Sample records for basin nw turkey

  1. Geochemical and palaeontological characterization of a new K-Pg Boundary locality from the Northern branch of the Neo-Tethys: Mudurnu - Goynuk Basin, NW Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acikalin, S.; Vellekoop, J.; Ocakoglu, F.; Yilmaz, I.O.; Smit, J.; Altiner, S.O.; Goderis, S.; Vonhof, H.B.; Speijer, R.P.; Woelders, L.; Fornaciari, E.; Brinkhuis, H.


    A Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) succession is studied in detail in the Mudurnu-Göynük basin in northwestern Turkey. To characterize the K-Pg transition in this basin, two stratigraphic sections were measured and sampled at high resolution: the Okçular and the Göynük North sections. These sections were

  2. From Tethys to Eastern Paratethys: Oligocene depositional environments, paleoecology and paleobiogeography of the Thrace Basin (NW Turkey) (United States)

    Islamoğlu, Yeşim; Harzhauser, Mathias; Gross, Martin; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Coric, Stjepan; Kroh, Andreas; Rögl, Fred; van der Made, Jan


    The Oligocene depositional history of the Thrace Basin documents a unique paleogeographic position at a junction between the Western Tethys and the Eastern Paratethys. As part of the Tethys, shallow marine carbonate platforms prevailed during the Eocene. Subsequently, a three-staged process of isolation started with the Oligocene. During the Early Rupelian, the Thrace Basin was still part of the Western Tethys, indicated by typical Western Tethyan marine assemblages. The isolation from the Tethys during the Early Oligocene is reflected by oolite formation and endemic Eastern Paratethyan faunas of the Solenovian stage. The third phase reflects an increasing continentalisation of the Thrace Basin with widespread coastal swamps during the Late Solenovian. The mollusc assemblages are predominated by mangrove dwelling taxa and the mangrove plant Avicennia is recorded in the pollen spectra. The final continentalisation is indicated by the replacement of the coastal swamps by pure freshwater swamps and fluvial plains during the Late Oligocene (mammal zone MP 26). This paleogeographic affiliation of the Thrace Basin with the Eastern Paratethys after ~32 Ma contrasts all currently used reconstructions which treat the basin as embayment of the Eastern Mediterranean basin.

  3. Geochemical and isotopic approach to maturity/source/mixing estimations for natural gas and associated condensates in the Thrace Basin, NW Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guergey, Kadir [University of Pamukkale, Geological Engineering Department, Kinikli Campus, 20070 Denizli (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Philp, R. Paul [Geology and Geophysics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Clayton, Chris [High Bank House, Eardiston, Tenbury Wells, Worcestershire, WR15 8JJ (United Kingdom); Emiroglu, Hasan [Turkish Petroleum Corporation, Exploration Group, Soeguetoezue, Ankara (Turkey); Siyako, Muzaffer [Turkish Petroleum Corporation, Exploration Group, Soeguetoezue, Ankara (Turkey)


    The Tertiary Thrace Basin located in NW Turkey comprises 9 km of clastic-sedimentary column ranging in age from Early Eocene to Recent in age. Fifteen natural gas and 10 associated condensate samples collected from the 11 different gas fields along the NW-SE extending zone of the northern portion of the basin were evaluated on the basis of their chemical and individual C isotopic compositions. For the purpose of the study, the genesis of CH{sub 4}, thermogenic C{sub 2+} gases, and associated condensates were evaluated separately. Methane appears to have 3 origins: Group-1 CH{sub 4} is bacteriogenic (Calculated {delta} {sup 13}C{sub C1-C} = -61.48%o; Silivri Field) and found in Oligocene reservoirs and mixed with the thermogenic Group-2 CH{sub 4}. They probably formed in the Upper Oligocene coal and shales deposited in a marshy-swamp environment of fluvio-deltaic settings. Group-2 ({delta} {sup 13}C{sub C1-C} = -35.80%o; Hamitabat Field) and Group-3 ({delta} {sup 13}C{sub 1-C} = -49.10%o; Degirmenkoey Field) methanes are thermogenic and share the same origin with the Group-2 and Group-3 C{sub 2+} gases. The Group-2 C{sub 2+} gases include 63% of the gas fields. They are produced from both Eocene (overwhelmingly) and Oligocene reservoirs. These gases were almost certainly generated from isotopically heavy terrestrial kerogen ({delta} {sup 13}C = -21%o) present in the Eocene deltaic Hamitabat shales. The Group-3 C{sub 2+} gases, produced from one field, were generated from isotopically light marine kerogen ({delta} {sup 13}C = -29%o). Lower Oligoce ne Mezardere shales deposited in pro-deltaic settings are believed to be the source of these gases. The bulk and individual n-alkane isotopic relationships between the rock extracts, gases, condensates and oils from the basin differentiated two Groups of condensates, which can be genetically linked to the Group-2 and -3 thermogenic C{sub 2+} gases. However, it is crucial to note that condensates do not necessarily correlate

  4. Structural geology and sedimentology of the Sermat Quartzites, Strandja Massif, NW Turkey (United States)

    Yazıcı, Müge; Natal'in, Boris A.


    prevented the preservation of sedimentary structures such as flute casts and cross-beddings, which can be used to determine the sedimentary environments of the Şermat Basin. Nevertheless, all available relicts indicate the transportation of sediments from a source area in the south. If the Şermat Quartzites is Ordovician age, they can be correlated with the Ordovician rocks of the Istanbul Zone, which is interpreted as a south-facing passive continental margin. Sedimentological framework of the Şermat Quartzites contradicts this correlation. Further studies of the region are necessary in order to determine the connection between the Strandja Massif and the Istanbul Zone. Keywords: Hercynian orogeny, Cimmerides, Strandja Massif, İstanbul Zone, Sedimentary Basin, Turkey References Çağlayan, M. A. & Yurtsever, A., 1998, Geological map of Turkey at 1:100000 scale, no. 20, 21, 22, 23, Burgaz-A3, Edirne-B2 and -B3, Burgaz A4, and Kırklareli-B4-B5-B6 and -C6 sheets, Mineral Research and Exploration Institute (MTA) of Turkey publications (in Turkish with English abstract). Natal'in, B., Sunal, G., Zhiqing, Y. & Gün, E., 2012a, Late Paleozoic subduction-accretion orogeny in the eastern part of the Turkish Strandja Massif (Vize - Kıyıköy region), in Kocbay, A., Esat, K., and Hasancebi, N., eds., 65th Geological Congress of Turkey. Abstracts Book: Ankara, Chamber of Geological Engineers, p. 454-455 Natal'in, B., Sunal, G., Satır, M. & Toraman, E., 2012, Tectonics of the Strandja Massif, NW Turkey: History of a Long-Lived Arc at the Northern Margin of Palaeo-Tethys: Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 21, p. 755-798.

  5. The Superimposed Paleocene-Miocene Tectonics of the middle part of the Nallihan Wedge (NW Turkey) (United States)

    Şahin, Murat; Yaltirak, Cenk


    In the NW Turkey, the area between the suture zones of the Rhodope-Pontide Ocean and Izmir-Ankara Ocean, and North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and Thrace-Eskişehir Fault Zone (TEFZ) is known as the Nallıhan Wedge. The shape of Nallıhan Wedge is a 90 degree counter-clockwise rotated isosceles triangle. The northwestern boundary is a part of NAFZ and the southwestern boundary is a part of TEFZ. The 160 km-long eastern boundary is located at around Beypazarı and western corner is on the Bursa Plain. Nallıhan is situated at the centre of this isosceles triangle. While all the thrusts and folds shrink towards to the west and show an imbricate-like structure, the characteristics of the folds turn into to the open folds. Thrusts faults are locally observed as blind and almost perpendicular thrusts at the fold limbs towards to the east. The rocks of the study area show different characteristics according to their types and basins of formation. On the other hand the structural properties of these rocks display the effects of the closure of the Intra-Pontide and Izmir-Ankara Oceans in between Paleocene and Early Oligocene. During Miocene, the thrust faults reactivated and a deformation formed the NEE-SWW left lateral strike-slip faults parallel to these thrust faults. Whereas the first events are related to the closure of the branches of Neo-Tethys, the Miocene deformation is probably based on the Miocene tectonics of the Western Anatolia by the reason of equivalent age of the TEFZ. In this framework, the deformation of the Nallıhan Wedge presents significant information about the period between the evolution of Paleotectonic and Neotectonic of Turkey.

  6. Evaporitic minibasins of the Sivas Basin (Turkey) (United States)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kavak, Kaan


    The Oligo-Miocene Sivas basin (Turkey) was strongly affected by salt tectonics, best expressed in its central part. Halokinesis initiated from a main evaporite layer deposited during the Upper Eocene. Such evaporitic accumulations led to two generations of mini basins filled with continental to marine deposits, and nowadays separated by diapiric gypsum walls or welds. Some mini-basins developed above depleting diapirs, filled by more than 50 % of lacustrine to sebkhaic gypsiferous facies. These evaporitic mini-basins (EMB) developed during periods of limited fluvial input, when diapiric stems were outcropping with insignificant topographic reliefs. Chemical analyses (S, O and Sr) suggest that such evaporites were sourced from the recycling of adjacent salt structures. EMB development above diapirs can be explained by (i) high regional accommodation (Ribes et al., 2016), (ii) erosion of the diapiric crests by the fluvial system preceding evaporite deposition, (iii) deflation of some diapirs in a transtensive setting (Kergaravat, 2015), and (iv) fast sedimentation rate of the evaporites. EMB stand out from other siliciclastic mini-basins of the Sivas Basin by (i) their small dimension (sedimentation rate of the evaporites and (iii) the high density of the gypsum and anhydrite compared to halite. The Great Kavir in Iran could display present day analogues relevant of early-stage EMB. Finally, although EMB have never been identified in other ancient halokinetic settings, they may have developed in arid, continental environments such as in the Precaspian Basin.

  7. Irregular plate boundary controls on Foreland Basin sedimentation (Miocene, Kahramanmaraş Foreland Basin, SE Turkey) (United States)

    Gül, Murat; Gürbüz, Kemal; Cronin, Bryan T.


    The northern movement of the Arabian Plate led to the development of a compressional regime in the south-eastern part of Turkey after the Late Cretaceous. The collision of the Arabian Plate with the Anatolide-Taurides Platform and subsequent development of the Kahramanmaraş Foreland Basin at the beginning of the Miocene evolved as a result of this movement. An irregular plate geometry or promontory of the Arabian Plate caused partitioning of the plate margin (precollision-collision-postcollision). This irregular plate boundary was delimited by western and northern boundary faults and an interior basin fault. The NW-oriented small wedge top basins on the overlying Anatolide-Taurides Platform obliquely cut through the foredeep basin. The region (across the wedge top basin) on the irregular promontory of the underlying Arabian Plate contains different sedimentation depocentres. Small fining-upward submarine fan deposits (including pebbly channel deposits and coarsening-upward lobe sequences) are located at the centre of the irregular part of the plate (in the Tanır region) and overlie planktic foraminifera-bearing claystones. These submarine fan sediments pass outboard into distal interbedded turbidite claystones and siltstones in a downdip direction (S-SE). The boundary fault intersection of the promontory led to the development of a submarine slope environment with irregular sea-floor topography in the Fırnız area (4-5 km south-east of the Tanır region). The slump deposits, sandy debrites, and fine-grained thin-bedded turbidites filled this region. Structural alignments and seismicity associated with the plate margin were the main controlling factors on the geometry of the depocentre, sediment quantity, sediment input, sedimentary facies, local sea level changes, and post-sedimentary deformation in the Kahramanmaraş Foreland Basin.

  8. NW-trending fault structures. A key factor to uranium mineralization in Egongshan volcanic basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanliang


    Influenced by the Tancheng-Lujiang fault system, the NW-trending fault structures in Egongshan basin are characterized by tensile-shearing, NE-dipping and dextrorotaty down slipping, having an obvious control over three uranium deposits and the overwhelming majority of uranium occurrences, and are the key factors to uranium mineralization. The study on the NW-trending fault structures is of practical significance in ore prospecting in Egongshan basin and other areas

  9. Highly calcareous lacustrine soils in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, de T.


    The Great Konya Basin is in the south of the Central Anatolian Plateau in Turkey. It is a depression without outlet to the sea. The central part of the Basin is the floor of a former Pleistocene lake, the Ancient Konya Lake. This area, called the Lacustrine
    Plain, has highly calcareous

  10. Using Facilities And Potential Of Geothermal Resources In The Canakkale Province - NW Turkey (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Acar Deniz, Zahide


    Turkey, due to its geological location, has a rich potential in point of geothermal resources. Çanakkale province is located northwestern (NW) part of Turkey and it has important geothermal fields in terms of geothermal energy potential. Geothermal resources reach to the surface both effects of past volcanic activity and extensions of fault zones associated with complex tectonic systems in the region. The aim of this study is to summarize hydrogeochemical characteristics, using facilities and potential of hot springs and spas located in the Çanakkale province. There are 13 geothermal fields in the region and the surface temperatures of hot springs are ranging between 28 centigrade degree and 175 centigrade degree. Hydrogeochemical compositions of thermal water display variable chemical compositions. Na, Ca, SO4, HCO3 and Cl are the dominant ions in these waters. Thermal waters of Tuzla and Kestanbol geothermal fields which is located the near coastal area can be noted NaCl type. Because these two geothermal waters have high TDS values, scaling problems are seen around the hot springs and pipelines. Geothermal waters in the province are meteoric origin according to oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium isotopes data. Long underground residence times of these waters and its temperatures have caused both more water - rock interaction and low tritium values. Geothermal energy is utilized in many areas in Turkey today. It is generally used for space heating, balneotherapy and electricity generation. Explorations of geothermal resources and investments in geothermal energy sector have risen rapidly in the recent years particularly in western Turkey. High-temperature geothermal fields are generally located in this region related to the Aegean Graben System and the North Anotalian Fault Zone. All geothermal power plants in Turkey are located in this region. Considering the Çanakkale province, most geothermal fields are suitable for multipurpose usage but many of them have

  11. Boron content of Lake Ulubat sediment: A key to interpret the morphological history of NW Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanci, N.; Toprak, O.; Leroy, S.A.G.; Oncel, S.; Ileri, O.; Emre, O.; Costa, P.; Erturac, K.; McGee, E.


    Freshwater Lake Ulubat (c. 1.5 m deep and c. 138 km 2 ) receives sediment from a 10.414 km 2 area in the seismically active Susurluk Drainage Basin (SDB) of NW Turkey. The B and trace element contents of the lake infill seem to be a link between the fresh landforms of the SDB and the lacustrine sediment. Deposition in Lake Ulubat has been 1.60 cm a -1 for the last 50 a according to radionuclides; however the sedimentation rate over the last millennium was 0.37 cm a -1 based on 14 C dating. The B content of the lacustrine infill displays a slight increase at 0.50 m and a drastic increase at 4 m depth occurring c. 31 a and c. 1070 a ago, respectively. Probably the topmost change corresponds to the start of open mining in the SDB and the second one to the natural trenching of borate ore-deposits. These dates also show indirectly a 1.4 cm a -1 erosion rate during the last millennium as the borate beds were trenched up to 15 m. By extrapolation, it is possible to establish that the formation of some of the present morphological features of the southern Marmara region, especially river incision, began in the late Pleistocene, and developed especially over the last 75 ka

  12. Boron content of Lake Ulubat sediment: A key to interpret the morphological history of NW Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazanci, N. [Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Toprak, O. [Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Leroy, S.A.G. [Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (West London) (United Kingdom); Oncel, S. [Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Ileri, O. [General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, 06520 Ankara (Turkey); Emre, O. [General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, 06520 Ankara (Turkey); Costa, P. [Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (West London) (United Kingdom); Erturac, K. [Istanbul Technical University, Eurasia Institute of Earthsciences, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); McGee, E. [Environmental Radiation Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Physics, University College, Dublin 4 (Ireland)


    Freshwater Lake Ulubat (c. 1.5 m deep and c. 138 km{sup 2}) receives sediment from a 10.414 km{sup 2} area in the seismically active Susurluk Drainage Basin (SDB) of NW Turkey. The B and trace element contents of the lake infill seem to be a link between the fresh landforms of the SDB and the lacustrine sediment. Deposition in Lake Ulubat has been 1.60 cm a{sup -1} for the last 50 a according to radionuclides; however the sedimentation rate over the last millennium was 0.37 cm a{sup -1} based on {sup 14}C dating. The B content of the lacustrine infill displays a slight increase at 0.50 m and a drastic increase at 4 m depth occurring c. 31 a and c. 1070 a ago, respectively. Probably the topmost change corresponds to the start of open mining in the SDB and the second one to the natural trenching of borate ore-deposits. These dates also show indirectly a 1.4 cm a{sup -1} erosion rate during the last millennium as the borate beds were trenched up to 15 m. By extrapolation, it is possible to establish that the formation of some of the present morphological features of the southern Marmara region, especially river incision, began in the late Pleistocene, and developed especially over the last 75 ka.

  13. Famennian ostracods from the Istanbul zone (Gebze, Kocaeli, NW Turkey) and their paleogeographical relations (United States)

    Nazik, Atike; Çapkinoǧlu, Şenol; Şeker, Emine


    Famennian (Late Devonian) ostracods of the Thuringian Mega-Assemblage were recovered for the first time from three incomplete sections of the Ayineburnu Member of the Büyükada Formation in the Denizliköy area (Gebze, NW Turkey), which were sampled for conodonts. Conodont faunas define an interval extending from the Upper rhomboidea? or Lower marginifera Zone into the Middle expansa Zone of the standard Upper Devonian conodont zonation. The ostracod faunas found here consist of species mainly with thin-walls, long spines and often smooth surfaces such as Rectonaria, Tricornina, Orthonaria, Triplacera, Beckerhealdia, Timorhealdia, Bohemina, Paraberounella and Acratia. These taxa indicate faunal relationship with Thuringia and the Rhenish Massif in Germany, the Cantabrian Mountains and Pyrenees in Spain, Holy Cross Mountains in Poland, North Africa and China.

  14. Mineral composite assessment of Kelkit River Basin in Turkey by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    characteristics (ferrous minerals (FM), iron oxide (IO), and clay minerals (CM)) of the Kelkit. River Basin (15913.07 km. 2. ) in Turkey were investigated and mapped. Mineral composite (MC) index maps were produced from three LANDSAT-ETM+ satellite images taken in 2000. Resulting. MC index maps were summarized in ...

  15. Mineral composite assessment of Kelkit River Basin in Turkey by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 118; Issue 6 ... Utilizing remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) tools, mineral composite characteristics (ferrous minerals (FM), iron oxide (IO), and clay minerals (CM)) of the Kelkit River Basin (15913.07 km2) in Turkey were investigated and ...

  16. Rugose corals across the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Denayer


    Full Text Available An uppermost Famennian (Strunian coral assemblage has been recovered in the middle part of the Yılanlı Formation of the Istanbul Zone (Zonguldak and Bartın areas, NW Turkey. In the Bartın area, the studied fossiliferous interval corresponds to a c. 30 m-thick unit of bioclastic to peloidal wackestone to packstone grading to grainstone and including two stromatoporoid biostromes. In the Zonguldak area, 60 km westward, the bioclastic facies is dominant. The rugose corals are mainly solitary taxa belonging to the genera Campophyllum, Bounophyllum, Amplexocarinia, and ?Metriophyllum, and only one colonial genus occurs: Pseudoendophyllum. This fauna is similar to that documented in Europe. The campophyllids and dibunophyllids are the main component of the uppermost Famennian assemblages in S Belgium, N France, W Germany, NW and S Poland. The endophyllids occur in S Poland, Novaya Zemlya, and in the Ural Mountains. The Istanbul Zone is supposed to be situated in the central part of the Palaeotethys Ocean, along the southern margin of Laurussia during the uppermost Devonian and Carboniferous. The rugose corals indicate some relationship with the eastern part of Laurussia, or that both areas were under a common marine influence at this time. The global Hangenberg event was not recognized in the Turkish localities, except for the disappearance of the corals, occurring less than 19 m below the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary based on the foraminifers. There is no major facies change through the boundary and the first Carboniferous corals (small Uralinia and Caninophyllum appear 6 m above the D–C boundary. The new species Caninophyllum charli sp. nov. is described from the upper part of the lower Tournaisian.

  17. Spatial Analysis of b-value Variability in Armutlu Peninsula (NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeken Tekin


    Full Text Available Spatial variations of b values were studied by means of 2376 earthquakes with a magnitude completeness of 2.7 in the Armutlu Peninsula (NW Turkey during a 15-year period following the destructive earthquake on August 17, 1999 in Kocaeli. The b value of L6 for the entire Armutlu Peninsula represents a large value for a global value, but this analysis suggested that the distribution of b value around the Armutlu Peninsula varied extensively from 1.2 to 2.6. Several pockets of high bvalue reflected changes in the physical properties of the Armutlu Peninsula. The southern part of the peninsula represents a lower b value against the northern part of the peninsula. A high b value was observed around Termal and Armutlu towns where plenty of geothermal springs occur. Seismic tomography studies revealed a low velocity zone beneath the Termal area where the high b value was imaged in this study. A seismic swarm which is considered to be related with geothermal activity also occurred in 2014 at the same place. This observation suggests that it is possible to propose that the high b value in the northern part of the peninsula could be related to hydrothermal/geothermal activity which contributes to lowering the effective stress.

  18. Microseismicity at the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara offshore Istanbul, NW Turkey (United States)

    Bulut, Fatih; Bohnhoff, Marco; Ellsworth, William L.; Aktar, Mustafa; Dresen, Georg


    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) below the Sea of Marmara forms a “seismic gap” where a major earthquake is expected to occur in the near future. This segment of the fault lies between the 1912 Ganos and 1999 İzmit ruptures and is the only NAFZ segment that has not ruptured since 1766. To monitor the microseismic activity at the main fault branch offshore of Istanbul below the Çınarcık Basin, a permanent seismic array (PIRES) was installed on the two outermost Prince Islands, Yassiada and Sivriada, at a few kilometers distance to the fault. In addition, a temporary network of ocean bottom seismometers was deployed throughout the Çınarcık Basin. Slowness vectors are determined combining waveform cross correlation and P wave polarization. We jointly invert azimuth and traveltime observations for hypocenter determination and apply a bootstrap resampling technique to quantify the location precision. We observe seismicity rates of 20 events per month for M < 2.5 along the basin. The spatial distribution of hypocenters suggests that the two major fault branches bounding the depocenter below the Çınarcık Basin merge to one single master fault below ∼17 km depth. On the basis of a cross-correlation technique we group closely spaced earthquakes and determine composite focal mechanisms implementing recordings of surrounding permanent land stations. Fault plane solutions have a predominant right-lateral strike-slip mechanism, indicating that normal faulting along this part of the NAFZ plays a minor role. Toward the west we observe increasing components of thrust faulting. This supports the model of NW trending, dextral strike-slip motion along the northern and main branch of the NAFZ below the eastern Sea of Marmara.

  19. Evidence for an Ancient Buried Landscape on the NW Rim of Hellas Basin, Mars (United States)

    Crown, David A.; Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Mest, Scott C.; Mustard, John F.; Vincendon, Mathieu


    Hellas basin is the largest (2000+ km across) well-preserved impact structure on Mars and its deepest depositional sink [e.g., 1]. The Hellas rim and adjacent highlands are of special interest given the possibility of paleolakes on the basin floor [2-4], recent studies of potential localized fluvial/lacustrine systems [2, 5-17], and evidence for phyllosilicates around and within impact craters north of the basin [18-26]. We are producing a 1:1.5M-scale geologic map of eight MTM quadrangles (-25312, -25307, -25302, -25297, -30312, -30307, -30302, -30297) along Hellas NW rim. The map region (22.5-32.5degS, 45- 65degE) includes a transect across the cratered highlands of Terra Sabaea, the degraded NW rim of Hellas, and basin interior deposits of NW Hellas Planitia. No previous mapping studies have focused on this region, although it has been included in earlier global and regional maps [27-29].

  20. Depth anomalies in the Arabian Basin, NW Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ajay, K.K.; Chaubey, A.K.

    as the difference between the observed depth to oceanic basement (corrected for sediment load) and the calculated depth to oceanic basement of the same age. The results indicate an anomalous depth to basement of oceanic crust in the Arabian Basin in the age bracket...

  1. Tertiary evolution of the Sivas Basin, central Turkey (United States)

    Cater, J. M. L.; Hanna, S. S.; Ries, A. C.; Turner, P.


    The Sivas Basin is one of several basins in Turkey formed during closure of the northern branch of Neotethys in early Tertiary times. Cretaceous ophiolitic fragments and Eocene platform carbonates and volcaniclastics, transported northwards into the basin as olistoliths and grain-flow aprons, were incorporated into autochthonous Eocene turbidites and bioclastic limestones. The sequence as a whole was thrust northwards in late Eocene times. A southward-sloping terrestial foreland basin, related to northward-directed thrusting, developed during Oligocene times. A piggy-back basin developed on top of this thrust system. During the late Oligocene, the Eocene thrusts were reactivated, probably resulting in northward propagation of thrusts in the subsurface. In early and mid-Miocene times, the basin was floored by a thrust sheet which had been cut by N-S trending tear faults or oblique culminations as a result of non-uniform thrust advance in pre-Miocene times. These N-S faults were subsequently reactivated as extensional faults, radial to the thrust front, during early to mid-Miocene alluvial and shallow marine sedimentation. Later strike-slip displacement along the N-S faults was associated with the development of the Northern Boundary Fault of the Sivas Basin in late Miocene times, which is regarded as a left-lateral transpressive fault related to the North Anatolian Fault Zone.

  2. Petrogenesis of Post-collisional high Ba-Sr granitoids: the Solarya Pluton, NW Turkey (United States)

    Unal, Alp; Kamaci, Omer; Altunkaynak, Safak


    In NW Turkey, the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene phase of post-collisional magmatism is characterized by widespread granitic pluton emplacements straddling the continental collision zone marked by the Izmir-Ankara suture zone (IASZ). This granitic magmatism produced both low Ba-Sr- and high Ba-Sr granitoids with distinct geochemical properties. One of the major plutons emplaced to the north of İzmir-Ankara suture zone, the Solarya pluton is representative of high Ba-Sr granitoids. We present here whole-rock chemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-O isotopic compositions, as well as 40Ar/39Ar ages of the Solarya pluton to evaluate the timing, nature and genesis of potassic, high Ba-Sr granites. The Solarya pluton consists of three coeval granitic members (K-Feldspar megacrystalline granodiorite, fine grained granodiorite and haplogranite) and associated mafic magmatic enclaves/dykes of gabbroic diorite to dioritic in composition. K-feldspar megacrystalline granodiorite, fine grained granodiorite and haplogranite are high K calc-alkaline in character whereas low silica mafic magmatic enclaves and dykes are mildly alkaline and display shoshonitic affinity. Both granitic members and mafic enclaves/dykes are characterized by high Ba (710-2489 ppm), Sr (305-708ppm), low Y and HREE contents and lack of significant negative Eu anomalies. They are metaluminous and display enrichment in LILE and depletion in P, Ta, Nb and Ti. Sr-Nd-Pb and O isotope compositions of mafic enclaves and dykes are similar to their host granitoids. They have initial 87Sr/86Sr values of 0.70702- 0.70805 and 143Nd/144Nd values of 0.51235-0.51250 and their ɛNd values range between -4,9 and -2,05. 206Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204 Pb isotopic values vary from 18,75 to 18,88 and 15,68 to 15,73, respectivelly. Whole rock and quartz 18O isotopic ratios range between 8 and 10,6. All these isotopic characteristics and major-trace element compositions of Solarya pluton and associated mafic enclaves/dykes suggest a subcontinental

  3. Neoproterozoic rift basins and their control on the development of hydrocarbon source rocks in the Tarim Basin, NW China (United States)

    Zhu, Guang-You; Ren, Rong; Chen, Fei-Ran; Li, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yong-Quan


    The Proterozoic is demonstrated to be an important period for global petroleum systems. Few exploration breakthroughs, however, have been obtained on the system in the Tarim Basin, NW China. Outcrop, drilling, and seismic data are integrated in this paper to focus on the Neoproterozoic rift basins and related hydrocarbon source rocks in the Tarim Basin. The basin consists of Cryogenian to Ediacaran rifts showing a distribution of N-S differentiation. Compared to the Cryogenian basins, those of the Ediacaran are characterized by deposits in small thickness and wide distribution. Thus, the rifts have a typical dual structure, namely the Cryogenian rifting and Ediacaran depression phases that reveal distinct structural and sedimentary characteristics. The Cryogenian rifting basins are dominated by a series of grabens or half grabens, which have a wedge-shaped rapid filling structure. The basins evolved into Ediacaran depression when the rifting and magmatic activities diminished, and extensive overlapping sedimentation occurred. The distributions of the source rocks are controlled by the Neoproterozoic rifts as follows. The present outcrops lie mostly at the margins of the Cryogenian rifting basins where the rapid deposition dominates and the argillaceous rocks have low total organic carbon (TOC) contents; however, the source rocks with high TOC contents should develop in the center of the basins. The Ediacaran source rocks formed in deep water environment of the stable depressions evolving from the previous rifting basins, and are thus more widespread in the Tarim Basin. The confirmation of the Cryogenian to Ediacaran source rocks would open up a new field for the deep hydrocarbon exploration in the Tarim Basin.

  4. Lutetian arc-type magmatism along the southern Eurasian margin: New U-Pb LA-ICPMS and whole-rock geochemical data from Marmara Island, NW Turkey (United States)

    Ustaömer, P. Ayda; Ustaömer, Timur; Collins, Alan S.; Reischpeitsch, Jörg


    The rocks of Turkey, Greece and Syria preserve evidence for the destruction of Tethys, the construction of much of the continental crust of the region and the formation of the Tauride orogenic belt. These events occurred between the Late Cretaceous and Miocene, but the detailed evolution of the southern Eurasian margin during this period of progressive continental accretion is largely unknown. Marmara Island is a basement high lying at a key location in the Cenozoic Turkish tectonic collage, with a Palaeogene suture zone to the south and a deep Eocene sedimentary basin to the north. North-dipping metamorphic thrust sheets make up the island and are interlayered with a major metagranitoid intrusion. We have dated the intrusion by Laser Ablation ICP-MS analysis of U and Pb isotopes on zircon separates to 47.6 ± 2 Ma. We also performed major- and trace-elemental geochemical analysis of 16 samples of the intrusion that revealed that the intrusion is a calc-alkaline, metaluminous granitoid, marked by Nb depletion relative to LREE and LIL-element enrichment when compared to ocean ridge granite (ORG). We interpret the metagranitoid sill as a member of a mid-Eocene magmatic arc, forming a 30 km wide and more than 200 km long arcuate belt in NW Turkey that post-dates suturing along the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture zone. The arc magmatism was emplaced at the early stages of mountain building, related to collision of Eurasia with the Menderes-Taurus Platform in early Eocene times. Orogenesis and magmatism loaded the crust to the north creating coeval upward-deepening marine basins partially filled by volcanoclastic sediments.

  5. Drought Analysis in the Tuz Lake Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey (United States)

    Ustaoglu, Beyza; Akın, Burcu


    The research area, Tuz Lake Basin is located in Central Anatolia Region in Turkey. The drought is observed in this area with the result of the meteorological data analysis, satellite imagery and field research. The aim of this study is to determine temporal and spatial characterists of the drought, frequency and extreme droughtness possibilities, drought period, amplitude of the drought and its severity which is observed in Tuz Lake within the context of climate change process effects in Turkey, by using Standart Precipitation Index (SPI) Palmer Drought Harshness Index, De Martonne and Erinç Method. Since the indexes which are used in the study have different parameters, not only meteorological results but also agricultural and hydrological drought results can be inferred. For this purpose, measurements of 12 meteorological stations in the basin between the years 1975-2015 will be studied applying the aforementioned methods in MATLAB. SRTM satellite images used in the study is provided by American Geological Survey (USGS). The findings from satellite imagery and meteorological data integrated into Geographic Information Systems Software ArcMap 10.1, then the effects of the drought to the Tuz Lake were analyzed. The findings of the analysis will be interpreted with the support of the field studies.

  6. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey (United States)

    Elbaşı, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan


    The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems

  7. The Structural and Tectonic Evolution of the Arizaro Basin of the Puna Plateau in NW Argentina (United States)

    Boyd, J.; Carrapa, B.; Decelles, P. G.; McNabb, J. C.; Schoenbohm, L. M.; Horton, B. K.


    The Arizaro basin is the largest basin preserved within the Puna Plateau of NW Argentina; it contains ca. 5km of Eocene-Pliocene sedimentary strata of which more than 3km are Miocene fluvial-lacustrine deposits. Previous thermochronologic and sedimentological work document that the deformation front was within the Plateau in the Eocene whereas it was within the Eastern Cordillera at the time the thickest sedimentary sequence was deposited in the Arizaro basin; therefore, the basin could be considered as intermontane. However, other processes such as the loss of mantle lithosphere and lower crust have been proposed as the cause of magmatic activity and surface uplift in the late Cenozoic, which is well documented through geophysical evidence. This opens the possibility for other basin mechanisms to contribute to basin accommodation space and deformation. Backarc extension has also been proposed. Here we present a multi-disciplinary study that addresses the contribution of two end-member mechanisms of basin formation: 1) loading and flexure within an intermontane setting; and 2) subsidence due to small scale lithospheric foundering beneath the basin. In the first case, out-of-sequence deformation and reactivation of basin bounding structures are predicted. In the latter case, radially oriented subsidence and shortening would occur during the lithospheric removal, followed by extension and basin incision. The Arizaro basin is uniquely suited to test these hypotheses because of both its location, overlying the thinnest area of the crust and lithosphere within the Plateau, and the presence of the thickest late Cenozoic section. Preliminary data was collected across the eastern side of the Salar to determine the structural style and overall pattern of deformation. Fifteen new samples were collected for low-T thermochronology and geochronology to establish the timing of tectono-thermal events in the region via apatite fission track and zircon U-Pb geochronology

  8. Gold grade distribution within an epithermal quartz vein system, Kestanelik, NW Turkey: implications for gold exploration (United States)

    Gulyuz, Nilay; Shipton, Zoe; Gulyuz, Erhan; Lord, Richard; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Kuscu, İlkay


    Vein-hosted gold deposits contribute a large part to the global gold production. Discovery of these deposits mainly include drilling of hundreds of holes, collecting thousands of soil and rock samples and some geophysical surveys which are expensive and time consuming. Understanding the structures hosting the veins and the variations in gold concentrations within the veins is crucial to constrain a more economic exploration program. The main aim of this study is to investigate the gold grade distribution in the mineralized quartz veins of a well exposed epithermal gold deposit hosted by Paleozoic schist and Eocene quartz-feldspar-hornblende porphyry in Lapseki, NW Turkey. We have constructed 3D architecture of the vein surfaces by mapping their outcrop geometries using a highly sensitive Trimble GPS, collecting detailed field data, well-logs and geochemistry data from 396 drill holes (255 diamond cut and 141 reverse circulation holes). Modelling was performed in MOVE Structural Modelling and Analysis software granted by Midland Valley's Academic Software Initiative, and GIS application softwares Global Mapper and Esri-ArcGIS. We envisaged that while fluid entering the conduit ascents, a sudden thickness increase in the conduit would lead to a drop in the fluid pressure causing boiling (the most dominant gold precipitation mechanism) and associated gold precipitation. Regression analysis was performed between the orthogonal thickness values and gold grades of each vein, and statistical analyses were performed to see if the gold is concentrated at specific structural positions along dip. Gold grades in the alteration zones were compared to those in the adjacent veins to understand the degree of mineralization in alteration zones. A possible correlation was also examined between the host rock type and the gold grades in the veins. These studies indicated that gold grades are elevated in the adjacent alteration zones where high gold grades exist in the veins. Schist

  9. Aksaray and Ecemis faults - Diapiric salt relationships: relevance to the hydrocarbon exploration in the Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coskun, Bulent [Ankara Univ., Dept. of Geology, Tandogan (Turkey)


    Due to activity of the Aksaray and Ecemis Faults, volcanic intrusion and westward movement of the Anatolian plate, diapiric salt structures were occurred in the Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) basin in central Anatolia, Turkey. With the collisions of the Arabian and Anatolian plates during the late Cretaceous and Miocene times, prominent ophiolitic obduction occurred in the Pontides and Taurides along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and East Anatolian Fault (EAF). The NAF and EAF intersect each other in the Karliova region, in eastern Turkey. At this point, due to the northward movement of the Arabian plate in SE Turkey, the Anatolian plate shifted toward the west and south along the fault zones. The same geological tectonic model is proposed at the intersection point of the Aksaray Fault (AF) and Ecemis Fault (EF) in central Anatolia. The westward movement of the Anatolian plate between these two faults resulted in the formation of the diapiric salt structures, volcanic intrusions and overpressure zones in the study area. Paleogeological reconstructions of the Tuz Golu basin indicate that the salient positive structures in the basin were formed during late Eocene-Oligocene times. These structures, like the Yeniceoba-Bezirci and Karapinar-Kochisar trends, are oriented in a NW-SE or N-S directions between the Kirsehir and Sivrihisar-Bozdag massifs. The subsidence rate and Paleogeographic evolutions in the basin show that the southeastern sector of the Tuz Golu basin remained shallower relative to the central and northwestern regions. Based on the paleostructural, subsidence and geothermal reconstructions, it has been concluded that the oil generation and migration zones and geothermal trends are oriented in a NW-SE direction in the Tuz Golu basin. (Author)

  10. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, Ali; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan; Gaafar, Gamal Ragab


    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin

  11. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahid, Ali, E-mail:; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, E-mail:; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan, E-mail: [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Gaafar, Gamal Ragab, E-mail: [Petroleum Engineering Division, PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin.

  12. No major active backthrust bounds the Pir Panjal Range near Kashmir basin, NW Himalaya (United States)

    Shah, A. A.


    This research disputes the geomorphic data presented in Dar et al. (2014), and demonstrates that their data strongly conflicts with their own field evidence, and also with the previous geological observations. The authors have proposed a major ∼SW dipping frontal fault that bounds the Pir Panjal Range near Kashmir basin of NW Himalaya. However, field photographs show a very steep ∼86° dipping normal fault. This therefore, contradicts with all the morphometric indices, interpretations, and discussion presented because those are based on a major ∼SE dipping thrust fault that bounds Pir Panjal Range in Kashmir basin. The proposed fault is a major ∼SW dipping backthrust, which primarily conflicts with the previous geological observations in Kashmir basin because mostly ∼NE dipping major thrusts are mapped in this region. And presently only three major ∼NE dipping faults, the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT), the Raisi Fault (RF), and the Kashmir Basin Fault (KBF), are tectonically active. The new proposed major active thrust, as suggested by the triangular facets mapped by Dar et al. (2014), was mapped on the basis of geomorphic evidence as a ∼SW dipping thrust fault, and field evidence shows a normal fault, which utterly questions the nature, and significance of the new research work.

  13. The Jiuxi basin, Hexi Corridor, NW China: foreland structural features and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.M. (JAPEX Geoscience Inst. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Coward, M.P. (Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology)


    The Jiuxi (Western Jiuquan) Basin, located in the west of the Hexi Corridor, NW China, is a foreland basin which has been active since the Early Jurassic. It was formed as a consequence of the progressive northwards migration of the North Qilian thrusts in response to sinistral shearing along the 2,000-km long Aerjin (Altun) Fault. Sedimentary deposits in the basin are controlled not only by foreland loading and thrusting, but also by the development of listric normal faults at high angles to the thrust belt. At the junctions of these two sets of faults, thick organic-rich sediments and reservoirs have accumulated. During the Tertiary and Quaternary, thrusts propagated along the foot-wall of the North Qilian Fault, truncating earlier-formed oil pools and source-rock layers and thereby causing great difficulties for petroleum exploration. A basin development model is proposed in this paper from an integrated study of sedimentary facies, drilling and seismic data, structural analyses and cross-section reconstructions. The average northwards movement in the frontal zone of the North Qilian Mountains since the Pliocene is estimated at about 8 mm/yr. Therefore, about one-half of the Jurassic-Cretaceous oil-bearing basin could be buried beneath the Laojunmiao and North Qilian Marginal Faults and is virtually untouched by drilling. Source rocks in the basin are black, lacustrine shales of Late Jurassic through Early Cretaceous ages, with a maximum thickness of up to 1.2 km in the Qingxi Depression. The generation of liquid hydrocarbons began in the Late Cretaceous or mid-Oligocene: seven stratigraphical reservoirs, ranging in age from Silurian to Miocene, are described - anticlinal, fault- and ''buriedhill'' structures are the most important traps. The petroleum potential of individual depressions is discussed, and suggestions for potential regional oil prospects are made. (author)

  14. Flood of May 23, 2004, in the Turkey and Maquoketa River basins, northeast Iowa (United States)

    Eash, David A.


    Severe flooding occurred on May 23, 2004, in the Turkey River Basin in Clayton County and in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware County following intense thunderstorms over northeast Iowa. Rain gages at Postville and Waucoma, Iowa, recorded 72-hour rainfall of 6.32 and 6.55 inches, respectively, on May 23. Unofficial rainfall totals of 8 to 10 inches were reported in the Turkey River Basin. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Turkey River at Garber streamflow-gaging station was 66,700 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) and is the largest flood on record in the Turkey River Basin. The timing of flood crests on the Turkey and Volga Rivers, and local tributaries, coincided to produce a record flood on the lower part of the Turkey River. Three large floods have occurred at the Turkey River at Garber gaging station in a 13-year period. Peak discharges of the floods of June 1991 and May 1999 were 49,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 150 years) and 53,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 220 years), respectively. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Maquoketa River at Manchester gaging station was 26,000 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 100 years) and is the largest known flood in the upper part of the Maquoketa River Basin.

  15. Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Stable Isotope Investigation of Gürkuyu Sb Mineralization (Gediz-Kütahya-NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim ÖZEN


    Full Text Available Abstract. The Gürkuyu Sb mineralization is located in the western part of Anatolian tectonic belt, in southern part of İzmir-Ankara zone and in northern part of Menderes Massif. The mineralization located at west of the Koca hill in east of Gürkuyu village of Gediz (Kütahya-Turkey has been characterized through the detailed examinations involving sulfur and oxygen isotope. Serpentinites of Dağardı melange and crystallized limestones of Budağan limestone were hydrothermally altered by hydrothermal solutions, come from fissures and fractures due to tectonic movement during the thrust of melange and occurred silicified zone. Gürkuyu Sb mineralization suggest that occurred in this silicified zone. In Gürkuyu mineralization, primary ore minerals are antimonite and pyrite, secondary ore minerals are senarmontite, valentinite, orpiment and realgar. Quartz and calcite are the most common gangue minerals. In Gürkuyu Sb mineralization, δ34S values of stibnite are ranged from 1.0 ‰ to 1.3 ‰. δ18O values of quartz are ranged is 15.8 ‰ in Gürkuyu mineralization. Sulfur and oxygen isotope values are similar to the values for magmatic rocks and to the values for fluids of magmatic origin.Keywords: Stable isotope, Gürkuyu, Sb mineralization, Gediz, Kütahya, NW Turkey.

  16. Tectonic control on Pleistocene basin-filling processes and landscape evolution: the intermontane Kangra Basin, NW Sub-Himalaya, India (United States)

    Dey, Saptarshi; Thiede, Rasmus; Schildgen, Taylor; Strecker, Manfred


    The growth of a collisional mountain belt like the Himalaya is dynamically coupled both to tectonics and climate and can result in strong temporal variations in the delivery of sediment to intermontane basins and the foreland. Orogenic critical taper models have been helpful to explain the processes controlling the evolution of mountain fronts in such settings. Rapid and voluminous sediment accumulations might destabilize the orogenic wedge and force architectural re-organization by outward propagation of the deformation front, while basin evacuation can induce out-of-sequence-thrusting to return the wedge to a critical taper. Structural reentrants along the Himalayan front are promising locations to study sediment delivery, storage, and sediment-evacuation mechanisms, as those areas commonly expose extensive transiently stored foreland-basin sediments. The Kangra re-entrant in the NW Sub-Himalaya hosts intermontane valley fills of Pleistocene age, eroded from the Dhauladhar Range. The sediments were unconformably deposited on top of Neogene foreland-basin sediments (i.e. the Siwaliks) in the hanging wall of the NW-SE striking Jwalamukhi Thrust. This major sediment accumulation phase appears to have preceded a phase of sediment evacuation in the course of episodic re-incision into the fill unit, which carved a series of fill-terrace levels. Angular unconformities, differential fluvial incision, tilted fluvial terraces, drainage re-organization, and steepened river segments in the hanging wall of the Jwalamukhi Thrust indicate post-depositional shortening and uplift in the Kangra re-entrant. From this evidence, we infer a primary importance of the Jwalamukhi Thrust in controlling the Quaternary sediment deposition in the Kangra re-entrant - however, we cannot exclude the influence of climate as the main trigger for sediment aggradation and subsequent excavation. However, knickpoints and steep river-channel gradients crossing other tectonic structures within the

  17. Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Kopruoren Basin (Kutahya), Turkey (United States)

    Arslan, S.; Dokuz, U.; Celik, M.; Cheng, Z.


    Groundwater quality in the Kopruoren Basin located to the west of Kutahya city in western Anatolia was investigated. Kopruoren Basin is about 275 km2 with about 6,000 residents, but the surface and ground-water quality in this basin impacts a much larger population since the area is located upstream of Kutahya and Eskisehir plains. Groundwater occurs under confined conditions in the limestones of Pliocene units. The only silver deposit of Turkey is developed in the metamorphic basement rocks, Early Miocene volcanics and Pliocene units near Gumuskoy. The amount of silver manufactured annually comprises about 1% of the World's Silver Production. The cyanide-rich wastes of the Eti Gumus silver plant is stored in waste pools. There have been debates about the safety of this facility after a major collapse occurred in one of the pools in May 2011. In this study samples from 31 wells and 21 springs were collected in July and October 2011 and May 2012. The groundwaters are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, with arsenic, zinc and antimony occurring at high concentrations. Dissolved arsenic concentrations are as high as 48 ug/L in springs and 734 ug/L in well water. Arsenic in 57% of the springs and 68% of the wells exceeded the WHO guideline value (10 ug/L). Natural sources of arsenic in the area include the dissolution of arsenic-rich minerals such as realgar and orpiment associated with the mineral deposits in the southern part of the study area. In the northern part, arsenic is enriched due to the dissolution of arsenic-bearing coal deposits. Besides these natural sources of contamination, the silver mining activity could be an important anthropogenic source. The leakage of cyanide and arsenic, together with other trace elements to the environment from the waste pools, will continue to poison the environment if necessary precautions are not taken immediately.

  18. Refinement of the Messinian APTS from sedimentary cycle patterns in the lacustrine Lava section (Servia Basin, NW Greece)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbrink, J.; Vugt, N. van; Kloosterboer-van Hoeve, M.L.; Hilgen, F.J.


    A high-resolution cyclostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy is presented for the Messinian lacustrine Lava section from the Servia Basin in NW Greece, constraining more precisely the absolute ages of magnetic polarity subchrons C3An.1n and C3An.2n. The section contains 15 distinct sedimentary

  19. Complex tectonic and tectonostratigraphic evolution of an Alpine foreland basin: The western Duero Basin and the related Tertiary depressions of the NW Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Martín-González, F.; Heredia, N.


    The tectonic and tectonostratigaphic evolution of foreland basins and related Tertiary depressions are the key to investigate deformation history and the uplifting of the continental lithosphere of the Alpine-Pyrenean Orogeny. The northern part of the Duero basin is the foreland basin of the Cantabrian Mountains, which are, in turn, the western part of the Pyrenean Orogen. We have studied the western sharp end of the Duero foreland basin, and its relation to the Tertiary deposits of the NW Iberian Peninsula and the topography evolution. In order to propose a coherent tectonic and tectonosedimentary model that could explain all Tertiary deposits, we have analysed the depositional environment, stratigraphic sequences, paleocurrents and established a correlation of the main outcrops. Besides, a detailed structural mapping of the Alpine structures that limit and affect the main Tertiary outcrops has been carried out. The Tertiary deposits of the NW Iberian Peninsula depressions are affected and fragmented by Alpine structures that limit their extensions and locations. The stratigraphic succession is similar in the NW Tertiary outcrops; they are mainly terrigenous and carbonated continental deposits formed by assemblage of alluvial fans developed at the mountains front, in arid or semiarid conditions. Three formations can be identified in the main depressions: Toral Fm, Santalla Fm and Médulas Fm. The NW Tertiary outcrops were the western deposits of the Duero foreland basin that surrounded the lateral termination of the Pyrenean Orogen. These deposits were fragmented and eroded by the subsequent uplift of the Galaico-Leoneses Mountains and the NE-SW strike-slip faults activity (broken foreland basin). Only the latest stages of some of these outcrops can be considered as intramontane basins as traditionally have been interpreted. The sedimentation started in the northeast (Oviedo-Infiesto) during the Eocene and migrated to the west (As Pontes) during the Late Oligocene

  20. Integrated stratigraphy and geochemistry of the Early Jurassic Posidonienschiefer from the Lower Saxony Basin, NW Germany (United States)

    Celestino, Ricardo; Ruhl, Micha; Dickson, Alexander J.; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Idiz, Erdem; Huggett, Jennifer; Mattioli, Emanuela; Minisini, Daniel; Weijers, Johan; Tegelaar, Erik; Hesselbo, Stephen P.


    The Posidonienschiefer (Early Jurassic, 183 Ma) is the expression of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) in Germany and Northern Switzerland and comparable to its correlative units in the UK (Jet Rock) and France (Schistes Carton) is composed of organic-rich, laminated clayey and calcareous mudstone. The carbon isotope record is marked by the occurrence of an up to 7 ‰ negative excursion, both in bulk carbonate and organic carbon, thought to have been caused by a large release of methane (from gas hydrates, thermal metamorphic processes and/or volcanogenic sources). The sedimentology, biostratigraphy, organic geochemistry, astrochronology, and isotope chemostratigraphy of the Posidonienschiefer have been largely described in the literature, but most of the studies have focused on the regions of Southern Germany and Northern Switzerland with less information available from Northern Germany due to a lack of outcropping sections. Here we complement the existing datasets from NW Europe with an integrated study performed on cores from the Lower Saxony Basin, Northern Germany, an area that is still poorly correlated with the better known southern German localities. In particular, we present new results from high-resolution carbon-isotope stratigraphy, biostratigraphy and hand-held XRF analysis combined with quantitative mineralogy and organic geochemistry. Further advances in understanding are likely to come from taking a broader palaeogeographic overview of the development of the T-OAE through the whole of the Toarcian Stage, including consideration of sea-level and palaeoclimatic cycles that both pre-date and post-date the core negative carbon-isotope excursion. The new observations from Northern Germany indicate substantial differences in the expression of the T-OAE (duration of maximum organic carbon enrichment/development of hiatuses) compared to other locations from the Laurasian Seaway of NW Europe, contributing to a detailed understanding of the

  1. Natural gas exploration prospect in the Upper Paleozoic strata, NW Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Shen


    Full Text Available Progress of natural gas exploration has recently been made in the Upper Paleozoic marine-facies reservoirs in the NW Sichuan Basin. It has been proved that the Middle Permian Qixia Fm pore-type dolomite reservoirs may be distributed continuously in a large area, besides, for the first time favorable gas-bearing Devonian dolomite reservoirs in great thickness were discovered in the downhole there. Recent research achievements indicate that: (1 The Lower Cambrian quality source rocks in huge thickness were found in the study sedimentary area with advantageous hydrocarbon source conditions. (2 Influenced by the Caledonian movement, the whole NW Sichuan Basin was lifted up to form a massive box-like NS-trending plunging uplift low steep in the west but high sluggish in the east, laying a robust foundation for the inheritance of Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian platform margin reef large-scale sedimentation and dolomitization. (3 In the Upper Paleozoic strata, there were multiple planes of unconformity and multi-stage supergene karst occurred, improving the preservation and seeping capacity of reservoirs. (4 Tectonic deformations resulted from the nappe structure in the Longmenshan Mountain provided good hydrocarbon source fractures and sealing conditions for oil and gas reservoirs, which is conductive to the formation of a giant gas pool. It is concluded that the back-thrust anticline belt east to Hidden fault I in this study area has favorable conditions for large-scale structural–stratigraphic and structural–lithologic combination traps. As suggested in this study, relatively strong dolomitization was found in the Qixia Fm in the Shejianhe River–Zhongba higher palaeogeomorphic deposit area, so the most favorable exploration target of the Qixia Fm will be around the central axis of Caledonian paleo-uplift to the east ridgeline, and the most favorable prospect of the Upper Palaeozoic will be the central axis to the west of Hidden fault I


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Airoldi (1930, 1932 described twenty-three fossil Corallinales (Rhodophyta from the Oligocene of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy, containing thirteen new species. In this paper Archaeolithothamnium praeerithraeum Airoldi 1932 and Archaeolithothamnium statiellense Airoldi 1932 are re-documented and re-described. The features observable in the sporangial compartments allowed to attribute both species to the genus Sporolithon. 

  3. Carbonate reservoirs modified by magmatic intrusions in the Bachu area, Tarim Basin, NW China

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    Kang Xu


    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration in carbonate rocks was extremely successful in recent years in the Ordovician in Tarim Basin, NW China. Here, we investigate the carbonate reservoirs in the Bachu area of the Tarim Basin through petrological and geochemical studies combined with oil and gas exploration data. Geochemical analysis included the major, trace, and rare earth elements; fluid inclusion thermometry; clay mineral characterization; and carbon and oxygen isotopes of the carbonate rocks. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions of Well He-3 in the Bachu area indicate three groups, 60–80 °C, 90–130 °C, and 140–170 °C, and suggest that the carbonate rocks experienced modification due to heating events. The porosity in the reservoir is defined by fractures and secondary pores, and there is a notable increase in the porosity of the carbonate reservoirs in proximity to magmatic intrusion, particularly approximately 8–10 m from the intrusive rocks. The development of secondary pores was controlled by lithofacies and corrosion by various fluids. We identify supercritical fluids with high density (138.12–143.97 mg/cm3 in the Bachu area. The negative correlations of δ13C (−2.76‰ to −0.97‰ and δ18O (−7.91‰ to −5.07‰ suggest that the carbonate rocks in the study area were modified by high-salinity hydrothermal fluid. The formation of clay minerals, such as illite and montmorillonite, caused a decrease in porosity. Our study demonstrates the effect of magmatic intrusions in modifying the reservoir characteristics of carbonate rocks and has important implications for oil and gas exploration.

  4. Isotopic and magnetic provenance characterization of distal IRD in the Galicia Interior Basin (NW Iberia) (United States)

    Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Rey, Daniel; Francisco Santos, Jose; Ribeiro, Sara; Bernabeu, Ana; Mohamed, Kais; Heslop, David; Rubio, Belén; Martins, Virginia


    The sediments of the Galicia Interior Basin in NW Iberia Margin are of particular palaeoclimatic interest as they are located at the boundary where the climatic oscillations of the glacial interval were interrupted by extreme events such as Heinrich events. These events are well characterized in Northern North Atlantic areas, but little is known about their occurrence beyond the Ruddiman belt. This study presents a combined environmagnetic and geochemical approach to the provenance and characterization of distal ice-rafted detritus (IRD) that occurred during the last glacial period in core CI12PC3 from the Galicia Interior Basin. The last six Heinrich Layers were identified by their magneto-mineralogical and geochemical properties. Their Sr and Nd isotopic signatures indicated that the Laurentide Ice Sheet was the major source for HL1, HL2, HL4 and HL5. However, the European ice sheets also influenced the initial development stages of HL1, HL2, HL4. HL3, HL6 and partially HL1, HL2 and HL4 were influenced by more juvenile provinces, such as Iceland/Faroes sheets and/or by the Fram Strait/East Greenland nearby areas. Separate provenance analyses of the coarse and fine fractions in the studied Heinrich Layers also indicated that IRDs and glacial flour sources might not always be the same. Our results shed unequivocal evidence that Canadian-sourced distal IRD are preceded by European-sourced IRD, at least from the H4. In our view, LIS and EIS instabilities registered in the Iberian Margin respond to the same climate forcing at different velocities.

  5. Organic geochemistry of oil and gas in the Kuqa depression, Tarim Basin, NW China

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    Digang Liang; Shuichang Zhang; Jianping Chen [China National Petroleum Corporation, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Petroleum Geochemistry; Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina, Beijing (China); Feiyu Wang [China National Petroleum Corporation, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Petroleum Geochemistry; Peirong Wang [China National Petroleum Corporation, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Petroleum Geochemistry; Jianghan Petroleum Institute (China)


    The Kuqa depression in the Tarim Basin, NW China contains significant natural gas and condensate resources, with only small amounts of black oil. This study demonstrates that the primary reason for the accumulation of large natural gas reserves in the Kuqa depression is the high maturity level of the Jurassic coal-bearing sequence that is currently at the peak stage of dry gas generation. From the combined stable carbon isotopes and molecular and biomarker data it is possible to identify two separate source rocks for the discovered hydrocarbon fluids: the gases were primarily from the Middle-Lower Jurassic coals and associated clastic rocks, and the oils were from the Upper Triassic lacustrine mudstones. Peak oil generation from the Triassic source rocks occurred during the early Miocene (23-12 Ma b.p.). These oils migrated laterally over relatively long distances ({approx}20-50 km) reaching the outer periphery of the depression. Peak gas generation took place more recently, perhaps during the past 5 Ma. The gases migrated mainly along faults over relatively short lateral distances, resulting in accumulations adjacent to the over-matured source kitchens. Different timings for the trap formation along the north and south margins and a late injection of gas into early oil accumulations provided favorable conditions for the formation of evaporative condensates and the preservation of gas pools in the more down-dip reservoirs and oil pools in the more up-dip locations. (author)

  6. Shallow and deep-seated regolith slides on deforested slopes in Çanakkale, NW Turkey (United States)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Türkeş, Murat; Demirci, Alper; Erginal, Ahmet Evren


    This study deals with the stripping of regolith on a steep slope by surface wash and shallow landslides and a deep-seated landslide at a lower slope that took place on 17 February 2003 at the village of Mazılık, east of Çanakkale, Turkey. Soil loss and shallow slides dominate on the deforested steep slopes in the study area and occur preferentially along slope-parallel sub-horizontal joint planes with clay coatings, particularly oxyhydroxides that are rich in Fe but poor in Mn as a result of weathering under well-drained conditions. Gully erosion also occurs where the regolith cover is relatively thick (up to ~ 4 m). The area of the deep-seated landslide, however, is dominated by silty clay (46%). A geoelectrical resistivity survey revealed a clay-rich zone at depths of ~ 3-10 m, corresponding to the slip surface of the slide, which was associated with excessive water content after the snowy day of 14 February 2003 with a daily precipitation of ~ 16.4 mm. Based on Thornthwaite's water budget analysis, the study area has a slide-prone condition with excess soil-moisture content, heavy rainfall events, snow accumulation and snow melting in winter months, and low soil permeability also favouring slope instability.

  7. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution and exhumation of the Haymana basin: Unravelling the subduction and collision history of Neotethys in Turkey (United States)

    Gülyüz, Erhan; Özkaptan, Murat; Lefebvre, Côme; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Persano, Cristina; Stuart, Finlay M.


    The Haymana basin straddles the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone (IAESZ) in the north and Intra-Tauride Suture Zone (ITSZ) in the south. The two suture zones developed in response to the subduction and demise of Neotethys Ocean in Turkey during the late Cretaceous to early Tertiary; the tectonic significance of the basin and its relationship with the ITSZ are still poorly constrained. In order to unravel subduction and subsequent collision history of the Neotethys in the region, we have carried out a detailed analysis of the stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Haymana basin infill and, using a combination of palaeomagnetic and thermochronometric data we have unravelled its structural evolution since its formation. The basin developed on the IAESZ and comprises fore-arc late Cretaceous to foreland Middle Eocene sedimentary sequences. The analysis of the sedimentogical facies and depositional environments indicate four Late Cretaceous to Paleogene key sequences in the basin. These sequences grade laterally and vertically into each other and are continuous from the late Cretaceous to Eocene whereas local progressive syn-sedimentary unconformities and frequent depocenter migrations are common. Late Cretaceous sequences fine upward whereas coarsening upwards sequences are common in the later units. These characteristics possibly reflect the response to local uplift and subsidence in front of south-verging thrust faults associated with the transition from fore-arc to foreland basin settings, following the terminal subduction of the Neotethys at the end of Cretaceous. About 4000 paleomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic data from the basin infill units and the Neogene cover indicate large clockwise vertical axes rotations in the NW and counter-clockwise rotations in the SE part of the basin. We suggest that these rotations are related to the northward movement and indentation of the Gondwana-derived continental blocks into Eurasia. A model of southward thrust propagation

  8. Geochemical element mobility during the hydrothermal alteration in the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey (United States)

    Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Doner, Zeynep; Kumral, Mustafa


    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit represents one of the important copper source and mineral deposits in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Balikesir province, NW Turkey. It considered as a vein-type deposit locally associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within the brecciation, quartz stockwork veining, and brittle fracture zones in the main host rock that represented by hornfels, as well as generally related to the shallow intermediate to silicic intrusive Eybek pluton. Based on the field and geologic relationships and types of ore mineral assemblages and the accompanied alteration types, there are two mineralization zones; hypogene (primary) and oxidation/supergene zones are observed associated with three alteration zones; potassic, phyllic, and propylitic zones related to this porphyry deposit. The phyllic and propylitic alterations locally surrounded the potassic alteration. The ore minerals related to the hypogene zone represented by mostly chalcopyrite, Molybdenite, and pyrite with subordinate amount of marcasite, enargite, and gold. On the other hand they include mainly cuprite with chalcopyrite, pyrite and gold as well as hematite and goethite at the oxidation/supergene zone. This study deals with the quantitative calculations of the mass/volume changes (gains and losses) of the major and trace elements during the different episodes of alteration in this porphyry deposit. These mass balance data reveal that the potassic alteration zone that the main Cu- and Mo-enriched zone, has enrichment of K, Si, Fe, and Mg, and depletion of Na referring to replacement of plagioclase and amphibole by K-feldspar, sericite and biotite. While the propylitic alteration that is the main Mo- and Au-enriched zone is accompanied with K and Na depletion with enrichment of Si, Fe, Mg, and Ca forming chlorite, epidote, carbonate and pyrite. On the other hand the phyllic alteration that occurred in the outer part around the potassic alteration, characterized by less amount

  9. Geothermometry and Geobarometry of Kepsut-Dursunbey Volcanites (NW Anatolia, Turkey): Implications for Magma Chamber Depth and Crystallization Conditions (United States)

    Kamaci, O.; Altunkaynak, S.


    The Kepsut-Dursunbey volcanic field (NW Turkey) contains various products of the Neogene magmatic activity. Two distinct volcanic suites have been recognized in the study area; Kepsut volcanic suite (KVS) and the Dursunbey volcanic suite (DVS). Both KVS and DVS are Early Miocene in age and representative for the post-collisional magmatism in western Anatolia. Mainly andesites, latites, basaltic andesites and pyroclastic rocks of KVS were formed during the early stage of volcanism in the study area. Without a major interruption in the volcanism, partly contemporanously, KVS followed by felsic volcanic products of DVS. Rhyolithic domes, lavas and extensive pyroclastic units were formed during this felsic volcanic activity. Both DVS and KVS display textural and chemical evidence for interaction of mafic and silicic magmas. This is evidenced by disequilibrium textures such as existence of rounded plagioclase phenocrysts with reaction rims (regrowth), hornblend -mantled clinopyroxenes (corona texture), synneusis, sieve textured plagioclase, patchy zones and oscilatory zoning in plagioclase phenocrysts. Basic lavas of KVS also contains xenocrysts represented by biotite mantled quartz and asidic plagioclase ovoids and glomerocrysts entrained from melt zones near base of the crust. The observed disequilibrium textures in both suites are provide evidence for magma mixing or Assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC). Calculated pressures and temperatures using the amphibole-plagioclase geothermometer and Al-in-hornblend geobarometer give values of 5.7-7.0 kbar and 927-982 °C for the KVS and 3.7-5.3 kbar and 783-787°C for the DVS, indicating crystallization in magma chambers at deep and mid crustal levels; 21 km and 12 km, respectively. A main deep magma reservoir served as a source for the intermediate to basic lavas of KVS. The existence of similar mixing-compatible (disequilibrium) textures in both KVS and DVS support the establishment and evolution of KDVF magma

  10. Evaluation of the site effects of the Ankara basin, Turkey (United States)

    Koçkar, M. K.; Akgün, H.


