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Sample records for basin northeast china

  1. Precipitation variability assessment of northeast China: Songhua River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Liu, Dong; Fu, Qiang; Azmat, Muhammad; Luo, Mingjie; Hu, Yuxiang; Zhang, Yongjia; Abrar, Faiz M.

    2016-07-01

    Variability in precipitation is critical for the management of water resources. In this study, the research entropy base concept was applied to investigate spatial and temporal variability of the precipitation during 1964-2013 in the Songhua River basin of Heilongjiang Province in China. Sample entropy was applied on precipitation data on a monthly, seasonally, annually, decade scale and the number of rainy days for each selected station. Intensity entropy and apportionment entropy were used to calculate the variability over individual year and decade, respectively. Subsequently, Spearman's Rho and Mann-Kendall tests were applied to observe for trends in the precipitation time series. The statistics of sample disorder index showed that the precipitation during February (mean 1.09, max. 1.26 and min. 0.80), April (mean 1.12, max. 1.29 and min. 0.99) and July (mean 1.10, max. 1.20 and min. 0.98) contributed significantly higher than those of other months. Overall, the contribution of the winter season was considerably high with a standard deviation of 0.10. The precipitation variability on decade basis was observed to increase from decade 1964-1973 and 1994-2003 with a mean value of decadal apportionment disorder index 0.023 and 0.053, respectively. In addition, the Mann-Kendall test value (1.90) showed a significant positive trend only at the Shangzhi station.

  2. Precipitation variability assessment of northeast China: Songhua River basin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muhammad Imran Khan; Dong Liu; Qiang Fu; Muhammad Azmat; Mingjie Luo; Yuxiang Hu; Yongjia Zhang; Faiz M Abrar

    2016-07-01

    Variability in precipitation is critical for the management of water resources. In this study, the researchentropy base concept was applied to investigate spatial and temporal variability of the precipitationduring 1964–2013 in the Songhua River basin of Heilongjiang Province in China. Sample entropy wasapplied on precipitation data on a monthly, seasonally, annually, decade scale and the number of rainydays for each selected station. Intensity entropy and apportionment entropy were used to calculate thevariability over individual year and decade, respectively. Subsequently, Spearman’s Rho and Mann–Kendall tests were applied to observe for trends in the precipitation time series. The statistics of sampledisorder index showed that the precipitation during February (mean 1.09, max. 1.26 and min. 0.80),April (mean 1.12, max. 1.29 and min. 0.99) and July (mean 1.10, max. 1.20 and min. 0.98) contributedsignificantly higher than those of other months. Overall, the contribution of the winter season wasconsiderably high with a standard deviation of 0.10. The precipitation variability on decade basis wasobserved to increase from decade 1964–1973 and 1994–2003 with a mean value of decadal apportionmentdisorder index 0.023 and 0.053, respectively. In addition, the Mann–Kendall test value (1.90) showed asignificant positive trend only at the Shangzhi station.

  3. Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong wetland within a river basin, Northeast China

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    X. Q. Feng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and loss. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, water surface area and water volume, as well as their variations during the period 1985–2006, were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system (SWAT. A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989 and was validated for the period 2005–2006. The calibration achieved a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens of 0.86, and the validation yielded an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, water surface area in the Zhalong wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, water volume decreased largely in the preserve, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for future water resources management within the river basin.

  4. Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong Wetland within a river basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Feng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and losses. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, open water area and storage, as well as their variations during the period 1985–2006 were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system, SWAT. A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989, in a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens of 0.86, and was validated for the period 2005–2006, in an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, open water area in the Zhalong Wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, open water storage in the preserve decreased largely, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for water resources management within the river basin.

  5. Mechanisms of Cenozoic deformation in the Bohai Basin, Northeast China: Physical modelling and discussions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Jianxun; ZHOU; Jiansheng

    2006-01-01

    The Bohai Basin is a Cenozoic petroliferous extensional basin in China and has apparent geometrical and kinematic similarities with the other Meso-Cenozoic extensional basins located along the eastern margin of Eurasian Plate. However, the deformation mechanisms of the basin are still in dispute. Physcial modelling referring to the Huanghua Depression, located in the central part of the Bohai Basin was conducted employing four sets of planar sandbox experimental models with different extension directions. Only experimental results of the model with N-S extension show good structural similarity with the depression. The results also indicate that complex variations of fault strike in a rift basin are not necessarily the results of complex kinematic mechanisms or polyphase deformation. Based on comparison of experimental results with the actual structures and the good structural similarity between Huanghua Depression and the whole Bohai Basin, it is concluded that the Bohai Basin was formed by the N-S extension. The strike slip deformation along the NNE-trending border faults of the basin resulted from the N-S extension and played the role of lateral transformation for the N-S extension. In addition, according to the apparent geometrical and kinematic similarities among the Bohai Basin and other Meso-Cenozoic extensional basins located along the eastern margin of the Eurasian Plate, it is proposed that: (1) this "N-S extension" model provides a better kinematic interpretation for the formation of Bohai Basin and the other adjacent basins located along the eastern margin of the Eurasian Plate; and (2) the N-S extension was probably the effect of the "slab window" formed by the subduction of the nearly E-W trending oceanic ridge between the Kula and Pacific Plates. The "slab window" effect can also provide reasonable explanations for the phenomena that initial rifting ages of basins become progressively younger westwards along the eastern margin of the Eurasian Plate

  6. Distribution characteristics and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Liao River drainage basin, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Liu, Congqiang; Zhang, Guoping; Zhang, Yanlin; Li, Siliang; Zhao, Zhiqi; Liu, Baojian; Guo, Qinjun

    2016-04-01

    The Liao River drainage basin, which is one of China's seven major rivers basins, is located in northeast China. This region is characterized by important industrial bases including steel factories and oil and chemical plants, all of which have the potential to contribute pollutants to the drainage basin. In this study, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the major rivers of the Liao River drainage basin were identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The total PAH concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 76.5 μg/g (dry weight) in SPM and 32.6 to 108 ng/L in surface water, respectively. Low-ring PAHs (including two- and three-ring PAHs) were dominant in all PAH samples, and the level of low-ring PAHs in surface water was higher than that in SPM. The proportion of two-ring PAHs was the highest, accounting for an average of 68.2 % of the total PAHs in surface water, while the level of three-ring PAHs was the highest in SPM, with an average of 66.3 %. When compared with other river systems, the concentrations of PAHs in the Liao River drainage basin were lower. Identification of the emission sources based on diagnostic ratios suggested petroleum and fossil fuel combustion were important contribution to PAHs in the study area.

  7. ENSO-Type Signals Recorded in the Late Cretaceous Laminated Sediments of Songliao Basin, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, E.; Wang, C.; Hinnov, L. A.; Wu, H.

    2014-12-01

    The quasi-periodic, ca. 2-7 year El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon globally influences the inter-annual variability of temperature and precipitation. Global warming may increase the frequency of extreme ENSO events. Although the Cretaceous plate tectonic configuration was different from today, the sedimentary record suggests that ENSO-type oscillations had existed at the time of Cretaceous greenhouse conditions. Cored Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from the Songliao Basin in Northeast China (SK-1 cores from the International Continental Drilling Program) potentially offer a partially varved record of Cretaceous paleoclimate. Fourteen polished thin sections from the depth interval 1096.12-1096.53 m with an age of 84.4 Ma were analyzed by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ImageJ software was applied to extract gray scale curves from optical images at pixel resolution. We tracked minimum values of the gray scale curves to estimate the thickness of each lamina. Five sedimentary structures were recognized: flaser bedding, wavy bedding, lenticular bedding, horizontal bedding, and massive layers. The mean layer thicknesses with different sedimentary structures range from 116 to 162mm, very close to the mean sedimentation rate estimated for this sampled interval, 135mm/year, indicating that the layers bounded by pure clay lamina with the minimum gray values are varves. SEM images indicate that a varve is composed, in succession, of one lamina rich in coarse silt, one lamina rich in fine silt, one clay-rich lamina with some silt, and one clay-rich lamina. This suggests that a Cretaceous year featured four distinct depositional seasons, two of which were rainy and the others were lacking precipitation. Spectral analysis of extended intervals of the tuned gray scale curve indicates the presence of inter-annual periodicities of 2.2-2.7 yr, 3.5-6.1 year, and 10.1-14.5 year consistent with those of modern ENSO cycles and solar cycles, as well as

  8. Mapping Electrical Structures in the Jarud Basin, Northeast China through Magnetotelluric Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, China Geological Survey (CGS) has launched 3D geological mapping programs from regional to local scales. The project Deep geological survey at the periphery of the Songliao Basin funded by CGS was implemented from 2012 to 2014. Its main goals are to reveal the tectonic framework of the Jarud Basin (JB) as well as to identify the strata distribution of Permian Linxi Formation by integrating new electromagnetic data with existing geophysical and geological data since black mudstones in the Linxi Formation have shown the potential of shale gas. The study area covered dominantly with Cretaceous-Jurassic igneous rocks with exception of the southeast part is situated in Jarud Banner and Ar Horqin Banner, Inner Mongolia, China. It tectonically lies in the southern Great Khingan Range, western margin of the Songliao Basin, and north of Xar Moron Fault. Over the period of 2012 to 2014, a magnetotelluric survey was carried out at the JB. A total of 926 MT sites with nominal spacing 1 km was acquired in the effective frequency range of 0.01 Hz ~ 300 Hz on six NW and five NE profiles, covering area that exceeds 10, 000 km2. After dimensionality analysis and static shift removal, the nonlinear conjugate algorithm was used to conduct 2D inversion for TM and TE modes. The resistivity models underwent examination using sensitivity tests. The optimal resistivity models revealed numerous large faults, some of which constitute the boundaries of the JB, and modified the tectonic framework. Integrated with well logging and geological mapping data, the strata of Linxi Formation were identified and classified into three depressions: Depressions Arituguri, Gadasu and Wufen. Attention should be paid to Depression Gadasu with area of around 500 km2 since it contains reasonably thick conductive sediments exceeding 4 km in depth which are inferred to be black mudstones pertaining to shale gas.

  9. The Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous of eastern Heilongjiang, Northeast China: stratigraphy and regional basin history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, J.G.; Matsukawa, M.; Cai, H.W.; Jiang, B.Y.; Ito, M.; He, C.Q.; Gu, Z.W. [Academy of Sinica, Nanjing (China)

    2003-12-01

    In eastern Heilongjiang, the Upper Jurassic is marine and restricted to the Suibin and Dong'an areas, where it is characterized faunally by Callovian-Volgian (Tithonian) bivalves and florally by dinoflagellates. The Lower Cretaceous is widely distributed in eastern Heilongjiang, and characterized faunally by Berriasian-Valanginian bivalves, Barremian-Albian ammonites and Aucellina, and florally by dinoflagellates. To the west, the marine facies grade into non-marine beds. Thus, in the east, for example in the Dong'an and Dajiashan areas, near the northwestern Palaeo-Pacific, the Lower Cretaceous is marine; westward, in the Yunshan, Longzhaogou. Peide, and Zhushan areas, marine and non-marine deposits alternate, whereas further west still, e.g. in the Jixi Basin, non-marine facies are intercalated with marine beds. This regional distribution is indicative of a large, shallow embayment opening eastwards to the Palaeo-Pacific; during the Early Cretaceous successive transgressive-regressive events influenced the climate and biota of eastern Heilongjiang and northeastern China. Many of the Lower Cretaceous sections contain abundant coals, demonstrating that in this region the Early Cretaceous was an important coal-forming period.

  10. Study on dynamics of tectonic evolution in the Fushun Basin, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冲龙; 汪新庆; 刘刚; 李绍虎; 毛小平; 李星

    2002-01-01

    The updated study shows that the taphrogenesis of basement of the Fushun Basin is not a kind of instantaneous process. It intensified gradually and went to extreme in the sedimentary stage of the Guchengzi formation, and then, it weakened rapidly and stopped soon afterwards; the depression did not take place after the taphrogenesis. On the contrary, it almost happened simultaneously with the taphrogenesis. The depression went at a high speed from the beginning of the sedimentary period of the Xilutian formation, and then weakened gradually in the sedimentary period of the Gengjiajie formation. The evolution course of the synsedimentary structure of the Fushun Basin can be summarized as the following six stages: slow taphrogenesis and high speed depression to accelerated taphrogenesis and high speed depression to high speed taphrogenesis and high speed depression to retarded taphrogenesis and high speed depression to gradual halt of taphrogenesis and reduced depression to slow depression and gradual halt of depression. The tectonic evolution resulted in the formation of the "lower taphrogenesis and upper depression" structure. The formation of the binary structure might be due to the suspension of taphrogenesis and the change of the regional structure stress field, but the depression kept going. The result of calculation combining the analysis of the synsedimentary structural frame, the back-stripping method of the subsidence history of the basin basement and the simulation of thermo-settlement history indicates that the great sedimentary space required by the "upper depression part" consists of two parts, namely, 40% from compaction of sediments and 60% from slow depression of the basin basement during a long period of time. Gradual halt of the depression in the Fushun Basin may be attributed to the reversal of the lithosphere hot-recession and gravity isostasy adjustment which may be the result of new hot-events in the depths and accompanied invasion of extremely

  11. Volcanism and Oil & Gas In Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Xuanlong

    2000-01-01

    Based on study on the relation with volcanic rock and oil & gas in Songliao Basin and Liaohe Basin in northeast China, author proposes that material from deep by volcanism enrichs the resources in basins, that heat by volcanism promotes organic matter transforming to oil and gas, that volcanic reservoir is fracture, vesicular, solution pore, intercrystal pore.Lava facies and pyroclastic facies are favourable reservoir. Mesozoic volcanic reservoir is majority of intermediate, acid rock,but Cenozoic volcanic reservoir is majority of basalt. Types of oil and gas pool relating to volcanic rock include volcanic fracture pool, volcanic unconformity pool, volcanic rock - screened pool, volcanic darpe structural pool.

  12. Micropaleontology and palaeoclimate during the early Cretaceous in the Lishu depression, Songliao basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diverse and abundant microfossils, such as palynomorphs, algae and Ostracoda, were collected from lower Cretaceous strata of Lishu depression, located in southeastern Songliao basin, and were identified and classified in order to provide relevant, detailed records for paleoclimate research. The early Cretaceous vegetation and climate of southeastern Songliao basin have been inferred from the analysis of palynomorph genera, algae and Ostracoda of the LS1 and SW110 wells. The lower Cretaceous strata include, in ascending stratigraphic order, the Shahezi, Yingcheng and Denglouku formations. Palynological assemblages for each formation, based on biostratigraphic and statistical analyses, provide an assessment of their longitudinal variations. During deposition of the Shahezi Formation, the climate was mid-subtropical. Vegetation consisted of coniferous forest and herbage. During deposition of the Yingcheng Formation, the climate was south Asian tropical. Vegetation consisted mainly of coniferous forest and herbal shrub. In addition, fresh and saline non-marine water dominated the lacustrine setting during deposition of these formations. Deposition of the Denglouku Formation, however, occurred under a hot and dry tropical climate. The vegetation was mostly coniferous forest and lake waters became saline. Palaeoclimate variation is correlated by the lake level change and the development of sedimentary facies. Palaeoclimate contribute to the formation of hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoir.

  13. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Surface Sediment from Songhua River Basin, Northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Meng; Liyan Liu; Wanli Ma; Wenlong Li; Weiwei Song; Yifan Li

    2015-01-01

    Sixty sediment samples were collected from the main Songhua River in three years. Twelve polybrominated diphenyl ether ( PBDE) congeners ( BDE17, 28, 47, 66, 99, 100, 153, 154, 138, 183, and BDE⁃209) were detected to state the pollution situation. The results showed that the total concentration of total PBDEs ranges from 0�424 to 23�0 ng/g dry weight, with the mean of 3�02 ng/g, and the total PBDEs concentration is at relative low level compared with those worldwide. The congener profile showed that BDE⁃209 is the dominant congener that accounts for more than 80�1% of total PBDEs in sediments, followed by BDE⁃47 and BDE⁃99. These profiles are consistent with a high consumption of Deca⁃BDEs for the brominated flame retardant market in China. The results of spatial and seasonal observations indicated that local sources, temperature variation, and hydrologic conditions are significant factors on PBDEs concentrations. Hazard quotients suggested that PBDEs pose no potential risk to benthic organisms in detected area at present.

  14. The deformation and tectonic evolution of the Huahui Basin, northeast China, during the Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiqi; Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Yueqiao; Zhang, Fuqin; Huang, Dezhi; Wei, Shi; Li, Zhenhong; Miao, Laicheng; Zhu, Mingshuai

    2015-12-01

    The Cretaceous Huahui basin lies along the Dunhua-Mishan fault (Dun-Mi fault), which is one of the northern branches of Tan-Lu fault in northeastern China. The study of the formation and the tectonic movements that took place in the basin can provide very important information for deciphering the tectonic evolution of northeastern China during Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic. The field analysis of fault-slip data collected from different units in the basin, demonstrates changes in the paleo-stress state that reveals a three-stage tectonic movement during the Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic. The earliest tectonic movement was NW-SE extension, which was responsible for the formation of the basin and sedimentary infilling during the Early Cretaceous. Dating of the andesite in the fill indicates it began during about 119.17 ± 0.80 Ma. The extensional structures formed in the Latest Early Cretaceous imply that this tectonic movement lasted until the beginning of the Late Cretaceous. The second stage began during the Late Cretaceous when the tectonic stress state changed and was dominated by NW-SE compression and NE-SW extension, which caused the inversion of the extensional basin. This compression folded the Early Cretaceous deposits and reactivated pre-existing faults and uplifted pre-existing granite in the basin. The strata and the unconformity in the basin shows that this compressive phase probably took place during the Late Cretaceous and ended in the Early Paleogene by a compressional regime with NE-SW compression and NW-SE extension that constitutes the third stage. The tectonic stress fields documented in the Huahui basin provide insight into the influences of plate tectonics on the crustal evolution of northeastern China during the Cretaceous to Early Cenozoic. These results show that the development of Huahui basin was controlled by the northwestward subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate during the Cretaceous, and later by the far-field effects of India-Asia collision in

  15. Petrography and geochemistry characteristics of the lower Cretaceous Muling Formation from the Laoheishan Basin, Northeast China: implications for provenance and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Liu, Zhaojun; Meng, Qingtao; Wang, Yimeng; Zheng, Guodong; Xu, Yinbo

    2016-10-01

    The petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of sedimentary rocks from the lower Cretaceous Muling Formation (K1ml) in the Laoheishan basin, northeast (NE) China are studied to determine the weathering intensity, provenance and tectonic setting of the source region. Petrographic data indicate the average quartz-feldspar-lithic fragments (QFL) of the sandstone is Q = 63 %, F = 22 %, and L = 15 %. Lithic fragments mainly contain volcanic clasts that derived from surrounding basement. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data reveal abundant clay and detrital minerals (e.g. quartz), as well as minor calcite in the fine-grained sediments. The Hf contents and element concentration ratios such as Al2O3/TiO2, Co/Th, La/Sc, and La/Th are comparable to sediments derived from felsic and intermediate igneous rocks. The strong genetic relationship with the igneous rocks from the northwest and northeast areas provides evidence that the sediments of the Muling Formation (K1ml) in the Laoheishan basin have been derived from this area. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) and index of chemical variability (ICV) reveal an intensive weathering in the source region of the sediments. The multidimensional tectonic discrimination diagrams indicate that the source rocks of K1ml are mainly derived from the collision system. However, they may also comprise sediments derived from the continental rift system. The results are consistent with the geology of the study area.

  16. Seismic volcanostratigraphy of large, extrusive complexes in continental rift basins of Northeast China:Analysis of general bedding patterns in volcanostratigraphy and their seismic reflection configurations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣健; 王璞珺; 高有峰; 陈崇阳; 赵然磊

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to establish volcanic seismic reflection configuration models in the rift basins of Northeast China from a new perspective, the volcanostratigraphic structure. Accordingly, the volcanostratigraphic structure of an outcrop near the Hailaier Rift Basin was analyzed to understand the characteristics and causal factors of physical boundaries. Further, 3D seismic reflection data and analysis of deep boreholes in the Songliao Rift Basin were used to establish the relationship between volcanic seismic reflection configurations and volcanostratigraphic structures. These studies suggested that in volcanic successions, physical boundaries coincide with volcanic boundaries, and their distributions are controlled by the stacking patterns of volcanic units. Therefore, volcanic seismic reflection configurations can be interpreted in terms of the stacking patterns of volcanic units. These are also referred to as general bedding patterns in volcanostratigraphy. Furthermore, four typical seismic reflection configurations were identified, namely, the chaotic, the parallel continuous, the hummocky, the multi-mound superimposed and the composite. The corresponding interpretation models comprised single massive unit, vertical, intersectional, lateral multi-mound, and composite stacking patterns. The hummocky and composite reflection configurations with intersectional and composite stacking patterns are the most favorable for the exploration of volcanic reservoirs in rift basins.

  17. The spatiotemporal distribution of dissolved carbon in the main stems and their tributaries along the lower reaches of Heilongjiang River Basin, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Song, Changchun; Guo, Yuedong

    2016-01-01

    The Heilongjiang River Basin in the eastern Siberia, one of the largest river basins draining to the North Pacific Ocean, is a border river between China, Mongolia, and Russia. In this study, we examined the spatial and seasonal variability in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved total carbon (DTC) concentrations along lower reaches of Heilongjiang River Basin, China. Water samples were collected monthly along the mouths of main rivers (Heilongjiang River, Wusuli River, and Songhua River) and their ten tributary waters for 2 years. The DOC concentrations of waters ranged from 1.74 to 16.64 mg/L, with a mean value of 8.90 ± 0.27 mg/L (n = 165). Notably, mean DIC concentrations were 9.08 ± 0.31 mg/L, accounting for 13.26∼83.27% of DTC. DIC concentrations increased significantly after the Heilongjiang River passed through Northeast China, while DOC concentrations decreased. Over 50% of DIC concentrations were decreased during exports from groundwater to rice fields and from rice fields to ditches. Water dissolved carbon showed large spatial and temporal variations during the 2-year measurement, suggesting that more frequently samplings were required. Carbon (DIC + DOC) loads from the Heilongjiang River to the Sea of Okhotsk were estimated to be 3.26 Tg C/year in this study, accounting for 0.64% of the global water dissolved carbon flux. DIC export contributed an average of 51.84% of the estimated carbon load in the Heilongjiang River, acting as an important carbon component during riverine transport. Our study could provide some guides on agricultural water management and contribute to more accurately estimate global carbon budgets.

  18. Process and mechanism for oil and gas accumulation, adjustment and reconstruction in Puguang Gas Field, Northeast Sichuan Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With the discoveries of a series of large gas fields in the northeast of Sichuan Basin, such as Puguang and Longgang gas fields, the formation mechanism of the gas reservoir containing high H2S in the ancient marine carbonate formation in superposition-basin becomes a hot topic in the field of petroleum geology. Based on the structure inversion, numerical simulation, and geochemical research, we show at least two intervals of fluid transfer in Puguang paleo-oil reservoir, one in the forepart of late Indo-Chinese epoch to early Yanshan epoch and the other in the metaphase of early Yanshan epoch. Oil and gas accumulation occurred at Puguang structure through Puguang-Dongyuezhai faults and dolomite beds in reef and shoal facies in Changxing Formation (P2ch) - Feixianguan Formation (T1f) in the northwest and southwest directions along three main migration pathways, to form Puguang paleo-oil reservoir. Since crude oil is pyrolysised in the early stage of middle Yanshan epoch, Puguang gas reservoir has experienced fluid adjusting process controlled by tectonic movement and geochemical reconstruction process controlled by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Middle Yan-shan epoch is the main period during which the Puguang gas reservoir experienced the geochemical reaction of TSR. On one hand, TSR can recreate the fluid in gas reservoir, which makes the gas drying index larger and carbon isotope heavier. On the other hand, the reciprocity between fluid regarding TSR (hydrocarbon, H2S, and water) and reservoir rock induces erosion of the reservoir rocks and anhydrite alteration, which improves reservoir petrophysical properties. Superimposed by later tectonic movement, the fluid in Puguang reservoir has twice experienced adjustment, one in the late Yanshan epoch to the early Himalayan epoch and the other time in late Himalayan epoch, after which Puguang gas reservoir is finally developed.

  19. Doing Business in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Istarted doing business with people from Northeast China in 1991. At that time, some large state-owned enterprises there needed to import precision machinery equipment from our company. It was an easy place to do business before 1993, as the central government’s favorable policies for SOEs, such as allocating foreign currency and providing technology innovation loans, were an aspect of the then planned economy. At that time, our sales vol-

  20. Geochemical characteristics of pyrolysis gas from epimetamorphic rocks in the northern basement of Songliao Basin,Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Xushen gas field,located in the north of Songliao Basin,is a potential giant gas area for China in the future.Its proved reserves have exceeded 1000×10 8 m 3 by the end of 2005.But,the origin of natural gases from the deep strata is still in debating.Epimetamorphic rocks as a potential gas source are widely spreading in the northern basement of Songliao Basin.According to pyrolysis experiments for these rocks in the semi-confined system,gas production and geochemistry of alkane gases are discussed in this paper.The Carboniferous-Permian epimetamorphic rocks were heated from 300℃to 550℃,with temperature interval of 50℃.The gas production was quantified and measured for chemical and carbon isotopic compositions.Results show thatδ13C 1 is less than?20‰,carbon isotope trend of alkane gas isδ13C 1 <δ13C 2 <δ13C 3 orδ13C 1 <δ13C 2 >δ13C 3 ,these features suggest that the gas would be coal-type gas at high-over maturity,not be inorganic gas with reversal trend of gaseous alkanes (δ13C 1 >δ13C 2 >δ13C 3 ).These characteristics of carbon isotopes are similar with the natural gas from the basin basement,but disagree with gas from the Xingcheng reservoir.Thus,the mixing gases from the pyrolysis gas with coal-typed gases at high-over maturity or oil-typed gases do not cause the reversal trend of carbon isotopes.The gas generation intensity for epimetamorphic rocks is 3.0×10 8 ―23.8×10 8 m 3 /km 2 ,corresponding to Ro from 2.0%to 3.5%for organic matter.

  1. Effects of land-use patterns on in-stream nitrogen in a highly-polluted river basin in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Wei; Song, Xianfang

    2016-05-15

    This study investigated the effects of land-use patterns on nitrogen pollution in the Haicheng River basin in Northeast China during 2010 by conducting statistical and spatial analyses and by analyzing the isotopic composition of nitrate. Correlation and stepwise regressions indicated that land-use types and landscape metrics were correlated well with most river nitrogen variables and significantly predicted them during different sampling seasons. Built-up land use and shape metrics dominated in predicting nitrogen variables over seasons. According to the isotopic compositions of river nitrate in different zones, the nitrogen sources of the river principally originated from synthetic fertilizer, domestic sewage/manure, soil organic matter, and atmospheric deposition. Isotope mixing models indicated that source contributions of river nitrogen significantly varied from forested headwaters to densely populated towns of the river basin. Domestic sewage/manure was a major contributor to river nitrogen with the proportions of 76.4 ± 6.0% and 62.8 ± 2.1% in residence and farmland-residence zones, respectively. This research suggested that regulating built-up land uses and reducing discharges of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater would be effective methods for river nitrogen control.

  2. High-precision U-Pb geochronologic constraints on the Late Cretaceous terrestrial cyclostratigraphy and geomagnetic polarity from the Songliao Basin, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiantian; Ramezani, Jahandar; Wang, Chengshan; Wu, Huaichun; He, Huaiyu; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2016-07-01

    The Cretaceous continental sedimentary records are essential to our understanding of how the terrestrial geologic and ecologic systems responded to past climate fluctuations under greenhouse conditions and our ability to forecast climate change in the future. The Songliao Basin of Northeast China preserves a near-complete, predominantly lacustrine, Cretaceous succession, with sedimentary cyclicity that has been tied to Milankocitch forcing of the climate. Over 900 meters of drill-core recovered from the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian to Campanian) of the Songliao Basin has provided a unique opportunity for detailed analyses of its depositional and paleoenvironmental records through integrated and high-resolution cyclostratigraphic, magnetostratigraphic and geochronologic investigations. Here we report high-precision U-Pb zircon dates (CA-ID-TIMS method) from four interbedded bentonites from the drill-core that offer substantial improvements in accuracy, and a ten-fold enhancement in precision, compared to the previous U-Pb SIMS geochronology, and allow a critical evaluation of the Songliao astrochronological time scale. The results indicate appreciable deviations of the astrochronologic model from the absolute radioisotope geochronology, which more likely reflect cyclostratigraphic tuning inaccuracies and omitted cycles due to depositional hiatuses, rather than suspected limitations of astronomical models applied to distant geologic time. Age interpolation based on our new high-resolution geochronologic framework and the calibrated cyclostratigraphy places the end of the Cretaceous Normal Superchon (C34n-C33r chron boundary) in the Songliao Basin at 83.07 ± 0.15 Ma. This date also serves as a new and improved estimate for the global Santonian-Campanian stage boundary.

  3. Biostratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental implications of an Early Cretaceous miospore assemblage from the Muling Formation, Jixi Basin, northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.J.; Li, W.B.; Batten, D.J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China)

    2007-04-15

    In the Jixi Basin, eastern Heilongjiang Province, China, the lower part of the Lower Cretaceous succession consists of coal-bearing strata including the Muling Formation, which, in addition to plant megafossils, yields abundant spores and pollen grains and a few dinoflagellate cysts. The spore-pollen assemblage consists of more than 42 species belonging to 34 genera. Most of these are derived from pteridophytes and gymnosperms. The association of Aequitriradites echinatus, Cicatricosisporites australiensis, C. imbricatus, C. mediostriatus, C. undosus, Contignisporites glebulentus, Crybelosporites punctatus, Foranminisporis asymmetricus, Gleicheniidites laetus, Impardecispora purverulenta, Kuylisporites lunaris, Pilosisporites trichopapillosus and Triporoletes singularis suggests that the formation is unlikely to be older than late Hauterivian and younger than Aptian, with emphasis placed on the Barremian-early Aptian. The composition of the dinoflagellate cyst and plant megafossil assemblages is consistent with this determination. Based on palynofloral content, a comparison between the miospores recovered and the spores and pollen produced by extant plant taxa, the associated plant megafossils, and the sedimentary facies that characterize the Muling Formation, it is concluded that the source vegetation was dominated by ferns and that the climate was wet subtropical but seasonally dry.

  4. Brief Introduction to Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Rich Resources and ProduceNortheast China’s crude oil output makes up 40 percent of the country’s total, and its timber output makes up exactly half of the nation’s market.Reserves of iron, boron, magnesite, talcum, diamond and jade in Liaoning Province rank first nationwide. It is also one of China’s five major coastal salt producers.Jilin Province’s reserves of diatomaceous earth, tabular spar, oil shale and scoria are the largest in China.Heilongjiang Province is rich in mineral reserves,

  5. China and Its Northeast Asian Neighbors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bojiang; Li Baowen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ Northeast Asian countries have held an important position on China's diplomatic chessboard. Their bilateral relations can be traced back to the ancient times, and they are important for China's national security strategy.

  6. Effects of land-use patterns on in-stream nitrogen in a highly-polluted river basin in Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Hongmei, E-mail: buhm2004@163.com [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2016-05-15

    This study investigated the effects of land-use patterns on nitrogen pollution in the Haicheng River basin in Northeast China during 2010 by conducting statistical and spatial analyses and by analyzing the isotopic composition of nitrate. Correlation and stepwise regressions indicated that land-use types and landscape metrics were correlated well with most river nitrogen variables and significantly predicted them during different sampling seasons. Built-up land use and shape metrics dominated in predicting nitrogen variables over seasons. According to the isotopic compositions of river nitrate in different zones, the nitrogen sources of the river principally originated from synthetic fertilizer, domestic sewage/manure, soil organic matter, and atmospheric deposition. Isotope mixing models indicated that source contributions of river nitrogen significantly varied from forested headwaters to densely populated towns of the river basin. Domestic sewage/manure was a major contributor to river nitrogen with the proportions of 76.4 ± 6.0% and 62.8 ± 2.1% in residence and farmland-residence zones, respectively. This research suggested that regulating built-up land uses and reducing discharges of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater would be effective methods for river nitrogen control. - Highlights: • Land-use types were correlated well with most nitrogen variables over seasons. • Built-up land dominated in predicting nitrogen variables during different seasons. • Shape metrics predicted most nitrogen variables in different seasons. • Nitrogen sources and their contributions were estimated using nitrate isotopes. • Domestic sewage mainly contributed to river nitrogen pollution in residence zone.

  7. Terrane Tectonics in the Northeast Part of Northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jiapeng; Ye Mao; Dong Yongsheng; Sun Weizhi

    2000-01-01

    As the members of Chinese Group of the international cooperative project of "Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis,and Tectonics of Northeast Asia", the authors had the opportunity to review the recent achievement of regional geology in this area. This paper is confined to a brief discussion of the nature, composition and evolution of terranes in a part of Northeast China. Nine terranes were recognized. A splicing pattern of when and how the amalgamation of 9 terranes into one microcontient is proposed here.

  8. Early Eocene carbon isotope excursions: Evidence from the terrestrial coal seam in the Fushun Basin, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuoling; Ding, Zhongli; Tang, Zihua; Wang, Xu; Yang, Shiling

    2014-05-01

    A series of transient global warming events between 56 and 50 Ma are characterized by a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). However, the documents of these hyperthermals, such as Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 and H2 events, have come chiefly from marine sediments, and their expression in terrestrial organic carbon is still poorly constrained. Here we yield a high-resolution carbon isotope record of terrestrial organic material from the Fushun Basin, which displays four prominent CIEs with magnitudes larger than 2.5‰. Based on age constraint and comparisons with deep-sea records, our data provide the first evidence of the four hyperthermals in coal seams and suggest a global significance of these events. Moreover, the difference of CIE magnitudes between marine and terrestrial records shows a significant linear correlation with the marine carbonate CIE, implying that these events are likely attributable to recurring injections of 13C-depleted carbon from submarine methane hydrates and/or permafrost.

