focus Area (SFA). Through the SFA, observational networks related to precipitation and stream fluxes have been established with a focus on environmental tracers and stable isotopes. The United Stated Geological Survey Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) was used to estimate spatially- and temporally-variable boundary fluxes of effective precipitation (snowmelt & rain), evapotranspiration, and subsurface storage. The DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm was used to calibrate the rSAS model to observed stream isotopic concentration data and quantify uncertainty. The sensitivity of the simulated TTDs to systematic changes in the boundary fluxes was explored. Different PRMS and rSAS model parameters setup were tested to explore how they affect the relationship between input precipitation, especially snowmelt, and the estimated TTDs. Wavelet Coherence Analysis (WCA) was applied to investigate the seasonality of TTD simulations. Our ultimate goal is insight into how the Colorado River headwater catchments store and route water, and how sensitive flow paths and transit times are to climatic changes.

  16. Distribution of antibiotic resistance in urban watershed in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Young-Sik; Kobori, Hiromi; Kang, Joo-Hyon; Matsuzaki, Takayuki; Iino, Michiyo; Nomura, Hayashi

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant E. coli concentrations showed large spatial and temporal variations, with greater concentrations observed in tributaries and downstream than in the upstream and midstream. Twenty percent of the geometric mean concentrations of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in the Tama River basin (Japan) exceeded the maximum acceptable concentration of indicator E. coli established by the USEPA. The indicator E. coli concentrations were positively correlated with those of antibiotic-resistant E. coli and multiple-antibiotic-resistant E. coli (resistance to more than two kinds of antibiotics), respectively, but not the detection rate of antibiotic-resistant E. coli, implying that use of antibiotic-resistant E. coli concentration rather than the detection rate can be a better approach for water quality assessment. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant E. coli is a useful indicator for estimating the resistance diffusion, water quality degradation and public health risk potential. This assessment provides beneficial information for setting national regulatory or environmental standards and managing integrated watershed areas. - Highlights: ► We extensively observed antibiotic-resistant E. coli (AREc) in Tama River (Japan). ► AREc count rather than the detection rate is better approach for water quality test. ► Multiple-AREc is resistant to the antibiotic to which single-AREc has no resistance. ► Multiple-AREc increase will accelerate the diffusion of antibiotic resistance. - Multiple-antibiotic-resistant E. coli in the watershed can cause the diffusion of conventionally rare antibiotic resistance.

  17. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions

  18. The Hidden Watershed's Journals: the Informational Characteristics of Biomarkers in Sedimentary Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, F. J.; Hatten, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The historical reconstruction of past environmental changes in watersheds is essential to understand watershed response to disturbances and how those diturbances could affect the provision of valuable goods like water. That reconstruction requires the interpretation of natural records, mainly associated to sedimentary deposits that store detailed information in the form of specific biogenic molecules (i.e. biomarkers). In forested watersheds terrestrial vegetation is an important source of biomarkers like those associated to Lignin, a complex organic polymer used by plants to provide physical support in its tissues. Through litter inputs Lignin is deposited in soils and then is transported to sedimentary environments by rivers (e.g. floodplains, lake bottoms), serving as a source of information about vegetation changes in watersheds. In spite of the critical character of the information extracted from biomarkers in sedimentary records, the very concept of information is still used in a metaphorical sense, even though it was formally defined more than 60 years ago and has been applied extensively in ecology (e.g. Shannon's diversity index). Furthermore, sophisticated techniques are being used to deliver more complex molecular data that require examination and validation as indicators for watershed historical reconstructions. My research aims to explore the applicability of some information metrics (i.e. diversity indices, information coefficients) to a diverse molecular set derived from the chemical depolymerization of lignin deposited in floodplains and lake sediments in different basins. This approach attempts to assess the informational characteristics of Lignin as an indicator of natural/human-induced perturbations in forested watersheds. The formal assessment of the informational characteristics of natural records could have a profound impact not only in our methodological approaches but also in our philosophical view about information and communication in

  19. Office 2013 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    A basic introduction to learn Office 2013 quickly, easily, and in full color Office 2013 has new features and tools to master, and whether you're upgrading from an earlier version or using the Office applications for the first time, you'll appreciate this simplified approach. Offering a clear, visual style of learning, this book provides you with concise, step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots that walk you through the applications in the Microsoft Office 2013 suite: Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, and Publisher.Shows you how to tackle dozens of Office 2013

  20. Office 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wallace

    2013-01-01

    Office 2013 For Dummies is the key to your brand new Office! Packed with straightforward, friendly instruction, this update to one of the bestselling Office books of all time gets you thoroughly up to speed and helps you learn how to take full advantage of the new features in Office 2013. After coverage of the fundamentals, you'll discover how to spice up your Word documents, edit Excel spreadsheets and create formulas, add pizazz to your PowerPoint presentation, and much more.Helps you harness the power of all five Office 2013 applications: Word, Excel, PowerPoint,

  1. Age and distribution of an evergreen clonal shrub in the Coweeta basin: Rhododendron maximum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose

    2012-01-01

    Rhododendron maximum L. is an evergreen, clonal shrub that forms a dominant sub-canopy layer and is a key species in southern Appalachian forests. We investigated the age and distribution of R. maximum across the Coweeta Basin, a 1626 ha watershed in western North Carolina. We selected 16 perennial, second-order streams and used a Global Positioning System to establish...

  2. SWAT-simulated hydrological impact of land-use change in the Zanjanrood basin, Northwest Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghaffari, G.; Ghodousi, J.; Ahmadi, H.; Keesstra, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of land-use changes on hydrology at the watershed scale can facilitate development of sustainable water resource strategies. This paper investigates the hydrological effects of land-use change in Zanjanrood basin, Iran. The water balance was simulated using the Soil and

  3. Spatial variation of dissolved organic matter composition and characteristics in an urbanized watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, C.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a chemically complex mixture of organic polymers that plays an important role in river ecosystems and originates from various sources. Some DOMs are autochthonous originating through phytoplankton and microbial activity in situ. On the other hand, some DOMs are allochthonous which are transported to river from the surrounding watershed by natural or anthropogenic activities. The studies of DOM in river are usually conducted at the watershed scale; however, factors of local spatial scale affecting DOM composition also need to take into consideration for the study of DOM in an urbanized watershed. Through increasing urbanization, changes in a watershed occur not only in land use patterns but also in river channel characteristics. The objective of this study is to investigate effects of different river channel characteristics and patterns on changes in DOM source and composition. In this study, we chose three tributaries of Tamsui river in Taiwan according to its land use pattern and river channel characteristics. At each sub-basin, river water samples were sampled from three study sites. River water DOM was measured by using optical measurements of UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Water samples were also collected for laboratory analysis of different water quality parameters. From our study sites, they are from three sub-basins which are in the similar physical environments but with different river channel types: the highly channelized Keelung river, the less channelized Xindian river, and less channelized Dahan river with five human-made wetlands. From the upstream to the urbanized downstream, composition of DOM showed variation among different sampled sites. In all three sub-basins, the trends of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and suspended solids (SS) are also different. The changes in DOM source and composition as well as different water quality parmaters occur at the local spatial-scale depended on their

  4. QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF SOIL EROSION IN THE DRĂGAN RIVER WATERSHED WITH THE U.S.L.E. TYPE ROMSEM MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba HORVÁTH

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative estimation of soil erosion in the Drăgan river watershed with the U.S.L.E. type Romsem modelSediment delivered from water erosion causes substantial waterway damages and water quality degradation. A number of factors such as drainage area size, basin slope, climate, land use/land cover may affect sediment delivery processes. The goal of this study is to define a computationally effective suitable soil erosion model in the Drăgan river watershed, for future sedimentation studies. Geographic Information System (GIS is used to determine the Universal Soil Loss Equation Model (U.S.L.E. values of the studied water basin. The methods and approaches used in this study are expected to be applicable in future research and to watersheds in other regions.

  5. CTUIR Grande Ronde River Watershed Restoration Program McCoy Creek/McIntyre Creek Road Crossing, 1995-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2000-08-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into a contract agreement beginning in 1996 to fund watershed restoration and enhancement actions and contribute to recovery of fish and wildlife resources and water quality in the Grande Ronde River Basin. The CTUIR's habitat program is closely coordinated with the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program and multiple agencies and organizations within the basin. The CTUIR has focused during the past 4 years in the upper portions of the Grande Ronde Subbasin (upstream of LaGrande, Oregon) on several major project areas in the Meadow, McCoy, and McIntyre Creek watersheds and along the mainstem Grande Ronde River. This Annual Report provides an overview of individual projects and accomplishments.

  6. Simulation of streamflow in the Pleasant, Narraguagus, Sheepscot, and Royal Rivers, Maine, using watershed models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Robert W.; Nielsen, Martha G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a study in 2008 to investigate anticipated changes in summer streamflows and stream temperatures in four coastal Maine river basins and the potential effects of those changes on populations of endangered Atlantic salmon. To achieve this purpose, it was necessary to characterize the quantity and timing of streamflow in these rivers by developing and evaluating a distributed-parameter watershed model for a part of each river basin by using the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). The GIS (geographic information system) Weasel, a USGS software application, was used to delineate the four study basins and their many subbasins, and to derive parameters for their geographic features. The models were calibrated using a four-step optimization procedure in which model output was evaluated against four datasets for calibrating solar radiation, potential evapotranspiration, annual and seasonal water balances, and daily streamflows. The calibration procedure involved thousands of model runs that used the USGS software application Luca (Let us calibrate). Luca uses the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE) global search algorithm to calibrate the model parameters. The calibrated watershed models performed satisfactorily, in that Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) statistic values for the calibration periods ranged from 0.59 to 0.75 (on a scale of negative infinity to 1) and NSE statistic values for the evaluation periods ranged from 0.55 to 0.73. The calibrated watershed models simulate daily streamflow at many locations in each study basin. These models enable natural resources managers to characterize the timing and amount of streamflow in order to support a variety of water-resources efforts including water-quality calculations, assessments of water use, modeling of population dynamics and migration of Atlantic salmon, modeling and assessment of habitat, and simulation of anticipated changes to streamflow and water temperature

  7. Semiarid watershed response in central New Mexico and its sensitivity to climate variability and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Vivoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic processes in the semiarid regions of the Southwest United States are considered to be highly susceptible to variations in temperature and precipitation characteristics due to the effects of climate change. Relatively little is known about the potential impacts of climate change on the basin hydrologic response, namely streamflow, evapotranspiration and recharge, in the region. In this study, we present the development and application of a continuous, semi-distributed watershed model for climate change studies in semiarid basins of the Southwest US. Our objective is to capture hydrologic processes in large watersheds, while accounting for the spatial and temporal variations of climate forcing and basin properties in a simple fashion. We apply the model to the Río Salado basin in central New Mexico since it exhibits both a winter and summer precipitation regime and has a historical streamflow record for model testing purposes. Subsequently, we use a sequence of climate change scenarios that capture observed trends for winter and summer precipitation, as well as their interaction with higher temperatures, to perform long-term ensemble simulations of the basin response. Results of the modeling exercise indicate that precipitation uncertainty is amplified in the hydrologic response, in particular for processes that depend on a soil saturation threshold. We obtained substantially different hydrologic sensitivities for winter and summer precipitation ensembles, indicating a greater sensitivity to more intense summer storms as compared to more frequent winter events. In addition, the impact of changes in precipitation characteristics overwhelmed the effects of increased temperature in the study basin. Nevertheless, combined trends in precipitation and temperature yield a more sensitive hydrologic response throughout the year.

  8. Freshwater Ecosystem Services and Hydrologic Alteration in the Lower Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasarer, L.; Taylor, J.; Rigby, J.; Locke, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Flowing freshwater ecosystems provide a variety of essential ecosystem services including: consumptive water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural use; transportation of goods; maintenance of aquatic biodiversity and water quality; and recreation. However, freshwater ecosystem services can oftentimes be at odds with each other. For example, the over-consumption of water for agricultural production or domestic use may alter hydrologic patterns and diminish the ability of flowing waters to sustain healthy aquatic ecosystems. In the Lower Mississippi River Basin there has been a substantial increase in groundwater-irrigated cropland acreage over the past several decades and subsequent declines in regional aquifer levels. Changes in aquifer levels potentially impact surface water hydrology throughout the region. This study tests the hypothesis that flowing water systems in lowland agricultural watersheds within the Lower Mississippi River Basin have greater hydrologic alteration compared to upland non-agricultural watersheds, particularly with declines in base flow and an increase in extreme low flows. Long-term streamflow records from USGS gauges located in predominantly agricultural and non-agricultural watersheds in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee were evaluated from 1969 -2016 using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) software. Preliminary results from 8 non-agricultural and 5 agricultural watersheds demonstrate a substantial decline in base flow in the agricultural watersheds, which is not apparent in the non-agricultural watersheds. This exploratory study will analyze the trade-off between gains in agricultural productivity and changes in ecohydrological indicators over the last half century in diverse watersheds across the Lower Mississippi River Basin. By quantifying the changes in ecosystem services provided by flowing waters in the past, we can inform sustainable management pathways to better balance services in the future.

  9. Draft Maumee River Watershed Restoration Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    A draft of the Maumee River AOC Watershed Restoration Plan was completed in January 2006. The plan was created to meet requirements for the stage II RAP as well as Ohio EPA’s and ODNR’s Watershed Coordinator Program.

  10. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion...

  11. Geology of the Teakettle Creek watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. LaMotte

    1937-01-01

    The Teakettle Creek Experimental Watersheds lie for the most part on quartzites of probable Triassic age. However one of the triplicate drainages has a considerable acreage developed on weathered granodiorite. Topography is relatively uniform and lends itself to triplicate watershed studies. Locations for dams are suitable if certain engineering precautions...

  12. Subdivision of Texas watersheds for hydrologic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a set of findings and examples for subdivision of watersheds for hydrologic modeling. Three approaches were used to examine the impact of watershed subdivision on modeled hydrologic response: (1) An equal-area...

  13. Segmentation by watersheds : definition and parallel implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Meijster, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    The watershed algorithm is a method for image segmentation widely used in the area of mathematical morphology. In this paper we first address the problem of how to define watersheds. It is pointed out that various existing definitions are not equivalent. In particular we explain the differences

  14. Watershed Management: Lessons from Common Property Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kerr

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Watershed development is an important component of rural development and natural resource management strategies in many countries. A watershed is a special kind of common pool resource: an area defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinated use of natural resources by all users. Management is difficult because natural resources comprising the watershed system have multiple, conflicting uses, so any given management approach will spread benefits and costs unevenly among users. To address these challenges, watershed approaches have evolved from more technocratic to a greater focus on social organization and participation. However, the latter cannot necessarily be widely replicated. In addition, participatory approaches have worked better at a small scale, but hydrological relationships cover a larger scale and some projects have faced tradeoffs in choosing between the two. Optimal approaches for future efforts are not clear, and theories from common property research do not support the idea that complex watershed management can succeed everywhere. Solutions may include simplifying watershed projects, pursuing watershed projects where conditions are favorable, and making other investments elsewhere, including building the organizational capacity that can facilitate watershed management.

  15. Improving watershed management practices in humid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the basic hydrology and erosion is vital for effective management and utilization of water resources and soil conservation planning. To improve the understanding we used watershed studies on three continents. The results show that in well vegetated (sub) humid and temperate watersheds ...

  16. Accidental Water Pollution Risk Analysis of Mine Tailings Ponds in Guanting Reservoir Watershed, Zhangjiakou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzhi Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past half century, a surprising number of major pollution incidents occurred due to tailings dam failures. Most previous studies of such incidents comprised forensic analyses of environmental impacts after a tailings dam failure, with few considering the combined pollution risk before incidents occur at a watershed-scale. We therefore propose Watershed-scale Tailings-pond Pollution Risk Analysis (WTPRA, designed for multiple mine tailings ponds, stemming from previous watershed-scale accidental pollution risk assessments. Transferred and combined risk is embedded using risk rankings of multiple routes of the “source-pathway-target” in the WTPRA. The previous approach is modified using multi-criteria analysis, dam failure models, and instantaneous water quality models, which are modified for application to multiple tailings ponds. The study area covers the basin of Gutanting Reservoir (the largest backup drinking water source for Beijing in Zhangjiakou City, where many mine tailings ponds are located. The resultant map shows that risk is higher downstream of Gutanting Reservoir and in its two tributary basins (i.e., Qingshui River and Longyang River. Conversely, risk is lower in the midstream and upstream reaches. The analysis also indicates that the most hazardous mine tailings ponds are located in Chongli and Xuanhua, and that Guanting Reservoir is the most vulnerable receptor. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are performed to validate the robustness of the WTPRA method.