    Recent major earthquakes have explicitly demonstrated that near-surface local site conditions that can generate significant amplifications and spatial variations of earthquake ground motion play a major role in the level of ground shaking and in gathering information on soft soil response. It is therefore highly desirable to develop methods to identify and characterize regions that are prone to this type of site amplification. To determine the subsurface sediment characteristics over a wide area, measurement and analyses of microtremor have been widely employed. Considered to be a relatively easy and economically attractive method for collecting relevant information especially in urbanized areas, microtremor involves utilization of ambient seismic noise to evaluate the local site effects reliably which is one of the vital aspects of seismic hazard assessment. This paper aims to investigate the site response of the sediment characteristics in Ankara, the capital of Turkey through conducting short-period noise recordings of microtremor measurements. A total of 352 microtremor measurements have been performed in the project site within the Plio-Pleistocene fluvial and Quaternary alluvial and terrace sediments in the western part of the Ankara basin. The spectral ratio between the horizontal and vertical components (H/V) of the microtremor measurements at the ground surface has been used to estimate the fundamental periods and amplification factors of the site. The microtremor study was also correlated and complemented by in-situ seismic measurements of dynamic properties, geologic information, and some geotechnical boring information in the project area for evaluating site conditions in an account to estimate site effects. The results of this study identified three main factors that influence site response, namely, the age of the local geological formation, the depth of the soil thickness and soil characteristics in the younger sediments, and non-uniform subsurface

  11. Understanding Cu release into environment from Kure massive sulfide ore deposits, Kastamonu, NW Turkey (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Sonmez, Seref; Balci, Nurgul


    Covering a wide range on the earth's crust, oxidation of metal sulfide minerals have vital environmental impacts on the aquatic environment, causing one of the major environmental problems known as acid mine drainage (AMD). Located in the Kastamonu province of the Western Black Sea region, Kure district is one of the major copper mining sites in Turkey. Mining activities in the area heads back to ancient times, such that operation is thought to be started with the Roman Empire. Currently, only the underground mining tunnels of Bakibaba and Asikoy are being operated. Thus, mining heaps and ores of those pyritic deposits have been exposed to the oxidative conditions for so long. As a result of weathering processes of past and recent heaps of the Kure volcanic massive sulfide deposits in addition to the main ore mineral (chalcopyrite), significant amount of metals, especially Cu, are being released into the environment creating undesirable environmental conditions. In order to elucidate Cu release mechanisms from Kure pyritic ore deposits and mining wastes, field and laboratory approaches were used. Surface water and sediment samples from the streams around the mining and waste sites were collected. Groundwater samples from the active underground mining site were also collected. Physical parameters (pH, Eh, T°C, and EC) of water samples were determined in situ and in the laboratory using probes (WTW pH 3110, WTW Multi 9310 and CRISON CM 35). Metal and ion concentrations of the water samples were analysed using ICP-MS and DR 2800 spectrophotometer, respectively. High Cu, Co, Zn and Fe concentrations were determined in the water samples with pH values ranging from 2.9- 4. Cu concentrions ranges from 345 ppm to 36 ppm in the water samples. Consistent with the water samples, high Cu, Fe, Zn and Co were also determined in the sediment samples. Laboratory chalcopyrite oxidation experiments under the conditions representing the field site were set up as biological and

  12. Chemical characterization of surface snow in Istanbul (NW Turkey) and their association with atmospheric circulations. (United States)

    Baysal, Asli; Baltaci, Hakki; Ozbek, Nil; Destanoglu, Orhan; Ustabasi, Gul Sirin; Gumus, Gulcin


    The understanding of the impurities in natural snow is important in realizing its atmospheric quality, soil characteristics, and the pollution caused to the environment. Knowledge of the occurrence of major ions and trace metals in the snow in the megacity of Istanbul is very limited. This manuscript attempts to understand the origin of major soluble ions (fluoride, acetate, formate, chlorite, chloride, nitrite, chlorate, bromide, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, and perchlorate) and some trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu) in winter surface snow, collected in Istanbul, Turkey. The sampling of the surface snow was conducted after each precipitation during the winter of 2015-2016 at three sites in the city. Besides the statistical evaluation of the major ions, and some trace metal concentrations, the chemical variations along with atmospheric circulations, which are important modification mechanisms that influence the concentrations, were investigated in the study. At examined locations and times, 12 major anions were investigated and in these anions fluoride, chlorite, chlorate, bromide, and perchlorate in the snow samples were below the detection limit; only SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , and CI - were found to be in the range of 1.11-17.90, 0.75-4.52, and 0.19-3.01 mg/L. Also, according to the trace element determination, the concentration was found to be 29.2-53.7, 2.0-16.1, 1.0-2.2, 50.1-71.1, 24.2-35.2, ND-7.9, 43.2-106.6, and 3.0-17.7 μg/L for Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cu, respectively. The major anions and investigated trace elements here originated mainly from anthropogenic and atmospheric circulation and mainly influenced by northerly and southerly circulation patterns. While the main limitations in the present study may be the low number of samples that may not be entirely representative, accurately reflect identification, or support other previously observed local measurements, we believe that the type of data presented in this study has the potential

  13. Assessment of undiscovered gas resources of the Thrace Basin, Turkey, 2015 (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 787 billion cubic feet of conventional gas and 1,630 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas in the Thrace Basin, Turkey.

  14. Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India

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    M. Reuter


    Full Text Available Climate change has an unknown impact on tropical cyclones and the Asian monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin as a recorder of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the late Oligocene warming period (~ 27–24 Ma. Proxy data providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system at the Oligocene–Miocene boundary. The vast shell concentrations are comprised of a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deeper to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished, each recording a relative storm wave base. (1 A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore molluscs, reef corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2 an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclinid foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinacean algae; and (3 a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten bivalve-Schizaster echinoid assemblage. These wave base depth estimates were used for the reconstruction of long-term tropical storm intensity during the late Oligocene. The development and intensification of cyclones over the recent Arabian Sea is primarily limited by the atmospheric monsoon circulation and strength of the associated vertical wind shear. Therefore, since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the late Oligocene, the reconstructed long-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~ 26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the

  15. Cracking and thermal maturity of Ordovician oils from Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China

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    Anlai Ma


    Full Text Available The thermal maturity of the Ordovician oils from the Tahe oilfield of Tarim Basin, NW China was assessed through various maturity parameters, such as biomarkers, aromatic parameters, and diamondoid parameters. Both Ts/(Ts+Tm and C29Ts/(C29H+C29Ts values indicate that the maturity of oils has not reached the condensates stage, which is consistent with the maturity obtained by MPI1. However, the diamondoid maturity suggests that the oil maturity ranges 1.1%–1.6% Ro, which is apparently higher than that of the maturity obtained by the biomarker and MPI1. This discrepancy in maturity may indicate that the Ordovician reservoir has multiple filling history. The 4-MD+3-MD concentration of oils disperses and increases slowly when the Ts/(Ts+Tm value is lower than 0.55. Meanwhile, the value increases rapidly when the Ts/(Ts+Tm value is higher than 0.55. It is proposed that the diamondoid baseline is about 15 μg/goil for marine oils in the Tahe oilfield based on the diamondoid concentration of marine oils from reservoirs of various age. The concentration of 4-MD+3-MD of most Ordovician oils generally ranges from 4.5 to 35 μg/goil, suggesting that the degree of oil-cracking is lower than 50% and the deep Ordovician have potential of oil exploration. The distribution of the concentration of 4-MD+3-MD is characterized by being high in the east and south, low in the west and north, proposing that the two migration pathways exit in the oilfield, which are from east to west and from south to north, respectively. The migration directions are consistent with the results obtained from the oil density and the maturity parameters such as Ts/(Ts+Tm. Thus, suggesting the concentration of 4-MD+3-MD can be used as migration index in oilfield scale.

  16. Deformations during uppermost Cretaceous-Early Eocene in NW Europe - The record of the Paris basin (United States)

    Briais, Justine; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Lasseur, Eric; Serrano, Olivier


    The uppermost Cretaceous to Early Paleocene is, in NW Europe, a period of major deformations with significant inversions during Turonian to Campanian times and during Early Paleocene. The mechanism of those inversions is still debated. Later on, a major uplift coeval with the Faroe-Shetland volcanic province occurred with a deformation regime still poorly understood. The objective of this study is to better constrain those deformations in the Paris Basin and to discuss their implications on the palaeogeography and the sedimentary systems. This study is based on well-dated wells and outcrops, correlated using the technique of "stacking pattern". In a second step, accommodation space measurements were performed from isopaches and facies maps. (1) The paroxysm of the deformation and the sharp decrease of the subsidence occurred between Late Campanian (with probably deposition of part of the Maastrichtian) and Early Danian, with the growth of a middle wavelength fold controlled by the Bray Fault. Danian carbonate platforms, mainly preserved south-west of Paris, are growing on unstable slightly consolidated chalk (numerous slumps). (2) A hiatus characterized part of the Danian, the Selandian and the base Thanetian. (3) Thanetian initiate a major change of sedimentary system (silicilastic) and of subsidence pattern, now located north of the Bray Fault, above the Early Liassic highly subsiding domains. (4) The Thanetian - Ypresian sediments do not record the eustatic signal, using the Zachos world sea temperature curve as a proxy (Haq's curve cannot be used anymore). This means that a significant deformation event overprints this signal, here the reactivation of the Seine Fault with inversion of some upper crust heterogeneities.

  17. The collision of South China with NW India to join Gondwanaland in the Cambrian: Provenance constraints from foreland basins (United States)

    Yao, W.; Li, Z.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Yang, J.


    The paleogeographic position of the South China Block (SCB) during the early Paleozoic is important for understanding its affinity with Gondwanaland and addressing potential tectonic trigger for both the early Paleozoic Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China and similar-aged orogenic events along Gondwanan margins. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of Cambrian sandstones/metasandstones from the southwestern SCB reveal a predominant population at 1100¬-950 Ma, and zircon Hf-O isotopic results suggest three Precambrian episodes of juvenile crustal growth for the source provenance (ca. 3.0 Ga, ca. 2.5 Ga and ca. 1.0 Ga), with major crustal reworking at 0.58-0.50 Ga. This provenance record is distinctly different from the known tectonomagmatic record of the SCB, but matches well with the provenance record of Cambrian sandstones and Cambro-Ordovician tectonomagmatic events in the NW Indian Himalaya. Such a provenance linkage between the two continents appears to have started from the Ediacaran. We thus propose that the SCB likely collided with NW India during the assembling of Gondwanaland between the Ediacaran and the Cambrian. The collisional event propagated to eastern Himalaya during Cambro-Ordovician time as South China rotated relative to India to close the remnant ocean, causing the Cambro-Ordovician North India orogeny (also known as the Kurgiakh orogeny) along the Himalaya, as well as the intraplate Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny (>460-415 Ma) in South China. This collisional event also generated two peripheral foreland basins on both the Indian Gondwanaland and the South China sides. The foreland basin on the South China side (the Nanhua foreland basin), started as a failed Neoproterozoic continental rift, and appears to have experienced two stage of development. During the first stage between the Ediacaran and the Cambrian, the basin likely shared the same detrital sources as the foreland basin in NW India, with sediments predominantly derived from the East Africa orogen and the

  18. A negotiation support system for disputes between Iraq and Turkey over the Tigris-Euphrates basin (United States)

    Zagonari, Fabio; Rossi, Claudio


    This paper describes a flexible prototype negotiation support system (NSS), to be used in a participatory context, based on the negotiation setting that was suggested by Turkey: bilateral negotiations between Turkey and Iraq, annual analysis, the assumption that Iraq and Syria have no inherent water rights, differences in water entitlements or needs are neglected, analysis restricted to the Tigris-Euphrates basin, current irrigation technologies in Turkey and Iraq, and negotiations on water quantity and quality that account for national dam construction plans. The analysis is based on all principles of the 1997 UN Convention that are recognised by Turkey: net benefits defined at a basin level, equitable use, non-significant harm, maintenance of water quality. The goal is to achieve a balance of interests among the parties that combines analysis of the quantity and quality of water and the net benefits. The negotiation outcomes arise from simulated dynamic interactions between the parties. We demonstrate an application of the NSS based on plausible and reasonable, but tentative, data to provide insights into water allocation rules, side-payments, water requirements of the two parties, and cooperation. Allocations should meet Iraqi non-significant harm and equitable use constraints and allocate the remaining water to Turkey for agricultural use in the feasible negotiation scenario, whereas allocations should meet Turkish maximum agricultural water demands and allocate the remaining water to Iraq for agricultural use in the unlikely cooperation scenario.


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    Full Text Available Airoldi (1930, 1932 described twenty-three fossil Corallinales (Rhodophyta from the Oligocene of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy, including thirteen new species. In this paper Mesophyllum fructiferum Airoldi 1932 and Mesophyllum obsitum Airoldi 1932 are re-documented and re-described. The presence of cell fusions, multiporate conceptacles and a ventral core of cell filaments passing from coaxial to non-coaxial confirm that both species belong to the genus Mesophyllum.   SHORT NOTES  

  20. Mass change calculations of hydrothermal alterations within the volcanogenic metasediments hosted Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization at Halilar area, NW Turkey (United States)

    Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Abdelnasser, Amr; Doner, Zeynep; Kumral, Mustafa


    The Halilar Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization that is formed in the volcanogenic metasediments of Bagcagiz Formation at Balikesir province, NW Turkey, represents locally vein-type deposit as well as restricted to fault gouge zone directed NE-SW along with the lower boundary of Bagcagiz Formation and Duztarla granitic intrusion in the study area. Furthermore, This granite is traversed by numerous mineralized sheeted vein systems, which locally transgress into the surrounding metasediments. Therefore, this mineralization closely associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within brecciation, and quartz stockwork veining. The ore mineral assemblage includes chalcopyrite, galena, and some sphalerite with covellite and goethite formed during three phases of mineralization (pre-ore, main ore, and supergene) within an abundant gangue of quartz and calcite. The geologic and field relationships, petrographic and mineralogical studies reveal two alteration zones occurred with the Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization along the contact between the Bagcagiz Formation and Duztarla granite; pervasive phyllic alteration (quartz, sericite, and pyrite), and selective propylitic alteration (albite, calcite, epidote, sericite and/or chlorite). This work, by using the mass balance calculations, reports the mass/volume changes (gain and loss) of the chemical components of the hydrothermal alteration zones associated with Halilar Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization at Balikesir area (Turkey). It revealed that the phyllic alteration has enrichments of Si, Fe, K, Ba, and LOI with depletion of Mg, Ca, and Na reflect sericitization of alkali feldspar and destruction of ferromagnesian minerals. This zone has high Cu and Pb with Zn contents represents the main mineralized zone. On the other hand, the propylitic zone is characterized by addition of Ca, Na, K, Ti, P, and Ba with LOI and Cu (lower content) referring to the replacement of plagioclase and ferromagnesian minerals by albite, calcite, epidote, and sericite

  1. A multidisciplinary geomatics approach to morphometric and morphotectonic analysis of the Cannobino Basin (Piemonte Region, NW-Italy). (United States)

    Bacenetti, Marco; Ghiraldi, Luca; Giardino, Marco


    The paper presents an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the morphometric and morphotectonic characterization of the Cannobino Basin (Piemonte Region, NW-Italy). The basin is drained by the Cannobino river; in its first 8 km, it flows SE to NW along a wide valley characterized by glacial landforms; thereafter it suddenly turns South assuming a W to E direction, by flowing in a deeply entrenched valley to the intermontane basin of the Maggiore Lake. This area belongs to the Lepontine Alps, which from the geological point of view belong to the Southern Alps. His Hercynian basement is divided in two units: Ivrea-Verbano Zone (IVZ) and Serie dei Laghi (SDL). The IVZ outcrops in the northern sector of the basin, while the SDL outcrops in the southern and central sector. They separated by the Cossato-Mergozzo-Brissago (CMB) and Pogallo lines (PL). These major discontinuities and the neoctonic activity of their shear zones possibly control Quaternary evolution of the alpine relief. Detailed studies of the area are needed for understanding possible interactions of neotectonic activity, fluvial/glacial erosional/depositional processes and slope dynamics. Our focus is on drainage basin characteristics and its evolutionary stages in response to local and regional base level changes and to differential rock uplift. GIS methodologies combined with DEMs analyses are among the most common geomatics approaches to geomorphology. Based on this framework, an evaluation of the geomorphometric characteristic of the Cannobino Basin has been carried out by using an aerial LIDAR DEM (5x5 meters, Regione Piemonte, 2009). The workflow followed for calculating the geomorphic indexes can be summarized in different steps: i) drainage network extraction and hierarchization; ii) lineament features digitalization and interpretation; iii) azimuthal distribution of drainage pattern; iv) DEM analysis and evaluation of linear, areal indexes and SWAT profile. The multidisciplinary and innovative

  2. Origin of marginal basins of the NW Pacific and their plate tectonic reconstructions (United States)

    Xu, Junyuan; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Kelty, Tom; Yu, Ho-Shing


    Geometry of basins can indicate their tectonic origin whether they are small or large. The basins of Bohai Gulf, South China Sea, East China Sea, Japan Sea, Andaman Sea, Okhotsk Sea and Bering Sea have typical geometry of dextral pull-apart. The Java, Makassar, Celebes and Sulu Seas basins together with grabens in Borneo also comprise a local dextral, transform-margin type basin system similar to the central and southern parts of the Shanxi Basin in geometry. The overall configuration of the Philippine Sea resembles a typical sinistral transpressional "pop-up" structure. These marginal basins except the Philippine Sea basin generally have similar (or compatible) rift history in the Cenozoic, but there do be some differences in the rifting history between major basins or their sub-basins due to local differences in tectonic settings. Rifting kinematics of each of these marginal basins can be explained by dextral pull-apart or transtension. These marginal basins except the Philippine Sea basin constitute a gigantic linked, dextral pull-apart basin system.

  3. Polyphase tectonic evolution of the Aksu Basin, Isparta Angle (Southern Turkey) (United States)

    Üner, Serkan; Özsayin, Erman; Kutluay, Alkor; Dirik, Kadir


    The Aksu Basin, within the Isparta Angle, is located to the north of the intersection of the Aegean and Cyprus arcs and has been evolving since the Middle Miocene. Correlation of: (1) kinematic analysis of fault planes that cut the basin fill, (2) the reactivation/inversion of fault planes and (3) sedimentological data indicate that the Aksu Basin has evolved by four alternating compressional and extensional tectonic phases since its formation. The first phase was NW-SE oriented compression caused by the emplacement of the Lycian Nappe units which ended in Langhian. This compressional phase that induced the formation and the initial deformation of the basin was followed by a NW-SE extensional phase. This tectonic phase prevailed between the Langhian and Messinian and was terminated by a NE-SW compressional regime known as the Aksu Phase. The neotectonic period is characterized by NE-SW extension and began in the Late Pliocene. Correlation with the existing tectonic literature shows that the order of deformational phases proposed in this study might also be valid for the entire Isparta Angle area.

  4. New U-Pb ages from dykes cross-cutting the Demirci metamorphics, NW Turkey: Implications for multiple orogenic events (United States)

    Sen, Fatih; Koral, Hayrettin; Peytcheva, Irena


    A high-grade metamorphic sequence in the Sünnice Mountains, Bolu, NW Turkey, is represented by migmatitic quartzo-feldspathic gneisses in amphibolite facies called the Demirci metamorphics/paragneisses, and a sequence of low-grade meta-volcanics containing meta-andesites with minor meta-rhyolites and meta-sedimentary rocks called the Yellice meta-volcanics. They are intruded by the Dirgine granite with an age of Upper Ediacaran (576-565 Ma) and are considered a part of the İstanbul-Zonguldak Tectonic Unit. The Demirci paragneisses are also intruded by a number of dykes in various directions, traditionally considered without radiometric dating to have been emplaced in a single magmatic phase in the Eocene related to post-collision regime of the Anatolide-Tauride platform. Mafic-intermediate-felsic dykes cross-cutting the Demirci paragneisses have been investigated in maps of 1/1000 scale, and their U-Pb zircon age, major-trace element and kinematic data have been obtained. The mafics dykes cross-cutting the Yellice meta-volcanics, equivalents of those in the Demirci paragneisses, occur in N400-500E orientations and have calc-alkaline basalt compositions with a subduction signature. The intermediate dykes occur in N650W, N800W orientations and have calc-alkaline basaltic andesite to andesitic compositions with a subduction signature. Some felsics occur in N150W and N800E orientations and have calc-alkaline dacitic compositions with a collisional tectonic setting. Other calc-alkaline granitic dykes occur in N750E orientation and calc-alkaline granitic compositions with a subduction signature. U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating of zircons yield ages from 485.7±3.6 Ma (i.e. Cambro-Ordovician) for N800E trending dacite dykes; 443.0±5.4 Ma (i.e. Ordovician-Silurian) for N150W trending dacite dykes; 301.0±1.6 Ma (i.e. Upper Pennsylvanian-Carboniferous) for N650W trending basaltic andesite dykes; 268.2±2.4 Ma (i.e. Guadalupian-Permian) for N40-500E trending basalt dykes; 262.9±3

  5. Structural setting of the Metán Basin (NW Argentina): new insights from 2D seismic profiles (United States)

    Conti, Alessia; Maffucci, Roberta; Bigi, Sabina; Corrado, Sveva; Giordano, Guido; Viramonte, José G.


    The Metán Basin is located in the sub-Andean foreland, in the southernmost portion of the Santa Barbara system structural province (NW Argentina). The upper crust in this region shows a strong segmentation due to inherited stratigraphic and structural discontinuities, related to a Palaeozoic orogenic event and to a Cretaceous to Paleogene rifting event (Kley et al., 1999; Iaffa et al., 2011). This study seeks to unravel the deep structural setting of the basin, in order to better understand the tectonic evolution of the area. Different seismic sections are analysed, located in the Metán basin and acquired by YPF (Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales, former national oil company of Argentina) in different surveys during the '70s - '80s. Stratigraphic control for the seismic interpretation is provided by petroleum exploratory wells drilled in the basin; they show a stratigraphic succession of syn-rift and post-rift deposits, mainly constituted by a continental succession of red beds, with minor limestone intercalations (Salta Group), overlain by a thick continental foreland basin succession (Orán Group) (Salfity et al., 1981). From a structural point of view, the Metán basin is characterized by a variety of structural trends, with thrust faults and related folds mainly trending N-S, NE-SW and NNE-SSW. Different mechanism can be responsible for the folding of the sedimentary cover; hangingwall anticlines are represented both by high angle thrust faults produced by inversion of Cretaceous extensional faults (Maffucci et al., 2015), and by fault propagation folds formed during the Andean shortening event. The study of the interaction between the older reactivated faults and the newly generated ones could provide new insights to unravel the complex structural setting of the area. References Iaffa D. N., Sàbat, F., Muñoz, J.A., Mon, R., Gutierrez, A.A., 2011. The role of inherited structures in a foreland basin evolution. The Metán Basin in NW Argentina. Journal of

  6. Soil fertility in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.H.


    Soil fertility was studied in the Great Konya Basin, as part of the study carried out by the Department of Tropical Soil Science of the Agricultural University at Wageningen.

    The purpose was to find the agricultural value of the soils, to learn about the main factors governing soil fertility,

  7. Soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.M.


    In the summers of 1964 to 1968 a study was made of soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, under the auspices of the Konya Project, a research and training programme of the Department of Tropical Soil Science of the Agricultural University, Wageningen.

    The Great

  8. Origin, evolution and geothermometry of the thermal waters in the Gölemezli Geothermal Field, Denizli Basin (SW Anatolia, Turkey) (United States)

    Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Brogi, Andrea; Liotta, Domenico; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Meccheri, Marco; Yavuzer, İbrahim; Alçiçek, Mehmet Cihat


    The Gölemezli Geothermal Field (GGF) is one of the best known geothermal fields in western Anatolia (Turkey). The exploited fluids are of meteoric origin, mixed with deep magmatic fluids, which interacted with the metamorphic rocks of the Menderes Massif. The geothermal fluids are channeled along Quaternary faults belonging to the main normal faults system delimiting the northern side of the Denizli Basin and their associated transfer zones. In this study, hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of the thermal and cold waters allow us to determine water-rock interactions, fluid paths and mixing processes. Two groups of thermal waters have been distinguished: (i) Group 1A, comprising Na-SO4 type and Ca-SO4 type and (ii) Group 1B, only consisting Ca-HCO3 type waters. Differently, two groups were recognized in the cold waters: (i) Group 2A, corresponding to Ca-HCO3 type and (ii) Group 2B, including Mg-HCO3 type. Their geochemical characteristics indicate interactions with the Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Menderes Massif and with the Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks. Dissolution of host rock and ion-exchange reactions modify thermal water composition in the reservoir of the GGF. High correlation in some ionic ratios and high concentrations of some minor elements suggest an enhanced water-rock interaction. None of the thermal waters has been reached a complete chemical re-equilibrium, possibly as a result of mixing with cold water during their pathways. Geothermal reservoir temperatures are calculated in the range of 130-210°C for the Gölemezli field. Very negative δ18O and δ2H isotopic ratios are respectively between -8.37 and -8.13‰ and -61.09 and -59.34‰ for the SO4-rich thermal waters, and ca. - 8.40 and -8.32‰ and - 57.80 and -57.41‰ for the HCO3-rich thermal waters. Low tritium (rock volumes. Volatile ascent from deep magmatic sources through crustal structures can explain the occurrence of mantle volatiles at shallow depth in the Denizli Basin


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Perbla Formation represents typical Toarcian clay-rich pelagic sediment of the southern Tethyan passive continental margin. It was deposited in the Slovenian Basin, located in present-day western Slovenia. During the Early Jurassic the basin was surrounded by the Dinaric (Friuli Carbonate Platform to the south and by the Julian Carbonate Platform to the north. Today, the transitional areas between the platforms and basin are not preserved due to intense Cainozoic thrusting and erosion, with the only record of the evolution of these areas stored in gravity-flow deposits of the Perbla Formation. Coarser turbidites were deposited on the margins of the basin, with other types of gravity-flow deposits, observed mainly in the central part of the basin. These intercalations reflect regionally recognized events that characterized the sedimentary evolution of western Slovenia at the end of the Early Jurassic. Slumps that occasionally developed into debris-flows reflect uneven sea-bottom palaeotopography that originated during a pre- to early-Toarcian phase of accelerated subsidence. The early Toarcian transgression caused drowning of the adjacent carbonate platforms, an event reflected in the composition of coarser turbidites which consist almost exclusively of echinoderm fragments and thin-shelled bivalves. These turbidites originated from drowned platform margins and/or slopes and were subsequently redeposited in proximal parts of the basin

  10. Submarine slides, slumps and turbidites in relation to various tectonic and sedimentary processes in the Çinarcik Basin of the eastern Marmara Sea (Turkey) (United States)

    Ergin, Mustafa; Sakitas, Alper; Sarikavak, Kerim; Keskin, Seref


    The main purpose of this study was to determine and understand the impacts of the climatic changes, active tectonism, slope instability and sediment mass movements in the eastern Marmara Sea (Turkey) during the Holocene. Of these, sea level changes, earth quakes, slides, slumps and turbidites were considered to be the major causes to shape the seafloor in the region. With this in mind and within a framework of a larger Project (TÜBİTAK-YDABAG 101Y071), after the major earthquake of 17 August 1999 in Kocaeli-Turkey, both sediment samples and seismic reflection profiles were obtained during the August 2000 Cruise of the Research Vessel "MTA "SİSMİK 1" at water depths between 58 and 1249 meters in the Çınarcık Basin of the eastern Marmara Sea (NW Turkey). Offshore studies covered shelf, slope and basin-floor subenvironments. Onboard, airgun and multichannel seismic reflection system was used along 7 tracklines aligned to N-S and E-W directions. At 15 sites gravity cores were deployed and from 53 to 367 cm thick core sediments were obtained. Grain size analysis, visual core descriptions, and conventional radicarbon datings were also made. To interpret seismic profiles, well-known seismic facies analysis and stratigraphic methods were applied. Fine-grained and grayish-green colored siliciclastic mud was the dominant sediment type (also called "homogenite") deposited on the floor. The coarser-grained intervals and laminations would likely suggest effects of not only turbidites from active tectonism but they can also be related to the wind-driven offshore storm deposits and river floods after heavy rain-falls. Active normal faults on the shelves, fault scarps along the slopes and negative flower structure of syntectonic sedimentation in the deep basin floor observed on the seismic profiles all must indicate the consequences of westerly extension of the North Anatolian Fault Zone in the Marmara Sea. Seismic profiles displayed sediment structures of underwater

  11. Sedimentology and paleoenvironmental evolution of Messinian evaporites in the Iskenderun-Hatay basin complex, Southern Turkey (United States)

    Tekin, Erdoğan; Varol, Baki; Ayyıldız, Turhan


    Messinian evaporites, which resulted from the salinity crisis during the final closure of the Mediterranean Sea, are exposed in SE Turkey. These evaporites formed in two isolated sub-basins, Iskenderun-Arsuz (IA) and Hatay-Samandağ (HS), which belong to different depositional configurations and tectonic structures. The Neogene fill of these sub-basins consists of a thick sedimentary succession that started with Early Miocene terrestrial clastics, followed by reefs (Middle Miocene) and shallow water siliciclastics (Tortonian - Early to Late Miocene) and finally Messinian evaporates. These sub-basins accumulated in a diverse range of depositional environments from very shallow to deeper water. Evaporite facies in the IA sub-basin consist of sabkhas, saline lagoons and ponds. They are mainly represented by chemical deposits such as scattered gypsum nodules and balls, nodular bedded gypsum, laminated gypsum (Type-A) and selenites (Type-S1). Evaporites in the HS sub-basin mainly consist of detrital gypsum composed of gypsum laminae (Type-B, C), gypsum arenite-rudites and deeper water selenites (≤ 20 m), and resedimented selenites (Type-S2), which were deposited on a sulfate platform with a slope-basin transitional zone. Secondary gypsum with alabastrine and porphyroblastic textures as well as satin spar veins is commonly associated with the sabkha-type evaporites of the IA sub-basin. Deeper-water clastic evaporites of the HS sub-basin have generally remained as primary gypsum or have only been slightly affected by diagenetic alterations. The isotope values ( 87/86Sr; δ 18O SMOW; and δ 34S CDT) from the different kinds of gypsum lithofacies of the sub-basin are similar to those of the Messinian evaporites in other peri-Mediterranean basins, indicating an origin from marine water without external or basinal contributions. The Messinian evaporites examined in this paper are overlain by Early Pliocene (Zanclean) deposits composed of shallow- and deep

  12. The Impact of Land Cover and Land Use Changes on the Hydrological Cycle of the Tarim Basin, NW China (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Ozdogan, M.; Kurban, A.; Steven, L. I.; Chen, X.


    The Tarim Basin, located in NW China, is the largest inland basin in the world. Since 1970s, the basin became modernized agriculturally through unprecedented reclamation which were controlled by the Chinese government to promote cotton production. In 2013, 40% of China's cotton production is harvested in the Tarim Basin, representing 15% of world production. However, these large scale land use transformations lead to overuse of water resources in the upper and middle reaches for irrigation, with severe unintended ecological consequences in the lower reaches. The lower reaches of the Tarim River dried up gradually during the 1970s. In 2000, a water release project was launched to meet the ecological water demands of the river's lower reaches. So far there have been 15 water releases with 1.7 billion USD invested. This work aims to improve our understanding of the impacts on the hydrologic cycle from land-use/land-cover change activities in the Tarim Basin by bridging boundaries between different disciplines and integrating them to portray all the key processes involved. This multidisciplinary approach includes analysis of remotely sensed imagery, application of a dynamic crop modelling framework, and simulation analyses with a transient, 2D, variably-saturated groundwater model. My primary findings show that in 2006, about 25820 km2 were identified as irrigated field. This is a 41% increase from 1970s, when the total irrigated area was only 18250 km2. The rapid expansions in irrigate fields, together with climate change, have affected the partitioning of water between the land surface and the lower atmosphere through changing evapotranspiration patterns. Approximately 7 km3 of water entered the atmosphere through crop evapotranspiration in 1971, but by 2006 this value had increased to nearly 11 km3. But changes in climatic conditions accounted for only 20% of the total increase in ET. In terms of ecological restoration, the study shows the current water releases

  13. Revised models for hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation in Jurassic coal measures of the Turpan basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Maowen; Stasiuk, L.D. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Bao Jianping [Jianghan Petroleum University, Hubei (China); Lin, R. [Petroleum University (Beijing), Changping (China); Yuan Mingsheng [PetroChina Tu-Ha Oilfield Company, Xingjiang (China)


    Whether or not the Lower-Middle Jurassic coal measures in the Turpan basin of NW China have generated commercial quantities of liquid petroleums is a problem of considerable importance that remains contentious as it has not yet been resolved unequivocally. This study provides evidence against the Jurassic humic coals as the only major source for the oils discovered in the Taibei depression of this basin and suggests additional significant contributions from the Upper Permian and Middle-Lower Jurassic lacustrine source rocks. The Carboniferous-Permian marine source rocks may have been important also in limited locations along the major basement faults. Molecular and petrographic data indicate that the majority of the Middle Jurassic strata are currently immature or marginally mature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. Within the major depocenters, the Middle-Lower Jurassic coal-bearing strata of the Baodaowan and Xishanyao formations has reached the conventional oil window (i.e. with vitrinite reflectance >0.7 per cent Ro). Pre-Jurassic (Upper Permian in particular) derived hydrocarbons appear to be widespread in extracts of fractured Jurassic coal and fine-grained rocks. Large differences have been observed in the absolute concentrations of biomarker compounds in rock extracts of various source intervals. Thus, 'coaly' biomarker signatures of the oils most likely resulted from mixing and migration contamination when hydrocarbons derived from mature source rocks migrated up through highly fractured coal seams along deep-seated faults. In addition to conventional exploration targets, revised petroleum generation and accumulation models predict that the focus in the Turpan basin should also include deep structures within the Carboniferous-Permian strata and subtle, low magnitude anticlines and stratigraphic traps within thr Triassic-Jurassic sections. (author)

  14. Facies architecture of basin-margin units in time and space: Lower to Middle Miocene Sivas Basin, Turkey (United States)

    Çiner, A.; Kosun, E.


    The Miocene Sivas Basin is located within a collision zone, forming one of the largest basins in Central Turkey that developed unconformably on a foundered Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement and Eocene-Oligocene deposits. The time and space relationships of sedimentary environments and depositional evolution of Lower to Middle Miocene rocks exposed between Zara and Hafik towns is studied. A 4 km thick continuous section is subdivided into the Agilkaya and Egribucak Formations. Each formation shows an overall fining upward trend and contains three members. Although a complete section is present at the western part (near Hafik) of the basin, to the east the uppermost two members (near Zara) are absent. The lower members of both formations are composed of fluvial sheet-sandstone and red mudstone that migrate laterally on a flood basin within a semi-arid fan system. In the Agilkaya Formation that crops out near Zara, alluvial fans composed of red-pink volcanic pebbles are also present. The middle members are composed of bedded to massive gypsum and red-green mudstone of a coastal and/or continental sabkha environment. While the massive gypsum beds reach several 10’s of m in Hafik area, near Zara, they are only few m thick and alternate with green mudstones. In Hafik, bedded gypsums are intercalated with lagoonal dolomitic limestone and bituminous shale in the Agilkaya Formation and with fluvial red-pink sandstone-red mudstone in the Egribucak Formation. The upper members are made up of fossiliferous mudstone and discontinuous sandy limestone beds with gutter casts, HCS, and 3-D ripples. They indicate storm-induced sedimentation in a shallow marine setting. The disorganized accumulations of ostreid and cerithiid shells, interpreted as coquina bars, are the products of storm generated reworking processes in brackish environments. Rapid vertical and horizontal facies changes and the facies associations in both formations reflect the locally subsiding nature of this molassic

  15. Estimation of lignite reserve in the Kalburcayiri field, Kangal basin, Sivas, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tercan, A.E. [Department of Mining Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey); Karayigit, A.I. [Department of Geological Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey)


    This paper addresses a case study on global estimation of lignite reserve in the Kalburcayiri field from the Sivas-Kangal basin, which is one of the most productive lignite basins in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The two lignite seams, which were developed in a fresh-water lacustrine depositional environment during the Pliocene time, are currently being exploited in the Kalburcayiri open-cast mine for feed coal to a power plant with 300-MW capacity. Tonnage, thickness and quality parameters (ash yield, total sulphur content, and calorific value) of the lignite are variables considered in this study. The global estimates of these variables together with 95% confidence limits are obtained using the approximation principle of global estimation. A random stratified grid is fitted to available boreholes; the variograms for thickness and lignite quality parameters are estimated and modeled. The models are used in calculating estimation error variances that will later be used in constructing 95% confidence intervals for the true values.

  16. Tectonic analysis of Lechada and Curavacas synclines, Yuso basin, León, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savage, J.F.


    The structures along the southern boundary of the flysch-filled Yuso Basin bear witness to continuous epeirogenic activity during the Upper Carboniferous. The Carda\\u0148o Line foems the boundary proper but other structures, somewhat similar to this fundamental feature e.g. the Pe\\u0148a Prieta

  17. Turkey. (United States)


    Focus in this discussion of Turkey is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between the US and Turkey. In 1986, Turkey's population was estimated to be 51.8 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate is 12.3/1000 with a life expectancy of 62.7 years. Turkey is located partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Since 1950, urban areas have experienced tremendous growth, and squatter dwellings are evident around the cities' edges. About half of Turkey's population live in urban areas. Turkish culture is made up of both the modern and traditional, Ottoman and folkloric, elements. The Republic of Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal, subsequently named Ataturk, in 1982 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman empire. The new republic focused on modernizing and Westernizing the empire's Turkish core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidence. It provides for an independent judiciary along with the safeguarding of internationally recognized human rights. The legislative functions are carried out by the unicameral, 450-member GNA. The economy is developing structurally, yet the agricultural sector remains significant and produces cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Over half of the labor force are farmers, contributing over 1/5 of the gross domestic product. A significant portion of industry also is involved in processing agricultural products. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s was the longest sustained period of economic growth and development in modern Turkish history, with annual growth rates of nearly 7%. Oil price increases after 1973 and the concomitant European recession slowed Turkish growth and also revealed major structural deficiencies. The economic crisis worsened in 1979 as oil prices doubled again. The Demirel

  18. Geochemical make-up of oceanic peridotites from NW Turkey and the multi-stage melting history of the Tethyan upper mantle (United States)

    Uysal, İbrahim; Şen, A. Dündar; Ersoy, E. Yalçın; Dilek, Yildirim; Saka, Samet; Zaccarini, Federica; Escayola, Monica; Karslı, Orhan


    We present the whole-rock and the mineral chemical data for upper mantle peridotites from the Harmancık region in NW Turkey and discuss their petrogenetic-tectonic origin. These peridotites are part of a Tethyan ophiolite belt occurring along the İzmir-Ankara-Ercincan suture zone in northern Turkey, and include depleted lherzolites and refractory harzburgites. The Al2O3 contents in orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene from the depleted lherzolite are high, and the Cr-number in the coexisting spinel is low falling within the abyssal field. However, the orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in the harzburgites have lower Al2O3 contents for a given Cr-number of spinel, and plot within the lower end of the abyssal field. The whole-rock geochemical and the mineral chemistry data imply that the Harmancık peridotites formed by different degrees of partial melting (~%10-27) of the mantle. The depleted lherzolite samples have higher MREE and HREE abundances than the harzburgitic peridotites, showing convex-downward patterns. These peridotites represent up to ~16 % melting residue that formed during the initial seafloor spreading stage of the Northern Neotethys. On the other hand, the more refractory harzburgites represent residues after ~4-11 % hydrous partial melting of the previously depleted MOR mantle, which was metasomatized by slab-derived fluids during the early stages of subduction. The Harmancık peridotites, hence, represent the fragments of upper mantle rocks that formed during different stages of the tectonic evolution of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere in Northern Neotethys. We infer that the multi-stage melting history of the Harmancık peridotites reflect the geochemically heterogeneous character of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere currently exposed along the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone.

  19. The Tarim Basin, NW China: formation and aspects of petroleum geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.M.; Coward, M.P. (Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology); Nishidai, T. (Japex Geoscience Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan))


    The formation and evolution since the Sinian of the Tarim Basin, in Northwest China, are introduced in this paper, on the basis of a study of stratigraphical and sedimentary facies, and an analysis of structural features. Mechanisms of basin formation have varied throughout this time, caused by frequent tectonic movements along the southern margin of the Eurasian Plate. As regards petroleum geology, six structural units have been classified from a consideration of the distribution of major source-rock sequences. An overall evaluation is made concerning hydrocarbon exploration in the individual structural units. Moreover, a general review is presented regarding source rocks, hydrocarbon reservoirs, trap structures, sealing layers and hydrocarbon generation, as well as possible recent exploration successes. (author)

  20. Tectonic Evolution of the Çayirhan Neogene Basin (Ankara), Central Turkey (United States)

    Behzad, Bezhan; Koral, Hayrettin; İşb&idot; l, Duygu; Karaaǧa; ç, Serdal


    Çayırhan (Ankara) is located at crossroads of the Western Anatolian extensional region, analogous to the Basin and Range Province, and suture zone of the Neotethys-Ocean, which is locus of the North Anatolian Transform since the Late Miocene. To the north of Çayırhan (Ankara), a Neogene sedimentary basin comprises Lower-Middle Miocene and Upper Miocene age formations, characterized by swamp, fluvial and lacustrine settings respectively. This sequence is folded and transected by neotectonic faults. The Sekli thrust fault is older than the Lower-Middle Miocene age formations. The Davutoǧlan fault is younger than the Lower-Middle Miocene formations and is contemporaneous to the Upper Miocene formation. The Çatalkaya fault is younger than the Upper Miocene formation. The sedimentary and tectonic features provide information on mode, timing and evolution of this Neogene age sedimentary basin in Central Turkey. It is concluded that the region underwent a period of uplift and erosion under the influence of contractional tectonics prior to the Early-Middle Miocene, before becoming a semi-closed basin under influence of transtensional tectonics during the Early-Middle Miocene and under influence of predominantly extensional tectonics during the post-Late Miocene times. Keywords: Tectonics, Extension, Transtension, Stratigraphy, Neotectonic features.

  1. Length–Weight Relationships for Freshwater Fish Species in Küçük Menderes River Basin, Turkey


    Mustafa Korkmaz; Mustafa Korkmaz


    This study provides length–weight relationships for ten fish species from Küçük Menderes River Basin, inland water systems of Western Anatolian Region, Turkey. Samples were collected from six different localities, three reservoirs and three streams, in Küçük Menderes River Basin. The samples were collected using multimesh gillnets in reservoirs and electrofishing with ‘SAMUS 725-MP’ in rivers and fixed in formalin (4%). Identification of the fish species were done according to literature....

  2. Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Analysis of the two hypervariable segments within the noncod- ing region of the mitochondrial genome ... Keywords. mtDNA; Anatolian peninsula; sequence variation; hypervariable segments; Turkish population. *For correspondence. ... ous geographical regions of Turkey, which is thus more representative of the Turkish ...

  3. Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.M.; Kurzweil, M.


    This chapter provides an overview of the evolution of Turkey¿s agricultural policies in recent decades, examines the extent to which these policies may have distorted incentives, and attempts an explanation of the underlying forces that have driven the process and conditioned the results. The review

  4. Site effects and soil-structure resonance study in the Kobarid basin (NW Slovenia using microtremors

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    A. Gosar


    Full Text Available The town of Kobarid is located in one of three areas with the highest seismic hazard in Slovenia. It was hit by several 1976–1977 Friuli sequence earthquakes and recently by the 1998 and 2004 Krn Mountains earthquakes which caused damage of intensity up to VII EMS-98 scale. The town is located in a small basin filled with heterogeneous glaciofluvial Quaternary sediments in which site effects due to soft sediments are expected. The existing microzonation which is based on surface geological data only is inadequate, and no borehole or geophysical data are available in the basin that would allow a modelling approach of site effects assessment. The microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR method was therefore applied in order to assess the fundamental frequency of the sediments. Investigations were performed on a 100×100 m dense grid and 106 free-field measurements acquired. Clear HVSR peaks were obtained in the majority of the surveyed area. The eastern part of the basin is characterized by two well separated peaks which indicate distinct shallow and deep impedance contrasts. The iso-frequency map of sediments shows a distribution in a broad range of 1.8–22.2 Hz. The observed frequencies can be related to the total thickness of Quaternary sediments (sand, gravel in the western part of the basin only. They are deposited over bedrock built of Cretaceous flysch. In the eastern part the obtained fundamental frequencies are influenced by the presence of a shallow conglomerate layer inside sandy gravel or lacustrine chalk. The extent of these layers was not known before. Microtremor measurements were also performed inside 19 characteristic buildings of various heights (from two to four stories, and longitudinal and transverse fundamental frequencies determined from amplitude spectra. A potential of soil-structure resonance was assessed by comparing building frequencies with the free-field sediments frequencies derived from the iso

  5. Unexpected implications of Anisian limestone blocks in the Çetmi mélange (NW Turkey) : younger ocean or mixing processes (United States)

    Beccaletto, L.; Stampfli, G. M.


    The 2000 km long Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture, separating the Sakarya zone from the Anatolide-tauride block, extends from north of Izmir eastwards to the border with Georgia from where it may continue as the Sevan-Akera suture. One of its main feature is the widespread occurrence of Cretaceous subduction-accretion complexes, mainly made of basalt, radiolarian chert, pelagic limestone, pelagic shale and serpentinite. The Çetmi accretionary mélange of NW Turkey is now considered as a part of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture belt. Hallstatoid red pelagic limestones from the mélange have yielded Anisian conodonts making them its oldest lithology. This block is rather seen as a consequence of the mixing of two different units (the Çetmi mélange and the Karakaya Complex), than a witness of the first deposits of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Ocean itself. Therefore this discovery does not imply an older age for the opening of the latter. The possible occurrence of tectonic mixing processes between successive accretionary complexes is finally shown through the whole evolution of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Ocean, from its opening to its closure. This observation may be extended to all mélanges which record different oceanic domains.

  6. Spatial pattern formation and intraspecific competition of anabasis aphylla l. population in the diluvial fan of junggar basin, nw china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.; Li, Y.Y.; Niu, P.X.


    Using conventional nearest neighbour analysis and Ripley's L-function, the goal of this study was to analyze spatial patterns of Anabasis aphylla plants in order to investigate underlying competitive processes that shape the population spatial structure from diluvial fan in Junggar Basin, NW China. We found that the spatial patterns of all growth stages were aggregated in the three study plots, and seedling and juvenile plants were more aggregated than expected by chance. Positive associations among growth stages of A. aphylla population were found at a small scale while negative associations of seedling and juvenile relative to adult plants were shown at a larger scale. The processes such as dispersal, seedling establishment, environmental heterogeneity, plant interactions and disturbance may have acted individually or in concert with other processes to produce the aggregated patterns and competitive relationship. Moreover, these findings suggested that the aggregated distribution and the competitive interaction between A. aphylla plants in the diluvial fan reflected not only in mortality, but also in decreased performance (smaller canopy) that was an important characteristic of drought-enduring plant, thus preventing a regular distribution pattern. (author)

  7. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous (Campanian - Maastrichtian) sequences in the Peri-Tethys basin; Moghan area, NW Iran (United States)

    Omidvar, Mahboobeh; Safari, Amrollah; Vaziri-Moghaddam, Hossain; Ghalavand, Hormoz


    The Upper Cretaceous sediments in the Moghan area, NW Iran, contain diverse planktonic and benthic foraminifera, with a total of 33 genera and 53 species (17 genera and 38 species of planktonic foraminifera and 16 genera and 15 species from benthic foraminifera), which led to the identification of six biozones spanning the middle Campanian to late Maastrichtian. A detailed paleontological study and biostratigraphic zonation of these sequences has been carried out in four surface sections. This study shows that there are two different facies in the Moghan area, based on the faunal content. A deep open marine condition exists in the Molok, Selenchai and Nasirkandi sections. In these sections, Upper Cretaceous sequences have diverse planktonic foraminiferal species including the Globotruncana ventricosa (middle to late Campanian), Globotruncanella havanensis (late Campanian), Globotruncana aegyptiaca (latest Campanian), Gansserina gansseri (latest Campanian to early Maastrichtian), Contusotruncana contusa- Racemiguembelina fructicosa (early to late Maastrichtian) and Abathomphalus mayaroensis (late Maastrichtian) zones. This deep open marine setting grades laterally into shallower marine condition dominated by large benthic foraminifera such as Orbitoides media, Orbitoides gruenbachensis, Orbitoides cf. apiculata, Lepidorbitoides minor, Pseudosiderolites sp., Siderolites praecalcitrapoides, Siderolites aff. calcitrapoides and Siderolites calcitrapoides. This facies is mainly recorded in the Hovay section. A detailed biostratigraphic zonation scheme is presented for the studied sections and correlated with the results of other studies in the Tethyan realm. This is the first biozonation scheme for Upper Cretaceous sequences of the Moghan area that can be used as a basis for ongoing studies in this area and other parts of Tethys basin.

  8. Holocene paleoclimatic and paleohydrological changesin the Sárrét basin, NW Hungary

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    Pál Sümegi


    Full Text Available According to detailed sedimentological and paleontological analyses carried out on samples taken from the Sárrét–Nádasdladány core-profile, a complete environmental history of a neotectonic depression was drawn. The sequence is composed of fluvial-lacustrine and marshland deposits which started to accumulate during the Late Glacial and culminated at the beginning of the Holocene. The highly characteristic changes in the biofacies were linked to changes in the lithofacies within this sequence. A transition in the dominance of moving water species, observable initially in lacustrine species preferring well-lit, well-oxygenated conditions was observed. Eventually, the littoral and eutrophic lacustrine species, as well as marsh-dwellers, became dominant in the profile, marking the emergence of uniform peat land in the Sárrét Basin.

  9. A relict trematosauroid (Amphibia: Temnospondyli) from the Middle Jurassic of the Junggar Basin (NW China) (United States)

    Maisch, Michael W.; Matzke, Andreas T.; Sun, Ge


    A temnospondyl ilium from the uppermost Toutunhe Formation (Middle Jurassic, Callovian) of the southern Junggar Basin is described. Among the known temnospondyls it is very unusual in morphology because of its very long and slender shaft. It compares closely only to the ilium of one of the latest known trematosaurids from the Ladinian of southern Germany. The Toutunhe Formation has also yielded vertebrae and skull fragments of temnospondyls which belong to the brachyopid Gobiops from the Upper Jurassic of Mongolia. Brachyopoid ilia do not, however, display a morphology similar to that of the new specimen. It is therefore concluded that this specimen represents a second taxon of temnospondyl from the Toutunhe Formation, which probably represents the latest surviving trematosauroid. The Trematosauroidea, which was hitherto exclusively known from the Lower to early Upper Triassic, therefore joins the Brachyopoidea and possibly the Capitosauroidea as another group of temnospondyls which survived the end-Triassic mass extinction.

  10. 100-kyr fluvial fill terrace cycles since the Middle Pleistocene in the southern Central Andes, Toro Basin, NW Argentina (United States)

    Tofelde, Stefanie; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Savi, Sara; Pingel, Heiko; Wickert, Andrew D.; Wittmann, Hella; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Strecker, Manfred R.


    Fluvial fill terraces in intermontane basins are valuable sedimentary and geomorphic archives that record tectonic and/or climate- driven changes of river networks and their adjacent hillslopes. However, the rarely complete preservation of such geomorphic features, often combined with large distances from sediment source areas, complicates the identification of causal links between tectonic/climatic forcing mechanisms and landscape response, especially over timescales of 105 to 106 years. The intermontane Quebrada del Toro Basin in the Eastern Cordillera of NW Argentina contains at least five fluvial terrace-surface remnants that have been sculpted into a succession of several-hundred-meter-thick Quaternary gravel conglomerate. These terraces can be followed over several tens of kilometers and are located in the higher part of the basin, close to the sediment source areas. In this study, we determined the onset of multiple river incision phases by dating the abandonment of the three most extensive and best preserved terrace surfaces with nine cosmogenic 10Be-depth profiles. The timing of terrace-gravel deposition is based on four cosmogenic 26Al/10Be burial ages and U-Pb zircon age estimates of three intercalated volcanic ashes in the conglomeratic fill. The 10Be depth profile ages suggest a successive abandonment of these terrace surfaces with a 100-kyr-cyclicity between 487 ± 34 ka and 75 ± 7 ka. Depositional ages of the conglomerates, determined by 26Al/10Be burial samples and U-Pb zircon ages, range from 936 ± 170 ka to 18 ± 141ka. They show a clear overlap with the terrace-surface abandonment ages and thus indicate the existence of multiple cut-and-fill cycles. Although the initial onset of aggradation of the Quaternary gravel conglomerate at ˜1 Ma and the overall net fluvial incision since ˜0.5 Ma can be linked to tectonic processes affecting the narrow basin outlet, the superimposed 100-kyr-cycles of aggradation and incision are best explained by

  11. Initial assessment of public perception and acceptance of Geothermal Energy applications in Çanakkale, NW Turkey. (United States)

    Sedat Çetiner, Ziya; Çekiç, Osman; Ertekin, Can; Bakırcı, Mesut


    Growing need of energy in global scale has resulted in increasing number of research and development of renewable energy technologies. Turkey, being very rich in the renewable energy resources, has recently paid special attention to accelerate utilization of these resources to reduce the carbon based energy cost. Among these, Geothermal Energy resources in the country, mainly utilized in district heating and balneological applications, has been shifted toward harvesting electric energy in the shed of recent incentives. While these developments are happening at the policy level, the knowledge and the perception of the public is important to shape the future policies and acceptance of such resources in daily life. In light of these developments, the aim of this study is to identify and analyze the public awareness and acceptance mechanisms for the successful deployment of future and ongoing geothermal investments in Çanakkale region of the Biga Peninsula using geological, social and economic constraints in a well-defined questionnaire. The study employed a mixed method to explore the public perception. Mixed method studies involve qualitative and quantitative techniques and intends to explore an issue in-depth. Thus a sequential explanatory design was used to gather the public's perception. Exploratory design involves a qualitative study followed by a design of a quantitative survey and analysis. The researchers, firs, interviewed 24 college students about their knowledge and perceptions of geothermal resources using a semi-structured interview protocol. The protocol comprised of 8 open ended questions. With the help of the literature and the qualitative survey results, an item database with 51 questions were constructed. The initial survey and the items then were sent to 5 experts. Following the expert review, the survey was given its final form and the item numbers were dropped to 34. Then this survey was applied to a group of 100 college students. The survey also

  12. Biometry of the fishes Barbus plebejus and Barbus capito from Coruh Basin, Turkey. (United States)

    Solak, Kemal; Alas, Ali; Yilmaz, Muhittin; Oktener, Ahmet


    Metric and meristic characters are important to identify fish species and their habitat peculiarities. There are many species that belong to the fish genus Barbus, which is found in tropical and extratropical regions, but there are few studies covering the Coruh basin. Two subspecies of Barbus were found in the Coruh River system of Eastern Anatolia, Turkey: Barbus plebejus escherichi and Barbus capito capito. We collected specimens in seven localities for measurement. The number of vertebra were determined radiographically. Some specimens of B. capito capito have a sharper snout in the segments of Coruh where the water flows faster, suggesting a modification related to current. The biometric measurements vary geographically and could be related to abiotic and biotic factors in the habitat.

  13. Biometry of the fishes Barbus plebejus and Barbus capito from Coruh Basin, Turkey

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    Kemal Solak


    Full Text Available Metric and meristic characters are important to identify fish species and their habitat peculiarities. There are many species that belong to the fish genus Barbus, which is found in tropical and extratropical regions, but there are few studies covering the Coruh basin. Two subspecies of Barbus were found in the Coruh River system of Eastern Anatolia, Turkey: Barbus plebejus escherichi and Barbus capito capito. We collected specimens in seven localities for measurement. The number of vertebra were determined radiographically. Some specimens of B. capito capito have a sharper snout in the segments of Coruh where the water flows faster, suggesting a modification related to current. The biometric measurements vary geographically and could be related to abiotic and biotic factors in the habitat. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 159-165. Epub 2009 June 30.

  14. Ordovician graptolites from the basal part of the Palaeozoic transgressive sequence in the Karadere area, Zonguldak Terrane, NW Turkey

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    M. Cemal Göncüoglu


    Full Text Available The Karadere area to the east of Safranbolu in NW Anatolia is one of the very few localities in Turkey where the contact between the Cadomian basement and the Lower Palaeozoic transgressive succession is well exposed. The Ordovician graptolite Rhabdinopora flabelliformis (Eichwald ssp. was found in the basal part of the Bakacak Formation, indicating an Early to early Late Tremadocian age for the beginning of the Palaeozoic transgression in the Zonguldak terrane. A few metres above this occurrence, another horizon contains Paradelograptus cf. antiquus (T. S. Hall, which mainly ranges into the Late Tremadocian. Higher up in the Ordovician succession, a new graptolite bed confirms an early Darriwilian (Dw1 age for the middle part of the Karadere Formation with the occurrence of the biozonal index Levisograptus austrodentatus (Harris & Keble and the first record of Tetragraptus cor (Strandmark in the area. The palaeobiogeographic distribution of these Karadere fossils is in agreement with a peri-Gondwanan affinity of the Zonguldak Terrane of the Pontides, NW Anatolia, during the Early–Middle Ordovician.

  15. Ancient plant remains with special reference to buckthorn, Frangula alnus Mill., pyrenes from Dascyleum, Balıkesir, NW Turkey

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    Emel Oybak Dönmez


    Full Text Available Carbonized plant remains recovered from the ancient city Dascyleum (Daskyleion in the province of Balıkesir in northwestern Turkey provide an outline of several phases of plant use in archaic, Hellenistic, and medieval times. At the study site, various crop plant remains of Near Eastern agriculture, including cereals (barley, Hordeum vulgare L. and bread/durum/rivet wheat, Triticum aestivum L. / T. durum Desf. / T. turgidum L. and pulses [bitter vetch, Vicia ervilia (L. Willd.; grass pea, Lathyrus sativus L. / L. cicera L.; fava bean, V. faba L.; and chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.] were found. Drupaceous fruits and pyrenes of buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. were also found, probably representing dyes and/or medicines used by the inhabitants of the mound. Archaeometrical analyses of the ancient buckthorn pyrenes by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA provide chemical evidence for traces of ancient mordants remaining until the present day. Some of the pulse seed remains retrieved from the medieval layers at the study site were found to have been infested by bruchid beetles (Bruchidae.


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    Cahit HELVACI


    Full Text Available The geometry, stratigraphy, tectonics and volcanic components of the borate bearing Neogene basins in western Anatolia offer some important insights into on the relationship between basin evolution, borate formation and mode of extension in western Anatolia. Some of the borate deposits in NE-SW trending basins developed along the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone (İBTZ (e.g. Bigadiç, Sultançayır and Kestelek basins, and other deposits in the NE-SW trending basins which occur on the northern side of the Menderes Core Complex (MCC are the Selendi and Emet basins. The Kırka borate deposit occurs further to the east and is located in a completely different geological setting and volcanostratigraphic succession. Boron is widely distributed; including in soil and water, plants and animals. The element boron does not exist freely by itself in nature, but rather it occurs in combination with oxygen and other elements in salts, commonly known as borates. Approximately 280 boron-bearing minerals have been identified, the most common being sodium, calcium and magnesium salts. Four main continental metallogenic borate provinces are recognized at a global scale. They are located in Anatolia (Turkey, California (USA, Central Andes (South America and Tibet (Central Asia. The origin of borate deposits is related to Cenozoic volcanism, thermal spring activity, closed basins and arid climate. Borax is the major commercial source of boron, with major supplies coming from Turkey, USA and Argentina. Colemanite is the main calcium borate and large scale production is restricted to Turkey. Datolite and szaibelyite are confined to Russia and Chinese sources. Four Main borax (tincal deposits are present in Anatolia (Kırka, California (Boron, and two in the Andes (Tincalayu and Loma Blanca. Kırka, Boron and Loma Blanca have similarities with regard to their chemical and mineralogical composition of the borate minerals. Colemanite deposits with/without probertite and

  17. Gas geochemistry and methane emission from Dushanzi mud volcanoes in the southern Junggar Basin, NW China (United States)

    Zheng, Guodong; Ma, Xiangxian; Guo, Zhengfu; Hilton, David R.; Xu, Wang; Liang, Shouyun; Fan, Qiaohui; Chen, Wenxing


    There are many mud volcanoes in the southern margin of the Junggar Basin, northwest China, of which the Dushanzi area is the most typical and active one, emitting large amount of greenhouse gases associated with water and mud. The emitted gas is dominated by methane (average 90.1%), together with other gases, such as ethane (4.84-5.46%), propane (0.06-0.90%), CO2 (0.67-1.0%), and N2 (2.8-3.3%). The carbon (δ13C1) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic ratios of methane are in the ranges of -40.6‰ to -45.0‰ and -221‰ to -249‰, respectively, whereas carbon isotope ratios of ethane (δ13C2) are -25.2‰ to -27.6‰. Based on δ13C values, the released gas is characterized as a thermogenic coal-type and possibly originated from the middle-low Jurassic coal-bearing sequences according to the gas-source correlation and regional geology. Helium isotopes show a crustal source. The methane flux of Dushanzi mud volcanoes from both macro-seepage (craters/vents) and micro-seepage (ground soil exhalation) ranged over the orders of magnitude, from 0.4-2.7 kg d-1 and 4950 mg m-2 d-1 on average, respectively. Positive CH4 fluxes from dry soil were widespread throughout the investigated areas. The total CH4 emission from Dushanzi mud volcanoes is estimated to be at least 22.6 tons a-1, of which about 89% is from micro-seepage surrounding the mud volcano vents.

  18. Heavy metal concentrations and the variations of foraminifers in the Silivri-Kumbagi area (NW Marmara Sea, Turkey) (United States)

    Ünal Yümün, Zeki; Murat Kılıç, Ali; Önce, Melike


    In the area between Silivri (İstanbul) and Kumbagi (Tekirdag), NW of Marmara Sea, there is a considerable extent in marine pollution from industrial and settlements wastes, sea transports, and agricultural activities. The most important one of these pollutions is the spread of heavy metals. Our research investigated sediments in order to determine whether heavy minerals affected biota such as recent foraminifers, or not. Our investigation area starts from Marmara Ereglisi, in the east, continues to Tekirdag and Kumbagi, in the west. 10 sea-water samples, 10 sediment-core samples and one 10 m core-drilling sample, taken 250 m off-shore from coast line. As a result of this sampling geochemical analysis of the bottom-mud and water samples were done and the ratio of heavy metals and other contaminants determined. For heavy metal analyses, concentration analysis of 12 heavy metals (Cd, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, As, and Hg) has been conducted, as ppm, in sediment samples taken from the levels in which foraminifers are collected. Perpendicular (spatial) heavy metal concentration changes have been determined with off-shore drilling samples and horizontal changes (geochronological) have been determined with the help of core samples. Especially, it has been understood that heavy metal concentrations in recent sediments are higher compared to the past. In this research the samples have been taken from each 10 cm. of core and drilling samples to collect the benthic foraminifers. In this context, 15 grams of dry sediment sample taken from each level, have been washed in 125 μm sieves in order to determine its benthic foraminifer content. Benthic foraminifera from these samples have been identified taxonomically and their morphological differentiation has been determined after taking SEM photos. As a result of this study, the foraminifera types of "Adelosinacliarensis, Adelosinamediteranensis, Adelosinapulchella, Ammonia compacta, Ammonia parkinsonia, Ammonia tepida

  19. Soil erosion determinations using 137Cs technique in the agricultural regions of Gediz Basin, Western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sac, M.; Ymurtaci, E.; Yener, G.; Ugur, A.; Ozden, B.; Camgoz, B.