  9. Integrated Application of Multivariate Statistical Methods to Source Apportionment of Watercourses in the Liao River Basin, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiabo; Li, Fayun; Fan, Zhiping; Wang, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    Source apportionment of river water pollution is critical in water resource management and aquatic conservation. Comprehensive application of various GIS-based multivariate statistical methods was performed to analyze datasets (2009–2011) on water quality in the Liao River system (China). Cluster analysis (CA) classified the 12 months of the year into three groups (May–October, February–April and November–January) and the 66 sampling sites into three groups (groups A, B and C) based on similarities in water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA) determined that temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), NH4+–N, total phosphorus (TP) and volatile phenols were significant variables affecting temporal variations, with 81.2% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) identified eight potential pollution factors for each part of the data structure, explaining more than 61% of the total variance. Oxygen-consuming organics from cropland and woodland runoff were the main latent pollution factor for group A. For group B, the main pollutants were oxygen-consuming organics, oil, nutrients and fecal matter. For group C, the evaluated pollutants primarily included oxygen-consuming organics, oil and toxic organics. PMID:27775679

  10. CENOZOIC VOLCANISM AND GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on Cenozoic volcanism and geothermal resources in Northeast China. There are a lot of Cenozoic volcanoes, a large area of volcanic rocks, a large number of active faults and rich geothermal resources in Northeast China. The time and space characteristics of Cenozoic volcanism and the space distribution characters of hot springs and high geothermal flux regions in Northeast China are described and discussed on the basis of geological, geothermal, drilling and volcanological data. It is revealed that the hot springs and high geothermal flux regions are re lated to the Cenozoic volcanism, rifting and faulting in Northeast China. It is especially emphasized that the hot springs and high geothermal anomaly areas are controlled by active deep faults. It is proposed that the Cenozoic volcanism re gions, rift basins, active fault belts, activated plate suture zones and large earthquake occurrence points are the best areas for prospecting geothermal resources. The geothermal resources in younger volcanic zones are richer than those in older volcanic belts. The hot springs and active or activated faults might be a very good clue for looking for geothermal resources.

  11. Legal-Ease Beijing & Northeast China Investment Facts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Beijing and northeast China are fast becoming areas of growing interest to international investors. Here we highlight some aspects of cities in northeast China and consider the options for setting up business in the capital.

  12. Legal-Ease:Beijing & Northeast China Investment Facts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Beijing and northeast China are fast becoming areas of growing interest to international investors. Here we highlight some aspects of cities in northeast China and consider the options for setting up business

  13. The Cenozoic Volcanoes in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiaqi; HAN Jingtai; GUO Zhengfu

    2002-01-01

    There are more than 600 Cenozoic volcanic cones and craters with abeut 50 000 km2of lava flows in northeast China, which formed many volcanic clusters and shown the features of the continental rift - type volcanoes. Most volcanic activities in this area, especially in the east part of Songliao graben, were usually controlled by rifts and faults with the main direction of NE / NNE in parallel and become younger from the central graben towards its both sides, especially to the east continental margin. It is revealed that the volcanism occurred in northeast China was as strong as that occurred in Japan during the Miocene and the Quaternary. The Quaternary basalt that is usually distributed along river valley is called "valley basalt"while Neogene basalt usually distributed in the top of mounts is called "high position basalt". These volcanoes and volcanic rocks are usually composed of alkaline basalts with ultramafic inclusions, except Changbaishan volcano that is built by trachyte and pantellerite.

  14. Process and.mechanism for oil and gas accumulation,adjustment and reconstruction in Puguang Gas Field,Northeast Sichuan Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU ChunGuo; HAO Fang; ZOU HuaYao; ZHU YangMing; CAI XunYu; WANG CunWu

    2009-01-01

    With the discoveries of a series of large gas fields in the northeast of Sichuan Basin,such as Puguang and Longgang gas fields,the formation mechanism of the gas reservoir containing high H2S in the ancient marine carbonate formation in superposition-basin becomes a hot topic in the field of petroleum geology.Based on the structure inversion,numerical simulation,and geochemical research,we show at least two intervals of fluid transfer in Puguang paleo-oil reservoir,one in the forepart of late Indo-Chinese epoch to early Yanshan epoch and the other in the metaphase of early Yanshan epoch.Oil and gas accumulation occurred at Puguang structure through Puguang-Dongyuezhai faults and dolomite beds in reef and shoal facies in Changxing Formation (P2ch) - Feixianguan Formation (T1f) in the northwest and southwest directions along three main migration pathways,to form Puguang paleo-oil reservoir.Since crude oil is pyrolysised in the early stage of middle Yanshan epoch,Puguang gas reservoir has experienced fluid adjusting process controlled by tectonic movement and geochemical reconstruction process controlled by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR).Middle Yanshan epoch is the main period during which the Puguang gas reservoir experienced the geochemical reaction of TSR.On one hand,TSR can recreate the fluid in gas reservoir,which makes the gas drying index larger and carbon isotope heavier.On the other hand,the reciprocity between fluid regarding TSR (hydrocarbon,H2S,and water) and reservoir rock induces erosion of the reservoir rocks and anhydrite alteration,which improves reservoir petrophysical properties.Superimposed by later tectonic movement,the fluid in Puguang reservoir has twice experienced adjustment,one in the late Yanshan epoch to the early Himalayan epoch and the other time in late Himalayan epoch,after which Puguang gas reservoir is finally developed.

  15. CAS Announces Its Action Plan for Revitalizing Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A conference of the CAS leading group for the revitalization of northeast China with science and technology was held on Sept. 1 and 2 in Changchun, capital of northeast China's Jilin Province. Chaired by CAS Vice President Shi Erwei, the meeting focused on the implementation of a CAS action plan for retrieving China's northeast, an old industrial base and once the industrialization locomotive of the country.

  16. Legal-Ease Beijing & Northeast China Investment Facts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Beijing and northeast China are fast becoming areas of growing interest to international investors. Here we highlight some aspects of major cities including the capital itself and other regional centers, and consider the options for setting up business in this area. While east and south China have developed primarily as export-based manufacturing centers, Beijing and northeast China represent two quite different aspects of China's macro economy. The capital is of course China's brain, with the greatest

  17. 太子河流域大型底栖动物栖境适宜性%Habitat Suitability of Macroinvertebrates in the Taizi River Basin, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文浩; 渠晓东; 张远; 孟伟

    2011-01-01

    应用加权平均法和无度量多维标定(NMS)法,检测到影响太子河流域大型底栖动物空间分布最重要的栖境因子依次为底质、流速和水深.对太子河流域大型底栖动物主要优势类群的柄境适宜度进行研究,结果表明:不同物种对生境表现出明显的趋异性,多数物种喜栖息在粗糙卵石底质的生境;大型底栖动物的流速偏好性与其摄食方式、生活型和形体结构相关,对水深的偏好性差异较小.对该流域主要优势种热水四节蜉(Baetis thermicus)的栖境适宜性研究表明,热水四节蜉偏好小卵石底质,最适流速为0.4 m/s,最适水深为0.2m.柄境适宜度指数的预测模型显示,热水四节蜉个体数在多数采样点的实测值小于预测值,表明除栖境指标外,其他的环境要素亦对该种的分布有重要影响.%We used the weight averaging(WA)and nonmetric multidimensional scaling(NMS)methods to rank the most important habitat variables(I.E.Substrate,velocity and water depth)influencing the spatial distribution of macroinvertebrates in the Taizi River basin in northeastern China.The habitat suitability results for the most abundant monoid of macroinvertebrates in the Taizi River basin showed that all of the species found in this study showed different habitat preferences.Most species preferred to live in habitats with Small cobble substrate.The velocity preference depended on their feeding methods,life types and morphological structures.The water depth preference differed little among the species.The habitat suitability results of the most abundant species,Baetis thermicus,showed that it preferred to live on Small cobble substrate with velocity of 0.4 m/s and water depth of 0.2 in.Based on the habitat suitability model,the observed numbers of individuals of B.Thermicus were lower than the predicted values.This indicated that other environmental factors besides the habitat variables measured in this study also significantly

  18. 东北地区二叠纪沉积特征及原型盆地分析%Analysis on Permian Depositional Characteristics and Proto-type Basin of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔军平; 任战利; 史政; 李金翔; 王文青

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of Permian in northeast China is large, and its sedimentary facies types includes half deep sea facies, offshore facies, shore shallow lake facies and half-lake facies. The region in northeast China is in a continental-margin and epicontinental sedimentation environment during Lower Permian to Middle Permian, and the deposition center is in the Wendouermiao-Xilamulun river area. In the Later Permian, this region was a large-scale depression basin, and all suture lines already were closed, while the earth crust was lifting and the sea water was withdrawing, thus the most areas became continental depositing, and partial areas formed residual-marine depositing. As a whole, the rule of sedimentary facies of this region presents a gradual transformation from marine facies in the Early Permian to land facies in the Late Permian. The sedimentation of this region in Late Paleozoic was controlled by the suture line of Xilamulun river, and the suture line became to be closed gradually from west to east during Permian and closed completely until the Late Permian, and the closed time is earlier in west and later in east.%东北地区二叠系分布广泛,沉积相类型主要为半深海相、滨浅海相、滨浅湖相和半深湖相等.早二叠世—中二叠世东北地区主要处于大陆边缘浅海沉积环境,面积大,沉积中心位于南部温都尔庙—西拉木伦河东西向条带区.晚二叠世东北地区为大型坳陷型盆地,东北地区各缝合线均已闭合,随着地壳抬升,海水退出,大部分地区为陆相沉积,局部有残留海相沉积,总体上具有从早二叠世到晚二叠世由海相向陆相逐渐转变的规律.西拉木伦河缝合带对晚古生代沉积起控制作用,在二叠纪整个缝合带由西向东逐渐拼合,直至晚二叠世,两板块拼合完成,闭合时间具有西早东晚的特点.

  19. Analysis on the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jinfang; Tian, Feng; Mi, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The accommodation and curtailment of renewable energy in northeast China have attracted much attention with the rapid growth of wind and solar power generation. Large amount of wind power has been curtailed or abandoned in northeast China due to several reasons, such as, the redundancy of power supplies, inadequate power demands, imperfect power structure with less flexibility and limited cross-regional transmission capacity. In this paper, we use multi-area production simulation to analyse the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China by 2020. Furthermore, we suggest the measures that could be adopted in generation, grid and load side to reduce curtailment of renewables.

  20. Assessment of Micro-Basin Tillage as a Soil and Water Conservation Practice in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yuanyuan; Ou, Yang; Yan, Baixing; Xu, Xiaohong; Rousseau, Alain N; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Micro-basin tillage is a soil and water conservation practice that requires building individual earth blocks along furrows. In this study, plot experiments were conducted to assess the efficiency of micro-basin tillage on sloping croplands between 2012 and 2013 (5°and 7°). The conceptual, optimal, block interval model was used to design micro-basins which are meant to capture the maximum amount of water per unit area. Results indicated that when compared to the up-down slope tillage, micro-basin tillage could increase soil water content and maize yield by about 45% and 17%, and reduce runoff, sediment and nutrients loads by about 63%, 96% and 86%, respectively. Meanwhile, micro-basin tillage could reduce the peak runoff rates and delay the initial runoff-yielding time. In addition, micro-basin tillage with the optimal block interval proved to be the best one among all treatments with different intervals. Compared with treatments of other block intervals, the optimal block interval treatments increased soil moisture by around 10% and reduced runoff rate by around 15%. In general, micro-basin tillage with optimal block interval represents an effective soil and water conservation practice for sloping farmland of the black soil region.

  1. Sedimentary charateristics and hydrocarbon accumulation in Northeast Sichuan basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianming LI; Xiling WU; Rufeng LI; Liangjie TANG; Lei LI

    2008-01-01

    Northeast Sichuan basin is a Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin in the northern margin of the Yangtze plate which has a complex tectonic background and hydrocarbon accumulation history.By means of the analysis method of wave processes,major cycles of sedimentary wave process in this basin have been studied.The results show that there are five-order cycles corresponding to 760,220,100,35 and 20 Ma respectively,two first-order sedimentary cycles (220 Ma) and four secondorder sedimentary cycles (100 Ma).The authors find that the second-order sedimentary cycles are well matched with reservoir formation cycles through studying the relationship between second-order sedimentary cycles and reservoir formation cycles,and divide three reservoir formation cycles in this basin.

  2. Petroleum in the Junggar basin, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner, Irfan; Kamen-Kaye, Maurice; Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    The Junggar basin occupies a large triangular area of some 130 000 km 2 in northwestern China. Situated between the Altay Shan (Altay Range) on the northeast and the Tian Shan (Tian Range) on the southwest, and between lesser ranges around the remainder of its periphery, the Junggar basin is completely intermontane. Its history as a basin began in the Permian, and continued as various uplifts and downwarps evolved. Through the Paleozoic the characteristics of the Junggar basin area were largely geosynclinal and marine. Its post-Permian development took place exclusively in continental regimes. Inhabitants of the Junggar basin have known and utilized its numerous oil and asphalt seeps and its spectacular spreads of asphalt for more than 2000 years, especially in the Karamay-Urho thrust belt near the northwestern rim. The first discovery of oil in the modern sense came at Dushanzi, one of the steeply folded anticlines of theÜrümqi foredeep near the southern rim. The first shallow oil in the Karamay-Urho thrust belt came in 1937, followed by commercial production in the Karamay field in 1955. Output continued to be modest until wells were drilled through local thrusts and reverse faults in the early 1980s. By 1985, cumulative production of the Karamay group of fields had reached 42,000,000 t (metric tonnes) (306,000,000 bbl), with a calculated minimum ultimate recovery of 280,000,000 t (2 billion bbl). Principal production comes from Permian and Triassic strata in continental facies. Apart from marine Mid and Upper Carboniferous strata, source rocks occur mainly in fine-grained lacustrine detrital beds of the Permian, the Triassic, the Jurassic and the Tertiary. Several uplifts and downwarps elsewhere in the Junggar basin remain to be drilled comprehensively. Results from such drilling may enhance the very important position that the Junggar already has attained in the hierarchy of China's onshore basins.

  3. Legal-Ease Beijing & Northeast China Investment Facts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Beijing and northeast China are fast becoming areas of growing interest to international investors. Here we highlight some aspects of cities in northeast China and consider the options for setting up business in the capital. Beijing investment zones identified China’s development zones generally offer foreign investors better infrastructure, lower tax and other incentives, and much higher levels of service support than elsewhere in the country. The table here lists the main investment zones in Beijing itself.

  4. The Human Threat to River Ecosystems at the Watershed Scale: An Ecological Security Assessment of the Songhua River Basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human disturbances impact river basins by reducing the quality of, and services provided by, aquatic ecosystems. Conducting quantitative assessments of ecological security at the watershed scale is important for enhancing the water quality of river basins and promoting environmental management. In this study, China’s Songhua River Basin was divided into 204 assessment units by combining watershed and administrative boundaries. Ten human threat factors were identified based on their significant influence on the river ecosystem. A modified ecological threat index was used to synthetically evaluate the ecological security, where frequency was weighted by flow length from the grids to the main rivers, while severity was weighted by the potential hazard of the factors on variables of river ecosystem integrity. The results showed that individual factors related to urbanization, agricultural development and facility construction presented different spatial distribution characteristics. At the center of the plain area, the provincial capital cities posed the highest level of threat, as did the municipal districts of prefecture-level cities. The spatial relationships between hot spot locations of the ecological threat index and water quality, as well as the distribution areas of critically endangered species, were analyzed. The sensitivity analysis illustrated that alteration of agricultural development largely changed the ecological security level of the basin. By offering a reference for assessing ecological security, this study can enhance water environmental planning and management.

  5. Slab stagnation and detachment under northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Satoru

    2016-03-01

    Results of tomography models around the Japanese Islands show the existence of a gap between the horizontally lying (stagnant) slab extending under northeastern China and the fast seismic velocity anomaly in the lower mantle. A simple conversion from the fast velocity anomaly to the low-temperature anomaly shows a similar feature. This feature appears to be inconsistent with the results of numerical simulations on the interaction between the slab and phase transitions with temperature-dependent viscosity. Such numerical models predict a continuous slab throughout the mantle. I extend previous analyses of the tomography model and model calculations to infer the origins of the gap beneath northeastern China. Results of numerical simulations that take the geologic history of the subduction zone into account suggest two possible origins for the gap: (1) the opening of the Japan Sea led to a breaking off of the otherwise continuous subducting slab, or (2) the western edge of the stagnant slab is the previous subducted ridge, which was the plate boundary between the extinct Izanagi and the Pacific plates. Origin (2) suggesting the present horizontally lying slab has accumulated since the ridge subduction, is preferable for explaining the present length of the horizontally lying slab in the upper mantle. Numerical models of origin (1) predict a stagnant slab in the upper mantle that is too short, and a narrow or non-existent gap. Preferred models require rather stronger flow resistance of the 660-km phase change than expected from current estimates of the phase transition property. Future detailed estimates of the amount of the subducted Izanagi plate and the present stagnant slab would be useful to constrain models. A systematic along-arc variation of the slab morphology from the northeast Japan to Kurile arcs is also recognized, and its understanding may constrain the 3D mantle flow there.

  6. Simulation of three-dimensional tectonic stress fields and quantitative prediction of tectonic fracture within the Damintun Depression, Liaohe Basin, northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Yao, Leihua; Ren, Desheng

    2016-05-01

    Tectonic fractures are important factors that influence oil and natural gas migration and accumulation within "buried hill" reservoirs. To obtain a quantitative forecast of the development and distribution of reservoir fractures in the Damintun Depression, we analyzed the characteristics of regional structural evolution and paleotectonic stress field setting. A reasonable geological model of the research area was built based on an interpretation of the geological structure, a test for rock mechanics, and experiment on acoustic emission. Thereafter, a three-dimensional paleotectonic stress field during the Yanshan movement was simulated by the finite element method. Rock failure criterion and comprehensive evaluation coefficient of fractures were used to determine the quantitative development of fractures and predict zones that are prone to fracture development. Under an intense Yanshan movement, high stress strength is distributed in the south and northeast parts of the study area, where stress is extremely high. The fracture development zones are mainly controlled by the tectonic stress field and typically located in the same areas as those of high maximum principal and shear stresses. The predicted areas with developed fractures are consistent with the wells with high fracture linear density and in locations with high-producing oil and gas wells.

  7. A field-based method to derive macroinvertebrate benchmark for specific conductivity adapted for small data sets and demonstrated in the Hun-Tai River Basin, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Jia, Xiaobo; Xia, Rui; Lin, Jianing; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Ionic mixtures, measured as specific conductivity, have been increasingly concerned because of their toxicities to aquatic organisms. However, identifying protective values of specific conductivity for aquatic organisms is challenging given that laboratory test systems cannot examine more salt-intolerant species nor effects occurring in streams. Large data sets used for deriving field-based benchmarks are rarely available. In this study, a field-based method for small data sets was used to derive specific conductivity benchmark, which is expected to prevent the extirpation of 95% of local taxa from circum-neutral to alkaline waters dominated by a mixture of SO4(2-) and HCO3(-) anions and other dissolved ions. To compensate for the smaller sample size, species level analyses were combined with genus level analyses. The benchmark is based on extirpation concentration (XC95) values of specific conductivity for 60 macroinvertebrate genera estimated from 296 sampling sites in the Hun-Tai River Basin. We derived the specific conductivity benchmark by using a 2-point interpolation method, which yielded the benchmark of 249 μS/cm. Our study tailored the method that was developed by USEPA to derive aquatic life benchmark for specific conductivity for basin scale application, and may provide useful information for water pollution control and management.

  8. LAND RECLAMATION PROCESS IN NORTHEAST CHINA SINCE 1900

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bai; CUI Hai-shan; YU Lei; HE Yan-fen

    2003-01-01

    Northeast China is an important agricultural region in China. The Northeast Plain is the largest plain inthe country and one of the three famous black soil zones in the world. Despite of fertility of the soil, however, large-scaleagricultural development mainly took place since 1900. The land exploitation and utilization has been fast and intensivein this region since then and change in the land-cover process has been remarkable. Both national and international re-searchers on land use and land cover are paying more attention to these processes in this region and their implication forlocal ecological environment. This article discusses the land reclamation processes and their main driving forces in North-east China since 1900. According to the research, the 20th century was the most important period for land reclamationin Northeast China. In these years the rate, intensity and quantity of land reclamation have been staggering, and morethan 100 000km2 of land was converted into farmland. This magnitude of land reclamation inland is unique in the world.Research on the land reclamation of Northeast China can provide some data on the effect of human activity on environ-ment. As in many other places in the world, the primary driving force of reclamation in Northeast China was the increas-ing pressure of population. In the 20th century the population increased from 10 × 106 to 110 × 106 in Northeast Chinaand from 400 × 106 to 1.3 × 109 in China. Population pressure is thus the most important driving force for land reclama-tion.

  9. Rejuvenation and Modernization of the Northeast China Traditional Industrial Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QunhuiHuang

    2004-01-01

    The rejuvenation and modernization of the Northeast China traditional industrial base raises a major strategic issue concerning whether China can comprehensively and rapidly push forward its industrialization and modernization drive. This article analyses the gap in the levels of industrial modernization between Northeast China and other regions, from the perspectives of industrial labor productivity, industrial equipment, industrial structure,capacity of industrial technical innovation and industrial sustainable development. The article also takes the slow progress in marketization as the root cause of the gap and puts forward some suggestions and countermeasures for promoting market-orientated reform and accelerating the industrial modernization process in this region.

  10. The interaction between surface water and groundwater and its effect on water quality in the Second Songhua River basin, northeast China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bing Zhang; Xianfang Song; Yinghua Zhang; Ying Ma; Changyuan Tang; Lihu Yang; Zhong-Liang Wang

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between surface water and groundwater not only influences the water quantity, but also affects the water quality. The stable isotopes ($\\delta$D, $\\delta^{18}$O) and hydrochemical compositions in water samples were analysed in the Second Songhua River basin. The deep groundwater is mainly recharged from shallow groundwater in the middle and upper reaches. The shallow groundwater is discharged to rivers in the downstream. The runoff from upper reaches mainly contributed the river flow in the downstream. The CCME WQI indicated that the quality of surface water and groundwater was ‘Fair’. The mixing process between surface water and groundwater was simulated by the PHREEQC code with the results from the stable isotopes. The interaction between surface water and groundwater influences the composition of ions in the mixing water, and further affects the water quality with other factors.

  11. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X; Yang, Fang; Bots, Michiel L.; Guo, Wei Ying; Zhao, Bing; Hoes, Arno W.; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of metabolic abnormalities and has been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China. Methods: Totally

  12. Origin of intraplate volcanism in northeast China from Love wave constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuanyuan V.; Gao, Yuan; Li, Aibing; Li, Lun; Shi, Yutao; Zhang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    The tectonic source for widespread volcanism in northeast China has not been completely understood. We develop a 3-D SH velocity model in NE China that provides new constraints to the origin of the volcanism. The 3-D model is constructed from fundamental mode Love waves at the periods of 20-125 s recorded at 269 broadband seismic stations. The Changbai Mountain is characterized by a significant low velocity in the lower crust and uppermost mantle, which probably results from mantle upwelling due to the subduction of the Pacific plate. A fast and thin mantle lid of 75 km is present beneath the Songliao Basin, indicating lithosphere extension from back-arc rifting. The slow velocity in the middle and fast velocities in the south and north at 75-115 km depths in the Songliao Basin suggest complex mantle flow with upwelling and downwelling. Unlike the other volcanic fields (Changbaishan volcano, Jingpohu volcano, and Abaga volcano), the Halaha volcano has high velocity in the lower crust and upper mantle, implying a limited melt supply from mantle source recently. The subduction-induced upwelling leads to complicated small-scale mantle convection, which is responsible for the intraplate magmatism in northeast China.

  13. Permian stratigraphy and correlation of Northeast China: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, S.-Z.; Zhang, H.; Shang, Q. H.; Li, W.-Z.

    2006-03-01

    Palaeontological, lithostratigraphical data from the Permian strata and correlation of the Permian successions for different tectonic units in Northeast China are reviewed and summarized in this paper. Permian strata in Northeast China are dominated by brachiopods, fusulinoideans and land plants, with limited ammonoids, conodonts and bivalves. The Cisuralian (Early Permian) in the northern margin of the North China Block and in the Manchuride Belt is composed mostly of marine massive limestone with the characteristic Pseudoschwagerina Zone in the Asselian and Sakmarian and the Misellina claudiae Zone in the Kungurian. The Cisuralian in the Xing'an Block and the northeastern part of Inner Mongolia is dominated by huge terrestrial deposits with fossil plants. The Guadalupian (Middle Permian) in the Manchuride, Altaid and Yanbian Belts are characterized by bi-temperate Roadian or early Wordian Monodiexodina fauna and the late Wordian-Capitanian Codonofusiella- Schwagerina or Neoschwagerina- Yabeina faunas, the mixed brachiopod faunas between the Boreal/antitropical and the Palaeoequatorial Cathaysian forms, the Roadian or early Wordian solitary coral faunas, and the late Wordian-Capitanian compound Waagenophyllum- Wentzelella fauna. The Nadanhada Terrane contains some exotic limestone blocks with a typical Cathaysian Neoschwagerina- Yabeina fauna in a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous mélange, which is related to Mesozoic subduction in the western Circum-Pacific region. The Lopingian (Late Permian) in Northeast China is mostly characterized by terrestrial molasse deposits with a mixed flora between the Boreal Angaran and the palaeoequatorial Cathaysian Provinces, indicating the final closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean.

  14. Mesozoic basins and associated palaeogeographic evolution in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qing Liu; Hong-Wei Kuang; Nan Peng; Huan Xu; Peng Zhang; Neng-Sheng Wang; Wei An

    2015-01-01

    complicated thrust and fold, the previous uniifed Ordos-North China Basin was separated by the northeast-oriented Great Xing’an Range and Taihang Mountain uplifted linearment. The differential evolution of basins and sedimentary palaeoge-ography between eastern and western North China was initiated, and was interpreted to result in the closure of Okhotsk Ocean and the subduction of Palaeo-Paciifc Plate (late stage 2). During the Late Jurassic (the early phase of stage 3), a variety of faulted basins occurred in the Yanshan and Yinshan areas in the northeastern North China. In Yanshan area, basins were iflled with thickened intermediate volcanic rocks and purple-red coarse-grained clastic rocks. In contrast, only thick layered sedimentary rocks with rare volcanic rocks developed in the Yinshan faulted basins, the Ordos Basin and basins in sourthern North China. XMOB was the main provenance of the Early Mesozoic basins in the North China, while the Ordos Basin and the Hefei Basin were partly supplied by the northern Qinling Orogenic Belt. During the Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous (the late phase of stage 3), the north-ern and northeastern North China experienced extensional movement after the subduction of the Palaeo-Paciifc Plate, the closure of the Mongolia-Okhotsk Ocean and the subsequent Yanshanian orogeny. At the same time, a NE-oriented, giant rift basin system (NE Asia Rift) extended from the Yanshan to the western Great Xing’an Range, where rift basins were iflled with the regional, NE-oriented, thick coarse-grained clastic rocks and a belt of volcanic rocks. In the meantime, the eastern and northeastern China and most areas of NCC were presented as highland terrains. During the middle-late Early Cretaceous (stage 4), rift basins developed and accumulated alluvial sediments and interbedded alkaline volcanic rocks in the western and northern North China, including Yingen, Ejinaqi and Erlian regions. Basins were formed on both sides of the Tan-Lu Fault Zone

  15. CENOZOIC VOLCANISM AND GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xi-kui

    2001-01-01

    Ke-qin, 1997. Paleoclimatic and environmental change since 2000a B. P. recorded in ice Core[J]. The Front of Ceo-science, 4(1): 95-100.(in Chiniese)[13]ZHANG Zhen-ke, WU Rui-jin, WANG Su-min, 1998. Paleoenvironmeal evolution during historic time reflected by frequency susceptibility of the lacustrine sediment in Daihai[J]. Geography Reaserch. 17(3) :297-300. (in Chinese)[14]ZHANG Pi-yuan, 1996. Climatic Changes During Historic Time in China[J]. Jinan: Shandong Science and Technology Press, 434-435. (in Chinese)[15]ZHANG Pi-yuan, GE Quan-sheng, 1997. The stage and abrupt ness of climatic evolution[J]. The Front of Geo-science, 4(1):122-126. (in Chinese)[16]ZHONG Wei, XIONG Hei-gang, Tashplati etal., 1998a. The preliminary study on the Spore-pollen combination of the Tagele section in Cele oasis[J]. Arid Zone Research, 15 (3):14-17. (in Chinese)[17]ZHONG Wei, XIONG Hei-gang, 1998b. Preliminary study on paleoclimatic evolution since about 12ka B.P. in Bosten Lake, southern Xinjiang, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Enviorment, 12(3) :28-35. (in Chinese)[18]ZHU Ke-zhen. 1973, Preliminary study of climatic changes since about 5000 years in China[J]. Science in China, (2):291-296. (in Chinese)[19]CHEN Mo-xiang, WANG Ji-yang, DENG Xiao, 1994. Geothermal Resources in China[M] . Beijing: Science Press, 139 -159. (in Chinese)[20]CHEN Wen-ji, LI Da-ming, LI Qi et al. , 1992. Chronology and geochemistry of basalts in Lower Liaohe Basin[A] . In: LIU Ruo-xin. Chronology and Geochemistry of Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks in China [C] . Beijing: Seismological Press, 44-80. (in Chinese)[21]E Mo-lan, ZHAO Da-sheng, 1987. Cenozoic Basalts and Deep Source Rock Inclusions[M] . Beijing: Science Press, 86-132. (in Chinese)[22]LIU Jia-qi, 1987. Research on chronology of Cenozoic volcanic rocks in Northeast China[J]. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 3(4):21-31. (in Chinese)[23]MACHIDA H, ARAI F, 1983. Extensive ash falls in and around the Sea of Japan

  16. The Strategic Situation in Northeast Asia and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Shulong

    2012-01-01

    Northeast Asia is one of the fastest growing regions in the world as regards economic development, and is a major hub parallel with North America and Western Europe. Its position and role in world politics, economy and strategy are on the rise. However, there are still long-term issues left over from the Cold War, as well as new problems in strategic structure and strategic relations brought about by the rise of China. These problems, both long-term and short-term, require China to adopt a longterm strategic perspective.

  17. Crustal radial anisotropy in Northeast China and its implications for the regional tectonic extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Yang, Yingjie; Chen, Y. John

    2016-10-01

    We obtain high-resolution Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocity maps from ambient noise tomography using data recorded by NECESSArray in Northeast China. The resulting radial anisotropic model from the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves reveals strong relationship between the crustal radial anisotropy and tectonic provinces, that is, strong positive anisotropy (Vsh > Vsv) beneath the Songliao Basin and weak radial anisotropy beneath the Xinmeng Belt and Changbaishan Region. The Songliao Basin experienced widespread crustal extension during the late Mesozoic. We interpret the lower crustal anisotropy beneath the Songliao Basin as a result of ductile deformation during the rifting stage, which may lead to the alignment of anisotropic minerals and the observed strong radial anisotropy at present. In the northern Songliao Basin, where thick syn-rift and post-rift sediments (≥4 km) are believed to be present, we observe a broader lateral distribution of anisotropy with stronger amplitude compared with the southern basin. We suggest that the broader distribution of crustal radial anisotropy in the northern basin could be the consequence of outward lower crustal flow driven by the sedimentary loading during the post-rift stage, which is also proposed by previous numerical modeling.

  18. Permafrost and infrastructure in the Usa Basin (Northeast European Russia) : Possible impacts of global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazhitova, G.; Karstkarel, N.; Oberman, N.; Romanovsky, V.; Kuhry, P.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between permafrost conditions and the distribution of infrastructure in the Usa Basin, Northeast European Russia, is analyzed. About 75% of the Basin is underlain by permafrost terrain with various degrees of continuity (isolated patches to continuous permafrost). The region has a h

  19. Basin Management under the Global Climate Change (Take North-East Asia Heilongjiang -Amur Basin and Taihu Basin For Example)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Zhou, Z.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of global climate change on environment and society causes increasingly concern in different countries around the world. The main climate characteristic values, such as precipitation and temperature, have been changed, which leads to the variation of water resources, especially in large basins. Heilongjiang-Amur Basin and Taihu Basin are two large and important basins in China with large area and population. As global climate change and human activities have siganificant impacts on hydrology and water resources in two basins, the analysis of climate change are of great value. In this study, in Heilongjiang-Amur Basin, precipitation and temperature are investigated and their variation are predicted. And in Taihu Basin, precipitation including plum rain and typhoon, are studied and the variation trend of precipitation is predicted. Hence, the impacts of global climate change are assessed. From the result, it shows that the average temperature will continue to increase, and the precipitation will reduce first and then turn to increase in these two basins. It demonstrates that the water resources have been affected a lot by climate change as well as human activities. And these conclusions are provided as reference for policy makers and basin authorities in water resources management and natural hazards mitigation. Meanwhile, according to basins' particualr characters, the suggestions to future water resources management in two basins are given, and more scientific, comprehensive and sustained managements are required. Especially, in Heilongjiang-Amur River, which is a boundary river between China and Russia, it is very essential to enhance the cooperation between two countries.

  20. Estimating Soil Erosion in Northeast China Using 137Cs and 210Pbex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-Hong; YAN Bai-Xing; ZHU Hui

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of soil erosion in agricultural fields is valuable to develop conservation practices for reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution.Soil erosion rates were quantified using the fallout radionuclide tracer technique in Mojiagou Basin located on the outskirts of Changchun in Northeast China.The calculated soil erosion rates in the study area were 1.99 and 1.85 mm year-1 using 137Cs and excess 210Pb (210Pbex) measurements,respectively.Both fallout radionuclides showed a similar tendency at downslope sites.All measured sites have experienced net erosion during the past 50 to 100 years.137Cs and 210Pbex measurements were useful to quantify soil erosion rates on field and small basin scales.At this rate of erosion,the current fertile topsoil layer would be entirely removed within 70 years.

  1. Regional Evolution Features and Coordinated Development Strategies for Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Lin; XU Xiaopo; CHEN Mingxiu

    2006-01-01

    Northeast China, as the most important production base of agriculture, forestry, and livestock-breeding as well as the old industrial base in the whole country, has been playing a key role in the construction and development of China's economy. However, after the policy of reform and open-up was taken in China, the economic development speed and efficiency of this area have turned to be evidently lower than those of coastal area and the national average level as paper firstly reviews the spatial and temporal features of the regional evolution of this area so as to unveil the profound ploration into the status quo of this region and its forming causes by analyzing its economy gross, industrial structure,product structure, regional eco-categories, etc. At the end of the paper, the authors put forward the basic coordinated development strategies for Northeast China, namely we can revitalize this area by means of adjustment of economic structure, regional coordination, planning urban and rural areas as a whole, institutional innovation, etc.