  17. Accidental Water Pollution Risk Analysis of Mine Tailings Ponds in Guanting Reservoir Watershed, Zhangjiakou City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renzhi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair; Zhang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Over the past half century, a surprising number of major pollution incidents occurred due to tailings dam failures. Most previous studies of such incidents comprised forensic analyses of environmental impacts after a tailings dam failure, with few considering the combined pollution risk before incidents occur at a watershed-scale. We therefore propose Watershed-scale Tailings-pond Pollution Risk Analysis (WTPRA), designed for multiple mine tailings ponds, stemming from previous watershed-scale accidental pollution risk assessments. Transferred and combined risk is embedded using risk rankings of multiple routes of the “source-pathway-target” in the WTPRA. The previous approach is modified using multi-criteria analysis, dam failure models, and instantaneous water quality models, which are modified for application to multiple tailings ponds. The study area covers the basin of Gutanting Reservoir (the largest backup drinking water source for Beijing) in Zhangjiakou City, where many mine tailings ponds are located. The resultant map shows that risk is higher downstream of Gutanting Reservoir and in its two tributary basins (i.e., Qingshui River and Longyang River). Conversely, risk is lower in the midstream and upstream reaches. The analysis also indicates that the most hazardous mine tailings ponds are located in Chongli and Xuanhua, and that Guanting Reservoir is the most vulnerable receptor. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are performed to validate the robustness of the WTPRA method. PMID:26633450

  18. Accidental Water Pollution Risk Analysis of Mine Tailings Ponds in Guanting Reservoir Watershed, Zhangjiakou City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renzhi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair; Zhang, Ke

    2015-12-02

    Over the past half century, a surprising number of major pollution incidents occurred due to tailings dam failures. Most previous studies of such incidents comprised forensic analyses of environmental impacts after a tailings dam failure, with few considering the combined pollution risk before incidents occur at a watershed-scale. We therefore propose Watershed-scale Tailings-pond Pollution Risk Analysis (WTPRA), designed for multiple mine tailings ponds, stemming from previous watershed-scale accidental pollution risk assessments. Transferred and combined risk is embedded using risk rankings of multiple routes of the "source-pathway-target" in the WTPRA. The previous approach is modified using multi-criteria analysis, dam failure models, and instantaneous water quality models, which are modified for application to multiple tailings ponds. The study area covers the basin of Gutanting Reservoir (the largest backup drinking water source for Beijing) in Zhangjiakou City, where many mine tailings ponds are located. The resultant map shows that risk is higher downstream of Gutanting Reservoir and in its two tributary basins (i.e., Qingshui River and Longyang River). Conversely, risk is lower in the midstream and upstream reaches. The analysis also indicates that the most hazardous mine tailings ponds are located in Chongli and Xuanhua, and that Guanting Reservoir is the most vulnerable receptor. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are performed to validate the robustness of the WTPRA method.

  19. Analyzing coastal turbidity under complex terrestrial loads characterized by a 'stress connectivity matrix' with an atmosphere-watershed-coastal ocean coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Nadaoka, Kazuo

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric, watershed and coastal ocean models were integrated to provide a holistic analysis approach for coastal ocean simulation. The coupled model was applied to coastal ocean in the Philippines where terrestrial sediment loads provided from several adjacent watersheds play a major role in influencing coastal turbidity and are partly responsible for the coastal ecosystem degradation. The coupled model was validated using weather and hydrologic measurement to examine its potential applicability. The results revealed that the coastal water quality may be governed by the loads not only from the adjacent watershed but also from the distant watershed via coastal currents. This important feature of the multiple linkages can be quantitatively characterized by a "stress connectivity matrix", which indicates the complex underlying structure of environmental stresses in coastal ocean. The multiple stress connectivity concept shows the potential advantage of the integrated modelling approach for coastal ocean assessment, which may also serve for compensating the lack of measured data especially in tropical basins.

  20. Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program Administration and Habitat Projects, Annual Progress Report, Project Period: Program Administration: January 1, 1997 - December 31, 1997 Habitat Projects: January 1, 1997 - March 31, 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, Cecilia; Kuchenbecker, Lyle; Perry, Patty

    1998-10-28

    This agreement provided funding for operation and administration of the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program including staffing of an Executive Director, Program Planner, and clerical personnel. The contract covers maintaining program services, project planning, subwatershed plans (CRMP's), public involvement and education, interagency coordination/clearing house, monitoring, and technical support activities that have taken place in the Grande Ronde basin. Cost-share has been received from the Bureau of Reclamation and the Governor's Watershed Enhancement Board.

  1. Model Watershed Plan; Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, and East Fork of the Salmon River Management Plan, 1995 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Ralph

    1995-11-01

    Idaho`s Model Watershed Project was established as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s plan for salmon recovery in the Columbia River Basin. The Council`s charge was simply stated and came without strings. The tasks were to identify actions within the watershed that are planned or needed for salmon habitat, and establish a procedure for implementing habitat-improvement measures. The Council gave the responsibility of developing this project to the Idaho Soil Conservation Commission. This Model Watershed Plan is intended to be a dynamic plan that helps address these two tasks. It is not intended to be the final say on either. It is also not meant to establish laws, policies, or regulations for the agencies, groups, or individuals who participated in the plan development.

  2. Estimating natural recharge in San Gorgonio Pass watersheds, California, 1913–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Christensen, Allen H.

    2015-12-21

    A daily precipitation-runoff model was developed to estimate spatially and temporally distributed recharge for groundwater basins in the San Gorgonio Pass area, southern California. The recharge estimates are needed to define transient boundary conditions for a groundwater-flow model being developed to evaluate the effects of pumping and climate on the long-term availability of groundwater. The area defined for estimating recharge is referred to as the San Gorgonio Pass watershed model (SGPWM) and includes three watersheds: San Timoteo Creek, Potrero Creek, and San Gorgonio River. The SGPWM was developed by using the U.S. Geological Survey INFILtration version 3.0 (INFILv3) model code used in previous studies of recharge in the southern California region, including the San Gorgonio Pass area. The SGPWM uses a 150-meter gridded discretization of the area of interest in order to account for spatial variability in climate and watershed characteristics. The high degree of spatial variability in climate and watershed characteristics in the San Gorgonio Pass area is caused, in part, by the high relief and rugged topography of the area.

  3. Integration of aspect and slope in snowmelt runoff modeling in a mountain watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalamu Abudu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the performances of the traditional temperature-index snowmelt runoff model (SRM and an SRM model with a finer zonation based on aspect and slope (SRM + AS model in a data-scarce mountain watershed in the Urumqi River Basin, in Northwest China. The proposed SRM + AS model was used to estimate the melt rate with the degree-day factor (DDF through the division of watershed elevation zones based on aspect and slope. The simulation results of the SRM + AS model were compared with those of the traditional SRM model to identify the improvements of the SRM + AS model's performance with consideration of topographic features of the watershed. The results show that the performance of the SRM + AS model has improved slightly compared to that of the SRM model. The coefficients of determination increased from 0.73, 0.69, and 0.79 with the SRM model to 0.76, 0.76, and 0.81 with the SRM + AS model during the simulation and validation periods in 2005, 2006, and 2007, respectively. The proposed SRM + AS model that considers aspect and slope can improve the accuracy of snowmelt runoff simulation compared to the traditional SRM model in mountain watersheds in arid regions by proper parameterization, careful input data selection, and data preparation.

  4. Connections between residence time distributions and watershed characteristics across the continental US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, L. E.; Maxwell, R. M.; Kollet, S. J.; Maher, K.; Haggerty, R.; Forrester, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Although previous studies have demonstrated fractal residence time distributions in small watersheds, analyzing residence time scaling over large spatial areas is difficult with existing observational methods. For this study we use a fully integrated groundwater surface water simulation combined with Lagrangian particle tracking to evaluate connections between residence time distributions and watershed characteristics such as geology, topography and climate. Our simulation spans more than six million square kilometers of the continental US, encompassing a broad range of watershed sizes and physiographic settings. Simulated results demonstrate power law residence time distributions with peak age rages from 1.5 to 10.5 years. These ranges agree well with previous observational work and demonstrate the feasibility of using integrated models to simulate residence times. Comparing behavior between eight major watersheds, we show spatial variability in both the peak and the variance of the residence time distributions that can be related to model inputs. Peak age is well correlated with basin averaged hydraulic conductivity and the semi-variance corresponds to aridity. While power law age distributions have previously been attributed to fractal topography, these results illustrate the importance of subsurface characteristics and macro climate as additional controls on groundwater configuration and residence times.

  5. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  6. Using Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli data and Bayesian microbial risk assessment to examine public health risks in agricultural watersheds under tile drainage management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P J; Pintar, K D M; Fazil, A M; Flemming, C A; Lanthier, M; Laprade, N; Sunohara, M D; Simhon, A; Thomas, J L; Topp, E; Wilkes, G; Lapen, D R

    2013-06-15

    Human campylobacteriosis is the leading bacterial gastrointestinal illness in Canada; environmental transmission has been implicated in addition to transmission via consumption of contaminated food. Information about Campylobacter spp. occurrence at the watershed scale will enhance our understanding of the associated public health risks and the efficacy of source water protection strategies. The overriding purpose of this study is to provide a quantitative framework to assess and compare the relative public health significance of watershed microbial water quality associated with agricultural BMPs. A microbial monitoring program was expanded from fecal indicator analyses and Campylobacter spp. presence/absence tests to the development of a novel, 11-tube most probable number (MPN) method that targeted Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. These three types of data were used to make inferences about theoretical risks in a watershed in which controlled tile drainage is widely practiced, an adjacent watershed with conventional (uncontrolled) tile drainage, and reference sites elsewhere in the same river basin. E. coli concentrations (MPN and plate count) in the controlled tile drainage watershed were statistically higher (2008-11), relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed, but yearly variation was high as well. Escherichia coli loading for years 2008-11 combined were statistically higher in the controlled watershed, relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed, but Campylobacter spp. loads for 2010-11 were generally higher for the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed (but not statistically significant). Using MPN data and a Bayesian modelling approach, higher mean Campylobacter spp. concentrations were found in the controlled tile drainage watershed relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed (2010, 2011). A second-order quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was used, in a relative way, to identify

  7. Watershed clearcutting and canopy arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara C. Reynolds; Timothy D. Schowalter; D.A. Crossley

    2014-01-01

    The southern Appalachian forests are home to myriad species of insects, spiders, and other arthropods. There are more than 4,000 invertebrate species know in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park , and easily a thousand insect species in the Coweeta basin alone. The forest environment, with its favorable microclimates and structural diversity, offers a large variety...

  8. Application of SWAT-HS, a lumped hillslope model to simulate hydrology in the Cannonsville Reservoir watershed, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Linh; Schneiderman, Elliot; Mukundan, Rajith; Moore, Karen; Owens, Emmet; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2017-04-01

    Surface runoff is the primary mechanism transporting substances such as sediments, agricultural chemicals, and pathogens to receiving waters. In order to predict runoff and pollutant fluxes, and to evaluate management practices, it is essential to accurately predict the areas generating surface runoff, which depend on the type of runoff: infiltration-excess runoff and saturation-excess runoff. The watershed of Cannonsville reservoir is part of the New York City water supply system that provides high quality drinking water to nine million people in New York City (NYC) and nearby communities. Previous research identified saturation-excess runoff as the dominant runoff mechanism in this region. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a promising tool to simulate the NYC watershed given its broad application and good performance in many watersheds with different scales worldwide, for its ability to model water quality responses, and to evaluate the effect of management practices on water quality at the watershed scale. However, SWAT predicts runoff based mainly on soil and land use characteristics, and implicitly considers only infiltration-excess runoff. Therefore, we developed a modified version of SWAT, referred to as SWAT-Hillslope (SWAT-HS), which explicitly simulates saturation-excess runoff by redefining Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) based on wetness classes with varying soil water storage capacities, and by introducing a surface aquifer with the ability to route interflow from "drier" to "wetter" wetness classes. SWAT-HS was first tested at Town Brook, a 37 km2 headwater watershed draining to the Cannonsville reservoir using a single sub-basin for the whole watershed. SWAT-HS performed well, and predicted streamflow yielded Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies of 0.68 and 0.87 at the daily and monthly time steps, respectively. More importantly, it predicted the spatial distribution of saturated areas accurately. Based on the good performance in the Town Brook

  9. Characterization of Groundwater Flow Processes in the Cedar Creek Watershed and the Cedarburg Bog in Southeastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J. P.; Han, W. S.; Feinstein, D.; Hart, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the geology and groundwater flow of the bog as well as the surrounding area, notably the Cedar Creek Watershed, a HUC (Hydrologic Unit Code) 12 watershed. The watershed is approximately 330 km2, and borders the sub-continental divide separating the Mississippi River Basin from the Great Lakes Basin. The Cedar Creek watershed is composed of mostly agricultural and urban land with a significant stress of groundwater withdrawal for both irrigation and residential use. This watershed has importance due to the contribution to both the Milwaukee River and Lake Michigan, and is integral in the study of regional groundwater flow of Southeastern Wisconsin. Furthermore, the Cedarburg Bog, located in the northeast corner of the Cedar Creek Watershed preserves diverse ecology and is recognized by the U.S. Department of Interior as a National Landmark. Groundwater is the primary driver for the diverse and unique ecology that is contained within the bog. Within the Cedar Creek Watershed, well data and glacial geology maps (Mickelson and Syverson, 1997) were integrated to develop a 3-dimensional subsurface map and watershed-scale groundwater flow model using the LAK3 and the SFR2 package to simulate surface water-aquifer interactions. The model includes 10 zones of the glacial sediments and the weathered and consolidated Silurian Dolomite bedrock. The hydraulic conductivity and storage parameters were calibrated with 203 head targets using universal parameter estimation code (PEST). Then, a series of future climate scenarios, developed by the Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impact, were implemented to the USGS Soil-Water-Balance Code (SWB) to identify variations in recharge. The simulated recharge scenarios were adopted to predict the response of groundwater resources in the watershed and the Cedarburg Bog. Preliminary results produced from the MODFLOW model indicate the bog is acting as a recharge zone under current recharge

  10. Design of water quality monitoring networks with two information scenarios in tropical Andean basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Juan Carlos; Vélez, Jorge Julián; Zambrano, Jeannette; Londoño, Adela

    2017-09-01

    Design and redesign of water quality monitoring networks were evaluated for two similarly sized watersheds in the tropical Andes via optimization techniques using geographic information system technology (GIS) and a matter-element analysis of 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) and total suspended solids (TSS). This resulted in a flexible, objectively based design for a 1128-km 2 watershed without prior water quality data (La Miel River), and a network redesign of a 1052-km 2 watershed with historical water quality monitoring (Chinchiná River). Monitoring design for the undocumented basin incorporated mathematical expressions for physical, anthropological, and historical factors-and was based on clear objectives for diagnosis and intervention of water pollution. Network redesign identified network redundancy, which resulted in a 64% reduction in the number of water quality monitoring stations along the channel, and a 78% reduction of stations throughout the basin. Most tropical drainage basins throughout the world have little to no prior water quality data. But even in well-studied drainage basins like the Chinchiná River, which is among the most thoroughly studied basins in Colombia, redesign of historical and existing monitoring networks will become a standard tool to advance the restoration of polluted surface waters, not only in Colombia, but also throughout the world.

  11. Identification of hotspots for potential pyrethroid runoff: a GIS modeling study in San Joaquin River Watershed of California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyang; Zhang, Minghua; Liu, Xingmei

    2008-09-01

    This paper attempts to identify the high-risk areas for potential runoff of pyrethroid pesticides in the San Joaquin River Watershed. Pyrethroid pesticides have been detected in water and fluvial sediments in this watershed, creating concerns about potential negative impacts on water quality. However, little documentation exists regarding the distributions or the extent of the adverse effects caused by the use of pyrethroids. This study developed a geographic information systems (GIS) model to identify areas with high potential for pyrethroid runoff during the rainy season. The model was then validated using field-monitoring data. Nine factors were identified for the runoff risk assessment: amount of active ingredient used, soil erodibility factor, hydrologic group, surface layer depth, seasonal rainfall, seasonal number of rainy days, seasonal number of storm events, stream density, and land cover. The results indicated that high pyrethroid runoff risks were associated with basins such as the Stanislaus River Sub-basin, Newman Gustine Sub-basin and South Merced Sub-basin. This study demonstrated that the GIS model is capable of predicting high-risk areas of pyrethroid runoff at sub-basin scale. The model can be used to prioritize sites for water quality monitoring and guide implementations of best management practices.

  12. Contribution of wetlands to nitrate removal at the watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Amy T.; Dolph, Christine L.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Finlay, Jacques C.

    2018-02-01

    Intensively managed row crop agriculture has fundamentally changed Earth surface processes within the Mississippi River basin through large-scale alterations of land cover, hydrology and reactive nitrogen availability. These changes have created leaky landscapes where excess agriculturally derived nitrate degrades riverine water quality at local, regional and continental scales. Individually, wetlands are known to remove nitrate but the conditions under which multiple wetlands meaningfully reduce riverine nitrate concentration have not been established. Only one region of the Mississippi River basin—the 44,000 km2 Minnesota River basin—still contains enough wetland cover within its intensively agriculturally managed watersheds to empirically address this question. Here we combine high-resolution land cover data for the Minnesota River basin with spatially extensive repeat water sampling data. By clearly isolating the effect of wetlands from crop cover, we show that, under moderate-high streamflow, wetlands are five times more efficient per unit area at reducing riverine nitrate concentration than the most effective land-based nitrogen mitigation strategies, which include cover crops and land retirement. Our results suggest that wetland restorations that account for the effects of spatial position in stream networks could provide a much greater benefit to water quality then previously assumed.

  13. Water quality and hydrology of the Silver River Watershed, Baraga County, Michigan, 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Thomas L.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Rachol, Cynthia M.; Ellis, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The Silver River Watershed comprises about 69 square miles and drains part of northeastern Baraga County, Michigan. For generations, tribal members of the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community have hunted and fished in the watershed. Tribal government and members of Keweenaw Bay Indian Community are concerned about the effect of any development within the watershed, which is rural, isolated, and lightly populated. For decades, the area has been explored for various minerals. Since 2004, several mineral-exploration firms have been actively investigating areas within the watershed; property acquisition, road construction, and subsurface drilling have taken place close to tributary streams of the Silver River. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Keweenaw Bay Indian Community, conducted a multi-year water-resources investigation of the Silver River Watershed during 2005-08. Methods of investigation included analyses of streamflow, water-quality sampling, and ecology at eight discrete sites located throughout the watershed. In addition, three continuous-record streamgages located within the watershed provided stage, discharge, specific conductance, and water-temperature data on an hourly basis. Water quality of the Silver River Watershed is typical of many streams in undeveloped areas of Upper Michigan. Concentrations of most analytes typically were low, although several exceeded applicable surface-water-quality standards. Seven samples had concentrations of copper that exceeded the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality standards for wildlife, and one sample had concentrations of cyanide that exceeded the same standards. Concentrations of total mercury at all eight sampling sites exceeded the Great Lakes Basin water-quality standard, but the ratio of methylmercury to total mercury was similar to the 5 to 10 percent found in most natural waters. Concentrations of arsenic and chromium in bed sediments were near the threshold-effect concentration. A qualitative

  14. Assessments of urban growth in the Tampa Bay watershed using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.

    2005-01-01

    Urban development has expanded rapidly in the Tampa Bay area of west-central Florida over the past century. A major effect associated with this population trend is transformation of the landscape from natural cover types to increasingly impervious urban land. This research utilizes an innovative approach for mapping urban extent and its changes through determining impervious surfaces from Landsat satellite remote sensing data. By 2002, areas with subpixel impervious surface greater than 10% accounted for approximately 1800 km2, or 27 percent of the total watershed area. The impervious surface area increases approximately three-fold from 1991 to 2002. The resulting imperviousness data are used with a defined suite of geospatial data sets to simulate historical urban development and predict future urban and suburban extent, density, and growth patterns using SLEUTH model. Also examined is the increasingly important influence that urbanization and its associated imperviousness extent have on the individual drainage basins of the Tampa Bay watershed.