    Gediz basin is one of the regions where intense agricultural activities take place in Western Turkey. Erosion and soil degradation has long been causing serious problems to cultivated fields in the basin. This work describes the application of two different 137 Cs models for estimating soil erosion rates in cultivated sites of the region. Soil samples were collected from five distinct cultivated regions subject to soil erosion. The variations of 137 Cs concentrations with depth in soil profiles were investigated. Soil loss rates were calculated from 137 Cs inventories of the samples using both Proportional Model (PM) and Simplified Mass Balance Model (SMBM). When Proportional Model was used, erosion and deposition rates varied from -15 to -28 t ha -1 y -1 and from +5 to +41 t ha ha -1 y -1 , respectively, they varied from -16 to -33 t ha -1 y -1 and from +5 to +55 t ha -1 y -1 with Simplified Mass Balance Model. A good agreement was observed between the results of two models up to 30 t ha -1 y -1 soil loss and gain in the study area. Ulukent, a small representative agricultural field, was selected to compare the present data of 137 Cs techniques with the results obtained by Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) applied in the area before. (authors)

  20. An assessment of water quality in the Coruh Basin (Turkey) using multivariate statistical techniques. (United States)

    Bilgin, Ayla


    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of 24 water parameters, measured semi-annually between 2011 and 2013 in Coruh Basin (Turkey), based on the quality of the water. The study utilised analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) methods. The water-quality data was obtained from a total of four sites by the 26th Regional Directorate of the State Hydraulic Works (DSI). ANOVA was carried out to identify the differences between the parameters at the different measuring sites. The variables were classified using factor analysis, and at the end of the ANOVA test, it was established that there was a statistically significant difference between the downstream and upstream waste waters released by the Black Sea copper companies and between the Murgul and Borcka Dams, in terms of water quality, while no statistically significant difference was observed between the Murgul and Borcka Dams. It was determined through factor analysis that five factors explained 81.3% of the total variance. It was concluded that domestic, industrial and agricultural activities, in combination with physicochemical properties, were factors affecting the quality of the water in the Coruh Basin.

  1. Modeling of ECBM recovery from Amasra coalbed in Zonguldak Basin, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinayuc, Caglar [Petroleum Research Center, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)]|[Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, London (United Kingdom); Guemrah, Fevzi [Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)]|[Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)


    Zonguldak coal basin is the only productive hard coal basin of Turkey. The eastern part of the basin is called as Bartin-Amasra District, which has deeper coal seams. The depth and difficulty of mining these coal seams make this district an important candidate for coalbed methane (CBM) recovery. However, there is not enough reservoir data for modeling purposes. In this study, the lithologic information collected for coal mining industry was used to determine the correlations and the continuity of the coal seams. The lithologic information was examined and the depths of the coal seams and the locations of the exploration boreholes were used to perform a reliable correlation using a new method. As a result of the correlation study, 63 continuous coal layers were found. A statistical reserve estimation of each coal layer for methane was made by using Monte Carlo simulation method. The initial methane in place found in the coal layers both in free and adsorbed states were estimated using probabilistic simulations resulted in possible reserve (P10) of 2.07 billion m{sup 3}, probable reserve (P50) of 1.35 billion m{sup 3} and proven reserves (P90) of 0.86 billion m{sup 3}. Among the determined continuous coal layers, coal layer 26 was selected for a preliminary investigation of the applicability of enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery and CO{sub 2} storage. The scarcity of coal seam reservoir data required a sensitivity study for the effects of reservoir parameters on operational performance indicators. The effects of adsorption, coal density, permeability, cleat porosity and permeability anisotropy parameters were examined using the Computer Modeling Group's (CMG) GEM module. (author)

  2. Relationships between subduction and extension in the Aegean region: evidence from granite plutons of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey (United States)

    Black, K. N.; Catlos, E. J.; Oyman, T.; Demirbilek, M.


    The Biga Peninsula is a tectonically complex region in western Turkey characterized by Tethyan sutures overprinted by extensional grabens, active fault strands of the North Anatolian Shear Zone, and numerous granitoid plutons. Two end-member models for the initiation of extension in the Biga region have been proposed, both of which focus on the role of igneous assemblages. The first model involves the emplacement of a hot mantle plume that thins and weakens crust and isostatic doming drives extension. The second has regional tensional stresses as the driving force, and magmatism is a consequence of decompression. Here we focus on understanding the timing and geochemical evolution of three granitoid plutons located in and just south of the Biga Peninsula to understand which end-member model could be applicable to the Aegean region. The Kestanbolu pluton is located north of the proposed Vardar Suture Zone, whereas the Eybek and Kozak plutons are north of the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone. These sutures may mark regions of the closure of branches of the NeoTethyan Ocean. To better understand their sources and tectonic evolution, we acquired geochemical and geochronological data, and cathodoluminescence (CL) images of the rocks. Previously reported ages of the plutons range from Late Eocene to Middle Miocene. Here we acquired in situ (in thin section) ion microprobe U-Pb ages of zircon grains found in a range of textural relationships. Ages from the Kozak pluton range from 37.8±5.4 Ma to 10.3±2.4 Ma (238U/206Pb, ±1σ) with two ages from a single grain of 287±26 Ma and 257±18 Ma. We also found Oligocene to Late Miocene zircon grains in the Kestanbolu pluton, whereas zircons from the Eybek pluton range from 34.3±4.8 Ma to 21.2±1.7 Ma. Samples collected from the Kozak and Eybek plutons are magnesian, calc-alkalic, and metaluminous, whereas the Kestanbolu rocks are magnesian, alkali-calcic, and metaluminous with one ferroan sample and one peraluminous sample. Trace

  3. Kinetics of oil-cracking for different types of marine oils from Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China

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    Anlai Ma


    Full Text Available The C1–C5 gas and carbon isotope ratios generated during the cracking of heavy, normal and high-waxy marine oils from Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China, using a closed-gold tube system under high pressure were presented. The three types of oil tested resulted in a similar gas-generation process. The C2–C5 range initially increased its yield with the application of pyrolysis temperature and thereafter decreased, while the C1 yield increased with the same application. High-waxy oil had the highest C1–C5 yield of 510 mg/goil, whereas heavy oil had the lowest C1–C5 yield of 316 mg/goil. The δ13C1 value was low at first, but gradually became higher as the pyrolysis temperature increased. However, the δ13C2 and δ13C3 values gradually became higher when the temperature was greater than 420 °C. The kinetic parameters of the C1–C5 gas generation for the different types of marine oils were then calculated using KINETIC software. This calculation resulted in a frequency factor of about 1.78 × 1014 s−1, while the distribution of the activation energy of the C1–C5 gas mass generated was relatively narrow with a range from 56 to 66 kcal/mol. Among the three types of oil tested, heavy oil had the widest activation energy distribution and the lowest major frequency of activation energy. The maximum temperature at which oil could be preserved as a separate oil phase varied from about 178 °C at a slow geological heating rate to 206 °C at a fast geological heating rate. This result is based on the kinetic parameters determined and in combination with the fractional conversion (C of oil to gas. Testing conducted at the volatile Middle Cambrian reservoir of well Zhongshen 1 in the Tazhong Uplift strongly supported this conclusion.

  4. Interpolation Approaches for Characterizing Spatial Variability of Soil Properties in Tuz Lake Basin of Turkey (United States)

    Gorji, Taha; Sertel, Elif; Tanik, Aysegul


    Soil management is an essential concern in protecting soil properties, in enhancing appropriate soil quality for plant growth and agricultural productivity, and in preventing soil erosion. Soil scientists and decision makers require accurate and well-distributed spatially continuous soil data across a region for risk assessment and for effectively monitoring and managing soils. Recently, spatial interpolation approaches have been utilized in various disciplines including soil sciences for analysing, predicting and mapping distribution and surface modelling of environmental factors such as soil properties. The study area selected in this research is Tuz Lake Basin in Turkey bearing ecological and economic importance. Fertile soil plays a significant role in agricultural activities, which is one of the main industries having great impact on economy of the region. Loss of trees and bushes due to intense agricultural activities in some parts of the basin lead to soil erosion. Besides, soil salinization due to both human-induced activities and natural factors has exacerbated its condition regarding agricultural land development. This study aims to compare capability of Local Polynomial Interpolation (LPI) and Radial Basis Functions (RBF) as two interpolation methods for mapping spatial pattern of soil properties including organic matter, phosphorus, lime and boron. Both LPI and RBF methods demonstrated promising results for predicting lime, organic matter, phosphorous and boron. Soil samples collected in the field were used for interpolation analysis in which approximately 80% of data was used for interpolation modelling whereas the remaining for validation of the predicted results. Relationship between validation points and their corresponding estimated values in the same location is examined by conducting linear regression analysis. Eight prediction maps generated from two different interpolation methods for soil organic matter, phosphorus, lime and boron parameters

  5. Modelling of ECBM recovery from Amasra coalbed in Zonguldak Basin, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinayuc, C. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Gumrah, F. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    This paper discussed an enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery project at the Zonguldak Coal Basin in Turkey. The study examined the site's lithology, the depths of the coal seams, and simulated various positions for potential wells. Coalbed methane deposits were estimated using a continuity-based correlation study combined with probabilistic calculations. The study defined 63 coal layers of varying depths and thicknesses. The initial methane in place in both free and absorbed states was estimated using probabilistic calculations. Probable reserves of 1352 mm scm were estimated. Nearly 10 per cent of the total gas in place was located within cleats as free gas. Simulations also demonstrated that coal layer 26 had more initial gas in place during methane production and also provided a location for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) for CBM recovery processes. Results showed that cumulative methane production was enhanced with CO{sub 2} injection by 23 per cent. It was concluded that an on-site ECBM recovery project is economically feasible, as a nearby power plant could be used as a source of CO{sub 2}. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs.

  6. Assessment of big floods in the Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey. (United States)

    Yüksek, Ömer; Kankal, Murat; Üçüncü, Osman


    In this study, general knowledge and some details of the floods in Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey are presented. Brief hydro-meteorological analysis of selected nine floods and detailed analysis of the greatest flood are given. In the studied area, 51 big floods have taken place between 1955-2005 years, causing 258 deaths and nearly US $500,000,000 of damage. Most of the floods have occurred in June, July and August. It is concluded that especially for the rainstorms that have caused significantly damages, the return periods of the rainfall heights and resultant flood discharges have gone up to 250 and 500 years, respectively. A general agreement is observed between the return periods of rains and resultant floods. It is concluded that there has been no significant climate change to cause increases in flood harms. The most important human factors to increase the damage are determined as wrong and illegal land use, deforestation and wrong urbanization and settlement, psychological and technical factors. Some structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages are also included in the paper. Structural measures include dykes and flood levees. Main non-structural measures include flood warning system, modification of land use, watershed management and improvement, flood insurance, organization of flood management studies, coordination between related institutions and education of the people and informing of the stakeholders.

  7. Temporal-spatial reconstruction of the early Frasnian (Late Devonian) anoxia in NW Africa: new field data from the Ahnet Basin (Algeria) (United States)

    Lüning, S.; Wendt, J.; Belka, Z.; Kaufmann, B.


    Anoxic conditions were widespread in NW Africa during the early Frasnian (Late Devonian) that resulted in deposition of organic-rich shales and limestones with total organic carbon (TOC) values of up to 14%. Organic richness and thickness of these sediments vary laterally, and organic-rich vs. organic-poor facies boundaries are likely to have been diachronous. A precise temporal-spatial reconstruction of this anoxic phase in NW Africa is complicated because the organic matter in outcrops is largely oxidised and biostratigraphic resolution in boreholes is generally low due to the lack of recoverable conodonts. This contribution is based on eight outcrop sections at the margin of the central Algerian Ahnet Basin, where detailed spectral gamma-ray measurements were carried out using a handheld instrument. The pre-weathering organic richness in Frasnian outcrop sections is approximated using the characteristic uranium enrichment in the anoxic facies that, based on well studies, is positively correlated with the total organic carbon content. Conodont biostratigraphic results from these sections suggest that the uranium-enriched interval (the anoxic interval) at the basin margin is most common in the basal Frasnian conodont Biozones 1-2, confirming previous results from the Anti Atlas in Morocco. In three of the eight localities studied the basal Frasnian has not been deposited and the Frasnian here commences with distinctly younger uranium-enriched intervals, including Zones 4-11. Well data from the eastern Algerian Berkine Basin is interpreted to indicate a significantly longer anoxic phase there. Million-year-scale diachroneities of the Frasnian anoxia, therefore, clearly exist across the North Africa shelf. It is assumed that the palaeorelief might have been a major factor in controlling the onset, duration, and intensity of anoxia in the region.

  8. Stable isotope (δ13Cker, δ13Ccarb, δ18Ocarb distribution along a Cambrian outcrop section in the eastern Tarim Basin, NW China and its geochemical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Liu


    Full Text Available This study investigated the geochemical features of the lower Paleozoic strata of Yaerdang Mountain outcrop along with the core samples from well TD2∈ in the eastern Tarim Basin, NW China. The total organic carbon abundance, hydrocarbon-generating precursor biospecies, and stable isotope ratios of organics and carbonate (δ13Cker, δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb were comprehensively studied for their possible correlative constraints during sedimentary evolution. The results revealed that the δ13Cker (VPDB of Cambrian kerogens along the outcrop section varied from −34.6‰ to −28.4‰, indicating an increasing tendency from the lower Cambrian to the upper Cambrian. This was on the whole accompanied by the variation in the δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb along the profile, which might be associated with the changes in the sea level and also in the compositional variation of benthic and planktonic biomass. The large variation in the stable carbon isotope ratios up to 6‰ along the outcrop section reflected the heterogeneity of the Cambrian source rocks from the eastern Tarim Basin. Hence, the 13C-enriched crude oils from well TD2∈ might have been derived from a localized stratum of Cambrian source rocks. The results from this study showed the possibility of multiple source kitchens in the Cambrian–lower Ordovician portion of Tarim Basin.

  9. Modeling the flexural evolution of the Amiran and Mesopotamian foreland basins of NW Zagros (Iran-Iraq) (United States)

    Saura, Eduard; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Casciello, Emilio; Parravano, Vanessa; Urruela, Aritz; Vergés, Jaume


    The evolution of the Amiran and Mesopotamian flexural basins of the Zagros belt is approached by coupled 2-D forward modeling of orogenic wedge formation, lithospheric flexural isostasy, and stream power erosion/transport/sedimentation. Thrust geometries and sequence of emplacement derived from geometric and kinematic models presented here are the inputs to our evolutionary model, constrained by basin geometry, sediment volume, and topography. Modeling results confirm that the Zagros flexural basins evolution is consistent with two stages of deformation: (1) the obduction stage involving the Kermanshah accretionary complex and a basement unit and (2) the collision stage, emplacing the Gaveh Rud and Sanandaj-Sirjan domains in the hinterland and forming a basement duplex in the outer part. Results provide quantitative insights into processes involved in mountain and basin building. The lithospheric equivalent elastic thickness (Te) changed from 20 km during the Amiran stage ( 90-50 Ma) to 55 km during the Mesopotamian subsidence stage (last 20 Myr). The Amiran basin results from flexure of the Arabian plate below the load of the Kermanshah cover and basement thrust sheets. During this stage, material eroded in the inner parts was enough to fill the flexural trough. The Mesopotamian basin formed in front of the outermost basement units flexing the Arabian plate. During this latter stage, material eroded from the orogenic wedge was not enough to fill the Mesopotamian basin. An additional longitudinal sediment supply of up to 200 m/Myr is required to fill the flexural basin.

  10. New insights on the maturity distribution and shale gas potential of the Lower Saxony Basin, NW-Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, B.; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Energy and Mineral Resources Group (EMR); Di Primio, R. [Deutsches GeoForchungsZentrum (GFZ), Potsdam (Germany). Sektion 4.3 - Organische Geochemie; Berner, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)


    Due to its economic relevance the Lower Saxony Basin has been intensively investigated. Consequently it can be regarded as a well-known example of a sedimentary basin that experienced strong inversion. Oil and gas source rocks of economical importance comprise Upper Carboniferous coals as well as Jurassic (Toarcian/Posidonia Shale) and Cretaceous (Berriasian/Wealden) marls. Many basin modeling projects have addressed this area but until now the tectonic and maturation history as well as the petroleum system evolution has not been evaluated in a high-resolution 3D model. Therefore, a fully integrated 3D high-resolution numerical petroleum system model was developed incorporating the Lower Saxony Basin and major parts of the Pompeckj Block, and Muensterland Basin. The burial and maturation history has been reconstructed calibrated by large amounts of vitrinite reflectance and downhole temperature data enabling the output of erosion and maturity distribution maps of superior quality. (orig.)

  11. Petrology and petrogenesis of Mesoproterozoic lamproites from the Ramadugu field, NW margin of the Cuddapah basin, Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India (United States)

    Chalapathi Rao, N. V.; Kumar, Alok; Sahoo, Samarendra; Dongre, A. N.; Talukdar, Debojit


    Petrography, mineral chemistry, and major and trace element data are presented for the newly discovered Mesoproterozoic (1.33-1.43 Ga) lamproites from the Ramadugu field (RLF), at the NW margin of the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Cuddapah basin, in the Eastern Dharwar craton (EDC), southern India. RLF lamproites are emplaced as dykes, have a NW-SE trend and their petrography reveal the effects of low-temperature alteration. However, their textural features, mineralogy and geochemistry are closely similar to other well-characterised lamproites worldwide, including examples from the Eastern Dharwar craton, Leucite Hills, West Kimberley, Smoky Butte and Labrador. The RLF magmas have undergone varying degrees of olivine + clinopyroxene fractionation; yet their compatible and incompatible trace element concentrations are sufficiently high to signal a primitive character. Incompatible element ratios suggest limited contamination by continental crust. Geochemical evidence indicates the derivation of RLF magmas from metasomatised harzburgite within the garnet stability field. Rare earth element inversion modelling further highlights substantial involvement of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle in their genesis. The RLF lamproites are geochemically similar to the well-known extension-related ultrapotassic lavas from eastern Virunga and western Anatolia, and exclude an affinity with orogenic lamproites, such as those from the Mediterranean region. Bulk-rock geochemical models, recently developed to infer diamond potential, reveals that RLF lamproites are non-prospective. Lamproites of the RLF, together with those from the Krishna lamproite field and Cuddapah basin are interpreted as an expression of extensional events in the Eastern Dharwar craton possibly related to the break-up of the supercontinent of Columbia between 1.5 and 1.3 Ga.

  12. Assessment of the hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality of the Tarim River Basin in an extreme arid region, NW China. (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin


    The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca(2+)-HCO3(-) water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na(+)-Cl(-) water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B(3+), F(-), and SO4(2-) and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future.

  13. Dancing to the rhythms of the Pleistocene? Early Middle Paleolithic population dynamics in NW Iberia (Duero Basin and Cantabrian Region) (United States)

    Sánchez Yustos, Policarpo; Diez Martín, Fernando


    The Northwest of Iberia has yielded one of the most complete European Middle Paleolithic records. Despite this wealth of information, very little is known about population dynamics during this period. For that reason, the main concern of this paper is to provide socio-environmental models that may help explain Early Middle Paleolithic (EMP) population dynamics in NW Iberia, assessing to what extent they were shaped by climate forces. The archaeological record is analyzed on the basis of the heuristics of ecological models, already employed in the European Pleistocene record but never at a regional scale, in order to detect long-term changes in the composition of EMP populations, and the environmental, biological and sociocultural process influencing those changes. According to the models proposed, we have detected a long-term population dynamic between MIS 11 and MIS 6, characterized by low environmental stress, high biological productivity, interaction among populations and sociocultural complexity. Eventually, this population dynamic was broken due to an extreme climate phase in late MIS 6 that had a profound impact on populations and sociocultural structures. As a result, the Upper Pleistocene population of NW Iberia was concentrated in the Cantabrian region. This area became an isolated Neanderthal glacial refugium that hosted a population with different origins and fragile long-term demographic stability.

  14. Remote sensing and field analysis of the Palaeozoic structural style in NW Libya: The Qarqaf arch a paleo-transfer fault zone between the Ghadamis and Murzuq basins (United States)

    Chorowicz, Jean; Benissa, Mahmoud


    The N75°E-trending Qarqaf arch in NW Libya separates the Ghadamis and Murzuq basins. We have updated existing geological maps by remote sensing analysis and fieldwork in order to describe the tectonic style of the Palaeozoic units. We have evidenced a Bir Aishah anticline, a Wadi Ash Shabiyat graben and arrays of sedimentary and/or vein quartz dykes that relate to extension fractures or open faults some of them being filled up by on-going sedimentation. We show that continuous brittle syn-depositional deformation occurred throughout the Palaeozoic and progressively with time focused into major faults. The Qarqaf arch is a Palaeozoic right-lateral fault zone comprising main conjugate dextral N60°E and sinistral N90°E fault families. It also comprises ∼ N-striking extensional faults with related drag or fault-propagation folds. The Palaeozoic tectonic style is that of rift basins connected by a major transfer fault zone. The arch is as a consequence of strike-slip mechanism. In order to account for distinct folds affecting the Carboniferous strata we argue that partly consolidated silty Devonian and Carboniferous deposits slid in mass by places at the end of their deposition over tilting Devonian layers. Our model is alternative to the currently considered concept of major Variscan compressional orogen in this area. The regional so called 'Variscan' age disconformity actually is the Triassic early Neo-Tethyan event. These general concepts have potential impact on basin modelling of subsidence, uplift, thermal history and hydrocarbon migration. Any new structural geology study in this area is important for oil exploration.

  15. Superimposed basin formation during Neogene-Quaternary extensional tectonics in SW-Anatolia (Turkey): Insights from the kinematics of the Dinar Fault Zone (United States)

    Alçiçek, M. Cihat; Brogi, Andrea; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco


    In the extensional province of SW-Anatolia, the cross-cutting relationship between the NW- and NE-oriented Neogene and Quaternary basins is an ongoing debate in the understanding of the tectonic evolution of this area. In order to contribute to this issue, we carried out a structural and kinematic study along the seismogenic NW-trending Dinar Fault Zone (DFZ). This structure was initially controlled by the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the NE-oriented Neogene Baklan, Acıgöl and Burdur basins and, later, by the NW-oriented Quaternary Dinar Basin. On the basis of > 1000 structural and kinematic data, in conjunction with basin stratigraphy, the DFZ can be divided into three almost parallel and continuous bands, that are: (a) the Hangingwall where Quaternary sediments are deformed by normal faults with mechanical striations; (b) the Inner Zone, corresponding to the present Dinar fault scarp, where NW-trending normal faults with mechanical striations are dominant, and (c) the Outer Zone, located in the footwall of the structure comprising the area between the fault scarp and undeformed bedrock, where faults exhibit variable orientation and kinematics, from strike-slip to normal dip-slip. These kinematics are mainly indicated by calcite shear veins and superimposed mechanical striations, respectively. This suggests that the DFZ changed kinematics over time, i.e., the DFZ initiated as dominant dextral strike-slip to oblique-slip fault system and continued with a dominant normal movement. Therefore, we hypothesize that the NW-trending DFZ was initially a transfer zone during the late Miocene-Pliocene, coeval to the sedimentary and structural evolution of the NE-trending Baklan, Acigöl and Burdur basins. During the Quaternary the DFZ, representing an already weakened crustal sector, played the role of a normal fault system providing the accommodation space for the Quaternary Dinar Basin. Hydrothermal circulation and volcanism at NE-/NW-trending faults

  16. Paleogene magnetic isochrons and palaeo-propagators in the Arabian and Eastern Somali basins, NW Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.; Dyment, J.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Royer, J.-Y.; Srinivas, K.; Yatheesh, V.

    of the analytical signal computed from the magnetic anomaly to identify and precisely locate the young and old edges of magnetic chrons in both basins is used. In addition to the major, well-defined anomalies, correlatable second-order features of the magnetic...

  17. Use of Landsat Land Surface Temperature and Vegetation Indices for Monitoring Drought in the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Orhan


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate multitemporal land surface temperature (LST changes by using satellite remote sensing data. The study included a real-time field work performed during the overpass of Landsat-5 satellite on 21/08/2011 over Salt Lake, Turkey. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI, vegetation condition index (VCI, and temperature vegetation index (TVX were used for evaluating drought impact over the region between 1984 and 2011. In the image processing step, geometric and radiometric correction procedures were conducted to make satellite remote sensing data comparable with in situ measurements carried out using thermal infrared thermometer supported by hand-held GPS. The results showed that real-time ground and satellite remote sensing data were in good agreement with correlation coefficient (R2 values of 0.90. The remotely sensed and treated satellite images and resulting thematic indices maps showed that dramatic land surface temperature changes occurred (about 2∘C in the Salt Lake Basin area during the 28-year period (1984–2011. Analysis of air temperature data also showed increases at a rate of 1.5–2∘C during the same period. Intensification of irrigated agriculture particularly in the southern basin was also detected. The use of water supplies, especially groundwater, should be controlled considering particularly summer drought impacts on the basin.

  18. Sedimentary Environment and Geochemical Characteristics of Source Rocks from Later Carboniferous and Middle Permian in Santanghu Basin, NW China (United States)

    Nan, Yun; Liu, Yiqun; Li, Zhexuan; Zhang, Qiao


    There is a long-term controversy on sedimentary environment of Late Carboniferous-Permian in Santanghu Basin. In this paper, we study on the geochemical characteristics of source rocks from Harjiawu Formation of Upper Carboniferous and Lucaogou Formation of Middle Permian in Santanghu Basin. The results show that the abundance and maturity of organic matter of source rocks in Harjiawu Formation are both high, which shows excellent source rocks. In contrast, the abundance of organic matter from source rocks in Lucaogou Formation is relatively low and the maturity of organic matter is between immature and mature, which suggests good-excellent source rocks. The organic geochemical characteristics indicate the freshwater lacustrine environment of Late Carboniferous, while Lucaogou Formation is the high salinity lacustrine environment. In addition, magmatic-hydrothermal activity may result in the water salinization of Permian.

  19. Size-differentiated REE characteristics and environmental significance of aeolian sediments in the Ili Basin of Xinjiang, NW China (United States)

    Chen, Xiuling; Song, Yougui; Li, Jinchan; Fang, Hong; Li, Zhizhong; Liu, Xiuming; Li, Yue; Orozbaev, Rustam


    Aeolian loess in the Ili Basin is an important geological archive for studying the changes in paleoclimate and sources of dust particles. Size-differentiated rare earth elements (REE) may help to distinguish potential dust sources. This study investigates the size-differentiated REE characteristics from three sites including the Zhaosu loess and the Kekdala desert sediments from the Ili Basin, and the Chaona loess from the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Our results show that the patterns of variation of the REE characteristics in different size fractions can act as improved source tracers for aeolian sediments. Moreover, the REE characteristics of the CLP due to the post-depositional chemical weathering. The REE characteristics of coarse fractions are effective tracers for tracking changes in proximal dust sources and regional boundary level circulations. Our study has implications for identifying the exact source(s) of the Ili loess, which is helpful to understand paleoclimate changes and westerly circulation patterns in Central Asia.

  20. Source Mechanisms of Recent Earthquakes occurred in the Fethiye-Rhodes Basin and Anaximander Seamounts (SW Turkey) (United States)

    Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay


    Understanding the active tectonics of southern Turkey involves integrating earthquake source parameters with the regional tectonics. In this respect, seismological studies have played important roles in deciphering tectonic deformations and existing stress accumulations in the region. This study is concerned with the source mechanism parameters and spatio-temporal finite-fault slip distributions of recent earthquakes occurred along the Pliny-Strabo Trench (PST), which constitutes the eastern part of the Hellenic subduction zone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea Region, and along the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey). The study area is located at the junction of the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs along which the African plate plunges northwards beneath the Aegean Sea and the Anatolian block. Bathymetry and topography including large-scale tectonic structures such as the Rhodes Basin, Anaximander Seamounts, the Florence Rise, the Isparta Angle, the Taurus Mountains, and Kyrenia Range also reflect the tectonic complexities in the region. In this study, we performed point-source inversions by using teleseismic long-period P- and SH- and broad-band P-waveforms recorded by the Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) and the Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN) stations. We obtained source mechanism parameters and finite-fault slip distributions of recent Fethiye-Rhodes earthquakes (Mw ≥ 5.0) by comparing the shapes and amplitudes of long period P- and SH-waveforms, recorded in the distance range of 30 - 90 degrees, with synthetic waveforms. We further obtained rupture histories of the earthquakes to determine the fault area (fault length and width), maximum displacement, rupture duration and stress drop. Inversion results exhibit that recent earthquakes show left-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms with relatively deeper focal depths (h > 40 km) consistent with tectonic characteristics of the region, for example, the June 10, 2012 Fethiye earthquake (Mw

  1. The ecology of freshwater bivalves in the Lake Sapanca basin, Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ercan, E.; Gaygusuz, Ö.; Tarkan, A. S.; Reichard, Martin; Smith, C.


    Roč. 37, č. 6 (2013), s. 730-738 ISSN 1300-0179 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Turkey * water quality * invasive species * age * growth Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2013

  2. Investigation of the deep structure of the Sivas Basin (innereast Anatolia, Turkey) with geophysical methods (United States)

    Onal, K. Mert; Buyuksarac, Aydin; Aydemir, Attila; Ates, Abdullah


    Sivas Basin is the easternmost and third largest basin of the Central Anatolian Basins. In this study, gravity, aeromagnetic and seismic data are used to investigate the deep structure of the Sivas Basin, together with the well seismic velocity data, geological observations from the surface and the borehole data of the Celalli-1 well. Basement depth is modeled three-dimensionally (3D) using the gravity anomalies, and 2D gravity and magnetic models were constructed along with a N-S trending profile. Densities of the rock samples were obtained from the distinct parts of the basin surface and in-situ susceptibilities were also measured and evaluated in comparison with the other geophysical and geological data. Additionally, seismic sections, in spite of their low resolution, were used to define the velocity variation in the basin in order to compare depth values and geological cross-section obtained from the modeling studies. Deepest parts of the basin (12-13 km), determined from the 3D model, are located below the settlement of Hafik and to the south of Zara towns. Geometry, extension and wideness of the basin, together with the thickness and lithologies of the sedimentary units are reasonably appropriate for further hydrocarbon exploration in the Sivas Basin that is still an unexplored area with the limited number of seismic lines and only one borehole.

  3. Geological evolution of Eocene Aǧrı Basin (Eastern Anatolia-Turkey): Preliminary results (United States)

    Fırat Demirkaya, Demirkan; Aksoy, Necmettin; Üner, Serkan


    Continental collision zones are sites of intense crustal deformation resulting in different geological processes such as crustal thickening, regional contraction, and volcanic activity. The East Anatolian Plateau emerges from the compression and following collision between the Eurasian and Arabian plates. Numerous basins were formed by this compressional tectonism, including the Pasinler, Muş, and Lake Van basins. The E-W trending Aǧrı Basin is located at north of the collision zone formed by compressional tectonism in Eocene and shaped by the volcanism that was active since Miocene. The basins fill initiates with Middle Eocene to Lower Miocene shallow marine deposits composing of reefal limestones, mudstones, and sandstones. Ongoing compressional regime and related regional uplift caused regression and latter transition from shallow marine to terrestrial environments in Middle Miocene took place. Marine units are unconformably overlain by Upper Miocene to Pliocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits. The Quaternary sedimentation is represented by alluvial fan deposits derived from the northern margin of the basin and young fluvial sediments. Volcanic and volcanoclastic products are frequently observed in Miocene to Recent basin deposits. Currently, E-W trending thrust faults, forming the Aǧrı Basin, continue to control the shape and depositional processes of the basin. Deformation of alluvial fans and channel shifting of the Murat and Seryan rivers which longitudinally passing the basin are the prominent geomorphological indicators of this tectonic activity.

  4. Intra-continental back-arc basin inversion and Late Carboniferous magmatism in Eastern Tianshan, NW China: Constraints from the Shaquanzi magmatic suite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Jiang


    Full Text Available The Yamansu belt, an important tectonic component of Eastern Tianshan Mountains, of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China hosts many Fe–(Cu deposit. In this study, we present new zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemical data of the volcanic rocks of Shaquanzi Formation and diorite intrusions in the Yamansu belt. The Shaquanzi Formation comprises mainly basalt, andesite/andesitic tuff, rhyolite and sub-volcanic diabase with local diorite intrusions. The volcanic rocks and diorites contain ca. 315–305 Ma and ca. 298 Ma zircons respectively. These rocks show calc-alkaline affinity with enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs, light rare-earth elements (LREEs, and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSEs in primitive mantle normalized multi-element diagrams, which resemble typical back-arc basin rocks. They show depleted mantle signature with εNd(t ranging from +3.1 to +5.6 for basalt; +2.1 to +4.7 for andesite; −0.2 to +1.5 for rhyolite and the εHf(t ranges from −0.1 to +13.0 for andesites; +5.8 to +10.7 for andesitic tuffs. We suggest that the Shaquanzi Formation basalt might have originated from a depleted, metasomatized lithospheric mantle source mixed with minor (3–5% subduction-derived materials, whereas the andesite and rhyolite could be fractional crystallization products of the basaltic magma. The Shaquanzi Formation volcanic rocks could have formed in an intra-continental back-arc basin setting, probably via the southward subduction of the Kangguer Ocean beneath the Middle Tianshan Massif. The Yamansu mineralization belt might have undergone a continental arc to back-arc basin transition during the Late Carboniferous and the intra-continental back-arc basin might have closed in the Early Permian, marked by the emplacement of dioritic magma in the Shaquanzi belt.

  5. An Early Permian epithermal gold system in the Tulasu Basin in North Xinjiang, NW China: Constraints from in situ oxygen-sulfur isotopes and geochronology (United States)

    Dong, Leilei; Wan, Bo; Deng, Chen; Cai, Keda; Xiao, Wenjiao


    The Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand gold deposits, being the largest gold deposits in the Chinese North Tianshan, NW China, are located ca. l0 km apart in the Tulasu Basin, and are hosted by the Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation. In situ LA-ICP-MS titanium analyses on quartz from the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits are broadly identical. Accordingly, the calculated ore-forming temperatures by Ti-in-quartz thermometer give average temperatures of 279 °C and 294 °C, respectively. Results of in situ SIMS analyses of oxygen and sulfur isotopes on quartz and pyrite from these two deposits are similar. Temperature-corrected fluids of the Axi deposit have δ18O values of 2.6-8.1‰ and δ34S values of 0.8-2.4‰, whereas the fluids of the Jingxi-Yelmand deposit have δ18O of 6.4-8.9‰ and δ34S of -0.4 to 4.0‰. The oxygen and sulfur isotopes from the two deposits indicate a magmatic origin. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of Aqialehe Formation sandstone provided a lower limit for the mineralization timing of the Axi deposit (288 Ma). In situ SIMS U-Pb analyses on entrapped zircon (297 Ma) and newly recognized 284.5 Ma columnar rhyolite implies that the Jingxi-Yelmand deposit formed in the Early Permian. Based on the magmatic affinity of the ore fluids, similar age and ore-formation temperatures, we propose that the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits comprise an epithermal gold system, which was driven by the same Permian magma in the Tulasu Basin. The ore geological features together with our new results indicate that the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits are intermediate and high sulfidation type epithermal deposits, respectively.

  6. The role of deuterium excess in determining the water salinisation mechanism: A case study of the arid Tarim River Basin, NW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe


    Understanding the water salinisation mechanism is the basis for regional salt management. Mineral dissolution, evaporation and transpiration are the main factors controlling natural water salinity in arid inland basins; however, the two are difficult to differentiate. Because deuterium excess decreases during evaporation and is unrelated to the isotopic composition of the initial water, it is a potential tool for determining the contribution of the evapoconcentration of a given water body using the relationship between deuterium excess and salinity rather than between δ 18 O (or δ 2 H) and salinity. In this paper, the relationship between the residual water fraction and deuterium excess was derived from the Rayleigh distillation equation. The contribution of evapoconcentration and mineral dissolution and/or transpiration for a given water body can be determined by comparing the residual water fraction and salinity between the initial water and the evapoconcentrated water. The extremely arid Tarim River Basin in NW China is taken as an example to demonstrate deuterium excess and salinity evolution from the source stream to river water, lake/reservoir water and groundwater. The results show that mineral dissolution contributes most of the salinity (67–77%) for Boston Lake and the Kongque and Tarim rivers relative to the source stream. Mineral dissolution and/or transpiration contribute greater salinity (73–99.6%) to the groundwater recharged by the river water in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River. The study provides a method for determining the salinisation mechanism and is important for salt movement and management.

  7. Mixed biogenic and hydrothermal quartz in Permian lacustrine shale of Santanghu Basin, NW China: implications for penecontemporaneous transformation of silica minerals (United States)

    Jiao, Xin; Liu, Yiqun; Yang, Wan; Zhou, Dingwu; Wang, Shuangshuang; Jin, Mengqi; Sun, Bin; Fan, Tingting


    The cycling of various isomorphs of authigenic silica minerals is a complex and long-term process. A special type of composite quartz (Qc) grains in tuffaceous shale of Permian Lucaogou Formation in the sediment-starved volcanically and hydrothermally active intracontinental lacustrine Santanghu rift basin (NW China) is studied in detail to demonstrate such processes. Samples from one well in the central basin were subject to petrographic, elemental chemical, and fluid inclusion analyses. About 200 Qc-bearing laminae are 0.1-2 mm and mainly 1 mm thick and intercalated within tuffaceous shale laminae. The Qc grains occur as framework grains and are dispersed in igneous feldspar-dominated matrix, suggesting episodic accumulation. The Qc grains are bedding-parallel, uniform in size (100 s µm), elongate, and radial in crystal pattern, suggesting a biogenic origin. Qc grains are composed of a core of anhedral microcrystalline quartz and an outer part of subhedral mega-quartz grains, whose edges are composed of small euhedral quartz crystals, indicating multiple episodic processes of recrystallization and overgrowth. Abundance of Al and Ti in quartz crystals and estimated temperature from fluid inclusions in Qc grains indicate that processes are related to hydrothermal fluids. Finally, the Qc grains are interpreted as original silica precipitation in microorganism (algae?) cysts, which were reworked by bottom currents and altered by hydrothermal fluids to recrystalize and overgrow during penecontemporaneous shallow burial. It is postulated that episodic volcanic and hydrothermal activities had changed lake water chemistry, temperature, and nutrient supply, resulting in variations in microorganic productivities and silica cycling. The transformation of authigenic silica from amorphous to well crystallized had occurred in a short time span during shallow burial.

  8. Multiphase Calcite Cementation and Fluids Evolution of a Deeply Buried Carbonate Reservoir in the Upper Ordovician Lianglitag Formation, Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China

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    Jiaqing Liu


    Full Text Available Oil and gas have been found in the Upper Ordovician Lianglitag Formation carbonates in the Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China. This study documents the origin of diagenetic fluids by using a combination of petrology, SIMS, fluid inclusion, and radiogenic isotope analysis. Six stages of calcite cements were revealed. C1-C2 formed in marine to early burial environments. C3 has relatively low δ18OVPDB values (−8.45‰ to −6.50‰ and likely has a meteoric origin. Meteoric water probably fluxed into aquifers during the Early Paleozoic and Late Paleozoic uplift. C4 has δ18OVPDB values typically 3‰ higher than those of C3, and probably formed during shallow burial. C5 displays relatively negative δ18OVPDB values (−8.26‰ to −5.12‰, and the moderate-to-high fluid-inclusion temperatures imply that it precipitated in burial environments. C6 shows homogenization temperatures (up to 200°C higher than the maximum burial and much lower salinities (<10.61 wt% NaCl, which may suggest that the fluid was deeply recycled meteoric water. The average 87Sr/86Sr ratios of fracture- and vug-filling calcite cements are much higher, indicative of incorporation of radiogenic Sr. Caves and fractures constitute the dominant reservoir spaces. A corresponding diagenesis-related reservoir evolution model was established that favors exploration and prediction.

  9. Organic petrology and geochemistry of the Carboniferous coal seams from the Central Asturian Coal Basin (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedad-Sanchez, Noe; Martinez, Luis; Izart, Alain; Elie, Marcel [UMR G2R/7566, Geologie et Gestion des Ressources Minerales et Energetiques, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy 1, BP-239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex 54506 (France); Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), C/ Francisco Pintado Fe, 26, Ap. Co., 73, Oviedo 33011 (Spain); Keravis, Didier [Institut des Sciences de la Terre (ISTO), CNRS-Universite d' Orleans, Batiment Geosciences, BP 6759, Orleans 45067 (France)


    This paper presents for the first time a petrological and geochemical study of coals from the Central Asturian Coal Basin (North Spain) of Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian), mainly of Moscovian, age. A paleoenvironmental approach was used, taking into account both petrographic and organic geochemical studies. Vitrinite reflectance (R{sub r}) ranges from 0.5% to 2.5%, which indicates a high volatile bituminous to semianthracite and anthracite coal rank. The coal samples selected for paleoenvironmental reconstruction are located inside the oil-gas-prone phase, corresponding to the interval between the onset of oil generation and first gas generation and efficient expulsion of oil. This phase is represented by coals that have retained their hydrocarbon potential and also preserved biomarker information. Paleodepositional reconstruction based on maceral and petrographic indices points to a swamp environment with vitrinite-rich coal facies and variable mineral matter content. The gelification index (GI) and groundwater influence index (GWI) indicate strong gelification and wet conditions. The biomarkers exhibit a high pristane/phytane ratio, suggesting an increase in this ratio from diagenetic processes, and a high diterpanes ratio. This, in turn, would seem to indicate a high swamp water table and a humid climate. The maximum point of coal accumulation occurred during the regressive part of the Late Moscovian sequence and in the most humid climate described for this period of time in the well-known coal basins of Europe and North America.

  10. Facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Upper Cretaceous sequences in the eastern Para-Tethys Basin, NW Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, M.; Safari, A.; Vaziri-Moghaddam, H.; Ghalavand, H.


    Upper Cretaceous mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sequences are among the most important targets for hydrocarbon exploration in the Moghan area, located in the eastern Para-Tethys Basin. Despite of their significance, little is known about their facies characteristics and depositional environments. Detailed facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of these sequences have been carried out in eight surface sections. Accordingly, four siliciclastic facies, eight carbonate facies and one volcanic facies have been recognized. Detailed facies descriptions and interpretations, together with the results of facies frequency analysis, standard facies models and Upper Cretaceous depositional models of Para-Tethys Basin, have been integrated and a non-rimmed carbonate platform is presented. This platform was affected by siliciclastic influx, in the form of coastal fan delta and submarine fans in the shallow- to deep-marine parts, respectively. This model is interpreted to be shallower in the central and northeastern parts of the Moghan area. Toward the southeast and southwest, this shallow platform turns into deep marine settings along steep slopes without remarkable marginal barriers. (Author)

  11. Biodiversity and conservation status of fish of Ceyhan River basin in Osmaniye, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Dağlı


    The conservation measures suggested in this river basin must include strict regulation and control over removal of sand, controlling pollution and minimizing the threats caused by the increasing number of exotic species.

  12. Major factors controlling fracture development in the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation tight oil reservoir, Junggar Basin, NW China (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhu, Deyu; Luo, Qun; Liu, Luofu; Liu, Dongdong; Yan, Lin; Zhang, Yunzhao


    Natural fractures in seven wells from the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar Basin were evaluated in light of regional structural evolution, tight reservoir geochemistry (including TOC and mineral composition), carbon and oxygen isotopes of calcite-filled fractures, and acoustic emission (AE). Factors controlling the development of natural fractures were analyzed using qualitative and/or semi-quantitative techniques, with results showing that tectonic factors are the primary control on fracture development in the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation of the Junggar Basin. Analyses of calcite, dolomite, and TOC show positive correlations with the number of fractures, while deltaic lithofacies appear to be the most favorable for fracture development. Mineral content was found to be a major control on tectonic fracture development, while TOC content and sedimentary facies mainly control bedding fractures. Carbon and oxygen isotopes vary greatly in calcite-filled fractures (δ13C ranges from 0.87‰ to 7.98‰, while δ18O ranges from -12.63‰ to -5.65‰), indicating that fracture development increases with intensified tectonic activity or enhanced diagenetic alteration. By analyzing the cross-cutting relationships of fractures in core, as well as four Kaiser Effect points in the acoustic emission curve, we observed four stages of tectonic fracture development. First-stage fractures are extensional, and were generated in the late Triassic, with calcite fracture fills formed between 36.51 °C and 56.89 °C. Second-stage fractures are shear fractures caused by extrusion stress from the southwest to the northeast, generated by the rapid uplift of the Tianshan in the Middle and Late Jurassic; calcite fracture fills formed between 62.91 °C and 69.88 °C. Third-stage fractures are NNW-trending shear fractures that resulted from north-south extrusion and thrusting in a foreland depression along the front of the Early Cretaceous Bogda Mountains. Calcite fracture

  13. Development of a geotechnical and geophysical database for seismic zonation of the Ankara Basin, Turkey (United States)

    Koçkar, Mustafa K.; Akgün, Haluk


    Engineering geological and geotechnical site characteristics were assessed and seismic hazard studies performed for the Upper Pliocene to Pleistocene fluvial and Quaternary alluvial and terrace deposits for a site west of Ankara, Turkey. Sediment conditions were determined and a soil profile was characterized by surface geophysical methods. These studies were integrated with existing in-situ characterization studies to create a seismic and geotechnical database for the site. A seismic zonation map of the site was then prepared. Site classification systems were assigned to account for site effects in relation to seismic hazard assessments. The consequences of the seismic hazards were investigated and recommendations were presented.

  14. New evidence for the catastrophic demise of a prehistoric settlement (the Lajia Ruins) in the Guanting Basin, upper Yellow River, NW China (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Huang, Chun Chang; Zheng, Zixing; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Yuzhu; Guo, Yongqiang; Zhou, Qiang


    The Lajia Ruins in the Guanting Basin, NW China, are a product of the prehistoric Qijia Culture. Like Pompeii, they are a rare example of an archaeological site preserved by a natural disaster and are therefore important in archaeology, anthropology and geology. However, the nature of the disaster(s) responsible for the destruction of the site remains controversial. Most studies have focused on an earthquake and a red clay layer directly overlying the site and a detailed stratigraphic study of the mid-Holocene sedimentary strata combined with other intervals of red clay deposition (hence possible disasters) is lacking. We identified a mid-Holocene paleosol sequence (the Shanglajia section) at the site which contains two layers of red clay, dated to 3950 a BP and 3500 a BP, intercalated within the mid-Holocene paleosol (S0). Subsequent multi-proxy analysis indicated that the characteristics of the two red clay layers resemble those of typical Tertiary red clay deposits and the modern gully deposit at the foot of the Great Red Hills, but are distinctly different from those of the slackwater deposits of the Yellow River and the mid-Holocene paleosol. Our results suggest that, at 3950 a BP and 3500 a BP, two large-scale rainstorm-induced mudflow events, originating from the gullies to the north, flooded the Lajia area on the second terrace of the Yellow River, devastating and burying the human settlements. We infer that the intensified erosion and mass wasting were caused by human activity; in addition, natural factors such as rainstorms and earthquakes, may also have played an important role in triggering catastrophic mudflow events in the Tertiary Red Clay deposits. Overall, our results provide further insights into prehistoric man-land relationships in this environmentally sensitive region which may have implications for modern land use in this region of China and elsewhere.

  15. Magnetic properties contribution to the identification and provenance of marine sediments: distal IRD in the Galicia Interior Basin (NW Spain) (United States)

    Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Rey, Daniel; Francisco Santos, Jose; Ribeiro, Sara; Bernabeu, Ana; Mohamed, Kais; Heslop, David; Rubio, Belén; Martins, Virginia


    This paper discusses the advantages of using a combined environmagnetic and geochemical approach to the provenance and characterization of distal IRDs occurring during the Last Glacial Period in core CI12PC3 from the Galicia Interior Basin (GIB). Six Heinrich layers (HL1-6) have been identified in the area in base to the detection of distinct populations of exotic magnetic mineral assemblages alien to the local/regional sedimentation environment. Their extension has been determined by Ca/Sr and Si/Sr ratios and their provenance by 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios and FORCs. The sedimentary expression of HL is characterized by the presence of distal Ice Rafted Detritus (IRD). Distal IRD magnetic signatures in the GIB consist of (i) an increase of one order of magnitude in the peak amplitude of magnetic susceptibility from background values, (ii) a general coarsening of the magnetic grain size in a mineral assemblage dominated by titano-magnetites, (iii) FORC distributions pushing towards the coarse MD or PSD component, and (iv) thermomagnetic curves depicting the occurrence of several magnetite phases. These four features are very different from the fine-grained biogenic magnetic assemblages characterized by the combination of lower MS and higher coercivity values that dominate the predominant mixtures of the non-interacting SSD and PSD components in the non-IRD influenced background sedimentation. Our results show that the last 70.000 yr of sedimentation in the GIB were controlled by the relative contribution of local detrital material derived from the Iberian Variscan Chain and IRD alien material from the iceberg melting during the Heinrich Events. They also show two main IRD provenance fields: Europe and Canada. And that the later is more important for for HL1, HL2, HL4 and HL5. FORCs analysis complemented the isotopic information and provided a very unique information, indicating that glacial flour may not always have the same provenance as IRD and that

  16. Ostracoda Assemblages and Palaeoenvironmental Characteristics of the Soma Formation (Late Miocene-Pliocene), İvrindi - NW Balıkesir, Turkey (United States)

    Darbas, Güldemin; Demircan, Huriye


    In the present study, a non-marine ostracods assemblage was defined from the Upper Miocene-Pliocene Soma Formation cropping out İvrindi (NW Balıkesir). The Soma Formation composed mainly of clayey limestone, marl, tuffite, sandstone and conglomerate in the study area. Fourteen of 22 samples collected from the measured section have ostracod fossils and six species belonging to five genera have been identified in the area. These ostracod species are Cyprideis torosa, Cyprideis pannonica, Heterocypris salina, Heterocypris sp, Ilyocypris sp and Limnocythere sp. In general, species richness, diversity and preservation of the ostracod assemblages were poor throughout the section. The brackish water species Cyprideis were dominantly found at the lower level of the section, while Ilyocypris species, which generally survive in river mouths and can also live in oligohaline environments as well as slightly brackish water, was detected at the middle and upper levels of the section. These fossil assemblages suggest that in the study area, the bottom sequences of the Soma Formation were deposited under brackish water environment and changed to limnic condition at the upper levels during late Miocene-Pliocene.

  17. Tectono-stratigraphical evolution of the Çankırı basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaymakci, N.


    The Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone (IAESZ) demarcates the former position of the northern Neotethys ocean. Along the IAESZ, the Rhodope-Pontide fragments and Taurides collided and amalgamated in the Early Tertiary, leaving behind a number of basins with a thick in-fill that was accumulated

  18. Tectono-stratigraphical evolution of the Çankırı Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaymakçi, N.


    The Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone (IAESZ) demarcates the former position of the northern Neotethys ocean. Along the IAESZ, the Rhodope-Pontide fragments and Taurides collided and amalgamated in the Early Tertiary, leaving behind a number of basins with a thick in-fill that was accumulated during

  19. Tectono-stratigraphical evolution of the Çankırı basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey)


    Kaymakci, N.


    The Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone (IAESZ) demarcates the former position of the northern Neotethys ocean. Along the IAESZ, the Rhodope-Pontide fragments and Taurides collided and amalgamated in the Early Tertiary, leaving behind a number of basins with a thick in-fill that was accumulated during the subduction and collision processes. The

  20. Post-Paleogene (post-Middle Eocene-pre-Miocene) Geodynamic evolution of the Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene Basins in Central Anatolia, Turkey (United States)

    Rojay, Bora


    Central Anatolia is one of the key areas on the evolution of Cretaceous-Paleogene Tethys where stratigraphy of the region is well studied. However not well linked with tectonics. The so-called "Ankara Mélange" belt (AOM) and the basins on top are important elements in the understanding of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture belt (İAES) evolution in Anatolia (Turkey) and in the evolution of Tethys in minor Asia (Turkey). Some of the basins are directly situated on top of the tectonic slices of the accretionary prism (IAES). However, some are not tectonically well explained as in the case of Haymana basin. The southern continental fragments (eg. Kütahya-Bolkardaǧ and Kırşehir blocks from Gondwana) are approaching to northern continents (Pontides of Lauriasia) where basins like Haymana, Alçı, Kırıkkale and Orhaniye extensional basins are evolved in between the closing margins of two continents. Haymana basin is an extensional basin developed under contractional regime on top of both northward subducting oceanic fragments and an approaching fragments of southern continents. Paleogene (end of Eocene) is the time where the Seas were retreated to S-SE Anatolia leaving a continental setting in Anatolia during Oligocene-Miocene. The slip data gathered from the faults cross-cutting the Paleogene Units and the fabric from Cretaceous mélanges depicts a NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW compressional stress regime operated during post-Eocene-pre-Miocene period. Lately the slip surfaces were overprinted by post-Pliocene normal faulting. Key words: fault slip data, Paleogene, NNW-SSE compression, Anatolia.

  1. The October 20, 2006 Manyas (ML=5.2 and October 24, 2006 Gemlik (ML=5.2 earthquakes in the Marmara region (NW Turkey: ground motion characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esref Yalcinkaya


    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the ground motion characteristics of October 20, 2006 Manyas (ML=5.2 and October 24, 2006 Gemlik (ML=5.2 earthquakes. Both earthquakes occurred on the southern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone in Marmara region, which has a lower seismic hazard relative to the northern branch. The two events are the largest earthquakes on the southern branch recorded by a modern and vast seismological network; therefore their records are valuable to evaluate seismic risk of the region and the understanding of physics of wave propagation. The analysis show that the attenuation of PGAs is very similar for two earthquakes, but they are not represented by the empirical relation obtained for earthquakes occurred on the northern branch. The waveforms of the Gemlik earthquake recorded by BYTNet array indicate an EW rupture orientation with right-lateral slip which fits to the general character of the southern branch. Ground motions at the stations located within basin are strongly influenced by the presence of locally induced surface waves resulting in lengthening of significant shaking duration with respect to a nearby ridge site. Surface wave characteristics are very similar for the Manyas and Gemlik earthquakes, but variations are observed on components which may be related to 3D basin geometry. Resonance frequencies of the surface waves generated within basin are very close to the 1D site resonances at the stations obtained from H/V ratios of S waves. The resonance frequency is about 0.2 Hz within the large Bursa Plain, whereas it increases to about 0.9 Hz within the smaller Gemlik Plain.

  2. Research Note:Determination of soil hydraulic properties using pedotransfer functions in a semi-arid basin, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tombul


    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variations in soil hydraulic properties such as soil moisture q(h and hydraulic conductivity K(q or K(h, may affect the performance of hydrological models. Moreover, the cost of determining soil hydraulic properties by field or laboratory methods makes alternative indirect methods desirable. In this paper, various pedotransfer functions (PTFs are used to estimate soil hydraulic properties for a small semi-arid basin (Kurukavak in the north-west of Turkey. The field measurements were a good fit with the retention curve derived using Rosetta SSC-BD for a loamy soil. To predict parameters to describe soil hydraulic characteristics, continuous PTFs such as Rosetta SSC-BD (Model H3 and SSC-BD-q33q1500 (Model H5 have been applied. Using soil hydraulic properties that vary in time and space, the characteristic curves for three soil types, loam, sandy clay loam and sandy loam have been developed. Spatial and temporal variations in soil moisture have been demonstrated on a plot and catchment scale for loamy soil. It is concluded that accurate site-specific measurements of the soil hydraulic characteristics are the only and probably the most promising method to progress in the future. Keywords: soil hydraulic properties, soil characteristic curves, PTFs

  3. Petrogenesis of ultramafic rocks from the eastern Orhaneli ophiolite, NW Turkey: Hints on the initiation and evolution of melt-peridotite interaction processes within a heterogeneously depleted mantle section (United States)

    Uysal, Ibrahim; Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Kapsiotis, Argyrios; Saka, Samet; Karslı, Orhan; Kaliwoda, Melanie; Müller, Dirk


    The eastern Orhaneli ophiolite in NW Anatolia (Turkey) consists of voluminous dunite and minor harzburgite intruded by clinopyroxenite veins. Harzburgite contains spinel of low Cr# [100 × Cr/(Cr + Al) = 40-45] and diopside of low Al2O3 and TiO2 contents, whereas dunite contains spinel of higher Cr# (62-82) and diopside (blebs) (even more) depleted in Al2O3 and TiO2 (than harzburgite). The concentrations of Heavy Rare Earth Elements (HREE) in harzburgite are consistent with derivation of this type of peridotite from 19% dry melting of a fertile mantle protolith at a MOR regime. Dunites have lower concentrations of HREE than harzburgite implying that dunites were generated by higher degrees (>30%) of (cumulative) melting of the same protolith. Furthermore, the characteristic U-shapes of the chondrite-normalized REE-patterns of dunites indicate the involvement of hydrous melt-peridotite interaction processes in their genesis. Nevertheless, a set of mosaic-in-texture dunite samples contain olivine that has lower Fo# [100 × Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)] and NiO contents than olivine in harzburgite. These dunites are probably of cumulate origin as it is also indicated by their enrichment in Pt and Pd (≤17.92 ppb). Micro-textural and Re-Os isotopic data support that clinopyroxenite intrusions do not have a pure magmatic origin and their formation was partly controlled by metasomatic processes. Overall data indicate that the eastern Orhaneli ultramafic rocks have a complex petrological history including various stages of partial melting, metasomatism and magmatism in an evolving from MOR to SSZ geotectonic setting.

  4. Finding the lost segment of the North Anatolian Fault in the Bursa Basin, Turkey (United States)

    Kutoglu, S. H.; Deguchi, T.; Gundogdu, O.; Seker, D. Z.; Kuscu, S.


    After the 1999 Golcuk Mw=7.4, the seismic stress of the North Anatolian Fault has been transferred onto the segments in the Marmara Sea. The NAF is separated to three branches around the Marmara region; one branch runs into the Marmara Sea from the Yalova-Cinarcik location in the north, the second branch runs into the Marmara Sea from the Gemlik location in the south, and the last one goes toward the Bursa basin from the Sakarya-Pamukova location in the lower south. Some researchers consider that the south branch, which experienced the last major earthquake in the year 1064, poses a danger as much as the north branch.For that reason, this study has been conducted for monitoring the fault activities around the Bursa basin. In this respect, the four Palsar data having the best baseline condition have been obtained between the years 2007-2010. The processing of these data have been resulted in significant deformation interferograms for the data pairs of 31st Oct 2007-8th May 2010 and 31st Jan. 2008-24th Dec. 2010. There are seen deformation anomalies in the Bursa basin along 33 km long in E-W direction and 4.5 km long in N-S direction. The shape of the deformation fringes points out that there is a right lateral strike slip fault line passing through the Bursa basin. The geomorphologic characteristics in the region make us think this fault line may connect to the Sakarya-Geyve branch of the North Anatolian Fault system. The maximum amount of the deformation around the fault line has been determined 18 cm in three years. This amount is too much in comparison to 2.2 cm/yr slip rate of the NAF. As the deformation anomalies are investigated in detail a contraction draws attention, overlapping with a right lateral strike slip motion. Consequently, it can precociously be sad that there exits an uplifting combining with the lateral motion. In addition, significant deformation anomalies have been detected on the Gemlik location where the Iznik fault segment reaches the

  5. Metamorphic and Ar/Ar geochronology constraints on the Alakeci shear zone: Implications for the extensional exhumation history of the northern Kazdag Massif, NW Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonev, N; Beccaletto, L; Robyr, M; Monie, P


    The Kazdag Massif exposes a metamorphic dome in the Biga Peninsula of northwest Turkey. An extensional origin has been proposed for the dome, limited on both flanks by detachments and/or shear zones. The northern flank is bounded by the extensional Alakeci Shear Zone (ASZ), whose P-T-t path is still poorly known. We therefore focus on its metamorphic conditions and related temporal history to precise its tectono-metamorphic evolution. The local tectonostratigraphy in structurally ascending order comprises: (i) the high-grade metamorphic core rocks of the Kazdag Massif (gneisses and micaschists intercalated with amphibolites and marbles); (ii) the two kilometer-thick ASZ; (iii) the overlaying unmetamorphosed pre-Cenomanian accretionary Cetmi melange; and (iv) Neogene sedimentary and volcanic cover rocks. ASZ mylonites were derived from both the core rocks and the melange lithologies. From the north to the south the mylonitic fabrics in the ASZ depict a top-to-the N-NNE shearing, parallel to the NNE-plunging stretching lineation and NNW-dipping mylonitic foliation. This geometry implies normal sense movement i.e. north-side down-dip extensional displacement along this flank of the Kazdag Massif. The northward transition from ductile to brittle-ductile regime through the ASZ shows that the deformation occurred at decreasing temperatures and degree of metamorphism. The paragenesis in equilibrium within the mylonitic gneisses and schists contains Qtz + Fs + Ms + Bt + Grt ± St ± Sill, with late retrogressive chlorite after biotite and garnet. Four samples of ASZ rocks yielded pressures between 6.9-5.7 kbar and temperatures between 706-587 deg. C. Three samples from the mylonitic rocks supplied in situ isochron 36 Ar/ 40 Ar mica ages between 31.2-24.2 Ma, which we interpret to date the cooling of the mylonites following the P-T decrease across the ASZ. The metamorphic and structural results support the extensional character of the ASZ, and sketch transition from

  6. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry observations of the M = 6.0 Orta earthquake of 6 June 2000 (NW Turkey): Reactivation of a listric fault (United States)

    Cakir, Ziyadin; Akoglu, Ahmet Murat


    We study the coseismic surface displacement field due to the Orta earthquake of 6 June 2000, a moderate-sized (Mw 6.0) oblique-slip event that took place on a previously unknown fault located about 70 km north of the capital, Ankara (Turkey), and about 35 km south of the North Anatolian Fault. We use European Space Agency ERS synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to generate high-resolution maps of the surface displacements by a two-pass differential SAR interferometry method. The surface displacement field reaching up to 15 cm line of sight subsidence is captured in several coseismic interferograms from descending orbits and is inverted to determine the source parameters of the earthquake using elastic dislocations on rectangular fault surfaces with a nonlinear minimization procedure based on simulating annealing algorithm. Modeling of the coseismic interferograms indicates that the earthquake was associated with a shallow (<6 km) left-lateral oblique normal displacement that occurred on a north-south striking, eastward dipping, listric fault trending at a high angle to the plate boundary, right-lateral strike-slip North Anatolian fault. Careful analyses of multiple interferograms together with the field observations allow us to infer the rupture geometry in fine detail. Modeling shows that coseismic slip occurs nearly only on the lower portion of the listric fault at a centroid depth of about 5 km but partially reaches to the surface along the surface trace of the Dodurga fault, in agreement with the field observations. We show that in the absence of field observations, additional measurements, or multiple interferograms that capture the surface deformation from different look angles, SAR interferometry alone may not be sufficient to constrain earthquake rupture geometry if there is no clear surface faulting. The results suggest that the Dodurga fault developed most probably as a result of a restraining bend along the North Anatolian fault and its left

  7. Variation of total organic carbon content along the stream Harsit, Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey. (United States)

    Bayram, Adem; Önsoy, Hizir; Akinci, Görkem; Bulut, Volkan Numan


    The TOC in surface waters and wastewater is an important analytical parameter describing the total content of all organic substances containing carbon. In practice, the TOC originated from natural and anthropogenic sources, and even if it is not directly responsible for dangers on human health, its determination is important for any kind of water that is used by public. The aim of this study was to determine variation of total organic carbon (TOC) and total carbon (TC) content in the stream Harsit, which courses in Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey. Sampling was fortnightly conducted in each of the four seasons between March 2009 and February 2010. A total of 230 water samples were collected from ten sampling stations along the main branch of the stream Harsit with 143 km of length. Obtained TOC values were evaluated and used to classify the water quality of stream Harsit, according to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation (TWPCR). The annual average TOC content values for the stations were found between 2.33 and 6.97 mg/L. It was seen that the TOC content have increased along the streamcourse of Harsit until the fourth station, where reaches its maximum value. The TOC content, then, has decreased and the minimum value was observed in the eighth station. The results showed that, except in winter season, maximum TOC content observed in many of the water samples were above Class I water standard indicated in TWPCR, which classifies the water resources according to the different area of uses. It was also found that TOC has a small contribution to TC and the highest TOC content in stream waters were measured in Gumushane station where direct discharge of city wastewaters and solid waste dumping to the stream were observed.

  8. Distribution and abundance of Artemia salina in the Salt Lake Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaş Ali


    Full Text Available In this study, the distribution and abundance of Artemia salina in 10 different stations of the Salt Lake basin were investigated. In addition, its relationship to pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, electrical conductivity and water levels were analyzed. Field studies were carried out from July to August of 2010. Artemia salina was observed in five of these stations. Artemia salina was not seen in some stations that have high electrical conductivity. It is determined that, in the station named Tersakan Lake where electrical conductivity was 154 mS/cm, Artemia salina is more abundant when compared to the other stations. But as underground water pumps that are built for the irrigation of agricultural lands decrease water levels, Artemia salina’s life is under threat.