  2. The lithosphere structure of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xingzhou; YANG Baojun; WU Fuyuan; LIU Guoxing

    2007-01-01

    The lithosphere of northeastern China is composed of the Erguna, Xingan, Songnen, Jiamusi blocks and Mesozoic Wandashan accretionary complex from west to east. Nd isotope model ages indicate that the Xingan and Songnen blocks have the same Nd model ages ranging from 500 to 1 000 Ma. These are obviously younger than those of the Jiamusi block (1 500-2 000 Ma) and the Erguna block (1 500-1 700 Ma), reflecting the different evolutions of indi- vidual blocks in the early times. Geochemical tracing analysis shows that the Nd model ages of Paleozoic supercrustal rocks in the four blocks are dominantly Mesoproterozoic, while those of Mesozoic granites are mainly Neoproterozoic. It is shown that the crust ages of the region are characterized by being younger in the lower part and older in the upper part. The Os isotope analysis also indicates that the lithosphere mantle of the region is characteristic of a younger age. The P-wave velocities of the region show more complicated struc- tures in lithosphere and asthenosphere. First of all, notably different from traditional concept of the seismic lithosphere, the low velocity zone of the lithosphere beneath the region has no persistent and continuous top interface which is highly varied in depth and intersected with the high velocity layers, forming sharp velocity discontinuities beneath major tectonic belts, even up to the Moho beneath some tectonic units. But the bottom interface of the low velocity zone is relatively per- sistent, occurring at a depth of 230-240 km. Another feature is that the lithosphere is characterized by an "overpass type" velocity structure vertically, in which the contoured velocity is distributed in the NE trending within the crust, in a nearly NS trending in the lithosphere mantle from a depth of 45 to 90 km, in a nearly EW trending in the upper part of the asthe- nosphere from 90 to 170 km and in a ring-like distribution with a diameter of about 300 km in the lower part of the asthenosphere from

  3. Impacts of Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Ying; ZHAO Chun-Yu; JIA Qing-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies and research on climate change impacts on the forest ecosystems in Northeast China. The results show that in the context of global and regional warming, the growing season of coniferous forests has been increasing at an average rate of 3.9 d per decade. Regional warming favors the growth of temperate broad-leaved forests and has a detrimental effect on the growth of boreal coniferous forests. Over the past hundred years, the forest edge of the cool temperate zone in the southern Daxing’anling region has retreated 140 km northward. From 1896 to 1986, the northern boundary of broad-leaved forests in Heilongjiang province has extended northwestward about 290 km. Future climatic changes (until 2060) may lead to the northern deciduous needle forests moving out of China’s territory altogether. The occurrence cycles of pests and diseases have shortened; their distribution ranges have expanded. The life cycle of tent caterpillars (Malacosoma neustria testacea Motschulsky) has shortened from 14-15 years in the past to 8-10 years now. The pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu), which has spread within western Liaoning province and the nearby areas, can now be found in the north and west. Lightning fires in the Daxing’anling region have significantly increased since 1987, and August has become the month when lightning fires occur most frequently. Overall, the net primary productivity (NPP) of forest in Northeast China has increased. The NPP in 1981 was around 0.27 Pg C, and increased to approximately 0.40 Pg C in 2002. With the current climate, the broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystem acts as a carbon sink, with a carbon sink capacity of 2.7 Mg C hm-2. Although the carbon sink capacity of the forest ecosystems in Northeast China has been weakened since 2003, the total carbon absorption will still increase. The forest ecosystems in Northeast China are likely to remain a significant carbon sink, and will play a

  4. Spatial distribution analysis on climatic variables in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Information ecology is a new research area of modern ecology.Here describes spatial distribution analysis methods of four sorts of climatic variables, i.e. temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and sunshine fraction on Northeast China. First,Digital terrain models was built with large-scale maps and vector data. Then trend surface analysis and interpolation method were used to analyze the spatial distribution of these four kinds of climatic variables at three temporal scale: (1) monthly data; (2)mean monthly data of thirty years, and (3) mean annual data of thirty years. Ecological information system were used for graphics analysis on the spatial distribution of these climate variables.

  5. Legal-Ease BEIJING & NORTHEAST CHINA INVESTMENT FACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Beijing and northeast China are fast becoming an area of growing interest to international investors. Here we highlight some aspects of the major cities and consider options for setting up business in this area. Changchun China’s car city Changchun means cars. The city’s most famous enterprise, First Automobile Works (FAW), created China’s very first road vehicle, the "Jiefang" truck, back in 1956. FAW now covers an enormous area stretching for several kilometers in the Changchun Auto Economic Trade Development

  6. Climate change in Northeast China between 1849 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Huiqing; Fan, Weihong; Xu, Jiawei; Wu, Zhengfang; Dong, Weihua

    2016-11-01

    At the treeline, tree growth rate is known to be very sensitive to climate change. Width of tree rings is often used to estimate climatic conditions when direct measures of temperature and precipitation at the site are unavailable. In this study, tree ring data and available site-specific climatic data were analysed and correlated to reconstruct historical temperature changes from 1849 to 2008 at the Changbai Mountain treeline. One hundred and seventy-five Betula ermanii trees were selected from seven plots at the upper treeline area on the north-facing slopes of the Changbai Mountains. Two hundred and ninety-one tree ring cores were extracted from these trees to develop the B. ermanii chronology. The tree ring width index was found to be significantly related ( R 2 = 0.43, p < 0.01) to the mean annual temperature at the Tianchi weather station nearby during the period of 1953-2008. A transfer function was developed from the relationship to reconstruct the mean annual temperature from 1849 to 1952, for which a climatic record at Tianchi were unavailable. The results suggest a wavelike temperature increase with alternations between rapid warming and gentle cooling periods at the Changbai Mountains treeline for the 160 years. In Northeast China, the temperature has increased 0.07 °C per decade with significant fluctuation ( p < 0.05, SD = 0.64) according to the extrapolated data. The extrapolation is based on the relationship between the Tianchi station and the other 164 weather stations throughout the Northeast. Temperature increase would significantly affect the sustainability of the alpine ecosystems in the Changbai Mountains as well as the agro-ecosystem management of the Northeast China Plain, a designated farmland area for crop production by the Chinese government.

  7. Emergy Evaluation of Different Straw Reuse Technologies in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxian Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Open burning of straw in China has degraded agricultural environments and has become a contributor to air pollution. Development of efficient straw-reuse technologies not only can yield economic benefits but also can protect the environment and can provide greater benefit to society. Thus, the overall benefits of straw-reuse technologies must be considered when making regional development planning and enterprise technology decisions. In addition, agricultural areas in China cross several climatic zones and have different weather characteristics and cultural conditions. In the present study, we assessed five types of straw-reuse technologies (straw-biogas production, -briquetting, -based power generation, -gasification, and -bioethanol production, using emergy analysis, in northeast China. Within each type, five individual cases were investigated, and the highest-performing cases were used for comparison across technologies. Emergy indices for comprehensive benefits for each category, namely, EYR, ELR, and ESI were calculated. Calculated indices suggest that straw-briquetting and -biogas production are the most beneficial technologies in terms of economy, environmental impact, and sustainability compared to straw-based power generation, -gasification, and -bioethanol production technologies. These two technologies can thus be considered the most suitable for straw reuse in China.

  8. Eupenicillium saturniforme, a new species discovered from Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Zhuang, Wen-Ying

    2009-06-01

    A new Eupenicillium species, E. saturniforme was isolated from soil in Jilin Province, northeast China. Morphologically, it resembled E. shearii and E. tropicum, but is distinguished from them by slowly maturing cleistothecia, lenticular ascospores with nearly smooth-walled convex surfaces, strictly velutinous colony texture with abundant conidiogenesis, robust biverticillate penicilli, apically vesiculate metulae and rough-walled stipes and conidia. The partial beta-tubulin gene sequence of the new species (EU644080) showed relationship with Penicillium glabrum in the BLAST search in GenBank. Further analyses of partial calmodulin and ribosomal DNA internally transcribed spacer 1-5.8S-internally transcribed spacer 2 (rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) sequence data confirmed that E. saturniforme fell in the clade with P. glabrum, P. lividum, P. purpurascens, P. spinulosum and P. thomii of Subgenus Aspergilloides. However, E. saturniforme is a distinctive species lacking close relatives among described species of penicillia.

  9. Landscape Structure Changes in Liangshui Nature Reserve, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Jianzhi; Gao Jiarong; Wang Fengyou

    2003-01-01

    This paper systematically studied the landscape dynamic changes in Liangshui Natural Reserve (LNR) in Heilongiang Province, northeast China during three periods (1950s, 1970s and 1990s), by applying landscape space modelMarkov model. The results indicated that the landscape structure in LNR changed and the types of landscape patches increased. The phenomena of increasing and reducing of landscape types happened at the same time and the matrix- natural Pinus koraiensis decreased year by year. The law of transformation of landscape types matches well with the results concluded from statistical data,survey data, and the developing process inherent succession of the forest. By analyzing landscape dynamic changes, some scientific management measures were put forward in this paper.

  10. Arctic dipole anomaly and summer rainfall in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU BingYi; ZHANG RenHe; D'Arrigo ROSANNE

    2008-01-01

    A dipole structure anomaly in summer Arctic atmospheric variability is identified in this study, which is characterized by the second mode of empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of summer monthly mean sea level pressure (SLP) north of 70°N, accounting for 12.94% of the variance. The dipole anom-aly shows a quasi-barotropic structure with opposite anomalous centers over the Canadian Arctic and the Beaufort Sea and between the Kara Sea and the Laptev Sea. The dipole anomaly reflects alternating variations in location of the polar vortex between the western and eastern Arctic regions. The positive phase of the dipole anomaly corresponds to the center of the polar vortex over the western Arctic, leading to an increase in summer mean rainfall in Northeast China. The dipole anomaly has a pre-dominant 6-year periodicity, and shows interdecadal variations in recent decades.

  11. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Among Employees in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Fang Yang; Michiel L Bots; Wei-Ying Guo; Bing Zhao; Arno W Hoes; Ilonca Vaartjes

    2015-01-01

    Background:The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of metabolic abnormalities and has been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China.Methods:Totally,33,149 employees who received health screening in the International Health Promotion Center in the First Hospital of Jilin University were enrolled.Height,weight,waist circumference,blood pressure,fasting plasma glucose,triglyceride,high-density lipoprotein,and low-density lipoprotein were recorded.Three definitions for the metabolic syndrome were applied,revised National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ (NCEP ATP Ⅲ) criteria,the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria,and the Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) criteria.Results:Overall,the age-standardized prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 22.9%,20.6%,and 15.3% based on dcfinitions of revised NCEP ATP Ⅲ criteria,the IDF criteria,and the CDS criteria,respectively.Men had higher age-standardized prevalence than women in all three definitions (P < 0.05).The prevalence was 27.1%,24.5%,and 20.4% for men;17.1%,15.4%,and 8.3% for women,respectively.The most common metabolic component with the metabolic syndrome was overweight (54.7% of men had an elevated body mass index,and 35.9% of women had central obesity).Conclusions:A large proportion of employees among Northeast China have the metabolic syndrome.These findings place emphasis on the need to develop aggressive lifestyle modification for patients with the metabolic syndrome and population level strategies for the prevention,detection,and treatment of cardiovascular risk.

  12. Risk Analysis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-fang Jia; Meng Su; Miao He; Zhi-hua Yin; Wei Wu; Xue-lian Li; Peng Guan; Bao-sen Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Objective: It is known that chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a main risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To assess the effect of HBV infection and its interaction with other factors on the risk for HCC, a hospital-based case-control study was carried out in Northeast China. Methods: A total of 384 cases with hepatocellular carcinoma and 432 controls without evidence of liver diseases were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected to detect the serum markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and questionnaires about lifestyle and family tumor history were performed in all subjects. Results: The total infection rate of HBV in hepatocellular carcinoma cases was 70.8% and 10.0% in non-liver disease controls. There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.0001) between cases and controls (OR= 22.0; 95%CI:15.0-32.3). Interaction analysis indicated that in HBV chronic carriers with HCV infection or alcohol consumption or family HCC history, the risk for HCC increased (OR=41.1, 95%CI: 20.2-83.9, OR=125.0, 95%CI: 66.5-235.2; OR=56.9, 95%CI: 27.2-119.3 respectively). In addition, hepatitis B history, HCV infection, hepatic cirrhosis and family history of HCC were also potential HCC independent risk factors. Conclusion: We confirmed that HBV is a chief risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma and accounts for 67.7% of all hepatocellular carcinoma in Northeast China. HCV infection, alcohol intake and family history could enhance the risk for HCC in chronic HBV carriers.

  13. Survival trends in gastric cancer patients of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaoZhang; Ling—LingSun; Yan—LiMeng; Guang-YuSong; ]ing-.1ingHu; PingLu; BinJl

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To describe survival trends in patients in Northeast China diagnosed as gastric cancer. METHODS: A review of all inpatient and outpatient records of gastric cancer patients was conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University. All the gastric cancer patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria from January 1, 1980 through December 31, 2003 were included in the study. The main outcomes were based on median survival and 3-year and 5-year survival rates, by decade of diagnosis. RESULTS: From 1980 through 2003, the median survival for patients with gastric cancer (n = 1604) increased from 33 mo to 49 mo. The decade of diagnosis was not significantly associated with patient survival for gastric cancer (P = 0.084 for overall survival, and P = 0.150 for 5-year survival); however, the survival rate of the 2000s was remarkably higher than that of the 1980s (P = 0.019 for overall survival, and P = 0.027 for 5-year survival).CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference of survival among each period; however, the survival rate of the 2000s was remarkably higher than that of the 1980s.

  14. Primary productivity and its variability in the equatorial South China Sea during the northeast monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Ooi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Near coastal areas of the equatorial South China Sea (SCS are one of the world's regions with highest primary productivity (phytoplankton growth. Concentrations of phytoplankton in the SCS depend significantly on atmospheric forcings and the oceanic state, in particular during the northeast (winter monsoon season from November to March. Aided by new ocean-observing satellite data, we present a climatological overview of recent surface atmospheric and oceanic features in the equatorial SCS during the northeast monsoon to identify the dominant air-sea processes influencing and modulating the primary productivity of the region. Measured chlorophyll a concentrations are used as a proxy for phytoplankton amounts and the spatial and temporal variations are characterized according to meteorological conditions. Converging northeasterly surface winds support high chlorophyll a concentrations along East Malaysia's coastline in conjunction with a continual nutrient supply from the bottom of the continental shelf by vertical mixing. The mixing can be enhanced due to increased turbulence by wind-generated high waves when they approach shallow water from the deep basin during strong cold surges and monsoon disturbances. Intraseasonal variability during the winter monsoon is characterized by a coastal increase of chlorophyll a starting in November and peaking in January. A general decrease is observed in March. Interannual variability of chlorophyll a concentrations is influenced by ENSO (due to the known modulation of cold surge occurrences, with decreases during El Niño and increases during La Niña in early winter along the shore of East Malaysia. As an example, we discuss an enhanced phytoplankton growth event that occurred due to a typical cold surge-induced Borneo vortex event in January 2010.

  15. Metastable olivine wedge beneath northeast China and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, G.; Zhao, D.; Zhang, G.

    2013-12-01

    When the Pacific slab subducted into the mantle transition zone, there might exist a metastable olivine wedge (MOW) inside the slab due to the phase transition. Lots of researchers have adopted such various methods to detect the characteristics of this MOW as the forward modeling of travel times, shear wave amplitude patterns, teleseismic P wave coda, receiver function imaging, thermodynamic simulation and so on. Almost all results could be more or less affected by the source, the receiver and/or the velocity model passed through by the seismic rays. In this study, we have used 21 deep earthquakes, greater than 400 km and locating beneath northeast China, to study the velocity within the MOW. For more precisions, we have done further modifications in two ways based on our previous studies. (1) Double-difference location method is used to relocate all events with an error of 1-2 km with the data recorded by stations both at northeast China and at Japan. All relocated events locate in a zone about 30 km away from the upper boundary of Pacific slab. (2) Double residual travel times, generated by an event-pair at a common station at only Japan, are used to constrain the velocity anomaly rather than the residuals themselves. As a result, we have found that an ultra-lower velocity zone (ULVZ), averagely -7% relative to the iasp91 model, exists within the subducted Pacific slab around the deep earthquakes, which might be represented as the metastable olivine wedge. Because of the lower-velocity corresponding to the lower-density, the MOW would provide upward buoyancy forces which might prevent the slab from free subduction into the mantle transition zone. This feed-back mechanism of MOW to the slab is called ';parachute-effect', which is characterized by other researchers. In addition, the existence of the ULVZ or the MOW in the slab may supply a possible mechanism for triggering deep earthquakes, called ';phase transformation faulting', which was already proposed few

  16. Mechanisms for the formation of Northeast China cold vortex and its activities and impacts: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yi; Shen, Baizhu; Li, Shangfeng; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xu

    2016-12-01

    In the mid 20th century, great efforts were made to investigate the formation process of high-latitude cold vortex, which is regarded as a major weather system in the atmospheric circulation. In the late 1970s, Chinese researchers noticed that the Northeast China cold vortex (NECV) is an active and frequently occurring weather system over Northeast Asia, which is generated under specific conditions of topography and land-sea thermal contrast on the local and regional scales. Thereby, the NECV study was broadened to include synoptic situations, mesoscale and dynamic features, the heavy rain process, etc. Since the 21st century, in the context of the global warming, more attention has been paid to studies of the mechanisms that cause the NECV variations during spring and early summer as well as the climatic impacts of the NECV system. Note that the NECV activity, frequent or not, not only affects local temperature and precipitation anomalies, but also regulates the amount of precipitation over northern China, the Huai River basin, and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. The NECV influence can even reach the Guangdong-Guangxi region. However, compared to the achievements for the blocking system study, theoretical studies with regard to the NECV system are still insufficient. Research activities regarding the mechanisms for the NECV formation, particularly theoretical studies using linear or weak nonlinear methods need to be strengthened in the future. Meanwhile, great efforts should be made to deepen our understanding of the relations of the NECV system to the oceanic thermal forcing, the low-frequency atmospheric variations over mid-high latitudes, and the global warming.

  17. Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm from Provinces in Northeast China for Resistance to Phytophthora sojae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiu-hong; PAN Jun-bo; QU Juan-juan; YANG Qing-kai

    2004-01-01

    Soybean Phytophthora root rot (Phytophthora sojae) is a severe disease all over the world. Soybean germplasm from central and southern China for resistance has been evaluated by American researchers on a large scale. P. sojae has been found frequently in northeast of China in recent years, but not systematic evaluation of soybean germplasm for resistance has occurred there. By means of hypocotyl inoculation, 922 cultivars/lines from northeast of China were screened and evaluated for their response to race 1, and 25 of P. sojae. Generally resistance was less frequent in northeast of China than in central and southern China. Five cultivars/lines were identified that confer resistant responses to race 1, 3, 8, 25 and four additional isolates of P. sojae. These cultivars/lines may provide valuable sources of resistance for future breeding programs.

  18. EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL SERVICES OF JILIN PROVINCE, NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shu-xia; SHANG Jin-cheng; GUO Huai-cheng

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to give evaluation of ecological services of Jilin Province,Northeast China.To take this value into decision-making and GDP accounting system is considered to be one of the economic solutions for ecological problems.The evaluation is based on the methods proposed by COSTANZA et al.,and some modifications about unit value of forest and cropland system were made according to the real characters of ecosystem,climate,natural conditions etc.,in Jilin Province.Total value of ecosystem services is about 554.404×109yuan(RMB)/a,which is about 4.9 times of GDP of the corresponding period.The results of this study could be used as a fundamental work for the construction of ecological province,which was carried out from 2001,and could provide ecological information for decision-making.Furthermore,the necessities for the further studies on the evaluation of ecological services and natural capital were discussed.

  19. The Microstructures of Butterfly Wing Scales in Northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-yan Wu; Zhi-wu Han; Zhao-mei Qiu; Hui-ying Guan; Lu-quan Ren

    2007-01-01

    There are billions of tiny scales on the butterfly wings,which array regularly as the tiles on the roof.Such tilts can form various colors of the wing and afford the species many abilities to survive and propagate.Morphological experiments on the wing scales of six buttertly species living in northeast of China were conducted.By the optics microscope,the form,geometry dimension and array of the scales were observed generally.By using scanning electron microscope(SEM),the 2D scanning and measurement were carried out and the surface micro configurations of scales were observed.The dimension and microstructure characteristics of the cross section of single scale were achieved through transmission electron microscope(TEM).Finally,by using 3D software,three 3D models were described and the 3D visual effect was achieved.This work can put forward a basic method for the future study on the morphology of biological microstructure.

  20. Soluble organic nitrogen in forest soils of northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li-chen; HAO Jing-mei; CUI Xiao-yang

    2008-01-01

    Soluble organic nitrogen (SON) is recognized as a sensitive indicator of soil nitrogen status. The present work was conducted in the temperate forests of northeast China where soils are typically characterized by high organic matter and high organic nitrogen content, and soil sampling was made in early spring just after the freeze-thaw period. The water extracted SON pools in the organic layer of forest soils were measured within the range from 156.0 mg·kg-1 to 292.6 mg·kg-1, a similar magnitude of salt solution extracted SON pools reported in literatures. However, the water soluble SON pools in 0-15 cm mineral soils in present study were much higher (3-10 times) than any other reports, ranging from 58.6 mg·kg-1 to 125.2 mg·kg-1. Water soluble SON varied markedly among the soils under different forests and at different sites. The SON in water extracts were positively and significantly correlated to soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents, but negatively correlated to microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN). The reasons of the abnormally large SON pools and the negative correlations between SON and MBN in the 0-15cm mineral soils in this study were specially discussed.

  1. The impacts of climate change on water resources in the Second Songhua River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J. S.; Yao, X. L.; Sun, W. C.; Li, Z. J.

    2016-08-01

    The Northeast China Plain is one of the main grain growing regions in China. Due to the high latitude and black soil ecological system, the crop growth in there is vulnerable to climate change, which makes it important to evaluate the influences of climate change on water resources. In this study, the influences of climate change on water resources of a typical basin in northeast China, the Second Songhua River Basin were assessed using the SWAT model. Ensemble downscaled output from sixteen GCMs for A1B emission scenario in 2050s was adopted as the regional climate scenario and was used to drive SWAT model to predict hydrological changes. The prediction shows that mean evapotranspiration of whole basin increases in most time of a year. Stream flow of Fuyu gauging station downstream this basin exhibits a decrease trend from April to June, November and December, and increases in the remaining period of the year. It is indicated that water resources may not be sufficient in spring for irrigation and the possibility of flood in summer may increases, indicating countermeasures should be made to ensure agricultural water use and prevent possible damages of flood on crop.

  2. Spatiotemporal characteristics and water budget of water cycle elements in different seasons in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 赵俊虎; 何文平; 龚志强

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the spatiotemporal characteristics of precipitable water, precipitation, evaporation, and water–vapor flux divergence in different seasons over northeast China and the water balance of that area. The data used in this paper is provided by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The results show that the spatial distributions of precipitable water, precipitation, and evaporation feature that the values of elements above in the southeastern area are larger than those in the northwestern area;in summer, much precipitation and evaporation occur in the Changbai Mountain region as a strong moisture convergence region;in spring and autumn, moisture divergence dominates the northeast of China;in winter, the moisture divergence and convergence are weak in this area. From 1979 to 2010, the total precipitation of summer and autumn in northeast China decreased significantly; especially from 1999 to 2010, the summer precipitation always demonstrated negative anomaly. Additionally, other elements in different seasons changed in a truly imperceptible way. In spring, the evaporation exceeded the precipitation in northeast China; in summer, the precipitation was more prominent;in autumn and winter, precipitation played a more dominating role than the evaporation in the northern part of northeast China, while the evaporation exceeded the precipitation in the southern part. The Interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) data have properly described the water balance of different seasons in northeast China. Based on ERA-Interim data, the moisture sinks computed through moisture convergence and moisture local variation are quite consistent with those computed through precipitation and evaporation, which proves that ERA-Interim data can be used in the research of water balance in northeast China. On a seasonal scale, the moisture convergence has a greater influence than the local moisture variation on a moisture sink, and the latter is

  3. HYPERSPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF RICE PHENOLOGICAL STAGES IN NORTHEAST CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Gnyp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to monitor rice (Oryza sativa L., irrigated lowland rice growth with multitemporal hyperspectral data during different phenological stages in Northeast China (Sanjiang Plain. Multitemporal hyperspectral data were measured with field spectroradiometers (ASD Inc.: QualitySpec and FieldSpec3 for two field experiments and nine farmers' fields. The field measurements were carried out together with corresponding measurements of agronomic data (aboveground biomass [AGB], Leaf Area Index [LAI], number of tillers. Eight selected standard hyperspectral vegetation indices (VIs, proved in several studies to be highly correlated with AGB or LAI, were calculated on the measured experimental field data. Additionally, the best two-band combinations for the Normalized Ratio Index (NRI were determined. The results indicate that the NRI performed better than the selected standard VIs at the stages of stem elongation, booting and heading and also across all stages. Especially during the stem elongation stage (R2 = 0.76 and across all stages (R2 = 0.70, the NRI performed best. When applying the NRI on the farmers' field data, the performance was lower (R2 < 0.60. Overall, the sensitive individual wavelengths (±10 nm for the best two-band combinations were detected at 711 and 799 nm (for tillering stage, 1575 and 1678 nm (for stem elongation stage, 515 and 695 nm (for booting stage, and 533 and 713 nm (for all stages. The results suggest that hyperspectral-based methods can estimate paddy rice AGB with a satisfying accuracy. In the context of precision agriculture, the findings are useful for future development of new hyperspectral devices such as scanners or cameras which could be fixed on tractors or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs.

  4. Influence of October Eurasian snow on winter temperature over Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanlian; Wang, Huijun; Jiang, Dabang

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the interannual variation of winter air temperature over Northeast China and its connection to preceding Eurasian snow cover. The results show that there is a significant negative correlation between October Eurasian snow cover and following-winter air temperature over Northeast China. The snow cover located in eastern Siberia and to the northeast of Lake Baikal plays an important role in the winter air temperature anomaly. More (less) eastern Siberia snow in October can cause an atmospheric circulation anomaly pattern in which the atmospheric pressure is higher (lower) than normal in the polar region and lower (higher) in the northern mid-high latitudes. Due to the persistence of the eastern Siberia snow from October to the following winter, the winter atmospheric anomaly is favorable (unfavorable) to the widespread movement of cold air masses from the polar region toward the northern mid-high latitudes and, hence, lower (higher) temperature over Northeast China. Simultaneously, when the October snow cover is more (less), the SST in the northwestern Pacific is continuously lower (higher) as a whole; then, the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are reinforced (weakened), favoring the lower (higher) temperature over Northeast China.

  5. [Wetlands of priority restoration in Northeast China based on spatial analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhang-Yu; Liu, Dian-Wei; Wang, Zong-Ming; Ren, Chun-Ying; Tang, Xu-Guang; Jia, Ming-Ming; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    By using GIS/RS technology, and from the aspects of landscape structure, river- and road densities, wetness index, geomorphology, and cultivated land productivity, a spatial analysis was made on the potentiality of wetland restoration in Northeast China, with the regions of priority and secondary priority restoration wetlands determined. Then, by using the coordinated development index of crop production and wetland as well as the landscape indices, the wetland restoration effect was verified. In Northeast China, the wetland area of priority restoration was 1.78 x 10(6) hm2, among which, farmland and grassland were the main types for restoration, accounting for 96.7% of the total, and mainly located in the Sanjiang Plain in the northeastern part and the Songnen Plain in the central part of Northeast China. The wetland area of secondary priority restoration was 1.03 x 10(6) hm2. After the restoration of the wetlands, the wetland area in Northeast China would be increased by 37.4%, compared with the present wetland area, and the value of the coordinated development index of crop production and wetland would increase from 0.539 before restoration to 0.733 after restoration. The landscape pattern would be more benefit to the performance of the ecological functions of the wetlands. This study revealed that the restoration scheme of the wetlands in Northeast China based on spatial analysis was practicable, which could provide data support for the implement of wetland restoration and the improvement of ecological environment in Northeast China.

  6. Petroleum Exploration of Craton Basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Craton basins are a significant petroliferous provenance. Having undergone multiple openclose tectonic cycles and strong reworking of the late Cenozoic tectonic movement, the craton basins in China are highly broken. This has resulted in multi-source and multiphase hydrocarbon generation and later hydrocarbon accumulation so that a complicated spatial assemblage of primary, paraprimary and secondary oil-gas pools has been formed. The primary factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation include hydrocarbon-generating depressions, paleouplifts, paleoslopes, unconformity surfaces, paleo-karst, faults and fissure systems as well as the later conservation conditions. In consequence, the strategy of exploration for China's craton basins is to identify the effective source rocks, pay attention to the different effects of paleohighs and late reworking, enhance studies of the secondary storage space, attach importance to the exploration of lithologic oil-gas reservoirs and natural gas pools, and approach consciously from the secondary oil pools to the targets near the source rocks. At the same time, a complete system of technologies and techniques must be built up.

  7. Epidemiological survey of Theileria parasite infection of cattle in Northeast China by allele-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Longzheng; Zhang, Shoufa; Liang, Wanfeng; Jin, Chunmei; Jia, Lijun; Luo, Yuzi; Li, Yan; Cao, Shinuo; Yamagishi, Junya; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Kawano, Suguru; Fujisaki, Kozo; Xuan, Xuenan

    2011-11-01

    An epidemiological survey on a Theileria parasite infection of cattle in Northeast China was carried out using allele-specific PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene. The results showed that 14 of 104 blood samples were positive for Theileria by PCR. Among the positive cases, co-infection with various combinations of C- and I-type parasites was detected in 12 samples; no B- and Thai-type parasites were detected by allele-specific PCR. Phylogenetic analysis based on the MPSP gene sequences revealed that Theileria parasites with the MPSP types 1, 2, and 4 were distributed in Northeast China.

  8. Petroleum Discoveries and Exploration Prospect in China's Major Petroliferous Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qingfan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Up to now, there are 29 oil-and gas-bearing basins with recoverable oil and gas reserves in China. However,most of the reserves were mainly discovered in parts of the 29 basins, which played an important role in China's petroleum exploration and development.

  9. Phytophthora sojae Races in Northeast of China and Virulence Evaluation of the Isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiu-hong; LU Hui-ying; QU Juan-juan; YANG Qing-kai

    2003-01-01

    42 isolates of P.sojae were obtained from diseased soybean plants in 9 counties of Heilongjiang Province and 1 county of Jilin Province in Northeast of China.11 isolates were classified into 3 races;the rest that could not be classified due to intermediate reactions were classified into 12 virulence types,suggesting virulence diversity of P.sojae in China.Isolates represented race 1,3 and 8.Race 1 was the most prevalent one,and races 3 and 8 were the first report in China.Our results suggest P.sojae is aboriginal in China.

  10. Integrated Prevention and Control System for Soil Erosion in Typical Black Soil Region of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-ying; CAI Qiang-guo; CHEN Sheng-yong; HE Ji-jun

    2012-01-01

    The black soil region of Northeast China is one of the most important food production bases and commodity grain bases in China. However, the continual loss and degradation of precious black soil resources has led to direct threats to national food security and regional sustainable development. Therefore, it is necessary to summarize integrated prevention and control experience of small watersheds in black soil region of Northeast China. Tongshuang small watershed, a typical watershed in rolling hills of typical black soil areas in Northeast China, is selected as the study area. Based on nearly 50 years’ experience in prevention and control of soil and water loss, the structures and overall benefits of an integrated prevention and control system for soil and water loss are investigated. Then, the ’three defense lines’ tri-dimensional protection system with reasonable allocation of different types of soil and water control measures from the hill top to gully is systematically analyzed. The first line on the top hill can weaken and block uphill runoff and sediment, hold water resources and improve soil property. The second line on the hill can truncate slope length, slow down the runoff velocity and reduce erosion energy. The third line in the gully is mainly composed of waterfall engineering, which can inhibit soil erosion and restore land resources. The ’three defense lines’ system is feasible for soil and water loss control of small watersheds in the typical black soil region of Northeast China. Through the application of the in Tongshuang small watershed, There are effective improvements in ecological conditions in Tongshuang small watershed after the application of ’three defense lines’ soil and water control system. Moreover, the integrated treatment paradigm for soil and water loss in typical black soil region is compared with that in loess region. The results of this study could offer references and experiences for other small watersheds in

  11. CLIMATIC FEATURES OF SUMMER TEMPERATURE IN NORTHEAST CHINA UNDER WARMING BACKGROUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji; GONG Qiang; ZHAO Lian-wei

    2005-01-01

    By using, summer temperature data in 26 stations from 1951 to 2003, the variation characteristics of summer temperature in Northeast China (NET) were analyzed based on the background of climate warming. The results showed that the warming in summer was 0.15℃/10a in Northeast China, which was higher than that on the global, Northern Hemisphere or Northeast Asia scale in the recent 50 years. The responses of NET to global warming were shown in 3 aspects mainly. Firstly, it became warm and the average temperature increased in summer;secondly,the temperature variability increased, which displayed the increase of climatic instability;thirdly, the disaster of low temperature decreased and high temperature damage increased obviously, but the disaster of low temperature still existed in some areas under global warming background, which would be worthy of notice further.

  12. Origin of CO2 in natural gas from the Triassic Feixianguan Formation of Northeast Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The natural gas from the Triassic Feixianguan Formation of Northeast Sichuan Basin contains high H2S whereas relatively low CO2 concentrations and the CO2 display high δ13C values (ranging from -5.81‰ to 3.3‰ (PDB)). This seems to contradict the conventional wisdom that TSR should be a primary source of CO2 in natural gas from the Feixianguan Formation. In contrast, many authigenic calcite samples from these sites display very low δ13C values (ranging from -18.4‰ to -10.3‰ (PDB)). This suggests that the carbon from TSR source dominated the formation of calcite whereas the carbon from inorganic source came into CO2 in natural gas. In order to assess the origin of CO2 from these H2S-rich sites, we have calculated the relative contributions of organic and inorganic carbon sources to the CO2 and authigenic calcite. The organic carbon source possibly originated from TSR, whereas the inorganic one might be generated from marine carbonates dissolution. This calculation is based on the carbon isotopic compositions of CO2 and authigenic calcite as well as an isotopic mass balance. The results show that the contribution of organic carbon source to the CO2 is only 2%, whereas that to authigenic calcite is as high as 43% on average. Such results combined with thermodynamic evidence indicate that the isotopically light CO2 produced by TSR process may contribute to authigenic calcite precipitation during burial diagenesis. Distinguishable from Ordovician reservoir of Tarim Basin, Feixianguan reservoir of Northeast Sichuan Basin experienced rapid tectonic uplift due to Yanshanian movement after TSR occurred. Such tectonic event could induce temperature decrease and further promote carbonates dissolution. During these processes, secondary porosity has developed in Feixianguan carbonate reservoirs. Therefore, much attention should be paid to the structural highs in search of high quality carbonate reservoirs.