  15. Hydrology and hydrochemistry for the Rice Creek watershed of the Whiteshell Research Area, 1986--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, G.A.; Laporte, J.M.; Clarke, D.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents data and results of a hydrometeorological study carried out in the Rice Creek Watershed of the Whiteshell Research Area during 1986-90. Major water budget components, such as precipitation, runoff, groundwater, storage and evaporation, are evaluated and discussed. men annual precipitation was 544 mm, mean runoff was 101 mm, with evapo-transpiration as the residual being 443 mm. The steady-state groundwater component of the runoff is estimated to be less than 2 mm/unit area, or less than 2% of men annual basin yield. Water chemistry data for precipitation,l surface waters, and groundwaters are presented and the relative concentrations compared to provide information about sources of streamflow. Data on a major storm event that provided precipitation with an estimated return period of over 100 a are presented. Also discussed are the effects of beaver dams on the hydrology of a major tributary of the Rice Creek watershed. (auth)

  16. An analysis of urban development and its environmental impact on the Tampa Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.; Su, J.

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization has transformed natural landscapes into anthropogenic impervious surfaces. Urban land use has become a major driving force for land cover and land use change in the Tampa Bay watershed of west-central Florida. This study investigates urban land use change and its impact on the watershed. The spatial and temporal changes, as well as the development density of urban land use are determined by analyzing the impervious surface distribution using Landsat satellite imagery. Population distribution and density are extracted from the 2000 census data. Non-point source pollution parameters used for measuring water quality are analyzed for the sub-drainage basins of Hillsborough County. The relationships between 2002 urban land use, population distribution and their environmental influences are explored using regression analysis against various non-point source pollutant loadings in these sub-drainage basins. The results suggest that strong associations existed between most pollutant loadings and the extent of impervious surface within each sub-drainage basin in 2002. Population density also exhibits apparent correlations with loading rates of several pollutants. Spatial variations of selected non-point source pollutant loadings are also assessed.

  17. The relationship between the Municipal Master Plan and local Watershed Plans in water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gallo Pizella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Water Resources Policy has as one of its tools the drafting of local Water Resource Plans. In view of water resources planning and its relationship to land use planning, the aim of this work is to analyze the institutional and legal difficulties and the potential for an integrated system of water resources management. For this, we used the method of documentary and bibliographic research, beginning with the “Estatuto da Cidade”, a law for urban policy in Brazil, and literature on water management at the municipal and watershed levels. At the municipal level, the “Master Plan” (municipal plan of land use planning became the main instrument of territorial and municipal management, defining the parameters for the compliance of social, environmental and economic functions of real property. In this sense, the municipalities have a responsibility to protect water resources and, without local support, territorial and water management cannot be integrated in the context of the river basin. Despite the difficulties of including environmental variable in urban planning, the Master Plan has the potential to shape local water management systems that are environmentally sustainable and that progressively improve water quality and quantity within the watershed. Similarly, with more significant participation of the municipality in the Basin Committee, it is possible that the forms of municipal land use and occupation can be considered during the development and implementation of the Basin Plan. Thus, the management of water resources can occur integrally.

  18. Superimposed versus residual basin: The North Yellow Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Yellow Sea Basin is a Mesozoic and Cenozoic basin. Based on basin-margin facies, sedimentary thinning, size and shape of the basin and vitrinite reflectance, North Yellow Sea Basin is not a residual basin. Analysis of the development of the basin’s three structural layers, self-contained petroleum systems, boundary fault activity, migration of the Mesozoic–Cenozoic sedimentation centers, different basin structures formed during different periods, and superposition of a two-stage extended basin and one-stage depression basin, the North Yellow Sea Basin is recognized as a superimposed basin.

  19. Runoff response to climate change and human activities in a typical karst watershed, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Shu, Dongcai; Tian, Yichao

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the runoff variation characteristics of long time series in a karst region, analyse comprehensively its different driving factors, and estimate quantitatively the contribution rates of climate change and human activities to net runoff variation. Liudong river basin, a typical karst watershed in southwest China, is the study site. Statistical methods, such as linear fitting, the Morlet wavelet analysis, normalized curve and double mass curve, are applied to analyse the runoff of the watershed. Results show that the runoff in the karst watershed during the research period exhibits a three-stage change and the abrupt change points are the years 1981 and 2007: (1) 1968-1980, the runoff initially exhibited a trend of sustained decreasing and then an abrupt fluctuation. The runoff was obviously destroyed through precipitation-producing processes. Improper land utilisation and serious forest and grass destruction intensified the fluctuation variation amplitude of the runoff. (2) 1981-2006, the changing processes of runoff and precipitation exhibited good synchronism. Precipitation significantly affected runoff variation and human activities had a slight interference degree. (3) 2007-2013, the fluctuation range of runoff was considerably smaller than that of precipitation. The significant growth of forest and grassland areas and the increase in water consumption mitigated runoff fluctuation and greatly diminished runoff variation amplitude. According to calculation, the relative contribution rates of precipitation and human activities to net runoff variation with 1981-2007 as the reference period were -81% and 181% in average, respectively, during 1968-1980, and -117% and 217% in average, respectively, during 2007-2013. In general, the analysis of runoff variation trend and of the contribution rate of its main influencing factors in the typical karst watershed for nearly half a century may be significant to solve the drought problem in the karst

  20. Watershed modeling applications in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Diana E.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2012-01-01

    Watershed models can be used to simulate natural and human-altered processes including the flow of water and associated transport of sediment, chemicals, nutrients, and microbial organisms within a watershed. Simulation of these processes is useful for addressing a wide range of water-resource challenges, such as quantifying changes in water availability over time, understanding the effects of development and land-use changes on water resources, quantifying changes in constituent loads and yields over time, and quantifying aquifer recharge temporally and spatially throughout a watershed.

  1. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) version 2 is a decision support tool designed to facilitate integrated water management by communities at the small watershed scale. WMOST allows users to look across management options in stormwater (including green infrastructure), wastewater, drinking water, and land conservation programs to find the least cost solutions. The pdf version of these presentations accompany the recorded webinar with closed captions to be posted on the WMOST web page. The webinar was recorded at the time a training workshop took place for EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST, v2).

  2. A Regionalization Approach to select the final watershed parameter set among the Pareto solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G. H.; Micheletty, P. D.; Carney, S.; Quebbeman, J.; Day, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    The calibration of hydrological models often results in model parameters that are inconsistent with those from neighboring basins. Considering that physical similarity exists within neighboring basins some of the physically related parameters should be consistent among them. Traditional manual calibration techniques require an iterative process to make the parameters consistent, which takes additional effort in model calibration. We developed a multi-objective optimization procedure to calibrate the National Weather Service (NWS) Research Distributed Hydrological Model (RDHM), using the Nondominant Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) with expert knowledge of the model parameter interrelationships one objective function. The multi-objective algorithm enables us to obtain diverse parameter sets that are equally acceptable with respect to the objective functions and to choose one from the pool of the parameter sets during a subsequent regionalization step. Although all Pareto solutions are non-inferior, we exclude some of the parameter sets that show extremely values for any of the objective functions to expedite the selection process. We use an apriori model parameter set derived from the physical properties of the watershed (Koren et al., 2000) to assess the similarity for a given parameter across basins. Each parameter is assigned a weight based on its assumed similarity, such that parameters that are similar across basins are given higher weights. The parameter weights are useful to compute a closeness measure between Pareto sets of nearby basins. The regionalization approach chooses the Pareto parameter sets that minimize the closeness measure of the basin being regionalized. The presentation will describe the results of applying the regionalization approach to a set of pilot basins in the Upper Colorado basin as part of a NASA-funded project.

  3. Planning for Office Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherron, Gene T.

    1982-01-01

    The steps taken toward office automation by the University of Maryland are described. Office automation is defined and some types of word processing systems are described. Policies developed in the writing of a campus plan are listed, followed by a section on procedures adopted to implement the plan. (Author/MLW)

  4. The Automated Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naclerio, Nick

    1979-01-01

    Clerical personnel may be able to climb career ladders as a result of office automation and expanded job opportunities in the word processing area. Suggests opportunities in an automated office system and lists books and periodicals on word processing for counselors and teachers. (MF)

  5. Watershed health assessment to monitor land degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Hazbavi, Zeinab; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    ). References Cerdà, A., A. G. Morera, and M. B. Bodí. 2009. Soil and Water Losses from New Citrus Orchards Growing on Sloped Soils in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34 (13): 1822-1830. doi:10.1002/esp.1889. Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2016. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res, 54, 2, 154-165 DOI: 10.1071/SR15092 Choudhury, B. U., A. R. Fiyaz, K. P. Mohapatra, and S. Ngachan. 2016. Impact of Land Uses, Agrophysical Variables and Altitudinal Gradient on Soil Organic Carbon Concentration of North-Eastern Himalayan Region of India. Land Degradation and Development 27 (4): 1163-1174. doi:10.1002/ldr.2338. Davudirad, A. A., S. H. Sadeghi, and A. Sadoddin. 2016. The Impact of Development Plans on Hydrological Changes in the Shazand Watershed, Iran. Land Degradation and Development 27 (4): 1236-1244. doi:10.1002/ldr.2523. Fava, F., G. Pulighe, and A. T. Monteiro. 2016. Mapping Changes in Land Cover Composition and Pattern for Comparing Mediterranean Rangeland Restoration Alternatives. Land Degradation and Development 27 (3): 671-681. doi:10.1002/ldr.2456. Fernández-Romero, M. L., B. Lozano-García, L. Parras-Alcántara, C. D. Collins, and J. M. Clark. 2016. Effects of Land Management on Different Forms of Soil Carbon in Olive Groves in Mediterranean Areas. Land Degradation and Development 27 (4): 1186-1195. doi:10.1002/ldr.2327. Ferreira, A. C. C., L. F. C. Leite, A. S. F. de Araújo, and N. Eisenhauer. 2016. Land-use Type Effects on Soil Organic Carbon and Microbial Properties in a Semi-Arid Region of Northeast Brazil. Land Degradation and Development 27 (2): 171-178. doi:10.1002/ldr.2282. Gómez-Acata, E. S., I. Valencia-Becerril, C

  6. Risk Assessment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss in a Hilly-Plain Watershed Based on the Different Hydrological Period: A Case Study in Tiaoxi Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmeng Ye

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-point source pollution is widely considered a serious threat to drinking water. Eutrophication in Chinese watershed is mainly due to nitrogen and phosphorus output from agricultural source. Taihu Lake is a typical eutrophic lake in China, a basin representative for the study of the temporal-spatial characteristics of pollution loading of nitrogen and phosphorus to provide scientific basis for reasonable estimation and targeted control measures of nitrogen and phosphorus loss. Based on data from nitrogen and phosphorus loss in agricultural land, livestock breeding, domestic discharge and aquaculture, this study calculated the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk for each pollution source. Using the superposition of ArcGIS raster data, we also described the spatial distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk by the formula of comprehensive loss risk. The results showed that critical risk areas of nitrogen and phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding and agricultural land during flood period in Tiaoxi watershed. Agricultural land and livestock breeding sources formed major parts of nitrogen loss, accounting for 30.85% and 36.18%, respectively, while phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding (56.28%. During non-flood period, integrated management of livestock breeding and domestic discharge requires much attention to control nitrogen and phosphorus loss in the critical risk area. Finally, it is of great practical significance to propose spatial-temporal targeted measurements to control nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in watershed for various periods and different areas.

  7. Columbia Basin residents' view on water : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronalds, L.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is no strategic plan for water management in the Columbia Basin to ensure that long-term water quality and quantity issues are addressed according to residents' values and views. The Columbia Basin Trust was therefore created to address water management issues. It devised a comprehensive water information questionnaire and sent it to a broad range of respondents that fell within the Canadian portion of the Columbia Basin. These included municipal, regional, provincial and federal government agencies; community and watershed groups; industry and agriculture groups; recreation and tourism groups; and, First Nations groups. The most prevalent concern among the respondents pertained to issues surrounding domestic water consumption, and the most widespread water issue in the Columbia Basin was that of water conservation. The state of aquatic ecosystems was also of significant importance to respondents. Respondents also expressed concern for the cost of providing potable water and for the sustainability of rivers and their tributaries within the Basin. The survey also found a concern for the fluctuating reservoir levels within the Basin and the protection of drinking water from contamination. In order to address the wide range of water related issues, respondents indicated that an education program should be implemented to address the general nature of the hydrologic cycle; how much water is being used for toilets, lawn watering, and showers; the cost of potable water; the importance of water on a local and global level; the importance and nature of watersheds; the ways people influence and pollute water; the challenges of cleaning up contaminated water sources; the community's water sources; the role of water in sustaining food growth; and, challenges and consequences of other communities that experience severe water quality and quantity issues. It was suggested that the education program should address a water conservation plan, including conservation

  8. Estimation of dynamic load of mercury in a river with BASINS-HSPF model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Ying [USDA Forest Service, Mississippi State, MS (United States); Higman, John [St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, FL (United States). Dept. of Water Resources; Hatten, Jeff [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    2012-02-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element and a pervasive toxic pollutant. This study investigated the dynamic loads of Hg from the Cedar-Ortega Rivers watershed into the Lower St. Johns River (LSJR), Florida, USA, using the better assessment science integrating point and nonpoint sources (BASINS)-hydrologic simulation program - FORTRAN (HSPF) model. The site-specific BASINS-HSPF model was developed for dynamic loads of Hg based on watershed, meteorological, and hydrological conditions. The model was calibrated and validated with existing field data. It was then applied to predict the daily and annual loads of Hg from the watershed outlet into the LSJR in response to rainfall events and water fluxes. In general, the predicted average daily total Hg flux during the 10-year simulation period was about 0.69 gha{sup -1} year{sup -1}. This finding was within the range of 0.22-1.41 gha{sup -1} year{sup -1} reported in the Florida Everglades area. Simulations further revealed that the effects of rainfall events on Hg loading were significant, particularly in a very wet period. A maximum total Hg flux was predicted during this wet period at a rate of 122.59 gha{sup -1} year{sup -1}. Results from this study provide a useful case study on estimating Hg contamination in watersheds. The approaches used in this study could be transferred to estimate the dynamic loads of Hg in watersheds from other regions. (orig.)

  9. Water quality modelling in the San Antonio River Basin driven by radar rainfall data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almoutaz Elhassan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of stream water quality is needed as it has significant impacts on human and ecological health and well-being. Estimating water quality between sampling dates requires model simulation based on the available geospatial and water quality data for a given watershed. Models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT can be used to estimate the missing water quality data. In this study, SWAT was used to estimate water quality at a monitoring station near the outlet of the San Antonio River. Precipitation data from both rain gauges and weather radar were used to force the SWAT simulations. Virtual rain gauges which were based on weather radar data were created in the approximate centres of the 163 sub-watersheds of the San Antonio River Basin for SWAT simulations. This method was first tested in a smaller watershed in the middle of the Guadalupe River Basin resulting in increased model efficiency in simulating surface run-off. The method was then applied to the San Antonio River watershed and yielded good simulations for surface run-off (R2 = 0.7, nitrate (R2 = 0.6 and phosphate (R2 = 0.5 at the watershed outlet (Goliad, TX – USGS (United States Geological Survey gauge as compared to observed data. The study showed that the proper use of weather radar precipitation in SWAT model simulations improves the estimation of missing water quality data.

  10. Examining the Effects of Anthropogenic Landscape Transformation on Wetland Habitats within the Grand Kankakee Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Z.; Patterson, T. A.; Grundel, R.; Bolster, D.; Hamlet, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Kankakee River watershed spans areas of southern Michigan, northern Indiana (IN), and eastern Illinois (IL), and was once home to one of the largest and most ecologically productive freshwater wetland complexes in North America, the 2400 km2 Grand Kankakee Marsh. The organically-rich marsh bottom land in the Kankakee basin also yielded productive farmland, but required extensive drainage. By 1919, more than 145 km of the 240-km-long river in IN were channelized and most of the wetlands in IN were drained. On the IL side, the river's channel system remained more intact, but the river was negatively affected by loss of wetland habitat upstream and increasing high flows, erosion and sediment transport arising from the hydrologic changes in the upstream areas. This study integrates surface water and groundwater modeling to explore the potential to recover a portion of the Kankakee's historic wetland ecosystem by removing agricultural drainage infrastructure within the basin. Results of wetland area and habitat metrics across the entire basin at coarse (500 m) resolution for several wetland restoration configurations and climate scenarios are presented, exhibiting the ability to successfully capture much of the watershed's historic features and traits as well as to respond to changes in model forcing to predict future wetland dynamics. Additionally, preliminary methods and results relating to a study site at finer (30 m) resolution over a moderate sized wetland restoration area ( 30 km2) are presented, helping to incorporate and address the fundamental interactions and limitations between agricultural practices and wetland restoration efforts within the entire Grand Kankakee Watershed.

  11. Relation of watershed setting and stream nutrient yields at selected sites in central and eastern North Carolina, 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Terziotti, Silvia; Kolb, Katharine R.