  9. Tracing organic and inorganic pollution sources of soils and water resources in Güzelhisar Basin of Aegean Region, Turkey (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Colak Esetlili, Bihter; Esetlili, Tolga; Tepecik, Mahmut; Kurucu, Yusuf; Anac, Dilek; Düring, Rolf-Alexander


    This study was carried out to determine the residue level of major concern organic and inorganic pollutants in Güzelhisar Basin of Aegean Region in Turkey which represents a rather industrialized area having five large iron and steel mills, but also areas of agriculture. Soil samples were collected from GPS determined points at 0-30 and 30-60 cm depth of a grid system of 2.5 km to the east and 2.5 km to the west of the Güzelhisar stream. The area was grouped into three main areas as West, Middle, and East region. Water and sediment samples were collected from the Güzelhisar stream and from Güzelhisar dam every 30 kilometers which is already contaminated due to industrial facilities in Aliaga, is used to irrigate the agricultural land. Soil pH of the research area was determined within the range from 5.87 to 6.61. Topsoil contamination was examined for all investigated elements with the exception of Cd. An increase in pseudo total metal contents of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn was observed with increasing distance from the coast with a simultaneous decrease in pH. Due to the analysis of the organic pollutants, a continuous load with the herbicide trifluralin was determined with a few clearly raised points to a possible load of the stream water. Although HCH-Isomers were not found, DDT (DDT and transformation products) residues were ascertained in the soil samples. With regard to the analysis of the water samples of the Güzelhisar stream and dam, a background load with trifluralin was found which is to be explained with transport processes with regard to utilization of trifluralin in the agricultural areas.

  10. Hydrogeochemistry of the thermal waters from the Yenice Geothermal Field (Denizli Basin, Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey) (United States)

    Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Alçiçek, Mehmet Cihat


    The chemical and isotopic properties of thermal waters (Kamara and Çizmeli) and cold springs from the Yenice Geothermal Field (YGF), in southwestern Anatolia, Turkey are investigated in order to establish a conceptual hydrogeochemical-hydrogeological model. These thermal waters derive from Menderes metamorphic rocks and emerge along normal faults; they are commonly used for heating of greenhouses and bathing facilities. Discharge temperatures of thermal waters are 32 °C to 57 °C (mean 51 °C) for Kamara and 35 °C to 68 °C (mean 47 °C) for Çizmeli, whereas deep groundwaters are 15 °C to 20.1 °C (mean 17 °C) and shallow groundwaters are 12 to 16 °C (mean 15 °C). Kamara and Çizmeli thermal waters are mostly of Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4 type, whereas deep groundwaters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Mg-Ca-HCO3 types and shallow groundwaters are mainly Mg-Ca-SO4-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-HCO3 types. In the reservoir of the geothermal system, dissolution of host rock and ion-exchange reactions changes thermal water types. High correlation in some ionic ratios (e.g. Na vs. Cl, K vs. Cl, HCO3 vs. Cl) and high concentrations of some minor elements (e.g., As, Sr, B, Cl, F) in thermal waters likely derive from enhanced water-rock interaction. Water samples from YGF have not reached complete chemical re-equilibrium, possibly as a result mixing with groundwater during upward flow. Geothermal reservoir temperatures are calculated as 89-102 °C for Kamara and 87-102 °C for Çizmeli fields, based on the retrograde and prograde solubilities of anhydrite and chalcedony. Based on the isotope and chemical data, a conceptual hydrogeochemical-hydrogeological model of the YGF has been constructed. Very negative δ18O and δ2H isotopic ratios (Kamara: mean of - 8.43‰ and - 56.9‰, respectively and Çizmeli: mean of - 7.96‰ and - 53.7‰, respectively) and low tritium values (< 1 TU) reflect a deep circulation pathway and a meteoric origin. Subsequent heating by conduction in the high geothermal gradient

  11. Organic-carbon deposition in the Cretaceous of the Ionian Basin, NW-Greece : The Paquier Event (OAE 1b) re-visited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Tsikos, H.; Karakitsios, V.; Breugel, Y. van; Walsworth-Bell, B.; Petrizzo, M.R.; Bombardiere, L.; Schouten, S.; Erba, E.; Premoli Silva, I.; Farrimond, P.; Tyson, R.V.; Jenkyns, H.C.


    We present new stable (C, O) isotopic, biostratigraphic and organic geochemical data for the Vigla Shale Member of the Ionian Zone in NW Greece, in order to characterize organic carbon-rich strata that potentially record the impact of Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). In a section exposed

  12. A middle Permian ophiolite fragment in Late Triassic greenschist- to blueschist-facies rocks in NW Turkey: An earlier pulse of suprasubduction-zone ophiolite formation in the Tethyan belt (United States)

    Topuz, Gültekin; Okay, Aral I.; Schwarz, Winfried H.; Sunal, Gürsel; Altherr, Rainer; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.


    The Eastern Mediterranean region within the Tethyan belt is characterised by two main pulses of suprasubduction-zone ophiolite formation during the Early-Middle Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. Despite vast exposures of the Permo-Triassic accretionary complexes, related suprasubduction-zone ophiolites and the timing of subduction initiation leading to the formation of Permo-Triassic accretionary complexes are unknown so far. Here we report on a 40 km long and 0.3 to 1.8 km wide metaophiolite fragment within transitional greenschist- to blueschist-facies oceanic rocks from NW Turkey. The metaophiolite fragment is made up mainly of serpentinite and minor dykes or stocks of strongly sheared metagabbro with mineral assemblages involving actinolite/winchite, chlorite, epidote, albite, titanite and phengite. The metagabbro displays (i) variable CaO and MgO contents, (ii) anomalously high Mg# (= 100 ∗ molar MgO/(MgO + FeOtot)) of 75-88, and (iii) positive Eu anomalies, together with low contents of incompatible elements such as Ti, P and Zr, suggesting derivation from former plagioclase cumulates. The serpentinites comprise serpentine, ± chlorite, ± talc, ± calcite and relict Cr-Al spinel surrounded by ferrichromite to magnetite. Relict Cr-Al spinels are characterised by (i) Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios of 0.45-0.56 and Mg/(Mg + Fe2 +) ratio of 0.76-0.22, (ii) variable contents of ZnO and MnO, and (iii) extremely low TiO2 contents. Zn and Mn contents are probably introduced into Cr-Al spinels during greenschist- to blueschist metamorphism. Compositional features of the serpentinite such as (i) Ca- and Al-depleted bulk compositions, (ii) concave U-shaped, chondrite-normalised rare earth element patterns (REE) with enrichment of light and heavy REEs, imply that serpentinites were probably derived from depleted peridotites which were refertilised by light rare earth element enriched melts in a suprasubduction-zone mantle wedge. U-Pb dating on igneous zircons from three metagabbro

  13. Vertical-axis block rotations linked to normal faulting: paleomagnetic and structural evidence from Miocene to Recent extensional basins in southern Turkey (United States)

    Koç, Ayten; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis G.


    Paleomagnetism provides important constraints on complex patterns of vertical axis rotations in orogens. Where normally paleomagnetism is applied to constrain regional rotations, in the vicinity of fault zones often locally varying rotation patterns occur. Here we provide results of an extensive paleomagnetic survey constraining vertical axis rotation in Neogene extensional continental basins in the Taurides, in the eastern flank of the Isparta Angle (SW Turkey). In total, 437 oriented cores were sampled at 43 sites distributed within Miocene-Pliocene continental sedimentary rocks from the basins at the eastern limb (Ilgın and Altınapa Basins) and also central part (Yalvaç Basin) of the Isparta Angle. Despite the more or less coherent overall strike of the mountain belt and sedimentary basins, our results show different senses and varying amounts of vertical rotation within short distances; the Altınapa Basin has undergone only very minor rotations during and after the Miocene, but the paleomagnetic data from Yalvaç and Ilgın basins show 50° clockwise and 20° counter-clockwise rotation, respectively. Following a long history of shortening and thrusting, our study area has undergone regional extension since the mid-Miocene, which is still active in the present-day as portrayed by active seismicity, earthquake focal mechanisms, field data including fault plane solutions, and GPS measurements. This extension is accommodated along major normal faults that end in relay ramps with overlapping, adjacent normal faults. We show that the paleomagnetically determined rotations are related to such relay ramps, in places superimposed on rigid block rotations, and can be used as a first-order tool to quantify horizontal extension. As such, vertical axis rotations and paleomagnetism unravels important insights in the evolution of deformation in major normal fault zones.

  14. The high-resolution stratigraphic architecture and evolution of the Burdigalian carbonate-silici-clastic sedimentary systems on the Mut Basin, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassant, Ph.


    The subject of this doctorate study are the Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) carbonate systems in the Mut basin, in south central Turkey. This area is chosen because it presents extraordinary large (seismic) scale 3D outcrops showing depositional geometries. In addition, these carbonates are considered as good outcrop analogues for time equivalent carbonate buildups in the Far East, that are oil and gas bearing. The carbonates were deposited in a complex relict topography, following a tectonically active phase in the Oligocene. During the Burdigalian transgression shallow platform carbonates were deposited in a variety of settings, locally accompanied by some silici-clastic input. Observations on the strata geometries and the facies were combined into a high resolution sequence stratigraphic framework controlled by bio-stratigraphy. With the help of relative sea level curves constructed for the three studied sites, a basin-wide correlation scheme is proposed. This chronostratigraphic framework permits the recognition of condensation and omission surfaces in the basinal and platform settings, to identify basin-wide variations in sedimentation pattern, and to evaluate the relative influence of tectonism, eustatism and the environment. The exceptional quality of the outcrops with its variety of environments, and its location at the Tethys margin, make this a good candidate for a reference model for Burdigalian reef and platform architectures. Examples of a quantitative approach of the geometries of potential carbonate reservoir bodies are given in the annex. The data-files are incorporated in the carbonate reservoir body database CARABAS. (author)

  15. Extension of Hellenic forearc shear zones in SW Turkey: the Pliocene-Quaternary deformation of the Eşen Çay Basin (United States)

    ten Veen, Johan H.


    The Pliocene-Quaternary Eşen Çay Basin in southwestern Turkey has a key position in the southern Aegean to gain insight into both lateral and temporal changes in stresses exerted by plate convergence at the Hellenic-Cyprus arc junction. A tectonosedimentary study of the basin development in combination with a structural analysis helped to reveal internal basin deformation and adjacent basement kinematics in order to delineate 3D strain through time. In the Pliocene the basin originated as a fluviolacustrine basin situated in a depression related to a ramp-fold geometry in the Lycian nappe stack. During the late Pliocene, E-W extension caused the development of N-S normal faults, displacement along which caused the differentiation of the relief and deposition of local alluvial fan systems. The Pleistocene is also marked by widespread alluvial-fluvial sedimentation that is triggered by activity at 020° faults. This fault system resulted from WNW-ESE extension and caused disruption of the former basin floor by uplift and tilting of intrabasinal areas, which initiated development of new source areas for the fan sedimentation. The Holocene-Recent period is characterized by a complex combination of faults of which 070° sinistral strike-slip faults are the most important. Fault-slip analysis reveals that deformation occurred in transtension, explained by the addition of a sinistral shear component. This implies that stresses evolved from simple tensional to transtensional over the Pliocene-Quaternary period. The initial extension phase is explained by the kinematic effects of outward growth of the Hellenic forearc, comparable with observations from the island of Rhodes and the eastern Anaximander Mountains. The time-transgressive addition of a sinistral shear component was likely produced by the northeastward propagating transcurrent motions of forearc slivers sheared from the expanding forearc as has been previously inferred for Crete and Rhodes. The latter process

  16. Pseudofaults and associated seamounts in the conjugate Arabian and Eastern Somali basins, NW Indian Ocean - New constraints from high-resolution satellite-derived gravity data (United States)

    Sreejith, K. M.; Chaubey, A. K.; Mishra, Akhil; Kumar, Shravan; Rajawat, A. S.


    Marine gravity data derived from satellite altimeters are effective tools in mapping fine-scale tectonic features of the ocean basins such as pseudofaults, fracture zones and seamounts, particularly when the ocean basins are carpeted with thick sediments. We use high-resolution satellite-generated gravity and seismic reflection data to map boundaries of pseudofaults and transferred crust related to the Paleocene spreading ridge propagation in the Arabian and its conjugate Eastern Somali basins. The study has provided refinement in the position of previously reported pseudofaults and their spatial extensions in the conjugate basins. It is observed that the transferred crustal block bounded by inner pseudofault and failed spreading ridge is characterized by a gravity low and rugged basement. The refined satellite gravity image of the Arabian Basin also revealed three seamounts in close proximity to the pseudofaults, which were not reported earlier. In the Eastern Somali Basin, seamounts are aligned along NE-SW direction forming ∼300 km long seamount chain. Admittance analysis and Flexural model studies indicated that the seamount chain is isostatically compensated locally with Effective Elastic Thickness (Te) of 3-4 km. Based on the present results and published plate tectonic models, we interpret that the seamounts in the Arabian Basin are formed by spreading ridge propagation and are associated with pseudofaults, whereas the seamount chain in the Eastern Somali Basin might have probably originated due to melting and upwelling of upper mantle heterogeneities in advance of migrating/propagating paleo Carlsberg Ridge.

  17. Tectonic control on turbiditic sedimentation: The Late Cretaceous-Eocene successions in the Sinop-Boyabat Basin of north-central Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janbu, Nils Erik


    being prepared for publication: The Sinop-Boyabat Basin of northern Turkey: Its development from Backarc rift into retroarc foreland basin and implications for the How shallow can the deep-sea Nereites ichnofacies can be. (Author)

  18. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Neo-Tethyan Orhaneli ultramafic suite, NW Turkey: Evidence for the initiation and evolution of magmatic processes in a developing crust-mantle boundary (United States)

    Uysal, Ibrahim; Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Kapsiotis, Argyris; Kaliwoda, Melanie; Karsli, Orhan; Müller, Dirk; Aydin, Faruk


    The eastern Orhaneli ophiolitic massif, located in NW Anatolia, Turkey, forms part of the northwestern branch of the so-called Neotethys Ocean across the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone. It is comprised mainly of a well preserved ultramafic suite, dominated by voluminous dunite exposures, accompanied by subsidiary harzburgite occurrences. The entire suite is commonly cross cut by a complex network of relatively undeformed clinopyroxenite veins. Clinopyroxene and spinel compositions in harzburgites are moderately depleted, whereas their whole-rock heavy rare earth element (HREE) abundances are consistent with harzburgite formation after approximately 19% dry melting of a spinel-bearing fertile mantle protolith at an extentional geotectonic regime. Nevertheless, textural data indicate that protracted dissolution of pyroxene coupled with precipitation of olivine happened during the transformation of harzburgites to replacive dunites, containing olivine with high Fo [Fo = 100×Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)] content (91.3-94.2) and spinel with elevated Cr# [100×Cr/(Cr + Al)] values (78-82). Such highly depleted mineralogical signatures imply that dunite for harzburgite substitution occurred under hydrous melting conditions in the mantle region above a subducted oceanic slab. Enrichments in incompatible elements (e.g., Cs, Rb and Sr) and the characteristic U-shaped chondrite-normalized rare earth elements (REE) profiles exhibited by replacive dunites along with the elevated TiO2 (0.20-0.36 wt.%) contents in their accessory spinels indicate that the reactive melt had an intermediate affinity between boninite and island arc tholeiite (IAT) regimes. The metasomatic reaction triggered an additional 8% melting of the harzburgite residue. The resultant melt fractionated (,almost in situ,) to crystallize cumulate dunites composed of olivine with relatively high Fo content (88.8-92.3), spinel with moderate Cr# values (62-74), as well as clinopyroxene with a depleted composition (low TiO2

  19. Pseudofaults and associated seamounts in the conjugate Arabian and Eastern Somali basins, NW Indian Ocean- New constraints from high-resolution satellite-derived gravity data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, K.M.; Chaubey, A.K.; Mishra, A.; Kumar, S.; Rajawat, A.S.

    sediments. We use high-resolution satellite-generated gravity and seismic reflection data to map boundaries of pseudofaults and transferred crust related to the Paleocene spreading ridge propagation in the Arabian and its conjugate Eastern Somali basins...

  20. The significance of 24-norcholestanes, triaromatic steroids and dinosteroids in oils and Cambrian-Ordovician source rocks from the cratonic region of the Tarim Basin, NW China (United States)

    Li, Meijun; Wang, T.-G.; Lillis, Paul G.; Wang, Chunjiang; Shi, Shengbao


    Two oil families in Ordovician reservoirs from the cratonic region of the Tarim Basin are distinguished by the distribution of regular steranes, triaromatic steroids, norcholestanes and dinosteroids. Oils with relatively lower contents of C28 regular steranes, C26 20S, C26 20R + C27 20S and C27 20R regular triaromatic steroids, dinosteranes, 24-norcholestanes and triaromatic dinosteroids originated from Middle–Upper Ordovician source rocks. In contrast, oils with abnormally high abundances of the above compounds are derived from Cambrian and Lower Ordovician source rocks. Only a few oils have previously been reported to be of Cambrian and Lower Ordovician origin, especially in the east region of the Tarim Basin. This study further reports the discovery of oil accumulations of Cambrian and Lower Ordovician origin in the Tabei and Tazhong Uplifts, which indicates a potential for further discoveries involving Cambrian and Lower Ordovician sourced oils in the Tarim Basin. Dinosteroids in petroleum and ancient sediments are generally thought to be biomarkers for dinoflagellates and 24-norcholestanes for dinoflagellates and diatoms. Therefore, the abnormally high abundance of these compounds in extracts from the organic-rich sediments in the Cambrian and Lower Ordovician and related oils in the cratonic region of the Tarim Basin suggests that phytoplankton algae related to dinoflagellates have appeared and might have flourished in the Tarim Basin during the Cambrian Period. Steroids with less common structural configurations are underutilized and can expand understanding of the early development history of organisms, as well as define petroleum systems.

  1. Seismic stratigraphic analysis of the Cenozoic sediments in the NW Faroe Shetland Basin – Implications for inherited structural control of sediment distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólavsdóttir, Jana; Andersen, Morten Sparre; Boldreel, Lars Ole


    and southwest. During Oligocene–Pliocene time the sediment influx was from north and northwest and the depocentre had moved in a westward direction closer to the Faroe Platform area. Emplacement of the Cenozoic sediments in the Faroese sector of the Faroe-Shetland Basin is controlled by thermal subsidence....... Understanding the older, structural elements and their control on sedimentation is a potential tool for understanding deviations from “normal” thermal subsidence and for predicting the prospectivity in the post-basalt succession in the Faroe-Shetland Basin....

  2. Determination of soil erosion risk in the Mustafakemalpasa River Basin, Turkey, using the revised universal soil loss equation, geographic information system, and remote sensing. (United States)

    Ozsoy, Gokhan; Aksoy, Ertugrul; Dirim, M Sabri; Tumsavas, Zeynal


    Sediment transport from steep slopes and agricultural lands into the Uluabat Lake (a RAMSAR site) by the Mustafakemalpasa (MKP) River is a serious problem within the river basin. Predictive erosion models are useful tools for evaluating soil erosion and establishing soil erosion management plans. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) function is a commonly used erosion model for this purpose in Turkey and the rest of the world. This research integrates the RUSLE within a geographic information system environment to investigate the spatial distribution of annual soil loss potential in the MKP River Basin. The rainfall erosivity factor was developed from local annual precipitation data using a modified Fournier index: The topographic factor was developed from a digital elevation model; the K factor was determined from a combination of the soil map and the geological map; and the land cover factor was generated from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images. According to the model, the total soil loss potential of the MKP River Basin from erosion by water was 11,296,063 Mg year(-1) with an average soil loss of 11.2 Mg year(-1). The RUSLE produces only local erosion values and cannot be used to estimate the sediment yield for a watershed. To estimate the sediment yield, sediment-delivery ratio equations were used and compared with the sediment-monitoring reports of the Dolluk stream gauging station on the MKP River, which collected data for >41 years (1964-2005). This station observes the overall efficiency of the sediment yield coming from the Orhaneli and Emet Rivers. The measured sediment in the Emet and Orhaneli sub-basins is 1,082,010 Mg year(-1) and was estimated to be 1,640,947 Mg year(-1) for the same two sub-basins. The measured sediment yield of the gauge station is 127.6 Mg km(-2) year(-1) but was estimated to be 170.2 Mg km(-2) year(-1). The close match between the sediment amounts estimated using the RUSLE

  3. Tectonic evolution of the Fru\\vska Gora (NW Serbia) and implications for the late stage inversion of the Pannonian Basin (United States)

    Novčić, Novak; Toljić, Marinko; Stojadinović, Uroš; Matenco, Liviu


    Indentation of Adria microplate during latest Miocene to Quaternary times created contraction and transcurrent movements distributed in the Dinarides Mountains and along its margin with the adjacent Pannonian Basin. Fru\\vska Gora of northern Serbia is one of the few areas along the southern margin of the Pannonian Basin where the kinematic effects of this late-stage inversion can be studied. These mountains are located along the Sava-Vardar Suture Zone as an isolated inselberg surrounded by Neogene deposits of the Pannonian Basin, exposing metamorphic rocks, Mesozoic ophiolites and sediments belonging to the Dinarides units. Our field kinematic study demonstrate that deformation structures are related to several Oligocene - Miocene extensional and latest Miocene - Quaternary contractional deformation events. These events took place during the differential rotational stages experienced by Fru\\vska Gora. This has created a gradual change in strike from N-S to E-W of three successive normal faulting episodes (Oligocene-Early Miocene, Early Miocene and Middle-Late Miocene), subsequently inverted by contractional deformation. This latter deformation took place during the continuous latest Miocene - Quaternary Adria indentation and was accompanied by yet another 40 degrees counter clockwise rotation of the entire Fru\\vska Gora. Almost all resulting contractional structures reactivate the pre-existing Oligocene - Miocene normal faults. This is reflected in the present-day morphology of Fruska Gora that has a large-scale flower-type of structural geometry formed during dextral transpression, as demonstrated by field kinematics and seismic interpretations. This overall geometry is significantly different when compared with other areas situated more westwards in a similar structural position in the Dinariders at their contact with the Pannonian Basin, such as Medvednica Mountains or Sava-Drava transpressional systems. The variation in offsets along the strike of the

  4. Tectono-stratigraphy of the Orhaniye Basin, Turkey: Implications for collision chronology and Paleogene biogeography of central Anatolia (United States)

    Licht, A.; Coster, P.; Ocakoğlu, F.; Campbell, C.; Métais, G.; Mulch, A.; Taylor, M.; Kappelman, John; Beard, K. Christopher


    Located along the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture (IAES), the Maastrichtian - Paleogene Orhaniye Basin has yielded a highly enigmatic -yet poorly dated- Paleogene mammal fauna, the endemic character of which has suggested high faunal provincialism associated with paleogeographic isolation of the Anatolian landmass during the early Cenozoic. Despite its biogeographic significance, the tectono-stratigraphic history of the Orhaniye Basin has been poorly documented. Here, we combine sedimentary, magnetostratigraphic, and geochronological data to infer the chronology and depositional history of the Orhaniye Basin. We then assess how our new data and interpretations for the Orhaniye Basin impact (1) the timing and mechanisms of seaway closure along the IAES and (2) the biogeographic evolution of Anatolia. Our results show that the Orhaniye Basin initially developed as a forearc basin during the Maastrichtian, before shifting to a retroarc foreland basin setting sometime between the early Paleocene and 44 Ma. This chronology supports a two-step scenario for the assemblage of the central Anatolian landmass, with incipient collision during the Paleocene - Early Eocene and final seaway retreat along the IAES during the earliest Late Eocene after the last marine incursion into the foreland basin. Our dating for the Orhaniye mammal fauna (44-43 Ma) indicates the persistence of faunal endemism in northern Anatolia until at least the late Lutetian despite the advanced stage of IAES closure. The tectonic evolution of dispersal corridors linking northern Anatolia with adjacent parts of Eurasia was not directly associated with IAES closure and consecutive uplifts, but rather with the build-up of continental bridges on the margins of Anatolia, in the Alpine and Tibetan-Himalayan orogens.

  5. The Upper Cretaceous to Palaeogene Sedimentary History and Tectonic Evolution of the Bala Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey


    Emre, Mehmet Fahrettin


    The study area is situated on the northern extension of the Tuzgolu basin, (Central Anatolia) and contains Upper Cretaceous--Tertiary volcanic, clastic, and carbonate rocks with evaporites deposited on an ophiolitic melange basement, the Ankara Melange. The present structure of the area is the result of tectonism during late Alpine movements. The movements controlled the timing and conditions of sediment accumulation. The Bala basin evolved on the northern continental margin of the Kirsehi...

  6. Epilithic diatom assemblages and their relationships with environmental variables in the Nilüfer Stream Basin, Bursa, Turkey. (United States)

    Karacaoğlu, Didem; Dalkıran, Nurhayat


    Patterns of epilithic diatom species distribution in relation to environmental variables from 12 sampling sites on the main stream and some of its tributaries in the Nilüfer Stream Basin were determined using multivariate statistical techniques. The stream basin has been heavily influenced by anthropogenic effects. The upper part of the basin that is distant from pollution sources mostly has a spring water quality, while the lower part where the stream flows through the urban area and receives domestic and industrial wastewater has a quite low quality. Ordination techniques using both diatom taxa and 21 environmental variables revealed non- to slightly polluted upper basin sites and highly polluted lower basin sites along the stream. The results showed that the stream catchment is polluted gradually from upstream to downstream and that most of the downstream sites have very low water quality especially in summer months. A total of 134 epilithic diatom taxa belonging to 50 genera were recorded for 12 sample sites. Partial CCA results indicated that water temperature (T), discharge (Q), and total phosphorus (TP) were the most important variables affecting the distribution of diatom species. Unpolluted or slightly polluted upper basin sites were dominated by Achnanthidium minutissimum, Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, Gomphonema olivaceum, and Navicula tripunctata. Highly polluted lower basin sites were characterized by high levels of organic and inorganic matters and low dissolved oxygen (DO) values. Species widespread in the highly polluted lower basin sites such as Nitzschia umbonata, Nitzschia amphibia, Nitzschia capitellata, Nitzschia palea, Nitzschia paleacea, Luticola mutica, and Stephanodiscus niagarae were mostly related to pollution indicator variables such as ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), sodium (Na + ), total phosphorus (TP), and total organic matter (TOM).

  7. Basin analysis in the Southern Tethyan margin: Facies sequences, stratal pattern and subsidence history highlight extension-to-inversion processes in the Cretaceous Panormide carbonate platform (NW Sicily) (United States)

    Basilone, Luca; Sulli, Attilio


    In the Mediterranean, the South-Tethys paleomargin experienced polyphased tectonic episodes and paleoenvironmental perturbations during Mesozoic time. The Cretaceous shallow-water carbonate successions of the Panormide platform, outcropping in the northern edge of the Palermo Mountains (NW Sicily), were studied by integrating facies and stratal pattern with backstripping analysis to recognize the tectonics vs. carbonate sedimentation interaction. The features of the Requienid limestone, including geometric configuration, facies sequence, lithological changes and significance of the top-unconformity, highlight that at the end of the Lower Cretaceous the carbonate platform was tectonically dismembered in various rotating fault-blocks. The variable trends of the subsidence curves testify to different responses, both uplift and downthrow, of various platform-blocks impacted by extensional tectonics. Physical stratigraphic and facies analysis of the Rudistid limestone highlight that during the Upper Cretaceous the previously carbonate platform faulted-blocks were subjected to vertical movements in the direction opposite to the displacement produced by the extensional tectonics, indicating a positive tectonic inversion. Comparisons with other sectors of the Southern Tethyan and Adria paleomargins indicate that during the Cretaceous these areas underwent the same extensional and compressional stages occurring in the Panormide carbonate platform, suggesting a regional scale significance, in time and kinematics, for these tectonic events.

  8. Tracing organic and inorganic pollution sources of agricultural crops and water resources in Güzelhisar Basin of the Aegean Region - Turkey (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Colak Esetlili, Bihter; Esetlili, Tolga; Tepecik, Mahmut; Anac, Dilek; Düring, Rolf-Alexander


    The study area Güzelhisar Basin is 6 km far from the city Aliaga, Aegean Region in Turkey which represents a rather industrialized area having five large iron and steel factories, but also areas of agriculture. Steel industry in Aliaga is causing metal pollution. Around Güzelhisar Basin and nearby, the dominant crop fields are cotton, maize, vegetables, olive trees and vineyards. Güzelhisar stream and dam water is used for irrigation of the agricultural land. Due to contamination from metal industry in Aliaga, organic farming is not allowed in this region. Industrial activities in the region present a threat on sustainable agriculture. The region is a multi-impacted area in terms of several pollutant sources affecting soil and water quality. The overall objective of the project is to trace back plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B), hazardous substances (i. e. persistent organic pollutants), radionuclides (40K, 232Th, 226Ra/238U), and metal contents (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by examining the soils, agricultural crops and natural plants from Güzelhisar Basin and water and sediments from Güzelhisar stream and dam. Spatial distribution of pollution will be evaluated by regionalization methods. For this, an advanced analytical methodology will be applied which provides an understanding of sources and occurrence of the respective substances of concern. An innovative multi-tracer approach comprising organic and inorganic marker substances, will identify and quantitatively assess sources and their impact on water pollution and the pollutant pathways in this agricultural crop production system.

  9. Testing alternative models of continental collision in Central Turkey by a study of the sedimentology, provenance and tectonic setting of Late Cretaceous–Early Cenozoic syn-tectonic sedimentary basins.


    Nairn, Steven Peter


    In central Anatolia, Turkey, a strand of the former northern Neotethys Ocean subducted northwards under the Eurasian (Pontide) active margin during Late Cretaceous–Early Cenozoic time. Subduction and regional plate convergence were associated with the generation and emplacement of accretionary complexes and supra-subduction zone-type ophiolites onto former passive margins of microcontinents. The resultant suture zones contain Late Cretaceous to Middle Eocene basins (“The Centra...

  10. Regional intensity-duration-frequency analysis in the Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey, by using L-moments and regression analysis (United States)

    Ghiaei, Farhad; Kankal, Murat; Anilan, Tugce; Yuksek, Omer


    The analysis of rainfall frequency is an important step in hydrology and water resources engineering. However, a lack of measuring stations, short duration of statistical periods, and unreliable outliers are among the most important problems when designing hydrology projects. In this study, regional rainfall analysis based on L-moments was used to overcome these problems in the Eastern Black Sea Basin (EBSB) of Turkey. The L-moments technique was applied at all stages of the regional analysis, including determining homogeneous regions, in addition to fitting and estimating parameters from appropriate distribution functions in each homogeneous region. We studied annual maximum rainfall height values of various durations (5 min to 24 h) from seven rain gauge stations located in the EBSB in Turkey, which have gauging periods of 39 to 70 years. Homogeneity of the region was evaluated by using L-moments. The goodness-of-fit criterion for each distribution was defined as the ZDIST statistics, depending on various distributions, including generalized logistic (GLO), generalized extreme value (GEV), generalized normal (GNO), Pearson type 3 (PE3), and generalized Pareto (GPA). GLO and GEV determined the best distributions for short (5 to 30 min) and long (1 to 24 h) period data, respectively. Based on the distribution functions, the governing equations were extracted for calculation of intensities of 2, 5, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 years return periods (T). Subsequently, the T values for different rainfall intensities were estimated using data quantifying maximum amount of rainfall at different times. Using these T values, duration, altitude, latitude, and longitude values were used as independent variables in a regression model of the data. The determination coefficient ( R 2) value indicated that the model yields suitable results for the regional relationship of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF), which is necessary for the design of hydraulic structures in small and

  11. Intraplate volcanism in the Danube Basin of NW Hungary: 3D geophysical modelling of the Late Miocene Pásztori volcano (United States)

    Pánisová, Jaroslava; Balázs, Attila; Zalai, Zsófia; Bielik, Miroslav; Horváth, Ferenc; Harangi, Szabolcs; Schmidt, Sabine; Götze, Hans-Jürgen


    Three-dimensional geophysical modelling of the early Late Miocene Pásztori volcano (ca. 11-10 Ma) and adjacent area in the Little Hungarian Plain Volcanic Field of the Danube Basin was carried out to get an insight into the most prominent intra-crustal structures here. We have used gridded gravity and magnetic data, interpreted seismic reflection sections and borehole data combined with re-evaluated geological constraints. Based on petrological analysis of core samples from available six exploration boreholes, the volcanic rocks consist of a series of alkaline trachytic and trachyandesitic volcanoclastic and effusive rocks. The measured magnetic susceptibilities of these samples are generally very low suggesting a deeper magnetic source. The age of the modelled Pásztori volcano, buried beneath a 2 km-thick Late Miocene-to-Quaternary sedimentary sequence, is 10.4 +/- 0.3 Ma belonging to the dominantly normal C5 chron. Our model includes crustal domains with different effective induced magnetizations and densities: uppermost 0.3-1.8 km thick layer of volcanoclastics underlain by a trachytic-trachyandesitic coherent and volcanoclastic rock units of a maximum 2 km thickness, with a top situated at minimal depth of 2.3 km, and a deeper magmatic pluton in a depth range of 5-15 km. The 3D model of the Danube Basin is consistent with observed high ΔZ magnetic anomalies above the volcano, while the observed Bouguer gravity anomalies correlate better with the crystalline basement depth. Our analysis contributes to deeper understanding of the crustal architecture and the evolution of the basin accompanied by alkaline intraplate volcanism.

  12. Genetic types and origins of natural gases from eastern Fukang Sub-depression of the Junggar Basin, NW China: Implication for low-mature coal-derived gases

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    Deyu Gong


    Full Text Available Although the Fukang Sub-depression is the largest hydrocarbon generation depression in the Junggar Basin and promises favorable potential for oil and gas exploration, only several small–medium oil/gas accumulations have been discovered so far. After analyzing the molecular and stable carbon isotopic compositions of natural gases and its associated low molecular weight hydrocarbons (LMWHs from eastern Fukang Sub-depression, their genetic types and origins are discussed in this study. Natural gases are wet gases with an average dryness coefficient of 0.84. Stable carbon isotopes of methane and ethane are well correlated with the thermal evolution trend of coal-derived gases. The C5–7 LMWHs are enriched in methyl cyclohexane but they lack n-alkanes, indicating a predominance of higher plant input. Gases have maturities ranging 0.76%–0.93%Ro and are well consistent with their low n-heptane (H and iso-heptane (I contents. The geochemical characteristics of natural gases from eastern Fukang Sub-depression are quite similar with those from the Turpan–Hami Basin. Their gases are considered to be low-mature gases derived from the Lower–Middle Jurassic coal measures. In contrast, they show remarkable differences with those from the Wucaiwan gas field; they are considered to have high-mature gases derived from the Carboniferous coal measures. Keywords: Coal-derived gas, Stable carbon isotopes, Low molecular weight hydrocarbons, Fukang sub-depression, Junggar Basin, Middle–Lower Jurassic

  13. Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater quality in the Çavuşçayı basin, Sungurlu-Çorum, Turkey (United States)

    Çelik, Mehmet; Yıldırım, Turgut


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the quality and usage possibility of groundwater in the Çavuşçayı basin and suggest the best water structure for the groundwater use. Results from hydrochemical analyses reveal that groundwater is mostly affected by salty (Na+ Cl-) waters of the Incik Formation and brackish (Ca2+, Mg2+ SO{4/2-}) waters of the Bayındır Formation. The Alibaba saltpan discharged (2 l/s) from the Incik Formation is used for salt production. In the basin, salinity risk increases with depth and along the groundwater flow direction. Therefore, shallow water and trenches opened in the alluvium aquifer at the east of the basin were determined to yield suitable water with no Na+ and Cl- contamination. Following the heavy rainy period, waters of less salinity and conductivity are possibly used for agriculture.

  14. Types and characteristics of carbonate reservoirs and their implication on hydrocarbon exploration: A case study from the eastern Tarim Basin, NW China

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    Shiwei Huang


    Full Text Available Carbonate rocks are deposited in the Ordovician, Cambrian, and Sinian of eastern Tarim Basin with a cumulative maximum thickness exceeding 2000 m. They are the main carriers of oil and gas, and a great deal of natural gas has been found there in the past five years. Based on lithofacies and reservoir differences, natural gas exploration domains of eastern Tarim Basin can be classified into five types: Ordovician platform limestone; Ordovician platform dolomite; Cambrian platform margin mound shoal; Cambrian slope gravity flow deposits, and; Sinian dolomite. Carbonate reservoir characteristics of all the types were synthetically analyzed through observation on drilling core and thin sections, porosity and permeability measurement, and logging data of over 10 drilling wells. We find distribution of part of good fracture and cave reservoir in carbonate platform limestone of Ordovician. In the Ordovician, platform facies dolomite is better than limestone, and in the Cambrian, platform margin mound shoal dolomite has large stacking thickness. Good quality and significantly thick carbonate gravity deposit flow can be found in the Cambrian slope, and effective reservoir has also been found in Sinian dolomite. Commercial gas has been found in the limestone and dolomite of Ordovician in Shunnan and Gucheng areas. Exploration experiences from these two areas are instructive, enabling a deeper understanding of this scene.

  15. Seismically-generated hydroplastic deformation structures in the Late Miocene lacustrine deposits of the Malatya Basin, eastern Turkey (United States)

    Koç Taşgın, Calibe


    The Late Miocene succession of continental deposits in the Malatya Basin, eastern Anatolia, comprises alluvial-fan, lacustrine and fluvial facies associations. This fault-bounded basin formed in a tectonically active region, notorious for strong earthquakes still today. The lacustrine deposits in the northern part of the basin show several isolated horizons of soft-sediment deformation, including such structures as slump folds, load and flame features, sand dikes and small-scale synsedimentary reverse faults with associated folds. There is no direct evidence supporting instabilities due to unequal loading or overloading, wave-induced cyclical and/or impulsive stresses, sudden changes in groundwater level or bioturbation capable of producing these deformation structures. The soft-sediment deformation structures described in the lacustrine deposits are interpreted as having developed as a result of seismic activity taking place along the Malatya fault zone, based on the tectonic setting of the basin, the lateral extent of the soft-sediment deformation structures over hundreds of metres, their confinement by undeformed layers, the presence of complex structures, and similarities with structures interpreted as being seismically induced in other areas and those obtained experimentally.

  16. NW CSC annual report fiscal year 2013 (United States)

    Bisbal, Gustavo A.


    The Northwest Climate Science Center (NW CSC) was established in 2010 as one of eight regional Climate Science Centers created by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The NW CSC encompasses Washing-ton, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana and has overlapping boundaries with three Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs): the Great Northern, the Great Basin, and the North Pacific. With guidance from its Executive Stakeholder Advisory Committee (ESAC), the NW CSC and its partner LCCs are addressing the highest priority regional climate science needs of Northwest natural and cultural resource managers. Climate Science Centers tap into the scientific expertise of both the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and academic institutions. The NW CSC is supported by an academic consortium with the capacity to generate climate science and tools in a coordinated fashion, serving stakeholders across the Northwest region. This consortium is primarily represented by Oregon State University (OSU), the University of Id-ho (UI), and the University of Washington (UW). The academic consortium and USGS provide capabilities in climate science, ecology, impacts and vulnerability assessment, modeling, adaptation planning, and advanced information technology, all necessary to address and respond to climate change in the Northwest. University members also recruit and train graduate students and early-career scientists. This Annual Report summarizes progress for the goals set out in the NW CSC Strategic Plan for 2012-2015 ( and the NW CSC Work-plan for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 (October 1, 2012 through September 30, 2013). The report follows the structure of the Strategic Plan, which describes the five core services (Executive, Science, Data, Communications, and Education and Training) provided by the NW CSC in support of the stated vision: Our Vision: To become nationally recognized as a best-practice model for the provision

  17. Late Pleistocene-Holocene evolution of the southern Marmara shelf and sub-basins: middle strand of the North Anatolian fault, southern Marmara Sea, Turkey (United States)

    Vardar, Denizhan; Öztürk, Kurultay; Yaltırak, Cenk; Alpar, Bedri; Tur, Hüseyin


    Although there are many research studies on the northern and southern branches of the North Anatolian fault, cutting through the deep basins of the Sea of Marmara in the north and creating a series of pull-apart basins on the southern mainland, little data is available about the geometrical and kinematical characteristics of the middle strand of the North Anatolian fault. The first detailed geometry of the middle strand of the North Anatolian fault along the southern Marmara shelf, including the Gemlik and Bandırma Bay, will be given in this study, by a combined interpretation of different seismic data sets. The characteristic features of its segments and their importance on the paleogeographic evolution of the southern shelf sub-basins were defined. The longest one of these faults, the Armutlu-Bandırma segment, is a 75-km long dextral strike-slip fault which connects the W-E trending Gençali segment in the east and NE-SW trending Kapıdağ-Edincik segment in the west. In this context, the Gemlik Bay opened as a pull-apart basin under the control of the middle strand whilst a new fault segment developed during the late Pleistocene, cutting through the eastern rim of the bay. In this region, a delta front forming the paleoshoreline of the Gemlik paleolake was cut and shifted approximately 60 ± 5 m by the new segment. The same offset on this fault was also measured on a natural scarp of acoustic basement to the west and integrated with this paleoshoreline forming the slightly descending topset-foreset reflections of the delta front. Therefore the new segment is believed to be active at least for the last 30,000 years. The annual lateral slip rate representing this period of time will be 2 mm, which is quite consistent with modern GPS measurements. Towards the west, the Bandırma Bay is a rectangular transpressional basin whilst the Erdek Bay is a passive basin under the control of NW-SE trending faults. When the water level of the paleo-Marmara lake dropped down

  18. Effects of neotectonic and sedimentary processes on the seafloor geomorphology of the Tekirdag Basin of the western Marmara Sea (Turkey) (United States)

    Ergin, Mustafa; Yigit-Faridfathi, Füsun


    This study forms part of a project (TUBITAK YDABCAG 101Y071) with the main purpose of investigation of late Quaternary slope stability, sediment mass movements and turbidite formations in the tectonically active Tekirdag Basin and its margins from the western Marmara Sea. The results were also intended to relate to the major earthquakes and sea-level changes. During this project, in 2001 aboard the former R/V MTA Sismik-1, a total of 100 km seismic reflection profiles were obtained along three tracklines representing from shelf to slope to deep basin environments. A multichannel airgun seismic system and well-known methods and principles of seismic stratigraphy was used for interpretations. At 11 sites from 29 to 1111 m water depths gravity sediment cores were taken having 100 to 359 cm recoveries and textural and structural characteristics were determined using standard petrographic methods. The NEE-SWW directed seismic profile (TKD-01) which runs parallel to the North Anatolian Fault zone displayed syntectonic sedimentation with negative flower structure that increased in thickness toward the Ganos Fault and pinched out in the east. ENE section of this profile also bears structures of underwater landslides with slump facies. Seismic profile TKD-02 which crosses the Tekirdag Basin in WNW-ESE direction most likely displays major 3 fault segments of the NAF zone. Many faults and syntectonic sedimentation structure can be recognized on this profile. A morphological feature of a sediment wedge or former lowstand delta at the present shelf edge can be related to the effects of last sea-level change. Mounded and chaotic seismic reflection configurations which indicate channel and slope-front fill as well as slump facies are thought to reflect submarine slides and slumps. Other morphological features such as incised submarine valleys or channels running E-W direction are also present on this profile. The seismic profile (TKD-03) runs from NNW to SSE across the basin and

  19. Land subsidence and caprock dolines caused by subsurface gypsum dissolution and the effect of subsidence on the fluvial system in the Upper Tigris Basin (between Bismil Batman, Turkey) (United States)

    Doğan, Uğur


    Karstification-based land subsidence was found in the Upper Tigris Basin with dimensions not seen anywhere else in Turkey. The area of land subsidence, where there are secondary and tertiary subsidence developments, reaches 140 km 2. Subsidence depth ranges between 40 and 70 m. The subsidence was formed as a result of subsurface gypsum dissolution in Lower Miocene formation. Although there are limestones together with gypsum and Eocene limestone below them in the area, a subsidence with such a large area is indicative of karstification in the gypsum. The stratigraphical cross-sections taken from the wells and the water analyses also verify this fact. The Lower Miocene gypsum, which shows confined aquifer features, was completely dissolved by the aggressive waters injected from the top and discharged through by Zellek Fault. This resulted in the development of subsidence and formation of caprock dolines on loosely textured Upper Miocene-Pliocene cover formations. The Tigris River runs through the subsidence area between Batman and Bismil. There are four terrace levels as T1 (40 m), T2 (30 m), T3 (10 m) and T4 (4-5 m) in the Tigris River valley. It was also found that there were some movements of the levels of the terraces in the valley by subsidence. The subsidence developed gradually throughout the Quaternary; however no terrace was formed purely because of subsidence.

  20. Histopathological and biochemical alterations of the earthworm (Lumbricus Terrestris) as biomarker of soil pollution along Porsuk River Basin (Turkey). (United States)

    Kılıç, Gözde Aydoğan


    This study investigated biomarker responses of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in order to evaluate the soil pollution along Porsuk River Basin. Samples consisted of animals from six sites that are agricultural regions and a forested control. Histopathological and biochemical alterations were examined. Significant histopathological alterations were observed in animals from three of the sampling sites. There was an enlargement of epithelial cell lining, mucus cell hyperplasia and increase in mucus secretion. Circular and longitudinal muscles lost their structural integrity. Chloragogenous tissue was dilated and vocuolized. Necrosis was observed in the cells and tissues of some affected worms. A load of heavy metals in tissues of animals was determined. Heavy metals were found to be accumulated particularly in longitudinal muscles of animals. CAT activity was found to be increased in animals from three of the experimental sites. GST activity was also increased in five sites while it was stable in one site. The results have shown that animals from locations particularly that are close to urbanized and industrialized regions were seriously affected from the soil pollution around the basin. These results are reflecting the biological effects of soil pollution around Porsuk River Basin on the indicator organism L. terrestris and constitute an early warning of ecological change in relation to human health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fatty acid trophic markers and trophic links among seston, crustacean zooplankton and the siphonophore Nanomia cara in Georges Basin and Oceanographer Canyon (NW Atlantic

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    Sergio Rossi


    Full Text Available Fatty acid concentrations expressed as percentages of total fatty acid pools in seston, stage V copepodites of Calanus finmarchicus, adults of the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica, and the physonect siphonophore Nanomia cara were used to elucidate trophic links in Georges Basin and Oceanographer Canyon in September 2003. Seston at both locations was refractory and comprised mainly of saturated fatty acids. Phytoplankton did not contribute significantly to the fatty acid composition of seston or higher trophic levels. Only four fatty acids, i.e. 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 (n–7 and 18:1 (n–7, were transferred from seston to C. finmarchicus or M. norvegica, which suggested weak trophic interactions. Fatty acids transferred from the two species of crustaceans to N. cara included the same four fatty acids, along with three polyunsaturated fatty acids found in relatively high concentrations in both crustaceans, i.e. 20:3 (n–6, 20:5 (n–3 and 22:6 (n–3. In addition, 18:1 (n–9, which occurred in relatively high concentrations only in M. norvegica, and 18:0 and 18:2 (n–6, which were found in low concentrations in both crustaceans, also appeared to be transferred to N. cara. Overall, fatty acid trophic markers proved useful for identifying trophic links to N. cara.

  2. Hydrochemistry and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) tools applied to the study of karst aquifers in southern mediterranean basin (Teboursouk area, NW Tunisia) (United States)

    Ayadi, Yosra; Mokadem, Naziha; Besser, Houda; Khelifi, Faten; Harabi, Samia; Hamad, Amor; Boyce, Adrian; Laouar, Rabah; Hamed, Younes


    Karst aquifers receive increasing attention in Mediterranean countries as they provide large supplies water used for drinkable and irrigation purposes as well as for electricity production. In Teboursouk basin, Northwestern Tunisia, characterized by a typical karst landscape, the water hosted in the carbonates aquifers provides large parts of water supply for drinkable water and agriculture purposes. Groundwater circulation in karst aquifers is characterized by short residence time and low water-rock interaction caused by high karstification processes in the study area. Ion exchange process, rock dissolution and rainfall infiltration are the principal factors of water mineralization and spatial distribution of groundwater chemistry. The present work attempted to study karstic groundwater in Teboursouk region using hydrochemistry and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) tools. Karst aquifers have good water quality with low salinity levels expressed by TDS values largely below 1.5 g/l with Ca-SO4-Cl water type prevailing in the study area. The aquifers have been recharged by rainfall originating from a mixture of Atlantic and Mediterranean vapor masses.

  3. Geological, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of zeolite deposits associated with borates in the Bigadiç, Emet and Kirka Neogene lacustrine basins, western Turkey (United States)

    Gündogdu, M. N.; Yalçin, H.; Temel, A.; Clauer, N.


    The Bigadiç, Emet and Kirka lacustrine basins of western Turkey may be considered as Tibet-type graben structures that were developed during the Miocene within the Izmir-Ankara suture zone complex. The volcanic-sedimentary successions of these basins are made up of mudstone, carbonate (limestone and dolomite) and detrital rocks, and also of crystal or vitric tuffs about 135 to 200 m thick. The Degirmenli (Bigadiç), Emirler (Bigadiç) Köpenez (Emet) and Karaören (Kirka) tuffs constituting the zeolite deposits are situated beneath four borate deposits (colemanite, ulexite, borax). The most abundant diagenetic silicate minerals are K- and Ca-clinoptilolites in the zeolite deposits, and Li-rich trioctahedral smectites (stevensite, saponite and hectorite) and K-feldspar in the borate deposits. In the Degirmenli, Emirler, Köpenez and Karaören deposits, the following diagenetic facies were developed from rhyolitic glasses rich in K and poor in Na: (glass+smectite), (K-clinoptilolite+opal-CT), (Ca-clinoptilolite+K-feldspar±analcime± quartz) and (K-feldspar+analcime+quartz). K-feldspar which is also rarely associated with phillipsite (Karaören) and heulandite (Degirmenli and Karaören), succeeds clinoptilolite and precedes analcime in these diagenetic facies where dioctahedral smectites, opal-CT and quartz are the latest minerals. No diagenetic transformations exist between clinoptilolite, K-feldspar and analcime that were formed directly from glass. The lateral facies distributions resulted from the differences in salinity and pH of pore water trapped during deposition of the tuffs, but vertical distributions in vitric tuffs seem to have been controlled by the glass/liquid ratio of the reacting system and the permeability or diffusion rate of alkali elements. The Bigadiç, Emet and Kirka zeolite deposits which were formed in saline basins rich in Ca and Mg ions, show similar chemical changes, i.e. loss of alkalis and gain in alkaline-earth elements that have taken

  4. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yatağan basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas


    The subject of this study is the palynology (biostratigraphic and taxonomic) and the plant remains of the lignite strip mines of Eskihisar, Salihpasalar, and Tinaz (Muğla province, western Turkey). In the Yatağan basin two Miocene to Pliocene formations are present, the Eskihisar Formation (early to middle Miocene) and the Yatağan Formation (late Miocene to early Pliocene). Both formations represent river and lake deposits consisting mainly of conglomerate, sandstone, claystone, limestone, tuffite, and intercalated lignite; the thickest, actively mined lignite seams occur in the Sekköy member of the Eskihisar Formation. Previous palynological studies of the palynoflora of the Yatağan basin mainly focussed on its biostratigraphic and palaeoclimatic significance, using conventional morphological nomenclature and light microscopy (LM). In this study the "single grain method" is applied. Using this method, the same individual pollen grains are investigated by using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting high-resolution pictographs enable a much higher taxonomic resolution. The studied palynoflora is very rich and taxonomically diverse. Cryptogams are represented by more than ten spore morphotypes of at least three families (Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae, Polypodiaceae). Gymnosperm pollen is dominated by Cupressaceae, Gnetales (Ephedra), and Pinaceae (Cathaya, Keteleeria, Pinus). Angiosperm pollen can be assigned to 57 different genera belonging to Poaceae, Typhaceae, Altingiaceae, Amaranthaceae (Chenopodieae), Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae (three types), Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichoriodeae), Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Ostrya) Buxaceae, Campanulaceae, Caprifoliaceae (Lonicera), Caryophyllaceae, Dipsacaceae, Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus, Trigonobalanopsis) Geraniaceae, Juglandaceae, Linaceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae, Oleaceae (four different types), Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae (Rumex), Rosaceae

  5. Deformation mechanisms accommodating the emplacement of an igneous sill-complex in the Irish sector of the Rockall Basin, offshore NW Ireland (United States)

    Magee, Craig; Jackson, Christopher; Schofield, Nick


    Magma intrusion within the subsurface is heavily influenced by the pre-existing architecture of the upper crust and, depending on the emplacement mechanisms, may modify basin structure and fluid flow pathways. Seismic reflection data reveal that intrusive networks predominantly consist of interconnected, saucer-shaped sills that are often associated with dome-shaped 'forced' folds generated by intrusion-induced uplift. Previous studies of intrusion-related forced folds have primarily focused on isolated sills or laccoliths and have shown that the fold amplitude is less than the intrusion thickness, suggesting that additional space-making mechanisms (e.g. grain comminution, fluidization) accompanied emplacement. Furthermore, forced folding is often considered as an instantaneous process over geological time. However, fold growth and the interplay between accompanying ductile and brittle deformation styles remains poorly understood. Here, we use 3D seismic reflection data from the eastern margin of the Irish Rockall Basin, NE Atlantic, to quantitatively study eighty-two igneous intrusions (i.e. saucer-shaped sills and inclined sheets) in order to constrain the emplacement history of a Palaeocene-to-Middle Eocene sill-complex. Emplacement occurred across a Cretaceous clastic-to-marl dominated succession at palaeodepths of <5 km. Northwards-dipping, planar transgressive sheet intrusions are most abundant in the deeper portion of the sill-complex and magma flow indicators within them (i.e. steps and broken bridges) reveal that magma flowed upwards and outwards, feeding into shallow-level saucer-shaped sills at the peak of the transgressive limbs. The saucer-shaped sills are characterized by radial magma flow patterns, emanating from the inner sill, distinguished by mapping the long axes of magma lobes and fingers. These magma flow indictors also provide a proxy for intrusion style; i.e. where sills intrude the Lower Cretaceous sandstones, magma propagation was

  6. Discussion on ;Neogene-Quaternary evolution of the Tefenni basin on the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone, SW Anatolia-Turkey. Journal of African Earth Science 118, 137-148; by R. Aksoy, S. Aksarı (United States)

    Alçiçek, M. Cihat; Mayda, Serdar; Demirel, F. Arzu


    The study by Aksoy and Aksarı (2016); (1) omits key fossil localities resulting in erroneous age estimates for their rock units, and (2) excludes and/or refers incorrectly pre-existing key studies in their research field. As the study is based on no age data, their proposal of NW-SE directed crustal extension that transitions to transtension is flawed. In this comment we summarize pre-existing age data and highlight its vital importance for yielding accurate information on the evolution of the Burdur Basin.

  7. Burial history and thermal maturity assessment of Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary formations in the Cankiri Basin, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokatli, Kemaleddin [Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO), Exploration Group, Eskisehir Road/Ankara (Turkey); Demirel, Ismail H.; Karayigit, Ali Ihsan [Department of Geological Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey)


    A burial history and thermal maturity investigation has been carried out on Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary deposits from the Cankiri Basin. This basin, which contains post-deformational deposits of Campanian-Maastrichtian to Pliocene ages, forms part of a rich hydrocarbon province defined by the presence of potential hydrocarbon source rocks. The stratigraphic sequence was recorded at the Cankiri, Bayat areas and Topuzsaray-1 and Sagpazar-1 wells. At each area, the succession was found to be incomplete and important unconformities were present indicating periods of non-deposition and/or erosion. These unconformities are of variable extent. A potential source-rock interval of Upper Ypresian and Lutetian, the Yoncali Formation which has only the organic-rich strata among the other formations in the Cankiri Basin, has been identified. It is composed of laminated dark gray shales dominated by Type III kerogen with turbiditic sandstones, which were deposited in relatively deep water conditions. Total organic carbon content values range from 0.5 to 1.0%. Assessments of time-temperature index (TTI) values indicate that the top of the main zone of oil generation is at a depth of 3000-3250-m, and the onset of oil generation window, for the Bayat area, took place in the Miocene (10.5 My ago) and continued into the present. Coal samples collected from the Karabalcik Formation of Lutetian age are high in ash and sulfur. Petrographic identifications on the polished blocks in reflected light indicate that the coal samples include abundant huminite/vitrinite group macerals. Mean random huminite/vitrinite reflectance values of the coal samples are between 0.51 and 0.53 %Rrandom oil (av. 0.52 %Rr oil), indicating low-rank coals (subbituminous A/high volatile C bituminous) according to the ASTM classification. (author)

  8. Geochemical characteristics of fault core and damage zones of the Hong-Che Fault Zone of the Junggar Basin (NW China) with implications for the fault sealing process (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Wu, Kongyou; Wang, Xi; Pei, Yangwen; Liu, Bo; Guo, Jianxun


    Faults may have a complex internal structure, including fault core and damage zone, and can act as major conduits for fluid migration. The migration of fluids along faults is generally associated with strong fluid-rock interaction, forming large amounts of cement that fill in the fractures. The cementation of the fault fractures is considered to be one of the important parameters of fault sealing. The different components of faults have diverse geochemical features because of varying physical characteristics. The investigation of the geochemical characteristics of the fault and damage zones could provide important information about the fault sealing process, which is very important in oil and gas exploration. To understand the fault-cemented sealing process, detailed geochemical studies were conducted on the fault and damage zones of the Hong-Che Fault of the northwestern Junggar Basin in China. The major and trace element data of our study suggest that the fault core is characterized by higher loss on ignition (LOI), potassium loss, Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), and Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA) values and lower high field strength element (HFSE), large-ion lithosphile element (LILE), and rare earth element (REE) concentrations compared with the damage zone, implying more serious elemental loss and weathering of the fault core compared with the damage zone during faulting. The carbon and oxygen isotope data reveal that the cement of the Hong-Che Fault Zone formed due to multiple sources of fluids. The fault core was mainly affected by deep sources of hydrothermal fluids. In combination with previous studies, we suggest a potential fault-cemented sealing process during the period of fault movement. The fault core acts as the fluid conduit during faulting. After faulting, the fault core is cemented and the damage zone becomes the major conduit for fluid migration. The cementation firstly occurs on two sides of the damage zone in the upper part of the

  9. Soil erosion assessment using geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) study from Ankara-Guvenc Basin, Turkey. (United States)

    Dengiz, Orhan; Yakupoglu, Tugrul; Baskan, Oguz


    The objective of this research was to assess vulnerable soil erosion risk with qualitative approach using GIS in Ankara-Guvenc Basin. The study area is located about 44 km north of Ankara and covers 17.5 km2. The selected theme layers of this model include topographic factor, soil factors (depth, texture, impermeable horizon) and land use. Slope layer and land use-land cover data were prepared by using DEM and Landsat-TM satellite image. According to land use classification, the most common land use type and land cover are rangeland (50.5%) then, rainfed (36.4%), week forest land (3.2%), irrigated land (0.7%) and other various lands (rock out crop and lake) (9.2%). Each land characteristic is also considered as a thematic layer in geographical information systems (GIS) process. After combination of the layers, soil erosion risk map was produced. The results showed that 44.4% of the study area is at high soil erosion risk, whereas 42% of the study area is insignificantly and slightly susceptible to erosion risk. In addition, it was found that only 12.6% of the total area is moderately susceptible to erosion risk. Furthermore, conservation land management measures were also suggested for moderate, high and very high erosion risk areas in Ankara-Guvenc Basin.

  10. The effect of weathering in the Buyukmelen River basin on the geochemistry of suspended and bed sediments and the hyrogeochemical characteristics of river water, Duzce, Turkey (United States)

    Pehlivan, Rustem


    The Buyukmelen River is expected to be a water source that can supply the drinking water needs of Istanbul until 2040. The drinking and utility water needs of Istanbul are to transport water from the Buyukmelen River to Istanbul via pipeline and pump it into the Alibeykoy and Omerli reservoirs when their water levels drop. The Buyukmelen River is located in the province of Duzce in 170 km east of Istanbul and its water basin is approximately 2250 km 2. The Buyukmelen River flows muddy in the rainy season and into the Black Sea. The chemical compositions of natural waters alter due to interaction with geological formations, physical and chemical weathering of various rocks and the effects of mining and agricultural production. A research was conducted at the Buyukmelen River basin to determine the effects of hydrological processes. Therefore, the samples of rocks, soil, stream water, suspended and bed sediment were collected from the Buyukmelen River basin. Geochemical and water chemistry analyses of samples were performed at ALS Chemex laboratories, Canada. The bed sediments contain quartz, calcite, plagioclase, amphibole and clay minerals. The clay minerals in the suspended and bed sediment samples are kaolinite, smectite and illite. The water samples collected from the Aksu, Kucukmelen, Asarsu and Ugursuyu streams and the Buyukmelen River in winter (December 2005) and summer (June 2006) periods are rich in Ca and HCO 3 ions. The ions most abundant in rainfall sample are HCO 3 and Na. The ion compositions of surface waters have increased due to the weathering of limestone, agglomerate and volcanic sandstones, light acidic rainfall, semi-arid Black Sea climate in the Buyukmelen basin. The suspended sediment amount of the Buyukmelen River in the rainy season (December 2005) is 174 mg/l. According to the water contamination regulation of Turkey, the Buyukmelen Rivers belongs to quality class 4 based on Al ion and to quality class 3 based on Fe ion in winter period

  11. Hydrogeological features and environmental impacts of geothermal waters in the Yıldız River Basin (Sivas, Turkey). (United States)

    Keskin, Tülay Ekemen; Kaçaroğlu, Fikret


    The study area, located in the Yıldız River Basin (Sivas), has eight geothermal waters, which are used for balneotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the natural and/or anthropogenic water pollution in terms of drinking and irrigation water in the Sıcak Çermik, Uyuz Çermiği, and Hamzaşeyh Çermiği geothermal areas. Na+, Cl-, SO4(-2), B, Mn, Fe, As, and Se concentrations of the geothermal waters generally exceed the upper limits stated in the Turkish Standards for Water Intended for Human Consumption and World Health Organization regulations. Based on the irrigation water classification by the U.S. Salinity Laboratory Diagram, it is concluded that these waters may have hazardous levels of salinity and sodium when used as irrigation water. Wastewater from these health and tourism centers is discharged into the Yıldız River and to agricultural land. This procedure causes increase in the concentrations of major and minor elements and negatively affects the river water quality.

  12. Planktonic and benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Middle Eocene–Lower Miocene successions from the Sivas Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakyemez Aynur


    Full Text Available Planktonic and benthic foraminifera are described from the Middle Eocene-Lower Miocene successions in the Sivas Basin, Central Anatolia. An integrated foraminiferal zonation provides new age assignments in terms of a great number of taxa for the studied sections. Four biostratigraphical intervals are first recorded based on the concurrent ranges of sporadically occurring but well preserved planktonic foraminiferal assemblages. The first interval characterized by the co-occurrences of Acarinina bullbrooki, Truncorotaloides topilensis and Turborotalia cerroazulensis is referable to the E11 Zone of late Lutetian–early Bartonian. An assemblage yielding Paragloborotalia opima accompanied by Globigerinella obesa forms a basis for the late Chattian O5 Zone. The successive interval corresponds to the late Chattian O6 Zone indicated by the presence of Globigerina ciperoensis and Globigerinoides primordius along with the absence of Paragloborotalia opima. The early Aquitanian M1 Zone can be tentatively defined based mainly on the assemblage of Globigerina, Globigerinella, Globoturborotalita and Tenuitella. The biostratigraphical data obtained from the benthic foraminifera assign the studied sections to the SBZ 21–22, SBZ 23 and SBZ 24 ranging in age from Rupelian to Aquitanian. The SBZ 23 and 24 are well constrained biozones by the occurrences of Miogypsinella complanata and Miogypsina gunteri, respectively, whereas the SBZ 21–22 defined by nummulitids and lepidocylinids in the Tethyan Shallow Benthic Zonation is characterized dominantly by peneroplids, soritids and miliolids in the studied sections. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages suggest different paleoenvironments covering lagoon, algal reef and shallow open marine whereas planktonic foraminifera provides evidence for relatively deep marine settings on the basis of assemblages characterized by a mixture of small-sized simple and more complex morphogroups indicative for intermediate depths of

  13. A landscape-scale study of land use and parent material effects on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the Konya Basin, Turkey (United States)

    Mayes, M. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Ozdogan, M.; Erdogan, M. A.