  13. Vulnerability and Sustainable Development Mode of Coal Cities in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; TONG Lianjun

    2008-01-01

    In this study,by carrying on the spot investigation to the seven coal cities in Northeast China and interviewing with the local authority and the residents,the authors definite the vulnerability that is closed to exposure,sensitivity and resilience,and set up vulnerability model of coal cities in Northeast China.At the same time,the authors broadly illustrate how the components of natural-social-economic system act in the coal area,so as to probe the ways to reduce vulnerability more effectively,such as preferential national policy and so on.Furthermore,the article studies the relationship between vulnerability and sustainable development.Vulnerability is a spatio-temporal function of sustainable development.The regional sustainable development refrains the spiral ascending of vulnerability.And the regional vulnerability and sustainable development appear in turn.Then the article analyzes the natural vulnerability,social vulnerability and economic vulnerability of coal cities in Northeast China.At last,combing vulnerability model and situation of coal cities in Northeast China,the authors put forward regional technology innovation mode,multi-dimension structure transformation mode,attracting investment mode and recycling economy mode to reduce vulnerability.

  14. Plutonium in Soils from Northeast China and Its Potential Application for Evaluation of Soil Erosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin;

    2013-01-01

    Surface and soil core samples from northeast China were analyzed for Pu isotopes. The measured 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios and 239 1 240Pu/137Cs activity ratios revealed that the global fallout is the dominant source of Pu and 137Cs at these sites. Migration behavior of Pu varying with land type an...

  15. Integrated Analysis on Gravity and Magnetic Fields of the Hailar Basin, NE China: Implications for Basement Structure and Deep Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, B.; Wang, L.; Dong, P.; Scientific Team Of Applied Geophysics

    2010-12-01

    The Hailar Basin is one of the most representative basins among the Northeast China Basin Group, which is situated in the east of East Asia Orogene between the Siberia Plate and the North China Plate. Based on the detailed analysis of the Bouguer gravity anomaly, aeromagnetic anomaly as well as petrophysical data, we studied the features of gravity-magnetic fields in the basin and its neighboring areas. A combined approach of Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition and Power Spectrum Analysis was adopted to quantitatively grade the gravity and magnetic anomalies into four levels. Accordingly, the apparent depths of the source fields can be assessed. The results reveal the crustal density and magnetic structures of the Hailar Basin. Low-order wavelet details of gravity-magnetic anomalies were carried out on studying basin basement structure. Seven major basement faults of the basin were identified, and the basement lithology was discussed and predicted. Three major uplifts and 14 depressions were delineated according to basement depth inversion by the Park method. High-order wavelet approximations of gravity-magnetic anomalies were carried out on studying deep tectonics of the basin. The average Moho depth of the study area is about 40 km, with a mantle uplift located in the northeast of the basin. The average depth of the Curie interface is about 19 km, while the uplift of the Curie interface is in the basin center and its east and west sides are depressions. Finally, inversion of Bouguer gravity anomalies was conducted on an across-basin GGT profile using the Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition. The inversion results are consistent with those of GGT seismic inversion, suggesting that the Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition can be applied to distinguish major crustal density interfaces.

  16. 12 Blocks Open in North west China's Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PetroChina Foreign Cooperation Administration Depa

    2006-01-01

    @@ After having opened up for 20 years, the field of oil/gas exploration and development in China is witnessing a new round of high tide to attract foreign investment.PetroChina, China's biggest oil/gas producer and supplier,decided to offer 12 blocks totaling an acreage of 110,000sq.km. in Tarim Basin to players of the industry globally.The project is the biggest oil/gas deal in China aiming at foreign cooperation for approximately 12 years, in which the 12 blocks that will be offered located mainly in southwestern, central and eastern Tarim Basin. It will enable PetroChina to combine its experience and cognition on the geological condition of Tarim Basin with the updated prospecting concept and advanced prospecting technique in the world, improve the proved degree of oil and gas resources in Tarim Basin and achieve a big breakthrough in oil and gas exploration.

  17. CNPC Constructs Its First LNG Terminal in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) broke ground in mid-April for the construction of its first liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal in Dalian, a port city in northeastern Liaoning Province. This project,with a total investment of over 10 billion yuan (about $1.4 billion), consists of a wharf, a receiving facility and transportation pipelines. It is designed to receive supplies from Qatar, Australia and other overseas markets. CNPC is also building a LNG receiving facility in Rudong county of Eastern China's Jiangsu Province. Experts predicted that by 2020 China would import 10 million tons of LNG annually, stimulating the interests of oil giants to build LNG projects.

  18. [Ichthyofauna and its community diversity in volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fu-Yi; Lü, Xian-Guo; Lou, Yan-Jing; Lou, Xiao-Nan; Xue, Bin; Yao, Shu-Chun; Xiao, Hai-Feng

    2012-12-01

    Based on the investigations of fish resources in Jingpo Lake and Wudalianchi Lakes in 2008-2011 and the historical data, this paper analyzed the characteristics of ichthyofauna and its community diversity in volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China. The ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was consisted of 64 native species, belonging to 47 genera, 16 families, and 9 orders, among which, one species was the second class National protected wild animal, four species were Chinese endemic species, and five species were Chinese vulnerable species. In the 64 recorded species, there were 44 species of Cypriniformes order and 37 species of Cyprinidae family dominated, respectively. The ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was formed by 7 fauna complexes, among which, the eastern plain fauna complex was dominant, the common species from the South and the North occupied 53.1%, and the northern endemic species took up 46.9%. The Shannon, Fisher-alpha, Pielou, Margalef, and Simpson indices of the ichthyofauna were 2.078, 4.536, 0.575, 3.723, and 0.269, respectively, and the abundance distribution pattern of native species accorded with lognormal model. The Bray-Curtis, Morisita-Horn, Ochiai, Sørensen, and Whittaker indices between the communities of ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China and the Jingpo Lake were 0.820, 0.992, 0.870, 0.862 and 0.138, respectively, and those between the communities of ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes and the Wudalianchi Lakes were 0.210, 0.516, 0.838, 0.825, and 0.175, respectively. The ichthyofauna in volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was characterized by the mutual infiltration between the South and the North, and the overlap and transition between the Palaeoarctic realm and the Oricetal realm. It was suggested that the ichthyofauna community species diversity in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was higher, the species structure was more

  19. Possible Biogeophysical Effects of Cultivated Land Conversion in Northeast China in 2010–2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There will be substantial cultivated land change in China as the society strives to meet the growing food demands, which will greatly influence the future climate. This study analyzed the possible biogeophysical effects of cultivated land change on the climate in Northeast China during 2010–2030 on the basis of simulation with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF model. Scenario analysis was first carried out on the possible changing trends of cultivated land. Then the climate effects of the cultivated land change were analyzed on the basis of the simulation with the WRF model. The simulation results indicate that the total cultivated land area in Northeast China will decrease during 2010–2030, mainly converting into urban and built-up land and forests due to the urbanization and governmental policies. Besides, the cultivated land change will lead to the increase of the sensible heat flux in the regions where a lot of cultivated land will change into urban and built-up land, while it will make the latent heat flux increase in the regions where the cultivated land will be mainly converted into forests through influencing the evapotranspiration. All these results can provide theoretical support for implementing the future land management in Northeast China.

  20. Revitalizing Old Industrial Base of Northeast China: Process,Policy and Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pingyu

    2008-01-01

    Northeast China is the largest old industrial base of China that endured persistent influence of the past planned economy system.This region has lost its leading place since the reform and opening up,and became a backward region by contrast with the coastal areas.This paper elaborates the evolutionary process of the old industrial base of Northeast China,analyses the main reasons for the decline,gives a preliminary evaluation on the revitalizing polices in recent years,and points out major long-term challenges for future revitalization.It concludes that for Northeast China,a relative declining area:1) it is indispensable to get the long-term policy support from the central government;2) system reform and structure adjustment are the crucial strategies,particularly the reform of the large and medium state-owned enterprises;and developing new industries is as important as upgrading traditional advantaged industries;3) the local governments should play an indirect role,avoiding from any unnecessary intervention on economic activity;and 4) social security and investment climate must be improved simultaneously.In addition,the author stresses that the lack of knowledge on the nature of old industrial base had led to failures of the past initiatives,and revitalizing the old industrial base should be treated as a holistic regional project including economy growth,society progress and environment improvement.

  1. Emergy Evaluation of Different Straw Reuse Technologies in Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxian Zhang; Fang Ma

    2015-01-01

    Open burning of straw in China has degraded agricultural environments and has become a contributor to air pollution. Development of efficient straw-reuse technologies not only can yield economic benefits but also can protect the environment and can provide greater benefit to society. Thus, the overall benefits of straw-reuse technologies must be considered when making regional development planning and enterprise technology decisions. In addition, agricultural areas in China cross several clim...

  2. Late Cretaceous Aquatic Angiosperms from Jiayin, Heilongjiang,Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Cheng; SUN Ge

    2008-01-01

    Three taxa of Late Cretaceous aquatic angiosperms, Queruexia angulata (Lesq.) Krysht., Cobbania corrugate. (Lesq.) Stockey et al. and Nelumbites cf. extenuinervis Upchurch et al. from Jiayin of Heilongjiang, NE China, are described in detail. Among them, Cobbania and Nelumbites from the Upper Cretaceous in China are reported for the first time. The aquatic angiosperm assemblage of Queruexia-Cobbania-Nelumbites appears to imply a seasonal, warm and moist environment in the Jiayin area during the Santonian-Campanian time.

  3. Distribution of uranium isotopes in surface water of the Llobregat river basin (Northeast Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, A.; Devesa, R.; Valles, I.; Serrano, I.; Soler, J.; Blazquez, S.; Ortega, X.; Matia, L. [University of Politecn Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    A study is presented on the distribution of U-234, U-238, U-235 isotopes in surface water of the Llobregat river basin (Northeast Spain), from 2001 to 2006. Sixty-six superficial water samples were collected at 16 points distributed throughout the Llobregat river basin. Uranium isotopes were measured by alpha spectrometry (PIPS detectors). The test procedure was validated according to the quality requirements of the ISO17025 standard. The activity concentration for the total dissolved uranium ranges from 20 to 261 mBq L{sup -1}. The highest concentrations of uranium were detected in an area with formations of sedimentary rock, limestone and lignite. A high degree of radioactive disequilibrium was noted among the uranium isotopes. The U-234/R-238 U activity ratio varied between 1.1 and 1.9 and the waters with the lowest uranium activity registered the highest level of U-234/U-238 activity ratio. Correlations between uranium activity in the tested water and chemical and physical characteristics of the aquifer were found.

  4. Mineral deposit formation in Phanerozoic sedimentary basins of north-east Africa: the contribution of weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Klaus; Schwarz, Torsten; Wipki, Mario

    1994-12-01

    The intra- and epicontinental basins in north-east Africa (Egypt, Sudan) bear ample evidence of weathering processes repeatedly having contributed to the formation of mineral deposits throughout the Phanerozoic. The relict primary weathering mantle of Pan-African basement rocks consists of kaolinitic saprolite, laterite (in places bauxitic) and iron oxide crust. On the continent, the reaccumulation of eroded weathering-derived clay minerals (mainly kaolinite) occurred predominantly in fluvio-lacustrine environments, and floodplain and coastal plain deposits. Iron oxides, delivered from ferricretes, accumulated as oolitic ironstones in continental and marine sediments. Elements leached from weathering profiles accumulated in continental basins forming silcrete and alunite or in the marine environment contributing to the formation of attapulgite/saprolite and phosphorites. The Early Paleozoic Tawiga bauxitic laterite of northern Sudan gives a unique testimony of high latitude lateritic weathering under global greenhouse conditions. It formed in close spatial and temporal vicinity to the Late Ordovician glaciation in north Africa. The record of weathering products is essentially complete for the Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary. From the continental sources in the south to the marine sinks in the north, an almost complete line of lateritic and laterite-derived deposits of bauxitic kaolin, kaolin, iron oxides and phosphates is well documented.

  5. Mesozoic-Cenozoic Basin Features and Evolution of Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Late Triassic to Paleogene (T3-E) basin occupies an area of 143100 km2, being the sixth area of the whole of SE China; the total area of synchronous granitoid is about 127300 km2; it provides a key for understanding the tectonic evolution of South China. From a new 1:1500000 geological map of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins of SE China, combined with analysis of geometrical and petrological features, some new insights of basin tectonics are obtained. Advances include petrotectonic assemblages,basin classification of geodynamics, geometric features, relations of basin and range. According to basin-forming geodynamical mechanisms, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin of SE China can be divided into three types, namely: 1) para-foreland basin formed from Late Triassic to Early Jurassic (T3-J1)under compressional conditions; 2) rift basins formed during the Middle Jurassic (J2) under a strongly extensional setting; and 3) a faulted depression formed during Early Cretaceous to Paleogene (K1-E)under back-arc extension action. From the rock assemblages of the basin, the faulted depression can be subdivided into a volcanic-sedimentary type formed mainly during the Early Cretaceous (K1) and a red-bed type formed from Late Cretaceous to Paleogene (K2-E). Statistical data suggest that the area of all para-foreland basins (T3-J1) is 15120 km2, one of rift basins (J2) occupies 4640 km2, and all faulted depressions equal to 124330 km2 including the K2-E red-bed basins of 37850 km2. The Early Mesozoic(T3-J1) basin and granite were mostly co-generated under a post-collision compression background,while the basins from Middle Jurassic to Paleogene (J2-E) were mainly constrained by regional extensional tectonics. Three geological and geographical zones were surveyed, namely: 1) the Wuyishan separating zone of paleogeography and climate from Middle Jurassic to Tertiary; 2) the Middle Jurassic rift zone; and 3) the Ganjiang separating zone of Late Mesozoic volcanism. Three types of basin

  6. ESR dating of the Majuangou and Banshan Paleolithic sites in the Nihewan Basin, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Ru; Yin, Gong-Ming; Deng, Cheng-Long; Han, Fei; Song, Wei-Juan

    2014-08-01

    The fluvio-lacustrine sequences in the Nihewan Basin, northern China provide an important source of Paleolithic settlements and therefore early human occupation in the eastern Old World. Here we present electron spin resonance (ESR) chronology for the Majuangou (MJG-III, MJG-II and MJG-I) and Banshan (BS) Paleolithic sites in this basin by the quartz Ti-Li center ESR dating. Results show that the ages of MJG-III and MJG-II could be estimated to be ∼1.70 Ma (millions of years ago); of MJG-I, ∼1.40 Ma; and BS, ∼1.35 Ma. This ESR chronology is consistent with the previous magnetochronology, thus providing strong support for the earliest human presence at the high northern latitudes of Northeast Asia.

  7. Pacific-Atlantic Ocean influence on wildfires in northeast China (1774 to 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qichao; Brown, Peter M.; Liu, Shirong; Rocca, Monique E.; Trouet, Valerie; Zheng, Ben; Chen, Haonan; Li, Yinchao; Liu, Duanyang; Wang, Xiaochun

    2017-01-01

    Identification of effects that climate teleconnections, such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), have on wildfires is difficult because of short and incomplete records in many areas of the world. We developed the first multicentury wildfire chronologies for northeast China from fire-scarred trees. Regional wildfires occurred every 7 years from the 1700s to 1947, after which fire suppression policies were implemented. Regional wildfires occurred predominately during drought years and were associated with positive phases of ENSO and PDO and negative NAO. Twentieth century meteorological records show that this contingent combination of +ENSO/+PDO/-NAO is linked to low humidity, low precipitation, and high temperature during or before late spring fire seasons. Climate and wildfires in northeast China may be predictable based on teleconnection phases, although future wildfires may be more severe due to effects of climate change and the legacy of fire suppression.

  8. Plutonium as a tracer for soil erosion assessment in northeast China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Pan, Shaoming;

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental and agricultural problems faced by human society. Assessing intensity is an important issue for controlling soil erosion and improving eco-environmental quality. The suitability of the application of plutonium (Pu) as a tracer for soil erosion...... assessment in northeast China was investigated by comparing with that of 137Cs. Here we build on preliminary work, in which we investigated the potential of Pu as a soil erosion tracer by sampling additional reference sites and potential erosive sites, along the Liaodong Bay region in northeast China, for Pu...... in cultivated land. The baseline inventories of 239+240Pu and 137Cs were 88.4 and 1688Bqm-2 respectively. Soil erosion rates estimated by 239+240Pu tracing method were consistent with those obtained by the 137Cs method, confirming that Pu is an effective tracer with a similar tracing behavior to that of 137Cs...

  9. [Impacts of climate warming on growth period and yield of rice in Northeast China during recent two decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-jia; Geng, Ting; Chen, Qun; Chen, Chang-qing

    2015-01-01

    By using rice growth period, yield and climate observation data during the recent two decades, the impact of climate warming on rice in Northeast China was investigated by mathematical statistics methods. The results indicated that in the three provinces of Northeast China, the average, maximum and minimum temperatures in rice growing season were on the. rise, and the rainfall presented a downward trend during 1989-2009. Compared to 1990s, the rice whole growth periods of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces in 2000s were prolonged 14 d, 4.5 d and 5.1 d, respectively. The increase of temperature in May, June and September could extend the rice growth period, while that in July would shorten the growth duration. The rice growth duration of registered varieties and experiment sites had a similar increasing trend in Northeast China except for the Heilongjiang Province, and the extension of registered varieties growth period was the main factor causing the prolonged growth period of rice at experiment sites. The change in daily average, minimum and maximum temperatures all could affect the rice yield in Northeast China. The increasing temperature significantly increased the rice yield in Heilongjiang Province, especially in the west region of Sanjiang Plain. Except for the south of Liaoning Province, rice yields in other regions of Northeast China were promoted by increasing temperature. Proper measures for breeding, cultivation and farming, could be adopted to fully improve the adaptation of rice to climate warming in Northeast China.

  10. Impacts of Cultivated Land Reclamation on the Climate and Grain Production in Northeast China in the Future 30 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available China, as a large agricultural country as well as a major country with great demand for grain, has played a more and more important role in the international grain market. As Northeast China is one of the major commodity grain bases in China as well as one of the regions with the highest intensity of human activities, it plays an important role in influencing the global food security. This study first generally analyzed the cultivated land reclamation and the climate change of temperature and precipitation in Northeast China during 2000–2010. Then, on the basis of these data, the climatic effects of cultivated land reclamation in Northeast China during 2030–2040 were simulated by the weather research forecast (WRF model. Finally, the possible effects of the climate change on the grain yield and the potential influence on the food security were analyzed. The simulation result indicated that the temperature in Northeast China would be increasing on the whole, while the precipitation would be decreasing. The result of this study can provide some theoretical support to the agricultural economic development in Northeast China and serve the national macropolicy and food security strategy of the whole China.

  11. The influences of East Asian Monsoon on summer precipitation in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Shen, Baizhu; Sui, Bo; Huang, Bohua

    2017-03-01

    A unique dataset of 53-year (1961-2013) rainfall measurements from 104 stations uniformly distributed in the Northeast China, combined with the observation-based NCEP/NCAR atmospheric reanalysis, is used to analyze the precipitation anomalies in Northeast China during late boreal summer (July-August) and their relationship with the anomalous moisture transport associated with the fluctuations of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) circulation. Based on this analysis, a new EASM influence index ( I EASM ) is proposed to quantify the EASM effects on the Northeast China summer precipitation. The relationship between the IEASM variations and patterns of the anomalous regional atmospheric circulation is demonstrated. The characteristics of several precursors that lead to the major fluctuations of the I EASM index are also explored. The results show that the EASM influence index is closely linked to the anomalous rainfall in Northeast China and can be used as a major factor to measure the physical processes that affect the regional dry and wet conditions. The I EASM index responds to the large-scale anomalies of the atmospheric circulation sensitively. Specifically, the high I EASM values are associated with the intensified Mongolia cyclone, blocking developing near the Ural Mountains and a northwestward shift of subtropical high over the western Pacific. The low I EASM values are associated with a reversed pattern of these features. The I EASM anomalous fluctuation has some precursors. A major high (low) index during the summer is likely preceded with the pattern of the sea surface temperature anomalies of an El Niño (La Niña) event in the Pacific from the previous early fall to early winter.

  12. Paleoproterozoic Sediment- hosted Gold Deposits in Eastern Liaoning, Northeast China: Implications for Gold Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Dejiang

    2001-01-01

    Gold deposits in eastern Liaoning, northeast China are hosted in the middle and upper parts of a Paleoproterozoic volcanic - sedimentary succession, which consists of interlayered carbonates and fine - grained clastics. This paper discusses the geological features of ore - bearing formations, ore- controlling structures and metallogenetic characteristics. Analysis of ore - controlling factors suggested that the schists from the Gaixian formatyion, syngenetic faults and ductile shear zones are principal ore controls over mineralization and thereafter indicators for gold exploration.

  13. Effect of Magnetic Field on Enzyme Activities in Main Soils of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUXIAOYI; YIYANLI; 等

    1996-01-01

    Soil enzyme activities as affected by applied magnetic field were studied with three main soils (brown soil,black soil and albic soil) collected from Northeast China,Appropriate intensities of magnetic field could obviously enhance the activities of hydrogen peroxidases,invertases,amylases and phosphatases in the three soils,although the effect varied with types and water regimes of the soils.Increasing times of magnetic treatment could multiple its good effect on the activities of hydrogen peroxidases in soils.

  14. Morphology, Composition, and Mixing State of Individual Aerosol Particles in Northeast China during Wintertime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Northeast China is located in a high latitude area of the world and undergoes a cold season that lasts six months each year. Recently, regional haze episodes with high concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5 have frequently been occurring in Northeast China during the heating period, but little information has been available. Aerosol particles were collected in winter at a site in a suburban county town (T1 and a site in a background rural area (T2. Morphology, size, elemental composition, and mixing state of individual aerosol particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Aerosol particles were mainly composed of organic matter (OM and S-rich and certain amounts of soot and K-rich. OM represented the most abundant particles, accounting for 60.7% and 53.5% at the T1 and T2 sites, respectively. Abundant spherical OM particles were likely emitted directly from coal-burning stoves. Soot decreased from 16.9% at the T1 site to 4.6% at the T2 site and sulfate particles decrease from 35.9% at the T2 site to 15.7% at the T1 site, suggesting that long-range transport air masses experienced more aging processes and produced more secondary particles. Based on our investigations, we proposed that emissions from coal-burning stoves in most rural areas of the west part of Northeast China can induce regional haze episodes.

  15. Relation between sea surface temperature anomaly in the Atlantic and summer precipitation over the Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白人海

    2001-01-01

    Based on global monthly average data set of sea surface temperature (SST) during 1950 -1992 and global monthly average 500 hPa height during 1950 - 1997 offered by NCAR/NCEP, the feature of SST anomaly in the Atlantic and its relation with summer precipitation over the Northeast China are analyzed. The results show that, the second eigenvector of the SST′s empirical orthogonal expanssion in winter season over the North Atlantic suggests that distribution of SST anomaly has unusual meridional difference; The location of its center is basically identical to center of significant correlation region between summer precipitation over the Northeast China and winter SST in the Atlantic. When winter SST in the North Atlantic is hot in south and cold in north, the blocking situation is stronger in the middle- high latitude. Correspondingly, the blocking high pressure in the northern North Pacific is also getting stronger,the westerlies circulation index in East Asia in next summer would be lower, asa result, more precipitation in the summer would be experienced over Northeast China and vice versa.

  16. Taxonomic Review on the Genus Sciota (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi, Mu-Jie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three species of the genus Sciota Hulst, 1888 are recognized from Northeast China: Sciota cynicella (Christoph, 1881, Sciota fumella (Eversmann, 1844, and Sciota adelphella (Fischer von R$\\ddot{o} $ 수식 이미지slerstamm, 1836, of which Sciota cynicella (Christoph, 1881 is reported for the first time from China. This species can be distinguished from congeners by the gray color of basal area, the straight antemedial line and the distinct postmedial line on the forewing; by the stout aedeagus in male genitalia. In this study, a key to Northeastern Chinese species of genus Sciota is presented, and the illustrations of adults and genitalia are also provided.

  17. Taxonomic Review on the Genus Sciota (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-jie Qi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three species of the genus Sciota Hulst, 1888 are recognized from Northeast China: Sciota cynicella (Christoph, 1881, Sciota fumella (Eversmann, 1844, and Sciota adelphella (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1836, of which Sciota cynicella (Christoph, 1881 is reported for the first time from China. This species can be distinguished from congeners by the gray color of basal area, the straight antemedial line and the distinct postmedial line on the forewing; by the stout aedeagus in male genitalia. In this study, a key to Northeastern Chinese species of genus Sciota is presented, and the illustrations of adults and genitalia are also provided.

  18. Rotifera diversity of a floodplain lake of the Brahmaputra river basin of lower Assam, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma, B.K.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed diversity and ecology of planktonic Rotifera of Ghorajan beel, a floodplain lake of the Brahmaputrariver basin of lower Assam region of Northeast India. Plankton samples collected (January–December, 2010 fromlittoral (station 1 and semi-limnetic regions (station 2 of this tropical wetland revealed a fairly rich rotifer fauna (84 and 80species with distinct variations (range, average ± SD in monthly richness (35–55, 46±6 and 24–54, 36±5 species andcommunity similarities (46.6–80.4 and 37.0–95.9 % at both sampling stations. The richness followed unclear annual patterns.The rotifers mainly contributed (53.3±5.1 and 55.6± 3.6 % to zooplankton abundance variations and showed high abundancefrom June through November at both stations. Brachionidae > Lecanidae exhibited high number of individuals; Asplanchnidaeand Flosculariidae were also quantitatively important families; specifically, Asplanchna priodonta, Sinantherina socialis, Brachionusfalcatus and Lecane bulla were important species for their abundance. Single abiotic factors exerted a more limited influence on richness than on abundance. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA explained 55.6 % and 59.5 % cumulative variance of the rotifer assemblages along axis 1 and 2, respectively; the CCA indicated the importance of transparency and rainfall at station 1, and of transparency, dissolved oxygen and rainfall at station 2. Consequently, the littoral and semi-limnetic stations are characterized by micro-environmental differences.

  19. An empirical study on the spatial distribution of the population, economy and water resources in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Conglin; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Haijuan

    The relationship among the population, economy and water resources is complex, and the contradictions and conflicts will appear and aggravate with the rapid development of economy and society in Northeast China. Based on the statistical analysis of the available data, this paper depicted the static distribution characteristics of the population, economy and water resources of Northeast China in 2011. It was found that the spatial distribution of the population, economy and water resources was unbalanced in Northeast China. The water resources mismatched with the population and economy. The population and economy were relatively dense and developed in the southwestern part of Northeast China respectively, while the water resources was relatively scarce. However, the situations in the northern part of Northeast China were opposite to those in the southwestern part. The population-economy inconsistence indexes of the cities in northern part of Northeast China showed a significant trend of spatial aggregation and heterogeneity. The cities with lower (1) inconsistence indexes all faced the problem of water resources shortage. Applying geometric gravity center method and grey correlation model, the result indicated that there was relatively high spatial relevance and the relative deviation among the spatial dynamic distributions of the population, economy and water resources was large. The gravity centers of economy and per capita average annual total water resources moved westward, while the gravity center of population gravity center moved eastward in the period of 1997-2011 in Northeast China. It must be noted that, the migration trend of the economy gravity center was more significant than those of the population and water resources.

  20. Investigation of Anthrax Cases in North-East China, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Lingwei; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Jun; Ji, Xue; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Nan; Gu, Guibo; Feng, Shuzhang; Qian, Jun; Guo, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    We determined the genotypes of seven Bacillus anthracis strains that were recovered from nine anthrax outbreaks in North-East China from 2010 to 2014, and two approved vaccine strains that are currently in use in China. The causes of these cases were partly due to local farmers being unaware of the presence of anthrax, and butchers with open wounds having direct contact with anthrax-contaminated meat products. The genotype of five of the seven recovered strains was A.Br.001/002 sub-lineage, which was concordant with previously published research. The remaining two cases belongs to the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage. Both of these strains displayed an identical SNR pattern, which was the first time that this genotype was identified in North-East China. Strengthening education in remote villages of rural China is an important activity aimed at fostering attempts to prevent and control anthrax. The genotype of the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine No.II was A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 for the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine Non-capsulated. Further studies of their characteristics are clearly warranted.

  1. Evidence of Thermal Evolution History of Northeast Sichuan Basin (U-Th)/He Low Temperature Thermochronometry of Apatite and Zircon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Jianzhong; Wang Jie; Qiu Nansheng

    2008-01-01

    (U-Th)/He dating is a newly developed low temperature thermochronometry,and it elaborately reflects cooling history of geologic body under low temperature.It can be applied to analyze thermal evolution of the sedimentary basin,combining with vitrinite reflectance and fission track.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite and zircon from drilling cores in Puguang (普光)-Maoba (毛坝) area and outcrops in Tongjiang (通江) area indicates that the Northeast Sichuan (四川) basin underwent great uplift and denudation during the Tertiary and the Quaternary.During the period,denudation rates changed from 74.8 to 172.5 m/Ma and denudation thickness was between 2 800 and 3 000 m,geotemperature gradually declined into the current temperature,passing through helium closure temperature of apatite.The uplift and denudation relate to new tectonic movement response in the Sichuan basin aroused by the Qinghai (青海)-Tibet plateau.Drilling samples above 4 000 m did not undergo closure temperature of zircon,but the samples nearly 4 000 m might approach closure temperature of zircon and all the samples underwent closure temperature of apatite.According to (U-Th)/He ages of zircon,it is concluded that the Northeast Sichuan basin began to uplift in the Late Jurassic.From the Late Jurassic to the Paleogene,Northeast Sichuan basin was in slow uplift and denudation,but the denudation of Puguang-Maoba area was earlier than that of Tongjiang area.(U-Th)/He ages of zircon indicate the denudation time of provenance areas.On the basis of paleodrainage characteristics,provenance transport and other related data,provenance areas of the clastic rocks are decided,which is worthy to be investigated further.

  2. Predictive equations using regression analysis of pulmonary function for healthy children in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Nan Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been few published studies on spirometric reference values for healthy children in China. We hypothesize that there would have been changes in lung function that would not have been precisely predicted by the existing spirometric reference equations. The objective of the study was to develop more accurate predictive equations for spirometric reference values for children aged 9 to 15 years in Northeast China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Spirometric measurements were obtained from 3,922 children, including 1,974 boys and 1,948 girls, who were randomly selected from five cities of Liaoning province, Northeast China, using the ATS (American Thoracic Society and ERS (European Respiratory Society standards. The data was then randomly split into a training subset containing 2078 cases and a validation subset containing 1844 cases. Predictive equations used multiple linear regression techniques with three predictor variables: height, age and weight. Model goodness of fit was examined using the coefficient of determination or the R(2 and adjusted R(2. The predicted values were compared with those obtained from the existing spirometric reference equations. The results showed the prediction equations using linear regression analysis performed well for most spirometric parameters. Paired t-tests were used to compare the predicted values obtained from the developed and existing spirometric reference equations based on the validation subset. The t-test for males was not statistically significant (p>0.01. The predictive accuracy of the developed equations was higher than the existing equations and the predictive ability of the model was also validated. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We developed prediction equations using linear regression analysis of spirometric parameters for children aged 9-15 years in Northeast China. These equations represent the first attempt at predicting lung function for Chinese children following the ATS

  3. Classification of Complex Reservoirs in Superimposed Basins of Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiongqi; ZHOU Xinyuan; LIN Changsong; HUO Zhipeng; LUO Xiaorong; PANG Hong

    2010-01-01

    Many of the sedimentary basins in western China were formed through the superposition and compounding of at least two previously developed sedimentary basins and in general they can be termed as complex superimposed basins.The distinct differences between these basins and monotype basins are their discontinuous stratigraphic sedimentation,stratigraphic structure and stratigraphic stress-strain action over geological history.Based on the correlation of chronological age on structural sections,superimposed basins can be divided into five types in this study:(1)continuous sedimentation type superimposed basins,(2)middle and late stratigraphic superimposed basins,(3)early and late stratigraphic superimposed basins,(4)early and middle stratigraphic superimposed basins,and(5)long-term exposed superimposed basins.Multiple source-reservoir-caprock assemblages have developed in such basins.In addition,multi-stage hydrocarbon generation and expulsion,multiple sources,polycyclic hydrocarbon accumulation and multiple-type hydrocarbon reservoirs adjustment,reformation and destruction have occurred in these basins.The complex reservoirs that have been discovered widely in the superimposed basins to date have remarkably different geologic features from primary reservoirs,and the root causes of this are folding,denudation and the fracture effect caused by multiphase tectonic events in the superimposed basins as well as associated seepage,diffusion,spilling,oxidation,degradation and cracking.Based on their genesis characteristics,complex reservoirs are divided into five categories:(1)primary reservoirs,(2)trap adjustment type reservoirs,(3)component variant reservoirs,(4)phase conversion type reservoirs and(5)scale-reformed reservoirs.

  4. Is type I alpha 2 collagen gene responsible for intracranial aneurysm in Northeast China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengfei Wu; Bo Li; Anhua Wu; Yunjie Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs42524 G > C) in the type I alpha 2 collagen gene was associated with sporadic ruptured intracranial aneurysm or its clinical characteristics in patients from Northeast China. Genotyping of the rs42524 G > C polymorphism was carried out using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The data showed that the frequency of the rs42524 GC + CC genotype was significantly higher than the GG genotype among intracranial aneurysm patients whose Hunt and Hess grading scale was > 3. In addition, the rs42524 G > C genotype was found to have a statistically significant association with intracranial aneurysm risk. These findings indicate that the type I alpha 2 collagen gene gene may be involved in a predisposition to intracranial aneurysm in the Northeast Chinese population. Crucially, the rs42524 C allele may be an important risk factor for increased severity of the condition in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

  5. Origin of the Changbai intraplate volcanism in Northeast China:Evidence from seismic tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Dapeng; LEI Jianshe; TANG Rongyu

    2004-01-01

    Seismic images of the mantle beneath the active Changbai intraplate volcano in Northeast China determined by teleseismic travel time tomography are presented. The data are measured at a new seismic network consisting of 19 portable stations and 3 permanent stations. The results show a columnar low-velocity (-3 %) anomaly extending to 400 km depth under the Changbai volcano. High velocity anomalies are visible in the mantle transition zone, and deep earthquakes occur at depths of 500-600 km under the region,suggesting that the subducting Pacific slab is stagnant in the transition zone, as imaged clearly also by global tomography.These results suggest that the Changbai intraplate volcano is not a hotspot like Hawaii but a kind of back-arc volcano related to the upwelling of hot asthenospheric materials associated with the deep subduction and stagnancy of the Pacific slab under northeast Asia.