    2013-01-01

    than 10 percent point-source flow contributions to streamflow had higher yields relative to undeveloped watersheds (having less than 10 and 15 percent developed and agricultural land uses, respectively) and watersheds with relatively low agricultural land use (between 15 and 30 percent). The statistical tests further indicated that the median annual yields for total P were statistically higher for watersheds with high agricultural land use (greater than 30 percent) compared to the undeveloped watersheds and watersheds with low agricultural land use. The total P yields also were higher for watersheds with low urban land use (between 10 and 30 percent developed land) compared to the undeveloped watersheds. The study data indicate that grouping and examining stream nutrient yields based on the land-use classifications used in this report can be useful for characterizing relations between watershed settings and nutrient yields in streams located throughout central and eastern North Carolina. Compiled study data also were analyzed with four regression tree models as a means of determining which watershed environmental variables or combination of variables result in basins that are likely to have high or low nutrient yields. The regression tree analyses indicated that some of the environmental variables examined in this study were useful for predicting yields of nitrate, total N, and total P. When the median annual nutrient yields for all 48 sites were evaluated as a group (Model 1), annual point-source flow yields had the greatest influence on nitrate and total N yields observed in streams, and annual streamflow yields had the greatest influence on yields of total P. The Model 1 results indicated that watersheds with higher annual point-source flow yields had higher annual yields of nitrate and total N, and watersheds with higher annual streamflow yields had higher annual yields of total P. When sites with high point-source flows (greater than 10 percent of total streamflow

  12. Watershed boundaries and geographic isolation: patterns of diversification in cutthroat trout from western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loxterman Janet L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For wide-ranging species, intraspecific variation can occur as a result of reproductive isolation from local adaptive differences or from physical barriers to movement. Cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii, a widely distributed fish species from North America, has been divided into numerous putative subspecies largely based on its isolation in different watersheds. In this study, we examined mtDNA sequence variation of cutthroat trout to determine the major phylogenetic lineages of this polytypic species. We use these data as a means of testing whether geographic isolation by watershed boundaries can be a primary factor organizing intraspecific diversification. Results We collected cutthroat trout from locations spanning almost the entire geographic range of this species and included samples from all major subspecies of cutthroat trout. Based on our analyses, we reveal eight major lineages of cutthroat trout, six of which correspond to subspecific taxonomy commonly used to describe intraspecific variation in this species. The Bonneville cutthroat trout (O. c. utah and Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. c. bouvieri did not form separate monophyletic lineages, but instead formed an intermixed clade. We also document the geographic distribution of a Great Basin lineage of cutthroat trout; a group typically defined as Bonneville cutthroat trout, but it appears more closely related to the Colorado River lineage of cutthroat trout. Conclusion Our study indicates that watershed boundaries can be an organizing factor isolating genetic diversity in fishes; however, historical connections between watersheds can also influence the template of isolation. Widely distributed species, like cutthroat trout, offer an opportunity to assess where historic watershed connections may have existed, and help explain the current distribution of biological diversity across a landscape.

  13. A watershed-based adaptive knowledge system for developing ecosystem stakeholder partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hebin; Thornton, Jeffrey A.; Shadrin, Nickolai

    2015-11-01

    This study proposes a Watershed-based Adaptive Knowledge System (WAKES) to consistently coordinate multiple stakeholders in developing sustainable partnerships for ecosystem management. WAKES is extended from the institutional mechanism of Payments for Improving Ecosystem Services at the Watershed-scale (PIES-W). PIES-W is designed relating to the governance of ecosystem services fl ows focused on a lake as a resource stock connecting its infl owing and outfl owing rivers within its watershed. It explicitly realizes the values of conservation services provided by private land managers and incorporates their activities into the public organizing framework for ecosystem management. It implicitly extends the "upstream-to-downstream" organizing perspective to a broader vision of viewing the ecosystems as comprised of both "watershed landscapes" and "marine landscapes". Extended from PIES-W, WAKES specifies two corresponding feedback: Framework I and II. Framework I is a relationship matrix comprised of three input-output structures of primary governance factors intersecting three subsystems of a watershed with regard to ecosystem services and human stakeholders. Framework II is the Stakeholder-and-Information structure channeling five types of information among four stakeholder groups in order to enable the feedbacks mechanism of Framework I. WAKES identifies the rationales behind three fundamental information transformations, illustrated with the Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis and the Strategic Action Program of the Bermejo River Binational Basin. These include (1) translating scientific knowledge into public information within the Function-and-Service structure corresponding to the ecological subsystem, (2) incorporating public perceptions into political will within the Service- and- Value structure corresponding to the economic subsystem, and (3) integrating scientific knowledge, public perceptions and political will into management options within the Value

  14. Mud, models, and managers: Reaching consensus on a watershed strategy for sediment load reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, P. R.; Cho, S. J.; Gran, K.; Belmont, P.; Hobbs, B. F.; Heitkamp, B.; Marr, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source sediment pollution is a leading cause of impairment of U.S. waters. Sediment sources are often on private land, such that solutions require not only considerable investment, but broad acceptance among landowners. We present the story of a participatory modeling exercise whose goal was to develop a consensus strategy for reducing sediment loading from the Greater Blue Earth River Basin, a large (9,200 km2) watershed in southern Minnesota dominated by row crop agriculture. The Collaborative for Sediment Source Reduction was a stakeholder group of farmers, industry representatives, conservation groups, and regulatory agencies. We used a participatory modeling approach to promote understanding of the problem, to define the scope of solutions acceptable to farmers, to develop confidence in a watershed model, and to reach consensus on a watershed strategy. We found that no existing watershed model could provide a reliable estimate of sediment response to management actions and developed a purpose-built model that could provide reliable, transparent, and fast answers. Because increased stream flow was identified as an important driver of sediment loading, the model and solutions included both hydrologic and sediment transport components. The model was based on an annual sediment budget with management actions serving to proportionally reduce both sediment sources and sediment delivery. Importantly, the model was developed in collaboration with stakeholders, such that a shared understanding emerged regarding of the modeling challenges and the reliability of information used to strongly constrain model output. The simplicity of the modeling approach supported stakeholder engagement and understanding, thereby lowering the social barrier between expert modeler and concerned stakeholder. The consensus strategy focused on water storage higher in the watershed in order to reduce river discharge and the large supply of sediment from near

  15. Holistic impact assessment and cost savings of rainwater harvesting at the watershed scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh R. Ghimire

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the impacts of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting (RWH systems in three watersheds within the Albemarle-Pamlico river basin (southeastern U.S. using life cycle assessment (LCA and life cycle cost assessment. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA categories included energy demand, fossil fuel, metals, ozone depletion, global warming, acidification, smog, blue and green water use, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and human health effects. Building upon previous LCAs of near-optimal domestic and agricultural RWH systems in the region, we scaled functional unit LCIA scores for adoption rates of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% and compared these to conventional municipal water and well water systems. In addition to investigating watershed-scale impacts of RWH adoption, which few studies have addressed, potential life cycle cost savings due to reduced cumulative energy demand were scaled in each watershed for a more comprehensive analysis. The importance of managing the holistic water balance, including blue water (surface/ground water, green water (rainwater use, and annual precipitation and their relationship to RWH are also addressed. RWH contributes to water resource sustainability by offsetting surface and ground water consumption and by reducing environmental and human health impacts compared to conventional sources. A watershed-wide RWH adoption rate of 25% has a number of ecological and human health benefits including blue water use reduction ranging from 2–39 Mm3, cumulative energy savings of 12–210 TJ, and reduced global warming potential of 600–10,100 Mg CO2 eq. Potential maximum lifetime energy cost savings were estimated at $5M and $24M corresponding to domestic RWH in Greens Mill and agricultural RWH in Back Creek watersheds.

  16. Hydrologic and atrazine simulation of the Cedar Creek Watershed using the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, M; Heathman, G C; Norton, L D; Engel, B

    2007-01-01

    One of the major factors contributing to surface water contamination in agricultural areas is the use of pesticides. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a hydrologic model capable of simulating the fate and transport of pesticides in an agricultural watershed. The SWAT model was used in this study to estimate stream flow and atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine) losses to surface water in the Cedar Creek Watershed (CCW) within the St. Joseph River Basin in northeastern Indiana. Model calibration and validation periods consisted of five and two year periods, respectively. The National Agricultural Statistics Survey (NASS) 2001 land cover classification and the Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database were used as model input data layers. Data from the St. Joseph River Watershed Initiative and the Soil and Water Conservation Districts of Allen, Dekalb, and Noble counties were used to represent agricultural practices in the watershed which included the type of crops grown, tillage practices, fertilizer, and pesticide application rates. Model results were evaluated based on efficiency coefficient values, standard statistical measures, and visual inspection of the measured and simulated hydrographs. The Nash and Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients (E(NS)) for monthly and daily stream flow calibration and validation ranged from 0.51 to 0.66. The E(NS) values for atrazine calibration and validation ranged from 0.43 to 0.59. All E(NS) values were within the range of acceptable model performance standards. The results of this study indicate that the model is an effective tool in capturing the dynamics of stream flow and atrazine concentrations on a large-scale agricultural watershed in the midwestern USA.

  17. Radioactive hydrogeochemical processes in the Chihuahua-Sacramento Basin, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burillo, J. C.; Reyes C, M.; Montero C, M. E.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E. F.; Reyes, I.; Espino, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    The Chihuahua Basin is divided by its morphology into three main sub basins: Chihuahua-Sacramento sub basin, Chihuahua Dam sub basin and Chuviscar River sub basin. In the aquifers at the Sacramento sub basin, specific concentrations of uranium in groundwater range from 460 to 1260 Bq / m 3 . The presence of strata and sandy clay lenses with radiometric anomalies in the N W of Chihuahua Valley was confirmed by a litostatigraphic study and gamma spectrometry measurements of drill cuttings. High uranium activity values found in the water of some deep wells may correspond to the presence of fine material bodies of carbonaceous material, possible forming pa leo-sediment of flooding or pa leo-soils. It is suggested that these clay horizons are uranyl ion collectors. Uranyl may suffer a reduction process by organic material. Furthermore the groundwater, depending on its ph and Eh, oxidizes and re-dissolves uranium. The hydrogeochemical behavior of San Marcos dam and the N W Valley area is the subject of studies that should help to clarify the origin of the radioactive elements and their relationships with other pollutants in the watershed. (Author)

  18. Radioactive hydrogeochemical processes in the Chihuahua-Sacramento Basin, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burillo, J. C.; Reyes C, M.; Montero C, M. E.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E. F. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C., Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Reyes, I.; Espino, M. S., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Ingenieria, Nuevo Campus Universitario, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    The Chihuahua Basin is divided by its morphology into three main sub basins: Chihuahua-Sacramento sub basin, Chihuahua Dam sub basin and Chuviscar River sub basin. In the aquifers at the Sacramento sub basin, specific concentrations of uranium in groundwater range from 460 to 1260 Bq / m{sup 3}. The presence of strata and sandy clay lenses with radiometric anomalies in the N W of Chihuahua Valley was confirmed by a litostatigraphic study and gamma spectrometry measurements of drill cuttings. High uranium activity values found in the water of some deep wells may correspond to the presence of fine material bodies of carbonaceous material, possible forming pa leo-sediment of flooding or pa leo-soils. It is suggested that these clay horizons are uranyl ion collectors. Uranyl may suffer a reduction process by organic material. Furthermore the groundwater, depending on its ph and Eh, oxidizes and re-dissolves uranium. The hydrogeochemical behavior of San Marcos dam and the N W Valley area is the subject of studies that should help to clarify the origin of the radioactive elements and their relationships with other pollutants in the watershed. (Author)

  19. hydrographic network extraction and watersheds delimitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Ayache

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... ... Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are listed under Research Associations category. HYDROGRAPHIC NETWORK EXTRACTION AND WATERSHEDS. DELIMITATION SOFTWARE OF THE SOUTH ORAN. (NORTH WESTER ALGERIA).

  20. Chesapeake Bay Watershed Implementation Plans (WIPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides an overview of Watershed Implementation Plans (WIP) and how they play an important role in restoring the Chesapeake Bay. The page also provides links to each jurisdiction's Phase I, II, and III WIP.

  1. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  2. Photo Gallery for South Platte Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating

  3. Educating the Community: A Watershed Model Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryess, C. S.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the construction and use of a schoolyard model of the Morrow Bay watershed in California. Describes the design and use of materials that include styrofoam insulation, crushed granite, cement, and stucco. (DDR)

  4. Watershed sensitivity and hydrologic response to high-resolution climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troin, M.; Caya, D.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate models (GCMs) are fundamental research tools to assess climate change impacts on water resources. Regional climate models (RCMs) are complementary to GCMs. The added benefit of RCMs for hydrological applications is still not well understood because watersheds respond differently to RCM experiments. It is expected that the new generation of RCMs improve the representation of climate processes making it more attractive for impact studies. Given the cost of RCMs, it is ascertain to identify whether high-resolution RCMs allow offering more details than what is simulated in GCMs or RCMs with coarser resolution to address impacts on water resources. This study aims to assess the added value of RCM with emphasis on using high-resolution climate models. More specifically is how the hydrological cycle is represented when the resolution in climate models is increased (45 vs 200km; 15 vs 45km). We used simulations from the Canadian RCM (CRCM) driven by reanalyses integrated on high-resolution domains (45 and 15km) and CRCM driven by multiple members of two GCMs (the Canadian CGCM3; the German ECHAM5) with a horizontal resolution of 45 km. CRCM data and data from their host GCMs are compared to observation over 1971-2000. Precipitation and temperature from CRCM and GCMs' simulations are inputted into the hydrological SWAT model to simulate streamflow in watersheds for the historical period. The selected watersheds are two basins in Quebec (QC) and one basin in British Columbia (BC), Canada. CRCM-45km driven by GCMs performs well in representing precipitation but shows a cold bias of 3.3°C. Such bias in temperature is more significant for the BC basin (4.5°C) due to the Rocky Mountains. For the CRCM-45km/GCM combination (CGCM3 or ECHAM5), comparable skills in reproducing the observed climate are identified even though CGCM3 analyzed alone provides more accurate indication of climatology in the basins than ECHAM5. When we compared to GCMs results, CRCM-45km

  5. Basin scale management of surface and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.C.; Al-Sharif, M.

    1993-01-01

    An important element in the economic development of many regions of the Great Plains is the availability of a reliable water supply. Due to the highly variable nature of the climate through out much of the Great Plains region, non-controlled stream flow rates tend to be highly variable from year to year. Thus, the primary water supply has tended towards developing ground water aquifers. However, in regions where shallow ground water is extracted for use, there exists the potential for over drafting aquifers to the point of depleting hydraulically connected stream flows, which could adversely affect the water supply of downstream users. To prevent the potential conflict that can arise when a basin's water supply is being developed or to control the water extractions within a developed basin requires the ability to predict the effect that water extractions in one region will have on water extractions from either surface or ground water supplies else where in the basin. This requires the ability to simulate ground water levels and stream flows on a basin scale as affected by changes in water use, land use practices and climatic changes within the basin. The outline for such a basin scale surface water-ground water model has been presented in Tracy (1991) and Tracy and Koelliker (1992), and the outline for the mathematical programming statement to aid in determining the optimal allocation of water on a basin scale has been presented in Tracy and Al-Sharif (1992). This previous work has been combined into a computer based model with graphical output referred to as the LINOSA model and was developed as a decision support system for basin managers. This paper will present the application of the LINOSA surface-ground water management model to the Rattlesnake watershed basin that resides within Ground Water Management District Number 5 in south central Kansas

  6. Conjunction of wavelet transform and SOM-mutual information data pre-processing approach for AI-based Multi-Station nitrate modeling of watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourani, Vahid; Andalib, Gholamreza; Dąbrowska, Dominika

    2017-05-01

    Accurate nitrate load predictions can elevate decision management of water quality of watersheds which affects to environment and drinking water. In this paper, two scenarios were considered for Multi-Station (MS) nitrate load modeling of the Little River watershed. In the first scenario, Markovian characteristics of streamflow-nitrate time series were proposed for the MS modeling. For this purpose, feature extraction criterion of Mutual Information (MI) was employed for input selection of artificial intelligence models (Feed Forward Neural Network, FFNN and least square support vector machine). In the second scenario for considering seasonality-based characteristics of the time series, wavelet transform was used to extract multi-scale features of streamflow-nitrate time series of the watershed's sub-basins to model MS nitrate loads. Self-Organizing Map (SOM) clustering technique which finds homogeneous sub-series clusters was also linked to MI for proper cluster agent choice to be imposed into the models for predicting the nitrate loads of the watershed's sub-basins. The proposed MS method not only considers the prediction of the outlet nitrate but also covers predictions of interior sub-basins nitrate load values. The results indicated that the proposed FFNN model coupled with the SOM-MI improved the performance of MS nitrate predictions compared to the Markovian-based models up to 39%. Overall, accurate selection of dominant inputs which consider seasonality-based characteristics of streamflow-nitrate process could enhance the efficiency of nitrate load predictions.

  7. Watershed Collaborations: Entanglements with common streams

    OpenAIRE

    Woelfle-Erskine, Cleo Assan

    2015-01-01

    Along California's North Coast, where salmon hover on the cusp of extinction, scientists and local residents seek new collaborations. Agencies, tribes, and watershed councils commission competing studies to determine links between human water use, oceanic cycles, and salmon decline. Modelers turn to ranchers' expert opinions to condition hydrologic models. Ranchers import beavers to build dams that may raise the water table. These watershed collaborations begin to transcend boundaries of huma...

  8. Groundwater quality in the Yuba River and Bear River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Jasper, Monica; Taylor, Kimberly A.

    2017-09-27

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. In the Yuba River and Bear River Watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, many rural households rely on private wells for their drinking water supplies. 