    In ecosystems where intensive farming and grazing have been occurring for millennia, there is poor understanding of how present-day soil biogeochemical properties relate to factors associated with soil parent materials (e.g. texture, mineralogy), and the net effects of long-term land use practices. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TN) are important for their roles in maintaining soil structure, moisture, fertility and contributing to carbon sequestration. Our research used a state factor approach (Jenny 1981) to study effects of soil parent materials and land use practices on SOC, TN, and other properties across thirty-five sites in the Konya Basin, an arid region in south-central Turkey farmed and grazed for over 8,000 years. This project is one of the first to study land use impacts on soils at a landscape scale (500 km2) in south-central Turkey, and incorporate geospatial data (e.g. a satellite imagery-derived land cover map we developed) to aid selection of field sites. Focusing on the plough layer (0-25cm) in two depth intervals, we compared effects of agriculture, orchard cultivation and grazing land use practices and clay-loam alluvial, sandy-loam volcanic and lacustrine clay soils on soil properties using standard least squares regression analyses. SOC and TN depended strongly on parent materials, but not on land use. Averaged across both depth intervals, alluvial soil SOC and TN concentrations (19.4 ± 1.32 Mg/ha SOC, 2.86 ± 1.23 Mg/ha TN) were higher and significantly different than lacustrine (9.72 ± 3.01 Mg/ha SOC, 1.57 ± 0.69 Mg/ha TN) and volcanic soil concentrations (7.40 ± 1.72 Mg/ha SOC, 1.02 ± 0.35 Mg/ha TN). Land use significantly affected SOC and TN on alluvial soils, but not on volcanic or lacustrine soils. Our results demonstrate the potential for land use to have different effects on different soils in this region. Our data on SOC, TN and other soil properties illustrate patterns in regional SOC and TN variability not

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variation of the Extreme Saharan Dust Event over Turkey in March 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakki Baltaci


    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of an extraordinary Saharan dust episode over Turkey on 23–24 March 2016 and the atmospheric conditions that triggered this event were evaluated in detail. PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 μm observations from 97 air quality stations, METAR (Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Report observations at 64 airports, atmospheric soundings, and satellite products were used for the analysis. To determine the surface and upper levels of atmospheric circulation, National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Reanalysis data were applied to the extreme dust episodes. On 23 March 2016, high southwesterly winds due to the interaction between surface low- and high-pressure centers over Italy and Levant basin brought thick dust particles from Libya to Turkey. The daily PM10 data from 43 stations exceeded their long-term spring means over Turkey (especially at the northern and western stations. As a consequence of the longitudinal movement of the surface low from Italy to the Balkan Peninsula, and the quasi-stationary conditions of the surface high-pressure center allowed for the penetration of strong south and southwesterly winds to inner parts of the country on the following day. As a consequence, 100%, 90%, 88%, and 87% of the monitoring stations in Marmara (NW Turkey, central Anatolia, western (Aegean and northern (Black Sea regions of Turkey, respectively, exhibited above-normal daily PM10 values. In addition, while strong subsidence at the low levels of the atmosphere plays a significant role in having excessive daily PM10 values in Black Sea, dry atmospheric conditions and thick inversion level near the ground surface of Marmara ensured this region to have peak PM10 values ~00 Local Time (LT.

  15. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey) (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas


    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  16. Composite biostratigraphy and microfacies analysis of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous carbonate platform to slope successions in Sivrihisar (Eskişehir) region (NW Turkey, Pontides): Remarks on the palaeogeographic evolution of the Western Sakarya Zo (United States)

    Atasoy, Serdar G.; Altıner, Demir; Okay, Aral I.


    Two stratigraphical sections were measured along the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous carbonate successions exposed in a tectonic klippe of the Sakarya Zone (Pontides), north of Sivrihisar. According to the biozonation and microfacies types, two coeval but dissimiliar rock successions, separated by a thrust fault, have been detected. These successions belong to different depositional belts of the Edremit-Bursa-Bilecik Carbonate Platform (EBBCP), western Sakarya Zone. The lower succession displays a slope to basin facies and consists of the Kimmeridgian - Berriasian Yosunlukbayırı Formation and the overlying Valanginian Soǧukçam Limestone. Within these deposits the following biozones were defined: Globuligerina oxfordiana - Mohlerina basiliensis Zone (Kimmeridgian), Saccocoma Zone (Lower Tithonian), Protopeneroplis ultragranulata Zone (Upper Tithonian), Crassicollaria (massutiana subzone) Zone (uppermost Tithonian), Calpionella (alpina, Remaniella, elliptica subzones) Zone (Lower Berriasian), Calpionellopsis (simplex, oblonga subzones) Zone (Upper Berriasian) and Calpionellites (darderi subzone) Zone (Lower Valanginian). This succession is overthrusted from north to south by another distinct succession characterized by the shallow marine carbonate facies of the Kimmeridgian Günören Formation. Within this unit Labyrinthina mirabilis - Protopeneroplis striata (Kimmeridgian) Zone is recognized. A facies model is proposed for the Sivrihisar transect of the EBBCP for Kimmeridgian - Valanginian interval, based on the distribution of microfacies types. The toe-of-slope facies are characterized by peloidal-bioclastic packstone, mudstone-wackestone and calpionellid/ radiolarian wackestone-packstone comprising pelagic taxa (calpionellids, radiolaria, Globochaete sp., Pithonella sp., Saccocoma sp., calcareous dinocysts, aptychi, very rare planktonic foraminifera and nannoconids) and rare fossil groups transported from the carbonate platform (benthic foraminifera

  17. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.


    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  18. Pliocene Quaternary faulting in the Lycian Taurides - new insights into the neotectonic evolution of SW Turkey (United States)

    Ten Veen, J.; Huibregtse, J.; Zwart, L.


    The submarine Anaximander Mountains connect the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs and form a zone that accommodates the different tectonic regimes along these arcs. The Lycian Tauride Mountains in southwestern Turkey are situated just north of the Anaximander Mts. and likely have a comparable neotectonic evolution. The Lycian Taurides comprise the Bey Daglari positioned between the Lycian Nappes in the west and the Antalya Nappe Complex in the east. Here we focus on two tectonic basins, the Kasaba and Esen Çay basins, that are located in the Bey Daglari and Lycian Nappes respectively. Until the Langhian, NW-SW compression associated with the emplacement of the Lycian Nappes, caused (ductile) folding of the Bey Daglari autochthon and syntectonic sedimentation in a NE-SW trending foreland-type basin. After foreland deposition of Upper Miocene (Langhian-Serravallian) conglomerates, a phase of S-vergent thrusting and reverse faulting started, probably related to the late Miocene - Early Pliocene Aksu phase. Fault data from the Kasaba basin show that the Pliocene-Recent tectonic evolution is characterized by extension, although no sedimentary basins formed. From slickensides, striae and other kinematic indicators, in combination with stratigraphical and geomorphological information, 3 extensional fault phases are inferred: (1) ?Pliocene (post Miocene) WNW-ESE extension, forming approximately N-S trending asymmetrical grabens. (2) More recent (?Pleistocene) NE-SW extension that resulted in large 135^o tilt-block basins that are cut by less pronounced 070^o left lateral strike-slip faults. The Pleistocene - Recent period is dominated by N-S extension that resulted in formation of 90^o -100^o normal faults and reactivation of older (normal) faults. Although extension prevails, exhumation and lowering of base level, evident from crosscutting scree, point at relative uplift. From the structural data of the Esen Çay Basin, 2 extensional phases are inferred: (1) Pliocene E

  19. Deformation History of the Haymana Basin: Structural Records of Closure-Collision and Subsequent Convergence (Indentation) Events at the North-Central Neotethys (Central Anatolia, Turkey) (United States)

    Gülyüz, Erhan; Özkaptan, Murat; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin


    Gondwana- (Tauride Platfrom and Kırşehir Block) and Eurasia (Pontides) - derived continental blocks bound the Haymana basin, in the south and north, respectively. Boundaries between these blocks are signed by İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan and debatable Intra-Tauride Suture zones which are straddled by the Haymana Basin in the region. In this regard, deformation recorded in the upper Cretaceous to middle Eocene deposits of the basin is mainly controlled by the relative movements of these blocks. Therefore, understanding the structural evolution of the Haymana Basin in a spatio-temporal concept is crucial to shed some light on some debatable issues such as ; (1) timing of late stage subduction histories of various branches of Neotethys and subsequent collision events, (2) effects of post-collisional tectonic activity in the Haymana region. Fault kinematic analyses (based on 623 fault-slip data from 73 stations) indicate that the basin was subjected to initially N-S to NNE-SSW extension until middle Paleocene and then N-S- to NNE-SSW- directed continuous compression and coeval E-W to ESE-WNW extension up to middle Miocene. These different deformation phases correspond to the fore-arc (closure) and foreland (collision and further convergence) stages of the basin. Additionally, fold analyses (based on 1017 bedding attitudes) and structural mapping studies show that development of folds and major faults are coeval and they can be explained by principle stress orientations of the second deformation phase. The Haymana basin is, based on the trends of E-W- and WNW-ESE- directed structures at the south-eastern and the north-western parts of the basin, respectively, divided into two structural segments. The balanced cross-sections also indicate ~4% and ~25% shortening at the north-western and south-eastern segments, respectively. The differences in amounts of shortenings are explained by reduce in effectiveness zone of basin-bounding thrust faults towards west. On the other hand

  20. Better Buildings NW Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Kevin [Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority, Toledo, OH (United States)


    Districts or ESIDs and what is nationally known as Property Assessed Clean Energy or PACE districts and PACE financing. The project methodology followed the identify, develop, implement, monitor and measure format. These districts began in Toledo and adjoining areas and are expanding to TLCPA’s 28 county financing agency geographic footprint. What began as the Toledo Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement Corporation is now doing business as the Northwest Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement District recognizing it expansion into creating and financing other districts in NW Ohio. The program has been sought out as an advisor by major communities and states in the process of developing similar legislation and programs and has become one of the largest most successful PACE energy improvement and financing districts in the US. The program and the energy district focused on transforming energy use, delivery, conservation and renewable energy as “options of first choice”. The significant energy savings paid for many of the improvements and created a financially viable program well beyond the grant period. The program has become a model within the State of Ohio and Nationally on how to implement and finance projects in broad energy districts including how to evolve and integrate several financing methodologies. It is a unique utilization of revolving loan funds and energy bond pooling with revenue backing primarily from energy improvement special assessments on commercial properties along with some power purchase agreement (PPA) and loan agreement revenue. The program has also incorporated Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, State of Ohio Energy Loans (SEP), utility rebates, solar and renewable energy certificates, renewable tax incentives and grants, and owner funded equity as additional program leverage and funding. Other keys to this success have been a continual simplification and refinement of the application and documentation process to make funding available easily and

  1. Gravity and geothermal anomalies in Borno Basin, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some prominent geothermal anomalies are found occurring in association with gravity anomalies in the Borno basin. Similar gravity anomalies also occur in the Benue and Niger (Nupe) basins. Both the geothermal and gravity anomalies of Borno basin are trending NW-SE similar to the Niger (Nupe) basin, while the Benue ...

  2. Kinematics of a former oceanic plate of the Neotethys revealed by deformation in the Ulukışla basin (Turkey)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürer, Derya; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Matenco, Liviu; Corfu, Fernando; Cascella, Antonio


    Kinematic reconstruction of modern ocean basins shows that since Pangea breakup a vast area in the Neotethyan realm was lost to subduction. Here we develop a first-order methodology to reconstruct the kinematic history of the lost plates of the Neotethys, using records of subducted plates accreted

  3. The late Early Miocene Acıpayam piggy-back basin: Refining the last stages of Lycian nappe emplacement in SW Turkey (United States)

    Alçiçek, Mehmet Cihat; ten Veen, Johan H.

    Alluvial fan to shallow-marine sedimentation in the Acıpayam piggy-back basin took place in the hinterland zone of the SE-facing Lycian nappe stack and constrains the age and style of late-stage advance of these nappes. Syn-orogenic sedimentation commenced in Burdigalian time and is marked by coarse-grained alluvial fan deposits that directly overlie Mesozoic ophiolitic rocks. Palaeocurrent data obtained from these coarse-clastic units suggest a south-southeastward drainage. The succession fines upwards and passes into fluvial deposits that become increasingly enriched in carbonate clasts derived from tectonically deeper-seated nappes, suggesting progressive unroofening of the nappe pile. Upwards, the succession is transitional to a Late Burdigalian-Early Langhian marginal marine succession, consisting of off-shore fines with coal seams that overly both the coarse-clastic sediments and basement rocks. Clastic sedimentation ceased at the end of Early Langhian based on reef carbonates that cap the succession. Shallow-marine deposits and overlying reef carbonates confirm a marine transgression that has been reported from elsewhere in the Tauride Belt. Detailed sedimentology of the Acıpayam basin fill succession, its age and overall tectonic setting imply that during Burdigalian time the succession was deposited in a piggy-back basin, located in the hinterland zone of actively moving thrust sheets. We propose a model in which thick-skinned thrusting invoked inversion of early extensional faults in the autochthon and may explain the generation of large open folds with thick sedimentary sequences in their core. The formation of these large folds may have importantly influenced the frontal accretion such that active shortening moved into the hanging wall resulting in episodic nappe advanced of structurally higher nappes in a mode similar to thin-skin thrusting. The tectonosedimentary evolution of the Acıpayam piggy-back is strongly dependent on its position relative to

  4. Accumulation of heavy metals with water quality parameters in Kızılırmak River Basin (Delice River) in Turkey. (United States)

    Akbulut, Nuray Emir; Tuncer, A Murat


    Kızılırmak River has been used as Ankara's drinking water source for approximately 1.5 years. Therefore, this region's water, sediment, and fish samples are measured for detecting the heavy metals. This is important for the current situation as well as the future in terms of potential impact. The amount of heavy metals in drinking water should be within the limited values; otherwise, the accumulation of heavy metals will cause many problems to living organisms. Especially high levels of arsenic, cadmium, nickel, mercury, etc. are very dangerous to freshwater ecosystems as for human if the water is being use as drinking water. In this study, water, sediment samples, muscle, and gills of three fish species (Capoeta tinca, Capoeta capoeta, Leuciscus cephalus) were analyzed for the presence of heavy metals such as (Al, Fe, As, Cd, Ni, Mn, Se, Si) to determine present accumulation levels and possible toxic effect. The accumulation pattern of heavy metals in the water, sediment, and fish tissue follows the sequence: Si>Fe>Al>Mn>As>Ni>Se>Cd, Fe>Al>Mn>Ni>As>Se>Cd, and Fe>Al>Mn>As>Ni>Si>Cd. In addition, the detected concentrations of heavy metals in the Kızılırmak and Delice Rivers are compared with other heavy metal studies in the other main rivers and lakes in Turkey.

  5. U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from Cenozoic sediments in the southwestern Tarim Basin, NW China: Implications for Eocene-Pliocene source-to-sink relations and new insights into Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatic sources (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Fu, Ling; Wu, Chaodong; Song, Yan; Jiang, Zhenxue; Luo, Qun; Zhang, Ziya; Zhang, Chen; Zhu, Bei


    A detailed investigation of potential provenance is still lacking in the southwestern Tarim Basin, which restricts our complete understanding of Cenozoic source-to-sink relations between the basin interior and the Pamir salient - western Kunlun Mountain Range. Debate also exists concerning the potential sources of the Paleogene and Cretaceous igneous detritus present in the Cenozoic sedimentary sequences. Here, we present U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS) ages of detrital zircons from the continuous Eocene-Pliocene sediment series in the well-exposed Aertashi section to investigate changes in sediment provenance through time. The U-Pb detrital zircon ages range widely from 45 to 3204 Ma and can be divided into seven main groups: 45-65 Ma (sub-peak at 49 Ma), 67-103 Ma (sub-peak at 95 Ma), 196-251 Ma (sub-peak at 208 Ma), 252-416 Ma (sub-peak at 296 Ma), 417-540 Ma (sub-peak at 446 Ma), 550-1429 Ma (sub-peaks at 614 Ma, 828 Ma and 942 Ma) and 1345-3204 Ma (sub-peaks at 1773 Ma and 2480 Ma). These zircons were mainly derived from the western Kunlun Mountain Range and northern Pamir salient to the west and south. The evolution of the provenance and source-to-sink relationship patterns in the southwestern Tarim Basin can be divided into three stages: (1) The Middle Eocene to Lower Oligocene sediments display a wide variety of detrital zircon ages, suggesting that the source area was extensive. (2) A major change in provenance occurred during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene and was characterized by an abrupt increase in the proportion of Triassic and Lower Paleozoic igneous components, implying a significant adjustment in topography induced by the initial uplift and exhumation of the western Kunlun Mountain Range and northern Pamir salient. (3) In the Late Miocene, the source-to-sink system transformed again, and contributions of Triassic to Lower Paleozoic material weakened substantially due to the sufficient indentation of the Pamir salient. Our integrated analyses of zircon

  6. Miocene tectonic history of the Central Tauride intramontane basins, and the paleogeographic evolution of the Central Anatolian Plateau (United States)

    Koç, Ayten; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Kuiper, Klaudia F.


    suggest that the extension we documented in the Central Tauride intramontane basins are in part responsible for the major topography that characterizes the Central Taurides today. The causes of extension remain engmatic, but we suggest that the tomographically imaged Antalya Slab may have caused the contemporaneous formation of NE-SW trending syn-contractional basins in the west and NW-SE trending Central Tauride intramontane basins in the east by slab retreat. Our study highlights that the Neogene deformation history, and perhabs even active tectonics, may be strongly affected by complex slab geometry in SW Turkey, and that crustal deformation plays an important role in generating the Miocene Tauride topography. The role of this crustal deformation needs to be taken into account in attempts to explain the ride of the Taurides and the evolution of the Anatolian Plateau.

  7. Petrogenesis and geodynamics of plagiogranites from Central Turkey (Ekecikdağ/Aksaray): new geochemical and isotopic data for generation in an arc basin system within the northern branch of Neotethys (United States)

    Köksal, Serhat; Toksoy-Köksal, Fatma; Göncüoglu, M. Cemal


    In the Late Cretaceous, throughout the closure of the Neotethys Ocean, ophiolitic rocks from the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan ocean branch were overthrusted the northern margin of the Tauride-Anatolide Platform. The ophiolitic rocks in the Ekecikdağ (Aksaray/Central Turkey) region typify the oceanic crust of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan branch of Neotethys. The gabbros in the area are cut by copious plagiogranite dykes, and both rock units are intruded by mafic dykes. The plagiogranites are leucocratic, fine- to medium-grained calc-alkaline rocks characterized mainly by plagioclase and quartz, with minor amounts of biotite, hornblende and clinopyroxene, and accessory phases of zircon, titanite, apatite and opaque minerals. They are tonalite and trondhjemite in composition with high SiO2 (69.9-75.9 wt%) and exceptionally low K2O (<0.5 wt%) contents. The plagiogranites in common with gabbros and mafic dykes show high large-ion lithophile elements/high-field strength element ratios with depletion in Nb, Ti and light rare-earth elements with respect to N-MORB. The plagiogranites together with gabbros and mafic dykes show low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70419-0.70647), high ƐNd( T) (6.0-7.5) values with 206Pb/204Pb (18.199-18.581), 207Pb/204Pb (15.571-15.639) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.292-38.605) ratios indicating a depleted mantle source modified with a subduction component. They show similar isotopic characteristics to the other supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites in the Eastern Mediterranean to East Anatolian-Lesser Caucasus and Iran regions. It is suggested that the Ekecikdağ plagiogranite was generated in a short time interval from a depleted mantle source in a SSZ/fore-arc basin setting, and its nature was further modified by a subduction component during intra-oceanic subduction.

  8. Biomarker geochemistry of bituminous shale sequence and crude oil in the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, Turkey (United States)

    Kara-Gulbay, Reyhan; Erdogan, Mert; Korkmaz, Sadettin; Kadinkiz, Gökhan


    In the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, bituminous shale sequence with thickness ranging between 72 and 160 m occurs in lacustrine deposits of Upper Miocene-Pliocene age. The live oil has also been observed in this bituminous shale sequence. Rock-Eval/TOC, GC and GC-MS analyses were conducted on selected bituminous shale samples from four borehole (key-12/1, key-12/2, key-12/3 key-12/4) and one crude oil sample from a borehole (key-12/2) in the basin. In this study, organic matter type, maturity and depositional environment of bituminous shale are evaluated and the origin of crude oil is determined by the bituminous shale-crude oil correlation. The total organic carbon (TOC) values of the bituminous shale samples range from 1.21-13.98 wt% with an average TOC value of 4.75wt%. The bituminous shale sequence is characterized by high HI (127-662 mg HC/g TOC) and low OI (7-50 mgCO2/TOC). Tmax varies from 332-419ᵒC. Very low Pr/Ph ratios of bituminous shale (0.09-0.22) are indicative of anoxic depositional conditions. C27 is dominate sterane for bituminous shale and crude oil samples with C27>C29>C28. Normal steranes are more dominant compare to iso- and diasteranes. Ouite high sterane/hopane ratios (1.14-2.70) indicate dominant algal organic matter input for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. C31R/hopane ratio for bituminous shale and crude oil samples are very low (0.09-0.13) and these ratio show a lacustrine depositional envirronment for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. Sterane and terpane distributions of bituminous shale and crude oil are very similar. A very good correlation in terms of biomarker between bituminous shale and crude oil samples indicate that source rock of crude oil is bituminous shale. The 22S/(22R + 22S) C32 homohopane ratios of bituminous shale and crude oil samples are found to be 0.56 and 0.61, indicating that homohopane isomerization has attained equilibrium and bituminous shale and crude oil are

  9. Analogue modelling for localization of deformation in the extensional pull-apart basins: comparison with the west part of NAF, Turkey (United States)

    Bulkan, Sibel; Storti, Fabrizio; Cavozzi, Cristian; Vannucchi, Paola


    Analogue modelling remains one of the best methods for investigating progressive deformation of pull apart systems in strike slip faults that are poorly known. Analogue model experiments for the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) system around the Sea of Marmara are extremely rare in the geological literature. Our purpose in this work is to monitor the relation between the horizontal propagation and branching of the strike slip fault, and the structural and topographic expression resulting from this process. These experiments may provide insights into the geometric evolution and kinematic of west part of the NAF system. For this purpose, we run several 3D sand box experiments, appropriately scaled. Plexiglass sheets were purposely cut to simulate the geometry of the NAF. Silicone was placed on the top of these to simulate the viscous lower crust, while the brittle upper crust was simulated with pure dry sand. Dextral relative fault motion was imposed as well using different velocities to reproduce different strain rates and pull apart formation at the releasing bend. Our experiments demonstrate the variation of the shear zone shapes and how the master-fault propagates during the deformation, helping to cover the gaps between geodetic and geologic slip information. Lower crustal flow may explain how the deformation is transferred to the upper crust, and stress partitioned among the strike slip faults and pull-apart basin systems. Stress field evolution seems to play an interesting role to help strain localization. We compare the results of these experiments with natural examples around the western part of NAF and with seismic observations.

  10. Deep crustal structure of northwestern part of Turkey (United States)

    Kaya, Cemal


    The deep crustal structure of the Polatlı-Nallıhan-Karasu (NW Turkey) area was investigated by Magnetotelluric and Transient Electromagnetic measurements. All measurements were acquired as part of a national project called Crustal Structures of Turkey undertaken by the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration of Turkey (MTA). Magnetotelluric data were collected from 44 stations located along a 250 km northwest to southeast profile crossing in succession the İstanbul Zone, Intra-Pontid Suture, Sakarya Continent, İzmir-Ankara Suture, Tavşanlı Zone (the Tauride-Anatolide Belt), Intra-Pontid Suture and Sakarya Continent. After decompositional analysis and strike direction estimation, static shift is corrected by using transient electromagnetic data from MT apparent resistivity data. The processed MT data were inverted to derive a two-dimensional geoelectrical model. The estimated model is interpreted with the help of gravity data observed along the MT lines and using earthquake epicenter which occurred around MT measurement lines. Four layers with distinctive resistivity values dominate the geoelectrical section. The uppermost layer, having resistivity values of 5-35 ohm m can be interpreted as the sedimentary fill. This layer reaches down to about 10 km depth in Haymana Basin. The second layer has resistivity values higher than 110 ohm m and reaches 27 km depth. The first and second layers can be inferred as constituting the upper crust in the general model of the Earth's lithosphere. The third layer underlying the upper crust has resistivity values of 10-30 ohm m corresponding to the lower crust. The fourth layer having high resistivity values (> 225 ohm m) can be considered as the upper mantle. The depth of the boundary separating the crust from the upper mantle (Moho) varies between 20 and 40 km. High conductive zones between the İstanbul Zone and Sakarya Continent, Sakarya Continent and Tavşanlı Zone coincide with high Bouguer gravity

  11. Istanbul, Turkey (United States)


    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team

  12. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin.

  13. Camili (Macahel Havzasının (Artvin, KD Türkiye Heyelan Duyarlılık Analizi Landslide Susceptibility Analysis of Camili (Macahel Basin (Artvin, NE Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre ÖZŞAHİN


    Full Text Available One of the most common natural disasters in Turkey and in theworld is landslides. Investigation of Turkey’s profile of the last 50 yearsshows that the landslides are the most commonly occurring naturaldisasters with a ratio of 45%.The current study investigated the landslide susceptibility analysisof Camili (Macahel which is one of the unique places on earth with itsspecific fauna and flora and which is the first Biosphere Reserve Area ofTurkey. The landslides which are among the most common naturaldisaster risks in the basin with international recognizance present crucialthreats both in terms of settlement and planning. In this context, thestudy examined the factors that cause landslides in the basin area, theirimpact levels, ratios of potential landslide zones and their geographicaldistributions.The study employed factor maps of various scales obtained fromdifferent resources. 17 parameter factors obtained with the help of thesemaps were evaluated separately and in connection with conditiondependent overlay method to identify landslide risk zones. The studybased on a topography plate with scaled 1/25.000 made use of maps ofvarious scales about different parameters as well as Landsat satelliteimages. Mapping and analysis phases of the study were based onGeographical Information Systems (GIS and Remote Sensing (RStechnology. In this context, ArcGIS/ArcMap 10 GIS and ERDAS 2012 RSsoftware was utilized.It was identified at the end of the landslide susceptibility study ofthe basin that medium level susceptible zones display the highestdistribution with 56 % ratio (14284 ha followed by high (6972 ha - 28 %and very high (611 ha – 2 % level susceptible zones with 30 % and low3288 ha – 13 % and very low (67 ha – 1 % level susceptible zones with14 %. It was determined that potential risk zones are concentratedaround slopes overlooking north where relief and precipitation values arehigh, mountain and slope morphology is dominant and vegetation

  14. Educational Reform in Turkey (United States)

    Lindquist, Cynthia


    As a country seeking admission to the European Union, this paper explores educational reforms in Turkey that enhance its possible entry into the European Union and changes still needed for it to be an equal partner. An overview of the school system in Turkey is provided including information on teacher training and preparation, special education…

  15. Nature of the Campano-Maastrichtian Sub-Basins in the Gongola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main structural features of the western part of Gongola Basin from E-W, are the N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE trending faults. These series of faults controll the basin subsidence and deposition of the Campano-Maastrichtian succession in the Dukku, Akko and Bashar sub-basins.The lateral and vertical facies variation within ...

  16. Informatics in Turkey (United States)

    Cakir, Serhat


    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  17. Energy Diplomacy of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Ozdemir


    Full Text Available The article deals with current issues of energy diplomacy of Turkey. The authors describe the main positive and negative results of Turkey's foreign energy policy in terms of the implementation of major energy projects. Geopolitical processes in the world, the conflict of interests of various countries in the political arena are important factors that affect the crude oil and natural gas pipeline projects. Particular attention is paid to the problems and prospects of cooperation between the Turkish Republic and the Russian Federation in the fuel and energy complex. The authors describe the interaction betweeen Russia and Turkey in the energy sector, including geo-economic interests of the countries in the Russian-Turkish gas dialogue. Turkey made efforts to position as an alternative gas supply route, taking advantage of concern about increasing Europe's dependence on Russian exports. Last years Turkey has set itself the important task - to turn from transit country into a regional gas hub. Ukrainian crisis increased the geostrategic importance of the Black Sea region to Russia, as well as strengthened the ambition of the Turkish side. The authors also highlight the prospects of the natural gas pipeline project from Russia via the Black Sea to Turkey and to the Turkish-Greek border, which named "Turkish stream". This project was frozen in terms of military and political processes at the end of 2015 in Syria.

  18. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems? (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian


    The author briefly presents a general review on the evolution trends of benthic ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea coast, referring to some recent data from the literature. The Black Sea represents a "unicum hydrobiologicum" by some of its basic characteristics, such as: 1. a large semi-enclosed basin with an intense exchange of waters; 2. a sea receiving a large amount of fresh water, especially in its northwestern sector, brought by the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester Rivers; 3. a large meromictic sea - euxinic-azoic below depths of 150 - 200 m; 4. around the sea there is a large filter-holding belt consisting of bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Modiolula phaseolina); 5. a sea having in its northwestern sector a large area covered by red algae of the genus Phyllophora; 6. a sea undergoing, in the last 50 years, intense environmental pressures (pollution by large rivers and direct discharges of wastewater from urban areas, the development of maritime traffic, overfishing by bottom trawling, coastal facilities and especially by many defense works of the new port); 7. a sea registering in the last decades of the past century many events of eutrophication; 8. a sea enriching its biodiversity by alien species. After the political and socio-economic changes triggered by the events of 1989 and especially after Romania's accession to EU, the state of the northwestern Black Sea coastal ecosystems, has recorded positive changes: • Decrease in environmental pressures; • Decreasing pollutant / fertilizing discharges into the Danube; • Reduction of domestic sewage quantities from coastal settlements; • Improvement in the quality of the wastewater discharged into the sea; • Reduction of active fishing by bottom trawling; • Adopting and implementing a national / international set of guidelines concerning marine environment; • Adopting regulations on the protection of the marine environment against pollution in marine economy: transport / shipping, tourism

  19. Energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumin, S.


    Because of its limited energy resources, Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and gas. 73 percent of the world's proven oil reserves and 72 percent of the world's proven gas reserves are located in the surrounding regions of Turkey: Middle East, Caspian Region and Russia. This makes Turkey a crucial bridge between energy rich regions and Europe. There are major oil and gas pipelines going through Turkey and additional pipelines are being constructed or are being planned. There is some production of lignite which is used in power plants and industry. Turkey's natural energy resources are quite diversified; with quite abundant coal reserves. Energy forecasts show that primary energy demand would be 117 million TOE in 2005 and 156 million TOE in 2010. Oil has the biggest share (39 percent) in total primary energy consumption, while natural gas has a share of 21 percent and increasing due to the recent diversification efforts of energy resources. Turkey has about 1percent of the total world hydroelectric potential and a considerable potential for electricity generation from wind. As of early 2004, Turkey had electric power generating capacity of around 32,000 megawatts (MW), and was building 13,000 MW more. Since adoption of Electricity Market Law in February 2001, there were significant changes towards liberalisation of power generation market and distribution in the country. Privatization of generation assets is envisaged to start in 2006. The Electricity Market Law set the stage for new supporting laws and regulations as well as new organization of the market: the Energy Market Regulation Agency (EMRA), that oversees the power, natural gas markets, oil markets and liquefied petroleum gases market, including setting tariffs, issuing licenses, and assuring competition; the Energy Market Regulatory Board, which runs the EMRA; the Energy Market Licensing Regulation and the Electricity Market Tariffs Regulation; 4-phase approach towards electric energy market

  20. Cutting and Preserving Whole Turkey


    Brennand, Charlotte P.


    There are more uses for a turkey than roasting it whole for holiday occasions. The least expensive way to have turkey pieces, especially if the turkey is purchased on sale, is to cut it up yourself. The following is to serve as a butchering and processing guide.

  1. Crust Structure Data of Seas Surrounding Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maden, N.; Gelisli, K.


    Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterranean and Marmara Sea, which surround the Turkey, have not been examined with respect to the Geological, Geophysical and other natural sciences sufficiently. In fact, it is not attach importance the Turkish seas adequately and abandoned with respect to the scientific researches. The most important reason of this situation is the lack of the education of the Marine Sciences in the Turkish Universities. In this study, it is tried to construct a crustal structure data base of the surrounding seas of the Turkey by collecting crustal structure data sets done by different authors in different times so far. The data acquired in the base are collected from different data base sources by dragging. The Moho depth in the eastern and western basin of the Black sea is 22 km and 19 km, respectively. In the Marmara Sea the Moho depth is 24 km. The moho value in the southern Aegean is 20 km, in the northern Aegean the moho depth is 30 km. on the other hand, the moho depth value in the eastern and western basin of the Mediterranean Sea are 15-20 km and 25-30 km, respectively

  2. Groundwater contamination and its effect on health in Turkey. (United States)

    Baba, Alper; Tayfur, Gokmen


    The sources of groundwater pollution in Turkey are identified, and pathways of contaminants to groundwater are first described. Then, the effects of groundwater quality on health in Turkey are evaluated. In general, sources of groundwater contamination fall into two main categories: natural and anthropogenic sources. Important sources of natural groundwater pollution in Turkey include geological formations, seawater intrusion, and geothermal fluid(s). The major sources of anthropogenic groundwater contamination are agricultural activities, mining waste, industrial waste, on-site septic tank systems, and pollution from imperfect well constructions. The analysis results revealed that natural contamination due to salt and gypsum are mostly found in Central and Mediterranean regions and arsenic in Aegean region. Geothermal fluids which contain fluoride poses a danger for skeleton, dental, and bone problems, especially in the areas of Denizli, Isparta, and Aydın. Discharges from surface water bodies contaminate groundwater by infiltration. Evidence of such contamination is found in Upper Kızılırmak basin, Gediz basin, and Büyük Melen river basin and some drinking water reservoirs in İstanbul. Additionally, seawater intrusion causes groundwater quality problems in coastal regions, especially in the Aegean coast. Industrial wastes are also polluting surface and groundwater in industrialized regions of Turkey. Deterioration of water quality as a result of fertilizers and pesticides is another major problem especially in the regions of Mediterranean, Aegean, Central Anatolia, and Marmara. Abandoned mercury mines in the western regions of Turkey, especially in Çanakkale, İzmir, Muğla, Kütahya, and Balıkesir, cause serious groundwater quality problems.

  3. Turkey`s Harmless Tango Between East and West

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    Selma Mujanovic


    Full Text Available Turkey got actively involved in world politics and international relations after AKP came to power in early 2000s. Turkey`s foreign policy since AKP came to power, has the theoretical basis in Davutoglu`s Strategic Depth. New doctrines rely on historical right inherited from the Ottoman Empire, which contributed towards Turkish pro-active and multi-dimensional foreign policy. Without forgetting traditional Western allies, Turkey has established itself as a regional power in the Balkans, Middle East and Central Asia with significant success. This paper attempts to analyze how Turkey has been playing a harmless tango between its traditional allies in the West and regions in the near abroad which had made Turkey a global player in the international relations. Then, it is important to analyze Turkey's transformation and its approved role by the Western powers as a strong Islamic country with secular governance in the Middle East and Central Asia.

  4. Contested Hydrohegemony: Hydraulic Control and Security in Turkey

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    Jeroen Warner


    The present analysis suggests that Turkey’s basin and regional hegemony is contested and constrained from different sides, not least at home. Its water projects are a flashpoint of domestic, basin as well as global politics. It argues that the need to access capital in the international market to realise these ambitions necessitated a 'passive revolution' in Turkey which opened a window of opportunity utilised by the internationalised counter-hegemonic moves against Turkey’s dam projects in Southeast Anatolia, notably the ongoing Ilisu dam on the Tigris.

  5. Measurements of radon concentrations in Spa waters in Amasya, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigitoglu, I., E-mail:; Ucar, B. [Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Physics, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat (Turkey); Oner, F. [Faculty of Education, Department of Physics, Amasya University, Amasya Turkey (Turkey); Yalim, H. A. [Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Physics, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar Turkey (Turkey)


    The aim of this study is to determine the radon concentrations in thermal waters in the Amasya basin in Turkey and to explore the relationship between radon anomalies and active geological faults. The radon concentration measurements were performed in four thermal Spas around Amasya basin. The water samples were collected from tap waters in thermal water sources. The obtained radon concentrations ranged from 0.15 ± 0.12 to 0.71 ± 0.32 BqL{sup −1} for Spa waters. The relationship between the radon concentration anomalies and earthquakes that occurred in the sampling period are discussed.

  6. Distance Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,


    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  7. Terrorism in Turkey. (United States)

    Rodoplu, Ulkumen; Arnold, Jeffrey; Ersoy, Gurkan


    Over the past two decades, terrorism has exacted an enormous toll on the Republic of Turkey, a secular democracy with a 99.8% Muslim population. From 1984 to 2000, an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 Turkish citizens were killed by a nearly continuous stream of terrorism-related events. During this period, the Partiya Karekerren Kurdistan (PKK), a Kurdish separatist group (re-named KADEK in 2002), was responsible for the vast majority of terrorism-related events (and casualties), which disproportionately affected the eastern and southeastern regions of Turkey, in which the PKK has focused its activities. Most terrorist attacks over the past two decades have been bombings or shootings that produced or = 30 casualties (eight shootings, five bombings, and two arsons). The maximum number of casualties produced by any of these events was 93 in the Hotel Madimak arson attack by the Turkish Islamic Movement in 1993. This pattern suggests that terrorist attacks in Turkey rarely required more than local systems of emergency medical response, except in rural areas where Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are routinely provided by regional military resources. The last decade has seen the development of several key systems of local emergency response in Turkey, including the establishment of the medical specialty of Emergency Medicine, the establishment of training programs for EMS providers, the spread of a generic, Turkish hospital emergency plan based on the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System, and the spread of advanced training in trauma care modeled after Advanced Trauma Life Support.

  8. Axiom turkey genotyping array (United States)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  9. Insects for turkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.; Veldkamp, T.


    In a trial with 14 pens with in each 20 turkey pullets (males, not treated) research has been conducted to the effect of feeding 12% insect larvae (Black Soldier Fly) on technical results and behaviour. The birds were kept until 5 weeks of age. The larvae fed groups ate less, had a higher growth

  10. Wind energy and Turkey. (United States)

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan


    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  11. Nature of the Campano-Maastrichtian Sub-Basins in the Gongola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NE-SW and NW-SE trending faults. These series of faults controll the basin subsidence and deposition of the. Campano-Maastrichtian succession in the Dukku, Akko and Bashar sub-basins.The lateral and vertical facies variation within the Campano-Maastrichtian succession are in consistence with the northerly retreat of ...

  12. Solar potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol


    Most of the locations in Turkey receive abundant solar-energy, because Turkey lies in a sunny belt between 36 deg. and 42 deg. N latitudes. Average annual temperature is 18 to 20 deg. C on the south coast, falls to 14-16 deg. C on the west coat, and fluctuates between 4 and 18 deg. C in the central parts. The yearly average solar-radiation is 3.6 kW h/m 2 day, and the total yearly radiation period is ∼2610 h. In this study, a new formulation based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG), Pola-Ribiere conjugate gradient (CGP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and logistic sigmoid (logsig) transfer function were used in the networks. Meteorological data for last four years (2000-2003) from 12 cities (Canakkale, Kars, Hakkari, Sakarya, Erzurum, Zonguldak, Balikesir, Artvin, Corum, Konya, Siirt, and Tekirdag) spread over Turkey were used in order to train the neural-network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine-duration, and mean temperature) are used in the input layer of the network. Solar-radiation is in the output layer. The maximum mean absolute percentage error was found to be less than 3.832% and R 2 values to be about 99.9738% for the selected stations. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values accurately

  13. Tectonic paleostress fields and structural evolution of the NW-Caucasus fold-and-thrust belt from Late Cretaceous to Quaternary (United States)

    Saintot, Aline; Angelier, Jacques


    The NW-Caucasus fold-and thrust belt essentially corresponds to the inverted western Flysch Zone of the Great Caucasus Mountains, a deep basin that developed from Late Jurassic to Eocene times between the Scythian Plate to the north and the Transcaucasian terranes to the south (the Shatsky Ridge, SW of the NW-Caucasus zone). The Flysch Basin was strongly affected by compression in Late Eocene times, when the characteristic WNW trending folds and thrusts of the NW-Caucasus belt developed (some authors regard the main compressive deformation as Miocene in age). By means of remote sensing analysis, we elucidate the geometry of major structures in the belt: WNW trending south-vergent thrusts and folds, and major vertical and transverse NNE-SSW to NE-SW deep fault zones. The later structures are interpreted as ancient faults that were active during the development of the Flysch Basin. Paleostress investigations reveal seven main tectonic episodes in the evolution of the NW-Caucasus since Late Cretaceous. Combining structural interpretation, remote sensing analysis and paleostress field reconstruction, we propose a model for the structural evolution of the belt. During the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene, the western Caucasus zone was under transtensional regime with an E-W to NE-SW trending σ3 that generated oblique normal movements along NNE-SSW transverse faults and WNW-ESE margins of the Flysch Basin. This tectonism could correspond to rifting related to the formation of the Eastern Black Sea Basin. At the Paleocene-Eocene boundary, a transpressional event with an E-W to NW-SE trending σ1 developed and the NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending faults could have been inverted. This event could correspond to an attenuation in the Eastern Black Sea Basin formation or to the incipient accretion of the Transcaucasian terranes. During the Eocene, another E-W to NW-SE oblique extension (-transtensional event) affected the Flysch Basin that could be related to a known rifting phase in the

  14. Geologic map of the Bernalillo NW quadrangle, Sandoval County, New Mexico (United States)

    Koning, Daniel J.; Personius, Stephen F.


    The Bernalillo NW quadrangle is located in the northern part of the Albuquerque basin, which is the largest basin or graben within the Rio Grande rift. The quadrangle is underlain by poorly consolidated sedimentary rocks of the Santa Fe Group. These rocks are best exposed in the southwestern part of the quadrangle in the Rincones de Zia, a badland topography cut by northward-flowing tributary arroyos of the Jemez River. The Jemez River flows through the northern half of the quadrangle; extensive fluvial and eolian deposits cover bedrock units along the river. The structural fabric of the quadrangle is dominated by dozens of generally north striking, east and west-dipping normal faults and minor folds associated with the Neogene Rio Grande rift.

  15. The genetic polymorphisms and colonization process of olive fly populations in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Dogaç

    Full Text Available The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide.

  16. Churchill, Europe and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Dockter


    Full Text Available From the early 1930s until his peace time premiership (1951-1955, Winston Churchill was one of the strongest advocates of the concept of a United Europe. While this is well known among scholars of 20th century British history, Churchill’s actual vision for what a United Europe might look like has received less attention. Still less attention has been paid to Churchill’s opinions of the roles other nations might play within the new Europe. This article will examine Churchill’s view of Turkey in the new European order and will reveal that Churchill saw Turkey as a part of, (or at least an extension of Europe. However, this article will also reveal that Churchill’s conceptualisation of Turkey’s role was largely predicated on 19th century geostrategic thinking.

  17. Water Policies of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu


    Full Text Available Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from waterborne diseases. Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. There are connections between water resources, water systems, and international security and conflict. Today, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Turkey can be faced severe water-stress in the near future. Therefore Turkey has to develop realistic and feasible water policy for future generations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 327-338

  18. Energy Security and Turkey (United States)


    Recently, however, a select group of former "Third World" countries - China and India in particular - have sought to participate in this energy bonanza by...reserves seem to be very low. Like many countries, Turkey has large coal and lignite resources. However, Turkish coal and lignite have low calorific of energy. Because of the robust economic growth around the world especially in places like China and India the global demand for energy is

  19. Authoritarianism in Turkey (United States)


    You deserve a trip to Disney Land! Thanks to my parents, Kathleen and Donald Anderson for continuing advice and support. Thanks also to my parents...PARADIGM? Turkey has long stood as a favored example of modern, secular, and democratic government in the Middle East and the Muslim World . However, recent...ambition and party politics, and its military no longer appears able to act against such ambition. Meanwhile, the rest of the Muslim world observes

  20. The Urban Moss Flora of the Çankırı City (NW, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azize YAVUZ


    Full Text Available The mosses found in the urban area of Çankırı city was investigated at five zones depending on the human activities. Two hundreds and thirty five specimens were randomly collected in sampling locations within the zones. As a result of the identification, 66 taxa were recorded. The results were compared with the explored urban floras of the other countries. Data on life forms, frequency of occurrence, presence of sporophytes, habitats and substrata preferences of the mosses were discussed. Detailed topographical features including slope, aspect and altitude analysis of the study area were illustrated and taxa occurrence was evaluated based on these properties. Chi-square analysis revealed that 45 moss species of 235 were correlated with the categorical variables at 0.05 significance level. Moss taxa occurrence within the urban area was mainly correlated with life forms and gametophyte structures, respectively.

  1. Hydrothermal fluids circulation and travertine deposition in an active tectonic setting: Insights from the Kamara geothermal area (western Anatolia, Turkey) (United States)

    Brogi, Andrea; Alçiçek, M. Cihat; Yalçıner, Cahit Çağlar; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco; Rimondi, Valentina; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Gandin, Anna; Boschi, Chiara; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç; Shen, Chuan-Chou


    Coexistence of thermal springs, travertine deposits and tectonic activity is a recurring feature for most geothermal areas. Although such a certainty, their relationships are debated mainly addressing on the role of the tectonic activity in triggering and controlling fluids flow and travertine deposition. In this paper, we present the results of an integrated study carried out in a geothermal area located in western Anatolia (Turkey), nearby the well-known Pamukkale area (Denizli Basin). Our study focused on the relationships among hydrothermal fluids circulation, travertine deposition and tectonic activity, with particular emphasis on the role of faults in controlling fluids upwelling, thermal springs location and deposition of travertine masses. New field mapping and structural/kinematics analyses allowed us to recognize two main faults systems (NW- and NE-trending), framed in the Neogene-Quaternary extensional tectonic evolution of western Anatolia. A geo-radar (GPR) prospection was also provided in a key-area, permitting us to reconstruct a buried fault zone and its relationships with the development of a fissure-ridge travertine deposit (Kamara fissure-ridge). The integration among structural and geophysical studies, fluids inclusion, geochemical, isotopic data and 230 Th/238 U radiometric age determination on travertine deposits, depict the characteristics of the geothermal fluids and their pathway, up to the surface. Hydrological and seismological data have been also taken in account to investigate the relation between local seismicity and fluid upwelling. As a main conclusion we found strict relationships among tectonic activity, earthquakes occurrence, and variation of the physical/chemical features of the hydrothermal fluids, presently exploited at depth, or flowing out in thermal springs. In the same way, we underline the tectonic role in controlling the travertine deposition, making travertine (mainly banded travertine) a useful proxy to reconstruct the

  2. Immunoprotectivity of attenuated turkey poxvirus in turkey poults and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, fowl pox vaccine is used in all categories of poultry. However there has been reports of outbreak of turkey pox virus in poults previously vaccinated with fowl pox vaccine. Pox Lesion from poults was excised for isolation of virus and viral propagation in chorioallantoid membrane. Turkey pox virus were isolated ...

  3. Refugee movements and Turkey. (United States)

    Kirisci, K


    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  4. Alkenones, alkenoates, and organic matter in coastal environments of NW Scotland: Assessment of potential application for sea level reconstruction (United States)

    Bendle, James A. P.; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Cox, Nicholas J.; Shennan, Ian


    Reconstruction of late Quaternary sea level history in areas of glacioisostatic uplift often relies on sediment archives from coastal isolation basins, natural coastal rock depressions previously isolated from or connected to the sea at different times. Proxy indicators for marine, brackish, or lacustrine conditions combined with precise dating can constrain the time when the sea crossed the sill threshold and isolated (or connected) the basin. The utility of isolation basins in investigations of sea level change is well known, but investigations have been mostly limited to microfossil proxies, the application of which can be limited by preservation and nonanalog problems. Here we investigate the potential of long-chain alkenones, alkenoates, and bulk organic parameters (TOC, Corg/N) for reconstructing past sea level changes in isolation basins in NW Scotland. We analyze organic biomarkers and bulk parameters from both modern basins (at different stages of isolation from the sea) and fossil basins (with sea level histories reconstructed from established proxies). Logit regression analysis was employed to find which of the biomarker metrics or bulk organic measurements could reliably characterize the sediment samples in terms of a marine/brackish or isolated/lacustrine origin. The results suggested a good efficiency for the alkenone index %C37:4 at predicting the depositional origin of the sediments. This study suggests that alkenones could be used as a novel proxy for sea level change in fossil isolation basins especially when microfossil preservation is poor.

  5. Small hydropower for renewable energy and water efficiency in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Because of social and economic development, the demand for energy and particularly for electricity is growing rapidly in Turkey. The main indigenous energy resources are hydro and lignite. Turkey has no big oil and gas reserves. Almost all oil natural gas (NG and high quality coal are imported. It has a large potential for renewable energies. Hydroelectricity is well established as one of the principal energy-producing technologies around world, providing some 20 % of the world’s electricity. In the developing countries, the proportion rises to around 40-50%. The capacity of large hydroelectric schemes can be several times that of a conventional power station. They are highly efficient, reliable, and long lasting. Turkey has an abundant hydropower potential to be used for generation of electricity and must increase hydropower production in the near future. For these reasons, hydropower and especially small hydropower are emphasized as Turkey’s renewable energy sources. In this paper, to increase production of hydroelectric energy, some streams which are in the different basins in Turkey, have been analysed and some conclusions obtained from this study have been presented.

  6. The Heidelberg Basin Drilling Project — basin analysis (United States)

    Tanner, David C.; Martini, Nicole; Buness, Hermann; Gabriel, Gerald; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.


    Within the context of the Heidelberg Basin Project (Gabriel et al. 2008), we present the first results of three-dimensional structural modelling of the basin, based on interpretation of reflection seismics and decompaction using porosity data measured from core material. Firstly, we interpreted six horizons (Base Quaternary, Internal and Base Pliocene, Base Upper Miocene, Internal and Base Mid Miocene Hydrobien beds) from all available industrial (ca. 100 km) and our own reflection seismic sections (ca. 15 km), which lie within a 8 km radius around the Heidelberg UniNord 1/2 boreholes. This data was used to construct a three-dimensional geometrical model of the Heidelberg Basin. Using 300 core samples, we determined the porosity of the Quaternary sediments and constructed an exponential porosity/depth relationship for these rocks, which were then attributed to the model. Lower strata were given values from the literature. The model shows that the Heidelberg basin has a N-S and E-W areal extent of only 10 × 6 km, directly abutting the eastern fault boundary of the Upper Rhine Graben. The strongest synsedimentary tectonic subsidence occurred during the Upper Miocene, Upper Pliocene, and Quarternary. Faults are not seen within the basin at this level, but a NW-SE striking strike-slip structure is recorded to the west of the basin. Furthermore, the sedimentary depocentre shifted 2 km northwards over time to the present location, directly below the city of Heidelberg. We determined that Quaternary sediments have porosities of over 60% at the surface, but at the Base Quaternary porosity is less than 35%. This strong decrease means that 740 m of sediments were compacted to produce the present ca. 500 m thickness of Quaternary strata. Gabriel, G., Ellwanger, D., Hoselmann, C. & Weidenfeller, M. (2008): The Heidelberg Basin Drilling Project. -- Quaternary Science Journal, 57, 3-4, 253-260.

  7. Glacimarine sedimentation in Petermann Fjord and Nares Strait, NW Greenland (United States)

    Hogan, Kelly; Jakobsson, Martin; Mayer, Larry; Mix, Alan; Nielsen, Tove; Kamla, Elina; Reilly, Brendan; Heirman, Katrina An; Stranne, Christian; Mohammed, Rezwan; Eriksson, Bjorn; Jerram, Kevin


    Here we build on preliminary results from 6500 line-km of high-resolution chirp sub-bottom profiles (2-7 kHz) acquired in Petermann Fjord and Nares Strait during the Petermann 2015 Expedition of the Swedish icebreaker Oden. We map the unlithified sediment cover in Peterman Fjord, which consists of up to 3 conformable "drape" units and calculate volumes of this assumed "post-glacial" fill. In Nares Strait we have mapped sediment volumes in local basins just beyond the sill at the Petermann Fjord-mouth: do these sediments represent material flushed out from the grounding zone of Petermann Glacier when it was grounded at the sill? In this vein, and interestingly, some of the thickest sediments that we observe are found close to a grounding-zone wedge (GZW) in Nares Strait that represents a former grounding zone of ice retreating southwards through the strait. We also map conformable units across Nares Strait and consider the similarities between these and the sediment units in the fjord. Do the strong reflections between the units represent the same climatic, oceanographic or process-shift both inside and outside the fjord? We also aim to tie our new acoustic stratigraphy to sediment-core data (lithofacies, dates) and, therefore, to comment on the age of the mapped sediment units and present ideas on the glacimarine flux of material to the Petermann-Nares system. Primary sediment delivery to the seafloor in this environment is thought to be predominantly through sedimentation from meltwater plumes but also of iceberg-rafted debris (IRD). However, sediment redeposition by slope failures on a variety of scales also occurs and has focussed sediments into discrete basins where the seafloor is rugged. This work - which aims to relate past sediment, meltwater and iceberg fluxes to changes in climate - will help us to identify how the system has responded to a past global warming event, namely the last deglaciation. This is particularly relevant in light of the recent

  8. Turkey; Selected Issues


    International Monetary Fund


    This Selected Issues paper examines the external imbalance situation in Turkey. Turkey’s current account deficit is expected to remain elevated at about 5.5 to 6 percent of GDP through 2019. Reducing the deficit to a more sustainable level about 2.5 to 3 percent of GDP should be a key policy priority. Applying the Global Integrated Monetary and Fiscal Model, the paper quantifies the impact of four different approaches in reducing the current account deficit. The analysis shows that policies t...

  9. Nuclear Medicine in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durak, H.


    Nuclear Medicine is a medical specialty that uses radionuclides for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and it is one of the most important peaceful applications of nuclear sciences. Nuclear Medicine has a short history both in Turkey and in the world. The first use of I-131 for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis in Turkey was in 1958 at the Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School. In 1962, Radiobiological Institute in Ankara University Medical School was established equipped with well-type counters, radiometers, scalers, external counters and a rectilinear scanner. In 1965, multi-probe external detection systems, color dot scanners and in 1967, anger scintillation camera had arrived. In 1962, wet lab procedures and organ scanning, in 1965 color dot scanning, dynamic studies (blood flow - renograms) and in 1967 analogue scintillation camera and dynamic camera studies have started. In 1974, nuclear medicine was established as independent medical specialty. Nuclear medicine departments have started to get established in 1978. In 1974, The Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine (TSNM) was established with 10 members. The first president of TSNM was Prof. Dr. Yavuz Renda. Now, in the year 2000, TSNM has 349 members. Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine is a member of European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) and WFNMB Asia-Oceania. Since 1974, TSNM has organized 13 national Nuclear Medicine congresses, 4 international Nuclear Oncology congresses and 13 nuclear medicine symposiums. In 1-5 October 2000, 'The VII th Asia and Oceania Congress of Nuclear Medicine and Biology' was held in Istanbul, Turkey. Since 1992, Turkish Journal of Nuclear Medicine is published quarterly and it is the official publication of TSNM. There are a total of 112 Nuclear Medicine centers in Turkey. There are 146 gamma cameras. (52 Siemens, 35 GE, 16 Elscint, 14 Toshiba, 10 Sopha, 12 MIE, 8 Philips, 9 Others) Two cyclotrons are

  10. Characterization of site-effects in the urban area of Canakkale, Turkey, using ambient noise measurements (United States)

    Demirci, Alper; Bekler, Tolga; Karagöz, Özlem


    The local site conditions can cause variations in the ground motion during the earthquake events. These local effects can be estimated by Nakamura method (1989) which is based on the analysis and treatment of earth vibration records by calculating the ratio of horizontal spectrum to vertical spectrum (H/V). This approach uses ambient noises and aids to estimate the dynamic soil conditions like fundamental vibration period and soil amplification of the surface layers, to characterize the seismic hazard during earthquakes and to provide detailed information for seismic microzonation in small scale urban areas. Due to these advantages, the method has been frequently used by a great number of seismologists and engineers. In this study, we aimed at explaining the soil conditions in Çanakkale and Kepez basins by using H/V technique. Çanakkale and Kepez (NW, Turkey) have fairly complex tectonic structure and have been exposed to serious earthquake damages in historical and instrumental period. Active faults, which have influence on the Çanakkale and Kepez settlements, are the Yenice-Gönen fault, Saroz-Gaziköy fault and Etili fault. It is well known that, these faults have produced high magnitude earthquakes such as 7.2 in 1912 and 7.3 in 1953. The surface geology of the surveyed area is covered by quaternary aged sediments. Sarıçay river, which originates from the eastern hilly area, accumulates sediment deposits and forms this alluvial basin. Considering the geological conditions, ambient noises were recorded at 88 measurement points which were selected to provide good coverage of the study area. All records were acquired during the midnight (between 1:00 am and 6:00 am) to reduce the artificial effects in the urban area. Taking into account the effects of undesirable traffic and industrial noises in the vicinity of measurements stations, record lengths were chosen in the range of 25-75 minutes with the sampling rate of 100 Hz. Once the required signal processes

  11. Establishing a Critical Zone Observatory site in Turkey (United States)

    Demir, Gokben; Akyurek, Zuhal; Binley, Andrew; Yucel, Ismail; Kentel, Elcin; Merzi, Nuri; Yilmaz, Tugrul; Yanmaz, Melih


    The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the planetary veneer that extends from the air above our treetops to the layers of rocks below, which supports human activity. This includes life-sustaining resources for energy, food, and water. The CZ also includes places where we dispose and store toxic materials, and expose to other contaminants. The fate of change in the CZ is important to the government and business planners to help respond to effects of disease, drought, and land degradation in agricultural and urban settings. Critical Zone Observatory's are outdoor laboratories that are highly instrumented and becoming integrated into a global network. Turkey has a diversified landscape, representing most terrestrial ecosystems on Earth. Turkey is unique because some regions have been subject to high-impact human influence for thousands of years. This millennial-scale anthropogenic affect on the CZ does not exist at most other CZO's. In this study the establishment of a CZO at a basin located in the south part of Turkey which the instrumentation that has been already completed is presented. The mean altitude of the basin is 1601 m and it has 526km2 area. The cherry trees along the river, agricultural areas and the natural vegetation composed of pasture and shrub are the main land cover in the basin. The brown forest and brown soil are the main soil types. The basin has a complex geology. There are two main tributaries of the stream: one of them is fed by gypsum ground waters and mine drainage and the other one is fed by shallow fresh ground water. Three meteorological stations were established within this project at 1246 m, 1580m and 1790m. At these stations besides the meteorological variables, soil water content are measured. The discharge observations are carried out at three discharge observation stations where the water stage, temperature and electrical conductivity values are measured. A CRS200B soil moisture probe is installed at 1459 m and the soil water content is

  12. Internet censorship in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akgül


    Full Text Available Turkey passed an internet censorship law in 2007 with the declared objective of protecting families and minors (Akdeniz, 2010. It established a unit within the regulator BTK (Information and Communication Technologies Authority responsible for imposing bans and blocks on websites based on nine catalogue crimes defined by other national laws (Akgül 2008, 2009a, 2009b. As of May 2015, 80,000 websites were banned based on civil code related complaints and intellectual property rights violations, reports the independent website Engelliweb. Blocking decisions rendered by penal courts are enforced even when they are based on grounds other that the nine catalogue crimes - such as terrorism, organised crime and crime against the state. Passed in parliament while ignoring the pleas of NGOs and of the internet sector, the Internet Law No. 5651 has since been used to temporarily ban popular platforms such as Blogger,, Vimeo, Wordpress and YouTube. At the same time, some blocking decisions by the courts (e.g., Google and Facebook were not enforced by the authorities. Since its introduction, the European Court of Human Rights has ruled that Law No. 5651 (Council of Europe, 2011 is against the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR, 2013. This article provides an overview of internet censorship and its social background in Turkey.

  13. Origin of channel systems in the Upper Cretaceous chalk group of the Paris Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmerode, E. V.; Surlyk, Finn


    The Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group of the Anglo-Paris Basin is known to show wedging beds and channel-like features which disrupt the quietly deposited pelagic chalk that covered most of NW Europe in the Late Cretaceous. Two-D reflection seismic data from the Brie region, SE of Paris, show the pres......The Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group of the Anglo-Paris Basin is known to show wedging beds and channel-like features which disrupt the quietly deposited pelagic chalk that covered most of NW Europe in the Late Cretaceous. Two-D reflection seismic data from the Brie region, SE of Paris, show...

  14. Flood of August 24–25, 2016, Upper Iowa River and Turkey River, northeastern Iowa (United States)

    Linhart, S. Mike; O'Shea, Padraic S.


    Major flooding occurred August 24–25, 2016, in the Upper Iowa River Basin and Turkey River Basin in northeastern Iowa following severe thunderstorm activity over the region. About 8 inches of rain were recorded for the 24-hour period ending at 4 p.m., August 24, at Decorah, Iowa, and about 6 inches of rain were recorded for the 24-hour period ending at 7 a.m., August 24, at Cresco, Iowa, about 14 miles northwest of Spillville, Iowa. A maximum peak-of-record discharge of 38,000 cubic feet per second in the Upper Iowa River at streamgage 05388250 Upper Iowa River near Dorchester, Iowa, occurred on August 24, 2016, with an annual exceedance-probability range of 0.2–1 percent. High-water marks were measured at six locations along the Upper Iowa River between State Highway 26 near the mouth at the Mississippi River and State Highway 76 about 3.5 miles south of Dorchester, Iowa, a distance of 15 river miles. Along the profiled reach of the Turkey River, a maximum peak-of-record discharge of 15,300 cubic feet per second at streamgage 05411600 Turkey River at Spillville, Iowa, occurred on August 24, 2016, with an annual exceedance-probability range of 1–2 percent. A maximum peak discharge of 35,700 cubic feet per second occurred on August 25, 2016, along the profiled reach of the Turkey River at streamgage 05411850 Turkey River near Eldorado, Iowa, with an annual exceedance-probability range of 0.2–1 percent. High-water marks were measured at 11 locations along the Turkey River between County Road B64 in Elgin and 220th Street, located about 4.5 miles northwest of Spillville, Iowa, a distance of 58 river miles. The high-water marks were used to develop flood profiles for the Upper Iowa River and Turkey River.

  15. Pull-apart basin formation and development in narrow transform zones with application to the Dead Sea Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.H.W.; Brun, J.P.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Ben-Avraham, Z.


    Contrary to other examples, like Death Valley, California, and the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, the Dead Sea-type pull-apart basins form within a narrow transform corridor between strike-slip faults that are less than 10 km apart, much smaller than the crustal thickness of 35 km. In this paper we

  16. Low thermal emissivity surfaces using AgNW thin films (United States)

    Pantoja, Elisa; Bhatt, Rajendra; Liu, Anping; Gupta, Mool C.


    The properties of silver nanowire (AgNW) films in the optical and infrared spectral regime offer an interesting opportunity for a broad range of applications that require low-emissivity coatings. This work reports a method to reduce the thermal emissivity of substrates by the formation of low-emissivity AgNW coating films from solution. The spectral emissivity was characterized by thermal imaging with an FLIR camera, followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In a combined experimental and simulation study, we provide fundamental data of the transmittance, reflectance, haze, and emissivity of AgNW thin films. Emissivity values were finely tuned by modifying the concentration of the metal nanowires in the films. The simulation models based on the transfer matrix method developed for the AgNW thin films provided optical values that show a good agreement with the measurements.