  6. Cropland cover change in Northeast China during the past 300 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Land use/cover change induced by human activities has emerged as a "global" phenomenon with Earth system consequences. Northeast China is an area where the largest land cultivation activities by migrants have happened in China during the past 300 years. In this paper, methods including documentary data calibration and multi-sourced data conversion model are used to reconstruct historical cropland cover change in Northeast China during the past 300 years. It is concluded that human beings have remarkably changed the natural landscape of the region by land cultivation in the past 300 years. Cropland area has increased almost exponentially during the past 300 years, especially during the past 100 years when the ratio of cropland cover changed from 10% to 20%. Until the middle of the 19th century, the agricultural area was still mainly restricted in Liaoning Province. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, dramatic changes took place when the northern boundary of cultivation had extended to the middle of Heilongjiang Province. During the 20th century, three agricultural regions with high ratio of cropland cover were formed after the two phases of spatial expansion of cropland area in 1900s—1930s and 1950s—1980s. Since 1930s—1940s, the expansion of new cultivated area have invaded the forest lands especially in Jilin and Heilongjiang Provinces.

  7. Cropland cover change in Northeast China during the past 300 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yu; FANG XiuQi; REN YuYu; ZHANG XueZhen; CHEN Li

    2009-01-01

    Land use/cover change induced by human activities has emerged as a "global" phenomenon with Earth system consequences. Northeast China is an area where the largest land cultivation activities by migrants have happened in China during the pest 300 years. In this paper, methods including docu mentary data calibration and multi-sourced data conversion model are used to reconstruct historical cropland cover change in Northeast China during the past 300 years. It is concluded that human beings have remarkably changed the natural landscape of the region by land cultivation in the pest 300 years. Cropland area has increased almost exponentially during the past 300 years, especially during the past 100 years when the ratio of cropland cover changed from 10% to 20%. Until the middle of the 19th century, the agricultural area was still mainly restricted in Liaoning Province. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, dramatic changes took place when the northern boundary of cultivation had extended to the middle of Heilongjiang Province. During the 20th century, three agricultural regions with high ratio of cropland cover were formed after the two phases of spatial expansion of cropland area in 1900s-1930s and 1950s-1980s. Since 1930s--1940s, the expansion of new cultivated area have invaded the forest lands especially in Jilin and Heilongjiang Provinces.

  8. Objective identification research on cold vortex and mid-summer rainy periods in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚志强; 封泰晨; 房一禾

    2015-01-01

    Considering the differences between the Northeast China Cold Vortex (CV) and the Mid-Summer (MS) rainy period and their corresponding atmospheric circulations are comprehensively analyzed, and the objective identification methods of defining the annual beginning and ending dates of Northeast China CV and MS rainy periods are developed respectively. The annual beginning date of the CV (MS) rainy period is as follows. In a period from April to August, if daily regional mean precipitation ryi is larger than yearly regional mean precipitation R (or 2R) on a certain day, the station precipitation rs is larger than the station yearly mean precipitation hri (or 2hri) in at least 50%of stations in Northeast China, and this condition is satisfied in the following 2 (7) days, then this date is defined as the beginning date of the CV (MS) rainy period. While the definition of the ending date of the MS rainy period shows the opposite process to its beginning date. With this objective identification method, the multi-year average (1981–2010) beginning date of the CV rainy period is May 3, the beginning date of the MS rainy period is June 27, the ending day of the CV rainy period is defined as the day before the beginning date of the MS rainy period, and the ending date of the MS rainy period is August 29. Meanwhile, corresponding anomaly analysis at a 500-hPa geopotential height, 850-hPa wind, Omega and relative humidity fields all show that the definitions of the average beginning and ending dates of the CV and MS rainy periods have a certain circulation meaning. Furthermore, the daily evolution of the CV index, meridional and zonal wind index, etc. all show that these objectively defined beginning and ending dates of the CV and MS rainy periods have climate significance.

  9. Satellite Remote Sensing-Based In-Season Diagnosis of Rice Nitrogen Status in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanyu Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice farming in Northeast China is crucially important for China’s food security and sustainable development. A key challenge is how to optimize nitrogen (N management to ensure high yield production while improving N use efficiency and protecting the environment. Handheld chlorophyll meter (CM and active crop canopy sensors have been used to improve rice N management in this region. However, these technologies are still time consuming for large-scale applications. Satellite remote sensing provides a promising technology for large-scale crop growth monitoring and precision management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using FORMOSAT-2 satellite images to diagnose rice N status for guiding topdressing N application at the stem elongation stage in Northeast China. Five farmers’ fields (three in 2011 and two in 2012 were selected from the Qixing Farm in Heilongjiang Province of Northeast China. FORMOSAT-2 satellite images were collected in late June. Simultaneously, 92 field samples were collected and six agronomic variables, including aboveground biomass, leaf area index (LAI, plant N concentration (PNC, plant N uptake (PNU, CM readings and N nutrition index (NNI defined as the ratio of actual PNC and critical PNC, were determined. Based on the FORMOSAT-2 imagery, a total of 50 vegetation indices (VIs were computed and correlated with the field-based agronomic variables. Results indicated that 45% of NNI variability could be explained using Ratio Vegetation Index 3 (RVI3 directly across years. A more practical and promising approach was proposed by using satellite remote sensing to estimate aboveground biomass and PNU at the panicle initiation stage and then using these two variables to estimate NNI indirectly (R2 = 0.52 across years. Further, the difference between the estimated PNU and the critical PNU can be used to guide the topdressing N application rate adjustments.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of dental caries in an elderly population in northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65-74 years from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT and decayed-filled teeth (DFT indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197. T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40, and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (P<0.01. Missing teeth accounted for 80.72% of DMFT, and filled teeth due to caries accounted for 2.08% with a rate higher in urban areas (P<0.01. Logistic regression analysis indicated significant association among elderly population in urban areas (OR 1.713; 95% CI 1.337-2.195, smoking (OR 1.779; 95% CI 1.384-2.288, and individuals without dental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120-3.754 with dental caries. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries.

  11. Climate effects on crop yields in the Northeast Farming Region of China during 1961–2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    Crop production in the Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR) is affected considerably by variation in climatic conditions. Data on crop yield and weather conditions from a number of agro-meteorological stations in NFR were used in a mixed linear model to evaluate the impacts of climatic variables...... on the yield of maize (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in different crop growth phases. The crop growing season was divided into three growth phases based on the average crop phenological dates from records covering 1981 and 2010...

  12. Prospering Revolution of Resource Efficiency in Northeast Industrial Area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiancheng; Liu Zeyuan

    2007-01-01

    Despite its strong advantages in resource,technology and human resource.China's Northeast Industrial Area iS alsoexperiencing problems of unreasonable industrial structure,environmental pollution,and the degradation of ecological condition.etc.which prevent this area from achieving a sustainable development.Through analyzing the resouce problem,the present paper pmposed a stramgy of circular economy for the prosperity Of this are.disussed the theories of circular economy and resogrce recycling,and finally concluded that improving resource productivity iS at the core of circular economy.

  13. Industrial and Employment Structural Imbalance in Northeast China and Agricultural Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Suping; WANG Yalin; ZHU Yong

    2009-01-01

    Balanced development between industrial and employment structures are important indicators of regional economic and social health. By introducing indicators such as industrial structure deviation, comparative labor productivity, international comparison of relative labor productivity as well as employment elasticity, the paper further probed into intricate causes for the imbalance between industrial and employment structures in this specific region from a new angle which based on the evolution process analyses of both industrial and employment structures in Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang in Northeast China. The paper also suggested policy measures to strengthen agricultural developments and to facilitate the balance between industrial and employment structures.

  14. New Jurassic Fossil True Bugs of the Pachymeridiidae (Hemiptera:Pentatomomorpha) from Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yunzhi; CAI Wanzhi; REN Dong

    2008-01-01

    Four new fossil genera and species of true bugs from the family Pachymeridiidae,Beipiaocoris multifurcus, Bellicoris mirabilis, Nitoculus regillus, and Viriosinervis stolidus, are described. New specimens were collected from the Middle and Upper Jurassic non-marine sedimentary strata from the Jiulongshan and Yixian Formations of northeast China. The species Karatavocoris asiatica Becker-Migdisova, 1963, which was considered to be a member of the family Coreidae is transferred to the Pachymeridiidae. A new map of all known and newly discovered fossil pachymeridiid localities is given. The diagnosis of the family is modified.

  15. Recent atmospheric dust deposition in an ombrotrophic peat bog in Great Hinggan Mountain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Yu, Xiaofei; Zhao, Hongmei; McLaughlin, Neil; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

    2012-08-01

    Recent deposition of atmospheric soil dust (ASD) was studied using (210)Pb-dated Sphagnum-derived peat sequences from Great Hinggan Mountain in northeast China. Physicochemical indices of peat including dry bulk density, water content, ash content, total organic carbon and mass magnetic susceptibility were measured. Acid-insoluble concentration of lithogenic metals (Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, V and Ti) were measured using ICP-AES. The basic physicochemical properties were used to assess the peat trophic status and indicated that the sections above 45-60 cm are rain-fed peat. A continuous record of ASD fluxes over the past 150 years was reconstructed based on the geochemical data obtained from the ombrotrophic zone, and the average input rate of ASD is 13.4-68.1 g m(-2) year(-1). The source of soil dust deposited in peat was dominated by the long-range transport of mineral aerosol from the drylands in north China and Mongolia. The temporal variation of ASD fluxes in the last 60 years coincides well with the meteorological records of dust storm frequency during 1954-2002 in north China. This suggests that the reconstructed sequence of atmospheric dust deposition is reliable and we can look back in time at the dust evolution before 1949. Dust storm events were observed occasionally in the late Qing dynasty, and their frequency and intensity were smaller than dust weather occurring in recent times. Four peaks of ASD fluxes were distinguished and correlated with the historical events at that time. This study presents the first atmospheric soil dust data in peat records in northeast China, and complements a global database of peat bog archives of atmospheric deposition. The results reflect the patterns of local environmental change over the past century in north China and will be helpful in formulating policies to achieve sustainable and healthy development.

  16. Orbital forcing in the early Miocene alluvial sediments of the western Ebro Basin, Northeast Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, M.; Larrasoaña, J. C.; Muñoz, A.; Margalef, O.; Murelaga, X.

    2009-04-01

    time interval of about 500 kyr centered around chron C6r, although inferred absolute ages diverge depending on the assumed calibration of geomagnetic reversals with the astronomical time scale (Billups et al., 2004, Lourens et al., 2004). The section was sampled with a portable drill at regular intervals of about 30 cms, representing a time resolution of near 1 kyr. Spectral analysis of different measured parameters (lithology code, color, magnetic susceptibility and other rock magnetic parameters) revealed significant power at 20.4 m, 9.6 m and 4.2 m, which correspond to a ratio of 1:2.1:4.9 similar to that given by the Milankovitch cycles of eccentricity, obliquity and precession. Maximum power in the spetrum is focused in the eccentricity and obliquity bands while signal corresponding to precession is weakly expressed. The existing uncertainties in the astronomical tuning of the Early Miocene geomagnetic polarity time scale prevents us from using magnetostratigraphy to anchor the Peñarroya record with the astronomical solutions (Laskar et al., 2004). Instead, we have tried the expression of the eccentricity cycle to tune the Peñarroya section. We correlated the thick red clayed (dry phase) intervals with eccentricity minima, a phase relationship which is in agreement with that derived from earlier studies in marine and continental records from the Miocene of the Iberian plate (Abels et al., 2008, Sierro et al., 2000). The resulting tuning of the Peñarroya section yields an age for the base of geomagnetic chron C6r which fits with earlier work of Billups et al., (2004), while the top of C6r gives a significantly younger age. References Abels, H., Abdul Aziz, A., Calvo, J.P. and Tuenter, E., 2008. Shallow lacustrine carbonate microfacies document orbitally paced lake-level history in the Miocene Teruel Basin (North-East Spain), Sedimentology doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3091.2008.00976.x. Billups, K., Pälike, H., Channell, J.E.T., Zachos, J. and Shackleton, N.J., 2004

  17. Groundwater Systems and Resources in the Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Guangcai; LIANG Yongping; SU Xiaosi; ZHAO Zhenghong; TAO Zhengping; YIN Lihe; YANG Yuncheng; WANG Xiaoyong

    2008-01-01

    The Ordos Basin is.a large-scalesedimentary basin in northwestern China. The hydrostratigraphic units from bottom to top are pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks, Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks, Upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic clastic rocks and Cenozoic deposits. The total thickness is up to 6000 m. Three groundwater systems are present in the Ordos Basin, based on the geological settings, I.e. The karst groundwater system, the Cretaceous dastic groundwater system and the Quaternary groundwater system. This paper describes systematically the groundwater flow patterns of each system and overall assessment of groundwater resources.

  18. Assessing the characteristics of extreme precipitation over northeast China using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Haibo; Wu, Zhengfang; Zong, Shengwei; Meng, Xiangjun; Wang, Lei

    2013-06-01

    Extreme climate events have inflicted severe and adverse effects on human life, social economy, and natural ecosystems. In this study, the precipitation time series from a network of 90 weather stations in Northeast China (NEC) and for the period of 1961-2009 are used. An objective method, the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis method, is applied to determine the thresholds of extreme events. Notable occurrence frequency and strong intensity of extreme precipitation (EP) mainly occur in Liaoning Province and the piedmont regions in Changbai Mountains and Xiao Hinggan Mountains. Generally, EP frequency shows a nonsignificant negative trend, whereas EP intensity has a weak and nonsignificant positive trend for the entire NEC in the period of 1961-2009. To assess EP severity, we propose an EP severity index (EPSI) combining both EP frequency and intensity, rather than separately analyze the EP frequency or intensity. Spatial gradients of EPSI are observed in northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast directions over NEC. The EPSI in northwestern and southeastern NEC are low (0.02-0.3), whereas high EPSI (0.34-0.83) occurs in the southwestern and northeastern portions of the region. Higher EPSI (0.4-0.83) occurs in southern Liaoning Province, which decreases along the southwest-northeast direction. The spatial patterns of EPSI are associated with the circulation over East Asia. Areas that have a short distance from sea and that locate in the windward slope of mountain will probably accompany high EP severity over NEC.

  19. Plate tectonic setting and genetic types of gas (oil)-bearing basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一伟; 陈发景; 陆克政; 漆家福

    1997-01-01

    The plate tectonic setting and genetic types of the gas (oil)-bearing basins in China are studied. Based on the history of break-up and amalgamation of Pangea, the three tectonic evolutionary megastages can be divided and the sedimentary basins in China are classified as Palaeozoic and Meso-Cenozoic basins. The Palaeozoic gas(oil)-bearing basins are mainly located in intracratonic basins, on which different types of Meso-Cenozoic basins are superimposed, and located in cratonic marginal basins and aulacogens destroyed with a slight degree, (n contrast, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic gas (oil)-bearing basins mainly formed in extensional foreland and intracontmental shortening flexural basins.

  20. Tarim Basin: China's Potential Oil Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Baolin

    1996-01-01

    @@ Tarim Basin has an area of 560,000 square kilometers.Taklamakan Desert, the world's second largest shifting desert, is located in the hinterland of the basin. The desert is equal to Germany in area. The desert is called "Desert of No Return" for its harsh and adverse environments. A 522-kilometer highway crossing the desert from north to south was opened to the traffic in 1995 because an oilfield with the reserves of more than 100 million tons was discovered in the central part of the basin. The local traffic and ecological conditions have been much improved in the recent years.

  1. Technical Innovation of Land Treatment Systems for Municipal Wastewater in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi-Xing; ZHANG Qian-Ru; SUN Tie-Heng

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of ecological principles including holistic optimization, cycling and regeneration, and regional differen tiation, land treatment systems (LTSs) for municipal wastewater were continuously explored and updated in the western Shenyang area and the Huolinhe area, China. Intensified pretreatment, addition of a man-made soil filtration layer, and use of an ecologically diversified secondary plant cover were proved to be technically feasible. Hydraulic loading was de termined according to the assimilation capacity of soil ecosystems, thus ensuring safe operation of wastewater treatment.This modernized and alternative approach to wastewater treatment had been widely applied in middle-sized and small cities and towns of Northeast China, and these innovative systems in some areas had indicated favorable ecological, social,and economic benefits.

  2. Geochemical survey of thermal system in Northeast China and their geothermometric characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Hazaea; HU Ke; Mohammed Mattash; CHEN Bing; M. O. Al-Jabali Aref; Mohammed Abdussalam

    2004-01-01

    The chemical composition of several thermal springs around Changbaishan area has been investigated.Cenozoic basaltic rocks are widely distributed in Northeast China and geothermal characteristics have been described.About one hundred hot springs exist around Changbaishan Volcano at the border between China and D.P.R.Korea with high temperature about 82℃. The pH values of the spring water range from 6.9 to 7.1 and the total flow rate is about 4.8 L /sec. The chemical composition of the thermal springs is sodium carbonate; the high-mineral contents of thermal water are believed to have medicinal properties. Bathhouses are already built along the hot springs to take the advantage of the supposed healing properties. The high quality of those hot springs is believed to be utilitized for mineral water. The chemical equilibrium temperatures were estimated at about 160℃ based on the Na-K-Ca geochemical thermometer.

  3. Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic disease in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Kou, Changgui; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; D'Arcy, Carl; Shi, Jieping; Wu, Yanhua; Liu, Jianwei; Zhu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin

    2015-05-01

    Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic diseases in the adult population of northeast China are examined. The Jilin Provincial Chronic Disease Survey used personal interviews and physical measures to research the presence of a range of chronic diseases among a large sample of rural and urban provincial residents aged 18 to 79 years (N = 21 435). Logistic regression analyses were used. After adjusting for age and gender, rural residents had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic low back pain, arthritis, chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcer, chronic cholecystitis/gallstones, and chronic lower respiratory disease. Low education, low income, and smoking increased the risk of chronic diseases in rural areas. Reducing rural-urban differences in chronic disease presents a formidable public health challenge for China. The solution requires focusing attention on issues endemic to rural areas such as poverty, lack of chronic disease knowledge, and the inequality in access to primary care.

  4. Sandy desertification trend in western Northeast China Plain in the past 10 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The west sandy land of the Northeast China Plain is located in the eastern huge sandy belt of mid-latitude in Eurasia and the eastern fringe of desertified land with best bio-climatic conditions in China. With rapid economic development, the deterioration of eco-environment has occurred and the desertification becomes very obvious. The first part of this paper studies the regional differences of landscape patterns and explores the regional differences of desertification. The second part aims to reveal the dynamics of desertification in the 1990s by using NOAA/AVHRR data and thematic data in GIS database. This work lays a scientific basis for the rehabilitation and development of the sandy lands.

  5. A Review of Mineral Resources and GIS Applications in Mineral Resource Assessment in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yunxuan; Wang Lei; Liu Wansong; Xu Huiping; Sun Fengyue

    2000-01-01

    Northeast China is one of the regions in China that possesses a great abundance of mineral resources.Coal, petroleum, natural gas, gold, iron, magnesite, graphite, talc, molding sand, glass sand and some others account for large portion in reserves and yields of that in the whole country. The region faced also shortages of copper, molybdenum, oil shale, zirconium, tantalum, rare earth, and beryllium, although they have large reserves,but limited by economical and technical factors. Geological mapping and mineral exploration activities have been intensive. Only the north part of Daxinanling Mountains in the region leaves unexplored. GIS applications in mineral resource assessment in the region start not long. Databases for GIS applications are on the way of construction.Well - trained technical staff and expertise do not meet the demand.This article reviews the situation of mineral resources and GIS applications for mineral resource assessment in the region. Suggestions on multi - lateral cooperation and GIS training are also made.

  6. Study on the Method of Soil Productivity Assessment in Black Soil Region of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Xing-wu; XIE Yun; FENG Yan-jie; YIN Shui-qing

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate a simple and practical method for soil productivity assessment in the black soil region of Northeast China.Firstly,eight kinds of physicochemical properties for each of 120 soil samples collected from 25 black soil profiles were analyzed using cluster and correlation analysis.Subsequently,parameter indices were calculated using physicochemical properties.Finally,a modified productivity index(MPI)model were developed and validated.The results showed that the suitable parameters for soil productivity assessment in black soil region of Northeast China were soil available water,soil pH,clay content,and organic matter content.Compared with original productivity index(PI)model,MPI model added clay content and organic matter content in parameters while omitted bulk density.Simulation results of original PI model and MPI model were compared using crop yield of land block where investigated soil profiles were located.MPI model was proven to perform better with a higher significant correlation with maize yield.The correlation equation between MPI and yield was:Y=3.2002Ln(MP/)+10.056,R2=0.7564.The results showed that MPI model was an effective and practical method to assess soil productivity in the research area.

  7. Responses of plant nutrient resorption to phosphorus addition in freshwater marsh of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Hou; Song, Chang-Chun

    2015-01-29

    Anthropogenic activities have increased phosphorus (P) inputs to most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. However, the relationship between plant nutrient resorption and P availability is still unclear, and much less is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we used a multi-level P addition experiment (0, 1.2, 4.8, and 9.6 g P m(-2) year(-1)) to assess the effect of P enrichment on nutrient resorption at plant organ, species, and community levels in a freshwater marsh of Northeast China. The response of nutrient resorption to P addition generally did not vary with addition rates. Moreover, nutrient resorption exhibited similar responses to P addition across the three hierarchical levels. Specifically, P addition decreased nitrogen (N) resorption proficiency, P resorption efficiency and proficiency, but did not impact N resorption efficiency. In addition, P resorption efficiency and proficiency were linearly related to the ratio of inorganic P to organic P and organic P fraction in mature plant organs, respectively. Our findings suggest that the allocation pattern of plant P between inorganic and organic P fractions is an underlying mechanism controlling P resorption processes, and that P enrichment could strongly influence plant-mediated biogeochemical cycles through altered nutrient resorption in the freshwater wetlands of Northeast China.

  8. Single and joint stress of acetochlor and Pb on three agricultural crops in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO Lei; ZHOU Qi-xing; CHEN Su; CUI Shuang; WANG Mei-e

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate ecological risk of agrochemicals in agricultural environment, single and joint toxic effects of an important herbicide and a typical heavy metal on root elongation of crops were investigated. Seeds of the three crops including wheat (Triticum aestivum), Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekimensis) and soybean (Glycine max) as the main crops in northeast China were exposed to acetochlor as an herbicide and lead (Pb) as a heavy metal using the pot-culture method, and meadow brown soil as one of the main soils distributed in northeast China was applied in the investigation. The results indicated that the interactive effects of the two pollutants on root elongation of the three crops were very complicated although they had markedly significant (P<0.01) linear interrelationships based on the regression analyses. When the concentration of added Pb2+ reached 200 mg/kg, acetochlor and Pb had an antagonistic effect on the inhibition of root elongation of the three crops. However, acetochlor and Pb had significantly (P<0.05) synergic effects on the inhibition of root elongation when concentration of added Pb2+ was up to 1000 mg/kg. At the low concentration of added Pb, joint toxicity of acetochlor and Pb was more dependent on the concentration of Pb. Among the three crops, wheat was the most sensitive to the toxicity of Pb and Chinese cabbage was the most sensitive to the toxicity of acetochlor.

  9. Modified Ideal Cardiovascular Health Status is Associated with Lower Prevalence of Stroke in Rural Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010, the American Heart Association developed a new definition of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH based on seven cardiovascular health metrics. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between modified ideal CVH metrics and the risk of stroke in the rural population of Northeast China. Methods: We included 11,417 adults from the rural population in Northeast China and collected all the information, including the baseline characteristics, history of stroke, and the seven ideal CVH metrics. Results: Our results showed that the presence of stroke was associated with high body mass index (BMI, poor diet score (salt intake, high total cholesterol (TC, high blood pressure (BP, and high fasting plasma glucose (FPG. The prevalence of stroke increased as the number of ideal CVH metrics decreased, and peaked to 13.1% among those with only one ideal CVH metric. Participants with only one ideal CVH had a 4.40-fold increased susceptibility of stroke than those with all seven ideal health metrics. Conclusion: This study revealed that people with a better CVH status had a lower prevalence of stroke and the susceptibility of stroke increased with the decreasing of the number of ideal CVH metrics.

  10. Studies on the Situation of Soil Organic Carbon Storage in Croplands in Northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jian-jun; WANG Li-gang; TANG Hua-jun; LI Hong; Changsheng LI

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in Northeast of China, identify its balance situation and changing trends under current cropping systems, and finally put forward some strategies to keep the SOC in balance. A biogeochemical model (DNDC) for agro-ecosystem was employed to predict SOC dynamics in agricultural ecosystems at regional scale. Data on climate, soil properties, cropping systems, acreage, and management practices at county scale were collected from various sources and integrated into a GIS database to support the model runs at the regional scale.The model predicted results revealed that (1) Total SOC storage in agricultural lands in Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces in Northeast of China is about 1243.48 × 106 t (0-30cm soil layer), respectively occupying 58.4, 25.5 and 16.1%;(2) Under the current cultivation systems, SOC is in a situation of net loss with carbon losing at a high rate of 31.22 ×106 t a-1 (respectively 59.3, 25.9 and 14.8% in Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces) and 2.05 t ha-1 a-1, the situation is more serious in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces; and (3) Protective cultivations, such as manuring, returning more residue of crop to the field, adopting no-till, are very useful for the accumulation of SOC in these regions.

  11. Association between fifteen risk factors and progressing ischemic stroke in the Han population of northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shan-shan; TENG Da; YOU Ding-yun; SU Zhi-qiang; LI Fang; ZHAO Ji-yang

    2010-01-01

    Background The mortality and disability associated with progressing ischemic stroke are much higher than general ischemic stroke. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors for progressing ischemic stroke in the Han population of northeast China.Methods A total of 2511 patients with ischemic stroke within 24 hours admitted to Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University were studied, from November 2007 to May 2009. All of the patients were classified into the progressing or non-progressing group according to the scores of the Scandinavian Neurological Stroke Scale. Fifteen putative risk factors were evaluated. The influence of risk factors for progressing ischemic stroke was analyzed with the simple Logistic analysis, the multiple Logistic analysis, and the stepwise Logistic regression model. All the statistical analysis was performed by SAS 9.1.Results Totally 359 (14.3%) patients met the criteria for progressing ischemic stroke. The Logistic analysis showed that age, family stroke history, smoking history, hypertension on admission, a drop in blood pressure after admission to the hospital, high serum glucose on admission, and fever were related to progressing ischemic stroke in the Han population of northeast China.Conclusion People of the ischemic stroke with these factors are more likely to develop progressing ischemic stroke.

  12. Genetic divergence, range expansion and possible homoploid hybrid speciation among pine species in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, G-P; Abbott, R J; Zhou, Y-F; Zhang, L-R; Peng, Y-L; Liu, J-Q

    2012-05-01

    Although homoploid hybrid speciation in plants is probably more common than previously realized, there are few well-documented cases of homoploid hybrid origin in conifers. We examined genetic divergence between two currently widespread pines in Northeast China, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and Pinus densiflora, and also whether two narrowly distributed pines in the same region, Pinus funebris and Pinus takahasii, might have originated from the two widespread species by homoploid hybrid speciation. Our results, based on population genetic analysis of chloroplast (cp), mitochondrial (mt) DNA, and nuclear gene sequence variation, showed that the two widespread species were divergent for both cp- and mtDNA variation, and also for haplotype variation at two of eight nuclear gene loci surveyed. Our analysis further indicated that P. sylvestris var. mongolica and P. densiflora remained allopatric during the most severe Quaternary glacial period that occurred in Northeast China, but subsequently exhibited rapid range expansions. P. funebris and P. takahasii, were found to contain a mixture of chlorotypes and nuclear haplotypes that distinguish P. sylvestris var. mongolica and P. densiflora, in support of the hypothesis that they possibly originated via homoploid hybrid speciation following secondary contact and hybridization between P. sylvestris var. mongolica and P. densiflora.

  13. Responses of plant nutrient resorption to phosphorus addition in freshwater marsh of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Hou; Song, Chang-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased phosphorus (P) inputs to most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. However, the relationship between plant nutrient resorption and P availability is still unclear, and much less is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we used a multi-level P addition experiment (0, 1.2, 4.8, and 9.6 g P m-2 year-1) to assess the effect of P enrichment on nutrient resorption at plant organ, species, and community levels in a freshwater marsh of Northeast China. The response of nutrient resorption to P addition generally did not vary with addition rates. Moreover, nutrient resorption exhibited similar responses to P addition across the three hierarchical levels. Specifically, P addition decreased nitrogen (N) resorption proficiency, P resorption efficiency and proficiency, but did not impact N resorption efficiency. In addition, P resorption efficiency and proficiency were linearly related to the ratio of inorganic P to organic P and organic P fraction in mature plant organs, respectively. Our findings suggest that the allocation pattern of plant P between inorganic and organic P fractions is an underlying mechanism controlling P resorption processes, and that P enrichment could strongly influence plant-mediated biogeochemical cycles through altered nutrient resorption in the freshwater wetlands of Northeast China.

  14. Spatial Preference Heterogeneity for Integrated River Basin Management: The Case of the Shiyang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanus Asefaw Aregay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated river basin management (IRBM programs have been launched in most parts of China to ease escalating environmental degradation. Meanwhile, little is known about the benefits from and the support for these programs. This paper presents a case study of the preference heterogeneity for IRBM in the Shiyang River Basin, China, as measured by the Willingness to Pay (WTP, for a set of major restoration attributes. A discrete choice analysis of relevant restoration attributes was conducted. The results based on a sample of 1012 households in the whole basin show that, on average, there is significant support for integrated ecological restoration as indicated by significant WTP for all ecological attributes. However, residential location induced preference heterogeneities are prevalent. Generally, compared to upper-basin residents, middle sub-basin residents have lower mean WTP while lower sub-basin residents express higher mean WTP. The disparity in utility is partially explained by the difference in ecological and socio-economic status of the residents. In conclusion, estimating welfare benefit of IRBM projects based on sample responses from a specific sub-section of the basin only may either understate or overstate the welfare estimate.

  15. Fossil and Nonfossil Sources of Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosols in the Outflow from Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Agrios, Konstantinos; Lee, Meehye; Salazar, Gary; Szidat, Sönke

    2016-06-21

    Source quantification of carbonaceous aerosols in the Chinese outflow regions still remains uncertain despite their high mass concentrations. Here, we unambiguously quantified fossil and nonfossil contributions to elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) of total suspended particles (TSP) from a regional receptor site in the outflow of Northeast China using radiocarbon measurement. OC and EC concentrations were lower in summer, representing mainly marine air, than in other seasons, when air masses mostly traveled over continental regions in Mongolia and northeast China. The annual-mean contribution from fossil-fuel combustion to EC was 76 ± 11% (0.1-1.3 μg m(-3)). The remaining 24 ± 11% (0.03-0.42 μg m(-3)) was attributed to biomass burning, with slightly higher contribution in the cold period (∼31%) compared to the warm period (∼21%) because of enhanced emissions from regional biomass combustion sources in China. OC was generally dominated by nonfossil sources, with an annual average of 66 ± 11% (0.5-2.8 μg m(-3)), approximately half of which was apportioned to primary biomass-burning sources (34 ± 6%). In winter, OC almost equally originated from primary OC (POC) emissions and secondary OC (SOC) formation from fossil fuel and biomass-burning sources. In contrast, summertime OC was dominated by primary biogenic emissions as well as secondary production from biogenic and biomass-burning sources, but fossil-derived SOC was the smallest contributor. Distinction of POC and SOC was performed using primary POC-to-EC emission ratios separated for fossil and nonfossil emissions.

  16. Biology and natural enemies of Agrilus fleischeri (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a newly emerging destructive buprestid pest in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    The jewel beetle Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a newly emerging major pest of poplar trees (Populus spp.) in northeast China and is responsible for the poplar mortality throughout its distribution range. In order to determine how to manage this pest effectively, we stud...

  17. Analysis of organic acids in selected forest litters of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONGJin-feng; CUIXiao-yang

    2003-01-01

    Larch (Larix olgensis), Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica), Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and White birch (Betula platyphylla) are the major planting species in northeast China. The samples of forest litters were collected from the stands of the above 4 species in Laoyeling and Jianlagou experiment stations of Maorshan Exp. Forest Farm (45°12′-45°30′N,127°30′-127°48′E), Northeast Forestry University, in early October 2002. Quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis were carried out on the organic acids existing in freshly fallen litters (L layer) and hemi-decomposed litters (F layer) of the four forest species by using Gas Chromatogram system. A wide variety of organic acids were identified, including oxalic, malonic, fumaric,succinic, maleic, malic, citric, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 and C20:0 acids. In respect of L litters of all samples, the oxalic acid content (over 30 mg/g) was the highest of the seven low-molecular-weight organic acids identified, while the content of oleic or linoleic (above 40 mg/g) was found to be highest among the six high aliphatic acids identified. As to F litters, oxalic acid content was also the highest, followed by linoleic and oleic. For the same tree species or the same forest, the kinds and contents of organic acids in L litters were more abundant than that in F litters.

  18. Climatic Control on Forests and Tree Species Distribution in the Forest Region of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    North-east (NE) China covers considerable climatic gradients and all major forests types of NE Asia. In the present study, 10 major forest types across the forest region of NE China were sampled to investigate forest distribution in relation to climate. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that growing season precipitation and energy availability were primary climatic factors for the overall forest pattern of NE China, accounting for 66% of the explanatory power of CCA. Conversely, annual precipitation and winter coldness had minor effects. Generalized additive models revealed that tree species responded to climatic gradients differently and showed three types of response curve: (i) monotonous decline; (ii) monotonous increase; and (iii) a unimodal pattern. Furthermore, tree species showed remarkable differences in limiting climatic factors for their distribution. The power of climate in explaining species distribution declined significantly with decreasing species dominance, suggesting that the distribution of dominant species was primarily controlled by climate, whereas that of subordinate species was more affected by competition from other species.