  9. Water equivalent of snow survey of the Red River Basin and Heart/Cannonball River Basin, March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1979-10-01

    The water equivalent of accumulated snow was estimated in the Red River and Heart/Cannonball River basins and surrounding areas in North Dakota during the period 8 to 17 March 1978. A total of 570 km were flown, covering a 274 km section of the Red River Basin watershed. These lines had been surveyed in March 1974. Twelve flight lines were flown over the North Dakota side of the Red River from a point 23 km south of the Canadian border southward to the city of Fargo, North Dakota. The eight flight lines flown over the Minnesota side of the Red River extended from 23 km south of the Canadian border southward to Breckenridge, Minnesota. Using six flight lines, a total of 120 km were flown in the Heart/Cannonball River Basin, an area southwest of the city of Bismark, North Dakota. This was the first such flight in the Heart/Cannonball River Basin area. Computed weighted average water equivalents on each flight line in the Red River Basin ranged from 4.8 cm to 12.7 cm of water, averaging 7.6 cm for all lines. In the Heart/Cannonball River Basin, the weighted water equivalent ranged from 8.9 cm to 19.1 cm of water, averaging 12.7 cm for all lines. The method used employs the measurement of the natural gamma rays both before and after snow covers the ground

  10. Office 2010 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Walkenbach, John; Groh, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    The best of the best from the bestselling authors of Excel, Word, and PowerPoint Bibles !. Take your pick of applications from the Office 2010 suite and your choice of leading experts to show you how to use them. This Office 2010 Bible features the best-of-the-best content from the Excel 2010 Bible , by "Mr. Spreadsheet" John Walkenbach; the Word 2010 Bible by Microsoft MVP Herb Tyson; the PowerPoint 2010 Bible , by PowerPoint expert Faithe Wempen; and coverage of Access 2010 from Microsoft MVP Michael Alexander. If you want to quickly and effectively begin using Office 2010, start i

  11. Office 2013 digital classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, Walter

    2013-01-01

    This complete training package makes learning the new Office 2013 even easier! Featuring both a video training DVD and a full-color book, this training package is like having your own personal instructor guiding you through each lesson of learning Office 2013, all while you work at your own pace. The self-paced lessons allow you to discover the new features and capabilities of the new Office suite. Each lesson includes step-by-step instructions and lesson files, and provides valuable video tutorials that complement what you're learning and clearly demonstrate how to do tasks. This essential

  12. Using Four Capitals to Assess Watershed Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M. Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  13. Distributed modeling of radiocesium washoff from the experimental watershed plots of the Fukushima fallout zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivva, Sergei; Zheleznyak, Mark; Konoplev, Alexei; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama Yoshifumi Wakiyama, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    The distributed hydrological "rainfall- runoff" models provide possibilities of the physically based simulation of surface and subsurface flow on watersheds based on the GIS processed data. The success of such modeling approaches for the predictions of the runoff and soil erosion provides a basis for the implementation of the distributed models of the radionuclide washoff from the watersheds. The field studies provided on the Chernobyl and Fukushima catchments provides a unique data sets for the comparative testing and improvements of the modeling tools for the watersheds located in the areas of the very different geographical and hydro-meteorological condition The set of USLE experimental plots has been established by CRIED, University of Tsukuba after the Fukushima accident to study soil erosion and 137Cs wash off from the watersheds (Onda et al, 2014). The distributed watershed models of surface and subsurface flow, sediment and radionuclide transport has been used to simulate the radionuclide transport in the basin Dnieper River, Ukraine and the watersheds of Prefecture Fuksuhima. DHSVM-R is extension of the distributed hydrological model DHSVM (Lettenmayer, Wigmosta et al, 1996-2014) by the including into it the module of the watershed radionuclide transport. DHSVM is a physically based, distributed hydrology-vegetation model for complex terrain based on the numerical solution of the network of one-dimensional equations. The surface flow submodel of DHSMV has been modified: four-directions schematization for the model's cells has been replaced by the eight-directions scheme, more numerically efficient finite -differences scheme was implemented. The new module of radionuclide wash-off from catchment and transport via stream network in soluble phase and on suspended sediments including bottom-water exchange processes was developed for DHSMV-R. DHSVM-R was implemented recently within Swedish- Ukrainian ENSURE project for the modeling of 234U wash-off from the

  14. Responding to Environmental Challenges in Central Asia and the Caspian Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Edward

    2001-01-01

    "Responding to Environmental Challenges in Central Asia and the Caspian Basin" was a USCENTCOM conference cosponsored by the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Environmental Security (DUSD-ES...

  15. Assessment of terrain slope influence in SWAT modeling of Andean watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, C.; Pérez-Foguet, A.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrological processes in the Andean Region are difficult to model. Large range of altitudes involved (from over 4000 meters above sea level, masl, to zero) indicates the high variability of rainfall, temperature and other climate variables. Strong runoff and extreme events as landslides and floods are the consequence of high slopes of terrain, especially in the upper part of the basins. Strong seasonality of rain and complex ecosystems (vulnerable to climate changes and anthropogenic activities) helps these processes. Present study focuses in a particular watershed from Peruvian Andes, the Jequetepeque River. The distributed watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is applied to model run-off and sediments transport through the basin with data from 1997 to 2006. Specifically, the study focuses in the assessment of the influence of considering terrain slope variation in the definition of Hydrographical Response Units within SWAT. The Jequetepeque watershed (4 372.5 km2) is located in the north part of Peru. River flows east to west, to the Pacific Ocean. Annual average precipitation ranges from 0 to 1100 mm and altitude from 0 to 4188 masl. The "Gallito Ciego" reservoir (400 masl) separates upper-middle part from lower part of the watershed. It stores water for supplying the people from the big cities on the coast and for extensive agriculture uses. Upper-middle part of the watershed covers 3564.8 km2. It ranges from 400 to 4188 masl in no more that 80 km, with slopes up to 20%. Main activities are agricultural and livestock and mining and about 80% of the population are rural. Annual mean temperature drops from 25.4 °C at the reservoir to less than 4 °C in the upper part. Also the highest rainfall variability is found in the upper-middle part of the watershed. Erosion produced by extreme events like 1997/98 "el Niño" Phenomenon is silting the reservoir faster than expected. Moreover, anthropogenic activities like agriculture and

  16. The Significance of Deep Groundwater Contributions to Streamflow in a Crystalline Bedrock Mountain Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, D. G.; Frisbee, M. D.; Harding, J.; Wilson, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    In western states, such as New Mexico, most surface water is derived from high-elevation mountainous watersheds. Unfortunately, the interaction between groundwater and surface water within mountain systems is poorly understood. While most research on streamflow generation has been conducted at the hillslope scale, there are significant limitations when attempting to upscale these processes to an entire basin. Recent work by Frisbee et al. (2011) in the mountainous Saguache watershed (~1600 km^2) of southern Colorado has shown a significant portion of streamflow is controlled by old (>1000 yrs) groundwater inputs, and this old groundwater greatly influences stream geochemistry and residence time distributions. Is the deep-groundwater conceptual model developed for the volcanic-rich Saguache transferable to other watersheds with different drainage areas and geologic settings, and larger human population? We apply the conceptual model developed for Saguache to the Rio Hondo, a mesoscale (~200 km^2) watershed in northern New Mexico with crystalline basement rock that has been extensively fractured due to tectonic activity. We hypothesize that the enhanced secondary permeability of the basement rock allows for significant groundwater flow through the mountain block, a portion of which is eventually discharged to the surface water system. Upwelling from this deep, more geochemically evolved groundwater would be expected to increase moving from the headwaters to the outlet. Geochemical data collected from the Rio Hondo strongly supports this hypothesis. Surface water solute concentrations for most constituents increase as a function of the drainage area while the stable isotopic signature remains constant (both spatially and temporally), indicating that while nearly all water in the basin is sourced from winter and spring precipitation it has undergone differing degrees of geochemical evolution along different flow paths. End-member mixing analysis (EMMA) performed on

  17. The Development Training Activity on Local Vegetable Songkhram Watershed Conservation for Student Second Primary Education in Srisongkhram District Nakhonphanom Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiattisak Charoensook

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Encouraging youth or locality is a preserver, and training is an approach to give an importance to conserve local vegetables in an area. The development of the training activity to promote the conservation of local vegetables at Songkharam Basin for the Second Grade Students, Srisongkhram District, Nakhon Phanom Province has the purposes to study kinds of local vegetable varieties at Songkhram Basin for the second grade students, Srisongkhram District, Nakhon Phanom Province, to develop the efficiently training activity which requires the performance-based criteria 80/80, to find the effectiveness index of the training activity to promote the conservation of local vegetables at Songkhram Basin, to study and compare knowledge about local vegetables at Songkharam Basin at not only pre-training and post-training, which are categorized by different gender and class levels, and to study and compare knowledge and attitudes to the conservation of local vegetable at Songkharam Basin for the second grade students, Srisongkhram District, Nakhon Phanom Province. Sample of the study were the second thirty grade students, Nong Um Phai School, Srisongkhram District, Nakhon Phanom Province through a purposive sampling approach. Tools for research were a training activity, a knowledge test, and an attitude test, Data were analyzed by the mean and standard deviation so as to measure the effectiveness of a training course in company with the performance - based criteria, 80/80. Similarly, Hypotheses were tested by paired t – test, F – test (Two – way Manova , and Two – way Anova. The result of this study showed that the training activity on local vegetable Songkhram watershed conservation for second primary education in Srisongkhram district Nakhonphanom province showed the efficiency of 83.23/86.55 and had a effectiveness index of 0.6795. Student second primary education in Srisongkhram district Nakhonphanom province showed gains in attitude for training

  18. Office of the Chief Financial Officer Annual Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Jeffrey

    2009-12-15

    Presented is the 2009 Chief Financial Officer's Annual Report. The data included in this report has been compiled from the Budget Office, the Controller, Procurement and Property Management and the Sponsored Projects Office.

  19. Watershed Central: Harnessing a social media tool to organize local technical knowledge and find the right watershed resources for your watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed Central was developed to be a bridge between sharing and searching for information relating to watershed issues. This is dependent upon active user support through additions and updates to the Watershed Central Wiki. Since the wiki is user driven, the content and applic...

  20. Groundwater Availability Within the Salton Sea Basin Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompson, A; Demir, Z; Moran, J; Mason, D; Wagoner, J; Kollet, S; Mansoor, K; McKereghan, P

    2008-01-11

    It is widely recognized that increasing demands for water in Southern California are being affected by actions to reduce and redirect the amount of water imported from the Colorado River. In the Imperial Valley region, for example, import reductions will not only affect agricultural users but also could produce significant collateral impacts on the level and quality of water in the Salton Sea, its regional ecology, or even the long term air quality in the greater basin. The notion of using groundwater in the Imperial Valley as an additional source for agricultural or domestic needs, energy production, or Salton Sea restoration efforts, so as to offset reductions in imported water, is not a new concept. Even though it has been discussed recently (e.g., LLNL, 2002), the idea goes back, in part, to several studies performed by the US Department of Interior and other agencies that have indicated that there may be substantial, usable amounts of groundwater in some portions of the Imperial Valley. It has been estimated, for example, that between 1.1 and 3 billion acre-feet (AF) of groundwater lie within the extended, deep basin underlying the valley and Salton Sea region, even though much of it may be unrecoverable or too poor in its quality (Imperial County, 1997). This is a significant volume with respect to the total annual precipitation volume received in California, whose average is close to 200 million (or 0.2 billion) AF per year (DWR, 1998), and especially with respect to the total annual precipitation received in the Salton Sea watershed itself, which we estimate (Appendix A) to be approximately 2.5 million acre feet (MAF) per year. Clearly, a thorough appraisal of the groundwater resources in the Imperial Valley and Salton Sea region--i.e., an assessment of their overall physical availability--will be needed to determine how they can be used and managed to suit new or redirected demands in the region. Development of an improved or updated groundwater assessment

  1. Features interior design offices

    OpenAIRE

    Novikov, A. S.; National Aviation University, Ukraine

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the laws and the formation of office space inthe current conditions and investigate the application of the latest technical tools aesthetics to improve the quality of design solutions.

  2. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Trafficking in Persons (OTIP) Public Assistance Reporting Information System (PARIS) By Region Office of Regional Operations (ORO) ... 2017 More News > Parent Resources Provider Resources CCDF Fundamentals Subscribe to Receive OCC Updates Home About What ...

  3. McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination: Year-End Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrailkil, Jim

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments of the McKenzie River Focus Watershed Council (MWC) in the areas of coordination and administration during Fiscal Year 2000. Coordination and administration consist of prioritization and planning for projects; project management and implementation; procurement of funding for long-term support of the Council; and watershed education/outreach program for residents and local schools. Key accomplishments in the area of project planning include coordinating: monthly Council and executive committee meetings; staffing the Upper Willamette Spring Chinook Working Group; staffing the water quality technical committee; and guiding education and stewardship projects. Key accomplishments in the area of project management include the completion of the McKenzie-Willamette Confluence Assessment; securing funds for project planning in the confluence area; near completion of the BPA funded McKenzie sub-basin assessment; development of a framework for a McKenzie Watershed Conservation Strategy; an evaluation of Council's monitoring programs - ambient water quality, storm-event water quality, Tier III water quality, and macroinvertebrate monitoring. The Council, in cooperation with the McKenzie River Cooperative, completed habitat enhancements in the Gate Creek and Deer Creek sub-watersheds. This partnership recently submitted Bring Back the Natives grant for initiation of projects in other McKenzie tributaries. The Council will also be working with a local business to develop a river-side riparian enhancement and native landscaping project on the lodge grounds. This will serve as a demonstration project for blending fish and wildlife habitat concerns with maintaining grounds for business opportunities. Accomplishments in the area of procurement of funding included developing the FY2000 Scope of Work and budget for approval by the Council and BPA; providing quarterly budget and work program progress reports to the Council; and securing

  4. Using a GIS to link digital spatial data and the precipitation-runoff modeling system, Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Kuhn, Gerhard; Parker, Randolph S.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a modular, distributed-parameter, watershed-modeling system, is being applied to 20 smaller watersheds within the Gunnison River basin. The model is used to derive a daily water balance for subareas in a watershed, ultimately producing simulated streamflows that can be input into routing and accounting models used to assess downstream water availability under current conditions, and to assess the sensitivity of water resources in the basin to alterations in climate. A geographic information system (GIS) is used to automate a method for extracting physically based hydrologic response unit (HRU) distributed parameter values from digital data sources, and for the placement of those estimates into GIS spatial datalayers. The HRU parameters extracted are: area, mean elevation, average land-surface slope, predominant aspect, predominant land-cover type, predominant soil type, average total soil water-holding capacity, and average water-holding capacity of the root zone.

  5. Source water controls on the character and origin of dissolved organic matter in streams of the Yukon River basin, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan A. O' Donnell; George R. Aiken; Evan S. Kane; Jeremy B. Jones

    2010-01-01

    Climate warming and permafrost degradation at high latitudes will likely impact watershed hydrology, and consequently, alter the concentration and character of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in northern rivers. We examined seasonal variation of DOC chemistry in 16 streams of the Yukon River basin, Alaska. Our primary objective was to evaluate DOC chemical composition....

  6. Farmers' use of nutrient management: lessons from watershed case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond, Deanna L; Hoag, Dana L K; Luloff, Al E; Meals, Donald W; Neas, Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient enrichment of water resources has degraded coastal waters throughout the world, including in the United States (e.g., Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of Mexico, and Neuse Estuary). Agricultural nonpoint sources have significant impacts on water resources. As a result, nutrient management planning is the primary tool recommended to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural fields. Its effectiveness requires nutrient management plans be used by farmers. There is little literature describing nutrient management decision-making. Here, two case studies are described that address this gap: (i) a synthesis of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, the Conservation Effects Assessment Project, and (ii) field surveys from three nutrient-impaired river basins/watersheds in North Carolina (Neuse, Tar-Pamlico, and Jordan Lake drainage areas). Results indicate farmers generally did not fully apply nutrient management plans or follow basic soil test recommendations even when they had them. Farmers were found to be hesitant to apply N at university-recommended rates because they did not trust the recommendations, viewed abundant N as insurance, or used recommendations made by fertilizer dealers. Exceptions were noted when watershed education, technical support, and funding resources focused on nutrient management that included easing management demands, actively and consistently working directly with a small group of farmers, and providing significant resource allocations to fund agency personnel and cost-share funds to farmers. Without better dialogue with farmers and meaningful investment in strategies that reward farmers for taking what they perceive as risks relative to nutrient reduction, little progress in true adoption of nutrient management will be made. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Stream recession curves and storage variability in small watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Krakauer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of streamflow recession after rain events offers clues about the relationship between watershed runoff (observable as river discharge and water storage (not directly observable and can help in water resource assessment and prediction. However, there have been few systematic assessments of how streamflow recession varies across flow rates and how it relates to independent assessments of terrestrial water storage. We characterized the streamflow recession pattern in 61 relatively undisturbed small watersheds (1–100 km2 across the coterminous United States with multiyear records of hourly streamflow from automated gauges. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis to help identify periods where precipitation, snowmelt, and evaporation were small compared to streamflow. The order of magnitude of the recession timescale increases from 1 day at high flow rates (~1 mm h−1 to 10 days at low flow rates (~0.01 mm h−1, leveling off at low flow rates. There is significant variability in the recession timescale at a given flow rate between basins, which correlates with climate and geomorphic variables such as the ratio of mean streamflow to precipitation and soil water infiltration capacity. Stepwise multiple regression was used to construct a six-variable predictive model that explained some 80 % of the variance in recession timescale at high flow rates and 30–50 % at low flow rates. Seasonal and interannual variability in inferred storage shows similar time evolution to regional-scale water storage variability estimated from GRACE satellite gravity data and from land surface modeling forced by observed meteorology, but is up to a factor of 10 smaller. Study of this discrepancy in the inferred storage amplitude may provide clues to the range of validity of the recession curve approach to relating runoff and storage.