  17. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  18. How Turkey Meets MPOWER Criteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi Bilir


    Full Text Available In 2003 World Health Assembly adopted an international treaty on tobacco control; FCTC, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Five year later World Health Organization (WHO declared the six effective approach for tobacco control, under the name of MPOWER. In the following years, WHO evaluated the level of implementation of MPOWER criteria in the countries. In this article, how Turkey implemented these six criteria will be discussed. Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies: Monitoring of tobacco use prevalence has been successfully monitored in Turkey through Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Health Professionals Tobacco Use Survey. Nevertheless, monitoring of tobacco industry activities was not successfully implemented. Protect people from tobacco smoke: Smoking was banned in most of the indoor public places in Turkey since 1996, and Turkey became a complete smoke-free country by the exposion of smoke-free places including the hospitality workplaces in 2008. Offer help to quit tobacco use: Although smoking cessation services has been a bit late in Turkey, availability of smoking cessation drugs and the establishment of free quitline services made Turkey successful in this regard. Warn about the dangers of tobacco: Since 1996, all TV channels have a duty of broadcasting programs on harms of tobacco use, not less than 90 minutes in a month and it has been implemented successfully. Additionally written messages indicating harms of tobacco has been printed on the packs since 1988 and pictures was added in 2010. But since the average surface area covered by the messages in less than 50% of the total surface of the pack, Turkey was not regarded as to meet the requirement. Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship: All kinds of tobacco advertisement and promotion was banned by the Law in 1996. But the tobacco products was not in closed boxes at the sales points. Turkey was not found as successful


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Since the last three decades, in developed and developing counties the liberalization and openness efforts have been witnessed. However, financial liberalization attempts (both internal and external without having macroeconomic stability lead to financial crises in many developing countries. Macroeconomic instabilities create fragile financial markets paving the way for future economic crises. The Turkish Economy, completed the liberalization process with foreign trade liberalization in 1980 and by removing controls on capital accounts in 1989. However, since 1990’s economy got into ‘growth-instability-crisis’ vicious circle, because of the fluctuations in the financial structure. By employing a factor analysis (principal components analysis, this work, aims to obtain the factors that effect crises in Turkey.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NARDI P. A.


    Full Text Available Information was gathered on the distribution of white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex in the watercourses of the Alessandria province (NW Italy, on the biological and ecological preferences of the species, and on the features of the biotopes in which it is found. A total of 409 sites on 361 watercourses connected to the main sub-basins of the Po River were analysed, with data gathered during the field research phase, conducted for three consecutive summers from 2002 through 2004. Thirteen percent of the sites investigated were found to currently house crayfish populations. The persistence in time of superficial water and natural morphology of the watercourse were found to be the chief requirements for the presence of crayfish. Data on land use, human density and other factors which potentially limit the survival of crayfish populations were also analysed.

  1. (Dahomey) Basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    13 km maximum width in the onshore at the basin axis along Nigerian and Republic of Benin boundary. This narrows westwards and eastwards to about 5 km (Coker and Ejedawe, 1987; Coker,. 2002). Detailed geology, evolution, stratigraphy and hydrocarbon occurrence of the basin have been described by Jones and ...

  2. Improved marine reservoir age estimation and palaeoclimate synchronisation of the early Holocene Levantine/NW-Arabian region based on identification of the S1 tephra in Dead Sea and Tayma palaeolake sediments (United States)

    Neugebauer, Ina; Wulf, Sabine; Schwab, Markus J.; Serb, Johanna; Plessen, Birgit; Appelt, Oona; Brauer, Achim


    Due to a lack of tephras identified in marine and terrestrial palaeoclimate records from the Levantine-Arabian area, this region is still not sufficiently connected to the eastern Mediterranean tephrostratigraphical lattice. Here we report on the first finding of cryptotephra in the Holocene lacustrine sediment records of the Dead Sea and the Tayma palaeolake (NW Arabian Peninsula). The major elemental chemistry of the rhyolitic glass shards proves this tephra identical to the distal 'S1 tephra' identified in the Yammoûneh palaeolake, Lebanon (Develle et al, 2009), in a marine sediment record from the SE Levantine basin (Hamann et al., 2010) and in the Sodmein Cave archaeological site in Egypt (Barton et al., 2015). The 'S1 tephra', most likely corresponding to the early Holocene 'Dikkartın' dome eruption of the Erciyes Daǧ volcano in central Anatolia, Turkey, has been dated in the marine record at 8830 ± 140 cal yr BP. We present new age estimates of the 'S1 tephra' based on radiocarbon dating of terrestrial plant remains (Migowski et al., 2004) and pollen concentrates (Dinies et al., 2015), which reveal modelled ages of 8939 ± 83 cal yr BP in the Dead Sea sediments and 9041 ± 254 cal yr BP in Tayma. This allows the estimation of an early Holocene marine reservoir age of ca. 320 years in the SE Levantine Sea. The timing of the volcanic eruption during the early Holocene humid period, which led to the formation of sapropel S1 in the Mediterranean Sea, and the identification of the 'S1 tephra' more than 1200 km to the south are crucial for the synchronisation of marine and terrestrial palaeoclimate records in the eastern Mediterranean region. References: Barton et al., 2015. The role of cryptotephra in refining the chronology of Late Pleistocene human evolution and cultural change in North Africa. Quaternary Sci. Rev. 118, 151-169. Develle et al., 2009. Early Holocene volcanic ash fallout in the Yammoûneh lacustrine basin (Lebanon): Tephrochronological

  3. Allogenic controls on the fluvial architecture and fossil preservation of the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation, NW Argentina (United States)

    Colombi, Carina E.; Limarino, Carlos O.; Alcober, Oscar A.


    The Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation in NW Argentina was deposited in a fluvial system during the synrift filling of the extensional Ischigualasto-Villa Unión Basin. The expansive exposures of the fluvial architecture and paleosols provide a framework to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental evolution of this basin during the Upper Triassic using continental sequence stratigraphy. The Ischigualasto Formation deposition can be divided into seven sequential sedimentary stages: the 1) Bypass stage; 2) Confined low-accommodation stage; 3) Confined high accommodation stage; 4) Unstable-accommodation stage; 5) Unconfined high-accommodation stage; 6) Unconfined low-accommodation stage; and finally, 7) Unconfined high-accommodation stage. The sedimentary evolution of the Ischigualasto Formation was driven by different allogenic controls such as rises and falls in lake levels, local tectonism, subsidence, volcanism, and climate, which also produced modifications of the equilibrium profile of the fluvial systems. All of these factors result in different accommodations in central and flank areas of the basin, which led to different architectural configurations of channels and floodplains. Allogenic processes affected not only the sequence stratigraphy of the basin but also the vertebrate and plant taphocenosis. Therefore, the sequence stratigraphy can be used not only as a predictive tool related to fossil occurrence but also to understand the taphonomic history of the basin at each temporal interval.

  4. Structural analysis of Nalagarh lobe, NW Himalaya: implication of thrusting across tectonic edge of NW limb of Nahan salient, Himachal Pradesh, India (United States)

    Bhakuni, S. S.; Philip, G.; Suresh, N.


    The Main Boundary Fault (MBF), convex towards southwest, forms the leading edge of the Nahan salient. Near the southern end of an oblique ramp, a lobe-shaped physiographic front, named in this work as Nalagarh lobe, has developed across NW limb of salient. The lobe has formed across the MBF that separates the hanging wall Lower Tertiary Dharmsala rocks from the footwall Upper Tertiary Siwalik rocks and overlying Quaternaries. In front of lobe, thrust fault splays (Splay-1 and Splay-2) and associated tectonic fabrics have developed within the Late Pleistocene fan deposit. Structural elements developed across the front of Nalagarh lobe are analysed with reference to evolution of lobe. An unweathered 15-m-high hanging wall or wedge top forms the uplifted and rejuvenated bedrock fault scarp of the MBF. Below the MBF, the fan deposit has underthrust along Splay-1. Later the Splay-2 formed within fan deposit near south of Splay-1. Geometry of the overturned limb of tight to isoclinal fault propagation fold, formed on Splay-2 plane, suggests that the fold formed by normal drag, produced by intermittent fault-slips along Splay-2. The displacement along Splay-2 offset the marker bed to 1 m by which some clasts rotated parallel to the traces of brittle axial planes of fold. The variable fold geometry and style of deformation are analysed along length of thrust splays for 5 km. It is revealed that the lobe is bounded by transverse thrust faults along its NW and SE margins. The geometry of salient and oblique ramp suggests that the transverse thrust faults and associated transverse folds formed by right-lateral displacement along the NW limb of the salient. Marking the northern margin of the intermontane piggyback basin of Pinjaur dun, the MBF is interpreted to be an out-of-sequence thrust that has brought up the Lower Tertiary Dharmsala rocks over the Late Pleistocene fan deposit. The geometry of lobe and its bounding transverse faults suggest that faults are intimately

  5. Water management for sustainable and clean energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Yuksel


    Full Text Available Water management has recently become a major concern for many countries. During the last century consumption of water and energy has been increased in the world. This trend is anticipated to continue in the decades to come. One of the greatest reasons is the unplanned industrial activities deteriorating environment in the name of rising standard of life. What is needed is the avoidance of environmental pollution and maintenance of natural balance, in the context of sustainable development. However, Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of the renewable energy resources. There is a large variation in annual precipitation, evaporation and surface run-off parameters, in Turkey. Precipitation is not evenly distributed in time and space throughout the country. There are 25 hydrological basins in Turkey. But the rivers often have irregular regimes. In this situation the main aim is to manage and use the water resources for renewable, sustainable and clean energy. This paper deals with water management for renewable, sustainable and clean energy in Turkey.

  6. Human induced soil erosion and the implications on crop yield in a small mountainous Mediterranean catchment (SW-Turkey)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loo, Maarten; Dusar, Bert; Verstraeten, Gert; Renssen, Hans; Notebaert, Bastiaan; D'Haen, Koen; Bakker, Johan


    Many hillslopes in the limestone dominated Taurus Mountain Range (SW Turkey) are characterized by severely depleted soils, while a significant amount of sediment is being stored in the valley bottoms. The same holds true for the 11.4 km2 endorheic Gravgaz basin in the vicinity of the

  7. Influence of lithosphere and basement properties on the stretching factor and development of extensional faults across the Otway Basin, southeast Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kharazizadeh, N.; Schellart, W. P.; Duarte, J.C.; Hall, M.


    The NW-SE striking Otway Basin in southeastern Australia is part of the continental rift system that formed during the separation of Australia from Antarctica. The development of this sedimentary basin occurred in two phases of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous rifting. The

  8. Nursing doctoral education in Turkey. (United States)

    Yavuz, Meryem


    Quality health care is an issue of concern worldwide, and nursing can and must play a major and global role in transforming the healthcare environment. Doctorally prepared nurses are very much needed in the discipline to further develop and expand the science, as well as to prepare its future educators, scholars, leaders, and policy makers. In 1968, the Master of Science in Nursing Program was initiated in Turkey, followed by the Nursing Doctoral Education Program in 1972. Six University Schools of Nursing provide nursing doctoral education. By the graduating year of 2001, 154 students had graduated with the Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (Ph.D.), and 206 students were enrolled in related courses. Many countries in the world are systematically building various collaborative models in their nursing doctoral education programs. Turkey would like to play an active role in creating collaborative nursing doctoral education programs with other countries. This paper centres on the structure and model of doctoral education for nurses in Turkey. It touches on doctoral programs around the world; describes in detail nursing doctoral education in Turkey, including its program structure, admission process, course units, assessment strategies and dissertation procedure; and discusses efforts to promote Turkey as a potential partner in international initiatives to improve nursing doctoral education.

  9. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers (United States)

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan


    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Camacho-Escobar


    Full Text Available To describe the parasitic mites in backyard turkeys, was did this work. The mites were obtain by hand for 30 backyard turkeys in Oaxaca’s Coast region, Mexico; the mites were mount in adhesive paper and wash with the 200X lent in a computer optical microscopy, the parasites size were determinate in the pictures obtained by the microscopy software, the images were sized using a specialist software for it, which relate the number of pixels in the picture with the size of the observation field. Were indentified the species Dermanyssus gallinae, Megninia ginglymura and Ornithonyssus sylviarum, the last two described for first time in backyard turkeys in Mexico. Â


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Janječić


    Full Text Available Production of turkeys in the region of Hrvatsko zagorje began in second half of 16th century, when there was a little influence of other turkey breeds from other region. Recently, interest for protection and preservation of autochthonous poultry breeds in Croatia is growing and in that sense this investigation was set to determine the phenotypic traits of Zagorje turkey. One hundred 10-month old turkeys (5 males and 20 females of four strains (bronze, black, grey and pale were measured, while egg production data were collected by a poll among the breeders. Average body weight of bronze, black, grey and pale strain males were 7.08, 6.88, 6.10 and 6.09 kg, respectively, while in females the average values were 4.02, 4.07, 3.63, and 3.68 kg. Generally, according to body measures of male birds, other than body weight, of all of the strains of Zagorje turkey, the black one is the biggest, as it had the highest values for body length, length of sternum, length of drumstick, length of shank, depth of chest and head measures. At the same time, the bronze strain had the highest value for carcass width. Body measures mentioned previously were not so different in females. Number of reared chicks was lowest in the pale strain. From the body measures assessed it is possible to conclude that Zagorje turkeys are rather uniform within the strain but differences in most of the breed traits are present between the strains, especially in males of bronze and black strain, when compared to gray and pale strain.

  12. Subsidence stress regime and rotation(s) of a tectonically active sedimentary basin within the Western Alps: the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (Alpine domain, Northwest Italy). In: Tracing Tectonic deformation using the Sedimentary Record, Eds. McCann. (Geological Society of London, Special Publication)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrapa, B.; Bertotti, G.V.; Krijgsman, W


    The Oligocene to Miocene Tertiary Piedmont Basin (TPB) is located in the NW part of Italy at the junction between the Apennine and the Alpine thrust belts. The position of the TPB on top of the Alpine/Apennine Orogen poses fundamental questions as to the tectonics of the basin subsidence. Having

  13. Mineral composite assessment of Kelkit River Basin in Turkey by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    raster maps were also interpreted at administrative district level. All developed MC index maps were tested by using the ground truth data collected between 2006 and 2007. For this aim, soil analysis results (clay %, and available Fe. +2. Fe. +3 ppm) of 56 ground control points were evaluated. Relationships between field.

  14. Petroleum Gases Market in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumin, S.; Ozyoruk, B.


    We are at the beginning of a new millennium. At this stage, we are observing economic and social liberalization efforts and regional alliance projects throughout the world. In this very same process, we are also experiencing a more holistic concept called globalization, which covers rapid and simultaneous dissemination and integration of capital, labor, information and technology, world-wide. This globalization opened a new era where national market economies and local companies went into competition in the international arena. In this era, it became a necessity for the non-liberal economies to catch up with the developments in the international markets and be open to economic and political changes. These developments have brought along many radical economic and social changes throughout the world. Policies adopted in Turkey, with respect to the energy reform process, display a general tendency towards putting in place a legal framework that will support the implementation of good governance principles, and providing conformity with the relevant legislative infrastructure of both OECD and EU countries. Turkey has only limited reserves of oil and natural gas, but substantial reserves of coal, particularly lignite. Energy demand has grown at 4-5 % per annum over the past three decades and will continue to grow rapidly, which will require enormous investments in 2000 and 2020, with the most significant increase being that of natural gas. Because of its limited energy resources, Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and gas. There are major oil and gas pipelines going through Turkey and additional pipelines are being constructed or are being planned. There is some production of lignite which is used in power plants and industry. 73 % of the world's proven oil reserves and 72 % of the world's proven gas reserves are located in the surrounding regions of Turkey: Middle East, Caspian Region and Russia. This makes Turkey a crucial bridge between energy rich regions

  15. The Geoelectrical Structure of Northwestern Anatolia, Turkey (United States)

    Ulugergerli, E. U.; Seyitoğlu, G.; Başokur, A. T.; Kaya, C.; Dikmen, U.; Candansayar, M. E.


    The magnetotelluric method has been employed to generate a geoelectrical model that will reveal the rich geological pattern and dynamic character of western and northwestern Anatolia, Turkey. Magnetotelluric data were collected from 53 sites along a profile of 290 km from the Dardanelles to the Alaşehir Graben. Magnetotelluric data were in the range of 0.00055 Hz to 320 Hz. The models were obtained through 2-D joint inversion of transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes. Lateral changes in geoelectrical models are verified by using gravity and magnetic data. In addition, some of the seismological data presented here agree with proposed models that suggest a brittle-ductile structure boundary at a depth of 20 km. Generally speaking, a regional extensional regime caused reduction in the thickness of the crust and consequent uplift towards the south. The constructed model delineates the western part of the North Anatolian Fault Zone along the Biga Peninsula. The current patterns of volcanic activity on the Biga Peninsula and at Kula are related to conductive spots presented in the models. The border of the Gördes Basin, located between the Izmir - Ankara suture zone and the Menderes Massif, is also well delineated. The North Anatolian Fault Zone presents a pattern in which density and susceptibility anomalies attain relatively high values. Fillings covering most of the surface have lower density and susceptibility values than those of underlying structures.

  16. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil


    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  17. Thalassemia mutations in Gaziantep, Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 22, 2010 ... spectrum of beta-thalassemia genes in Spain by use of dot-blot analysis of amplified beta-globin DNA. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 43: 95-. 100. Basak AN (2008). The molecular pathology of β-Thalassemia in Turkey: The Bogazici University Experience. Hemoglobin 31: 233-241. Baysal E, Indrak K, Bozkurt G, ...

  18. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey. (United States)

    Canatan, Duran


    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years.

  19. Highlights of Science for Turkey (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    It is an honour and a privilege for me to have been invited to speak on Physics in the Year 2000, in Turkey and in the Islamic world, at this gathering convened by the prestigious journal, the Insan ve Kainat and in the presence of those who run this great country…

  20. Human Metapneumovirus in Turkey Poults (United States)

    Velayudhan, Binu T.; Nagaraja, Kakambi V.; Thachil, Anil J.; Shaw, Daniel P.; Gray, Gregory C.


    This study was conducted to reexamine the hypothesis that human metapneumovirus (hMPV) will not infect turkeys. Six groups of 2-week-old turkeys (20 per group) were inoculated oculonasally with 1 of the following: noninfected cell suspension; hMPV genotype A1, A2, B1, or B2; or avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C. Poults inoculated with hMPV showed nasal discharge days 4–9 postexposure. Specific viral RNA and antigen were detected by reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemical evaluation, respectively, in nasal turbinates of birds exposed to hMPV. Nasal turbinates of hMPV-infected turkeys showed inflammatory changes and mucus accumulation. Each of the 4 hMPV genotypes caused a transient infection in turkeys as evidenced by clinical signs, detection of hMPV in turbinates, and histopathologic examination. Detailed investigation of cross-species pathogenicity of hMPV and aMPV and its importance for human and animal health is needed. PMID:17235379

  1. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi


    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  2. September 1975 Lice, Turkey Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Turkey. A magnitude 6.7 earthquake that struck the Turkish district of Lice at 12:20 local time (09:20 UTC) on September 6, 1975, killing 2,311 people. The...

  3. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)


    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  4. Turkey's status in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aykol, F.; Oezkan, R.; Atila, B.; Hanguel, G.; Aksu, M.L.


    Full text: Turkey is a country with dynamic economic development and rapid population growth and nuclear energy is an integral part of these dynamics. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) is in charge of regulation and control of all activities related to nuclear field, including safety inspections and licensing. The TAEA is also responsible for the sensitive task of improving public awareness of nuclear technology which includes the use of nuclear power. Turkey's experience with nuclear power dates back to the 1960's, as the first nuclear research reactor started to operate in Istanbul in 1962. There were various plans for the introduction of nuclear power to the country. However the plans for the construction of the first nuclear power in the country were postponed for an indefinite period in 2000. In the wake of this decision TAEA initiated the activities to establish a nuclear policy in the country which includes creating the technical know-how and establishing new generation nuclear power plants in Turkey. The Authority is also responsible for the safe use of nuclear energy in medicine, agriculture, animal health, industry, food irradiation and in all kinds of research activities. The authority has carried or is currently continuing 12 National Technical Cooperation, 30 Research Contract, 21 Regional Europe ongoing IAEA projects and 31 State Planning Organization projects. There were 7571 radiological, 208 radiotherapy, 3792 industrial and 214 instruments licensed and registered by the Radiation Health and Safety Department of the Authority. We are in the opinion that developing a nuclear technology substructure in both Turkey and Turkish Countries will be of great benefit for the Euro-Asia region. We must emphasize that Turkey is the partner of all nonproliferation treaties and has no intention of using nuclear power for non peaceful purposes whatsoever

  5. Tethyan evolution of Turkey: A plate tectonic approach (United States)

    ^Şengör, A. M. Celâl; Yilmaz, Yücel

    The Tethyan evolution of Turkey may be divided into two main phases, namely a Palaeo-Tethyan and a Neo-Tethyan, although they partly overlap in time. The Palaeo-Tethyan evolution was governed by the main south-dipping (present geographic orientation) subduction zone of Palaeo-Tethys beneath northern Turkey during the Permo-Liassic interval. During the Permian the entire present area of Turkey constituted a part of the northern margin of Gondwana-Land. A marginal basin opened above the subduction zone and disrupted this margin during the early Triassic. In this paper it is called the Karakaya marginal sea, which was already closed by earliest Jurassic times because early Jurassic sediments unconformably overlie its deformed lithologies. The present eastern Mediterranean and its easterly continuation into the Bitlis and Zagros oceans began opening mainly during the Carnian—Norian interval. This opening marked the birth of Neo-Tethys behind the Cimmerian continent which, at that time, started to separate from northern Gondwana-Land. During the early Jurassic the Cimmerian continent internally disintegrated behind the Palaeo-Tethyan arc constituting its northern margin and gave birth to the northern branch of Neo-Tethys. The northern branch of Neo-Tethys included the Intra-Pontide, Izmir—Ankara, and the Inner Tauride oceans. With the closure of Palaeo-Tethys during the medial Jurassic only two oceanic areas were left in Turkey: the multi-armed northern and the relatively simpler southern branches of Neo-Tethys. The northern branch separated the Anatolide—Tauride platform with its long appendage, the Bitlis—Pötürge fragment from Eurasia, whereas the southern one separated them from the main body of Gondwana-Land. The Intra-Pontide and the Izmir—Ankara oceans isolated a small Sakarya continent within the northern branch, which may represent an easterly continuation of the Paikon Ridge of the Vardar Zone in Macedonia. The Anatolide-Tauride platform itself

  6. Hydrogeology of the basalts in the Uruguayan NW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, A.; Fernandez, A.


    This work is about the hydrogeological aspects in the NW Uruguayan basaltic area. The results of this research are the main geological, morphological and hydrogeological aspects of the area as well as the characteristics and the color of the basalt and sandstones

  7. Montane pollen from the Tertiary of NW. Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, J.


    In NW. Borneo thick series of Tertiary sediments occur which are rich in fossil pollen and spores. The majority of these plant microfossils were derived from the various types of tropical lowland vegetation such as mangrove (Muller, 1964), mixed peat swamp forest and mixed Dipterocarp forest. Some

  8. Hydrogeological map of Kabo Sheet 80NW topographical sheet 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A hydro geological mapping of the Federal Surveys of Nigeria, Kabo Sheet 80 NW, on scale 1:50,000 were made with areal coverage of 729Km2 on the Crystalline Basement Complex, and the hydrogeoogical maps produced are maps of depth to the water table and maps of configuration peak of dry season and wet ...

  9. The Petermann Glacier Experiment, NW Greenland (United States)

    Mix, A. C.; Jakobsson, M.; Andrews, J. T.; Jennings, A. E.; Mayer, L. A.; Marcott, S. A.; Muenchow, A.; Stoner, J. S.; Andresen, C. S.; Nicholls, K. W.; Anderson, S. T.; Brook, E.; Ceperley, E. G.; Cheseby, M.; Clark, J.; Dalerum, F.; Dyke, L. M.; Einarsson, D.; Eriksson, B.; Frojd, C.; Glueder, A.; Hedman, U.; Heirman, K.; Heuzé, C.; Hogan, K.; Holden, R.; Holm, C.; Jerram, K.; Krutzfeldt, J.; Nicolas, L.; Par, L.; Lomac-MacNair, K.; Madlener, S.; McKay, J. L.; Meijer, T.; Meiton, A.; Brian, M.; Mohammed, R.; Molin, M.; Moser, C.; Normark, E.; Padman, J.; Pecnerova, P.; Reilly, B.; Reusche, M.; Ross, A.; Stranne, C.; Trinhammer, P.; Walczak, M. H.; Walczak, P.; Washam, P.; Karasti, M.; Anker, P.


    The Petermann Glacier Experiment is a comprehensive study on land, ocean, and ice in Northwest Greenland, staged from Swedish Icebreaker Oden in 2015 as a collaboration between the US, Sweden, UK, and Denmark. This talk introduces the strategic goals of the experiment and connects the various scientific results. Petermann Glacier drains a significant marine-based sector of the northern Greenland Ice Sheet and terminates in a floating ice tongue, one of the largest remaining systems of its kind in the northern hemisphere. Records of the modern state of Petermann Glacier and its past variations are of interest to understand the sensitivity of marine terminating outlet glaciers to change, and to constrain the rates and extent of changes that have actually occurred. With this case study we are learning the rules of large scale dynamics that cannot be understood from modern observations alone. Although past behavior is not an simple analog for the future, and no single system captures all possible behaviors, insights from these case studies can be applied through models to better project how similar systems may change in the future. The Petermann Expedition developed the first comprehensive bathymetric maps of the region, drilled through the floating ice tongue to obtain sub-shelf sediment cores near the grounding line and to monitor sub-ice conditions, recovered a broad array of sediment cores documenting changing oceanic conditions in Petermann Fjord, Hall Basin, and Nares Strait, measured watercolumn properties to trace subsurface watermasses that bring heat from the Arctic Ocean into deep Petermann Fjord to melt the base of the floating ice tongue, developed a detailed record of relative sealevel change on land to constrain past ice loads, and recovered pristine boulders for cosmogenic exposure dating of areal ice retreat on land. Together, these studies are shedding new light on the dynamics of past glaciation in Northwest Greenland, and contributing to fundamental

  10. Stakeholder participation to watershed management: A case study from Beysehir Lake Basin. (United States)

    Yavuz, Fadim; Baycan, Tozin


    This study addresses Beyehir Lake Basin, which is the largest freshwater lake in Turkey. The aim of the study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions and behaviors of local communities regarding; the critical problems of the basin; technical and political situation of the water management in the basin; possible strategies ensuring positive change towards the sustainability of the basin; and the watershed management strategies which could contribute to success in this case. The participatory level of the local water users of the basin was also examined. The results revealed that local communities were aware of the basin's problems and contribution of the participatory approaches to watershed management. Also, collaboration between the public and public institutions was accepted as key to successful watershed management. The stakeholders, who considered that current water policies to solve the problems of the basin were ineffectual, relied on the local environmental groups more than central government and local authorities regarding their water policies.

  11. Post-deportation risks under the EU-Turkey statement: what happens after readmission to Turkey?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpes, M.J.; Tunaboylu, Sevda; Ulusoy, Orcun; Hassan, Saima


    This policy brief examines whether asylum seekers readmitted from Greece to Turkey after the EU-Turkey Statement as of April 2016 were able to access effective protection in Turkey thereafter (see graph, return trend, p. 2). The EU has long collaborated with countries of origin and transit in the

  12. Susceptibility of convalescent turkeys to pulmonary aspergillosis. (United States)

    Kunkle, R A; Sacco, R E


    Pulmonary lesions resulting from Aspergillus fumigatus inoculation were assessed in convalescent turkeys and compared with those in previously noninoculated (control) turkeys. In addition, lesions observed in small Beltsville white (SBW) turkeys were compared with those in broad-breasted white (BBW) turkeys challenged with the same inoculum. Turkeys were challenged by unilateral posterior thoracic air sac (PTAS) inoculation, rechallenged via the contralateral air sac after 5 wk, and then necropsied 1 wk later. Pulmonary lesions induced by the initial challenge had resolved in 6 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW turkeys. However, convalescence did not protect against pulmonary aspergillosis subsequent to rechallenge; 10 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW developed granulomatous pulmonary lesions on the side of reexposure. A greater proportion of control SBW turkeys developed pneumonia and airsacculitis following challenge as compared with the BBW breed. Lesions were limited to the lower respiratory tract in all turkeys and were confined to the ipsilateral lung and PTAS in the singly inoculated control turkeys. This study demonstrates that convalescence from pulmonary aspergillosis does not confer protection against rechallenge but may, instead, decrease resistance to subsequent infection.

  13. Handmade guns in Trabzon, Turkey. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Riza; Birincioğlu, Ismail; Uner, H Bulent; Erkol, Zerrin; Butun, Celal; Acikgoz, Dinc; Bulut, Erkut R


    A wide variety of handmade firearms have been involved in criminal cases in the city of Trabzon, Turkey. Although they are often very similar to commercially manufactured firearms in terms of design, loading and locking mechanisms, and cocking and firing arrangements, these guns are constructed from cheap materials and are not safe for firing. Handmade firearms manufactured in the Black Sea region of Turkey, particularly in the city of Trabzon, are similar to pistols manufactured by Browning, Luger, Star, Smith and Wesson, Berretta, and MAB. A total of 201 handmade guns referred to the Criminal Police Laboratories for examination from 2003 to 2005 were evaluated with respect to type, number of barrels, size and caliber, rifling, design, mechanism, operability, legality, and similarity to commercial models. We found that most of these handmade guns resembled commercial models in several aspects.

  14. Renewable energy education in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, Caglayan [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik University, P.O.11030, Bilecik (Turkey)


    Utilization of renewable energy sources and the application of environmentally sound energy technologies are essential to sustainable development and will help to secure the quality of living and the well-being of the future generations. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. The use of renewable energy as a topic to study energy and its forms permits a novel way to motivate students, particularly those who energy topics taking conscience with the environment. This paper presents the analysis and classification of renewable energy sources and how to find out their origin and a way to motivate students in energy topics related to renewable sources and also, the development of didactic competencies in special blended learning arrangements for educationalists, trainers and lecturers in adult education in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. (author)

  15. Parasitic zoonotic diseases in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmiye Altintas


    Full Text Available Zoonoses and zoonotic diseases are becoming more common and they are now receiving increased attention across the world. Zoonotic parasites are found in a wide variety of protozoa, cestodes, nematodes, trematodes and arthropods worldwide and many zoonotic parasites have assumed an important role. The importance of some parasitic zoonoses has increased in recent years due to the fact that they can be agents of opportunistic infections. Although a number of zoonotic parasites are often found and do cause serious illnesses in Turkey, some are more common and these diseases are more important as they cause serious public health problems, such as leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, trichinellosis and toxocariasis. Information on these zoonotic diseases is provided here as these are the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases in Turkey.

  16. Needs in financing of petroleum, gas and electrical industries in the mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.


    Forecasting about energy supply and demand for next years is the actual question; here is presented the most specific one about the mediterranean basin: in front of the important demographic growth, leading to an urbanization and an increasing demand in energy, the problem of energy transport can rise, in this case two countries seem to take important in the mediterranean basin: Turkey and Egyptian Arab Republic. Financing can be more important than it is actually thought

  17. Geothermal energy development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, S.; Okandan, E.


    Geothermal fields in Turkey are related to rather complex zones of collision between the Eurasian and African continents, and penetration of the Arabian plate into the Anatolian continental mass. These processes gave rise to fracturing of the lithosphere and eruption of magmas. Geothermal regional assessment studies have proven several low enthalpy sources and some high enthalpy fields suitable for electricity generation. This paper summarizes developments in exploration-drilling and give examples of direct utilization implemented in recent years

  18. Endangered Lilium Species of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Demir


    Full Text Available Turkey, which is among the major gene centers of the world and has a special place in plant genetic diversity. However, many plant genetic resources, including geophytes, are under genetic erosion because of the environmental and other problems and therefore face with the danger of extinction. Lilium ciliatum is endemic to North East Anatolia. IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Natural Resources Red List Category of this species is Endangered (EN. Lilium ciliatum naturally grown in Zigana pass, Bayburt, Trabzon, Bulancak, Giresun and Gümüşhane is endangered and major threats of L. ciliatum are road construction and human disturbance related to ecotourism and recreation. It was reported that Lilium carniolicum naturally grown in Turkey is endangered although it isn’t in the IUCN Red List. Distribution areas of L. carniolicum are Trabzon, Rize, Artvin and it is also endemic to North East Anatolia. These species have high potential for use as ornamental plants with their colorful big flowers. In addition, the bulbs of these species are also used in the cosmetic industry and medicine. These are the main properties that increase the importance of L. ciliatum and L. carniolicum species. Therefore it is very important to protect the habitats of these species, ensure the continuity of their generations. The disappearance of these endemic species from our country means to disappear from the world. This review has been given in order to give some information about the endangered Lilium species of Turkey and conservation actions on these species in Turkey flora and take attention to the issue.

  19. Turkey and European Security Institutions (United States)


    another Enlargement?.” Hughes’s work, for the Friends of Europe Foundation, details the economic and demographic drivers of Turkish integration to...history of Turkish cinema : “Valley of the Wolves Iraq.” The United States military deemed the film and its viewers potentially dangerous enough that...culture and even in the demographic makeup of modern Turkey. The Ottoman Empire’s retreat from the Balkans changed the ethnic composition both of

  20. Large-Diameter Burrows of the Triassic Ischigualasto Basin, NW Argentina: Paleoecological and Paleoenvironmental Implications (United States)

    Colombi, Carina E.; Fernández, Eliana; Currie, Brian S.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Martínez, Ricardo; Correa, Gustavo


    Large-diameter ichnofossils comprising three morphotypes have been identified in the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto and Los Colorados formations of northwestern Argentina. These burrows add to the global record of the early appearance of fossorial behavior during early Mesozoic time. Morphotypes 1 and 2 are characterized by a network of tunnels and shafts that can be assigned to tetrapod burrows given similarities with previously described forms. However, differences in diameter, overall morphology, and stratigraphic occurrence allow their independent classification. Morphotype 3 forms a complex network of straight branches that intersect at oblique angles. Their calcareous composition and surface morphology indicate these structures have a composite biogenic origin likely developed due to combined plant/animal interactions. The association of Morphotypes 1 and 2 with fluvial overbank lithologies deposited under an extremely seasonal arid climate confirms interpretations that the early appearance of burrowing behavior was employed by vertebrates in response to both temperature and moisture-stress associated with seasonally or perpetually dry Pangean paleoclimates. Comparisons of burrow morphology and biomechanical attributes of the abundant paleovertebrate fauna preserved in both formations permit interpretations regarding the possible burrow architects for Morphotypes 1 and 2. In the case of the Morphotype 1, the burrow constructor could be one of the small carnivorous cynodonts, Ecteninion or Probelesodon. Assigning an architect for Morphotype 2 is more problematic due to mismatches between the observed burrow morphology and the size of the known Los Colorados vertebrates. PMID:23227195

  1. The presence of Lower Miocene (Eggenburgian in borehole 575 Cetea (East of Borod Basin, NW Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Petrescu


    Full Text Available The microfloral record evidenced in borehole 575 Cetea is very rich, consisting of 114 taxa, some of them being new species for the Tertiary of Romania. At the same time, it includes species of Eggenburgian age of the host rocks. The whole microflora assemblage suggests a forest-type vegetation developed in a warm, subtropical climate, characteristic for the Eggenburgian age of the Early Miocene. The Eggenburgian of Romania shows the same microfloral features as the Eggenburgian of Central Paratethys.

  2. Why lithospheric extension separated the Aegean from Turkey (United States)

    Ring, U.; Gessner, K.; Thomson, S. N.; Markwitz, V.


    The Aegean Sea region in the eastern Mediterranean is one of the classic and best-studied extensional provinces. Inspired by recent 3D geodynamic models of laterally heterogeneous accretion during rollback we discuss the nature of the transition from the Aegean Sea basin (Hellenides) into the Anatolian plateau of west Turkey (Anatolides). The Hellenides and Anatolides experienced similar rates of convergence, but display remarkable differences in lithospheric structure. Whereas the Aegean is characterized by sustained high-pressure metamorphism followed by slab retreat since c. 60 Ma, a south verging greenschist-facies thrust-and-fold belt formed in the Anatolides since c. 45 Ma. Fission-track contour maps show that since c. 24 Ma extension in both regions evolved differently. Gravity data, earthquake locations and seismic velocity anomalies highlight a N-S oriented subvertical boundary in the upper mantle between a fast slab below the Aegean and a slow asthenospheric region below west Turkey, the West Anatolia Transfer Zone (WATZ). Our data support the hypothesis that the WATZ developed as a result of laterally inhomogeneous convergence along the boundary of the Adriatic and Anatolian lithospheres. 3D numerical simulations of laterally inhomogeneous convergence predict a similar evolution, where two distinct domains develop along strike: a region of distributed shortening where the systems gets congested by a microcontinent (Anatolides), and a region of extension associated with rollback of the active subduction zone (Hellenides). Strike-slip deformation concentrates perpendicular to the boundary of the two domains (WATZ). The numerical simulations also predict other salient features of regional geology and geodynamics, including the origin of a lithospheric window below west Turkey, local ocean floor topography, and the formation of the North Anatolian Fault zone. We argue that the seemingly complex tectonic evolution of the Aegean-Anatolian portion of the

  3. River terrace development in the NE Mediterranean region (Syria and Turkey): Patterns in relation to crustal type (United States)

    Bridgland, David R.; Demir, Tuncer; Seyrek, Ali; Daoud, Mohamad; Abou Romieh, Mohammad; Westaway, Rob


    It is widely recognized that the optimal development of river terraces globally has been in the temperate latitudes, with NW and Central Europe being areas of particular importance for the preservation of such archives of Quaternary environmental change. There is also a growing consensus that the principal drivers of terrace formation have been climatic fluctuation against a background of progressive (but variable) uplift. Nonetheless river terraces are widely preserved in the Mediterranean region, where they have often been attributed to the effects of neotectonic activity, with a continuing debate about the relative significance of fluctuating temperature (glacials-interglacials) and precipitation (pluvials-interpluvials). Research in Syria and southern-central Turkey (specifically in the valleys of the Tigris and Ceyhan in Turkey, the Kebir in Syria and the trans-border rivers Orontes and Euphrates) has underlined the importance of uplift rates in dictating the preservation pattern of fluvial archives and has revealed different patterns that can be related to crustal type. The NE Mediterranean coastal region has experienced unusually rapid uplift in the Late Quaternary. The relation between the Kebir terraces and the staircase of interglacial raised beaches preserved along the Mediterranean coastline of NW Syria reinforces previous conclusions that the emplacement of the fluvial terrace deposits in the Mediterranean has occurred during colder climatic episodes.

  4. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.


    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  5. Structural interpretation of the Konkan basin, southwestern continental margin of India, based on magnetic and bathymetric data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, D.G.; Ramana, M.V.; Rao, M.G.

    Magnetic and bathymetric studies on the Konkan basin of the southwestern continental margin of India reveal prominent NNW-SSE, NW-SE, ENE-WSW, and WNE-ESE structural trends. The crystalline basement occurs at about 5-6 km below the mean sea level. A...

  6. Mapping groundwater renewability using age data in the Baiyang alluvial fan, NW China (United States)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe; Li, Jie; Xiang, Yong; Zhao, Zhijiang


    Groundwater age has been used to map renewability of water resources within four groups: strong, partial, and rare renewability, and non-renewable. The Baiyang alluvial fan in NW China is a representative area for examining groundwater recharge from river infiltration and for mapping groundwater renewability, and it has been investigated using multiple isotopes and water chemistry. Systematic sampling included 52 samples for 2H and 18O analysis and 32 samples for 3H, 13C and 14C analysis. The δ13C compositions remain nearly constant throughout the basin (median -12.7‰) and indicate that carbonate dissolution does not alter 14C age. The initial 14C activity of 80 pmC, obtained by plotting 3H and 14C activity, was used to correct groundwater 14C age. The results show that areas closer to the river consist of younger groundwater ages; this suggests that river infiltration is the main recharge source to the shallow groundwater system. However, at distances far away from the river, groundwater ages become older, i.e., from modern water (less than 60 year) to pre-modern water (from 60 to 1,000 years) and paleowater (more than 1,000 yeas). The four classifications of groundwater renewability have been associated with different age ranges. The area of shallow groundwater with strong renewability accounts for 74% of the total study area. Because recharge condition (river infiltration) controls overall renewability, a groundwater renewability map is of significant importance to the management of groundwater exploitation of this area as well as other arid groundwater basins.

  7. Eccentricity-driven fluvial fill terrace formation in the southern-central Andes, NW Argentina (United States)

    Tofelde, Stefanie; Savi, Sara; Wickert, Andrew D.; Wittmann, Hella; Alonso, Ricardo; Strecker, Manfred R.; Schildgen, Taylor F.


    Across the world, fill-terrace formation in glaciated catchments has been linked to variable sediment production and river discharge over glacial-interglacial cycles. Little is known, however, how variability in global climate may have affected rainfall patterns and associated surface-processes on multi-millennial timescales in regions far from major glaciers and ice sheets, and how those changes might be reflected in the landscape. Here, we investigate the timing of fluvial fill terrace planation and abandonment in the Quebrada del Toro, an intermontane basin located in the Eastern Cordillera of the southern-central Andes of NW Argentina. Fluvial fills in the valley reach more than 150 m above the current river level. Sculpted into the fills, we observe at least 5 terrace levels with pronounced differences in their extent and preservation. We sampled four TCN (in situ 10Be) depth profiles to date the abandonment of the most extensive terrace surfaces in locations, where subsequent overprint by erosion and deposition was not pronounced. We interpret unexpectedly low 10Be concentrations at shallow depths and surface samples to be related to aeolian input, causing surface inflation. Correcting the depth profiles for inflation results in a reduction of the terrace surface ages by up to 70 ka. The inflation-corrected ages fall within the late Pleistocene (~140 - 370 ka) and suggest a potential link to orbital eccentricity (~100 ka) cycles. The studied fills in the Toro Basin document successive episodes of incision, punctuated by periods of lateral planation and possible partial re-filling. We propose climate cycles as a potentially-dominant factor in forming these terraces. To our knowledge, none of the previously studied fluvial terraces in the Andes date back more than 2 glacial cycles, thus making the Quebrada del Toro an important archive of paleoenvironmental conditions over longer timescales.

  8. Turkey and Iran Transcaucasia Policy: Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А V Suleimanov


    Full Text Available Turkey and Iran Transcaucasia modern foreign policy is analyzed. As is known, Turkey and Iran historically were the competing parties for spheres of influence in Transcaucasia, as well as Russia, the USA and the Great Britain. Regional relations between Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia are discussed in context of Nagorno-Karabakh and Georgia-South Ossetia conflicts and Caspian problem.

  9. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  10. Contributions to lichen biota of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Sezer


    Full Text Available In this study, 175 lichenized and 12 lichenicolous fungi taxa are reported from 65 localities in 30 different provinces of Turkey. Some of these taxa are new record for one or more provinces from Turkey. Localities in which studied lichen taxa were collected, were given by stating its subtrate characteristics.

  11. New Records of Aphid Fauna in Turkey


    Kaygin, Azize Toper; Gorur, Gazi; Cota, Figen


    Three aphid species were identified as new records for Turkey aphid fauna from Bartin province. These species are Ceruraphis viburnicola (Gillette) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Dysaphis apiifolia (Theobald) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Macrosiphum mordvilkoi Miyazaki (Hemiptera: Aphididae). These records increase the recorded aphid-fauna of Turkey to 433 species.

  12. Higher Education Policies and Overeducation in Turkey (United States)

    Habibi, Nader


    In the past two decades Turkey has experienced a rapid increase in higher education student enrollment. This sharp increase in access to higher education has satisfied a strong social demand for university education but it has led to a growing surplus of university graduates who cannot find adequate jobs. As a result Turkey has entered an…

  13. Turkey: energy consuming and intermediary country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccaroni, G.


    Turkey's fast-growing economy and favourable geographical situation will make it a first-level player in the Mediterranean energy market, both as an energy consuming and intermediary country. Its very good relations with the United States may probably support and reinforce Turkey in the role of intermediary [it

  14. Rights of the Child in Turkey. (United States)

    Naqvi, Yasmin

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Turkey and observations regarding violence against girls in Turkey. The report is presented in three major parts. Part 1 asserts that despite the considerable…

  15. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive (United States)

    Ince, Basak


    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  16. Relationship between geo- and biodiversity: an example from the Piemonte Region (NW Italy) (United States)

    Giordano, Enrico; Ghiraldi, Luca; Pistarino, Annalaura; Giardino, Marco


    The portion of floodplain located in the southern sector of Piemonte region (NW Italy) nearby the Langhe hills, is characterized by a complex and heterogeneous geomorphological system. It is the results of geological processes and climate changes occurred since Pliocene and continued in the Upper Pleistocene with the piracy of the Tanaro River, which because of the change of the base level it triggered processes of intense headward erosion, helped by the sedimentary nature of the substrate. As a consequence of this action the landscape can be subdivided in three main geomorphological units: i) the deep incisions on the floodplain where the main rivers flow; ii) the uplands rising above the plain characterized in the eastern portion by several fluvial terraces, while in the northern one they are cut by streams that dug deep gorges where marine deposits of the Piemonte Tertiary Basin outcrop; iii) the hilly area of Langhe and Roero, which shaped on sedimentary rocks, represents a monocline structure dipping to the north-west. The aim of the present work is to identify a complex of geomorphosites able to describe not only the geological and geomorphological evolution, but also the conditioning that the geomorphological features produce on the vegetation. In particular this kind of analysis has been carried out on a limited area located nearby the city of Cherasco. In this sector the presence of deep narrow gorges created a characteristic environment with ecological niches occupied by plant communities of alpine origin, considered as glacial relicts.

  17. An Integrated 3S and Historical Materials Analysis of the Keriya Paleoriver, NW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Lei; Wang, Xinyuan; Cai, Heng


    Combining analysis of 3S (RS, GIS and GPS) and historical materials (historical records, ancient map and academic and literary writings) allows mapping of the Keriya Paleoriver of Southern Xinjiang, NW China. Keriya Paleoriver, one of the ancient Four Green Corridors which passes through the Taklimakan Desert from south to north in the Tarim Basin, recorded changes of the climate-environment in the ancient Silk Road of the region. According to the archaeological data, historical materials and paleoclimates information, its eco-environment and climate have had great changes since the 1.09Ma B.P., especially during the last 2,000 years, which has led to many famous ancient cities to be abandoned and the route of the ancient Silk Road to be moved southward. Using RS (optical and radar imagery), GIS (mapping and spatial analysis) and GPS (study area investigation), we mapped a major paleodrainage system of Keriya River, which have linked the Kunlun Mountains to the Tienshan Mountains through the Taklimakan Desert, possibly as far back as the early Pleistocene. This study illustrates the capability of the 3S and historical materials, in mapping the Keriya Paleoriver drainage networks and archaeological study on the ancient Silk Road

  18. An Integrated 3S and Historical Materials Analysis of the Keriya Paleoriver, NW China (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Wang, Xinyuan; Cai, Heng


    Combining analysis of 3S (RS, GIS and GPS) and historical materials (historical records, ancient map and academic and literary writings) allows mapping of the Keriya Paleoriver of Southern Xinjiang, NW China. Keriya Paleoriver, one of the ancient Four Green Corridors which passes through the Taklimakan Desert from south to north in the Tarim Basin, recorded changes of the climate-environment in the ancient Silk Road of the region. According to the archaeological data, historical materials and paleoclimates information, its eco-environment and climate have had great changes since the 1.09Ma B.P., especially during the last 2,000 years, which has led to many famous ancient cities to be abandoned and the route of the ancient Silk Road to be moved southward. Using RS (optical and radar imagery), GIS (mapping and spatial analysis) and GPS (study area investigation), we mapped a major paleodrainage system of Keriya River, which have linked the Kunlun Mountains to the Tienshan Mountains through the Taklimakan Desert, possibly as far back as the early Pleistocene. This study illustrates the capability of the 3S and historical materials, in mapping the Keriya Paleoriver drainage networks and archaeological study on the ancient Silk Road.

  19. Magnetic identification of climatic signals in turbiditic sediments of the Galician Bank, NW Iberian Margin (United States)

    Mohamed-Falcon, K. J.; Rey, D.; Rubio, B.


    The Galician Bank, on the NW Iberian margin, receives a limited supply of local continental sediments due to the existence of the Galician Interior basin, which traps most of the local detrital sediments discharged in the area, potentially allowing the preservation of signals of global or regional significance. High resolution magnetic analyses of a suite of gravity cores recovered from the flanks of the Galician bank indicate that these sediments are composed of three main sources; local turbiditic sequences, which comprise most of the sedimentary record, hemipelagic sediments dominated by biogenic carbonates, and ice-rafted debris with magnetic characteristics compatible with Heinrich events. Combination of the magnetic properties with geochemical data confirms the preservation of a climatic signal carried by detrital sediments in the hemipelagic facies. The transport time of these sediments, as determined by the departure from secular equilibrium of the 234U/238U ratio caused by α-recoil ejection 234U confirms a remote origin for the detrital particles in these hemipelagites, whereas shorter transport time in the turbidites is consistent with a local origin. These results confirm the utility of magnetic properties, in combination with geochemical analyses as a rapid and sensitive tool to identify climatic signals in turbiditic sediments.

  20. British American Tobacco's failure in Turkey. (United States)

    Lawrence, S


    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey's tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. BAT's failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey's unstable and corrupt investing climate.

  1. Energy production for environmental issues in Turkey (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Arman, Hasan; Halil Demirel, Ibrahim


    Due to the diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas that was newly introduced into Turkish economy, has been growing rapidly. Turkey has large reserves of coal, particularly of lignite. The proven lignite reserves are 8.0 billion tons. The estimated total possible reserves are 30 billion tons. Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey's electric energy demand is growing about 6-8% yearly due to fast economic growing. This paper deals with energy demand and consumption for environmental issues in Turkey.

  2. Wildlife of southern forests habitat & management (Chapter 9): Wild Turkey (United States)

    James G. Dickson


    A traditional and very important game species of southern forests is the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). The wild turkey is a truly wild creature and inspires an amazing level of admiration and devotion among turkey hunters. Wild turkeys have stout legs that support the heavy bird and are used to scratch for food, and short powerful wings...

  3. The history of liver transplantation in Turkey. (United States)

    Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Haberal, Mehmet


    Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for end-stage liver diseases. The first successful liver transplant was performed in the United States by Thomas Starzl in 1967. The first successful solid organ transplant in Turkey was a living-related kidney transplant performed by Dr. Haberal in 1975. After much effort by Dr. Haberal, the Turkish parliament enacted a law about organ transplantation in 1979. After clinical and experimental studies, the first liver transplant in Turkey was performed by Dr. Haberal in 1988. The first successful partial living-donor liver transplant in children in Turkey was performed by the same team on March 15, 1990. On April 24, 1990, the first living-donor liver transplant was performed on a child in Turkey using a left lateral segment by Dr. Haberal and coworkers. On May 16, 1992, Dr. Haberal performed a simultaneous living-donor liver and kidney transplantation to an adult from the same donor. There currently are 30 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. According to data from the Ministry of Health, there presently are 2065 patients in Turkey who are waiting for a liver transplantation. From January 2002 to June 2013, there were 6091 liver transplants performed in Turkey (4020 living-donor [66% ] and 2071 deceased donor liver transplants [34% ]). From January 2011 to June 2013, there were 2514 patients who had liver transplants in Turkey, and 437 patients (17%) died. The number of liver transplants per year in Turkey reached 1000 transplants in 2012 and more than 1150 transplants in 2013 (15.1/million/y). Therefore, Turkey has one of the highest volumes of liver transplantation per population worldwide, with 90% survival within 1 year after transplantation.

  4. San Mateo Creek Basin (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  5. Tectonic implications of the 2017 Ayvacık (Çanakkale) earthquakes, Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey (United States)

    Özden, Süha; Över, Semir; Poyraz, Selda Altuncu; Güneş, Yavuz; Pınar, Ali


    The west to southwestward motion of the Anatolian block results from the relative motions between the Eurasian, Arabian and African plates along the right-lateral North Anatolian Fault Zone in the north and left-lateral East Anatolian Fault Zone in the east. The Biga Peninsula is tectonically influenced by the Anatolian motion originating along the North Anatolian Fault Zone which splits into two main (northern and southern) branches in the east of Marmara region: the southern branch extends towards the Biga Peninsula which is characterized by strike-slip to oblique normal faulting stress regime in the central to northern part. The southernmost part of peninsula is characterized by a normal to oblique faulting stress regime. The analysis of both seismological and structural field data confirms the change of stress regime from strike-slip character in the center and north to normal faulting character in the south of peninsula where the earthquake swarm recently occurred. The earthquakes began on 14 January 2017 (Mw: 4.4) on Tuzla Fault and migrated southward along the Kocaköy and Babakale's stepped-normal faults of over three months. The inversion of focal mechanisms yields a normal faulting stress regime with an approximately N-S (N4°E) σ3 axis. The inversion of earthquakes occurring in central and northern Biga Peninsula and the north Aegean region gives a strike-slip stress regime with approximately WNW-ESE (N85°W) σ1 and NNE-SSW (N17°E) σ3 axis. The strike-slip stress regime is attributed to westward Anatolian motion, while the normal faulting stress regime is attributed to both the extrusion of Anatolian block and the slab-pull force of the subducting African plate along the Hellenic arc.

  6. An artificial neural network application to produce debris source areas of Barla, Besparmak, and Kapi Mountains (NW Taurids, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Tunusluoglu


    Full Text Available Various statistical, mathematical and artificial intelligence techniques have been used in the areas of engineering geology, rock engineering and geomorphology for many years. However, among the techniques, artificial neural networks are relatively new approach used in engineering geology in particular. The attractiveness of ANN for the engineering geological problems comes from the information processing characteristics of the system, such as non-linearity, high parallelism, robustness, fault and failure tolerance, learning, ability to handle imprecise and fuzzy information, and their capability to generalize. For this reason, the purposes of the present study are to perform an application of ANN to a engineering geology problem having a very large database and to introduce a new approach to accelerate convergence. For these purposes, an ANN architecture having 5 neurons in one hidden layer was constructed. During the training stages, total 40 000 training cycles were performed and the minimum RMSE values were obtained at approximately 10 000th cycle. At this cycle, the obtained minimum RMSE value is 0.22 for the second training set, while that of value is calculated as 0.064 again for the second test set. Using the trained ANN model at 10 000th cycle for the second random sampling, the debris source area susceptibility map was produced and adjusted. Finally, a potential debris source susceptibility map for the study area was produced. When considering the field observations and existing inventory map, the produced map has a high prediction capacity and it can be used when assessing debris flow hazard mitigation efforts.

  7. Shoreline change assessment using multi-temporal satellite images: a case study of Lake Sapanca, NW Turkey. (United States)

    Duru, Umit


    The research summarized here determines historical shoreline changes along Lake Sapanca by using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Six multi-temporal satellite images of Landsat Multispectral Scanner (L1-5 MMS), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (L7 ETM+), and Operational Land Imager Sensors (L8 OLI), covering the period between 17 June 1975 and 15 July 2016, were used to monitor shoreline positions and estimate change rates along the coastal zone. After pre-possessing routines, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), and supervised classification techniques were utilized to extract six different shorelines. Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS), a toolbox that enables transect-based computations of shoreline displacement, was used to compute historical shoreline change rates. The average rate of shoreline change for the entire cost was 2.7 m/year of progradation with an uncertainty of 0.2 m/year. While the great part of the lake shoreline remained stable, the study concluded that the easterly and westerly coasts and deltaic coasts are more vulnerable to shoreline displacements over the last four decades. The study also reveals that anthropogenic activities, more specifically over extraction of freshwater from the lake, cyclic variation in rainfall, and deposition of sediment transported by the surrounding creeks dominantly control spatiotemporal shoreline changes in the region. Monitoring shoreline changes using multi-temporal satellite images is a significant component for the coastal decision-making and management.

  8. Multimedia and children in Turkey. (United States)

    Tuncer, A M; Yalçin, S S


    Multimedia will be regarded as essential tools for children to create their new world. The effects of television on young children's life have been well studied. Television differs, however, from other media, including the movies, in its pervasive impact on children. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleeping. Overall 31% of children spent at least 4 hours a day watching television during weekday and 71.7% during weekend in Turkey. Television's influence on children is a function of the length of time they spend watching and the cumulative effect of what they see. Television may be a cause as well as a solution for many serious childhood problems. Excessive viewing of television has also been linked to aggressive behavior, violence, childhood obesity. On the other hand, television may act as a socializing agent and as a learning tool if the recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics is learned by pediatricians, parents and broadcasters. The use of home personal computers in urban residence increased from 3.2% in 1993 to 6.5% by January 1998 in Turkey. Around 20% of computer households reported owing a modem. Internet has been using only for 5 years in Turkey. Nearly 40% of computer households also used CD-ROM equipment. The percentage of schools that have a computer laboratory is only 2.64%. On the other hand, multimedia allows students to move away from a uniform education for everyone to assert individual identity, liberalize education and management. It seems likely that, within the next few years, most of the countries with substantial internet infrastructure will use the internet as the major medium for disseminating information, including information on children. To prepare students for such a world demands that educational systems make the best possible use of all knowledge and technologies currently available.

  9. Preliminary investigation on the deformation rates of the Nazimiye Fault (Eastern Turkey) (United States)

    Sançar, Taylan


    fault-bounded mountain fronts. In addition to that I also extracted hypsometric curves, hypsometric integrals and stream length gradient index to understand the relationship between characteristics of the drainage basins and tectonic activity. As preliminary results, I conclude that the southern segment of the NF is tectonically quiescent, whereas the deformation is mainly accommodated on the northern branch. References Emre, Ö., Duman, T.Y., Kondo, H., Olgun, Ş., Özalp, S., Elmacı, H., 2012. 1:250.000 Ölçekli Türkiye Diri Fay Haritası Serisi, Erzincan (NJ37-3) Paftası, Seri No:44, Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüǧü, Ankara-Türkiye. Kara, K., Sançar, T., Zabci, C., 2013. Morphologic and Morphotectonic Characteristics of the Nazimiye Fault Zone, Eastern Turkey. EGU2013-8105, EGU General Assembly Vienna, Austria. Şengör, A.M.C., 1979. The North Anatolian transform fault; its age, offset and tectonic significance. Journal of the Geological Society of London 136, Part 3, 269-282.

  10. Hillslope surface deformation on chalky landscape under the influence of Quaternary tectonics coupled with periglacial processes, Picardy (NW France) (United States)

    Duperret, Anne; Vandycke, Sara; Colbeaux, Jean-Pierre; Raimbault, Celine; Duguet, Timothée; Van vliet-lanoe, Brigitte


    Chalky hillslopes observed in Picardy region (NW Paris basin, France) evidence specific surficial ridges and steps, of several meters high and several ten-meters length, roughly parallel oriented to slopes on some dry valleys. They are locally named "rideaux" or strip-lynchets. Their origin is still discussed among the communities of geology, geography, archeology and pedology. Detailed observations of the Picardy coastal chalk cliffs using high resolution low-lying aerial LiDAR and field works allow us to precisely describe and understand ridges and steps formation. At Bois de Cise, a rectangular depression with ridges and steps was observed in 3D on the ground, due to its natural overlap by the cliff face. This structure proves to be a graben, controlled by conjugate normal faults, at the top of which the ridges and steps are developed. The set forms a "step-graben" composed of a system of faults in relay and ramps, involved in the superficial covering of quaternary loess. Steps formation will be discussed in relation with the tectonic context (paleo-constraint fields), the continental water circulation within the karst, the presence of break-up structures on the fault planes, the role of cryogenic processes during the last glacial epochs and the remobilization of loess surface deposits. Caves and temporary springs of fresh water along faults evidence a karstic behavior in the chalk and suggests step-graben structures as geological guides for hydrogeological circulation in the chalk of Picardy. In this context, chalky surficial step-structures appears as tectonically controlled and as the witness of a recent active tectonics in the NW european chalk basin. In addition, the field of steps developed on a coastal fossil cliff tends to prove the occurrence of a fractured system, developed according to a paleo-field of NW-SE extensive stresses. Data from the CROCOLIT-Leg1 (Duperret, 2013) campaign carried out on the offshore subtidal platform (shallow bathymetry, THR

  11. Total risk-analysing methods for dam structures and a case study in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosun, H. [Turkish Association of Dam Safety, Ankara (Turkey); Turkoz, M. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    By considering the various factors of hazard, the total risk of dam structures in a basin can be systematically analyzed. These factors include structural factors such as settlement, seepage, leakage, and internal erosion; and, dam site factors such as seismic activity, landslide, rockfall and flooding. In order to increase safety, these hazards can be analyzed in detail and design and construction measures can be taken into account. This paper outlined the main principles of total risk analysis of dams in a basin. The paper discussed the geological setting and structural geology of the Euphrates-Tigris basin located in Turkey and dam properties of thirty-two large dams, which are located on different seismic zones of the Euphrates basin. Properties that were identified and compared included: structural height, function, type, completed year, volume of dam fill, and reservoir capacity. The paper discussed the methods of analysis using a computer program for the probabilistic and deterministic assessment of seismic hazard. It was concluded that peak ground acceleration changes within a wide range for the dam sites of the basins. In addition, sixteen large dams were in the high-risk class in the basins. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  12. A SNP based linkage map of the turkey genome reveals multiple intrachromosomal rearrangements between the Turkey and Chicken genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.L.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Vereijken, A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.


    Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. The genomic resources of turkey provide turkey breeders with tools needed for the genetic improvement of commercial breeds of turkey for



    KORKMAZ, Kasım Armagan; CARHOGLU, Asuman Isıl


    Turkey is located in an active seismic zone. Mid to high rise R/C building and low rise masonry buildings are very common construction type in Turkey. In recent earthquakes, lots of existing buildings got damage including masonry buildings. Masonry building history in Turkey goes long years back. For sure, it is an important structure type for Turkey. Therefore, earthquake behavior and structural vulnerability of masonry buildings are crucial issues for Turkey as a earthquake prone country. I...

  14. Preliminary results on the tectonic activity of the Ovacık Fault (Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone, Turkey): Implications of the morphometric analyses (United States)

    Yazıcı, Müge; Zabci, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Sunal, Gürsel; Natalin, Boris A.


    The Anatolian 'plate' is being extruded westward relative to the Eurasia along two major tectonic structures, the North Anatolian and the East Anatolian shear zones, respectively making its northern and eastern boundaries. Although the main deformation is localized along these two structures, there is remarkable intra-plate deformation within Anatolia, especially which are characterized by NE-striking sinistral and NW-striking dextral strike-slip faults (Şengör et al. 1985). The Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone (MOFZ) and its northeastern member, the Ovacık Fault (OF), is a one of the NE-striking sinistral strike slip faults in the central 'ova' neotectonic province of Anatolia, located close to its eastern boundary. Although this fault zone is claimed to be an inactive structure in some studies, the recent GPS measurements (Aktuǧ et al., 2013) and microseismic activity (AFAD, 2013) strongly suggest the opposite. In order to understand rates and patterns of vertical ground motions along the OF, we studied the certain morphometric analyses such as hypsometric curves and integrals, longitudinal channel profiles, and asymmetry of drainage basins. The Karasu (Euphrates) and Munzur rivers form the main drainage systems of the study area. We extracted all drainage network from SRTM-based Digital Elevation Model with 30 m ground pixel resolution and totally identified 40 sub-drainage basins, which are inhomogeneously distributed to the north and to the south of the OF. Most of these basins show strong asymmetry, which are mainly tilted to SW. The asymmetry relatively decreases from NE to SW in general. The only exception is at the margins of the Ovacık Basin (OB), where almost the highest asymmetry values were calculated. On the other hand, the characteristics of hypsometric curves and the calculated hypsometric integrals do not show the similar systematic spatial pattern. The hypsometric curves with convex-shaped geometry, naturally indicating relatively young morphology

  15. The eoorthid brachiopod Apheoorthina in the Lower Ordovician of NW Argentina and the dispersal pathways along western Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Muñoz


    Full Text Available The eoorthid brachiopod Apheoorthina is reported for the first time from the Lower Ordovician of NW Argentina. It is represented by a species similar to A. ferrigena from the Tremadocian of the Prague Basin, increasing the faunal affinities between the Central Andean Basin and the South European microcontinents, in particular the Bohemian region (Perunica. Nine out of the fourteen brachiopod genera reported from the Tremadocian of the Central Andean Basin (~64% are shared with the Mediterranean region, four of which (~28% have been recorded in the Prague Basin, and two (Kvania and Apheoorthina are restricted to the Central Andes and Perunica. Dispersal pathways around Gondwana are analyzed in the light of major factors affecting large-scale distribution of brachiopods (environment, larval capacity for dispersal, oceanic currents. The presence in Apheoorthina aff. ferrigena of a well-preserved larval protegulum measuring 420 μm in width and 210 μm in length strongly suggests that this species had planktotrophic larvae capable of long-distance dispersal. According to recent ocean-atmosphere general circulation models for the Ordovician Period, the Central Andean margin was dominated by the cold-water Antarctica Current. Despite the complex non-zonal pattern produced by current deflections around the peri-Gondwanan microcontinents, the general westward circulation sense favoured larval dispersal from the Andean region to North Africa, Avalonia, the Armorican Terrane Assemblage, and Perunica. On the other hand, the eastwards flowing Gondwana Current connected the North Gondwana waters with the South American epicontinental seas, which could explain the reversed migration of some brachiopods.