  19. Sustainability assessment for Yanbian forest region, Jilin Province, Northeast China, based on ecological footprint model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiaofei; CHEN Fusheng; HU Anfeng; DAI Limin

    2007-01-01

    Ecological footprint(EF)is one of the most important indicators in assessing the status and capacity of sustainable development.In this paper,the EF of Yanbian forest region,Jilin Province,Northeast China,was calculated and analyzed by statistical yearbooks and forest yearbooks from 1996 to 2002.Results showed that the EF per capita decreased,ecological carrying capacity(ECC)per capita almost kept a static status,and ecological surplus per capita increased year after year.The EF per 10 thousand Yuan GDP per capita in Yanbian decreased from 1996 to 2002.This trend was similar to that in western China,and distinctly higher than that in eastern China.The forest EF per capita kept a steady status,while the forest production footprint (FPF)and forest export footprint(FEF)decreased.Comparing the two years before and after the implementation of Natural Forest Protection Program(NFPP)with the five years,the mean value of FPF and FEF reduced by 0.341 (46.32%)and 0.327 hm2 per capita(54.94%),respectively.In conclusion,the regional and forest development in Yanbian was sustainable,and the implementation of NFPP was favorable to improving sustainable development of forest region.However,the sustainability capacity was still lower than those in forest developed countries.Therefore,it is very necessary to improve forest productivity,resource use efficiency and management of forest ecosystems scientifically.

  20. Upper Paleozoic petroleum system, Ordos Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, X.M.; Zhao, B.Q.; Thu, Z.L.; Song, Z.G. [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wilkins, R.W.T. [CSIRO Petroleum, P.O. Box 136, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    The Ordos Basin is a typical lapped basin, including three sequences of strata: early Paleozoic, late Paleozoic and Mesozoic, with a total thickness of 4000-6000m. Impermeable sealing beds are well developed at the top and base of the upper Paleozoic sequence, separating it from the Mesozoic and the lower Paleozoic strata to form an independent petroleum system. In this petroleum system, the source rocks are widely distributed coals and dark mudstones occurring in the Carboniferous-lower Permian coal measures, with a thickness of 10-15 and 40-60m, respectively. The reservoirs are mainly early Permian tight sandstones, mostly with a porosity of 4-8% and a permeability of 0.1-1.0x10{sup -3}{mu}m{sup 2}. The regional cap rock is a 100-150m thick mudstone in the upper Permian strata. The structural framework of the basin is a huge asymmetric syncline, dipping gently toward the east and north, and steeply toward the south and west. Well data show that gas-saturated, gas-water transition and water-saturated zones are developed from the depositional center to the basin edges. The gas-saturated zone mainly lies in the gently dipping slope area of the Shanbei Slope. Toward eastern and northern up-dip directions the water-gas transitional zone occurs, and finally the water-saturated zone, presenting a reverse relation of water on top of gas. An abnormal negative strata pressure is developed in the gas-bearing area, with a pressure coefficient (C{sub p}) ranging from 0.83 to 0.95. Fluid inclusion data indicate that the upper Paleozoic gas pool began to develop around the Wuqi area at about 150Ma, and it extended toward the north and was largely formed at about 120Ma, showing there was a regional migration of the gas-water interface from south to north during the gas pool formation. These characteristics appear to show that the northern and eastern margins of the petroleum system are defined by a regional hydrodynamic regime. The critical moment of the petroleum system

  1. Biomass accumulation and nutrient uptake of 16 riparian woody plant species in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuai Yu; Wei Chen; Xingyuan He; Zhouli Liu; Yanqing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Our research focused on eutrophication control and species screening for riparian zone vegetation restoration in the upstream reach of the Hun River. We studied 16 hardwood plant species to investigate nutrient concentrations and nitrogen and phosphorus accumulations. After about 120 days of growth in pots, these 16 species varied in dry matter biomass, ranging from 15.13 to 637.16 g. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and distribution in roots, stems and foliage differed both within and between tested species. Mean TN and TP accumulation ranged from 0.167 to 14.730 g per plant and from 0.016 to 1.20 g, respectively. All 16 species, but especially Lespedeza bicolor, Robinia pseudoacacia and Sorbaria sorbifolia had strong potential to remove TN and TP from soil and could be widely utilized for the restora-tion of destroyed riparian zones in northeast China.

  2. [Studies on multiple factor intervention in stroke of ten areas in northeast, north China and Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Guo, Z; Wang, Y

    1996-03-01

    In order to explore the ways to prevent from the disease, 4,793 subjects aged over 40 at high risk of stroke from a total population of 250,000 in communities with high incidence of it were studied with multiple factor intervention, by oral administration of "Nao An" capsules as a major measure in 10 areas of north and northeast China, as well as Shanghai, during 1990 to 1993. Three years after intervention, incidence of stroke decreased by 49.17% in the population, with reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, levels of blood sugar, cholesterol and triglyceride. Lowering of stroke incidence correlated positively with that of blood pressure in the population. It suggests stroke can be prevented effectively by concentrated efforts in comprehensive intervention in individuals at high risk.

  3. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SALINE- ALKALI SOIL AREA OF SONGNEN PLAIN,NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-chun; LI Qu-sheng; LI Xiu-jun; SONG Chang-chun; ZHANG Guang-xin

    2003-01-01

    There is great potential for agriculture in saline-alkali soil area in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Butthe sustainable crop production in this area has been restricted by a few of main factors, such as less precipitation, higherevaporation and frequent drought, high salinity and alkalinity, high exchangeable sodium content and poor infiltration ofthe soil, and insufficiency and low availability in nutrition. It is also considered that there are a few of favorable condi-tions for agricultural development in this region, such as sufficient light and heat resources, rich ground water resources,plenty of manure produced by livestock, and so on. At the same time, scientific management and measurements havebeen employed; rational irrigation and drainage system has been established; reclamation, amendment and fertilization ofsoil, and suitable strategies of cropping practices have been made for the sustainable development of agriculture. Greatprogress has been made during 1996- 2000.

  4. A Comparative Analysis on Urbanization of Former Industrial Bases in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The concentrated urbanization with the priority given to large cities and the balanced urbanization with the emphasis laid on small towns development are the two major urbanization patterns nowadays.The paper analyzes the urbanization pattern of the Great Lakes Industrial Area of US and the Ruhr Industrial Area of Germany,and compares it with the urbanization pattern of the former industrial base in Northeast China,which indicates that the development of the former industrial base is in a dilemma between the choices of these two urbanization patterns.In consequence,the paper discusses the choice of urbanization pattern of the former industrial base from the perspective of regional and spatial distinctions,as well as carrying out a countermeasure study on the urbanization patterns of different areas.

  5. Comprehensive Evaluation on Urban Sustainable Development of Harbin City in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Chunmiao; SHANG Jincheng

    2009-01-01

    It is an effective way in realizing urban coordinated and sustainable development to establish a series of indicators and to evaluate urban environmental and socioeconomic development. According to the characteristics of Harbin City in Northeast China, an indicator system including five subsystems and 37 indicators was established for comprehensive evaluation on urban sustainable development. The development indexes of all urban subsystems and complex system were calculated quantitatively using the comprehensively integrated methods composed of Principle Component Analysis, Analytic Hierarchy Process and weighed index method, and then the comprehensive level of urban sustainable development and the degree of urban interior coordination were analyzed. The results indicated that 1) the overall urban development presented an uptrend, however, the interior development was not well balanced from 1996 to 2006; 2) the development in each subsystem presented a strong fluctuation; and 3) the development in resources subsystem showed a downtrend. Based on those results, the suggestions of urban sustainable development were put forward at the end.

  6. Intra-specific variations of two Leymus chinensis divergence populations in Songnen Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Population demography, seed production, biomassallocation, net photosynthesis and transpiration of two Leymuschinensis divergence populations and between two years in Songnenplain, northeast China were compared. Strong differences betweenthe dry 1997 and moist 1998 occurred in vegetative shoot and sexualshoot densities, sexual differentiation and tiller densities, aswell as in the lengths of inflorescence, seed numbers perinflorescence, seed weights and biomass allocation in eachpopulation respectively (P0.05). Excepting the transpiration rate in the early June, the differences between the two populations in net photosynthesis and transpiration rate of vegetative shoots and sexual shoots were strongly significant in the early June and July respectively (P<0.01). Relative stable variations in population demography and physiological traits between the two populations indicated that they are divergently in the Songnen Plain.

  7. Natural Mongolian Pine Forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhiqiang; Liu Tong; Zhou Lin

    2003-01-01

    Based upon 134 reléves, the vegetation of the forests with Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) of the Great Xing'an Mountains in the northeast China was classified into 3 communities, 7 types and 4 subtypes by numerical cluster analysis. 1) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Populus davidiana-community was found on relatively dry sites. It was subdivided into a Quercus mongolica-type, consisting of a Adenophora tetraphylla subtype, a Pulsatilla dahurica subtype, and a pure type; 2) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Rhododendron dauricum-community occurred on medium dry sites. It included a Calamagrostis angustifolia type, consisting of a Cladonia arbuscula subtype, a pure subtype, and a Rubus idaeus-type; 3) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Ledum palustre-community was found on periodically wet sites. It included a Picea koraiensis type, a Vaccinium uliginosum type, and a pure type.

  8. The current status, threats and protection way of Sanjiang Plain wetland, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUZhi-qiang; LIUTong

    2005-01-01

    The Sanjiang Plain is a vast area of alluvial floodplains and low hills in northeast Heilongjiang Province. It is the largest tract of wetlands in China and East Asia outside of Siberia. 28 wetland nature reserves exist on the Sanjiang Plain, and three of them have been listed as wetlands of international importance to water bird conservation by the Ramsar Convention Bureau. The wetlands of Sanjiang Plain are noteworthy for its rich biodiversity, but they continue to decline in area and deteriorate in quality currently. The main threats or constrains, immediate cause, root cause and required response are analyzed in this paper, and the four aspects opinion such as improvement of watershed management, enhancement of protection and restoration of habitats and biodiversity, alternative livelihoods of rural residents living in and near natural wetland reserve, and reinforcement of capacity building of natural reserves are brought forward as the effective measures for the Sanjiang Plain wetland protection.

  9. A temperature-precipitation based leafing model and its application in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Ping Li

    Full Text Available Plant phenology models, especially leafing models, play critical roles in evaluating the impact of climate change on the primary production of temperate plants. Existing models based on temperature alone could not accurately simulate plant leafing in arid and semi-arid regions. The objective of the present study was to test the suitability of the existing temperature-based leafing models in arid and semi-arid regions, and to develop a temperature-precipitation based leafing model (TP, based on the long-term (i.e., 12-27 years ground leafing observation data and meteorological data in Northeast China. The better simulation of leafing for all the plant species in Northeast China was given by TP with the fixed starting date (TPn than with the parameterized starting date (TPm, which gave the smallest average root mean square error (RMSE of 4.21 days. Tree leafing models were validated with independent data, and the coefficient of determination (R(2 was greater than 0.60 in 75% of the estimates by TP and the spring warming model (SW with the fixed starting date. The average RMSE of herb leafing simulated by TPn was 5.03 days, much lower than other models (>9.51 days, while the average R(2 of TPn and TPm were 0.68 and 0.57, respectively, much higher than the other models (<0.22. It indicates that TPn is a universal model and more suitable for simulating leafing of trees and herbs than the prior models. Furthermore, water is an important factor determining herb leafing in arid and semi-arid temperate regions.

  10. Spatial Variability of Nutrient Properties in Black Soil of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xing-Yi; SUI Yue-Yu; ZHANG Xu-Dong; MENG Kai; S.J.HERBERT

    2007-01-01

    A total of 1400 soil samples from the plow layer (0-20 cm) at an approximate interval of 5 km were collected in the autumn of 2002 over the entire black soil arable crops region to determine the spatial variability of seven variables, such as total organic matter content (OMC), total N, total P, total K, alkali-dissolvable N (AN), available P (AP) and available K (AK), with classical statistics and geostatistical analysis across the entire black soil area in Northeast China. In nonsampled areas ordinary kriging was utilized for interpolation of estimated nutrient determinations. Classical statistics revealed highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlations with all seven of the soil properties, except for OMC with AP and total K with AK. In addition, using coefficients of variation, all soil properties, except for total K, were moderately variable. A geostatistical analysis indicated that structural factors, such as parent material, terrain, and water table, were the main causes of the spatial correlations. Strong spatial correlations were noted with OMC, total N, total P, AN, and AP, while they were moderate for total K and AK. The effective spatial autocorrelation of OMC, total N, total P, and AN ranged from 1 037 to 1 353 km, whereas the ranges of total K, AP, and AK were only from 6 to 138 km. The fit of the experimental semi-variograms to the theoretical models indicated that except for AN, kriging could successfully interpolate other six variables. Thus, the geostatistical method used on a large scale could accurately evaluate the spatial variability of most black soil nutrient properties in Northeast China.

  11. A new regional total electron content empirical model in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiandi; Wang, Zhengtao; Jiang, Weiping; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Bingbing

    2016-10-01

    Using total electron content (TEC) data over one and a half solar cycles (1999-2015) provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), this paper proposes a new empirical TEC model for northeast China (40-50N, 120-130E). The model, called TECM-NEC, involves the multiplication of four separable components, including diurnal variation, seasonal variation, geomagnetic field dependency, and solar dependency. Diurnal variation is composed of three parts: the typical daily variation of TEC; corrections of Mid-latitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly (MSNA) that depend on geographic location, season, and local time; and corrections of day-to-night ratio under different seasons and solar activities. Four sub-harmonics of the year with annual, semiannual, four-, and three-month periods are used to describe seasonal variations. For geomagnetic variation, geomagnetic latitude is based on the latest International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF12) model. Compared with similar empirical models, the solar proxy index F10.7P = (F10.7 + F10.7A)/2, where F10.7A is the 81-day running mean of daily F10.7, is chosen as having linear relationship with TEC for the model. This model has 43 coefficients, which are determined by nonlinear least squares fitting (NLSF) technique. The TECM-NEC model fits with the TEC/CODE input data with a bias of 0.03TECU and a RMS deviation of 2.76TECU. The proposed TECM-NEC model can reproduce the MSNA and nighttime TEC enhancements phenomenon over northeast China.

  12. Hepatitis B virus subgenotype C2 is the most prevalent subgenotype in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H Y; Li, D; Liu, W; Jin, X; Du, B; Li, Y P; Gu, H X; Zhang, S Y

    2010-05-01

    The geographical distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) subgenotypes and their clinical implications in patients with acute and chronic hepatitis B in the Heilung-kiang province of northeast China were investigated. Nested PCR and multiplex PCR were performed with genotype-specific primers and with subgenotype-specific primers to identify genotypes and subgenotypes from serum samples of 412 HBV infections including 69 with acute self-limited hepatitis (ASH) and 343 with chronic hepatitis (CH). A total of 361 samples were genotyped and 304 were further subgenotyped. The most common HBV genotype was C (93.63%, 338/361), with subgenotype group C2 (83.73%, 283/338) predominating. Genotype B was also found and subgenotype B2 predominated within this genotype. Out of 69 infected patients with ASH, 48 were identified as genotype C and all belonged to subgenotype C2. Of 343 infected patients with CH, 313 were genotyped and 256 were subgenotyped; amongst these, C2 (91.80%, 235/256), B2 (7.42%, 19/256) and mixed subgenotypes B2 and C2 (0.78%, 2/256) were found. In HBV subgenotype C2 infections, ASH had a higher ratio of women than CH patients. These results show that HBV subgenotypes C2 and B2 were found in Heilung-kiang province of northeast China. In ASH and CH groups, the distributions of subgenotypes were coincident with C2, the predominant subgenotype. Analysis of the association between subgenotype and the outcomes of HBV infection was inconclusive in our study.

  13. CpG Island Methylator Phenotype and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the association between CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP and the overall survival of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC in Northeast China. Methods. 282 sporadic CRC patients were recruited in this study. We selected MLH1, MGMT, p16, APC, MINT1, MINT31, and RUNX3 as the CIMP panel markers. The promoter methylation was assessed by methylation sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM. Proportional hazards-regression models were fitted with computing hazard ratios (HR and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results. 12.77% (36/282 of patients were CIMP-0, 74.1% (209/282 of patients were CIMP-L, and 13.12% (37/282 of patients were CIMP-H. The five-year survival of the 282 CRC patients was 58%. There was significant association between APC gene promoter methylation and CRC overall survival (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.05–2.46; P=0.03. CIMP-H was significantly associated with worse prognosis compared to CIMP-0 (HR = 3.06; 95% CI: 1.19–7.89; P=0.02 and CIMP-L (HR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.11–3.48; P=0.02, respectively. While comparing with the combine of CIMP-L and CIMP-0 (CIMP-L/0, CIMP-H also presented a worse prognosis (HR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.02–5.24; P=0.04. Conclusion. CIMP-H may be a predictor of a poor prognosis of CRC in Northeast China patients.

  14. Mapping and Evaluating the Urbanization Process in Northeast China Using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunpeng Yi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Urban Light Index (ULI is constructed to facilitate analysis and quantitative evaluation of the process of urbanization and expansion rate by using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data during the years from 1992 to 2010. A unit circle urbanization evaluation model is established to perform a comprehensive analysis of the urbanization process of 34 prefecture-level cities in Northeast China. Furthermore, the concept of urban light space is put forward. In this study, urban light space is divided into four types: the core urban area, the transition zone between urban and suburban areas, suburban area and fluorescent space. Proceeding from the temporal and spatial variation of the four types of light space, the pattern of morphologic change and space-time evolution of the four principal cities in Northeast China (Harbin, Changchun, Shenyang, Dalian is analyzed and given particular attention. Through a correlation analysis between ULI and the traditional urbanization indexes (urban population, proportion of the secondary and tertiary industries in the regional GDP and the built-up area, the advantages and disadvantages as well as the feasibility of using the ULI in the study of urbanization are evaluated. The research results show that ULI has a strong correlation with urban built-up area (R2 = 0.8277. The morphologic change and history of the evolving urban light space can truly reflect the characteristics of urban sprawl. The results also indicate that DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data is applicable for extracting urban space information and has strong potential to urbanization research.

  15. Decomposition Analysis on Direct Material Input and Dematerialization of Mining Cities in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Fangdao; TONG Lianjun; ZHANG Huimin; ZHANG Na

    2009-01-01

    Material dematerialization is a basic approach to reduce the pressure on the resources and environment and to realize the sustainable development. The material flow analysis and decomposition method are used to calculate the direct material input (DMI) of 14 typical mining cities in Northeast China in 1995-2004 and to analyze the demateri-alization and its driving factors in the different types of mining cities oriented by coal, petroleum, metallurgy and multi-resources. The results are as follows: 1) from 1995 to 2006, the increase rates of the DMI and the material input intensity of mining cities declined following the order of multi-resources, metallurgy, coal, and petroleum cities, and the material utilizing efficiency did following the order of petroleum, coal, metallurgy, and multi-resources cities; 2) during the research period, all the kinds of mining cities were in the situation of weak sustainable development in most years; 3) the pressure on resources and environment in the multi-resources cities was the most serious; 4) the petro-leum cities showed the strong trend of sustainable development; and 5) in recent years, the driving function of eco-nomic development for material consuming has continuously strengthened and the controlling function of material utilizing efficiency for it has weakened. The key approaches to promote the development of circular economy of min-ing cities in Northeast China are put forward in the following aspects: 1) to strengthen the research and development of the technique of resources' cycling utilization, 2) to improve the utilizing efficiency of resources, and 3) to carry out the auditing system of resources utilization.

  16. [Phenology of forest vegetation in northeast of China in ten years using remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xue-Hui; Niu, Zheng; Gao, Shuai

    2014-02-01

    Plant phenology is the best indicator of terrestrial ecosystem response to climate change and it becomes a hot issue in the study of global change. The forest in northeast of China plays an important part in global forest ecosystem. In this paper, yearly integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of forest vegetation in northeast China was calculated based on Spot Vegetation datasets from 2001-2010, which has been filtered using Savtiky-Galoy method. And then, the yearly integrated NDVI profile was fitted using a logistic model. Two key parameters of forest phenology (start of season, SOS; end of season, EOS) were extracted according to the greatest rate of curvature of fitted cumulative NDVI and the length of forest phenology (length of season, LOS) was also analyzed. The main conclusions of this paper are (1) SOS mainly occurs in the 110th-140th day and EOS in 260th and 290th day. SOS displays a marked delayed from south to north while EOS gradually advances. However, the changes of SOS and EOS in ten years are not obvious. (2) Corresponding to the SOS and EOS, LOS of forest in study area mainly occurs in the 120th-160th day; however, it is spatially heterogeneous. LOS of forest in Greater Khingan Mountains is shorter (about 120-140 day) than forests in Xiao Hinggan Ling and Changbai Mountains (about 160 day). The results in this paper are concordant with records of phenology in situ measurements and previous researches in the same area. It indicates that forest phenophases using method in this paper from Spot Vegetation dataset is feasible.

  17. Plutonium as a tracer for soil erosion assessment in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Pan, Shaoming; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per; Cao, Liguo

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental and agricultural problems faced by human society. Assessing intensity is an important issue for controlling soil erosion and improving eco-environmental quality. The suitability of the application of plutonium (Pu) as a tracer for soil erosion assessment in northeast China was investigated by comparing with that of 137Cs. Here we build on preliminary work, in which we investigated the potential of Pu as a soil erosion tracer by sampling additional reference sites and potential erosive sites, along the Liaodong Bay region in northeast China, for Pu isotopes and 137Cs. 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios in all samples were approximately 0.18, which indicated that the dominant source of Pu was the global fallout. Pu showed very similar distribution patterns to those of 137Cs at both uncultivated and cultivated sites. 239+240Pu concentrations in all uncultivated soil cores followed an exponential decline with soil depth, whereas at cultivated sites, Pu was homogenously distributed in plow horizons. Factors such as planted crop types, as well as methods and frequencies of irrigation and tillage were suggested to influence the distribution of radionuclides in cultivated land. The baseline inventories of 239+240Pu and 137Cs were 88.4 and 1688 Bq m(-2) respectively. Soil erosion rates estimated by 239+240Pu tracing method were consistent with those obtained by the 137Cs method, confirming that Pu is an effective tracer with a similar tracing behavior to that of 137Cs for soil erosion assessment.

  18. Characteristics of bleaching of sandstone in northeast of Ordos Basin and its relationship with natural gas leakage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; YanPing; LIU; ChiYang; ZHAO; JunFeng; HUANG; Lei; YU; Lin; WANG; JianQiang

    2007-01-01

    Bleaching of sandstone has significant applications to tracing hydrocarbon pathways and evaluating the scale of natural gas seepage. Bleaching of sandstones in the northeast of Ordos Basin is mainly distributed in the Mesozoic Yan'an Formation. Studying on petrology, major elements, REEs and trace elements of bleached sandstones and comparing with adjacent sandstones, combining with geologic-geochemical evidences of gas seepage in the northeast of the basin, the bleached sandstones are formed in the acid environment and reducing fluids. Characteristics of petrology show that the contents of kaolinite are high and the color of margin of ferric oxide minerals is lighter than that of the center. Major elements of sandstone samples show high contents of Al2O3 and low ratio of Fe3+/Fe2+. The TFe2O3 content of the bleached sandstone is lower than that of red rock. REE data show that bleached sandstones have low ∑REE contents and Eu-depleted and slightly Ce-enriched. Trace elements show that the bleached sandstones enrich in Co, deplete in Sr, and slightly enrich in Zr and Hf which are close to the values for the green alteration sandstones, and slightly lower than ore-bearing sandstones. Geochemical characteristics of oil-bearing sandstone in the northern basin suggest that the oil-shows are formed by matured Carboniferous-Permian coal bed methane escaping to the surface, and natural gas in field could migrate to the north margin of the basin. The δ13C (PDB) andδ18O(PDB) values of calcite cement in the study area range from -11.729‰ to -10.210‰ and -14.104‰ to -12.481‰, respectively. Theδ13C (PDB) values less than -10‰ imply the carbon sources part from organic carbon. Comprehensive study suggests that the gas leakage has occurred in the northeastern basin, which is responsible for bleaching of the sandstone on top of the Yan'an Formation.

  19. Trends in prevalence of clonorchiasis among patients in Heilongjiang province, Northeast China (2009-2012: implications for monitoring and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis is an important zoonotic parasitic disease worldwide. Past estimates showed the prevalence increased based on studies undertaken ten years or more ago. However, control strategies, changing ecology and migration may have resulted to changes in the prevalence of clonorchiasis. The purpose of the present study was to analysis the prevalence and epidemiological characterisation of clonorchiasis in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 4951 clinically suspected outpatients were examined from January 2009 to December 2012. Overall prevalence of clonorchiasis was 25.93% (1284/4951 by the combination strategy of the Kato-Katz technique (KK and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, with a significant increase from 22.53% in 2009 to 34.25% in 2012. Apart from Daxinganling city, clonorchiasis was reported throughout Heilongjiang Province and mainly along the Songhua River and Nen River basin, with an increased annual prevalence. The annual prevalence in men increased significantly in 2012 and was higher than that in women over 4 years. A similar pattern was seen for the annual infection rate in rural and urban areas. Farm labourers accounted for the majority of cases (65.93%, with a higher prevalence than in other occupations. Consumption of freshwater fish was considered the strongest risk factor of clonorchiasis. The infection rates in the 40-49 and 50-59 years age groups showed a significant increasing trend in 2012. Cases of re-infection were common. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study revealed that clonorchiasis remained widespread and prevalent in Heilongjiang Province. An integrated control programme is urgently needed to reduce the public health impact of clonorchiasis in this endemic area.

  20. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in Shenyang industrial district, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Jiao

    Full Text Available To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995. There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources.

  1. Sedimentary basin analysis using airborne gravity data: a case study from the Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyong; Liu, Yanxu; Zhou, Jianxin; Zhou, Xihua; Li, Bing

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we discuss the application of an airborne gravity survey to sedimentary basin analysis. Using high-precision airborne gravity data constrained by drilling and seismic data from the Bohai Bay Basin in eastern China, we interpreted faults, structural elements, sedimentary thickness, structural styles and local structures (belts) in the central area of the Basin by the wavelet transform method. Subsequently, these data were subtracted from the Bouguer gravity to calculate the residual gravity anomalies. On this basis, the faults were interpreted mainly by linear zones of high gravity gradients and contour distortion, while the sedimentary thicknesses were computed by the Euler deconvolution. The structural styles were identified by the combination of gravity anomalies and the local structures interpreted by the first vertical derivative of the residual gravity. The results showed evidence for seven faults, one sag and ten new local structure belts.

  2. Fishes from the Itapecuru River basin, State of Maranhão, northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Barros

    Full Text Available The Itapecuru is a relatively large river in the northeastern Brazilian state of Maranhão. During several expeditions to this basin, we collected 69 fish species belonging to 65 genera, 29 families and 10 orders. Characiformes and Siluriformes were the orders with the largest number of species and Characidae, Loricariidae, Cichlidae, Auchenipteridae and Pimelodidae were the richest families. About 30% of the fish fauna of the Itapecuru basin is endemic or restricted to northeastern Brazil. Just over a fifth (22% of the species is also known to occur in the Amazon basin and only a few are more widely distributed in South American.

  3. Spatial variability of soil organic carbon in the forestlands of northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Liu; Haiyan Wang; Wei Dai; Xiangdong Lei; Xiaojuan Yang; Xu Li

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an effective indicator of soil fertility and productivity, and it varies spatially and temporally in relation to other soil properties. Spatial variability of SOC in the forestlands of northeast China was characterized using geostatistics. Soil samples at the depths of 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm were collected from six-ty-three temporary plots to evaluate SOC concentration and density (SOCD) and other soil properties. We analyzed correlations between SOC and soil properties. Soil organic carbon concentrations were high. The total amount of C stored in soil (0-60 cm) was 16.23 kg·m-2 with the highest SOCD of 7.98 kg×m-2 in topsoil. Soil properties in most cases differed by horizon, suggesting different processes and effects in each horizon. Soil organic carbon had positive relationships with total N, P and K as well as readily available K, but did not show a significant posi-tive correlation with available P. Spatial factors including elevation, slope and aspect affected SOC distribution. Soil organic carbon at 0-60 cm had strong spatial autocorrelation with nugget/sill ratio of 5.7%, and moderate structured dependence was found at 0-20 cm, which indicated the existence of a highly developed spatial structure. Spatial distributions of SOC concentration and SOCD were estimated using regres-sion-kriging, with higher prediction accuracy than ordinary kriging. The fractal dimension of SOC indicated the preferential pattern of SOC dis-tribution, with the greatest spatial heterogeneity and strongest spatial dependence in the northeast-southwest direction.

  4. Water Pricing Policy in Tarim Basin of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施祖麟; 许丽芬

    2001-01-01

    China ranks the thirteenth among countries with serious water shortage problems in the world. The average amount of water owned per person is only 2400 m3/year, which is about 1/4 of the world average. But unfortunately, the efficiency of water use, especially in agriculture in some arid areas, is very low, only 20% -30% in some areas. The main reason is that water prices are too iow to protect the water resources. In this paper, the Tarim Basin of southern Xinjiang is selected to study the water supply costs and farmer's tolerance of water expenses based on a great amount of data collected in the four prefectures in the Tarim Basin. Then, three steps are suggested for water pricing reform in the Tarim Basin. Finally, several possible water pricing patterns are presented, such as water coupons, seasonal floating prices, and water price counting in kind but paying in currency. The conclusion is that the present water price system should be reformed and the water price can be increased to some extent for agricultural use even in Xinjiang, a developing area in China.

  5. Marine Ingressive Events Recorded in Epicontinental Sequences:Example from the Cretaceous Songliao Basin of NE China in Comparison with the Triassic Central Europe Basin of SW Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pujun; LIU Wanzhu; YIN Xiuzhen; SCHNEIDER Werner; MATTERN Frank

    2002-01-01

    Songliao Basin is filled predominantly with continental facies sediments including alluvial fan, fluvial plain, fan delta, lacustrine delta, shore - shallow lacustrine, beach salty flat, semi - deep to deep lacustrine, subaqueous gravity flow,lacustrine swamp and pyroclastic sediments. However, some event units were formed during lake - marine linking periods of the Mid - Cretaceous in the basin, which include black shales with high values for salinity (Sr/Ba) , alkalinity ( Ca + Mg)/(Si + Al) , reducibility (Ni + Zn)/Ga and sulfide sulfur as well as heavy isotopes. The Breitenholz -section to be represented for facies comparison with the Cretaceous evaporitic series in Northeast China is localized in Southwest Germany. Stratigraphically it belongs to the Crabfeld Formation of Keuper of the Germanic Triassic corresponding to Ladinian - Carnian of the international reference scale, and is generally called Lower Gipskeuper. The Germanic Triassic was deposited in the epicontinental (cratonic) central Europe Basin. It covered the area in between Great Britain, North Sea, Poland and Southern Germany. It is composed of cyclic deposits of multicolored mudstones, gypsum/anhydrite, and dolomite beds. The two cases of marine ingression - influenced sequences share some common features.

  6. Applied Sequence Stratigraphy in Nonmarine Basin of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary summary of the applied sequence stratigraphy in nonmarine basins in China. The geological and geophysical data show that the nonmarine sequences mainly resulted from both allocyclic and autocyclic processes where the most important factors were isolated tectonics and climate. However, the environmental factor should have been crucial. The depositionai base level served as the sea level in the marine environment, while the water table, lake level and fluvial equilibrium were profiled in a terrigenous environment. This accommodation varied periodically with the base level, resulting in the formation of a series of depositional sequences in terms of genesis and space. Basically, the base level of the inner continent was not affected by the changes in the relative sea level. But there would have been some relations between the changes in the relative sea level and that in the continental base level during eustacy flooding. However, a small time lag existed between the changes in the marine basin and the inner continent basin, The lake basin is smaller than the marine basin,but its velocity of sediment supply is greater than that of the marine basin. Therefore, the number of nonmarine sequences is greater than that of marine ones in the same period. It is important to recognize the system tracts for the study of high-precision or high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, especially to analyze the Iow-stand systems tract with its depositional system. The sequence boundary is genetically characterized by subaerial exposure, stratigraphic truncation and subaqueous erosion. The deposition analysis of Zhanhua depression reveals 5 sequence architectures: alluvial-fluvial/lacustrine architecture,transitional architecture formed between haline (mesohaline) lake and fresh lake, marine duration-deep lacustrine architecture, half deep lacustrine-ramp architecture and fluvial-alluvial plain architecture.During the major development of the nonmarine

  7. Erosion effect on the productivity of black soil in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZhiQiang; LIU BaoYuan; WANG XuYan; GAO XiaoFei; LIU Gang

    2009-01-01

    Continuous soil erosion has caused serious land degradation in the black soil area of Northeast China. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of accelerated erosion on soil produc- tivity, as measured by soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) yields. Eight erosion levels, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm, were simulated by imitating the integrated process of natural erosion and tillage activity. Each erosion level had two sub-treatments: conventional fertilization and no fertilization. Soil erosion was found to affect survival probability and to cause remarkable reductions in the Leaf Area Index (LAI), plant height, pod number, biomass, and yield. Soybean yield was exponentially decreased with the increase of soil erosion depth. Compared to erosion depth of 0 cm, erosion levels of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm experienced reductions in soybean yield by 28.8%, 37.8%, 43.5%, 52.6%, 53.1%, 52.9%, and 64.1% respectively when fertilized whereas the reductions at those levels were 32.6%, 42.2%, 53.0%, 54.0%, 65.8%, 69.7%, and 72.6%, respectively, when unfertilized. At the erosion depths of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm, the yield reductions per 10 cm of soil eroded when fertilized were 28.8%, 18.9%, 14.5%, 13.2%, 10.6%, 8.8%, and 9.2%, averaged 14.9%, but when unfertilized they were 32.6%, 21.1%, 17.7%, 13.5%, 13.2%, 11.6%, and 10.4%, averaged 17.1%. The results also showed that chemical fertili- zers could enhance the yields of eroded soil, but could not recover the yields to the pre-erosion level. Additionally, the results indicated that the primary reason for the decrease in soybean yield with in- creasing erosion depth was the loss of soil organic matter, soil N and P. These results may aid in se- lecting effective soil erosion control strategy, forecasting land degradation, establishing soil erosion tolerance, and evaluating the economic cost of soil erosion in the black soil region in Northeast China.