  8. Study of nonpoint source nutrient loading in the Patuxent River basin, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Study of nonpoint-source (NPS) nutrient loading in Maryland has focused on the Patuxent watershed because of its importance and representativeness of conditions in the State. Evaluation of NPS nutrient loading has been comprehensive and has included long-term monitoring, detailed watershed modeling, and synoptic sampling studies. A large amount of information has been compiled for the watershed and that information is being used to identify primary controls and efficient management strategies for NPS nutrient loading. Results of the Patuxent NPS study have identified spatial trends in water quality that appear to be related to basin charcteristics such as land use, physiography, andgeology. Evaluation of the data compiled by the study components is continuing and is expected to provide more detailed assessments of the reasons for spatial trends. In particular, ongoing evaluation of the watershed model output is expected to provide detailed information on the relative importance of nutrient sources and transport pathways across the entire watershed. Planned future directions of NPS evaluation in the State of Maryland include continued study of water quality in the Patuxent watershed and a shift in emphasis to a statewide approach. Eventually, the statewide approach will become the primary approach usedby the State to evaluate NPS loading. The information gained in the Patuxent study and the tools developed will represent valuable assets indeveloping the statewide NPS assessment program.

  9. Climate change and watershed mercury export in a Coastal Plain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Golden; Christopher D. Knightes; Paul A. Conrads; Toby D. Feaster; Gary M. Davis; Stephen T. Benedict; Paul M. Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Future changes in climatic conditions may affect variations in watershed processes (e.g., hydrological, biogeochemical) and surface water quality across a wide range of physiographic provinces, ecosystems, and spatial scales. How such climatic shifts will impact watershed mercury (Hg) dynamics and hydrologically-driven Hg transport is a significant concern.

  10. THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED MANIPULATION PROJECT: WATERSHED SCIENCE IN A POLICY PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation in Maine is a paired watershed experiment. Monitoring of the paired catchments (East Bear Brook - reference; West Bear Brook - experimental) began in early 1987. Chemical manipulation of West Bear Brook catchment began in November 1989. Proce...

  11. Ecocitizen at the office

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    At the office, I do as I would at home At the office, just as at home, we need to stay warm, have light, be equipped (with office material, furniture). We thus need energy and raw materials. This consumption is not without consequences for our environment. How to reduce our consumption? In everyday life, we already have behaviours that allow us to save energy and resources, to sort our waste. At the office it is important to act in the same way as at home, as we spend a lot of time at our workplace. How to act more responsibly at the office, to reduce the environmental impact, and how to stay motivated? Computer, printer, copy machine… or coffee machine. There are quite a few electrical appliances which are indispensable in our office. Always turned on, or almost, they are also often inactive, and it is during these phases of inactivity that two thirds of their consumption occurs. The way one uses the computer is important in order to limit its consumption. Use the sleep mode with care. A c...

  12. Improving AVSWAT Stream Flow Simulation by Incorporating Groundwater Recharge Prediction in the Upstream Lesti Watershed, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Rahayuningtyas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The upstream Lesti watershed is one of the major watersheds of East Java in Indonesia, covering about 38093 hectares. Although there are enough water resources to meet current demands in the basin, many challenges including high spatial and temporal variability in precipitation from year to year exist. It is essential to understand how the climatic condition affects Lesti River stream flow in each sub basin. This study investigated the applicability of using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT with the incorporation of groundwater recharge prediction in stream flow simulation in the upstream Lesti watershed. Four observation wells in the upstream Lesti watershed were used to evaluate the seasonal and annual variations in the water level and estimate the groundwater recharge in the deep aquifer. The results show that annual water level rise was within the 2800 - 5700 mm range in 2007, 3900 - 4700 mm in 2008, 3200 - 5100 mm in 2009, and 2800 - 4600 mm in 2010. Based on the specific yield and the measured water level rise, the area-weighted groundwater predictions at the watershed outlet are 736, 820.9, 786.7, 306.4 mm in 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. The consistency test reveals that the R-square statistical value is greater than 0.7, and the DV (% ranged from 32 - 55.3% in 2007 - 2010. Overall, the SWAT model performs better in the wet season flow simulation than the dry season. It is suggested that the SWAT model needs to be improved for stream flow simulation in tropical regions.

  13. Riverine threat indices to assess watershed condition and identify primary management capacity of agriculture natural resource management agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, Jeffrey D; Sowa, Scott P; Galat, David L; Annis, Gust M; Diamond, David D; Rewa, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Managers can improve conservation of lotic systems over large geographies if they have tools to assess total watershed conditions for individual stream segments and can identify segments where conservation practices are most likely to be successful (i.e., primary management capacity). The goal of this research was to develop a suite of threat indices to help agriculture resource management agencies select and prioritize watersheds across Missouri River basin in which to implement agriculture conservation practices. We quantified watershed percentages or densities of 17 threat metrics that represent major sources of ecological stress to stream communities into five threat indices: agriculture, urban, point-source pollution, infrastructure, and all non-agriculture threats. We identified stream segments where agriculture management agencies had primary management capacity. Agriculture watershed condition differed by ecoregion and considerable local variation was observed among stream segments in ecoregions of high agriculture threats. Stream segments with high non-agriculture threats were most concentrated near urban areas, but showed high local variability. 60 % of stream segments in the basin were classified as under U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) primary management capacity and most segments were in regions of high agricultural threats. NRCS primary management capacity was locally variable which highlights the importance of assessing total watershed condition for multiple threats. Our threat indices can be used by agriculture resource management agencies to prioritize conservation actions and investments based on: (a) relative severity of all threats, (b) relative severity of agricultural threats, and (c) and degree of primary management capacity.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of effects of best management practices in the Black Earth Creek, Wisconsin, priority watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Olem, H.

    1993-01-01

    Nonpoint-source contamination accounts for a substantial part of the water quality problems in many watersheds. The Wisconsin Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement Program provides matching money for voluntary implementation of various best management practices (BMPs). The effectiveness of BMPs on a drainage-basin scale has not been adequately assessed in Wisconsin by use of data collected before and after BMP implementation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, monitored water quality in the Black Earth Creek watershed in southern Wisconsin from October 1984 through September 1986 (pre-BMP conditions). BMP implementation began during the summer of 1989 and is planned to continue through 1993. Data collection resumed in fall 1989 and is intended to provide information during the transitional period of BMP implementation (1990-93) and 2 years of post-BMP conditions (1994-95). Preliminary results presented for two subbasins in toe Black Earth Creek watershed (Brewery and Garfoot Creeks) are based on data collected during pre-BMP conditions and the first 3 years of the transitional period. The analysis includes the use of regressions to control for natural variability in the data and, hence, enhance the ability to detect changes. Data collected to date (1992) indicate statistically significant differences in storm mass transport of suspended sediment and ammonia nitrogen at Brewery Creek. The central tendency of the regression residuals has decreased with the implementation of BMPs; hence, the improvement in water quality in the Brewery Creek watershed is likely a result of BMP implementation. Differences in storm mass transport at Garfoot Creek were not detected, primarily because of an insufficient number of storms in the transitional period. As practice implementation continues, the additional data will be used to determine the level of management which results in significant improvements in water

  15. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Flanagan, Sarah M.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, a 391-square-kilometer (km2) watershed near Kabul, Afghanistan, was assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Geological Survey to provide an understanding of the water resources in an area of Afghanistan with considerable copper and other mineral resources. Water quality, chemical, and isotopic samples were collected at eight wells, four springs, one kareze, and the Chakari River in a basin-fill aquifer in the Chakari Basin by the Afghanistan Geological Survey. Results of water-quality analyses indicate that some water samples in the basin had concentrations of chemical constituents that exceeded World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate, sodium, and dissolved solids and some of the samples also had elevated concentrations of trace elements, such as copper, selenium, strontium, uranium, and zinc. Chemical and isotopic analyses, including for tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, and carbon-14, indicate that most wells contain water with a mixture of ages from young (years to decades) to old (several thousand years). Three wells contained groundwater that had modeled ages ranging from 7,200 to 7,900 years old. Recharge from precipitation directly on the basin-fill aquifer, which covers an area of about 150 km2, is likely to be very low (7 × 10-5 meters per day) or near zero. Most recharge to this aquifer is likely from rain and snowmelt on upland areas and seepage losses and infiltration of water from streams crossing the basin-fill aquifer. It is likely that the older water in the basin-fill aquifer is groundwater that has travelled along long and (or) slow flow paths through the fractured bedrock mountains surrounding the basin. The saturated basin-fill sediments in most areas of the basin are probably about 20 meters thick and may be about 30 to 60 meters thick in most areas near the center of the Chakari Basin. The combination of low recharge and little storage indicates that groundwater

  16. Physico-chemical composition of urban wet weather discharges in Seybous Watershed (North Eastern Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadri, Samira; Laraba, Abd ElAziz; Haied, Nadjib

    2017-02-01

    Seybous Watershed is one of the largest basins in Algeria. It is characterized by a large urban and industrial activity presented on both banks of the river and tributaries Seybous. It daily receives discharged without treatment. This work provides an overview of the quality of urban wet weather discharges; this study is based on several morphological parameters Hydrometeorological basin. During the year 2012, two samples were performed (in August and September). These have worn on urban waste and the waters of Seybous Wadi. The analysis results indicate that urban waste are characterized by high pollutant load varies with the rain and the influence of these releases is visually along the rivers and waters of the different stations are between the classes of poor quality very bad.

  17. Land degradation in the Canyoles river watershed, Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Gonzalez Peñaloza, F. A.; Imeson, A. C.; Gimenez Morera, A.

    2012-04-01

    Human induced Land Degradation by actions that have a negative impact on the functioning of the environment (Imeson, 2012). Mediterranean arid lands have been intensely transformed by human activity through history, especially due to agricultural management. This intense use of the land resulted in a new man made landscape that is evolving as a consequence of the global change to a new situation that can trigger Land Degradation processes. Extensive areas of olive groves, fruit orchards and vineyards, many of them grown on marginal areas (e.g., terraced slopes) as well as non-sustainable land uses have induced different environmental problems in the Canyoles river watershed (Eastern Spain). The human and physical changes suffered by this region are being used as a representative area of the western Mediterranean basin to monitor how the responses to the Desertification and Land Degradation fit. The aim of this research is to evaluate socio-ecological systems as a part of the Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification Response Assessment (LEDDRA) project. This presentation will show the main Land Degradation processes that has been identified: [1] soil erosion as a consequence of agriculture, [2] soil compaction due to herbicide and heavy machinery use, [3] soil sealing on croplands due to heavy vehicles and asphalt and concrete application on roads, [4] soil/water pollution due to agrochemicals, [5] reduction of biodiversity in croplands due to herbicides and substitution of the traditional irrigation system, [6] urbanization processes of rural areas due to the development of urban areas and agricultural infrastructures, [7] monoculture of citrus plantations in the lower part of the watershed, [8] roads and railway construction, [9] aquifer depletion, [10] abandonment of industrial activities, [11] abandonment of local traditional practices for food production and other resources and [12] the effect of land abandonment and wildfires in the nearby mountainous

  18. Carrying capacity of water resources in Bandung Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganingrum, D.

    2018-02-01

    The concept of carrying capacity is widely used in various sectors as a management tool for sustainable development processes. This idea has also been applied in watershed or basin scale. Bandung Basin is the upstream of Citarum watershed known as one of the national strategic areas. This area has developed into a metropolitan area loaded with various environmental problems. Therefore, research that is related to environmental carrying capacity in this area becomes a strategic issue. However, research on environmental carrying capacity that has been done in this area is still partial either in water balance terminology, land suitability, ecological footprint, or balance of supply and demand of resources. This paper describes the application of the concept of integrated environmental carrying capacity in order to overcome the increasing complexity and dynamic environmental problems. The sector that becomes the focus of attention is the issue of water resources. The approach method to be carried out is to combine the concept of maximum balance and system dynamics. The dynamics of the proposed system is the ecological dynamics and population that cannot be separated from one another as a unity of the Bandung Basin ecosystem.

  19. Sedimentary links between hillslopes and channels in a dryland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollings, R.

    2016-12-01

    The interface between hillslopes and channels is recognised as playing an important role in basin evolution and functioning. However, this interaction has not been described well in landscapes such as drylands, in which the diffuse process of runoff-driven sediment transport is important for sediment communication to the channel and to the basin outlet. This paper combines field measurements of surface sediment grain sizes in channels and on hillslopes with high resolution topography, >60 years of rainfall and runoff data from the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in Arizona, and simple calculations of spatial stress distributions for various hydrologic scenarios to explore the potential for sediment to move from hillslopes to channels and through channels across the entire basin. Here we generalise the net movement of sediment in to or out of channel reaches, at high resolution in WGEW, as the balance between hillslope sediment supply to the channel and channel evacuation, in response to a variety of storms and discharge events. Our results show that downstream of small, unit source area watersheds, the balance in the channel often switches from being supply-dominated to being evacuation dominated for all scenarios. The low frequency but high discharge event in the channel seems to control the long term evolution of the channel, as stress is far greater for this scenario than other scenarios tested. The results draw on the high variability of rainfall characteristics to drive runoff events and so provides a physical explanation for long-term evolution of the channel network in drylands.

  20. Watershed modeling tools and data for prognostic and diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambel-Leitao, P.; Brito, D.; Neves, R.

    2009-04-01

    -557-4411-5 Trancoso, R., F. Braunschweig, Chambel-Leitão P., Neves, R., Obermann, M. (2009) An advanced modelling tool for simulating complex river systems. Accepted for publication in Journal of Total Environment. Yarrow M., Chambel-Leitão P. (2006) Calibration of the SWAT model to the Aysén basin of the Chilean Patagonia: Challenges and Lessons. Proceedings of the Watershed Management to Meet Water Quality Standards and TMDLS (Total Maximum Daily Load) 10-14 March 2007, San Antonio, Texas 701P0207. Yarrow M., Chambel-Leitão P.. (2007) Simulating Nothfagus forests in the Chilean Patagonia: a test and analysis of tree growth and nutrient cycling in swat. Submited to the Proceedings of the , 4th International SWAT Conference July 2-6 2007. Yarrow, M., Chambel-Leitão P. (2008) Estimation of loads in the Aysén Basin of the Chilean Patagonia: SWAT model and Harp-Nut guidelines. In Perspectives on Integrated Coastal Zone Management in South America R Neves, J Baretta & M Mateus (eds.). IST Press, Lisbon, Portugal. (ISBN: 978-972-8469-74-0)

  1. Weathering, landscape equilibrium, and carbon in four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter H in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program research in eastern Puerto Rico involves a double pair-wise comparison of four montane river basins, two on granitic bedrock and two on fine-grained volcaniclastic bedrock; for each rock type, one is forested and the other is developed. A confounding factor in this comparison is that the developed watersheds are substantially drier than the forested (runoff of 900–1,600 millimeters per year compared with 2,800–3,700 millimeters per year). To reduce the effects of contrasting runoff, the relation between annual runoff and annual constituent yield were used to estimate mean-annual yields at a common, intermediate mean-annual runoff of 1,860 millimeters per year. Upon projection to this intermediate runoff, the ranges of mean-annual yields among all watersheds became more compact or did not substantially change for dissolved bedrock, sodium, silica, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, and calcium. These constituents are the primary indicators of chemical weathering, biological activity on the landscape, and atmospheric inputs; the narrow ranges indicate little preferential influence by either geology or land cover. The projected yields of biologically active constituents (potassium, nitrate, ammonium ion, phosphate), and particulate constituents (suspended bedrock and particulate organic carbon) were considerably greater for developed landscapes compared with forested watersheds, consistent with the known effects of land clearing and human waste inputs. Equilibrium rates of combined chemical and physical weathering were estimated by using a method based on concentrations of silicon and sodium in bedrock, river-borne solids, and river-borne solutes. The observed rates of landscape denudation greatly exceed rates expected for a dynamic equilibrium, except possibly for the forested watershed on volcaniclastic rock. Deforestation and agriculture can explain the accelerated physical

  2. Lessons From Watershed-Based Climate Smart Agricultural Practices In Jogo-Gudedo Watershed Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abera Assefa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Land degradation is the most chronic problem in the Ethiopia. Soil erosion and denudation of vegetation covers are tending to enlarge the area of degraded and west land in semi-arid watersheds. It is therefore watershed management is believed as a holistic approach to create a climate smart landscape that integrate forestry agriculture pasture and soil water management with an objective of sustainable management of natural resources to improve livelihood. This approach pursues to promote interactions among multiple stakeholders and their interests within and between the upstream and downstream locations of a watershed. Melkassa Agricultural Research Centre MARC has been implementing integrated watershed management research project in the Jogo-gudedo watershed from 2010-2014 and lessons from Jogo-gudedo watershed are presented in this research report. Participatory action research PAR was implemented on Soil and Water Conservation SWC area enclosure Agroforestry AF Conservation Tillage CT energy saving stove drought resistance crop varieties in the Jogo-gudedo watershed. Empirical research and action research at plot level and evaluation of introduced technologies with farmers through experimental learning approach and documentation were employed. The participatory evaluation and collective action of SWC and improved practices brought high degree of acceptance of the practices and technologies. This had been ratified by the implementation of comprehensive watershed management action research which in turn enabled to taste and exploit benefits of climate-smart agricultural practices. Eventually significant reduction on soil loss and fuel wood consumption improvements on vegetation cover and crop production were quantitatively recorded as a good indicator and success. Field visit meetings trainings and frequent dialogues between practitioners and communities at watershed level have had a help in promoting the climate smart agriculture

  3. Soil losses in rural watersheds with environmental land use conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, F A L; Varandas, S G P; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Valle Junior, R F