  16. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela (United States)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.


    Sixty-five percent of the ≈19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating

  17. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.


    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  18. A Macroanatomic Study on Larynx Cranialis of Turkeys in Thrace Region, Turkey

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    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the differences and similarities between larynx cranialis of turkey and other species of poultry. For this purpose, 8 female and 8 male adult turkeys were used for the anatomical measurements. Furthermore, histological examinations were performed on larynx cranialis of 2 turkeys. Cartilago thyroidea and epiglottis were not observed in the larynx cranialis, in our study. Besides, larynx cranialis were found to constitute from paired cartilago arytneoidea and unpaired cartilago cricoidea and cartilago procricoidea. Crista ventralis was detected on larynx cranialis of turkeys. According to our results, it has been determined that in turkey; the width of glottis in female turkeys were larger than males. Cartilago procricoidea were observed bigger than cartilago arytenoidea and crista ventralis were found to be more prominent than in other birds.

  19. Investing in Turkey's Next Generation : The School-to-Work Transition and Turkey's Development


    World Bank


    This report assesses the prospects for Turkey's youth by examining the 'school-to-work transition'. Turkey needs to invest in its young people to capture the potentially substantial dividend of today's large youth cohort. Because of the sheer number of young people, Turkey's working-age population will expand by over 800,000 every year during the next decade. This so-called 'productive pop...

  20. Secular and Religious Environmentalism in Contemporary Turkey

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    Laura Wickström


    Full Text Available Turkish environmentalism is gaining ground but has not yet become a serious source of influence in society. The environmental movements have long been held as left wing politics and less religious, but today environmental awreness is also reaching the religious establishment. This article presents some of the secular and religious environmental currents in contemporary Turkey based on fieldwork mainly conducted in 2011. The main research questions are: who are the central environmental actors in Turkey, are there differences ragarding ideology and way of working between the secular and reigious field, and why there is no strong environmental scene in Turkey?

  1. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys. (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H


    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  2. Practical application of food irradiation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Erhan, I.C.


    Turkey is the world's leading producer and exporter of dried fruits (dried figs, raisins,and dried apricots etc.) and nuts (hazelnuts, wall nuts, pistachios, peanuts etc.) all of which have to be fumigated by methyl bromide a few times prior to export. Last fumigation is obligatory before shipment according to current quarantine treatment. Methyl Bromide (MeBr) fumigation is the most commonly used insect quarantine treatment for dried fruits and nuts in Turkey to protect from potential infestations. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol, Turkey as an Article 5(1) country will take actions to regulate and take measures to phase-out MeBr use. So, Turkey has to total phase-out in 2015 but according to Turkey MeBr Phase-out Action Plan prepared and published by The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural affairs in 2001, using MeBr should be reduced for stored commodities by 50 % by 2002 and phased-out totally by 2004. Irradiation technology is ready as an alternative to MeBr fumigation under the Action Plan of Turkey. Intensive research studies on food irradiation in Turkey have started in early 1970's and have still been continued. After careful and intensive works of all related authorities and specialists for a long period and with the help of ICGFI, the food irradiation regulation of Turkey was published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. Having the Food Irradiation Regulation has supported to initiate commercialization study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA (TUR 5022). Feasibility study of a commercial food irradiation facility for the potential application of food irradiation in Turkey was prepared by IAEA experts Dr.M.Ahmed and Ir. J.P.Lacroix and together with TUR 5022 Research Team in April 2001 in Izmir, Turkey. Gamma-Pak Irradiation Facility in Cerkeskoy-Tekirdag got the commercial food irradiation licence and registration certificate in Feb. 2002. Practical application of food irradiation is getting more attraction in Turkey in parallel with other

  3. Tectonic setting of Cretaceous basins on the NE Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the Jungong basin (United States)

    Craddock, W.H.; Kirby, E.; Dewen, Z.; Jianhui, L.


    Quantifying the Cenozoic growth of high topography in the Indo-Asian collision zone remains challenging, due in part to significant shortening that occurred within Eurasia before collision. A growing body of evidence suggests that regions far removed from the suture zone experienced deformation before and during the early phases of Himalayan orogenesis. In the present-day north-eastern Tibetan Plateau, widespread deposits of Cretaceous sediment attest to significant basin formation; however, the tectonic setting of these basins remains enigmatic. We present a study of a regionally extensive network of sedimentary basins that are spatially associated with a system of SE-vergent thrust faults and are now exposed in the high ranges of the north-eastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau. We focus on a particularly well-exposed basin, located ~20km north of the Kunlun fault in the Anyemaqen Shan. The basin is filled by ~900m of alluvial sediments that become finer-grained away from the basin-bounding fault. Additionally, beds in the proximal footwall of the basin-bounding fault exhibit progressive, up-section shallowing and several intraformational unconformities which can be traced into correlative conformities in the distal part of the basin. The observations show sediment accumulated in the basin during fault motion. Regional constraints on the timing of sediment deposition are provided by both fossil assemblages from the Early Cretaceous, and by K-Ar dating of volcanic rocks that floor and cross-cut sedimentary fill. We argue that during the Cretaceous, the interior NE Tibetan Plateau experienced NW-SE contractional deformation similar to that documented throughout the Qinling-Dabie orogen to the east. The Songpan-Ganzi terrane apparently marked the southern limit of this deformation, such that it may have been a relatively rigid block in the Tibetan lithosphere, separating regions experiencing deformation north of the convergent Tethyan margin from regions deforming

  4. Expansion of the South China Sea basin: Constraints from magnetic anomaly stripes, sea floor topography, satellite gravity and submarine geothermics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong Yu


    Full Text Available The widely distributed E–W-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the central basin and the N–E-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the southwest sub-basin provide the most important evidence for Neogene expansion of the South China Sea. The expansion mechanism remains, however, controversial because of the lack of direct drilling data, non-systematic marine magnetic survey data, and irregular magnetic anomaly stripes with two obvious directions. For example, researchers have inferred different ages and episodes of expansion for the central basin and southwest sub-basin. Major controversy centers on the order of basinal expansion and the mechanism of expansion for the entire South China Sea basin. This study attempts to constrain these problems from a comprehensive analysis of the seafloor topography, magnetic anomaly stripes, regional aeromagnetic data, satellite gravity, and submarine geothermics. The mapped seafloor terrain shows that the central basin is a north-south rectangle that is relatively shallow with many seamounts, whereas the southwest sub-basin is wide in northeast, gradually narrows to the southwest, and is relatively deeper with fewer seamounts. Many magnetic anomaly stripes are present in the central basin with variable dimensions and directions that are dominantly EW-trending, followed by the NE-, NW- and NS-trending. Conversely such stripes are few in the southwest sub-basin and mainly NE-trending. Regional magnetic data suggest that the NW-trending Ailaoshan-Red River fault extends into the South China Sea, links with the central fault zone in the South China Sea, which extends further southward to Reed Tablemount. Satellite gravity data show that both the central basin and southwest sub-basin are composed of oceanic crust. The Changlong seamount is particularly visible in the southwest sub-basin and extends eastward to the Zhenbei seamount. Also a low gravity anomaly zone coincides with the central fault zone in the sub-basin

  5. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field (United States)

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin


    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aslan


    Full Text Available This aim of this paper is to use asymmetric causality tests to examine the coal consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP relationship in Turkey based on data from 1980 to 2006. To investigate this relationship, a multivariate system is employed by including fixed capital formation and labor force variables into the model. The empirical results obtained from asymmetric causality tests show no causality for coal consumption and GDP relationship in Turkey. The results indicate that coal consumption does not affect growth; hence, energy conservation policies may be pursued without adversely affecting growth in Turkey. Thus, neutrality hypothesis is confirmed for Turkey. This means that a decrease in coal consumption does not affect economic growth and vice versa. In this case, policymakers should explore the feasibility of either decreasing the coal consumption or increasing the efficiency of coal consumption.

  7. Planning for Heritage Preservation in Western Turkey: A GIS Approach to Archaeotourism and Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis, Caitlin


    Full Text Available In the Marmara Lake basin, western Turkey, the burial mounds of Bin Tepe are constantly threatened by looting, development, and agricultural expansion. This study outlines a Geographic Information Systems (GIS methodology used to plan for a solution to preservation through archaeotourism development and agricultural policy compromise in the region. The components of this study include determining how to best take advantage of the scenic view of the mounds for tourism, projecting the potential future visual impact of growing olive trees, and developing a plan to mitigate this impact with unplanted zones. Fieldwork in 2011 both confirmed and furthered GIS analyses.

  8. Geothermal Field Investigations of Turkey (United States)

    Sayın, N.; Özer, N.


    Geothermal energy is a type of energy that are found in the accessible depth of the crust, in the reservoirs by way of the permeable rocks, specially in heated fluid. Geothermal system is made of 3 main components; heat source, reservoir, and fluid bearing heat. Geothermal system mechanism is comprise of fluid transmission. Convection current (heat transmission) is caused by heating and causes the fluid in the system to expand. Heated fluid with low density show tendency to rise in system. Geothermal system occurs with variable geophysics and geochemical properties. Geophysical methods can determine structural properties of shallow and deep reservoirs with temperature, mineralization, gas amount, fluid movement, faulting, and sudden change in lithostratigraphic strata. This study revealed possible reservoir structures and showed examples of geophysics and gas measuring results in Turkey which is wealthy in regard to Geothermal sources.



    Senem Besler; Ilke Oruc


    In this study, we first offer the recent statistics about the women workforce and women managers in Turkey. Then we focus on the major factors that deprive many working women of the managerial positions and consider the problems that the women managers face in companies. Finally the news texts, including the female managers in the mass media of Turkey will be interpreted through content analysis and textual analysis. The universe of the research consists of the daily newspapers. Through purpo...

  10. Voluntary emission trading potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari, İzzet


    Climate change is likely to cause serious market failures, and carbon trading as a market instrument can help correct its negative impacts. The global carbon markets established to combat climate change include regulatory and voluntary markets. Turkey cannot utilise regulatory carbon markets under the Kyoto Protocol. As a result of her unique position in the UNFCCC, some offsetting projects in Turkey have benefitted only voluntary emission trading for the reduction of GHG emissions. Due to on-going climate change negotiation under the UNFCCC, it seems that Turkey will not use the current regulatory carbon markets. Thus, Turkey should promote the use of and participation in voluntary carbon markets. In this article, emission reduction potential via energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management, and corresponding offsetting of credits with their estimated prices is investigated for the period between 2013 and 2020. The emission reduction potential for energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management projects are estimated at 403, 312 and 356 million tons of CO 2 equivalent emissions respectively, totalling 1,071 million tons of CO 2 equivalent. The total revenue of the carbon certificates are estimated in the range of 19,775–33,386 million US Dollars for the same period. -- Highlights: •Turkey has 1,071 million tons GHG emission reduction in three sectors for 2013–2020. •Turkey can only use voluntary emission trading for reduction of GHGs. •Total revenue estimation could be between 19,775 and 33,386 million US Dollars. •Turkey's economy and emissions have been rapidly growing. •Turkey can more easily reduce its emission by using voluntary emission trading


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA


    Full Text Available The article shortly deals with economic and commercial relations between Turkey, that keeps close regulary economic, political and cultural relationship and Germany, which is one of six founding fathers of the European Union. The subject of article has been searched within the following framework: Measurement of commercial relations between export and import between, investment relations between Germany and Turkey, mutual distribution sector.

  12. Microbiology of Fresh Comminuted Turkey Meat (United States)


    during processing procedures. equipment and meat Scontrol as well as processing procedures within the become contaminated with the organisms carried by...Since comminuted turkey is a new product. its level of processed turkey products. Further processed products, bacterial contamination is not reflected in... abattoirs and processing plants. be involved in outbreaks of staphylococcal intoxication. Cooked red meat products with their natural enteric However, if

  13. Radiological maps for Trabzon, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnaz, A., E-mail: [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Kucukomeroglu, B. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Damla, N. [Batman University, Department of Physics, 72060 Batman (Turkey); Cevik, U. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)


    The activity concentrations and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides and {sup 137}Cs have been ascertained in 222 soil samples in 18 counties of the Trabzon province of Turkey using a HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in soil samples were 41, 35, 437 and 21 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose in air was calculated as 59 nGy h{sup -1} and hence, the mean annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was calculated as 72 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}. In addition, outdoor in situ gamma dose rate (D) measurements were performed in the same 222 locations using a portable NaI detector and the annual effective dose was calculated to be 66 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} from these results. The results presented in this study are compared with other parts of Turkey. Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were composed using the results obtained from the study. - Highlights: {yields} {yields}The study highlights activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in soil. {yields} The absorbed gamma dose in air and the mean annual effective dose were calculated. {yields} The calculated results compared with outdoor in situ gamma dose measurements. {yields} Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were created using ArcGIS applications. {yields} The results will be valuable data for future estimations of radioactive pollution.

  14. Morphotectonics of the Jamini River basin, Bundelkhand Craton, Central India; using remote sensing and GIS technique (United States)

    Prakash, K.; Mohanty, T.; Pati, J. K.; Singh, S.; Chaubey, K.


    Morphological and morphotectonic analyses have been used to obtain information that influence hydrographic basins, predominantly these are modifications of tectonic elements and the quantitative description of landforms. Discrimination of morphotectonic indices of active tectonics of the Jamini river basin consists the analyses of asymmetry factor, ruggedness number, basin relief, gradient, basin elongation ratio, drainage density analysis, and drainage pattern analysis, which have been completed for each drainage basin using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Jamini river is one of the major tributaries of the Betwa river in central India. The Jamini river basin is divided into five subwatersheds viz. Jamrar, Onri, Sainam, Shahzad and Baragl subwatershed. The quantitative approach of watershed development of the Jamini river basin, and its four sixth (SW1-SW4) and one fifth (SW5) order subwatersheds, was carried out using Survey of India toposheets (parts of 54I, 54K, 54L, 54O, and 54P), Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER (GDEM) data, and field data. The Jamini river has low bifurcation index which is a positive marker of tectonic imprint on the hydrographic network. The analyses show that the geomorphological progression of the study area was robustly influenced by tectonics. The analysis demonstrates to extensional tectonics system with the following alignments: NE-SW, NW-SE, NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW, E-W, and N-S. Three major trends are followed by lower order streams viz. NE-SW, NW-SE, and E-W directions which advocate that these tectonic trends were active at least up to the Late Pleistocene. The assessment of morphotectonic indices may be used to evaluate the control of active faults on the hydrographic system. The analysis points out westward tilting of the drainage basins with strong asymmetry in some reaches, marked elongation ratio of subwatersheds, and lower order streams having close alignment with lineaments (active faults). The study facilitated to considerate the

  15. Recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Hayal Ayca; Simsek, Nevzat


    Recently, the importance of renewable energy sources has increased significantly as climate change has become an important long term threat to global ecosystems and the world economy. In the face of increased concern about climate change and high fossil fuel costs together with a reduction in the primary energy sources such as oil, natural gas and coal, alternative energy sources (renewables) are increasingly needed to respond to the threat of climate change and growing energy demand in the world. Recent developments in Turkey, such as the liberalization of the electricity market and improvements in the renewable legislations, have accelerated the growth process and investment opportunities in the field of renewable energy. Turkey′s naturally endowed potential for renewables, such as solar, geothermal and wind, also accompanied these developments and attracted world attention to this market. In Turkey, renewable energy sources have gained great importance in the last decades due to growing energy demand and incentive policies which foster the utilization of renewable energy sources. This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey and discuss the government policies and economic aspects. - highlights: • Turkey′s potential for renewable energy has attracted world attention. • Turkey has specific energy objectives in promoting renewable energy. • This paper evaluates recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey. • Incentives in Turkey have led to more investment in renewable energy generation

  16. Tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Williston Basin (United States)

    Redly, Pal

    overprinted. The subsequent "foreland phase" (Zuni - Tejas), was dominated by lateral forces of the Sevier and Laramide orogenies. This plate-margin-related major tectonic development was associated with the NNW-SSE elliptical elongation of the basin and the related highly prevalent NE-SW/NW-SE faulting and fracturing. Additional consequences of this process were offsetting and rotation of the pre-existing radial and circumferential structural features. These radial and circumferential structural features of the Williston Basin may be recognizable in comparable cratonic environments (e.g., Michigan Basin, Paris Basin). Comprehensive seismic/sequence stratigraphiy was developed throughout the basin. In the Sauk - Absaroka interval the sequence stratigraphic and the lithostratigraphic boundaries are generally identical. In the Zuni - Tejas interval, when the clastic sedimentation was dominant, the two subdivisions are not identical. In these younger strata 16 sequence stratigraphic units were identified. More detailed subdivision of the interval containing the Eagle Sandstone revealed that two major sources of the terrigenous sediments are directly recognizable on the seismic profiles, beyond 500 km east of the shorelines.

  17. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey (United States)

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek


    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  18. Chapter 50: Geology and tectonic development of the Amerasia and Canada Basins, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.; Childers, V.A.


    Amerasia Basin is the product of two phases of counterclockwise rotational opening about a pole in the lower Mackenzie Valley of NW Canada. Phase 1 opening brought ocean-continent transition crust (serpentinized peridotite?) to near the seafloor of the proto-Amerasia Basin, created detachment on the Eskimo Lakes Fault Zone of the Canadian Arctic margin and thinned the continental crust between the fault zone and the proto-Amerasia Basin to the west, beginning about 195 Ma and ending prior to perhaps about 160 Ma. The symmetry of the proto-Amerasia Basin was disrupted by clockwise rotation of the Chukchi Microcontinent into the basin from an original position along the Eurasia margin about a pole near 72??N, 165 Wabout 145.5-140 Ma. Phase 2 opening enlarged the proto-Amerasia Basin by intrusion of mid-ocean ridge basalt along its axis between about 131 and 127.5 Ma. Following intrusion of the Phase 2 crust an oceanic volcanic plateau, the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge LIP (large igneous province), was extruded over the northern Amerasia Basin from about 127 to 89-75 Ma. Emplacement of the LIP halved the area of the Amerasia Basin, and the area lying south of the LIP became the Canada Basin. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  19. Chapter 50 Geology and tectonic development of the Amerasia and Canada Basins, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Grantz, Arthur; Hart, Patrick E.; Childers, Vicki A


    Amerasia Basin is the product of two phases of counterclockwise rotational opening about a pole in the lower Mackenzie Valley of NW Canada. Phase 1 opening brought ocean–continent transition crust (serpentinized peridotite?) to near the seafloor of the proto-Amerasia Basin, created detachment on the Eskimo Lakes Fault Zone of the Canadian Arctic margin and thinned the continental crust between the fault zone and the proto-Amerasia Basin to the west, beginning about 195 Ma and ending prior to perhaps about 160 Ma. The symmetry of the proto-Amerasia Basin was disrupted by clockwise rotation of the Chukchi Microcontinent into the basin from an original position along the Eurasia margin about a pole near 72°N, 165 W about 145.5–140 Ma. Phase 2 opening enlarged the proto-Amerasia Basin by intrusion of mid-ocean ridge basalt along its axis between about 131 and 127.5 Ma. Following intrusion of the Phase 2 crust an oceanic volcanic plateau, the Alpha–Mendeleev Ridge LIP (large igneous province), was extruded over the northern Amerasia Basin from about 127 to 89–75 Ma. Emplacement of the LIP halved the area of the Amerasia Basin, and the area lying south of the LIP became the Canada Basin.

  20. Establishment of Antakya Basin Strong Ground Motion Monitoring System (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Özel, O.; Bikce, M.; Geneş, M. C.; Kacın, S.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Över, S.


    Turkey is located in one of the most active earthquake zones of the world. The cities located along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) are exposed to significant earthquake hazard. The Hatay province near the southern terminus of the EAF has always experienced a significant seismic activity, since it is on the intersection of the northernmost segment of Dead Sea Fault Zone coming from the south, with the Cyprean Arc approaching from south-west. Historical records extending over the last 2000 years indicate that Antakya, founded in the 3rd century B.C., is effected by intensity IX-X earthquakes every 150 years. In the region, the last destructive earthquake occurred in 1872. Destructive earthquakes should be expected in the region in the near future similar to the ones that occurred in the past. The strong response of sedimentary basins to seismic waves was largely responsible for the damage produced by the devastating earthquakes of 1985 Michoacan Earthquake which severely damaged parts of Mexico City, and the 1988 Spitak Earthquake which destroyed most of Leninakan, Armenia. Much of this devastating response was explained by the conversion of seismic body waves to surface waves at the sediment/rock contacts of sedimentary basins. "Antakya Basin Strong Ground Motion Monitoring System" is set up with the aim of monitoring the earthquake response of the Antakya Basin, contributing to our understanding of basin response, contributing to earthquake risk assessment of Antakya, monitoring of regional earthquakes and determining the effects of local and regional earthquakes on the urban environment of Antakya. The soil properties beneath the strong motion stations (S-Wave velocity structure and dominant soil frequency) are determined by array measurements that involve broad-band seismometers. The strong motion monitoring system consists of six instruments installed in small buildings. The stations form a straight line along the short axis

  1. The Geomorphological Developments Along the East Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey (United States)

    Saber, R.; Caglayan, A.; Isik, V.; Seyitoglu, G.


    The collision of Eurasia with Arabia has given rise to intracontinental shortening in SE Turkey and development of large scale fault zones. The East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), a major active fault zone over 700 km in length with NE-striking, defines the boundary zone between Eurasia plate and Anatolian micro-plate. Although the northeastern continuation of the zone merges into the North Anatolian Fault Zone at Karliova region, the southwestern continuation has been the subject of some debate. The zone is characterized by numerous, complex faults and segmented surface ruptures. It cuts and offsets several distinctive units in east and southeast Turkey. The portion of the EAFZ examined in this study extends from Celikhan to Turkoglu. Active fault strands in this portion of the EAFZ is termed the Erkenek and Golbasi segments. The zone is made of several NE-SW closely spaced strands cut across Mesozoic-to-Tertiary variable rock units and structures, indicating inception of strike-slip motion in Quaternary and characterized by a series of basins. Fault-related several morphological features have been mapped are within the study area, suggesting the left-lateral motion of fault strands along this part of the EAFZ. Offset streams, beheaded channels, pressure and shutter ridges, linear valleys and ridges and sag ponds are prominent morpho-tectonic features. Offset streams have been measured as few meters to hundreds of meters and show sinistral displacement along the fault zone. Fault scarps, several tens of metres high, are developed in fan deposits along the length of the fault strands. Forming the set of linear sag ponds in Golbasi reveals extentional activity of the EAFZ in this area. Motion of fault strands formed linear valleys and ridges parallel to the faults which is most remarkable features. Our geomorphic studies demonstrated the ongoing activity of the the EAFZ between Celikhan to Turkoglu regions.

  2. Younger Dryas To Mid-Holocene Environmental History Of The Lowlands Of NW Transylvania, Romania (United States)

    Feurdean, A.; Mosbrugger, V.; Onac, B. P.; Polyak, V.; Veres, D.


    Pollen, micro-charcoal and total carbon analyses on sediments from the Turbuta profile located in the Transylvanian Basin (NW Romania) reveal information on previously unknown Younger Dryas to mid-Holocene environmental changes. The chronostratigraphy relies on AMS 14C measurements on organic matter and U/Th TIMS datings of snail shells. Results indicate the presence of Pinus and Betula open woodlands with small populations of Picea, Ulmus, Alnus and Salix before 12,000 cal yr BP, correlates well with the environmental developments expected for Younger Dryas stadial. A fairly abrupt replacement of Pinus and Betula by Ulmus dominated woodlands at ca. 11,900 cal. yr BP, likely represents competition effects of vegetation driven by climate warming at the onset of the Holocene. By 11,000 cal yr BP, the woodlands were increasingly diverse and dense with the expansion of Quercus, Fraxinus and Tilia, the establishment of Corylus, and the decline of upland herbaceous and shrubs taxa. The marked expansion of Quercus accompanied by Tilia between 10,500 and 8,000 cal yr BP could be the result of low effective moisture associated with both low elevation of the site and with regional change towards a drier climate. At 10,000 cal. yr BP Corylus spread across the region, and by 8,000 cal yr BP it replaced Quercus as a dominant forest constituent, with only little representation of Picea abies. Carpinus became established around 5,500 cal yr BP, but it was only a minor constituent in local woodlands until ca. 5,000 cal yr BP. Results from this study also indicate that the woodlands in the lowlands of Turbuta were never closed.

  3. Superimposed versus residual basin: The North Yellow Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyong Li


    Full Text Available The North Yellow Sea Basin is a Mesozoic and Cenozoic basin. Based on basin-margin facies, sedimentary thinning, size and shape of the basin and vitrinite reflectance, North Yellow Sea Basin is not a residual basin. Analysis of the development of the basin’s three structural layers, self-contained petroleum systems, boundary fault activity, migration of the Mesozoic–Cenozoic sedimentation centers, different basin structures formed during different periods, and superposition of a two-stage extended basin and one-stage depression basin, the North Yellow Sea Basin is recognized as a superimposed basin.

  4. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath Late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey · Mehmet Şener · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central ...

  5. Wind energy status in renewable electrical energy production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil


    Main electrical energy sources of Turkey are thermal and hydraulic. Most of the thermal sources are derived from natural gas. Turkey imports natural gas; therefore, decreasing usage of natural gas is very important for both economical and environmental aspects. Because of disadvantages of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are getting importance for sustainable energy development and environmental protection. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. The estimated wind power capacity of Turkey is about 83,000 MW while only 10,000 MW of it seems to be economically feasible to use. Start 2009, the total installed wind power capacity of Turkey was only 4.3% of its total economical wind power potential (433 MW). However, the strong development of wind energy in Turkey is expected to continue in the coming years. In this study, Turkey's installed electric power capacity, electric energy production is investigated and also Turkey current wind energy status is examined. (author)

  6. Seismic hazard analysis of Sinop province, Turkey using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 3. Seismic hazard analysis of Sinop province, Turkey using probabilistic and ... Earthquake Department, Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency, Ankara, Turkey. Department of Geophysical Engineering, Sakarya University, ...

  7. Procedure and Checklist for Water Vaccination of Meat Turkey Flocks


    Frame, David D.


    Vaccination for certain diseases is an important component of the health management program for commercial meat turkey production. Because of logistical challenges almost all routine vaccination of meat turkey flocks is administered through the drinking water.

  8. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Canatan


    Full Text Available Thalassemia and abnormal haemoglobins are a serious health problem in Turkey. Very important steps for toward preventing thalassemia have been taken in Turkey by Ministry of Health (MOH, Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. The law commends to prevent haemoglobinopathies and to treat all patients with haemoglobinopathy and thalassemia. A pilot project was started and centres were created in the MOH Hospitals in the southern provinces of Turkey. In 2000, TNHC was installed to combine all centres, foundations, and associations into one organization controlled by the MOH. In 2001, the MOH and the TNHC made an inventory of all recorded patients with thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins in Turkey, registering at least 4513 patients. In 2002, written regulations for the Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease were published. MOH and TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with high birth prevalence of severe haemoglobinopathies. In 2003, the haemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set-up, a guidebook was published and a national Hemoglobinopaty Prevention Program (HPP was started in these high risk provinces . This program is running in these provinces successfully. In 2005, TFT was established as a secular society organization instead of TNHC. In 2007, National Thalassemia Prevention Campaign (NTPC was organized for public education by TFT. This campaign contributed very important supporting to HPP in Turkey, because totally 62.682 people such as health workers, students, teachers, demarches, religion officers and the other many people were educated for preventing thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. In 2009, National Thalassemia Education Seminars (NTES for health personnel have been planned in

  9. Petrographic properties of major coal seams in Turkey and their formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprak, Selami [Mineral Research and Exploration Directorate (MTA), 06520 Ankara (Turkey)


    Most types of coal in Turkey are generally low in rank: lignite, and subbituminous. Most of the coal was formed during the Miocene, Eocene, and Pliocene ages. There are only a few thin Jurassic-age coal occurrences in Turkey. Pennsylvanian age bituminous coal is found on the Black Sea coast. General implications of the petrographic properties of Turkey's coal seams and coal deposits have not yet been taken into consideration comparatively or as a whole. For this study, about 190 channel samples were collected from different locales. The composite profile samples of the seams were taken into considerations. The content and depositional properties as well as some chemical and physical properties of the main coal seams are compared. All coal samples tend to have similar coal petrographic properties and were deposited in intermontane lacustrine basins. Later, they were affected by faulting and post-depositional volcanic activity. As a result, there are variations in the properties and rank of the coal samples. The most abundant coal maceral group is huminite and the most abundant maceral is gelinite. The liptinite and inertinite contents of the coal are low and the maceral contents of the coals show great similarity. The depositional environments of the all coals are lacustrine dominated. (author)

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2008 as well radon activity concentrations measured in dwellings, and absorbed gamma dose rates in air obtained by means of car-borne measurement system (Mobysis) are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and gross alpha/beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples are to be found as 26.0±0.9 Bq kg - 1, 31.6±1.2 Bq kg - 1 and438.5tively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs is to be found as 10.5±1.0 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor caused from the external exposure from natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose are evaluated as 49.4 nGy h - 1 and 0.06 mSv y - 1, repectively. The activitity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples are lowere than the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) while 1 34Cs radionuclide is not observed. The mean value of the activity concentration of 4 0K measured in food samples in seven categories is found as 129.8±11.3 Bq kg - 1. While the values of the activity concentration of 1 37Cs are below the MDA except mushroom and hazelnut. The mean activity concentration of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples is 0.61 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure due to radiation

  11. Prospects of Turkey Entrance in the EU and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Gadjiev


    Full Text Available This article examines features of Turkeys' relations with the European Union and the impact of these relations on the development of Turkish-Russian cooperation in various fields. Conducted in Turkey, the reforms necessary for EU accession, to a certain extent improve the domestic economic situation in the country and strengthen democratic reforms. This is useful not only for Turkey but also for countries who establishes close contacts with Turkey, including Russia.

  12. Past to present: echinococcosis in Turkey. (United States)

    Altintas, Nazmiye


    Echinococcosis is a zoonotic infection caused by Echinococcus spp. and is one of the most important helminthic diseases worldwide. Two forms of echinococcosis occur in Turkey, i.e. Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis. The life cycle of E. granulosus is predominantly in dogs and sheep, and most sheep farmers in Turkey keep a dog or two. Stray dogs are numerous and prevention or treatment of infection in these dogs is very difficult. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) occurs throughout Turkey whereas alveolar echinococcosis (AE) predominantly occurs in the eastern Anatolian region of the country. Both CE and AE are known to be endemic but few surveys have been performed. Most data on human CE and AE have been collected from hospital records. The first reference of echinococcosis, "Kyste hydatique multiloculaire", in Turkey dates as far back to 1872 by an Ottoman Physician, C.R. Katibian. The results of the first Turkish study on E. granulosus were published in 1928. According to Ministry of Health records, 21303 patients had operations to treat or confirm CE in the period 1987-1994 which corresponds to approximately 2663 patients per year. The estimated surgical case rate of CE is 0.87-6.6 per 100000 in Turkey. The prevalence of E. granulosus infection in dogs in Turkey is between 0.32 and 40% and varies widely with geographical location. The reported prevalence of CE in domestic animals in Turkey has ranged from 11.2 to 50.7% and has varied widely with geographical location. Although no detailed information has been published on AE in domestic and wild animals in Turkey, the main definitive and intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis are assumed to be rodents and red foxes, respectively. However, there has been only a single published report of E. multilocularis in a wild animal (fox) in the northwest in 1965 by Merdivenci. The first human case of AE in Turkey was reported by Mutlu in 1939, and total cumulative reported case number is 202 between 1980 and 1998.

  13. Migration Crisis and New Opportunities for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Miheev


    Full Text Available The article discusses some aspects of the relationship of the European Union and Turkey. Against the backdrop of the immigration crisis, that has gripped almost all countries in Europe, the EU states were forced to appeal to the Turkish Government for assistance. Europe requested to withhold part of the f refugees on the territory of Turkey. The EU promised financial support. The Government of RecepTayyip Erdogan linked problems with the issue of refugees entering the country in the EU. The author analyzes the possibility of positive promotion of the negotiation process on Turkey's EU membership. Focuses on the settlement of the Cyprus problem, as one of the three major political obstacles to Turkey in Europe. We are seeing a situation in which EU political circles are willing to exert pressure on the Cyprus conflict and to push for the signing of a formal treaty on the settlement of problem. Some progress in the negotiation process between the communities of Cyprus EU starts to participate in the negotiations on Cyprus, together with the United Nations. Creates good conditions for the settlement of the conflict. Such a way of resolving the long-standing territorial-community conflict creates much more new problems on the island. Obstacles to the integration of Turkey into the EU will become even more.

  14. LGBT in Turkey: Policies and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Engin


    Full Text Available While LGBT studies have been problematizing normative categories of sexuality primarily in Western cultures, the status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT individuals in non-Western societies remains understudied. This study examines the political attitudes toward LGBT individuals in Turkish society and explores the experiences of transgender individuals. While Turkey holds a strong economic position among Western countries, the situation of sexual minorities lags behind international standards. This study explores two research questions. First, what is the Turkish government’s outlook for the LGBT community? Secondly, what kind of problems and challenges do trans-individuals experience in Turkey? This study first introduces a macro-level analysis of the politics of gender identity in Turkey by analyzing the debates of four deputies in the Turkish Parliament, each representing their parties’ disparate viewpoints. Secondly, a micro-level analysis of previously collected interviews with twenty-five trans-individuals are also examined that shed light on the difficulties of being a trans-individual in Turkey. The content analysis shows that trans-individuals experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence, in addition to experiencing discrimination in employment, housing, and healthcare. The findings of this micro-level analysis elucidate the continuous discrimination, inequality, and violence that these individuals experience, while the macro-level analysis portrays the state’s discriminatory policies toward LGBT individuals in Turkey.

  15. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D. [Global Business Reports (United States)


    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Analyses of Small-Scale Turkey Production in Owerri Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to analyse small scale turkey production in Imo State of Nigeria. Owerri agricultural zone of Imo State harbours most of the urban cities with large population thus providing greatest market for turkey in the area. Fifty farmers in turkey production constituted sample size for this study. The data ...

  17. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... respect to imports of certain pasta from Turkey. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on...

  18. Turkey Point tritium. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostlund, H.G.; Dorsey, H.G.


    In 1972-73 the Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) began operation of two nuclear reactors at Turkey Point on lower Biscayne Bay. One radioactive by-product resulting from the operation of the nuclear reactors, tritium, provides a unique opportunity to study transport and exchange processes on a local scale. Since the isotope in the form of water is not removed from the liquid effluent, it is discharged to the cooling canal system. By studying its residence time in the canal and the pathways by which it leaves the canals, knowledge of evaporative process, groundwater movement, and bay exchange with the ocean can be obtained. Preliminary results obtained from measurement of tritium levels, both in the canal system and in the surrounding environment are discussed. Waters in lower Biscayne Bay and Card and Barnes Sounds receive only a small portion of the total tritium produced by the nuclear plant. The dominating tritium loss most likely is through evaporation from the canals. The capability of measuring extremely low HTO levels allows the determination of the evaporation rate experimentally by measuring the tritium levels of air after having passed over the canals

  19. Altered Biomechanical Properties of Gastrocnemius Tendons of Turkeys Infected with Turkey Arthritis Reovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A. Sharafeldin


    Full Text Available Turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV causes lameness and tenosynovitis in commercial turkeys and is often associated with gastrocnemius tendon rupture by the marketing age. This study was undertaken to characterize the biomechanical properties of tendons from reovirus-infected turkeys. One-week-old turkey poults were orally inoculated with O’Neil strain of TARV and observed for up to 16 weeks of age. Lameness was first observed at 8 weeks of age, which continued at 12 and 16 weeks. At 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age, samples were collected from legs. Left intertarsal joint with adjacent gastrocnemius tendon was collected and processed for histological examination. The right gastrocnemius tendon’s tensile strength and elasticity modulus were analyzed by stressing each tendon to the point of rupture. At 16 weeks of age, gastrocnemius tendons of TARV-infected turkeys showed significantly reduced (P<0.05 tensile strength and modulus of elasticity as compared to those of noninfected control turkeys. Gastrocnemius tendons revealed lymphocytic tendinitis/tenosynovitis beginning at 4 weeks of age, continuing through 8 and 12 weeks, and progressing to fibrosis from 12 to 16 weeks of age. We propose that tendon fibrosis is one of the key features contributing to reduction in tensile strength and elasticity of gastrocnemius tendons in TARV-infected turkeys.

  20. Structural investigations of Great Basin geothermal fields: Applications and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nicholas H. [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark F [Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)


    Because fractures and faults are commonly the primary pathway for deeply circulating hydrothermal fluids, structural studies are critical to assessing geothermal systems and selecting drilling targets for geothermal wells. Important tools for structural analysis include detailed geologic mapping, kinematic analysis of faults, and estimations of stress orientations. Structural assessments are especially useful for evaluating geothermal fields in the Great Basin of the western USA, where regional extension and transtension combine with high heat flow to generate abundant geothermal activity in regions having little recent volcanic activity. The northwestern Great Basin is one of the most geothermally active areas in the USA. The prolific geothermal activity is probably due to enhanced dilation on N- to NNE-striking normal faults induced by a transfer of NW-directed dextral shear from the Walker Lane to NW-directed extension. Analysis of several geothermal fields suggests that most systems occupy discrete steps in normal fault zones or lie in belts of intersecting, overlapping, and/or terminating faults. Most fields are associated with steeply dipping faults and, in many cases, with Quaternary faults. The structural settings favoring geothermal activity are characterized by subvertical conduits of highly fractured rock along fault zones oriented approximately perpendicular to the WNW-trending least principal stress. Features indicative of these settings that may be helpful in guiding exploration for geothermal resources include major steps in normal faults, interbasinal highs, groups of relatively low discontinuous ridges, and lateral jogs or terminations of mountain ranges.

  1. Geothermal energy in Turkey. 2008 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpen, Umran; Korkmaz, E. Didem [Istanbul Technical University, Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak-istanbul (Turkey); Aksoy, Niyazi [Dokuz Eyluel University, Torbali Technical Vocational School of Higher Education, 35120 Torbali-Izmir (Turkey); Oenguer, Tahir [Geosan Co. Inc., Buyukdere Str 27/7, 3438 Sisli-Istanbul (Turkey)


    Geological studies indicate that the most important geothermal systems of western Turkey are located in the major grabens of the Menderes Metamorphic Massif, while those that are associated with local volcanism are more common in the central and eastern parts of the country. The present (2008) installed geothermal power generation capacity in Turkey is about 32.65 MWe, while that of direct use projects is around 795 MWt. Eleven major, high-to-medium enthalpy fields in western part of the country have 570 MWe of proven, 905 MWe of probable and 1389 MWe of possible geothermal reserves for power generation. In spite of the complex legal issues related to the development of Turkey's geothermal resources, their use is expected to increase in the future, particularly for electricity generation and for greenhouse heating. (author)

  2. National Childhood Diabetes Program Activities in Turkey


    Hatun, ??kr?


    Recent census figures in Turkey show that out of a population of 76.6 million, 22.7 million (29.7%) are younger than 18 years old. The great majority (>95%) of pediatric cases of diabetes in Turkey are type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In recent years, with increase in number of pediatric endocrine centers around the country, the important issue of care for diabetic children and adolescents has been revived and major steps have been taken for improvement in pediatric care and its outreach to a...





    ‘Child Brides’ are described as girls who are forced to get married before they are 18 year old. The issue of child brides is a concern for undeveloped and developing countries as well as Turkey. This work aims to explore the prevalence, problems and causes related to the problem of ‘child brides’ as well as offering solutions for this problem. The literature shows that ‘child bride’ is quite widespread practice in Turkey. Moreover, forced marriage at an early age is problematic in many ways....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstract: IMF has been created to make international cooperation on financial matters stronger and for solving the problems of balance of payment. However, the IMF formed policies in order to solve problems of balance of payment till the 1980s, expanded its effectiveness much more by controlling the structural adjustment programs after the 1980s, and undertook the role as an international lender of last resort on crises caused by globalization trends. In developing nations, foreign and domestic deficit occurred due to infrastructural causes that have created economic instabilities portrayed through inflation and unemployment. Especially foreign debt problems sourced by the foreign trade deficit transformed into an economic crisis for these countries. Many countries affected by such economic crisis applied to IMF and its Stabilization Program with the aim of providing economic stability in the hopes of recovering. The important thing here to point out is that the economic programs used by countries during their economic crisis are supported by the IMF in reality. In this situation Mexico and Argentina can be given as a good example. IMF has undertaken the same mission in Turkey with seven stabilization programs put in practice and nineteen Stand-By Arrangements between them. But IMF has failed many times in Turkey just like in many developing countries. This is because IMF did not take into consideration economic and social structure of countries in stabilization programs put in practice. Today, Turkey has reached to an important point from the way of its relationship with IMF; more clearly, Turkey is determined to achieve its future without IMF. Turkey-IMF relationship in the framework of stand-by agreements in the past half century of our economic and political history has come to an ending point. After a period of 51 years of intense relations, Turkey decided to determine its calculations of credit limit by the way of advantages and

  5. Caecal coccidiosis in commercial male turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sironi


    Full Text Available An outbreak of coccidiosis with high mortality is reported in 30-day-old commercial turkeys. Grossly, a severe typhlitis with a large fibrino-necrotic core was present. Large numbers of oocysts were observed in caecal smears. The location and the severity of the lesions and the oocyst morphology were strongly suggestive of Eimeria adenoeides infection. This species has already been reported in turkey flocks in Italy, but it is rarely responsible for clinical coccidiosis and severe lesions with high mortality. Other caecal parasitic infections are considered in differential diagnosis.

  6. Dollarization and External Sustainability of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Karimova


    Full Text Available In this paper, we attempt to explain that expanding current account deficit of Turkey can be a highlighting signal of its dependency on foreign capital inflows. When private non-financial firms borrow in foreign currency, they face currency mismatch in their balance sheets. Statistical analyses of aggregated balance sheet data of non-financial sector revealed that the negative gap between firms’ dollarized assets and liabilities has been increasing considerably in Turkey. This creates financial exposure by private non-financial sector. Given a high level of liability dollarization by firms in Turkish economy, it is exposed dramatically to the changes in external and domestic conditions.

  7. Operational EEW Networks in Turkey (United States)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali


    There are several EEW networks and algorithms under operation in Turkey. The first EEW system was deployed in Istanbul in 2002 after the 1999 Mw7.4 Kocaeli and Mw7.1 Duzce earthquake events. The system consisted of 10 strong motion stations located as close as possible to the main Marmara Fault line. The system was upgraded by 5 OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) in 2012 located in Marmara Sea. The system works in threshold based algorithm. The alert is given according to exceedance of certain threshold levels of amplitude of ground motion acceleration in certain time interval at least in 3 stations. Currently, there are two end-users of EEW system in Istanbul. The critical facilities of Istanbul Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) and Marmaray Tube tunnel receives the EEW information in order to activate their automatic shut-off mechanisms. The IGDAS has their own strong motion network located at their district regulators. After receiving the EEW signal if the threshold values of ground motion parameters are exceeded the gas-flow is cut automatically at the district regulators. The IGDAS has 750 district regulators distributed in Istanbul. At the moment, the 110 of them are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers. As a 2nd stage of the on-going project, the IGDAS company proposes to install strong motion accelerometers to all remaining district regulators. The Marmaray railway tube tunnel is the world's deepest immersed tube tunnel with 60m undersea depth. The tunnel has 1.4km length with 13 segments. The tunnel is monitored with 2 strong motion accelerometers in each segment, 26 in total. Once the EEW signal is received, the monitoring system is activated and the recording ground motion parameters are calculated in real-time. Depending on the exceedance of threshold levels, further actions are taken such as reducing the train speed, stopping the train before entering the tunnel etc. In Istanbul, there are also on-site EEW system applied in several high

  8. [Tularemia in Konya region, Turkey]. (United States)

    Dikici, Nebahat; Ural, Onur; Sümer, Sua; Oztürk, Kayhan; Albayrak Yiğit, Ozgen; Katlanır, Eda; Keleş, Bahar


    Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis. In the recent years tularemia has become a re-emerging infection in Turkey with epidemics and also sporadic cases. Transmission occurs most often through consumption of contaminated water and food, direct contact with animals and insect/ tick bites. In this study, we evaluated clinical features and laboratory findings of 35 tularemia cases diagnosed during two outbreaks that occurred in two different villages during two different periods in Konya (located in Central Anatolia), Turkey and five sporadic cases. In both outbreaks, first (index) cases were admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaints of cervical lympadenopathy. After diagnosis of tularemia, an organized team visited the villages to search if more cases existed. For microbiological diagnosis, blood, throat and tonsil swabs and lymph node aspirate specimens were collected from the suspected cases. Diagnostic tests (culture, serology, molecular methods) for tularemia were performed in reference center, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency. Drinking and potable water samples from those villages were also collected by provincial health authorities. The cases (n= 14) that belonged to the first epidemics were detected in February 2010 and cases (n= 21) of the second epidemics in November- December 2010; five cases were followed as sporadic. The mean age of the 40 patients (25 females, 15 males) was 37.6 (age range: 5-80 years; five of them were pediatric group) years. The most common complaints of patients were cervical mass (90%), sore throat (63%), chills (60%) and fever (58%). The most frequently detected clinical findings were enlarged lymph nodes (n= 34, 85%), followed by tonsillitis (20%), skin lesions (15%) and conjunctivitis (8%). Most of the patients (82.5%) had been misdignosed as acute tonsillitis, suppurative lymphadenitis, tuberculous lymphadenitis and brucellosis, before their admission to our hospital and treated

  9. Calpain-3 mutations in Turkey. (United States)

    Balci, Burcu; Aurino, Stefania; Haliloglu, Göknur; Talim, Beril; Erdem, Sevim; Akcören, Zuhal; Tan, Ersin; Caglar, Melda; Richard, Isabelle; Nigro, Vincenzo; Topaloglu, Haluk; Dincer, Pervin


    Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD2s) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by progressive involvement of the proximal limb girdle muscles; the group includes at least 10 different genetic entities. The calpainopathies (LGMD2A), a subgroup of LGMD2s, are estimated to be the most common forms of LGMD2 in all populations so far investigated. LGMD2A is usually characterized by symmetrical and selective atrophy of pelvic, scapular and trunk muscles and a moderate to gross elevation of serum CK. However, the course is highly variable. It is caused by mutations in the CAPN3 gene, which encodes for the calpain-3 protein. Until now, 161 pathogenic mutations have been found in the CAPN3 gene. In the present study, through screening of 93 unrelated LGMD2 families, we identified 29 families with LGMD2A, 21 (22.6%) of which were identified as having CAPN3 gene mutations. We detected six novel (p.K211N, p.D230G, p.Y322H, p.R698S, p.Q738X, c.2257delGinsAA) and nine previously reported mutations (c.550delA, c.19_23del, c.1746-20C>G, p.R49H, p.R490Q, p.Y336N, p.A702V, p.Y537X, p.R541Q) in the CAPN3 gene. There may be a wide variety of mutations, but clustering of specific mutations (c.550delA: 40%, p.R490Q: 10%) could be used in the diagnostic scheme in Turkey.

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides, gross alpha/beta activities and air gamma dose rates in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2007 are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural ( 238 U, 232 Th, 2 26Ra, 4 :0K and 7 Be) and artificial ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 90 Sr, 238-239+240 Pu, 2 41Am) radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. Results show that 137 Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident in 1986 exist in some of samples even in low levels. The mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in the studied surface soil samples were found as 32.1 Bq kg -1 , 35.0 Bq kg -1 , 29.0 Bq kg -1 and 446.7 Bq kg -1 , respectively, while the mean activity concentrations of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 18.4 Bq kg -1 . While the activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the analyzed food samples are lower than the minimum detectable activity (MDA), 134 Cs and 7 Be radionuclides are not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr radionuclides are 0.24 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. (Includes 4 tables and 7 figures)

  11. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy turkeys and from turkeys with necrotic enteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Kallio, H.


    ) of a turkey company that produces 99% of domestic turkey meat in Finland were interviewed about background information, management at the farm, and stress factors related to NE outbreaks. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis with SmaI restriction enzyme resulted in 30 PFGE patterns among the 92 C......Clostridium perfringens is an important bacterial pathogen, especially in poultry, where it can lead to both subclinical and clinical disease. The aim of this study was to present data on pathological findings at outbreaks of necrotic enteritis (NE) in turkey production in Finland during the period...... from 1998 to 2012. Furthermore, C. perfringens isolates from healthy and diseased turkeys were characterized and their genetic diversity was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates (n = 212) from birds with necrotic gut lesions and from healthy flocks of 30 commercial...

  12. CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Necker, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 2 sites around Necker in the NW...

  13. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Necker, NW Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) in 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at Necker in the NW...

  14. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the NW...

  15. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Maro Reef in the NW...

  16. Population genetic structure of Orchesella cincta (Collembola; Hexapoda) in NW Europe, as revealed by microsatellite markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurff, van der A.W.G.; Gols, R.; Ernsting, G.; Straalen, van N.M.


    We studied genetic variation and population differentiation in the springtail Orchesella cincta L. An earlier approach, using allozymes, revealed extremely low variation among and within populations from NW Europe. Microsatellite marker analysis showed higher genetic variation than allozymes, and

  17. CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Lisianski, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 9 sites around Lisianski in the NW...

  18. Late Holocene High Discharge and Erosion Events Inferred from Sediment Proxies and Catchment Geomorphology, Lake Vuoksjávrátje, NW Sweden (United States)

    Berntsson, A.; Jansson, K. N.; Kylander, M. E.; De Vleeschouwer, F.; Bertrand, S.


    Alpine lakes in NW Sweden are highly sensitive to variations in catchment erosion and in precipitation. Previous studies aimed at reconstructing past summer temperatures have suggested that this sensitivity may influence chironomid species composition enough to cause bias in quantitative temperature reconstructions. In this study we have analysed lake sediments covering the last 5100 years from Lake Vuoksjávrátje in NW Sweden and catchment geomorphology with the aim to separate between different erosional regimes in the lake and its catchment and to identify sediment sources and processes behind sediment deposition in the lake basin. Methods include XRF core scanning, grain size analysis, chironomid analysis, TOC and C/N analysis and detailed mapping of geomorphology. From the integrated results we identify time intervals with increased catchment erosion, inferred to result from intense precipitation. Based on the combined proxy data it was concluded that a major flood event took place at the Vindelfjällen site c. 2800 cal BP, unique for the 5100-year long record. The chironomid species composition shows stronger influence from wetland surface erosion at c. 2800 cal BP and during the last c. 1000 years. By combining multi-proxy lake sediment analysis with study of catchment geomorphology it is possible to improve the understanding of Late Holocene hydro-climatic change and how it may influence Arctic alpine lakes.

  19. Constraining sediment routing and recycling using the Pb isotopic composition of detrital K-feldspar: Examples from NW Europe (United States)

    Tyrrell, Shane; Haughton, Peter D. W.; Daly, J. Stephen; Shannon, Patrick M.


    Many provenance studies aim to constrain palaeogeography, ancient sediment routing and drainage evolution over geological timescales. Geochemical and isotopic signals in individual mineral grains are becoming increasingly important in providing detailed insights. However, given the potential for sedimentary recycling, mixing and grain modification (e.g. during transport or diagenesis), it is often unclear how intermediate and ultimate sources of sand grains can be distinguished. More robust palaeodrainage reconstructions can be constrained through the careful integration of several provenance approaches. In applying more than one technique, it is critical to consider the nature and likely persistence of the mineral being interrogated. For example, zircon is an extremely useful and commonly utilised provenance proxy, as it is both robust and almost ubiquitous in sandstones. However, its inherent stability also implies that recycled zircon populations can remain unidentified, resulting in potentially misleading paleodrainage models. In-situ analysis of Pb isotopes in detrital K-feldspar provides an effective means of constraining provenance. As basement Pb isotopic domains with distinctive compositions vary on a broad (>100 km) scale, the technique is particularly suited to determining the scale of ancient drainage systems. It has been shown that detrital K-feldspar grains in sandstones can retain the Pb signature of their original basement source despite weathering, transport and diagenesis. Furthermore, as K-feldspar is less likely to be recycled, determining its source can complement provenance methods which utilise signals in robust (= potentially recycled) grains. The Pb-in-K-feldspar technique has been applied to Late Palaeozoic to Mesozoic sandstone intervals in a number of sedimentary basins on the NW European margin. Data from Permo-Triassic to Middle Jurassic arkosic sandstones from the margins of the Rockall Basin, offshore western Ireland, show that the K

  20. Methane emissions from the upwelling area off Mauritania (NW Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kock


    Full Text Available Coastal upwelling regions have been identified as sites of enhanced CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The coastal upwelling area off Mauritania (NW Africa is one of the most biologically productive regions of the world's ocean but its CH4 emissions have not been quantified so far. More than 1000 measurements of atmospheric and dissolved CH4 in the surface layer in the upwelling area off Mauritania were performed as part of the German SOPRAN (Surface Ocean Processes in the Anthropocene study during two cruises in March/April 2005 (P320/1 and February 2007 (P348. During P348 enhanced CH4 saturations of up to 200% were found close to the coast and were associated with upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water. An area-weighted, seasonally adjusted estimate yielded overall annual CH4 emissions in the range from 1.6 to 2.9 Gg CH4. Thus the upwelling area off Mauritania represents a regional hot spot of CH4 emissions but seems to be of minor importance for the global oceanic CH4 emissions.

  1. Epidemiology of neosporosis in dairy cattle in Galicia (NW Spain). (United States)

    González-Warleta, Marta; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; Carro-Corral, Carmen; Cortizo-Mella, Javier; Mezo, Mercedes


    This comprehensive study of neosporosis in dairy cattle in Galicia (NW Spain) included: (1) a comparative study of three serological techniques for detection of Neospora caninum antibodies (direct agglutination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence); (2) a cross-sectional serological survey in which 276 herds and 5,196 animals were tested; (3) a study of N. caninum antibody dynamics; (4) the isolation of viable tachyzoites of N. caninum. Data were analysed to determine the risk factors associated with the infection. A total of 219 herds (79.3%) and 816 heads of cattle (15.7%) were found to be seropositive. Seropositivity was higher on farms with dogs than on farms without dogs, and there was a negative correlation between the size of the herds and seroprevalence. Co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii increased the risk of seropositivity. Cows infected with N. caninum were 5.3 times more likely to abort than non-infected cows. The dynamics study showed an increase in anti-N. caninum antibody titres during the third trimester of pregnancy. Viable tachyzoites were isolated from brain samples. These results indicate that the economic impact of N. caninum is high in Galicia, and therefore, the inclusion of control measures for neosporosis in the official control health programmes is strongly recommended.



    Sevüktekin, Mustafa; Yıldırır Keser, Hilal; Ay, Sema; Çetin, Işın


    Transportation sector in Turkey, in the early years of the Republic, short range railway and seaway transportation is observed to be made in the Western Anatolia. Upon the establishment of the Republic, much importance was put on railway transportation and the railway systems which would provide east-west and north-south connection were built. In recent years, Turkey has been experiencing important developments related with railway transportation. Due to playing great role of railway transpor...

  3. Structural imaging of the East Beni Sueif Basin, north eastern Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Salem, E.; Sehim, A.


    The East Beni Sueif Basin is the only tested hydrocarbon-bearing basin on the eastern side of the Nile in Egypt. The basin is located around 150 km to the south of Cairo. This work introduces the first attempt of seismic interpretation and structural patterns of this basin, for which subsurface published works are lacking. Structural imaging of the area is achieved through interpretation of pre-stack time migration (PSTM) seismic cube and data sets of seven wells. The penetrated sedimentary section is represented by Albian-Middle Eocene sediments. The East Beni Sueif Basin is a type of the whole graben-system and is bounded by two NW-SE bounding faults. These faults had continued activity in an extensional regime associated with fault-propagating folds. The basin is traversed by a N75°E-trending fault system at basement level. This fault system separates the basin into two structural provinces. The Northwestern Province is deeper and shows more subsidence with a predominance of NW-trending longitudinal faults and N60·W oblique faults to the basin trend. The Southeastern Province is shallow and crossed by N14·W-trending faults which are slightly oblique to the basin axis. Albian time had witnessed the main extensional tectonic phase and resulted in major subsidence along basin-bounding faults associated with growth thickening of basal deposits. During Senonian time, the basin experienced a mild phase of transtensional tectonics, which formed negative-flower structures entrapping different folds along the N75°E and N60·W faults. The timing and style of these structures are similar to the Syrian-Arc structures in several Western Desert oil fields. The basin emerged during the Paleocene with scoured and eroded top Cretaceous sediments. Subsidence was resumed during the Early Eocene and resulted in 1500 m-thick carbonate sediments. Lastly, a mild extensional activity possibly occurred during the Oligocene-Miocene time. Despite the possible restricted potentiality

  4. Easily fabricated and lightweight PPy/PDA/AgNW composites for excellent electromagnetic interference shielding. (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Gu, Fu-Qiang; Ni, Li-Juan; Liang, Kun; Marcus, Kyle; Liu, Shu-Li; Yang, Fan; Chen, Jin-Ju; Feng, Zhe-Sheng


    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) containing nanoscale conductive fillers have been widely studied for their potential use in various applications. In this paper, polypyrrole (PPy)/polydopamine (PDA)/silver nanowire (AgNW) composites with high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance, good adhesion ability and light weight are successfully fabricated via a simple in situ polymerization method followed by a mixture process. Benefiting from the intrinsic adhesion properties of PDA, the adhesion ability and mechanical properties of the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites are significantly improved. The incorporation of AgNWs endows the functionalized PPy with tunable electrical conductivity and enhanced EMI shielding effectiveness (SE). By adjusting the AgNW loading degree in the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites from 0 to 50 wt%, the electrical conductivity of the composites greatly increases from 0.01 to 1206.72 S cm -1 , and the EMI SE of the composites changes from 6.5 to 48.4 dB accordingly (8.0-12.0 GHz, X-band). Moreover, due to the extremely low density of PPy, the PPy/PDA/AgNW (20 wt%) composites show a superior light weight of 0.28 g cm -3 . In general, it can be concluded that the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites with tunable electrical conductivity, good adhesion properties and light weight can be used as excellent EMI shielding materials.

  5. Slab break-off triggered lithosphere - asthenosphere interaction at a convergent margin: The Neoproterozoic bimodal magmatism in NW India (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Pandit, Manoj K.; Zhao, Jun-Hong; Chen, Wei-Terry; Zheng, Jian-Ping


    The Neoproterozoic Malani Igneous Suite (MIS) is described as the largest felsic igneous province in India. The linearly distributed Sindreth and Punagarh basins located along eastern margin of this province represent the only site of bimodal volcanism and associated clastic sediments within the MIS. The in-situ zircon U-Pb dating by LA-ICPMS reveals that the Sindreth rhyolites were erupted at 769-762 Ma. Basaltic rocks from both the basins show distinct geochemical signatures that suggest an E-MORB source for Punagarh basalts (low Ti/V ratios of 40.9-28.2) and an OIB source (high Ti/V ratios of 285-47.6) for Sindreth basalts. In the absence of any evidence of notable crustal contamination, these features indicate heterogeneous mantle sources for them. The low (La/Yb)CN (9.34-2.10) and Sm/Yb (2.88-1.08) ratios of Punagarh basalts suggest a spinel facies, relatively shallow level mantle source as compared to a deeper source for Sindreth basalts, as suggested by high (La/Yb)CN (7.24-5.24) and Sm/Yb (2.79-2.13) ratios. Decompression melting of an upwelling sub-slab asthenosphere through slab window seems to be the most plausible mechanism to explain the geochemical characteristics. Besides, the associated felsic volcanics show A2-type granite signatures, such as high Y/Nb (5.97-1.55) and Yb/Ta (9.36-2.57) ratios, consistent with magma derived from continental crust that has been through a cycle of continent-continent collision or an island-arc setting. A localized extension within an overall convergent scenario is interpreted for Sindreth and Punagarh volcanics. This general convergent setting is consistent with the previously proposed Andean-type continental margin for NW Indian block, the Seychelles and Madagascar, all of which lay either at the periphery of Rodinia supercontinent or slightly off the Supercontinent.

  6. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions (United States)

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda


    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  7. Globalization and English Language Policy in Turkey (United States)

    Kirkgoz, Yasemin


    It is widely acknowledged that globalization has made a considerable impact on multidimensional aspects of human life including the language policies of many countries. This article examines the adjustment of Turkey's language policy in response to the global influence of English at different levels of Turkish national education, including its…

  8. A Review of University Facilities in Turkey (United States)

    Altinsoy, Selcen


    As a result of the massive growth of higher education in Turkey, the most pressing priority for this sector today is to meet the new space requirements for an increasing number of students. Now a subject of public attention more than ever before, the second largest item of expenditure for universities is the construction of physical spaces. This…

  9. Anthropometric and performance characteristics of Turkey National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this research was to determine the anthropometric, somatotype and performance characteristics of the Turkish National U-14 Female Volleyball Team that participated in the national team selection session. Fifty- eight (58) female volleyball players from various towns in Turkey camped to compete in ...


    Turkeys are the only commercial poultry species completely dependent upon artificial insemination for fertile egg production. Although time and labor-intensive, artificial insemination has proven to be a key strategy for achieving rapid genetic improvements in economically important traits such as g...

  11. Opposition to gold mining at Bergama, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat)


    textabstractIntroduction For much of the 1990s, the tourist town of Bergama was the epicentre of Turkey's most effective and visible environmental social movement against a multinational mining corporation aiming to establish the first modern gold mine in the country. Bringing

  12. living in Kapulukaya Dam Lake (Kirikkale, Turkey)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 23, 2010 ... Key words: Esox lucius, Northern pike, breeding, Kapulukaya Dam Lake, Turkey. INTRODUCTION. Northern pike (Esox lucius) from Esocidae family is a commonly hunted fish due to its tasty meat. It generally lives in lakes but it is frequently seen in rivers and stream. Although it is known as a freshwater ...

  13. Dietary supplementation of mannanoligosaccharides to turkey hens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... The research focused on the effect of a prebiotic additive, mannanoligosaccharides (Bio-Mos), in the diet of turkey hens on their growth performance and ... Group I was the control group, whereas the birds in group II were fed the control diet with a 0.5% addition of Bio-Mos.

  14. Social Studies Education in Turkey and Islam (United States)

    Tonga, Deniz


    Religion is one of the important factors that affect the human life. The concept of religion has a significant place within the scope of social studies education. Religion is a concept closely related to citizenship and value educations. As for the studies conducted in the field of social studies in Turkey, there have been few studies on Islam.…

  15. Teacher Perspective on Internet Censorship in Turkey (United States)

    Aktay, Sayim


    There has been a rapid increase both in the number of users and the number of websites providing data since the invention of Internet; it has become the richest and most used source of information. However, several countries, including Turkey, resort to censorship owing to the fact that anybody can publish on the Internet with sometimes…

  16. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey (United States)

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian


    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  17. Regional Diffusion of Divorce in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, K.; de Valk, H.A.G.


    While demographic change has been well documented for many Western countries, much less is known about demographic transitions in other countries, including Turkey. Demographic change in European societies can be characterized by, amongst others, increased prevalence of divorce. Although it is often

  18. Rifting to India-Asia Reactivation: Multi-phase Structural Evolution of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, northwest India (United States)

    Kelly, M. J.; Bladon, A.; Clarke, S.; Najman, Y.; Copley, A.; Kloppenburg, A.


    The Barmer Basin, situated within the West Indian Rift System, is an intra-cratonic rift basin produced during Gondwana break-up. Despite being a prominent oil and gas province, the structural evolution and context of the rift within northwest India remains poorly understood. Substantial subsurface datasets acquired during hydrocarbon exploration provide an unrivalled tool to investigate the tectonic evolution of the Barmer Basin rift and northwest India during India-Asia collision. Here we present a structural analysis using seismic datasets to investigate Barmer Basin evolution and place findings within the context of northwest India development. Present day rift structural architectures result from superposition of two non-coaxial extensional events; an early mid-Cretaceous rift-oblique event (NW-SE), followed by a main Paleocene rifting phase (NE-SW). Three phases of fault reactivation follow rifting: A transpressive, Late Paleocene inversion along localised E-W and NNE-SSW-trending faults; a widespread Late Paleocene-Early Eocene inversion and Late Miocene-Present Day transpressive strike-slip faulting along NW-SE-trending faults and isolated inversion structures. A major Late Eocene-Miocene unconformity in the basin is also identified, approximately coeval with those identified within the Himalayan foreland basin, suggesting a common cause related to India-Asia collision, and calling into question previous explanations that are not compatible with spatial extension of the unconformity beyond the foreland basin. Although, relatively poorly age constrained, extensional and compressional events within the Barmer Basin can be correlated with regional tectonic processes including the fragmentation of Gondwana, the rapid migration of the Greater Indian continent, to subsequent collision with Asia. New insights into the Barmer Basin development have important implications not only for ongoing hydrocarbon exploration but the temporal evolution of northwest India.