  8. Erosion effect on the productivity of black soil in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Continuous soil erosion has caused serious land degradation in the black soil area of Northeast China. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of accelerated erosion on soil productivity, as measured by soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) yields. Eight erosion levels, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm, were simulated by imitating the integrated process of natural erosion and tillage activity. Each erosion level had two sub-treatments: conventional fertilization and no fertilization. Soil erosion was found to affect survival probability and to cause remarkable reductions in the Leaf Area Index (LAI), plant height, pod number, biomass, and yield. Soybean yield was exponentially decreased with the increase of soil erosion depth. Compared to erosion depth of 0 cm, erosion levels of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm experienced reductions in soybean yield by 28.8%, 37.8%, 43.5%, 52.6%, 53.1%, 52.9%, and 64.1% respectively when fertilized whereas the reductions at those levels were 32.6%, 42.2%, 53.0%, 54.0%, 65.8%, 69.7%, and 72.6%, respectively, when unfertilized. At the erosion depths of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm, the yield reductions per 10 cm of soil eroded when fertilized were 28.8%, 18.9%, 14.5%, 13.2%, 10.6%, 8.8%, and 9.2%, averaged 14.9%, but when unfertilized they were 32.6%, 21.1%, 17.7%, 13.5%, 13.2%, 11.6%, and 10.4%, averaged 17.1%. The results also showed that chemical fertili zers could enhance the yields of eroded soil, but could not recover the yields to the pre-erosion level. Additionally, the results indicated that the primary reason for the decrease in soybean yield with increasing erosion depth was the loss of soil organic matter, soil N and P. These results may aid in selecting effective soil erosion control strategy, forecasting land degradation, establishing soil erosion tolerance, and evaluating the economic cost of soil erosion in the black soil region in Northeast China.

  9. Plutonium as a tracer for soil erosion assessment in northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yihong [School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Qiao, Jixin [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Pan, Shaoming, E-mail: span@nju.edu.cn [School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Hou, Xiaolin, E-mail: xiho@dtu.dk [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Xi' an AMS Center, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, CAS, Xi' an 710075 (China); Roos, Per [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Cao, Liguo [School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental and agricultural problems faced by human society. Assessing intensity is an important issue for controlling soil erosion and improving eco-environmental quality. The suitability of the application of plutonium (Pu) as a tracer for soil erosion assessment in northeast China was investigated by comparing with that of {sup 137}Cs. Here we build on preliminary work, in which we investigated the potential of Pu as a soil erosion tracer by sampling additional reference sites and potential erosive sites, along the Liaodong Bay region in northeast China, for Pu isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratios in all samples were approximately 0.18, which indicated that the dominant source of Pu was the global fallout. Pu showed very similar distribution patterns to those of {sup 137}Cs at both uncultivated and cultivated sites. {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations in all uncultivated soil cores followed an exponential decline with soil depth, whereas at cultivated sites, Pu was homogenously distributed in plow horizons. Factors such as planted crop types, as well as methods and frequencies of irrigation and tillage were suggested to influence the distribution of radionuclides in cultivated land. The baseline inventories of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 137}Cs were 88.4 and 1688 Bq m{sup −2} respectively. Soil erosion rates estimated by {sup 239+240}Pu tracing method were consistent with those obtained by the {sup 137}Cs method, confirming that Pu is an effective tracer with a similar tracing behavior to that of {sup 137}Cs for soil erosion assessment. - Highlights: • The potential for the use of Pu as a soil erosion tracer was investigated. • Pu would be a good tracer given its long half-life. • Depth profiles of Pu in soils were systematically studied and compared to {sup 137}Cs. • Pu is an effective soil erosion tracer with behavior similar to that of {sup 137}Cs. • Thus, Pu provides a means of

  10. Spatio-temporal responses of cropland phenophases to climate change in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhengguo; TANG Huajun; YANG Peng; WU Wenbin; CHEN Zhongxin; ZHOU Qingbo; ZHANG Li; ZOU Jinqiu

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the responses of cropland phenophases to changes of agricultural thermal conditions in Northeast China using the SPOT-VGT Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) ten-day-composed time-series data,observed crop phenophases and the climate data collected from 1990 to 2010.First,the phenological parameters,such as the dates of onset-of-growth,peak-of-growth and end-of-growth as well as the length of the growing season,were extracted from the smoothed NVDI time-series dataset and showed an obvious correlation with the observed crop phenophases,including the stages of seedling,heading,maturity and the length of the growth period.Secondly,the spatio-temporal trends of the major thermal conditions (the first date of ≥10℃,the first frost date,the length of the temperature-allowing growth period and the accumulated temperature (AT) of ≥10℃) in Northeast China were illustrated and analyzed over the past 20 years.Thirdly,we focused on the responses of cropland phenophases to the thermal conditions changes.The results showed that the onset-of-growth date had an obvious positive correlation with the first date of ≥ 10℃ (P < 0.01),especially in the northern part of the Songnen Plain,the eastern part of the Sanjiang Plain and the middle and eastern parts of Jilin Province.For the extracted length of growing season and the observed growth period,notable correlations were found in almost same regions (P < 0.05).However,there was no obvious correlation between the end-of-growth date and the first frost date in the study area.Opposite correlations were observed between the length of the growing season and the AT of ≥10℃.In the northern part of the Songnen Plain,the eastern part of the Sanjiang Plain and the middle part of Jilin and Liaoning Provinces,the positive correlation coefficients were higher than the critical value of 0.05,whereas the negative correlation coefficients reached a level of 0.55 (P < 0.05) in the middle and southern

  11. GRACE captures basin mass dynamic changes in China based on a multi-basin inversion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shuang; Wang, Qiuyu; Sun, Wenke

    2016-04-01

    Complex landform, miscellaneous climate and enormous population have enriched China with geophysical phenomena ranging from water depletion in the underground to glaciers retreat on the high mountains and have aroused large scientific interests. This paper, utilizing gravity observations 2003-2014 from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), intends to make a comprehensive estimation of mass status in 16 drainage basins in the whole region. We proposed a multi-basin inversion method, which is featured by resistance to the stripe noise and ability to alleviate signal attenuation due to truncation and smoothing of GRACE data. The results show both positive and negative trends: there is a tremendous mass accumulation spreading from the Tibetan plateau (12.2 ± 0.6 Gt/yr) to the Yangtze River (7.6 ± 1.3 Gt/yr), and further to the southeast coastal areas, which is suggested to involve an increase in the ground water storage, lake and reservoir water volume and likely materials flowed in by tectonic process; a mass loss is occurring in Huang-Huai-Hai-Liao River Basin (-10.5 ± 0.8 Gt/yr), as well as the Brahmaputra-Nujiang-Lancang River Basin (-15.0 ± 0.9 Gt/yr) and Tienshan Mountain (-4.1 ± 0.3 Gt/yr), which is a result of groundwater pumping and glacier melting. The groundwater depletion area is well consistent with the distribution of land subsidence in North China. In the end, we find intensified precipitation can alter the local water supply and GRACE is proficient to capture this dynamics, which could be instructive for the South-to-North Water Diversion - one China's giant hydrologic project.

  12. Spectroscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction of trunk fossils from the Parnaíba Basin, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Wemerson J; Santos, F Eroni P; Cisneros, Juan C; da Silva, João H; Freire, Paulo T C; Viana, Bartolomeu C

    2015-01-25

    The Parnaiba Sedimentary Basin is of the Paleozoic age and is located in Northeast Brazil, covering the states of Piauí, Maranhão and Tocantins and a small part of Ceará and Pará. In this work we applied several chemical analytical techniques to characterize trunk fossils found in the Parnaíba Sedimentary Basin, collected from four different sites, and discuss their fossilization process. We performed a study of the trunk fossils through X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The analysis allow us to identify the different compositions which are present in the trunk fossils: kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), hematite (Fe2O3) and quartz (SiO2). Based in these results we were able to identify that the main fossilization mechanism of the trunk fossil was silicification. Furthermore, through Raman spectroscopy, we have observed the presence of carbonaceous materials in the Permian fossils, as evidenced by the D and G Raman bands. The relative intensities and bandwidths of the D and G bands indicated that the carbon has a low crystallinity. Thus, most of trunk fossils analyzed were permineralized and not petrified, because there is the presence of carbon that characterizes the partial decomposition of the organic matter in some trunks.

  13. Local Economic Development and Hydropower Along the Brahmaputra River Basin in Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, A.

    2014-12-01

    Large dams have long been controversial. They offer benefits, such as reduced greenhouse gas emissions, energy security, and local development, yet produce negative social and ecological impact, such as wildlife habitat destruction, human displacement, and the disruption of downstream fishing or agricultural industries. In the past decade, the Indian government has signed Memoranda of Understanding with hydroelectric power companies for the building of over 130 large dams on the Brahmaputra River in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. These dams can generate 43% of India's assessed hydropower potential to sustain India's growing economy. In addition, the Indian government claims that these dams will bring local development with needed jobs. However, local Arunachali people have protested and temporarily halted hydropower projects because of the impact of dams on their existing livelihoods. Using the North Eastern Electric Power Corporation's (NEEPCO) Ranganadi Hydroelectric Project as a case study, our project examined whether dams in Northeast India provide jobs for local people, and whether distance from the dam or work colony to a worker's hometown affects the type of job the worker received. Survey data from residents at NEEPCO's work colony in Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh, was analyzed using SPSS (n = 18). Our research found that 100% of workers at the dam originally resided in Northeast India, with 33% from Arunachal Pradesh, and 67% from the nearby states of Assam, and Tripura. Further, our analysis revealed no statistically significant relationship between the distance to a worker's hometown and job type (p = .609). Where workers come from did not affect the type of job they received. More research using a larger sample size and additional hydroelectric project case studies is needed to further explore the relationship between worker home location and their job types.

  14. [Substance flow analysis on phosphorus cycle in Dianchi basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Chen, Ji-Ning

    2006-08-01

    Investigation of physical profiles of nutrients within socio-economic systems is one of the key approaches to cure eutrophication. Applying a substance flow analysis (SFA) method for the case of Dianchi basin located in southwest of China, we established a regional static SFA model (PHOSFAD) in 2000 via balancing societal phosphorus flows. Aggregate characteristics of the overall phosphorus throughput, and physical efficiencies in relation to phosphorus uses of production and consumption sectors, including mining, processing, farming, livestock husbandry and household consumption, were subsequently identified. The methodology and results of this study illustrate applicability and value for rational decision-making aiming to curb eutrophication of Dianchi Lake.

  15. Allometric models for aboveground biomass of ten tree species in northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Cai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available China contains 119 million hectares of natural forest, much of whichis secondary forest. An accurate estimation of the biomass of these forests is imperative because many studies conducted in northeast China have only used primary forest and this may have resulted in biased estimates. This study analyzed secondary forest in the area using information from a forest inventory to develop allometric models of the aboveground biomass (AGB. The parameter values of the diameter at breast height (DBH, tree height (H, and crown length (CL were derived from a forest inventory of 2,733 trees in a 3.5 ha plot. The wood-specific gravity (WSG was determined for 109 trees belonging to ten species. A partial sampling method was also used to determine the biomass of branches (including stem, bark and foliage in 120 trees, which substantially ease the field works. The mean AGB was110,729 kg ha–1. We developed four allometric models from the investigation and evaluated the utility of other 19 published ones for AGB in the ten tree species. Incorporation of full range of variables with WSG-DBH-H-CL, significantly improved the precision of the models. Some of models were chosen that best fitted each tree species with high precision (R2 ≥ 0.939, SEE 0.167. At the latitude level, the estimated AGB of secondary forest was lower than that in mature primary forests, but higher than that in primary broadleaf forest and the average level in other types of forest likewise.

  16. Allometric models for aboveground biomass of ten tree species in northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Cai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available China contains 119 million hectares of natural forest, much of which is secondary forest. An accurate estimation of the biomass of these forests is imperative because many studies conducted in northeast China have only used primary forest and this may have resulted in biased estimates. This study analyzed secondary forest in the area using information from a forest inventory to develop allometric models of the aboveground biomass (AGB. The parameter values of the diameter at breast height (DBH, tree height (H, and crown length (CL were derived from a forest inventory of 2,733 trees in a 3.5 ha plot. The wood-specific gravity (WSG was determined for 109 trees belonging to ten species. A partial sampling method was also used to determine the biomass of branches (including stem, bark and foliage in 120 trees, which substantially easy the field works. The mean AGB was 110,729 kg ha–1. We developed four allometric models from the investigation and evaluated the utility of other 19 published ones for AGB in the ten tree species. Incorporation of full range of variables with WSG-DBH-H-CL, significantly improved the precision of the models. Some of models were chosen that best fitted each tree species with high precision (R2 = 0.939, SEE 0.167. At the latitude level, the estimated AGBof secondary forest was lower than that in mature primary forests, but higher than that in primary broadleaf forest and the average level in other types of forest likewise. 

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Saponin-Producing Fungal Endophytes from Aralia elata in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of endophytic fungi of Aralia elata distributed in Northeast China as well as their capacity to produce saponins. Ninety-six strains of endophytic fungi were isolated, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing were employed to identify the isolates. The saponin concentrations of the culture filtrates of representative strains were measured. The agar diffusion method was used to test antimicrobial activity, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to identify the saponins produced by representative strains. Alternaria, Botryosphaeria, Camarosporium, Cryptosporiopsis, Diaporthe, Dictyochaeta, Penicillium, Fusarium, Nectria, Peniophora, Schizophyllum, Cladosporium and Trichoderma species were isolated in this study. Overall, 25% of the isolates belonged to Diaporthe (Diaporthe eres, and 12.5% belonged to Alternaria. The highest concentration of saponins was produced by G22 (2.049 mg/mL. According to the results of the phylogenetic analysis, G22 belonged to the genus Penicillium. The culture filtrate of G22 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and ginsenosides Re and Rb2 were detected in G22 culture filtrates by HPLC.

  18. Isolation and characterization of saponin-producing fungal endophytes from Aralia elata in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Yang, Hongyan; You, Xiangling; Li, Yuhua

    2012-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of endophytic fungi of Aralia elata distributed in Northeast China as well as their capacity to produce saponins. Ninety-six strains of endophytic fungi were isolated, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were employed to identify the isolates. The saponin concentrations of the culture filtrates of representative strains were measured. The agar diffusion method was used to test antimicrobial activity, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify the saponins produced by representative strains. Alternaria, Botryosphaeria, Camarosporium, Cryptosporiopsis, Diaporthe, Dictyochaeta, Penicillium, Fusarium, Nectria, Peniophora, Schizophyllum, Cladosporium and Trichoderma species were isolated in this study. Overall, 25% of the isolates belonged to Diaporthe (Diaporthe eres), and 12.5% belonged to Alternaria. The highest concentration of saponins was produced by G22 (2.049 mg/mL). According to the results of the phylogenetic analysis, G22 belonged to the genus Penicillium. The culture filtrate of G22 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and ginsenosides Re and Rb2 were detected in G22 culture filtrates by HPLC.

  19. Nest-site selection pattern of Grusjaponensis in Zhalong Nature Reserve of northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-ming; ZOU Hong-fei

    2011-01-01

    Nest-site selection patterns of Red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) and the effects of environmental variables were studied during the years of 2002-2008 in Zhalong Nature Reserve, Qiqihar city,northeast China. The nest-site selection pattern of Red-crowned cranes included two orders and three choices: the choice of nest-site habitat type within the macro-habitat order, nest zone selection and nest-site micro-habitat selection within the micro-habitat order. Various habitats (such as Carex swamps and reed fire districts) can be selected as the nest sites for Red-crowned cranes, of which reed swamps (93.15%) are given a preference. Factor Analysis reveals that the micro-habitat selection are affected by four main factors: fire, security (concealment / disturbance),incubation (conditions, nest-material), and food. Further analysis reveals that Red-crowned cranes have certain adaptability to the changes of nesting habitat quality in the Zhalong wetlands. In conclusion, fire, reeds,and water were the most important variables for nest-site habitat selection of Red-crowned Cranes in Zhalong Nature Reserve.

  20. Comparison of three NDVI time-series fitting methods in crop phenology detection in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Tao, Fulu

    2014-03-01

    Phenological changes of cropland are the pivotal basis for farm management, agricultural production, and climate change research. Over the past decades, a range of methods have been used to extract phenological events based on satellite derived continuous vegetation index time series, however, large uncertainties still exist. In this study, three smoothing methods were compared to reduce the potential uncertainty and to quantify crop green-up dates over Northeast China. The results indicated that the crop spring onset dates estimated by three methods show variance in the dates, but with similar spatial pattern. In 60% of the study area, the standard deviation (SD) of the estimated starting date from different method is less than 10 days, while 39.5% of total pixels have SDs between 10days and 30 days. Through comparative analysis against the observation phenological data, we concluded that Asymmetric Gaussians produced the most approximative results of all, followed by Double Logistic algorithm, and Savizky-Glolay algorithm performed worst. The starting dates of crops occur mostly between May and June in this region. The Savitzky-Golay has the earliest estimates, while the Asymmetric Gaussians and Double logistic fitting method show similar and later estimates, which are more consistent with the observed data.

  1. GIS-based analysis of forest degradations in Baihe Forestry Bureau, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; DAI Limin; Guofan Shao; XU Dong; WANG Hui; BAI Jianwei

    2006-01-01

    Forests in the Changbai Mountains are important timber sources for economic development of the society and provide ecological services in northeast China. In order to strengthen forest resource management, this paper analyzed management-induced changes in forest structure, tree species composition and forest landscape pattern from 1987 to 2000 for Baihe Forestry Bureau in Jilin Province based on digitized forest parcel maps and forest survey data. The results suggested that the area of Mature, High-Stocking, and Close-Canopy Forests decreased by 31.4%, 55.9% and 10.7% respectively; volume of Mixed Forest, the native forest vegetation type, decreased by 17.8%;the number of patches increased tremendously but the mean patch density decreased sharply for Mature, High-Stocking, Close-Canopy, and Mixed Forests. All the changes in forest structure, species composition, and landscape pattern indicated severe degradations going on with the forests in Baihe Forestry Bureau. Because of the effect of degradation to forest services, restoring forest resources and protecting biodiversity has become urgently important. The strategies of sustainable forest management need to be worked out and implemented.

  2. Linking belowground and aboveground phenology in two boreal forests in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enzai; Fang, Jingyun

    2014-11-01

    The functional equilibrium between roots and shoots suggests an intrinsic linkage between belowground and aboveground phenology. However, much less understanding of belowground phenology hinders integrating belowground and aboveground phenology. We measured root respiration (Ra) as a surrogate for root phenology and integrated it with observed leaf phenology and radial growth in a birch (Betula platyphylla)-aspen (Populus davidiana) forest and an adjacent larch (Larix gmelinii) forest in Northeast China. A log-normal model successfully described the seasonal variations of Ra and indicated the initiation, termination and peak date of root phenology. Both root phenology and leaf phenology were highly specific, with a later onset, earlier termination, and shorter period of growing season for the pioneer tree species (birch and aspen) than the dominant tree species (larch). Root phenology showed later initiation, later peak and later termination dates than leaf phenology. An asynchronous correlation of Ra and radial growth was identified with a time lag of approximately 1 month, indicating aprioritization of shoot growth. Furthermore, we found that Ra was strongly correlated with soil temperature and air temperature, while radial growth was only significantly correlated with air temperature, implying a down-regulating effect of temperature. Our results indicate different phenologies between pioneer and dominant species and support a down-regulation hypothesis of plant phenology which can be helpful in understanding forest dynamics in the context of climate change.

  3. Toxic effects of acetochlor and methamidophos on earthworm Eisenia fetida in phaiozem, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi-xing; ZHANG Qian-ru; LIANG Ji-dong

    2006-01-01

    Acetochlor and methamidophos are two important agrochemicals which are widely applied to agricultural production in northeast China. The investigation on the earthworm Eisenia fetida as an important type of soil animals exposed to single and binary-combined contamination of acetochlor and methamidophos was thus carried out. The single toxic effect test showed that the two agrochemicals had their toxicity to the earthworms living in phaiozem. Acetochlor had a stronger acute toxic effect on the earthworms than methamidophos. The mortality of the earthworms exposed to individual acetochlor and methamidophos changed with an increase in the exposure time and the exposed concentrations. The LD50 value of acetochlor and methamidophos toxic to the earthworms was 115.6-275.3 and 29.5-228.6 mg/kg, respectively. The weight of the earthworms was a more sensitive index compared to the mortality in indicating toxic effects of acetochlor and methamidophos in phaiozem. When considering both the mortality and the body-weight change, the combined pollution of acetochlor and methamidophos in phaiozem resulted in their synergic toxic effects on the earthworms.

  4. Quality analysis of the campaign GPS stations observation in Northeast and North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaxuan Hu; Lin Cheng; Xiong Wang

    2016-01-01

    TEQC is used to check the observations quality of 173 GPS campaign stations in the Northeast and North China. Each station was observed with an occupation of 4 days. The quality of the 692 data files is analyzed by the ratio of overall observations to possible observations, MP1, MP2 and the ratio of observations to slips. The reasons for multipath and cycle slips can be derived from the photos taken in the field. The results show that the coverage of trees and buildings/structures, and the interference of high-voltage power lines near the stations are the main reasons. In a small area, the horizontal velocity field in the period 2011e2013 is exemplified, where the magnitudes and directions of the 4 stations' rates are clearly different with that of other stations. It seems that the error caused by the worse environment cannot be mitigated through post processing. Therefore, these con-clusions can help the establishment of GNSS stations, measurements, data processing and formulating standards in future.

  5. Molecular investigation of Cryptosporidium in small caged pets in northeast China: host specificity and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao; Li, Lu; Tao, Wei; Jiang, Yanxue; Wan, Qiang; Lin, Yongchao; Li, Wei

    2016-07-01

    This study screened 151 pet-derived fecal specimens randomly collected from four commercial markets in northeast China for the presence of Cryptosporidium by genus-specific nested PCRs of the small subunit rRNA gene. Of these, 14 specimens (9.3 %) from nine species of birds, two types of rodents, and a hedgehog were positive for Cryptosporidium. Sequence analysis on the PCR-positive isolates facilitated identification of three Cryptosporidium species (C. baileyi, C. galli, and C. ubiquitum) and two Cryptosporidium genotypes (ferret genotype and avian genotype V). The study birds were affected predominantly with bird-specific C. baileyi (Atlantic canary, budgerigar, crested myna, rock dove, and silky fowl), C. galli (Chinese hwamei), and Cryptosporidium avian genotype V (Fischer's lovebird and rosy-faced lovebird). Cryptosporidium ferret genotype previously considered rodent-adapted was identified in three specimens from budgerigar, chipmunk, and red squirrel. Two specimens collected from common hill myna and hedgehog were positive for C. ubiquitum. The species of birds that can be colonized by Cryptosporidium were extended. Moreover, the data expanded the host range of Cryptosporidium ferret genotype and C. ubiquitum, especially the birds. The carriage of zoonotic C. ubiquitum in small caged pets is of public health importance.

  6. Mapping paddy rice distribution using multi-temporal Landsat imagery in the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui JIN; Xiangming XIAO; Jinwei DONG; Yuanwei QIN; Zongming WANG

    2016-01-01

    Information of paddy rice distribution is essential for food production and methane emission calculation.Phenology-based algorithms have been utilized in the mapping of paddy rice fields by identifying the unique flooding and seedling transplanting phases using multi-temporal moderate resolution (500m to 1 km) images.In this study,we developed simple algorithms to identify paddy rice at a fine resolution at the regional scale using multi-temporal Landsat imagery.Sixteen Landsat images from 2010-2012 were used to generate the 30 m paddy rice map in the Sanjiang Plain,northeast China—one of the major paddy rice cultivation regions in China.Three vegetation indices,Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI),Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI),and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI),were used to identify rice fields during the flooding/transplanting and ripening phases.The user and producer accuracies of paddy rice on the resultant Landsat-based paddy rice map were 90% and 94%,respectively.The Landsat-based paddy rice map was an improvement over the paddy rice layer on the National Land Cover Dataset,which was generated through visual interpretation and digitalization on the fine-resolution images.The agricultural census data substantially underreported paddy rice area,raising serious concern about its use for studies on food security.

  7. SORPTION AND DESORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CADMIUM BY FOUR DIFFERENT SOILS IN NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; SONG Feng-bin

    2005-01-01

    Four soils, phaeozem (PM), saline-alkali soil (SA), meadow albic bleached soil (MA) and dark brown forest soil (DB) from Northeast China were used to examine the sorption and desorption characteristics of Cd and pH influence on it. According to sorption experiment without pH control, the order of amount of absorbed Cd by soils was:SA>PM>DB>MA. The results from non-linear fitting method showed that Langmuir and Freundrich models were more adaptable than Temkin model in describing the sorption data. The maximum sorption amounts from Langmuir model were: PM>SA>MA>DB. Exponential equation for PM and SA and quadratic equation for MA and DB were suitable to fit the desorption data. The order of average desorption percentage was: MA>DB>PM>SA. The amounts of sorption by PM, DB and MA reached the maximum in pH 9.0, while sorption by SA was linearly increased in the experimental range of pH 3.3-11.4. In uniform pH, however, Cd sorption by SA was the minimum among four soils, which indicated that the more amounts of Cd absorbed by SA in isotherm sorption were ascribed to the higher soil pH. The higher sorption of Cd in PM resulted from the higher percentage of organic matter and clay components.

  8. Influence of springtime North Atlantic Oscillation on crops yields in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengzi; Wang, Huijun; Yang, Song; Fan, Ke

    2013-12-01

    Forecasting grain production is of strategic importance in considerations of climate change and growing population. Here we show that the springtime North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is significantly correlated to the year-to-year increment of maize and rice yield in Northeast China (NEC). The physical mechanism for this relationship was investigated. Springtime NAO can induce sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the North Atlantic, which display a tripole pattern and are similar to the empirical mode pattern in spring. The spring Atlantic SSTA pattern that could persists to summer, can trigger a high-level tropospheric Rossby wave response in the Eurasia continent, resulting in atmospheric circulation anomalies over the Siberia-Mongolia region, which is unfavorable (favorable) for cold surges that affect NEC. Weaker (stronger) cold surges can accordingly reduce (increase) cloud amount, resulting in an increase (a decrease) in daily maximum temperature and a decrease (an increase) in daily minimum temperature, thereby leading to an increase (a decrease) in diurnal temperature range. And summer-mean daily minimum temperature and diurnal temperature range are most significantly related to the NEC crop yields.

  9. Early Silurian(Telychian)rugose coral fauna of Daguan area, northeast Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianqiang; HE Xinyi; TANG Lan

    2006-01-01

    Study on rugose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation(early Telyehian)and Daluzhai Formation (mid-late Telychian)in Daguan area,northeast Yunnan Province,China was carded out.Rugose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation included 18 genera and 34 species,while Daluzhai Formation with nine genera,ten species.We described rugose coral fauna(12 genera,19 species)including one new genus and five new species,i.e.Protoketophyllum daguanense gen.et sp.nov..Crassilasma huanggexiense sp.nov.,Pseudophaulactis heae sp.nov.,P.convolutus sp.nov.,and Shensiphyllum minor sp.nov..The characteristics and geological significance of rugose coral fauna of Sifengya Formation and Daluzhai Formation were analyzed.Particularly,mgose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation represent early Telychian rugosan fauna in the Upper Yangtze region and improve the sequences of early Silurian(Llandovery)mgose coral assemblages in Yangtze region.It is therefore very meaningful to further analyze radiation period of rugose coral fauna in such epoch.

  10. Occurrence and Removal Characteristics of Phthalate Esters from Typical Water Sources in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of phthalate esters (PAEs in the environment has gained a considerable attention due to their potential impacts on public health. This study reports the first data on the occurrence of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir—the new and important water source of Harbin city in Northeast China. As drinking water is a major source for human exposure to PAEs, the fate of target PAEs in the two waterworks (Mopanshan Waterworks and Seven Waterworks was also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the total concentrations of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir were relatively moderate, ranging from 355.8 to 9226.5 ng/L, with the mean value of 2943.1 ng/L. DBP and DEHP dominated the PAE concentrations, which ranged from 52.5 to 4498.2 ng/L and 128.9 to 6570.9 ng/L, respectively. The occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were heavily spatially dependent. Meanwhile, the results on the waterworks samples suggested no significant differences in PAE levels with the input of the raw waters. Without effective and stable removal of PAEs after the conventional drinking water treatment in the waterworks (25.8% to 76.5%, the risks posed by PAEs through drinking water ingestion were still existing, which should be paid special attention to the source control in the Mopanshan Reservoir and some advanced treatment processes for drinking water supplies.

  11. Sinobaatar gen. Nov.: First multituberculate from the Jehol Biota of Liaoning, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A multituberculate skeleton from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation at Dawangzhangzi, Lingyuan City, Liaoning Province, Northeast China, provides new morphological information for early multituberculates. The specimen is the holotype of Sinobaatar lingyuanensis gen. et sp. nov. It has a narrow skull that lacks the superorbital crest or postorbital process. The dental formula is 3·?·5·2/1·0·3·2. The dental morphology, especially that of cheek teeth, of S. lingyuanensis is similar to that of Eobaatar, which places it in the family Eobaataridae. The postcranial skeleton of Sinobaatar is similar to that of other multituberculates. As in Holotheria, Metatarsal V of Sinobaatar articulates only with the cuboid and has no contact with the calcaneus, which probably represents the primitive condition of multituberculates. Nine carpals of Sinobaatar resemble those of Zhangheotherium, except the centrale being larger than the trapezoid. The dental features of Sinobaatar show again that eobaatarids are obviously intermediate between Late Jurassic multituberculates and the later forms. Because eobaatarids are only known from the Early Cretaceous, the finding of Sinobaatar, therefore, supports that the age of the Jehol Biota is most likely Early Cretaceous.

  12. Land Use Changes in Northeast China Driven by Human Activities and Climatic Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zongming; LIU Zhiming; SONG Kaishan; ZHANG Bai; ZHANG Sumei; LIU Dianwei; REN Chunying; YANG Fei

    2009-01-01

    Human-induced land use/cover change (LUCC) forms an important component of global environmental change. Therefore, it is important to study land use/cover and its change at local, regional and global scales. In this pa-per we conducted the study of land use change in Northeast China, one of the most important agricultural zones of the nation. From 1986 to 2000, according to the study results obtained from Landsat images, widespread changes in land use/cover took place in the study area. Grassland, marsh, water body and woodland decreased by 9864, 3973, 1367 and 10,052km2, respectively. By comparison, paddy field, dry farmland, and built-up land expanded by 7339, 17193 and 700km2, respectively. Those changes bore an interactive relationship with the environment, especially climate change.On the one hand, climate warming created a potential environment for grassland and marsh to be changed to farmland as more crops could thrive in the warmer climate, and for dry farmland to paddy field. On the other hand, the changed surface cover modified the local climate. Those changes, in turn, have adversely influenced the local environment by accelerating land degradation. In terms of socio-economie driving forces, population augment, regional economic de-velopment, and national and provincial policies were confirmed as main driving factors for land use change.

  13. Retrieval of Total Suspended Matters Using Field Spectral Data in Shitoukoumen Reservoir, Jilin Province, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jingping; ZHANG Bai; LI Fang; SONG Kaishan; WANG Zongming; LIU Dianwei

    2009-01-01

    From August to October in 2006, three times of field spectral measurements with a Field Spec FR spectroradiometer (Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc., USA) were carried out in Shitoukoumen Reservoir, Jilin Province, Northeast China. Owing to the serious soil and water loss in the upstream, reflectance curves of the reservoir were characterized by high concentrations of total suspended matter (TSM). Extending the spectral analysis to 1200nm in the near-infrared band, this research revealed an obvious reflectance peak around 1070nm which was caused by the strong backscattering of high TSM. The method of partial least squares (PLS) regression was applied to retrieving the TSM. Reflectance in two spectral bands, i.e., 675-948nm and 1029-1105nm, were used as variables to develop PLS models. Traditional linear regression, first derivative model and logarithmic model were also used for the comparison of different models. Results showed that the PLS model based on Rrs(675)-Rrs(948) gave out best results with high precision and stability. Although the PLS model based on Rrs(1029)-Rrs(1105) did not have an outstanding performance due to lots of noise, the reflectance peak in the near-infrared band was an important TSM feature and its efficient exploitation would have a eunsiderable significance in TSM remote sensing.

  14. Dynamics of methane emissions from a freshwater marsh of northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wenyan; Song, Changchun; Zhang, Jinbo [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academic Science, Changchun Jilin, 130012 (China)

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, CH{sub 4} flux was measured from Nov. 2002 to Oct. 2005, to estimate CH{sub 4} emissions in winter and during freeze-thaw period, and interannual variation in CH{sub 4} emissions in freshwater marsh in northeast China. The results showed that there was an obvious CH{sub 4} emission (0.1-2.3 mg m{sup -2} h{sup -1}) in the freshwater marsh in winter. Flux of CH{sub 4} in winter (November to March the next year) was about 3.8%, 5.5%, and 2.2% of the whole year in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively. Emission of CH{sub 4} significantly increased during the freeze-thaw period (April-June), and was about 30.8%, 20.9%, and 20.6% of the whole year in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively. Standing water depth greatly governed interannual variation of CH{sub 4} emissions from marshes during the thaw-freeze period. Interannual variation of CH{sub 4} emissions was significant during the growing season (p<0.05). Standing water depth during April to June was a primary factor, which affected the interannual variation of CH{sub 4} flux during the growing season. Precipitation during the preceding non-growing season affected CH{sub 4} emission indirectly via standing water depth. (author)

  15. Relationship Between Economic Growth and Water Environmental Quality of Anshan City in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Kangkang; LIU Jingshuang; WANG Yang

    2009-01-01

    Based on the decomposition model of environmental quality and univariate regression model, the relationships of industrial wastewater drainage with economic scale, economic structure, and technological level in Anshan, a mining city in Northeast China, were studied. The results showed that, due to scale effect, the drainage of three important industrial wastewater pollutants (COD, NH3-N and petroleum) increased 8505t, 671t and 384t, respectively, and due to structure effect, those pollutants drainage increased 3996t, 174t and 120t from 2001 to 2006. While due to technological effect, the drainage of COD, NH3-N and petroleum reduced 4452t, 458t and 331t, and due to cross effect, those pollutants drainage reduced 7270t, 575t and 476t simultaneously. Meantime, the relationships between household consumption structure and domestic sewage discharge were analyzed, and domestic sewage discharges in different income levels were also compared. The results showed that, the domestic sewage discharges would increase 376t with 1000 yuan (RMB) increased in the traffic and communication consumption, and they would be 344t, 219t, 428t, 1873t, respectively, in housing consumption, food consumption, medical consumption, miscellaneous commodity consumption. The proportion of domestic sewage discharge increased for high income residents significantly, but reduced for lower income residents. The industrial wastewater pollutants drainage tends to be reduced by technical progress, while domestic sewage discharge will be a more important factor for urban water environment quality.