    2014-07-01

    Soil losses were calculated in a rural watershed where environmental land use conflicts developed in the course of a progressive invasion of forest and pasture/forest lands by agriculture, especially vineyards. The hydrographic basin is located in the Douro region where the famous Port wine is produced (northern Portugal) and the soil losses were estimated by the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) in combination with a Geographic Information System (GIS). Environmental land use conflicts were set up on the basis of land use and land capability maps, coded as follows: 1-agriculture, 2-pasture, 3-pasture/forest, and 4-forest. The difference between the codes of capability and use defines a conflict class, where a negative or nil value means no conflict and a positive i value means class i conflict. The reliability of soil loss estimates was tested by a check of these values against the frequency of stone wall instabilities in vineyard terraces, with good results. Using the USLE, the average soil loss (A) was estimated in A=12.2 t·ha(-1)·yr(-1) and potential erosion risk areas were found to occupy 28.3% of the basin, defined where soil losses are larger than soil loss tolerances. Soil losses in no conflict regions (11.2 t·ha(-1)·yr(-1)) were significantly different from those in class 2 (6.8 t·ha(-1)·yr(-1)) and class 3 regions (21.3 t·ha(-1)·yr(-1)) that in total occupy 2.62 km(2) (14.3% of the basin). When simulating a scenario of no conflict across the entire basin, whereby land use in class 2 conflict regions is set up to permanent pastures and in class 3 conflict regions to pine forests, it was concluded that A=0.95 t·ha(-1)·yr(-1) (class 2) or A=9.8 t·ha(-1)·yr(-1) (class 3), which correspond to drops of 86% and 54% in soil loss relative to the actual values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Variation of Annual ET Determined from Water Budgets Across Rural Southeastern Basins Differing in Forest Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, S. E.; Jackson, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    In the Southeastern United States, evapotranspiration (ET) typically accounts for 60-70% of precipitation. Watershed and plot scale experiments show that evergreen forests have higher ET rates than hardwood forests and pastures. However, some plot experiments indicate that certain hardwood species have higher ET than paired evergreens. The complexity of factors influencing ET in mixed land cover watersheds makes identifying the relative influences difficult. Previous watershed scale studies have relied on regression to understand the influences or low flow analysis to indicate growing season differences among watersheds. Existing studies in the southeast investigating ET rates for watersheds with multiple forest cover types have failed to identify a significant forest type effect, but these studies acknowledge small sample sizes. Trends of decreasing streamflow have been recognized in the region and are generally attributed to five key factors, 1.) influences from multiple droughts, 2.) changes in distribution of precipitation, 3.) reforestation of agricultural land, 4.) increasing consumptive uses, or 5.) a combination of these and other factors. This study attempts to address the influence of forest type on long term average annual streamflow and on stream low flows. Long term annual ET rates were calculated as ET = P-Q for 46 USGS gaged basins with daily data for the 1982 - 2014 water years, >40% forest cover, and no large reservoirs. Land cover data was regressed against ET to describe the relationship between each of the forest types in the National Land Cover Database. Regression analysis indicates evergreen land cover has a positive relationship with ET while deciduous and total forest have a negative relationship with ET. Low flow analysis indicates low flows tend to be lower in watersheds with more evergreen cover, and that low flows increase with increasing deciduous cover, although these relationships are noisy. This work suggests considering forest

  5. Instructed officers Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This law contains instructions on the prevention of radiological and contains 4 articles Article I: describe the responsibilities of the institutions that operate within the scope of radiological protection in terms of the number of radiation protection officers and personal Supervisors who available in the practices radiation field. Article II: talking about the conditions of radiation protection officers that must be available in the main officers and working field in larg institutions and thecondition of specific requirements for large enterprises of work permits in the field of radiological work that issued by the Council. Article III: the functions and duties of officers in the prevention of radiological oversee the development of radiation protection programmes in the planning stages, construction and preparing the rules of local labour and what it lead of such tasks.Article IV: radiation protection officers powers: to modify and approve the programme of prevention and radiation safety at the company, stop any unsafe steps, amend the steps of the usage, operation of materials, devices and so on

  6. Office Hysteroscopy in Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojghan Barati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For patients undergoing in vitro fertilization, lower pregnancy rates are observed inthe presence of uterine cavity anomalies and correction of these anomalies has been associated withimproved pregnancy rates. Office hysteroscopy has been proven to have superior sensitivity andspecificity in evaluation of the endometrial cavity. Diagnostic hysteroscopy can be performed inan office with minimal discomfort and at a much lower cost than in an operating room. Our studywas done to evaluate the importance of office hysteroscopy in diagnosis of pathology in normalappearing infertility work up.Materials and Methods: This study was performed from September 1, 2006 till September 1, 2008at Imam Khomayni hospital, Ahwaz, Iran. All infertile patients who had unexplained infertilityor uterine factor infertility were enrolled in the study and underwent office hysteroscopy. Theparticipants were divided into two groups. Group one was composed of 54 patients with unexplainedinfertility and group two was composed of 53 patients with abnormal vaginal sonography orhysterosalpangography.Results: Of the 54 patients with unexplained infertility; 33 patients (61.2% had normal and 21patients (38.8% had abnormal hysteroscopic findings. Among 53 patients in the uterine factorgroup, there were 7 women (13.3% who had a normal hysteroscopy and abnormal sonography orhysterography.Conclusion: In group one (unexplained infertility, there was a 38.8% positive finding in officehysteroscopy in spite of normal hysterosalpingography and sonography results. Therefore, it seemsthat office hysteroscopy should be a part of a routine work up in infertile patients.

  7. [Usefulness of office hysteroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganem, Alfredo Saad; López Ortiz, Carlos Gerardo Salazar; Alva, Carlos Andrés Lejtik; Bernal, Pedro Quintero; Dorantes, Jorge Palma

    2006-02-01

    To demonstrate the efficacy and feasibility of the office hysteroscopy in the treatment of the endouterine pathologies. retrospective, descriptive and observational. We included all the office hysteroscopies performed since February-2000 to August-2004 (n=84) in a private medical office. We performed 32 diagnostic procedures without anesthesia and 52 operative procedures with anesthesia (I.V. sedation). We used a Karl Storz diagnostic telescope and a Bettocchi operative telescope. Postoperative care was in the office since 90 minutes and all patients went home without complications, Mean age of the patients was 38+/-10 years. The indications to perform the procedure were infertility and abnormal transvaginal bleeding. There were not complications. All of the diagnostic procedures were done without anesthesia and we verified patient satisfaction with a pain store since 1 to 10 points. Twenty patients could get pregnant after the procedure and in two patients we detected endometrial carcinoma. With these results, we can assume that office hysteroscopy is a procedure with minimal complications when is performed by expert hands and with excellent patients' satisfaction and benefit.

  8. Impacts of Salinity on Saint-Augustin Lake, Canada: Remediation Measures at Watershed Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Guesdon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter road network management is a source of anthropogenic salinity in the Saint-Augustin Lake watershed (Quebec City, QC, Canada. To prevent the potential impact caused by road runoff involving de-icing salts (NaCl and trace metals (Cd and Pb on the watershed, a full-scale treatment chain system (including a detention basin, a filtering bed, and a constructed wetland was built. Average Cl and Na concentrations in groundwater were higher in wells affected by road network (125 mg/L Cl and 64 mg/L Na than in control wells (13 mg/L Cl and 33 mg/L Na suggesting a contamination by de-icing salts. The monitoring of influent and effluent surface water in the treatment system has shown a seasonal dependence in NaCl concentrations and electrical conductivity values, being the highest in summer, linked with the lower precipitation and higher temperature. Concentration ranges were as follows: 114–846 mg/L Na and 158–1757 mg/L Cl (summer > 61–559 mg/L Na and 63–799 mg/L Cl (spring and autumn. The treatment system removal efficiency was significant, however with seasonal variations: 16%–20% Cl, 3%–25% Na, 7%–10% Cd and 7%–36% Pb. The treatment system has shown an interesting potential to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic salinity at watershed scale with higher expected performances in the subsequent years of operation.

  9. Loads of nitrate, phosphorus, and total suspended solids from Indiana watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Aubrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Transport of excess nutrients and total suspended solids (TSS) such as sediment by freshwater systems has led to degradation of aquatic ecosystems around the world. Nutrient and TSS loads from Midwestern states to the Mississippi River are a major contributor to the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone, an area of very low dissolved oxygen concentration in the Gulf of Mexico. To better understand Indiana’s contribution of nutrients and TSS to the Mississippi River, annual loads of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, and TSS were calculated for nine selected watersheds in Indiana using the load estimation model, S-LOADEST. Discrete water-quality samples collected monthly by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management’s Fixed Stations Monitoring Program from 2000–2010 and concurrent discharge data from the U. S. Geological Survey streamflow gages were used to create load models. Annual nutrient and TSS loads varied across Indiana by watershed and hydrologic condition. Understanding the loads from large river sites in Indiana is important for assessing contributions of nutrients and TSS to the Mississippi River Basin and in determining the effectiveness of best management practices in the state. Additionally, evaluation of loads from smaller upstream watersheds is important to characterize improvements at the local level and to identify priorities for reduction.

  10. Social Networks for Management of Water Scarcity: Evidence from the San Miguel Watershed, Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alan Navarro-Navarro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive social and ecological water crises in Mexico remain, despite over two decades of legal and institutional backing for Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM as a policy tenet. In this article we apply a socialshed analysis to uncover and understand the geographical and jurisdictional forces influencing the social construction and simultaneous fragmentation of the San Miguel Watershed (SMW in the state of Sonora, in Mexico’s water-scarcity bulls-eye. Specific insights derived from an empirical analysis include that water management (WM is socially embedded in dense networks of family and friends, farmers and ranchers, citizens and local government – all to varying degrees sharing information about local water crises. Irrigation water user representatives (WUR are connected across communities and within their own municipalities, but inter-watershed social links with other WUR are virtually nonexistent, despite high levels of awareness of cross-municipality WM problems. Implementation of IWRM as a federal policy by a single agency and the creation of basin councils and subsidiary technical committees for groundwater management have not been sufficient for technical – much less social – integration at the watershed level. This study shows that the SMW socialshed remains fragmented by local jurisdictions; without coordinated agency-jurisdiction-local action fomenting social connections, a socialshed will not emerge.

  11. Improving Baseline Model Assumptions: Evaluating the Impacts of Typical Methodological Approaches in Watershed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenich, R. L.; Kalcic, M. M.; Teshager, A. D.; Long, C. M.; Wang, Y. C.; Scavia, D.

    2017-12-01

    Thanks to the availability of open-source software, online tutorials, and advanced software capabilities, watershed modeling has expanded its user-base and applications significantly in the past thirty years. Even complicated models like the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) are being used and documented in hundreds of peer-reviewed publications each year, and likely more applied in practice. These models can help improve our understanding of present, past, and future conditions, or analyze important "what-if" management scenarios. However, baseline data and methods are often adopted and applied without rigorous testing. In multiple collaborative projects, we have evaluated the influence of some of these common approaches on model results. Specifically, we examined impacts of baseline data and assumptions involved in manure application, combined sewer overflows, and climate data incorporation across multiple watersheds in the Western Lake Erie Basin. In these efforts, we seek to understand the impact of using typical modeling data and assumptions, versus using improved data and enhanced assumptions on model outcomes and thus ultimately, study conclusions. We provide guidance for modelers as they adopt and apply data and models for their specific study region. While it is difficult to quantitatively assess the full uncertainty surrounding model input data and assumptions, recognizing the impacts of model input choices is important when considering actions at the both the field and watershed scales.

  12. Quantifying terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in the Jinsha watershed, Upper Yangtze, China from 1975 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Yin, Runsheng; Li, Zhengpeng; Deng, Yulin; Tan, Kun; Deng, Xiangzheng; Rothstein, David; Qi, Jiaguo

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal dynamics of carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems and carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is critical to our understanding of regional patterns of carbon budgets. Here we use the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System to simulate the terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in the Jinsha watershed of China’s upper Yangtze basin from 1975 to 2000, based on unique combinations of spatial and temporal dynamics of major driving forces, such as climate, soil properties, nitrogen deposition, and land use and land cover changes. Our analysis demonstrates that the Jinsha watershed ecosystems acted as a carbon sink during the period of 1975–2000, with an average rate of 0.36 Mg/ha/yr, primarily resulting from regional climate variation and local land use and land cover change. Vegetation biomass accumulation accounted for 90.6% of the sink, while soil organic carbon loss before 1992 led to a lower net gain of carbon in the watershed, and after that soils became a small sink. Ecosystem carbon sink/source patterns showed a high degree of spatial heterogeneity. Carbon sinks were associated with forest areas without disturbances, whereas carbon sources were primarily caused by stand-replacing disturbances. It is critical to adequately represent the detailed fast-changing dynamics of land use activities in regional biogeochemical models to determine the spatial and temporal evolution of regional carbon sink/source patterns.

  13. Quantifying Stream Flux of Carbon Nitrogen and Phosphorus in a Tropical Watershed, Mae Sa Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, S. G.; Ziegler, A. D.; Tantasirin, C.; Lu, X.; Giambelluca, T.

    2006-12-01

    Nutrient loading to rivers and, ultimately, oceans is of global concern with implications for both immediate aquatic health and as a longer term feedback system for global elemental cycling and climate change. Southeast Asia has been identified as a global hotspot for high yields of C, N, and P. We present initial results from a nutrient flux study from the Mae Sa watershed in northern Thailand. The Mae Sa is a 74 ha basin at the headwaters of the Chao Praya River and is characterized by diverse land use extending from forest reserves to intensive agriculture. The watershed receives the majority of its annual 1300-2000 mm of precipitation during the monsoonal season with runoff characterized by high intensity, short-duration flooding, typically produced by localized, sub-watershed, precipitation events. Dissolved (1 mm) fractions were sampled across a series of storm hydrograph events and each fraction was analyzed for total organic C, N, and P contents. Initial results indicate that a significant fraction of the nutrient flux during these events is found in the >1 mm size fraction.

  14. From eutrophic to mesotrophic: modelling watershed management scenarios to change the trophic status of a reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Marcos; Almeida, Carina; Brito, David; Neves, Ramiro

    2014-03-12

    Management decisions related with water quality in lakes and reservoirs require a combined land-water processes study approach. This study reports on an integrated watershed-reservoir modeling methodology: the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to estimate the nutrient input loads from the watershed, used afterwards as boundary conditions to the reservoir model, CE-QUAL-W2. The integrated modeling system was applied to the Torrão reservoir and drainage basin. The objective of the study was to quantify the total maximum input load that allows the reservoir to be classified as mesotrophic. Torrão reservoir is located in the Tâmega River, one of the most important tributaries of the Douro River in Portugal. The watershed is characterized by a variety of land uses and urban areas, accounting for a total Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP) discharge of ~100,000 p.e. According to the criteria defined by the National Water Institute (based on the WWTP Directive), the Torrão reservoir is classified as eutrophic. Model estimates show that a 10% reduction in nutrient loads will suffice to change the state to mesotrophic, and should target primarily WWTP effluents, but also act on diffuse sources. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

  15. Potential use by attributes morphometric soil of the upper Meia Ponte watershed, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virlei Álvaro de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Planning and environmental management are necessary to manage land use and to assess the suitability of land in order to maximize agricultural productivity by designing an operating system capable of sustaining human activities with minimal disruption to physical, ecological and social processes. In order to ensure the rational use of natural resources with regard to various types of soil, the physical, chemical, and morphometric characteristics of the watershed must be evaluated in order to determine the proper intensity of cultivation and soil management to avoid the loss of productive capacity due to erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate morphometric attributes in relation to the distribution of soils in the landscape and to suggest potential alternative land uses based upon the roughness coefficient in the watershed of the upper Meia Ponte river, Goiás. Among the variables necessary to watershed planning, morphometric analysis of soil characteristics and topography has proven to be of great importance in defining its potential and characteristics with respect to water dynamics. This analysis allowed us to infer that runoff in Inceptisols and Ultisols soil classes is greater than in Oxisols. Based upon the analysis of the morphometric data, soil, and roughness coefficient, it was possible to conclude that the optimal use of the basin is for agriculture and cattle grazing, provided that the areas of natural vegetation and reforestation are preserved.

  16. Watershed geomorphology interacts with precipitation to influence the magnitude and source of CO2 emissions from Alaskan streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Adrianne P.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Holtgrieve, Gordon W.; Jankowski, Kathi Jo; French, David W.

    2017-08-01

    Boreal ecosystems contain a large fraction of the world's soil carbon and are warming rapidly, prompting efforts to understand the role of freshwaters in carbon export from these regions. We examined geomorphic controls on the magnitude of stream CO2 emissions and sources of stream dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) across a heterogeneous river basin in SW Alaska. We found that watershed slope and precipitation interact to control gaseous carbon fluxes from streams, with the highest flux from low-gradient watersheds following rainstorms. Watershed slope influences C loading and stream CO2 fluxes by controlling carbon accumulation in watersheds and to a lesser extent by determining gas transfer velocity across the stream air-water interface. Low gas transfer velocity in flat streams offsets some of the effects of higher terrestrial C loading at those sites, resulting in lower than expected vertical CO2 fluxes. While the isotopic composition of stream DIC (Δ14C and δ13C) was highly variable across space and time, shifts toward contemporary, terrestrial sources after precipitation were most pronounced in flat watersheds. At base flow DIC was a mixture of modern and aged sources of biogenic and geologic origin (Δ14C, -198.3‰ to 27.9‰, n = 23). Aged (Δ14C-depleted) C sources contributed to food webs via a pathway from DIC to algae to invertebrate grazers. We observed coherent changes in stream carbon chemistry after large rainstorms despite considerable physical heterogeneity among watersheds. These patterns provide a way to extrapolate across boreal landscapes by constraining CO2 concentration and flux estimates by local geomorphic features.

  17. Application of the ecosystem diagnosis and treatment method to the Grande Ronde Model Watershed project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobrand, L.; Lestelle, L.

    1997-01-01

    In the spring of 1994 a technical planning support project was initiated by the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Board of Directors (Board) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration. The project was motivated by a need for a science based method for prioritizing restoration actions in the basin that would promote effectiveness and accountability. In this section the authors recall the premises for the project. The authors also present a set of recommendations for implementing a watershed planning process that incorporates a science-based framework to help guide decision making. This process is intended to assist the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Board in its effort to plan and implement watershed improvement measures. The process would also assist the Board in coordinating its efforts with other entities in the region. The planning process is based on an approach for developing an ecosystem management strategy referred to as the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method (Lichatowich et al. 1995, Lestelle et al. 1996). The process consists of an on-going planning cycle. Included in this cycle is an assessment of the ability of the watershed to support and sustain natural resources and other economic and societal values. This step in the process, which the authors refer to as the diagnosis, helps guide the development of actions (also referred to as treatments) aimed at improving the conditions of the watershed to achieve long-term objectives. The planning cycle calls for routinely reviewing and updating, as necessary, the basis for the diagnosis and other analyses used by the Board in adopting actions for implementation. The recommendations offered here address this critical need to habitually update the information used in setting priorities for action

  18. Application of the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method to the Grande Ronde Model Watershed project : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobrand, Lars Erik; Lestelle, Lawrence C.