  19. Turkey Psoriasis Treatment Guide-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Akyol


    used for biologic therapy for treatment of psoriasis. In this guideline severity of psoriasis has been determined, treatment phases and treatment goals have been identified and consensus recommendations have been proposed about appropiate treatment modalities in the light of recent guidelines, meta-analytic studies and experiences in Turkey. This guideline, published in 2012, have been updated in 2016 by adding new information.

  20. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2009 and absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor obtained by means of car-borne measurement system (Mobysis) are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples were found as 34,7 ± 1,7 Bq kg - 1, 35,4 ± 0,8 Bq kg - 1 and 450,0 ± 17,9 Bq kg - 1, respectively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 11,6 ± 0,5 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor due to external exposure emitted by natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated as 54,6 nGy h - 1 and 0,07 mSv y - 1, respectively. The activity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples were lower than the minimum detectable activity (MDA) while 1 34Cs radionuclide was not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples are 0,28 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure from radiation emitting from 4 0K, l 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides analyzed in the food samples are evaluated as 193,0 μSv. In conclusion, the results of the monitoring programme in 2009 show that the levels of radioactivity in the environment are low and do not pose any significant

  1. NW-SE Pliocene-Quaternary extension in the Apan-Acoculco region, eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (United States)

    García-Palomo, Armando; Macías, José Luis; Jiménez, Adrián; Tolson, Gustavo; Mena, Manuel; Sánchez-Núñez, Juan Manuel; Arce, José Luis; Layer, Paul W.; Santoyo, Miguel Ángel; Lermo-Samaniego, Javier


    The Apan-Acoculco area is located in the eastern portion of the Mexico basin and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The area is transected by right-stepping variably dipping NE-SW normal faults. The Apan-Tlaloc Fault System is a major discontinuity that divides the region into two contrasting areas with different structural and volcanic styles. a) The western area is characterized by a horst-graben geometry with widespread Quaternary monogenetic volcanism and scattered outcrops of Miocene and Pliocene rocks. b) The eastern area is dominated by tilted horsts with a domino-like geometry with widespread Miocene and Pliocene rocks, scattered Quaternary monogenetic volcanoes and the Acoculco Caldera. Gravity data suggest that this structural geometry continues into the Mesozoic limestones. Normal faulting was active since the Pliocene with three stages of extension. One of them, an intense dilatational event began during late Pliocene and continues nowadays, contemporaneously with the emplacement of the Apan-Tezontepec Volcanic Field and the Acoculco caldera. Statistical analysis of cone elongation, cone instability, and the kinematic analysis of faults attest for a NW50°SE ± 7° extensional regime in the Apan-Acoculco area. The activity in some portions of the Apan-Tlaloc Fault System continues today as indicated by earthquake swarms recorded in 1992 and 1996, that disrupted late Holocene paleosols, and Holocene volcanism.

  2. Decreasing trend of groundwater in Turkey (United States)

    Sarachi, S.; Moghim, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.


    In these days the increasing demand for water has created problems for availability of its resources. Some recent issues like population growth, global warming and inefficient methods of water consumption, generated the need to find sources of water other than surface water such as ground water. Excess using of groundwater in most parts of the world causes depletion of ground water in those areas. Scientists are trying to find efficient means to quantify these trends. GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) including two satellites launched in March 2002, is making measurements of the Earth's gravity field which is used to display the change of storage of the water on the Earth. GRACE makes it possible to find the trend of the change of storage all over the world.It can show specific areas in the world that have dramatic decreasing trend of water storage. One of these regions that have been considered in this study is Turkey in western Asia, as one of the countries deeply affected by global warming. Turkey is identified as one of the first places where desertification will start in Europe, according to estimates by the UN Environment Program (UNEP). Turkey has 25 underground water tables and they had a decrease in level of 27 meters in the past 25 years (Turkey water report 2009). In this paper the change of the ground water is evaluated by applying the GRACE storage anomalies and the mass conservation equation that concludes the reduction trend in groundwater. The results clarify that decreasing trend of groundwater is more noticeable during recent years, particularly since 2006. Our results show that in recent years the average decrease in ground water level is 2.5 cm per year and the maximum decrease occurred in May 2007 with the value of about 7.9 cm. KEY WORDS: water resources; Ground water; Turkey; GRACE

  3. Homosexuality and police terror in Turkey. (United States)

    Yuzgun, A


    Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs.

  4. Mediterranean energy perspectives - Turkey. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This in-depth study provides insight into Turkey's energy profile from the early 1960's to the present and an outlook to 2030. MEP-Turkey presents detailed analysis and data on the supply and demand balance for the major components of the energy sector with particular emphasis on sectoral analysis. It is based on OME's proprietary Mediterranean Energy Econometric Model for Turkey developed for this publication. The outlook to 2030 presents two possible pathways for energy demand based on different assumptions. The conservative scenario considers past trends, policies in force and on-going projects, but takes a cautious approach regarding the implementation and timing of policy measures and planned projects. The proactive scenario assumes effective achievements to lessen dependence on imported fuels by giving emphasis to production of domestic resources, stronger efficiency programmes and a more diversified energy supply mix including more renewable energy. To achieve ambitious energy efficiency levels and implement as much renewable energy sources as foreseen in the Proactive Scenario will require unwavering political will, strong policies and measures, as well as sizeable investments, especially by the private sector. Both scenarios, built from the same assumption for population, economic growth, and international fossil-fuel prices, are based on the premise that energy demand will be met. Turkey's future, stimulated by a booming economy and population, an export-oriented industry and a blossoming domestic market, looks bright. The energy needed to fuel this growth will depend greatly on the paths chosen. In this context, the country finds itself at a historical crossroads in its development, as the energy policy choices it makes today will shape Turkey's energy future and its ability to attract the considerable investments required in the energy industry

  5. Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey): a myth? (United States)

    Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis; Özkaptan, Murat; Özacar, Arda A.; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Sözbilir, Hasan


    Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) is first proposed by Dumont et al. (1979) as a sinistral strike-slip fault zone as the NE continuation of Pliny-Strabo trench in to the Anatolian Block. The fault zone supposed to accommodate at least 100 km sinistral displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. Based on GPS velocities Barka and Reilinger (1997) proposed that the fault zone is still active and accommodates sinistral displacement. In order to test the presence and to unravel its kinematics we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data collected from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene. The obtained rotation senses and amounts indicate slight (around 20°) counter-clockwise rotations distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations, along the so called FBFZ and also within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults, oriented parallel to subparallel to the zone, are normal in character. The fault slip measurements are also consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. We have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion in the region to support presence and transcurrent nature of the FBFZ. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the NW-SE striking faults which are transfer faults that accommodated extension and normal motion. Therefore, we claim that the sinistral Fethiye Burdur Fault (Zone) is a myth and there is no tangible

  6. Geometry of the Gerede Segment, North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey (United States)

    Caglayan, A.; ISIK, V.


    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is an active dextral strike-slip fault zone in northern Turkey. The NAFZ is approximately 1200 km in length which extends from Karliova in the east and to reach as far as the Gulf of Saros in the west. The NAFZ becomes wider geometry from east to west which are characterized by 9 destructive earthquake of Ms>7 in the 20th century. An earthquake on 1944 February 1 (Ms 7,3) caused 180 km long surface rupture associated with 2-6.5 m of right-lateral slip between Bayramören in the east and Abant Lake in the west along the NAFZ, which is called the Gerede Segment. This study describes internal geometrical characteristics and deformation mechanism of faults with fault surfaces in the Gerede Segment. The faults along the segment variously cut across Mesozoic-Cenozoic basement rocks and Quaternary alluvium deposits. They juxtapose not only different units of basement but also basement rocks and alluvium. We select typical fault surface that have been formed the best exposures in limestone in different locality, which define exhumed main faults along the segment. These faults strike N70°-80°E and dip 50°-85°NW. Slickenlines on these fault surface plunge shallowly to the NE and/or SW. Fault surface include brittle kinematic indicators indicating right-lateral strike-slip displacements. Some typical Riedel shear fractures (R- and P-fractures) around the main faults also show dextral displacements. Along the main faults two main architectural elements including fault core and fault damage zone is typical. The fault damage zones of these faults are characterized by both fault-related fracturing and fluid-assisted deformation processes. Although breccia is common fault rock in fault zones, gouge and cataclasite are seen in variable exposures. We have defined crackle, mosaic and chaotic type breccias using clast-size and clast proportion. Rock fragments within breccias have occurred mm-cm scale from angular to rounded clast. Sub

  7. The evolution of the Porcupine and Rockall basins, offshore Ireland: the geological template for carbonate mound development (United States)

    Shannon, P. M.; McDonnell, A.; Bailey, W. R.


    The margins of the deep-water sedimentary basins west of Ireland contain a number of large clusters (provinces) of spectacular carbonate mounds and build-ups. These basins have a complex development history involving the interplay of rift tectonics, thermal subsidence, igneous activity and oceanographic variations. The Porcupine and Rockall basins both rest upon thin continental crust, the consequence of major rift episodes in Permo-Triassic, Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous times. Phases of volcanism occurred in the Early Cretaceous and especially in the Early Cenozoic. Fluid flow within the basins is likely to have been controlled by the overall basin geometry and by the distribution and linkage of permeable strata with fault systems, stratal surfaces and unconformities. A number of regional unconformities, controlled by both basin tectonic and regional oceanographic effects, can be mapped and correlated throughout the Porcupine and Rockall basins. The youngest of these unconformities (C10: Early Pliocene) can be traced throughout much of the NW European Atlantic margin. It forms the horizon on which virtually all the carbonate mounds in the basins develop, suggesting a geologically instantaneous mound nucleation and growth event. Although the control on their development is uncertain, the mound clusters show a spatial association with lithified strata, buried contourite and deltaic deposits, slope failure features and with the basin margins. Analysis of these relationships points to a combination of geological and oceanographic processes controlling mound initiation and growth.


    Sayit, K.; Goncuoglu, M.; Furman, T.


    In Anatolia, north-central Turkey, ancient pieces that characterize the closure of the Paleotethyan Ocean are preserved in the Karakaya Complex which is composed of variably deformed and metamorphosed rock assemblages (Tekeli 1981, Sengor et al. 1984). These rock associations can be encountered throughout Northern Turkey as an E-W trending belt exposed nearly continuously for over 1000 km. The Karakaya Complex includes a considerable volume of greenschist facies metabasaltic rocks, locally coexisting with medium- to high-pressure varieties including high pressure (HP) greenschists, blueschists, amphibolites and eclogites (e.g. Okay and Monie 1997, Okay et al. 2002, Topuz et al. 2004, Sayit and Goncuoglu 2009). In Ankara (Central Anatolia) and Bursa (NW Anatolia), the greenschist facies rocks and HP-greenschist equivalents are characterized primarily by metabasalts and metatuffs and to a lesser extent by metavolcaniclastics. The studied rocks are largely of alkaline composition similar to ocean island basalts (OIB), though a minor proportion is represented by tholeiitic series with geochemical characteristics typical of E-MORB. Although most LIL elements have been mobilized during metamorphism, HFSE and REE appear to be relatively immobile as indicated by sub-parallel patterns in multi-element diagrams, suggesting the samples retain primary petrogenetic features. Ratio-ratio plots based on HFSE and REE suggest that the alkaline samples require a strong contribution from garnet-facies mantle source, whereas tholeiitic samples appear to have been derived mostly from spinel-facies mantle component. We suggest that the E-MORB and OIB-type geochemical signatures of the studied rocks with negligible crustal contamination and their association with syn-formational thin-medium limestones and/or cherts represent deposition in both shallow (neritic) and deep (pelagic) levels on the flanks and/or moat of seamount(s), rather than a continental rift/back-arc rift setting. This

  9. Prevention of hemoglobinopathies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Çürük


    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are the most common genetic disorders in Turkey. The incidence of beta thalassemia and sickle cell trait (HbAS is 2.0% and 0.3% respectively. In addition to HbS, 51 abnormal hemoglobins and 42 different beta thalassemia mutations have been detected by DNA analysis. In Turkey, beta thalassemia and sickle cell anemia cause major health problems. For thirty years, screening programs for carriers, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis have sought to prevent hemoglobinopathies. In 1983, the first prenatal diagnosis center was established for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia at Hacettepe University, Ankara. After many populationscreening studies, a law was passed in 1993 by the Turkish Parliament for the eradication of hemoglobinopathies. Forty-one premarital screening centers were set up by the Ministry of Health in the 33 provinces where most of the transfusion-dependent thalassemic patients live. The mothers at risk for hemoglobinopathies were given genetic counseling and directed to prenatal diagnosis centers. Since 1990, four prenatal diagnosis centers have been established at university hospitals in Adana, Antalya, Istanbul and Izmir. A total of 5255 prenatal diagnoses have been made for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia in 5 centers; 1338 fetuses have been diagnosed as homozygous or compound heterozygotes for hemoglobinopathies. Prenatal diagnosis was performed on families who had decided to terminate the pregnancy if it were to be found that the fetus was affected. 血红蛋白病是土耳其最为常见的遗传性疾病。乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性状(HbAS)的发病率分别为2.0%和0.3%。除HbS外,已通过NDA分析检测出51种异常血红蛋白和42种乙型地中海贫血突变基因。在土耳其,乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性贫血会导致严重的健康问题。30年来,一直在为病原携带者提供筛选项目,以及遗传咨询和产前诊断服务,

  10. The endemic mollusks reveal history of the long-lived Pliocene Lake Slavonia in NW Croatia (United States)

    Mandic, Oleg; Kurečić, Tomislav; Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias


    The present investigation deals with the fossil mollusk record of the long-lived Pliocene Lake Slavonia settled in the southern Pannonian Basin. The samples originate from Vukomeričke gorice, a low hill-range situated north of the Kupa River in the area between the towns of Zagreb, Sisak and Karlovac in NW Croatia. Representing the SW margin of the Lake Slavonia the freshwater deposits alternate there with the alluvial series, providing altogether about 400-m-thick, Pliocene continental succession, known in literature by informal name Paludina beds (acc. to a junior synonym of Viviparus). The endemic fauna of the Lake Slavonia became particularly well-known in the late 19th century after Melchior Neumayr demonstrated that the gradual evolutionary change of the mollusk phenotypes toward more complex morphology represents a function of adaptation to environmental change in the paleolake. Even Charles Darwin commented that result as by far the best case which I have ever met with, showing the direct influence of the conditions of life on the organization. The deposition in the Lake Slavonia (~4.5 to ~1.8 Ma) coincides with the Pliocene Climate Optimum (PCO), but captures also the transition into the Pleistocene climate marked by the initial Ice Age pulse at 2.59 Ma. The increase of polar temperatures resulted during PCO in a significant melting of the ice caps leading to a global sea level rise tentatively getting up to 25 m higher than today. Coincidence of the climate and geodynamic settings in southeastern Europe provided conditions supporting extended settlement of lacustrine environments including Lake Slavonia, Lake Kosovo, Lake Transylvania and Lake Dacia, all characterized by explosive adaptive radiations of viviparid snails. In particular, the latter adaptive radiations resulted in the regional phylostratigraphy of Lake Slavonia Viviparus species enabling excellent stratigraphic control for the investigated deposits. Hence, based on this evidence, the

  11. Estimating bioerosion rate on fossil corals: a quantitative approach from Oligocene reefs (NW Italy) (United States)

    Silvestri, Giulia


    Bioerosion of coral reefs, especially when related to the activity of macroborers, is considered to be one of the major processes influencing framework development in present-day reefs. Macroboring communities affecting both living and dead corals are widely distributed also in the fossil record and their role is supposed to be analogously important in determining flourishing vs demise of coral bioconstructions. Nevertheless, many aspects concerning environmental factors controlling the incidence of bioerosion, shifting in composition of macroboring communities and estimation of bioerosion rate in different contexts are still poorly documented and understood. This study presents an attempt to quantify bioerosion rate on reef limestones characteristic of some Oligocene outcrops of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy) and deposited under terrigenous sedimentation within prodelta and delta fan systems. Branching coral rubble-dominated facies have been recognized as prevailing in this context. Depositional patterns, textures, and the generally low incidence of taphonomic features, such as fragmentation and abrasion, suggest relatively quiet waters where coral remains were deposited almost in situ. Thus taphonomic signatures occurring on corals can be reliably used to reconstruct environmental parameters affecting these particular branching coral assemblages during their life and to compare them with those typical of classical clear-water reefs. Bioerosion is sparsely distributed within coral facies and consists of a limited suite of traces, mostly referred to clionid sponges and polychaete and sipunculid worms. The incidence of boring bivalves seems to be generally lower. Together with semi-quantitative analysis of bioerosion rate along vertical logs and horizontal levels, two quantitative methods have been assessed and compared. These consist in the elaboration of high resolution scanned thin sections through software for image analysis (Photoshop CS3) and point

  12. Mountain pastures of Qilian Shan: plant communities, grazing impact and degradation status (Gansu province, NW China) (United States)

    Baranova, Alina; Schickhoff, Udo; Shunli, Wang; Ming, Jin


    Qilian Mountains are the water source region for the low arid reaches of HeiHe river basin (Gansu province, NW China). Due to overstocking and overgrazing during the last decades adverse ecological ef¬fects, in particular on soil properties and hydrological cycle, are to be expected in growing land areas. Vegetation cover is very important to prevent erosion process and to sustain stable subsurface runoff and ground water flow. The aim of this research is to identify plant communities, detecting grazing-induced and spatially differentiated changes in vegetation patterns, and to evaluate status of pasture land degradation.The study area is located in the spring/autumn pasture area of South Qilian Mountains between 2600-3600 m a.s.l., covering five main vegetation types: spruce forest, alpine shrubland, shrubby grassland, mountain grassland, degraded mountain grassland. In order to analyze gradual changes in vegetation patterns along altitudinal and grazing gradients and to classify related plant communities, quantitative and qualitative relevé data were collected (coverage, species composition, abundance of unpalatable plants, plant functional types, etc.). Vegetation was classified using hierarchical cluster analyses. Indirect Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was used to analyze variation in relationships between vegetation, environmental factors, and grazing impact. According to DCA results, distribution of the plant communities was strongly affected by altitude and exposition. Grassland floristic gradients showed greater dependence on grazing impact, which correlated contrarily with soil organic content, soil moisture and pH. Highest numbers of species richness and alpha diversity were detected in alpine shrubland vegetation type. Comparing the monitoring data for the recent nine years, a trend of deterioration, species successions and shift in dominant species becomes obvious. Species indicating degrading site environmental conditions were identified

  13. Towards a climate impact assessment of the Tarim River, NW China: integrated hydrological modelling using SWIM (United States)

    Wortmann, Michel


    The Tarim River is the principle water source of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, NW China and the country's largest endorheic river, terminating in the Taklamakan desert. The vast majority of discharge is generated in the glaciated mountain ranges to the north (Tian Shan), south (Kunlun Shan/Tibetan Plateau) and west (Pamir Mountains) of the Taklamakan desert. The main water user is the intensive irrigation agriculture for mostly cotton and fruit production in linear river oases of the middle and lower reaches as well as a population of 10 Mil. people. Over the past 40 years, an increase in river discharge was reported, assumed to be caused by enhanced glacier melt due to a warming climate. Rapid population growth and economic development have led to a significant expansion of area under irrigation, resulting in water shortages for downstream users and the floodplain vegetation. Water resource planning and management of the Tarim require integrated assessment tools to examine changes under future climate change, land use and irrigation scenarios. The development of such tools, however, is challenged by sparse climate and discharge data as well as available data on water abstractions and diversions. The semi-distributed, process-based hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) was implemented for the headwater and middle reaches that generate over 90% of discharge, including the Aksu, Hotan and Yarkant rivers. It includes the representation of snow and glacier melt as well as irrigation abstractions. Once calibrated and validated to river discharge, the model is used to analyse future climate scenarios provided by one physically-based and one statistical regional climate model (RCM). Preliminary results of the model calibration and validation indicate that SWIM is able simulate river discharge adequately, despite poor data conditions. Snow and glacier melt account for the largest share in river discharge. The modelling results will devise

  14. The Rajang Unconformity: Major provenance change between the Eocene and Miocene sequences in NW Borneo (United States)

    Breitfeld, H. T.; Hennig, J.; BouDagher-Fadel, M.; Hall, R.


    The offshore Sarawak Basin NW of North Sarawak is a major hydrocarbon province in SE Asia. A very thick sedimentary sequence of Oligocene to ?Early Miocene age, named Cycle 1, is an important hydrocarbon source and reservoir. Despite numerous wells the stratigraphy and tectonic history is not very well understood. The Nyalau Formation of onshore North Sarawak is the supposed equivalent of the offshore Cycle 1 sequence. The Nyalau Formation is a thick sedimentary sequence of mainly tidal to deltaic deposits. The formation is dominated by well-bedded sandstone-mudstone alternations and thicker sandstones with abundant bioturbation. The sandstones are predominantly arenaceous. Various lithic fragments and feldspar indicate multiple sources and fresh input from igneous and metamorphic rocks. Interbedded thin limestone beds and marls yielded Early Miocene foraminifera for the upper part of the succession. Zircons separated from the sandstones yielded mainly Cretaceous and Triassic ages. The Triassic is the dominant age population. The Nyalau Formation conformably overlies the Buan Shale and the Tatau Formation, and in places unconformably overlies the Belaga Formation. The Belaga Formation is part of the Rajang Group that represents remnants of a large submarine fan deposited in the Late Cretaceous to Eocene in Central Sarawak. In contrast to the Nyalau Formation, the majority of zircons from the Rajang Group have Cretaceous ages. This marks an important change in provenance at the major unconformity separating the Belaga and Nyalau Formations. This unconformity was previously interpreted as the result of an orogeny in the Late Eocene. However, there is no evidence for a subduction or collision event at this time in Sarawak. We interpret it to mark plate reorganisation in the Middle Eocene and name it the Rajang Unconformity. Borneo is the principal source of Cretaceous zircons which were derived from the Schwaner Mountains and West Sarawak. The dominant Triassic zircon

  15. Firewood Resource Management in Different Landscapes in NW Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela V. Morales


    Full Text Available Ecosystems, their components, processes and functions are all subject to management by human populations, with the purpose of adapting the environments to make them more habitable and ensuring the availability and continuity of subsistence resources. Although a lot of work has been carried out on resources of alimentary or medicinal interest, little has been done on associating processes of domestication with firewood extraction, a practice considered to be destructive of the environment. In the arid steppe of NW Patagonia, inhabited and managed for different purposes for a long time by Mapuche-Tehuelche communities, the gathering of combustible plant species has up to the present time played a crucial role in cooking and heating, and work is required to achieve sustainability of this resource. In this study we evaluate whether environments with less landscape domestication are more intensively used for firewood gathering. Using an ethnobiological approach, information was obtained through participant observation, interviews and free listing. The data were examined using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Twenty-eight firewood species are gathered, both native (75% and exotic (25%. The supply of firewood mainly depends on gathering from the domesticated (10 species, semi-domesticated (17 species and low human intervention landscapes (17 species. In contrast to our hypothesis, average use intensity is similar in all these landscapes despite their different levels of domestication. That is, the different areas are taken advantage of in a complementary manner in order to satisfy the domestic demand for firewood. Neither do biogeographic origin or utilitarian versatility of collected plants vary significantly between the different landscape levels of domestication. Our results show that human landscape domestication for the provision of firewood seems to be a socio-cultural resilient practice, and shed new light on the role of culture in

  16. A study of petroleum system in Chuhuangkeng anticline, NW Taiwan (United States)

    Yiang, S.; Tsai, L. Y.


    Since energy demand is still increasing in the world, the exploration of unconventional fossil fuel becomes more and more important today. Miaoli area of the NW Western Foothill Belt, Taiwan, had been a major oil and gas producing field in the past, important oil/gas producing structures include Tiechenshen, Chinshui and Chuhuangkeng anticline. The reservoir rocks of unconventional resources need to be examined to illustrate the remaining hydrocarbon potential of Chuhuangkeng anticline. A standard evaluation procedure for assessing integrated geochemical parameters can thus be established. In this study, we combine various geochemical parameters including TOC, porosity, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance measurement to assess the HC potential of shale gas reservoirs. The results show that Wuchishan and Mushan Formations possess the best hydrocarbon potential in Chuhuangkeng anticline. The maturation of Wuchishan and Mushan Formations are both in oil window (Ro of Wuchishan formation =1.7% , Ro of Mushan =1.01~1.53% ). The maturation of Shitih Formation barely reached oil window, however the shallower depth and less exploration cost are the advantages of Shitih Formation. Moreover, Wuchishan Formation is a dry gas field and Mushan Formation is a condensate gas field. The results of porosity show that there are secondary porosity existed in Mushan Formation which provides the extra storage space for hydrocarbon. Additionally, Piling Shale is a good cap rock on top of Mushan formation, it further benefits the conservation of oil and gas in Mushan Formation. In conclude, Mushan Formation is the most potential HC target in future shale gas exploration.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chini, Rolf; Watermann, Ramon; Lemke, Roland, E-mail: [Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, Astronomisches Institut, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)


    We study the outflow activity, photometric variability, and morphology of three very young stellar objects in the Serpens NW star-forming region: OO Serpentis, EC 37 (V370 Ser), and EC 53 (V371 Ser). High spatial resolution Keck/NIRC2 laser guide star adaptive optics images obtained in 2007 and 2009 in broadband K and in a narrowband filter centered on the 1-0 S(1) emission line of H{sub 2} allow us to identify the outflows from all three objects. We also present new, seeing-limited data on the photometric evolution of the OO Ser reflection nebula and re-analyze previously published data. We find that OO Ser declined in brightness from its outburst peak in 1995 to about 2003, but that this decline has recently stopped and actually reversed itself in some areas of the reflection nebula. The morphology and proper motions of the shock fronts MHO 2218 near EC 37 suggest that they all originate in EC 37 and that this is an outflow seen nearly along its axis. We identify an H{sub 2} jet emerging from the cometary nebula EC 53. The star illuminating EC 53 is periodically variable with a period of 543 days and has a close-by, non-variable companion at a projected distance of 92 AU. We argue that the periodic variability is the result of accretion instabilities triggered by another very close, not directly observable, binary companion and that EC 53 can be understood in the model of a multiple system developing into a hierarchical configuration.

  18. Grounding zone wedges, Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea) (United States)

    Rebesco, Michele; Urgeles, Roger; Özmaral, Asli; Hanebuth, Till; Caburlotto, Andrea; Hörner, Tanja; Lantzsch, Hendrik; LLopart, Juame; Lucchi, Renata; Skøtt Nicolaisen, Line; Giacomo, Osti; Sabbatini, Anna; Camerlenghi, Angelo


    Swath bathymetry within Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea) shows a seafloor characterized by E-W trending megascale glacial lineations (MSGLs) overprinted by transverse Grounding Zone Wedges (GZWs), which give the trough a stair profile (Rebesco et al., 2011). GZWs are formed by deposition of subglacial till at temporarily stable ice-stream fronts in between successive episodic retreats (Rüther et al., 2012; Bjarnadóttir et al., 2012). Sub-bottom data show that present-day morphology is largely inherited from palaeo-seafloor topography of GZWs, which is draped by a deglacial to early Holocene glaciomarine sediments (about 15 m thick). The ice stream that produced such subglacial morphology was flowing from East to West inside Kveithola Trough during Last Glacial Maximum. Its rapid retreat was likely associated with progressive lift-offs, and successive rapid melting of the grounded ice, induced by the eustatic sea-level rise (Lucchi et al., 2013). References: Bjarnadóttir, L.R., Rüther, D.C., Winsborrow, M.C.M., Andreassen, K., 2012. Grounding-line dynamics during the last deglaciation of Kveithola, W Barents Sea, as revealed by seabed geomorphology and shallow seismic stratigraphy. Boreas, 42, 84-107. Lucchi R.G., et al. 2013. Postglacial sedimentary processes on the Storfjorden and Kveithola TMFs: impact of extreme glacimarine sedimentation. Global and Planetary Change, 111, 309-326. Rebesco, M., et al. 2011. Deglaciation of the Barents Sea Ice Sheet - a swath bathymetric and subbottom seismic study from the Kveitehola Trough. Marine Geology, 279, 141-14. Rüther, D.C., Bjarnadóttir, L.R., Junttila, J., Husum, K., Rasmussen, T.L., Lucchi, R.G., Andreassen, K., 2012. Pattern and timing of the north-western Barents Sea Ice Sheet deglaciation and indications of episodic Holocene deposition. Boreas 41, 494-512.

  19. 76 FR 15282 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter... (United States)


    ... Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter Establishments... young chicken (broiler) and turkey slaughter establishments. The new performance standards were... Salmonella and new Campylobacter performance standards for young chickens and turkeys will take effect with...

  20. Contributions to the phytosociological study of Sessile and Turkey oak forests in the Orastie area (Central-Western Romania)


    Petru BURESCU; Valeriu Ioan VINTAN


    In the current paper we present a phytosociological study of the phytocoenoses of the association Quercetum petraeae-cerris Soó 1963 (Syn.: Quercetum polycarpae-cerris G. Popescu 1988) identified in the Orăştie river basin, situated in the central-western part of Romania.The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the phytosociological table have been done by selecting the most representative relevés performed in the Turkey and Sessile oak forests of...

  1. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to

  2. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to make it a crossroads of multiple

  3. Mesozoic to Cenozoic tectonic transition process in Zhanhua Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China (United States)

    Cheng, Yanjun; Wu, Zhiping; Lu, Shunan; Li, Xu; Lin, Chengyan; Huang, Zheng; Su, Wen; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Shouye


    The Zhanhua sag is part of the Bohai Bay intracontinental basin system that has developed since the Mesozoic in East China. The timing of this basin system coincides with the final assembly of East Asia and the development of Western Pacific-type plate margin. Here we use 3-D seismic and core log data to investigate the evolution of this basin and discuss its broad tectonic settings. Our new structural study of Zhanhua sag suggests that there are four major tectonic transitions occurred in the Bohai Bay Basin during Mesozoic and Cenozoic: (1) The first tectonic transition was from stable Craton to thrusting during the Triassic, mainly caused by the South China Block's subduction northward beneath the North China Block, which induced the formation of the NW-striking thrust faults. (2) The second tectonic transition was mainly characterized by a change from compression to extension, which can be further divided into two-stages. At the first stage, two episodes of NW-SE shortening occurred in East Asia during Early-Middle Jurassic and Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous, respectively. At the second stage, the extension and left-lateral shearing took place during Early Cretaceous while compression occurred during Late Cretaceous. The NW-striking thrust faults changed to normal faults and the NNE-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults started to influence the eastern part of the basin. (3) The third transition occurred when the NW-SE extension and NNE-striking right-lateral shearing started to form during Paleogene, and the peak deformation happen around 40 Ma due to the change of the subduction direction of Pacific Plate relative to Eurasia Plate. The NE-striking normal faults are the main structure, and the pre-existing NNE-striking strike-slip faults changed from left-lateral to right-lateral. (4) The fourth transition saw the regional subsidence during Neogene, which was probably caused by the India-Asia "Hard collision" between 25 and 20 Ma.

  4. Geomorphological context of the basins of Northwestern Peninsular Malaysia (United States)

    Sautter, Benjamin; Pubellier, Manuel; Menier, David


    Geomorphological context of the basins of Northwestern Peninsular Malaysia Benjamin Sautter, Manuel Pubellier, David Menier Department of Petroleum Geosciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS CNRS-UMR 8538, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 24, Rue Lhomond, 75231, Paris Cedex 05, France Petroleum basins of Western Malaysia are poorly known and their formation is controlled by the Tertiary stress variations applied on Mesozoic basement structures. Among these are the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Bentong Raub, Inthanon, and Nan suture zones. By the end of Mesozoic times, the arrival of Indian plate was accompanied by strike slip deformation, accommodated by several Major Faults (Sagaing, Three Pagodas, Mae Ping, Red River, Ranong and Klong Marui Faults). Due to changes in the boundary forces, these areas of weakness (faults) were reactivated during the Tertiary, leading to the opening of basins in most of Sundaland. Within this framework, while most of the Sundaland records stretching of the crust and opening of basins (SCS, Malay, Penyu, Natuna, Mergui) during the Cenozoics, Peninsular Malaysia and the Strait of Malacca are considered to be in tectonic quiescence by most of the authors. We present the geomorphology of the Northwestern Malaysia Peninsula with emphasis on the deformations onshore from the Bentong Raub Suture Zone to the Bok Bak Fault, via the Kinta Valley, and offshore from the Port Klang Graben to the North Penang Graben. By analyzing Digital Elevation Model from ASTER and SRTM data, two main directions of fractures in the granitic plutons are highlighted: NW-SE to W-E sigmoidal faults and N-S to NE-SW linear fractures which seem to cross-cut the others. In the field in the area of the Kinta Valley (Western Belt, NW Peninsular Malaysia), granitic bodies show intense fracturation reflecting several stages of deformation. The granites are generally syntectonic and do not cut fully across the Late Paleozoic platform limestone. Two sets of fractures (NW-SE and NE

  5. Climate-driven sediment aggradation and incision phases since the Late Pleistocene in the NW Himalaya, India (United States)

    Dey, Saptarshi; Thiede, Rasmus C.; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Wittmann, Hella; Bookhagen, Bodo; Scherler, Dirk; Jain, Vikrant; Strecker, Manfred R.


    -delivery from the hillslope or moraines resulted into incision of the transiently-stored sediments. Sediment cycles in the Kangra Basin are largely synchronous with those documented from other NW Himalayan valleys.

  6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy in Turkey: Public Perception


    Akyüz, Emrah


    Turkey intends tobuild three nuclear power stations in the Akkuyu, Sinopand Igneada regions to meet its increasing energy demands. This policy,however, is still a highly controversial topic in Turkey as nuclear energy hasboth advantages and disadvantages. The related literature on this topic isdivided into two groups; supporters claim that nuclear energy may decreaseTurkey's energy dependency on other countries, as it already importsapproximately 70% of its total energy demand. In contra...

  7. Description of some characteristics of flowers and seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana - ecotype landsberg erecta and mutant NW4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Trząski


    Full Text Available Flowers and seeds of Landsberg erecta (Ler ecotype and NW4 mutant were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to reveal characteristic features of their structure. The NW4 mutant flowers differ from Ler mainly in presence of two bract-like sepals with complicated vasculature and a variable number of secondary flowers. In the two outer whorls of NW4 flower, variable number of transformed stamen-, petal-, sepal- and style-like elements also occur. The NW4 mutant seeds are characterized by the absence of mucilage around the surface and a deviating seed coat morphology.

  8. Intracontinental Deformation in the NW Iranian Plateau and Comparisons with the Northern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Chen, L.; Jiang, M.; Talebian, M.; Wan, B.; Ai, Y.; Ghods, A.; Sobouti, F.; Xiao, W.; Zhu, R.


    This study investigates the intracontinental deformation and its relationship with the structure of the crust and uppermost mantle in the NW Iranian plateau by combining new seismic and geological observations, to understand how this part of the plateau deformed to accommodate the Arabia-Eurasia plate collision and how the property of the lithosphere controls the deformation pattern. In contrast to the adjacent Anatolian block that exhibits westward large-scale extrusion, the northwesternmost part of the Iranian plateau shows dispersed intracontinental deformations with the development of numerous small-scale and discontinuous right-lateral strike-slip faults. The dispersed surface structures and deformation pattern correspond well to the active volcanism and seismically slow crust and uppermost mantle, and hence a weak lithosphere of the area. Further to the southeast are the western part of the Alborz Mountains and the southern Caspian Sea, both of which are characterized by stronger and more rigid lithosphere with relatively fast crust and uppermost mantle and absence of Quaternary volcanoes. A sharp Moho offset of 18 km has been imaged at the border of the Alborz and southern Caspian Sea using teleseismic receiver function data from a dense seismic array deployed under a collaborative project named "China-Iran Geological and Geophysical Survey in the Iranian Plateau (CIGSIP)". The sharp Moho offset and the minor undulations of the Moho on both sides indicate insignificant intracrustal deformation but mainly relative crustal movements between the Alborz Mountains and southern Caspian Sea, a behavior consistent with the relatively rigid nature of the lithosphere. Similar Moho offsets and lithospheric structures have been reported at the borders between the Kunlun Mountains and Qaidam or Tarim Basins in the northern margin of the Tibetan plateau, suggesting the occurrence of relative crustal movements with the effects of rigid continental lithosphere in the region

  9. Tectonic constraints on the development and individualization of the intermontane Ronda basin (external Betics, southern Spain): a structural and geomorphologic approach. (United States)

    Jiménez-Bonilla, Alejandro; Balanyá, Juan Carlos; Expósito, Inmaculada; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Barcos, Leticia


    As a result of progressive shortening and orogenic wedge thickening, marine foreland basins tend to emerge and divide. We have analyzed possible recent tectonic activity within the late evolution stage of the Ronda basin, an intermontane basin located in the external wedge of the Gibraltar Arc, formerly connected with the Betic foreland basin and infilled by marine Upper-Miocene sediments. We analyze (1) the structures responsible for the basinward relief drop along the arc strike and the different topography of their boundaries; (2) qualitative and quantitative geomorphologic indices to asses which structures could present recent activity; and 3) the structures causing the division of the former Betic foreland basin and the isolation of the Ronda basin. Within the deformational history of the Ronda basin, late structures that control high topographic gradients and generate remarkable fault scarps group into three main types: (a) Extensional structures represented by NW-SE striking normal faults, clustered close to the current SW and NE boundaries of the basin. They usually dip towards the basin and their vertical displacement is maximum up to 1,5 km. These structures partially affect the basal unconformity of the Upper Miocene basin infill and are scarcely developed inside the basin infill. (b) Shortening structures developed both in the basin infill and in the outcropping basement near the Northeastern and Southwestern basin boundaries. They are represented by NE-SW directed plurikilometric box-folds and reverse faults, responsible for the alternation of sierras (altitudes 1000-1500 m) and valleys. (c) Strike-slip dominated structural associations where WSW-ENE lateral faults combined with folds and normal and reverse faults defined a NE-SW directed deformation band constituting the NW basin boundary. This band includes some sierras up to 1.100 m. Regarding the relief of the Ronda basin area, the abrupt slopes of the outcropping basement (heights between 500

  10. Great Basin insect outbreaks (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans


    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  11. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossdarf, A.


    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  12. Structure of the Rangel alkaline complex (Salta, NW Argentina) (United States)

    Vegas, Nestor; Hongn, Fernando; María Tubía, José; Menegatti, Nilda; Aranguren, Aitor; Rodriguez-Méndez, Lidia


    The alcaline complex of the Sierra de Rangel is a Cretaceous granitoid emplaced in the Puna Region, at the province of Salta (NW Argentina). This granitoid spreads over 9 km2 and is elongated following a NE-SW trend. The Rangel complex intrudes Quaternary sediments of the Salinas Grandes salt flat towards the east and Ordovician quartzites and metapelites to the west. There are three main facies in the Rangel granitoid: the easternmost part of the intrusion is composed by sienites that crop out in three hills isolated into the salt flat; the central part of the stock made of alkaline granites and quartz-sienites; and the westernmost side composed by alkaline granites. The available rubidium-strontium ages point out two magmatic pulses: 134±1,6Ma for the granites and quartz-sienites and the sienites of the central and eastern part and 122±1,5 Ma for the alkaline granites of the western border. The most common structure in the host quartzites and metapelites is N55oE-trending schistosity that dips around 60o to the SE. This schistosity is parallel to the axial surface of asymmetric folds with axes plunging to the east. The sharp western contact of the Rangel complex with the host rocks display a N30oE strike and dips around 40o to the SE. This contact is parallel to the intra-magmatic contact between the western and central facies and to the NE-SW elongation of the granitoid. The study of the magnetic fabrics carried on 52 sites of the Rangel complex outline the presence of two sets of tabular intrusions: a main group of overlapping NE-trending sheets that dip to the SE; and a minor group roughly perpendicular to the previous one. The integration of the magnetic fabrics results and the structural data suggest that the former set of intrusions are feeder dykes of the NE-trending sheeted intrusions. Moreover, the radiometric data suggest that the oldest pulse corresponds to the upper part of the granitoid. This fact would imply that the emplacement was controlled by

  13. An Operational Coastal Forecasting System in Galicia (NW Spain) (United States)

    Balseiro, C. F.; Carracedo, P.; Pérez, E.; Pérez, V.; Taboada, J.; Venacio, A.; Vilasa, L.


    The Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula coast) and mainly the Rias Baixas (southern Galician rias) are one of the most productive ecosystems in the world, supporting a very active fishing and aquiculture industry. This high productivity lives together with a high human pressure and an intense maritime traffic, which means an important environmental risk. Besides that, Harmful Algae Blooms (HAB) are common in this area, producing important economical losses in aquiculture. In this context, the development of an Operational Hydrodynamic Ocean Forecast System is the first step to the development of a more sophisticated Ocean Integrated Decision Support Tool. A regional oceanographic forecasting system in the Galician Coast has been developed by MeteoGalicia (the Galician regional meteorological agency) inside ESEOO project to provide forecasts on currents, sea level, water temperature and salinity. This system is based on hydrodynamic model MOHID, forced with the operational meteorological model WRF, supported daily at MeteoGalicia . Two grid meshes are running nested at different scales, one of ~2km at the shelf scale and the other one with a resolution of 500 m at the rias scale. ESEOAT (Puertos del Estado) model provide salinity and temperature fields which are relaxed at all depth along the open boundary of the regional model (~6km). Temperature and salinity initial fields are also obtained from this application. Freshwater input from main rivers are included as forcing in MOHID model. Monthly mean discharge data from gauge station have been provided by Aguas de Galicia. Nowadays a coupling between an hydrological model (SWAT) and the hydrodynamic one are in development with the aim to verify the impact of the rivers discharges. The system runs operationally daily, providing two days of forecast. First model verifications had been performed against Puertos del Estado buoys and Xunta de Galicia buoys network along the Galician coast. High resolution model results

  14. Distribution Strategies for Solar and Wind Renewables in NW Europe (United States)

    Smedley, Andrew; Webb, Ann


    Whilst the UNFCCC Paris Agreement Climate change was ratified in November, 2016 saw the highest global temperature anomaly on record at 1.2°C above pre-industrial levels. As such there is urgent need to reduce CO2 emissions by a move away from fossil fuels and towards renewable electricity energy technologies. As the principal renewable technologies of solar PV and wind turbines contribute an increasing fraction to the electricity grid, questions of cumulative intermittency and the large-scale geographic distribution of each technology need to be addressed. In this study our initial emphasis is on a calculation of a relatively high spatial resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) daily gridded dataset of solar irradiance data, over a 10 year period (2006-2015). This is achieved by coupling established sources of satellite data (MODIS SSF level2 instantaneous footprint data) to a well-validated radiative transfer model, here LibRadTran. We utilise both a morning and afternoon field for two cloud layers (optical depth and cloud fraction) interpolated to hourly grids, together with aerosol optical depth, topographic height and solar zenith angle. These input parameters are passed to a 5-D LUT of LibRadTran results to construct hourly estimates of the solar irradiance field, which is then integrated to a daily total. For the daily wind resource we rely on the 6 hourly height-adjusted ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis wind fields, but separated into onshore, offshore and deep water components. From these datasets of the solar and wind resources we construct 22 different distribution strategies for solar PV and wind turbines based on the long-term availability of each resource. Combining these distributions with the original daily gridded datasets enables each distribution strategy to be then assessed in terms of the day-to-day variability, the installed capacity required to maintain a baseline supply, and the relative proportions of each technology. Notably for the NW European area

  15. Isolation of a highly pathogenic influenza virus from turkeys. (United States)

    McNulty, M S; Allan, G M; McCracken, R M; McParland, P J


    An influenza virus was isolated from turkeys with an acute disease causing 30% mortality. The virus was subtyped as H5 N8. The nomenclature A/turkey/Ireland/83 (H5 N8) is proposed for this isolate. The virus had an ICPI of 1.80 to 1.85 for 1-day-old chicks and an IVPI of 2.74 for 6-week-old chickens. Following oronasal inoculation of juvenile and adult turkeys, chickens and ducks with the isolate, 100% mortality occurred in turkeys and chickens. No clinical signs were observed in inoculated ducks, but all developed serum antibody titres against the virus.

  16. Turkey: Selected Foreign Policy Issues and U.S. Views

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol


    .... This engagement includes advances in both political and economic bilateral relations. Turkey also has been facilitating indirect Israeli-Syrian peace talks and improving political and economic...

  17. Epidemiology of pityriasis versicolor in Adana, Turkey. (United States)

    Karakaş, Mehmet; Turaç-Biçer, Aygül; Ilkit, Macit; Durdu, Murat; Seydaoğlu, Gülşah


    Pityriasis versicolor is a common superficial mycoses of the skin. It is now recognized that the causative organisms of this infection are different species of Malassezia. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor in Adana, Turkey. In total, 97 patients positive for Malassezia elements, namely, yeast cells and short hyphae in microscopic examination, were included in the study. All samples were inoculated in plates containing modified Dixon's medium. However, only 44 of the patients (45.4%) showed Malassezia spp. in culture. Malassezia globosa (47.7%) was the most commonly isolated species followed by Malassezia furfur (36.4%) and Malassezia slooffiae (15.9%). Mixed Malassezia species were not isolated. In conclusion, M. globosa was found to be the predominant PV isolate in Adana, Turkey.

  18. Electricity generation: a case study in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.


    Large-scale electricity generation provides versatile energy of the highest quality. Today, fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are the primary sources of this energy. However, these fossil energy sources are limited and using fossil energy sources has the undesirable effect of releasing emissions that burden the environment and alter the climate. Therefore, governments and companies all over the world should find new and renewable energy sources. On the other hand, over the past two decades, power station construction programs in the developing countries accounted for nearly 30% of total public investment. In a large number of these countries, shortages of electricity have become a critical constraint to economic growth. In Turkey, from 1980 to 1995, the amount for electricity generated increased about fourfold from 23,275 Gwh to 86,247 Gwh, and annual growth rates were in the double digits. This is a good development, but not enough for Turkey. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Kaynak Malatyali


    Full Text Available ‘Child Brides’ are described as girls who are forced to get married before they are 18 year old. The issue of child brides is a concern for undeveloped and developing countries as well as Turkey. This work aims to explore the prevalence, problems and causes related to the problem of ‘child brides’ as well as offering solutions for this problem. The literature shows that ‘child bride’ is quite widespread practice in Turkey. Moreover, forced marriage at an early age is problematic in many ways. In addition, there are some factors which contribute the problem including legal gaps, education level of the family and the daughter, economical conditions, stereotypes, traditional practices and sexism level. Finally, it is suggested that the reasons for the problem of ‘child brides’ are multi-dimensional and therefore it requires a similar approach.

  20. Energy use in legume cultivation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, C.; Canakci, M.; Yaldiz, O. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery; Kulcu, R. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery


    A study was conducted to analyze the energy required to produce different legumes in 11 different regions of Turkey. The objective was to improve energy efficiency. Data was collected for the production of dry bean, chickpea and soybean under rainfed and irrigated conditions, as well as for the production of lentil under rainfed conditions. The data was evaluated in terms of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy for different regions of Turkey. The main energy sources are human, diesel, fertilizer, seed, machine, chemicals and water. The main agricultural operations are seedbed preparation, seeding, fertilization, hoeing, irrigation, spraying, harvesting, threshing and transporting. The total energy input ranged between 3361.5 and 25229.7 MJ/ha. Based on product yields, the energy use efficiency varied between 0.96 and 4.32.

  1. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey. (United States)

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M Fani; Erbas, Belkıs; Durak, Hatice


    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before.

  2. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Zehra [Ege University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Bozkurt, M. Fani; Erbas, Belkis [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Durak, Hatice [Dokuz Eyluel University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey)


    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Gücenme GENÇOĞLU


    Full Text Available Banks are of vital importance in economies, because their bankruptcy leads to losses for millions of small savers. As a result, banks are closely audited all around the world. The prerequisite for a healthy economic system is the use of internal and external auditing and risk management in banks. In this study, the developments of internal and external audits in banking have been summarised according to regulations in Turkey and significant risks have been discussed in terms of bank management decisions and risk management. Additionally, Basel regulations and capital adequacy have been analysed and the problems that affect the banking sector in Turkey have been summarised. The aim of our study is to determine the current situation and this study is based on a literature and regulation review.

  4. Contamination of fodder and radioactivity in turkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowski, S.; Olszewska, K.


    Radioactivity was determined in mixed fodder (IB, IC, IE) and in turkeys which were given that feeding stuff. In animals (25 males and 25 females) fed with the above mixed fodder for 16-24 weeks radioactivity was assessed in internal organs and in their tissues. It was found that radioactivity ranged from 322.2 Bq/kg to 190.6 Bq/kg. In males the highest contamination was found in the spleen (average 0.108 Bq/g), in skeletal muscles (0.082 Bq/g), and in the liver (0.080 Bq/g), and the lowest in the skin (0.046 Bq per 1 g). The findings indicate that radioactivity of carcasses and internal organs in turkeys fed with contamined fodder was much lower than that in fodder. 6 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  5. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M. Fani; Erbas, Belkis; Durak, Hatice


    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before. (orig.)

  6. Determinants of Industrial Production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The necessity of emphasizing the importance of industrial production for the sustainable growth and development of Turkey has been a topic of discussion in political and academia circles. The growth in industrial production (output depends on the investment in manufacturing sectors and the demand for the products. Along with internal demand, Turkey tries to support its manufacturing base with export (incentives. Manufacturing items occupy the greatest share of products in export sales. The development of manufacturing capabilities of the country is clearly based on the demand from inside and out. The effect of Turkey’s export on its industrial production throughout 2000’s has been analyzed. For this purpose we developed a VAR model where industrial production index was the dependent variable and export, investment, and interest rate were independent variables. All independent variables were found to be significantly explaining industrial production.

  7. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.


    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  8. Turkey and Stability in East Asia (United States)


    1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188...Japan, history, stability, IR theories 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 57 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY...with these three countries, and has no strategic interest in the East Asia. Further, relations between Turkey and Japan date back to the era of the

  9. Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations (United States)


    in reconciling alignment on general foreign policy objectives with substantive points of disagreement. Greater Turkish independence of action and...number of sensitive issues related to Syria. These include (1) U.S. cooperation with Syrian Kurds who are aligned with Kurdish militants in Turkey; (2...private companies, and other civil society actors through various means, including active interference in their operations and regulatory action to

  10. Political Kidnappings in Turkey, 1971-1972 (United States)


    and candor * Brian Jenkins, David Ronfeldt, and Ralph Strauch, with the assis- tance of Janera Johnson, Dealing with Political Kidnapping (U), The... David Ronfeldt, and Ralph Strauch~ Dealing with Political Kidnapping (U), The Rand Corporation, R-1857-DOS/ARPA, September 1976 (Secret). -38...personal emissary, a former charge d’affaires in Turkey, Moshe Sasson . On at least two occasions, Eban expressed the confidence of his government in the

  11. Turkey as an Emerging Energy Hub (United States)


    straits on July 1, 1994. Russia argued that Turkey violated the Montreux Convention that regulated the control of Turkish Straits.171 Russia also...through the Straits.203 Even though, according to the 1936 Montreux Convention, all commercial vessels are guaranteed free passage through the Straits...2004), 216. 46 Since the Montreux Convention was signed in 1936, the traffic density has increased significantly in the straits. In 1936, the

  12. Pathogenesis of avian pneumovirus infection in turkeys. (United States)

    Jirjis, F F; Noll, S L; Halvorson, D A; Nagaraja, K V; Shaw, D P


    Avian pneumovirus (APV) is the cause of a respiratory disease of turkeys characterized by coughing, ocular and nasal discharge, and swelling of the infraorbital sinuses. Sixty turkey poults were reared in isolation conditions. At 3 weeks of age, serum samples were collected and determined to be free of antibodies against APV, avian influenza, hemorrhagic enteritis, Newcastle disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma meleagridis, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, and Bordetella avium. When the poults were 4 weeks old, they were inoculated with cell culture-propagated APV (APV/Minnesota/turkey/2a/97) via the conjunctival spaces and nostrils. After inoculation, four poults were euthanatized every 2 days for 14 days, and blood, swabs, and tissues were collected. Clinical signs consisting of nasal discharge, swelling of the infraorbital sinuses, and frothy ocular discharge were evident by 2 days postinoculation (PI) and persisted until day 12 PI. Mild inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses was present between days 2 and 10 PI. Mild inflammatory changes were seen in tracheas of poults euthanatized between days 4 and 10 PI. Antibody to APV was detected by day 7 PI. The virus was detected in tissue preparations and swabs of nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and immunohistochemical staining methods between days 2 and 10 PI. Virus was detected in tracheal tissue and swabs between days 2 and 6 PI using the same methods. In this experiment, turkey poults inoculated with tissue culture-propagated APV developed clinical signs similar to those seen in field cases associated with infection with this virus.

  13. Employment services in Great Britain and Turkey


    ÖZKANLI, Özlem


    This artiele criticaUy compares the institutions and procedures for the employment services of Great Britain (GB) and Turkey. The similarities and differences of two employment organisations, the Department for Education and Employment in GB and the Turkish Employment Organisation, are examined. Data is collected in field study from these organisations, based in London and Ankara, through interviews and observation techniques. Field study in London is financed by the World Bank. After briefly...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoum Parhizkari


    Full Text Available The present paper examines and comparesthe questions whether there are anydifferences between Iran and Turkey inmodernization and if this is the casewhether this is gender equality, family values, or secularity that causes suchdifferences. Data from the Iranian andthe Turkish part of the World ValuesSurvey (WVS forth wave are used forthe empirical analysis. Conceptual andmethodological effects influence the structural equation model.

  15. Wage Inequality in Turkey: 2002-2010


    Bakis, Ozan; Polat, Sezgin


    This paper studies the evolution of wage inequality over the last decade in Turkey using household labor force survey between 2002 and 2010. During the period between 2002 and 2004, the relative supply of more educated workers to less educated workers stayed almost constant while their relative wages have decreased in the benefit of less educated workers. However, in the second period between 2004 and 2010 the relative supply of more educated workers to less educated workers had risen while t...

  16. Attitudes and practices regarding circumcision in Turkey. (United States)

    Sahin, F; Beyazova, U; Aktürk, A


    In Turkey, circumcision is a necessity for boys to gain a masculine identity. In contrast to Western societies, where circumcision is performed in the neonatal period, it is performed at older ages in our population, and the timing may affect the psychosocial well-being of males. The person who performs the operation, a physician or a traditional circumciser, may affect their health as well. To provide some information about the practice of circumcision in Turkey, such as timing, by whom and why it is performed in our country, and relation of their fathers' past emotions about their own circumcision to this current practice. Questionnaires were filled out in face-to-face interviews with parents of 1235 male children under 16 years of age who attended well-child clinics of Gazi University Hospital and 10 different primary health care centres throughout Ankara, Turkey. Median age of circumcision was found to be 6 years. Only 14.8% of children were circumcised before 1 year of age. The main reasons for circumcision were religious and traditional. The medical benefits of the procedure outweighed the traditional reasons for only 15.2% of the families. The operation was carried out by a traditional circumciser in 13.3% of the children. Most of the fathers who could remember their own emotions about circumcision confessed that they had been frightened. They remembered the procedure as painful. Indeed, the mean age of their sons' circumcision was close to their own circumcision age. Traditions still play an important role in the timing of circumcision and by whom and why it is performed in Turkey. Changing times and educational levels do not seem to affect the traditional approach to circumcision.

  17. Evaluation of research ethics committees in Turkey


    Arda, B.


    In Turkey, there was no legal regulation of research on human beings until 1993. In that year "the amendment relating to drug researches" was issued. The main objectives of the regulation are to establish a central ethics committee and local ethics committees, and to provide administrative control.There are no compulsory clinical ethics lectures in the medical curriculum, so it is also proposed that research ethics committees (RECs) play a central educational role by helping physicians to be ...





    This article investigates the causal relationship between GDP and export of Turkey using Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test and Granger causality test based on Toda-Yamamoto Analysis through EViews 7.1. To carry out the present study, the quarterly time series data reported by the OECD were used in the time period of 1980–2012. The results revealed that the series were not stationary.The obtined results concluded that there is a unidirectional causal relationship from the GDP ...

  19. Healthcare information technology infrastructures in Turkey. (United States)

    Dogac, A; Yuksel, M; Ertürkmen, G L; Kabak, Y; Namli, T; Yıldız, M H; Ay, Y; Ceyhan, B; Hülür, U; Oztürk, H; Atbakan, E


    The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for "Health-Net"), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients' Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. With the introduction of the "Health Transformation Program" in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality.

  20. Hydropower in Turkey: potential and market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Turkish hydropower market provides huge opportunities for investors and suppliers. Successful market entry is not easy, however, as the market is still not fully liberalized, the need for local intelligence is large and the competition is increasing. There are also potential political, reputational and environmental risks, typical for an emerging economy. The World Bank global 'Ease of doing business' ranking (2010), ranks Turkey as number 73 of 183 countries. (Author)

  1. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet; Kanit, E. Galip


    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000 {yields} 2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingoel, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkoeprue, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koeycegiz, Manavgat, Doertyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely.

  2. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozen, Adnan; Ozalp, Mehmet [Gazi Univ., Mechanical Education Dept., Ankara (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Kirikkale Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Kirikkale (Turkey); Kanit, E. Galip [Turkish State Meteorological Office, Ankara (Turkey)


    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000-2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingol, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkopru, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koycegiz, Manavgat, Dortyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely (Author)

  3. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey. (United States)

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet


    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%.

  4. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan


    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakki BILGEN


    Full Text Available Turkey has created some opportunities for the organisations in the defense industry to generate a suitable business and to ensure its sustainability. The domestic coverage ratio of defense system need in 2010 is aimed as 50%. To achieve this target depends on the defense industry competitiveness. In this study, the development plans, strategies and foreign trade are examined. Its contribution which has an important place in the research and development investment, is not at the level expected in Turkey’s economy. Turkey occupies 47th position in World Competitiveness Scoreboard, and 61st position in Global Competitiveness Index in 2009. The index factors are investigated to understand the competitiveness according to the Porter’s diamond model, applied in Turkey for the first time. As a result, the competitiveness analysis of Turkish defense industry is carried out and its global place and competitive advantage are exposed. Therefore, a framework is made to introduce a guide for decision-making by using a widely-accepted model, and to contribute to the plans and strategies

  6. Sexual harassment against nurses in Turkey. (United States)

    Celik, Yusuf; Celik, Sevilay Senol


    To identify the prevalence and sources of sexual harassment against nurses in Turkey, its consequences, and factors affecting harassment experiences. Descriptive survey. Participants (N=622) were selected from nurses working in eight Ministry of Health hospitals in Turkey. Participants were surveyed with a Sexual Harassment Questionnaire, consisting of the sociodemographic characteristics of participants, types of sexual harassment, sources, feelings, ramifications, and ways to cope with sexual harassment behaviors. Frequency and percentage distributions, chi-square, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results showed 37.1% of participants had been harassed sexually. Physicians were identified as the primary instigators of sexual harassment. The most common reactions against harassers were anger and fear; frequently reported negative effects of sexual harassment were disturbed mental health function, decline in job performance, and headache. "Did nothing" was the coping method used most commonly by the nurses. About 80% of sexually harassed nurses did not report the incident of sexual harassment to hospital administration. The lower working status and power of nurses in the workplace, poor working conditions in healthcare settings, and insufficient administrative mechanisms, including the present law and regulations against sexual harassers, were identified as important factors in the work environment in Turkey.

  7. Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.


    In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

  8. Hierarchical structure of Turkey's foreign trade (United States)

    Kantar, Ersin; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa


    We examine the hierarchical structures of Turkey's foreign trade by using real prices of their commodity export and import move together over time. We obtain the topological properties among the countries based on Turkey's foreign trade during the 1996-2010 period by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree, (MST) and hierarchical tree, (HT)). These periods are divided into two subperiods, such as 1996-2002 and 2003-2010, in order to test various time-window and observe the temporal evolution. We perform the bootstrap techniques to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We also use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure much better. From the structural topologies of these trees, we identify different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic ties. Our results show that the DE (Germany), UK (United Kingdom), FR (France), IT (Italy) and RU (Russia) are more important within the network, due to a tighter connection with other countries. We have also found that these countries play a significant role for Turkey's foreign trade and have important implications for the design of portfolio and investment strategies.

  9. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet; Kanit, E. Galip


    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000 → 2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingoel, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkoeprue, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koeycegiz, Manavgat, Doertyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R 2 value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R 2 =0.9998). The MAPE and R 2 for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely

  10. Export-led Growth Hypothesis: Turkey Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate validity of “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” for Turkey using quarterly data in period from 2003:Q1 to 2015:Q1. Hypothesis argues that there is causality relationship from real export to real Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Johansen cointegration test, Gregory-Hansen cointegration test, Toda-Yamamoto causality test, Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS, Canonical cointegrating regression (CCR and Dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS methods were used in this study. Findings can be summarized as follows: a According to Johansen cointegration test there is no relationship among variables in the long-run whereas Gregory-Hansen cointegration test has determined relationship in the long-run; b According to Toda-Yamamoto causality test there is bidirectional causality between real export and real GDP. This finding proves the validity of “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” for Turkey; c According to FMOLS, CCR, DOLS methods a 1% increase in the real export increases the real GDP by 1.5195%, 1.5552%, 1.3171% respectively in the long-run. These methods prove the validity of “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” for Turkey.

  11. Contributions to the phytosociological study of Sessile and Turkey oak forests in the Orastie area (Central-Western Romania

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    Petru BURESCU


    Full Text Available In the current paper we present a phytosociological study of the phytocoenoses of the association Quercetum petraeae-cerris Soó 1963 (Syn.: Quercetum polycarpae-cerris G. Popescu 1988 identified in the Orăştie river basin, situated in the central-western part of Romania.The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the phytosociological table have been done by selecting the most representative relevés performed in the Turkey and Sessile oak forests of the lower and central parts of the Orastie river basin (Culoarul Orăştiei.This paper aims at analysing the phytocoenoses of the association Quercetum petraeae-cerris Soó 1963 in terms of physiognomy and floristic composition, life forms spectrum, floristic elements, and ecological indices.

  12. Effect of Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STPP) to Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Turkey Nuggets Derived from White and Dark Turkey Meats


    Surjoseputro, Sutarjo; Naryanto, Petrus Sri; Fatoni, Meliawati


    Turkey meat is a well-known foodstuff and source of protein in the United States, while in Indonesia turkey meat has not yet optimally processed as a foodstuff. The advantages of turkey meat are: has low calorie, high protein than other poultry meats, and good source of vitamin and mineral. Contrary to chicken meat, turkey meat has low fat content and high collagen, and therefore makes the meat very tough. This research was using two kinds of meat, the white meat (the breast) and the dark mea...

  13. Seismic Interpretation of the Nam Con Son Basin and its Implication for the Tectonic Evolution

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    Nguyen Quang Tuan


    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.2.127-137The Nam Con Son Basin covering an area of circa 110,000 km2 is characterized by complex tectonic settings of the basin which has not fully been understood. Multiple faults allowed favourable migration passageways for hydrocarbons to go in and out of traps. Despite a large amount of newly acquired seismic and well data there is no significant update on the tectonic evolution and history of the basin development. In this study, the vast amount of seismic and well data were integrated and reinterpreted to define the key structural events in the Nam Con Son Basin. The results show that the basin has undergone two extentional phases. The first N - S extensional phase terminated at around 30 M.a. forming E - W trending grabens which are complicated by multiple half grabens filled by Lower Oligocene sediments. These grabens were reactivated during the second NW - SE extension (Middle Miocene, that resulted from the progressive propagation of NE-SW listric fault from the middle part of the grabens to the margins, and the large scale building up of roll-over structure. Further t