    1997-01-01

    In the spring of 1994 a technical planning support project was initiated by the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Board of Directors (Board) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration. The project was motivated by a need for a science based method for prioritizing restoration actions in the basin that would promote effectiveness and accountability. In this section the authors recall the premises for the project. The authors also present a set of recommendations for implementing a watershed planning process that incorporates a science-based framework to help guide decision making. This process is intended to assist the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Board in its effort to plan and implement watershed improvement measures. The process would also assist the Board in coordinating its efforts with other entities in the region. The planning process is based on an approach for developing an ecosystem management strategy referred to as the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method (Lichatowich et al. 1995, Lestelle et al. 1996). The process consists of an on-going planning cycle. Included in this cycle is an assessment of the ability of the watershed to support and sustain natural resources and other economic and societal values. This step in the process, which the authors refer to as the diagnosis, helps guide the development of actions (also referred to as treatments) aimed at improving the conditions of the watershed to achieve long-term objectives. The planning cycle calls for routinely reviewing and updating, as necessary, the basis for the diagnosis and other analyses used by the Board in adopting actions for implementation. The recommendations offered here address this critical need to habitually update the information used in setting priorities for action.

  19. Watershed characterization and analysis using the VELMA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a broadly applicable watershed simulator – VELMA (Visualizing Ecosystem and Land Management Assessments) – to characterize hydrological and ecological processes essential to the healthy functioning of watersheds, and to identify best management practices ...

  20. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 04 - HUC 08 - Majors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of 81 watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Major Watersheds....

  1. Information Management for the Watershed Approach in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of interviews with leaders and key participants in the statewide watershed approach activities in the State of Washington. Additionally, there are reviews of Washington’s statewide watershed activities in a case study fashion.

  2. Floodplain restoration via the two-stage ditch alters nutrient export from agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, S. F.; Tank, J. L.; Mahl, U. H.; Yen, H.; Arnold, J. G.; White, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    In the Midwestern US, transfer of excess fertilizer nutrients from agricultural soils to adjacent ditches and downstream water bodies have been linked to algal blooms and subsequent widespread hypoxia. Research is lacking on whether restoring floodplains in ditches, through implementation of the two-stage ditch practice, at varying scales, can reduce export of excess fertilizer nutrients to sensitive downstream ecosystems. We found that reach-scale floodplain restoration in the 1300 ha Shatto Ditch demonstration watershed in Indiana increased nitrate-N removal via denitrification and reduced sediment export, but impacts on surface water concentrations of nitrate-N and inorganic P were negligible, due to very high loading and relatively short length of floodplain ( 600 m). In contrast, modeling efforts using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) suggested that longer two-stage implementations in much larger agricultural watersheds could achieve significant reductions in nutrient and sediment export, showing promise for improved water quality in agricultural landscapes at larger spatial scales. For example, we evaluated management scenarios by scaling up two-stage implementation to the 273,600 ha River Raisin Basin (RRB), a major subbasin of the Western Lake Erie Basin. We utilized a SWAT model that was calibrated using high-resolution NHDPlus watershed boundaries. We applied reduction equations to baseline model output at a monthly time-step and made assumptions about how often ditches were flooded and the area of the two-stage ditch based on average conditions from all possible empirical data collected in the Midwest. When the two-stage ditch was implemented in 100% of all possible ditch length (equating to 75% of total RRB reach length or 1425 km), there was 17% (505,000 kg yr-1 or 1.8 kg ha-1 yr-1) and 51% (91,000 kg yr-1 or 0.33 kg ha-1 yr-1) reduction in nitrate-N and total-P (TP), respectively while 25% of ditch length decreased nitrate-N and TP by 5% (149

  3. The strategic security officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of the strategic security officer, and the potential that it brings to the healthcare security operational environment. The author believes that training and development, along with strict hiring practices, can enable a security department to reach a new level of professionalism, proficiency and efficiency. The strategic officer for healthcare security is adapted from the "strategic corporal" concept of US Marine Corps General Charles C. Krulak which focuses on understanding the total force implications of the decisions made by the lowest level leaders within the Corps (Krulak, 1999). This article focuses on the strategic organizational implications of every security officer's decisions in the constantly changing and increasingly volatile operational environment of healthcare security.

  4. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : January 2000-December 2002 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Duane G.

    2003-04-01

    basin construction and the installation of strip systems are also taking place. The years 2000 through 2002 were productive years for the Pataha Creek Model Watershed but due to the fact that most of the cooperators in the watershed have reached their limitation allowed for no-till and direct seed/ two pass of 3 years with each practice, the cost share for these practices is lower than the years of the late 90's. All the upland practices that were implemented have helped to further reduce erosion from the cropland. This has resulted in a reduction of sedimentation into the spawning and rearing area of the fall chinook salmon located in the lower portion of the Tucannon River. The tree planting projects have helped in reducing sedimentation and have also improved the riparian zone of desired locations inside the Pataha Creek Watershed. The CREP (Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program) along with the CCRP (Continuous Conservation Reserve Program) are becoming more prevalent in the watershed and are protecting the riparian areas along the Pataha Creek at an increasing level every year. Currently roughly 197 acres of riparian has been enrolled along the Pataha Creek in the CREP program.

  5. Application of watershed modeling system (WMS) for integrated management of a watershed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Ali; Gurel, Melike; Baloch, Mansoor Ahmed; Dikerler, Teoman; Varol, Evren; Akbulut, Neslihan; Tanik, Aysegul

    2006-01-01

    Watershed models, that enable the quantification of current and future pollution loading impacts, are essential tools to address the functions and conflicts faced in watershed planning and management. In this study, the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) version 7.1 was used for the delineation of boundaries of Koycegiz Lake-Dalyan Lagoon watershed located in the southwest of Turkey at the Mediterranean Sea coast. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was created for one of the major streams of the watershed, namely, Kargicak Creek by using WMS, and DEM data were further used to extract stream networks and delineate the watershed boundaries. Typical properties like drainage areas, characteristic length and slope of sub-drainage areas have also been determined to be used as model inputs in hydrological and diffuse pollution modeling. Besides, run-off hydrographs for the sub-drainages have been calculated using the Rational Method, which produces valuable data for calculating the time variable inflow and input pollution loads to be further utilized in the future water quality models of the Creek. Application of WMS in the study has shown that, it is capable to visualize the results in establishing watershed management strategies.

  6. Industrialized watersheds have elevated risk and limited opportunities to mitigate risk through water trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila M.W. Reddy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Businesses are increasingly concerned about water scarcity and its financial impacts, as well as competing needs of other stakeholders and ecosystems. Industrialized watersheds may be at more serious risk from water scarcity than previously understood because industrial and municipal users have inelastic demand and a high value for water. Previous water risk assessments have failed to sufficiently capture these economic aspects of water risk. We illustrate how hydro-economic modeling can be used to improve water risk assessments at a basin scale and we apply the methodology to the industrialized Brazos River Basin (85% municipal and industrial withdrawals and consider implications for The Dow Chemical Company׳s Freeport Operations in Texas, US. Brazos water right holders pay only operating and maintenance costs for water during normal periods; however, when shortages occur, leasing stored water or reducing production may be the only mitigation option in the short-run. Modeling of water shortages and the theoretical cost of leasing water under nine combined scenarios of demand growth and climate change suggests that water lease prices to industry could increase by 9–13X. At best, a more developed water rights and storage lease market could result in lower lease prices (2–3X; however, given that transactions would be limited it is more likely that prices would still increase by 4–13X. These results suggest that markets are unlikely to be a robust solution for the Brazos because, in contrast to other watersheds in the Western US, there is little reliable water to trade from low value users (agricultural to high value users (industry and municipalities. Looking at demand trends across the contiguous US as an indicator of water risk, 2% of watersheds have municipal and industrial demands that outstrip total surface and ground water supplies and in these watersheds industry has historically paid higher lease prices for water. This study

  7. Elevational dependence of projected hydrologic changes in the San Francisco Estuary and watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N.; Cayan, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    California's primary hydrologic system, the San Francisco Estuary and its upstream watershed, is vulnerable to the regional hydrologic consequences of projected global climate change. Previous work has shown that a projected warming would result in a reduction of snowpack storage leading to higher winter and lower spring-summer streamflows and increased spring-summer salinities in the estuary. The present work shows that these hydrologic changes exhibit a strong dependence on elevation, with the greatest loss of snowpack volume in the 1300-2700 m elevation range. Exploiting hydrologic and estuarine modeling capabilities to trace water as it moves through the system reveals that the shift of water in mid-elevations of the Sacramento river basin from snowmelt to rainfall runoff is the dominant cause of projected changes in estuarine inflows and salinity. Additionally, although spring-summer losses of estuarine inflows are balanced by winter gains, the losses have a stronger influence on salinity since longer spring-summer residence times allow the inflow changes to accumulate in the estuary. The changes in inflows sourced in the Sacramento River basin in approximately the 1300-2200 m elevation range thereby lead to a net increase in estuarine salinity under the projected warming. Such changes would impact ecosystems throughout the watershed and threaten to contaminate much of California's freshwater supply.

  8. The Spatiotemporal Distribution of Two Bacterial Indexes in a Small Tibetan Plateau Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongtong Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial contamination is now more common than chemical contamination in Tibet, and water-borne microbes can cause a number of diseases that threaten public health. Thus, in order to clarify the spatiotemporal distribution of bacteria in small watersheds for which there is no data in Tibet, four sampling points were set up along an upstream-downstream transect of the Xincang River Basin. A total of 239 water samples were collected in 2014 and 2015, and their total constituent numbers of bacteria (TB and coliforms (TC were evaluated. The results of this study show that the microbial contamination of the Xincang River Basin is mild-to-moderate in terms of TB and TC contents, and that these concentrations vary significantly in different seasons. The results show that in summer, TB and TC concentrations and microbial contamination are almost at the same level in upstream, midstream, and downstream sections; however, in the other three seasons, microbial contamination in the downstream section is more serious than in the upstream and midstream sections. The data also demonstrates that concentrated precipitation and local contamination sources are important factors underlying increases in TB and TC concentrations during the summer months. The results of this study are likely to reflect the basic characteristics of small watersheds for which there is no data to some extent, and are thus of significant practical importance for protecting their ecological environments and promoting sustainable development.

  9. Regional regression models of watershed suspended-sediment discharge for the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, David C.; Vogel, Richard M.; Schwarz, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of mean annual watershed sediment discharge, derived from long-term measurements of suspended-sediment concentration and streamflow, often are not available at locations of interest. The goal of this study was to develop multivariate regression models to enable prediction of mean annual suspended-sediment discharge from available basin characteristics useful for most ungaged river locations in the eastern United States. The models are based on long-term mean sediment discharge estimates and explanatory variables obtained from a combined dataset of 1201 US Geological Survey (USGS) stations derived from a SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) study and the Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow (GAGES) database. The resulting regional regression models summarized for major US water resources regions 1–8, exhibited prediction R2 values ranging from 76.9% to 92.7% and corresponding average model prediction errors ranging from 56.5% to 124.3%. Results from cross-validation experiments suggest that a majority of the models will perform similarly to calibration runs. The 36-parameter regional regression models also outperformed a 16-parameter national SPARROW model of suspended-sediment discharge and indicate that mean annual sediment loads in the eastern United States generally correlates with a combination of basin area, land use patterns, seasonal precipitation, soil composition, hydrologic modification, and to a lesser extent, topography.

  10. Nuclear security officer training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    Training has become complex and precise in today's world of critical review and responsibility. Entrusted to a security officer is the success or demise of large business. In more critical environments the security officer is entrusted with the monitoring and protection of life sensitive systems and devices. The awareness of this high visibility training requirement has been addressed by a limited few. Those involved in the nuclear power industry through dedication and commitment to the American public have without a doubt become leading pioneers in demanding training excellence

  11. Emergence, concept, and understanding of Pan-River-Basin (PRB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concept of Pan-River-Basin (PRB for water resource management is proposed with a discussion on the emergence, concept, and application of PRB. The formation and application of PRB is also discussed, including perspectives on the river contribution rates, harmonious levels of watershed systems, and water resource availability in PRB system. Understanding PRB is helpful for reconsidering river development and categorizing river studies by the influences from human projects. The sustainable development of water resources and the harmonization between humans and rivers also requires PRB.

  12. Redistribution of cesium-137 in southeastern watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, J.R.; Ritchie, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Sediment samples from 14 southeastern agricultural reservoirs and surface samples from representative soils from the contributing water shed areas were analyzed for 137 Cs. The concentrations of 137 Cs measured reflect the nature of the watershed, its cover, its use, and man's activities. Since the redistribution of 137 Cs was assumed to result from soil erosion, recent erosion rates can be calculated from the measured 137 Cs accumulations in sediments and from the decreases in the 137 Cs calculated to have been deposited on upland soils. Measured concentrations of 137 Cs ranged from 14 to 158 nCi/m 2 in surface soils. As much as 525 nCi/m 2 of 137 Cs was measured in the deposited sediment profile. Watershed budgets for 137 Cs were calculated for three representative watersheds using available sediment survey information and the measured 137 Cs concentrations

  13. Watershed management program. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    Under the Northwest Power Act, BPA is responsible for mitigating the loss of fish and wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian tribes, state agencies property owners, private conservation groups, and Federal agencies. Future watershed management actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include in-channel modifications and fish habitat enhancement structures; riparian restoration and other vegetation management techniques; agricultural management techniques for crop irrigation, animal facilities, and grazing; road, forest, urban area, and recreation management techniques; mining reclamation; and similar watershed conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual watershed management projects are planned and carried out with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as over time

  14. Modeling nutrient retention at the watershed scale: Does small stream research apply to the whole river network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Rosana; Marcé, Rafael; Sabater, Sergi

    2013-06-01

    are conveyed from terrestrial and upstream sources through drainage networks. Streams and rivers contribute to regulate the material exported downstream by means of transformation, storage, and removal of nutrients. It has been recently suggested that the efficiency of process rates relative to available nutrient concentration in streams eventually declines, following an efficiency loss (EL) dynamics. However, most of these predictions are based at the reach scale in pristine streams, failing to describe the role of entire river networks. Models provide the means to study nutrient cycling from the stream network perspective via upscaling to the watershed the key mechanisms occurring at the reach scale. We applied a hybrid process-based and statistical model (SPARROW, Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes) as a heuristic approach to describe in-stream nutrient processes in a highly impaired, high stream order watershed (the Llobregat River Basin, NE Spain). The in-stream decay specifications of the model were modified to include a partial saturation effect in uptake efficiency (expressed as a power law) and better capture biological nutrient retention in river systems under high anthropogenic stress. The stream decay coefficients were statistically significant in both nitrate and phosphate models, indicating the potential role of in-stream processing in limiting nutrient export. However, the EL concept did not reliably describe the patterns of nutrient uptake efficiency for the concentration gradient and streamflow values found in the Llobregat River basin, posing in doubt its complete applicability to explain nutrient retention processes in stream networks comprising highly impaired rivers.

  15. Building capacity of the Baltic States to meet the EU Water Framework Directive through watershed demonstration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicory, A; Staniskis, J; Heath, J; Davenport, T

    2003-01-01

    The Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO), in cooperation with the United States EPA, is completing it role in assisting the Baltic Countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia with watershed management capacity building demonstration projects under the Great Lakes/Baltic Sea Partnership Program. The Countries of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania view the skills gained through this program as important to their objective of complying with the European Union's Water Framework Directive and thus facilitating accession into the European Union. The program also addressed Kaliningrad's desire to work cooperatively with their neighboring countries concerning shared waters. Three watershed demonstration projects were designed and implemented, two of which involved joint country efforts: Parnu River (Estonia) modeling for nutrients and bacteria survey; river basin assessment and management planning for the Lielupe Basin (Latvia and Lithuania); and data base development and cooperative water quality survey and analysis for the Sesupe River (Lithuania and Kaliningrad). The benefits of the projects include enhancing the country's technical skills and the forging of relationships, without which achieving effective watershed management will be difficult to achieve.

  16. Using a Multi-Scale Assessment of Watershed Integrity (MAWI) Approach for Establishing Baseline Conditions in Watersheds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Jeff P; Smith, Ronald D; Kleiss, Barbara A

    2008-01-01

    ...) approach for watershed assessment. This work demonstrated the approach's capabilities as an assessment and planning tool using parts of the MAWI model developed for the Russian River watershed in northern California...

  17. Watershed and Economic Data InterOperability (WEDO): Facilitating Discovery, Evaluation and Integration through the Sharing of Watershed Modeling Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed and Economic Data InterOperability (WEDO) is a system of information technologies designed to publish watershed modeling studies for reuse. WEDO facilitates three aspects of interoperability: discovery, evaluation and integration of data. This increased level of interop...

  18. Residence times and nitrate transport in ground water discharging to streams in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Phillips, Scott; Donnelly, Colleen A.; Speiran, Gary K.; Plummer, Niel; Bohlke, John Karl; Focazio, Michael J.; Burton, William C.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2003-01-01

    similar pattern: younger water discharges to small order streams in headwater basins and older water discharges to larger streams near the basin outlet.Factors affecting nitrogen transport in ground water include spatial and temporal variation in input sources, ground-water age, and aquifer processes that lead to denitrification. Spatial and temporal variations in nitrogen sources affect all the watersheds. Tributaries with higher inputs of nitrogen have higher concentrations in stream base flow. Areas where nitrogen application rates have increased over time show an age-nitrate relation in ground-water samples. The age-nitrate relation can be affected by denitrification, which occurs in Pocomoke and East Mahantango Creeks but is not evident in