  16. Relationship Between Social Economic Agglomeration and Labor Productivity of Core Cities in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; YANG Qingshan; ZHAO Yichun

    2012-01-01

    Dalian,Shenyang,Changchun and Harbin are the four core cities which play an essential role in terms of promoting the economic development in Northeast China.In this paper,the impact of urban agglomeration on labor productivity is explored by making comparisons among these four cities.The model used for analysis is a classical model derived from previous studies.Some indicators,such as population density and economic density,were selected to examine the impact of urban agglomeration on the labor productivity based on the time-series data for the four cities from 1990 to 2007.The four main conclusions are:1) The promotion from the growth rate of population density on the growth rate of labor productivity is limited.2) The negative relationship exists between the growth rate of employment density and the growth rate of labor productivity.3) Agglomeration effect exists in the four cities,the highest one is Dalian,Shenyang takes the second place,followed by Changchun and Harbin,and the predominant promotion exerted on the labor productivity is the output density.

  17. Diet and prey consumption of breeding Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Geng; Xiaojing Zhang; Wei Ou; Hanmei Sun; Fumin Lei; Wei Gao; Haitao Wang

    2009-01-01

    The diet of Common Kestrels Falco tinnunculus was studied during the breeding seasons from 2004 to 2008 in Northeast China. Diet was determined by direct observation of the prey brought to nests, and analysis of prey remains collected from nests. Fifteen vertebrate species from three classes, and two groups of insects were identified as prey items. Rodents were the main prey items, comprising 93.9% of the total prey items (TPI) and 97.0% of total prey biomass (TPB). Birds, frogs and insects were also eaten. The kestrels preferred to prey on small rodents (mean weight 20-40 g) and displayed density-dependent prey selection. Daily prey consumption of an adult and a nestling was 2.6 individual rodents or 87.6 g, and 1.7 individual vertebrates or 48.2 g, respectively. The estimated prey consumption of a breeding pair (adults and nestlings) during the breeding season was 520.1 individual vertebrates or 19.7 kg.

  18. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding solar ultraviolet exposure among medical university students in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Liu, Guangcong; Liu, Yang

    2014-11-01

    To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the health effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and sun exposure among medical university students in Northeast China, 385 subjects were investigated on October 2013 using a self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire. Most of the subjects knew the effects of UVR on skin cancer (95.6%) and sunburn (92.2%), but fewer knew of the eye damage that can result from UVR (27.8% cataract and 3.1% pterygium). Correspondingly, the main purpose of adopting sun protection was considered to be 'preventing sunburn' (55.4%), but 'preventing eye damage' was the least (1.8%). In actual behaviour, the eyes received the least protection as well. Although knowing the effects of UVR on vitamin D synthesis (87.3%), 66.8% of participants never or seldom increased sun exposure. Compared to men, women were more likely to reduce sun exposure (Pexposure to maintain adequate vitamin D status while also protecting against eye damage from UVR.

  19. Phytoplankton community structure in reservoirs of different trophic status, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chengxue; YU Hongxian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the phytoplankton community structures of reservoirs of different trophic status,located in a cold region.Physical and chemical variables and the phytoplankton communities were investigated in two reservoirs (Xiquanyan Reservoir and Taoshan Reservoir) in Northeast China in 2009.The two reservoirs showed strong seasonal fluctuations in their physical and chemical composition.Results of the trophic status index indicated that Xiaquanyan Reservoir was mesotrophic,whilst Taoshan Reservoir was eutrophic.Diatoms were the dominant phytoplankton group in Xiquanyan Reservoir throughout all seasons of the study,while in Taoshan Reservoir,diatoms dominated in spring,and cyanobacteria dominated in summer and autumn.This difference was resulted from differences in local environmental factors,including nutrients and hydrology.This study suggests that in mesotrophic reservoirs,nutrients played a key role in controlling seasonal phytoplankton successions,whereas in eutrophic reservoirs water temperature was the key factor in a cold region.Notably,the dominant species in summer in the Taoshan Reservoir was Microcystis,which may produce toxins depending on the ambient conditions,and presenting a risk of local toxin contamination.

  20. Clay Mineral Distribution Patterns of Tertiary Continental Oil-bearing Basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xingyuan

    1996-01-01

    @@ Induction This paper studies the clay mineral distribution patterns of Tertiary continental oil-bearing basins in China. More than 9 000 shale samples from Paleogene (E) to Neogene (N) Series distributed in Bohai Gulf, Subei, Jianghan,Nanxiang, Zhoukou, Sanshui, Beibu Bay, East China Sea,Hetao, Juiquan, Qaidam and Tarim basins, and so on.

  1. Suggestion of a dynamic model of North China basin-range system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    It is found from preliminary studies that previous basin-range models have difficulties in explaining the formation of the Mesozoic North-China basin-range system. This work suggests a new model-"tectonic thermal erosion" model, which considers the North China basin of Late Mesozoic and its peripheral ranges as a unified system, identifies relationship between upwelling and lateral spreading of the asthenolith with horizontal movement and deformation of the upper crust in the system, clarifies the effects of underplating erosion on the crustal evolution, and tries to establish an earth-dynamic model of the North China Mesozoic basin-range supported by numerical simulation.

  2. Tectonics and Petroleum Potential of the East China Sea Shelf Rift Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are two Cenozoic sedimentary basins in the East China Sea. They are the East China Sea shelf basin and the Okinawa Trough basin. The former can be divided into a western and an eastern rift region. The development of the shelf basin underwent continental-margin fault depression, post-rift and then tectonic inversion stages. Available exploration results show that the distribution of source rocks is controlled by the basin architecture and its tectonic evolution. In the Xihu depression, mudstones and coals are the main source rocks. The eastern rift region has good geological conditions for the formation of large oil and gas fields.

  3. A study of soil organic carbon distribution and storage in the Northeast Plain of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Employing the Unit Soil Carbon Amount (USCA approach, soil carbon storage was calculated across the Northeast Plain of China based on the Multi-purpose Regional Geochemical Survey conducted in 2004–2006 (MRGS. The results indicated that the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in topsoil (0–0.2 m, subsoil (0–1 m and deep soil (0–1.8 m was 768.1 Mt, 2978.4 Mt and 3729.2 Mt with densities of 3327.8 t/km2, 12,904.7 t/km2 and 16,157.5 t/km2, respectively. These values were consistent with national averages, whereas the soil carbon densities showed a clear increasing trend from the southern area of the Northeast Plain (Liaoning, to the middle (Jilin and the northern Plain (Heilongjiang — particularly in terms of topsoil carbon density, which increased from 2284.2, to 3436.7 and 3861.5 t/km2, respectively. In comparison to carbon data obtained from the Second National Soil Survey in 1984–1986 (SNSS, the topsoil SOC storage values from the MRGS were found to have decreased by 320.59 Mt (29.4%, with an average annual decline of 16.0 Mt (l.73% over the 20 years. In the southern, middle and northern areas of the plain, soil carbon densities decreased by 1060.6 t/km2, 1646.4 t/km2 and 1300.2 t/km2, respectively, with an average value of 1389.0 t/km2 for the whole plain. These findings indicate that the decrease in soil carbon density varied according to the different ecosystems and land-use types. Therefore, ratios of soil carbon density were calculated in order to study the carbon dynamic balance between ecosystems, and to further explore distribution characteristics, as well as the sequestration potential of SOC.

  4. Badlands in humid regions - redbed desertification in Nanxiong Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Luobin; Hua, Peng; Simonson, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The redbed badlands in Nanxiong City, China, well represent badlands in humid regions. The erosion rate in humid regions is much higher than that in arid regions and can reach 1 cm per month during the summer. The purpose of this study is to introduce the research of badlands in China, which have not been extensively studied so far, and to compare the badlands between arid and humid regions. Furthermore, the aim is to study the impact of mineralogical and chemical composition on the disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands. For the purpose of this study field observations, sampling, and digging profiles were done. The mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Nanxiong Basin badland lithologies were determined by XRD, XRF and thin sections. Weathering resistance, process of weathering, and disintegration features were studied by weathering experiments under natural conditions. Weathering profiles can be easily divided into four layers: regolith, a strongly weathered layer, a poorly weathered layer, and an unweathered sediment. The depth of the weathering profile is influenced by the weathering resistance of the soft rock. Weathering resistance affects the erosion rate and evolution of landforms in badlands by influencing the rate from unweathered rock to regolith. Analyzed sediments have high content of illite and illite-smectite interstratifications. This composition of clay minerals together with poor sediment consolidation jointly leads to weathering prone sediment. The weathering and disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands has a close relationship with rainfall. Sheet erosion, a kind of solid-liquid phase flow, formed in the regolith of the badland during rainfall events and can be the most instrumental to erosion. The mineral composition and liquidity plasticity index were also analyzed, and the results show that the regolith are low liquid limit silts with liquid limit of 21%-25%, plastic limit of 13%-18% and plasticity index

  5. 中国东北龙卷研究:环境特征分析%Study of Northeast China torandoes:The environmental characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀明; 俞小鼎; 周小刚

    2015-01-01

    The Northeast region of China is one of the favorable regions for tornadoes.In order to improve the understanding of the environment favorable for tornado within the Northeast region of China,the environmental elements of the 13 tornadoes of this region which occurred in the past decade are investigated,and the physical processes that dominate the change of the envi-ronmental condition are investigated.The study is based on the conventional data,Automatic weather station (AWS)data, satellite data and numerical model analysis data.The environmental characteristics of Northeast China tornadoes are as follows. (1 )Tornadoes occurred around the northeast cold vortex,directly affected by the sub-scale short-wave trough at the south part of cold vortex,and often occurred in the trough or behind the forward tilt trough.(2 )Compared with tornadoes occurred at summer over the Yangtze-Huaihe river basin and South China,the lapse rate is greater for Northeast China tornadoes,with the temperature difference between 700 hPa and 500 hPa being 20-22 ℃,and the difference between 850 hPa and 500 hPa being 30-33 ℃.(3)The low level moisture is often not significant with the moist depth thin,the surface dew point as low as 13 ℃, the moisture layer often less than 1 .5 km,and the dew point at 850 hPa often below 8 ℃.And (4)the low-level are and middle troposphere jet are strong,850-925 hPa wind speed is 16-20 m/s,500 hPa wind speed is 20-25 m/s,and the middle level jet is usually accompanied by dry downdraft.Therefore,the low and deep vertical wind shear are strong,the low-level wind shear is about 12.0×10-3s-1,and the deep vertical wind shear is greater than 4.0×10-3s-1.Convective storms which pro-duce tornadoes are usually triggered by the boundary convergence line,in which the temperature difference near the conver-gence line is not obvious,but the dew point difference is distinct.That's to say,northeast China tornadoes are mainly triggered by strong dryline and its

  6. Five major areas of Northeast China for attracting foreign investment%中国东北吸引外资的五大领域

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ To encourage foreign businesses to take part in revitalising the old industrial base in northeastern China,the Office of the Leading Group for Revitalising the Old Industrial Base in Northeast China under the State Council has recently drafted the Implementation Proposals for Further Opening to the Outside World and Promoting Revitalising the Old Industrial Base in Northeast China, listing five concrete areas for attracting investment to the area. The five areas are acquisition of State-owned enterprises, upgrading of industry, opening of State-owned enterprises, upgrading of industry,opening of several sectors, taxation policy, and investment convenience. The document covers the following contents:

  7. Geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity at basin scale: a case study from Datong basin, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya; Wang, Yanxin

    2014-05-01

    A hydrogeochemical investigation using integrated methods of stable isotopes ((18)O, (2)H), (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, Cl/Br ratios, chloride-mass balance, mass balance and hydrogeochemical modeling was conducted to interpret the geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity in Datong basin, northern China. The δ(2)H, δ(18)O ratios in precipitation exhibited a local meteoric water line of δ(2)H = 6.4 δ(18)O -5 (R(2) = 0.94), while those in groundwater suggested their meteoric origin in a historically colder climatic regime with a speculated recharge rate of less than 20.5 mm overall per year, in addition to recharge from a component of deep residual ancient lake water enriched with Br. According to the Sr isotope binary mixing model, the mixing of recharges from the Shentou karst springs (24%), the western margins (11%) and the eastern margins (65%) accounts for the groundwater from the deep aquifers of the down-gradient parts in the central basin is a possible mixing mechanism. In Datong, hydrolysis of silicate minerals is the most important hydrogeochemical process responsible for groundwater chemistry, in addition to dissolution of carbonate and evaporites. In the recharge areas, silicate chemical weathering is typically at the bisiallitization stage, while that in the central basin is mostly at the monosiallitization stage with limited evidence of being in equilibrium with gibbsite. Na exchange with bound Ca, Mg prevails at basin scale, and intensifies with groundwater salinity, while Ca, Mg exchange with bound Na locally occurs in the east pluvial and alluvial plains. Although groundwater salinity increases with the progress of water-rock/sediment interactions along the flow path, as a result of carbonate solubility control and continuous evapotranspiration, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl-SO4 types of water are usually characterized respectively in the deep and the shallow aquifers of an inland basin with a silicate terrain in an arid climatic regime.

  8. Accumulation Mechanisms and Evolution History of the Giant Puguang Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Fang; GUO Tonglou; DU Chunguo; ZOU Huayao; CAI Xunyu; ZHU Yangming; LI Pingping; WANG Chunwu; ZHANG Yuanchun

    2009-01-01

    Solid bitumens were found throughout the carbonate reservoirs in the Puguang gas field,the largest gas field SO far found in marine carbonates in China,confirming that the Puguang gas field evolved from a paleo-oil reservoir.The fluid conduit system at the time of intensive oil accumulation in the field Was reconstructed,and petroleum migration pathways were modeled using a 3-D model and traced by geochemical parameters.The forward modeling and inversion tracing coincided with each other and both indicated that oils accumulated in the Puguang-Dongyuezhai structure originated from a generative kitchen to the northwest of the Puguang gas field.The deposition of organic-rich Upper Permian source rocks dominated by sapropelic organic matter in the Northeast Sichuan Basin, the development of fluid conduit system that was vertically near-source rock and laterally near-generative kitchen,and the focusing of oils originated from a large area of the generative kitchen,were the three requirements for the formation of the giant paleo-oil reservoir from which the giant Puguang gas field evolved.The Puguang gas field had experienced a three-stage evolution.The post-accumulation processes,especially the organic-inorganic interaction in the hydrocarbon-water-rock system,had not only profoundly altered the composition and characteristics of the petroleum fluids,but also obviously changed the physicochemical conditions in the reservoir and resulted in complicated precipitation and solution of carbonate minerals.

  9. DARTs and CORK in Cascadia Basin: High-resolution observations of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander; Stroker, Kelly; Thomson, Richard; Davis, Earl

    2011-04-01

    We report unique deep-sea recordings of the Sumatra tsunami of December 2004 by high-resolution DART® (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami) and CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) bottom pressure sensors deployed at depths of ˜1500-3500 m in Cascadia Basin in the northeast Pacific. The simultaneous records from these sites establish the first-ever regional-scale tsunami detection array for the open ocean, enabling us to resolve both seafloor and crustal tsunami signals and to determine fundamental properties of the waves following their 22,000 km journey from the source region. Waves reaching the basin had mean amplitudes of ˜5 mm with energy spread over a broad frequency band from 0.4 to 7 cph. Peak tsunami energy was in the 0.8 to 2 cph (75 to 30 min) band. Leading waves from the event arrived 34-35 h after the earthquake, roughly 7 h later than expected, suggesting that the tsunami mainly propagated by the “most economic” (minimum energy loss) path along mid-ocean ridge wave-guides rather than taking the direct and fastest path across the ocean. Motions within the peak energy band comprise roughly 50% coherent progressive waves propagating from the south at longwave phase speeds of ˜150 ms-1 and 50% random waves scattered from the coast and bottom irregularities. Tsunami amplitudes in the borehole were one-third those on the seafloor. The extensive “ringing” and anomalously slow (3.5-day) e-folding decay time of the tsunami wave energy indicates long duration energy flux radiating from the Indian Ocean via the Southern Pacific Ocean.

  10. Debris flow monitoring experience in the Cancia basin (Dolomites, Northeast Italian Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancanelli, Laura; Bernard, Martino; Gregoretti, Carlo; Berti, Matteo; Simoni, Alessandro; Lanzoni, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring campaign presented here aims to understand the dynamics of sediment transport processes in small head-water catchments of the Italian Alps and to evaluate the rainfall thresholds for debris flow triggering. The monitored basin of Cancia is located on the Eastern Italian Dolomites, in the Belluno Province. In particular, it is situated on the left side on the Boite river valley, next to the Borca di Cadore village, and is delimited by the western slope of the Mt. Antelao. The drainage area is 1.8 km2 while the elevation ranges from 2451 m a.s.l. to 880 m a.s.l., with a slope varying from 30-40° in the upper part to 10-15° in the lower part (fan area). The basin is characterized by a lithology very common in the Italian Alps, which consist of high permeability, poorly sorted rock debris, containing boulders up to 3-4 m in diameter, and include heterogeneous scree, alluvium and old debris flow deposits. The spatial distribution of sediment is characterized by: an upper part where prevails the presence of rocks, a medium part characterized by poorly sorted rock debris and fine sediment material, and a downstream part plenty of sediment material The Cancia basin is prone to stony debris flows, owing to the plenty availability of loose and coarse sediments and frequent convective events. In particular, the smaller grain sized material is provided by the erosion of lateral slope, while gravel, pebbles and cobbles are provided by the upper part of the basin, characterized by rocky material. The precipitation regime is marked by rainfalls of short duration and high intensity, usually occurring in the summer period. The debris flow channel has began to be surveyed in August 2009 to identify the debris flow generation area. At the beginning of July 2013 topographical surveys of the channel downstream the triggering area began in order to investigate the morphological evolution of the debris flow channel from 2013 until 2015. Moreover, at the beginning of

  11. Identification of Risk Factors Affecting Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes in Adult Patients from Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Yin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Besides genetic factors, the occurrence of diabetes is influenced by lifestyles and environmental factors as well as trace elements in diet materials. Subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG have an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM. This study aimed to explore risk factors affecting IFG and diabetes in patients from Northeast China. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional survey of chronic diseases and related risk factors was conducted in Jilin Province of Northeast China. All adult residents, aged 18–79, were invited to participate in this survey using the method of multistage stratified random cluster sampling. One hundred thirty-four patients with IFG or DM and 391 healthy control subjects were recruited. We compared demographic factors, body size measurements, healthy-related behaviors, and hair metallic element contents between IFG/diabetes patients and healthy individuals. Results: IFG/diabetes patients had a greater weight, waist, hip, and body mass index (BMI than control subjects. Significant differences in the content of zinc (Zn, potassium (K, copper (Ca, and sodium (Na as well as Cu/Zn ratios between IFG or DM patients and control subjects (p < 0.05 were also observed. Hair Cu, selenium (Se, and Na contents were positively correlated with blood glucose levels (Cu: rs = 0.135, p = 0.002; Se: rs = 0.110, p = 0.012; Na: rs = 0.091, p = 0.038. Polytomous logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, family history of diabetes and BMI, showed that subjects with high BMI were more likely to develop IFG and DM (IFG: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.02–1.29; DM: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.01–1.33. Moreover, rarely or never eating fruits was a risk factor for DM (OR = 5.46, OR 95% CI = 1.87–15.98 but not for IFG (OR = 1.70, OR 95% CI = 0.72–4.02. Subjects with abdominal obesity or DM history were more susceptible to DM (abdominal obesity: OR = 2.99, OR 95% CI = 1.07–8.37; DM history: OR = 2.69, OR 95

  12. Rights and Conflicts in the Management of Fisheries in the Lower Songkhram River Basin, Northeast Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsri, Malasri; Ruddle, Kenneth; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2009-04-01

    A complex, pre-existing local property rights system, characterized by overlap and conflict, comprises the local basis for managing inland fisheries in communities of the Lower Songkhram River Basin (LSRB) of Northeastern Thailand. The components, conflicts and changes of the system are analyzed for fourteen communities, focusing on the auction system for barrages, an illegal and destructive, yet tolerated, fishery. These rights, adapted to gear type, seasonality, and habitat of the LSRB fisheries, are a critical social resource and proven management system that should be legitimized. Recommendations are made for both improving general inland fisheries policy and reforming the barrage fishery.

  13. New insights into the tectonic evolution of the Andaman basin, northeast Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A.; Ramprasad, T.; Rao, P.S.; Rao, B.R.; Varghese, J.

    lines represent absence of magnetics, dashed lines AAP and BBP seismic re£ection data. EPSL 7024 25-3-04 Cyaan Magenta Geel Zwart K.A. Kamesh Raju et al./Earth and Planetary Science Letters 221 (2004) 145^162146 Andaman island arc including the Andaman... to inad- equate geophysical data. We aim to infer the evo- lution of the backarc basin based on multibeam bathymetry, magnetic and single channel seismic re£ection data acquired as a part of the investiga- tions to explore the possible occurrence of hydro...

  14. [Research on mineralization process of organic phosphorus in black soil in Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shaohua; Yu, Wantai; Zhang, Lu; Shen, Shanmin

    2005-10-01

    Buried bag and incubation experiments were conducted to study mineralization process of organic phosphorus in black soil in Northeast China under different time sequences. The results showed that both the content and mineralized velocity of organic P decreased gradually as time went on, the cumulative mineralized rate increased step by step, whether it was used by the method of incubation or buried bag. Under incubation, two treatments' mineralized velocity reached the maximum at first month (31.67, 38.75 mg x kg(-1) x month(-1), respectively), and their cumulative mineralized rate and mineralized velocity at six months were 7.94%, 13.26 mg x kg(-1) x month(-1) and 9.24%, 17.99 mg x kg(-1) x month(-1), respectively. Under buried bag, the mineralized velocity of five treatments all reached the maximum at first year (55.67, 55.65, 49.60, 19.71, 22.52 mg x kg(-1) month(-1), respectively), and the cumulative mineralized rate and mineralized velocity of maize root and wheat root treatments at three years both were approximately 50% and 35 mg x kg(-1) x month(-1), which were higher than those under soybean root andgrass root treatments. From two methods of studies on the mineralization process of organic P, it could be seen that the original content of organic P influenced its mineralized rate and mineralized velocity: the higher of the original content of organic P, the higher of its mineralized rate and mineralized velocity.

  15. [Impacts of high temperature on maize production and adaptation measures in Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-gang; Wang, Meng; Kong, Qing-xin; Wang, Zhan-biao; Zhang, Hai-lin; Chu, Qing-quan; Wen, Xin-ya; Chen, Fu

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the major agro-meteorological hazards that affect maize production significantly in the farming region of Northeast China (NFR). This study analyzed the temporal and spatial changes of the accumulated temperature above 30 °C (AT) and the accumulated days with the maximum temperature above 30 °C (AD) in different maize growing phases under global warming. It further evaluated the impacts of extreme heat on maize yield in different regions, and put forward some adaptation measures to cope with heat stress for maize production in NFR. The results showed that during 1961 to 2010, the temperature in the maize growing season increased significantly. The maximum temperature in flowering phase was much larger than that in the other growing phases. Temperature increased at rates of 0. 16, 0. 14, 0.06 and 0.23 °C every ten years in the whole maize growing season, vegetative growth phase (from sowing to 11 days before flowering), flowering phase, and late growth phase (from 11 days after flowering to maturity), respectively. The AT in the whole maize growing season increased in NFR during the last 50 years with the highest in the southwest part of NFR, and that in the vegetative growth phase increased faster than in the other two phases. The AD in the whole maize growing season increased during the last 50 years with the highest in the southwest part of NFR, and that in the late growth phase increased faster than in the other two phases. Heat stress negatively affected maize yield during the maize growing season, particularly in the vegetative growth phase. The heat stress in Songliao Plain was much higher in comparison to the other regions. The adaptation measures of maize production to heat stress in NFR included optimizing crop structure, cultivating high temperature resistant maize varieties, improving maize production management and developing the maize production system that could cope with disasters.

  16. [Variation of forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Wei; Huang, Mei; Zhai, Yin-Li; Chen, Ke; Gong, Ya-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The forest vegetation carbon stock and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China, were predicted by using Canadian carbon balance model (CBM-CFS3) combining with the forest resource data. The future spatio-temporal distribution and trends of vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate were projected, based on the two scenarios, i. e. with or without afforestation. The result suggested that the total forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon density in Liaoning Province in 2005 were 133.94 Tg and 25.08 t x hm(-2), respectively. The vegetation carbon storage in Quercus was the biggest, while in Robinia pseudoacacia was the least. Both Larix olgensis and broad-leaved forests had higher vegetation carbon densities than others, and the vegetation carbon densities of Pinus tabuliformis, Quercus and Robinia pseudoacacia were close to each other. The spatial distribution of forest vegetation carbon density in Liaoning Province showed a decrease trend from east to west. In the eastern forest area, the future increase of vegetation carbon density would be smaller than those in the northern forest area, because most of the forests in the former part were matured or over matured, while most of the forests in the later part were young. Under the scenario of no afforestation, the future increment of total forest vegetation carbon stock in Liaoning Province would increase gradually, and the total carbon sequestration rate would decrease, while they would both increase significantly under the afforestation scenario. Therefore, afforestation plays an important role in increasing vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate.

  17. Spatiotemporal changes of soil organic matter content in cropland of Northeast China during 1985 and 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liming; Yao, Yanmin; Tang, Huajun; Wang, Deying; Van Ranst, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a vital non-renewable natural resource which plays many essential roles in terrestrial ecosystems. The productive capacity of soils in particular, underlies the foundation of the well-being of humanity on Earth. Soil organic matter (SOM) content is one of the most important indicators of soil quality and hence the productive capacity of soils. In this study, we assessed the spatiotemporal changes of cropland SOM content in Northeast China (NEC) using direct measurements of 2005 and survey data of 1985. We also analysed the driving forces behind the SOM content change. The spatial distribution map of SOM content in 1985 was rasterized from the polygon map of SOM classes using the centre-point conversion method, while the SOM content map in 2005 was first derived from 750 samples through kriging interpolation and then grouped into the same SOM classes as in 1985. Our results showed that SOM content decreased in 39% of all the cropland in NEC, while increase in SOM content was only detected in 16% of the cropland. SOM remained unchanged in nearly half (i.e. 45%) of the cropland. These results suggest that cropland SOM content tended to decline over a period of 20 years in NEC. Our results also revealed that cropping intensity and fertilizer application were the two most important factors driving SOM change between 1985 and 2005. Overall, results from this research provided novel details of the spatiotemporal patterns of cropland SOM content change in NEC which was not revealed in earlier assessments. The datasets presented here can be used not only as baselines for the calibration of process-based carbon budget models, but also to identify regional soil quality hotspots and to guide spatial-explicit soil management practices.

  18. Fertilization Management for Improving Quality Properties of Spring Wheat in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-bing; ZHANG Qiu-ying; JIN Jian; WANG Guang-hua; S J Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Fertilization management to improve quality properties of spring wheat cultivars has received little research attention in Northeast China. In this study, the effects of different fertilization management regimes on the quality properties of spring wheat cultivar New Kehan 9 (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated for two years. The results showed that fertilization consistently increased wheat yield, and the highest yield was obtained with addition of N, P and NPK fertilizers. The NPK treatment resulted in 50% more yield than the unfertilized plot. The average increases in protein content from NPK and NP at seeding + N at anthesis over no fertilization and NP fertilizers at seeding were 2.7% and 0.90% respectively. The highest protein yields were achieved in NPK and NPK + N treatments, and the lowest protein yield was observed in the no fertilizer treatment due to both low protein content and grain yield. Fertilization increased gliadins content, but decreased glutenins content, thus the gliadins/glutenins ratios were higher in the fertilization treatments. The most obvious effect of fertilization on kernel quality was the significant increase of hardness percentage. Although the dough rheological properties were not strongly changed by fertilization, dry gluten and wet gluten were significantly increased, and the highest bread volume and bread score were found in the NPK treatment in both years. The application of 3% urea at anthesis, or applying 45 kg ha-1 of potassium sulphate at seeding, with urea and diammonium phosphate as basal applications, significantly increased protein yield and improved quality properties of this wheat cultivar.

  19. Investigation on bioremediation of oil-polluted wetland at Liaodong Bay in northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Shuhong [Dalian Maritime Univ. (China). Coll. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Biology and Food Engineering School of Dalian (China). Inst. of Light Industry; Huang Leichang [Biology and Food Engineering School of Dalian (China). Inst. of Light Industry; Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Coll. of Environmental Science; Li Yao Olive [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Ding Ming [Xigang District Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Dalian (China); Hu Yingying; Ding Dewen [Dalian Maritime Univ. (China). Coll. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2006-07-15

    An investigation on the effect of various microbes on degradation was carried out as part of the study on bioremediation of oil-polluted wetland at LiaoDong Bay in northeast China. The method used involved direct inoculation of selected bacteria, which were capable of degrading oil, to the soil samples. The combination of various bacteria showed better results in terms of oil degradation than any single ones due to their synergetic effects. The operation conditions [pH 8.0, 25 C, C/N/P (40:5.6:1)] for these bacteria to degrade the oil content in the soil samples were also studied and optimized. Addition of appropriate surfactants was helpful for bacteria growth, thus favoring the oil degradation. For instance, after adding Tween 80 (300 mg/kg) for 8 days, the number of bacteria was amplified 6.22 times and the rate of oil degradation increased by 20%. Adequate amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was also beneficial for microbes to decompose oil. However, overdosage may cause the death of the bacteria. The addition of 400 mg/l H{sub 2}O{sub 2} each time was suitable. Seven thousand milligrams of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was added entirely in 11 days, and the rate of oil degradation increased significantly from 27% (without H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) up to 67%. The study clearly demonstrated that the direct soil inoculation was an effective method for environmental bioremediation. (orig.)

  20. [Bud population dynamics of Phragmites australis in heterogeneous habitats of Northeast grassland, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    To adapt ecological environment, typical clonal plants can occur continuously by means of buds. The changes in the bud bank and bud flow in the heterogeneous habitats become the foundation for deep understanding the characteristics of vegetative propagation. By sampling soil from the unit area, a comparative analysis was performed for rhizome bud population dynamics of Phragmites australis community in both meadow soil and saline-alkali soil habitats in meadow grassland of Northeast China. The one-age class rhizome buds formed in the current year were used as input, with the other age classes rhizome buds as output, counting the dormancy buds and death buds. The results showed that the storage, input, output, dormancy, death and the input rates of P. australis rhizome bud populations in meadow soil habitat were significantly higher than that in saline-alkali habitat. There was no significant difference in output rate between the two habitats. The dormant rate in saline-alkali habitat was significantly greater than that in meadow soil habitat. The death rates remained at relatively low levels in both, less than 2%. With the going of growing season, the input buds and input rate of bud bank increased in the two habitats, while the output buds remained relatively stable. The output rate increased first and decreased later, the dormancy buds and dormant rate decreased. Bud bank and bud flow were positively related to soil moisture, soil organic matter and soil available nitrogen content. However, they were negatively related to soil pH value and soil available phosphorus content. Bud bank and bud flow had a similar seasonal variation. Constantly for both habitats, P. australis populations generated new rhizome buds supplied to the bud bank and kept a stable output to maintain their vegetative propagation.

  1. Responses of Grassland and Forest to Temperature and Precipitation Changes in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jing; DONG Wenjie; YUAN Wenping; ZHANG Yong

    2012-01-01

    Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as an indicator of vegetation growth,we explored the characteristics and differences in the response to drought of five vegetation biomes in Northeast China,including typical steppe,desert steppe,meadow steppe,deciduous coniferous forest and deciduous broad-leaved forest during the period 1982 2009.The results indicate that growing season precipitation may be the primary vegetation growth-limiting factor in grasslands.More than 70% of the temporal variations in NDVI can be explained by the amount of precipitation during the growing season in typical and desert steppes.During the same period,the mean temperature in the growing season could explain nearly 43% of the variations in the mean growing season NDVI and is therefore a dominant growth-limiting factor for forest ecosystems.Therefore,the NDVI trends differ largely due to differences in the vegetation growth-limiting factors of the different vegetation biomes.The NDVI responses to droughts vary in magnitude and direction and depend on the drought-affected areas of the five vegetation types.Specifically,the changes in NDVI are consistent with the variations in precipitation for grassland ecosystems.A lack of precipitation resulted in decreases in NDVI,thereby reducing vegetation growth in these regions.Conversely,increasing precipitation decreased the NDVI of forest ecosystems.The results also suggest that grasslands under arid and semi-arid environments may be more sensitive to drought than forests under humid environments.Among grassland ecosystems,desert steppe was most sensitive to drought,followed by typical steppe; meadow steppe was the least sensitive.

  2. A case-control study of diet and lung cancer in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; Johnson, K C; Mao, Y; Xu, T; Lin, Q; Wang, C; Zhao, F; Wang, G; Chen, Y; Yang, Y

    1997-06-11

    A case-control study involving interviews with 227 lung-cancer cases and 227 matched hospital controls was conducted in Heilongjiang Province in northeast China to examine the influence of dietary factors on the risk of developing lung cancer. Lung-cancer cases were all incident cases judged to be suitable candidates for tumor removal by surgery. Controls were selected among hospitalized patients with non-neoplastic and non-lung disease. The overall male lung-cancer risks associated with cigarette smoking were similar to those reported in other Chinese studies but quite low compared to risks in Western countries. However, the subjects in this study were relatively young (average age 53.2), had started to smoke on average at a relatively old age (21.3 years), and only smoked an average of 18.7 cigarettes per day. Lung-cancer risk was not strongly associated with any of the nutrients examined, when all cases were compared to all controls. However, the data were suggestive of differences in the relationship of diet to risk among smokers and non-smokers. Cautious interpretation is required because of the wide confidence intervals due to limited sample size. Among the smokers, only higher beta-carotene was associated with estimates suggesting a lowered risk. Among non-smokers, the evidence suggested that increased vegetable consumption might reduce risk, consumption of any fruit might reduce risk but beta-carotene was unrelated to risk. The differences observed in the relationship of diet to lung-cancer risk between Chinese smokers and non-smokers warrant further study.

  3. Environmental management and sustainable development in forested mountain areas of northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper studied the sustainable development through a reasonable management of the social,economic and natural environment in a forested mountain area of northeast China. In order to show the local peopie how to manage their most important forest resource, we analyzed the life-history process of the key species and the influencing factors that were associated with the forest regeneration and sustainability. Pollination and fertilization were mainly affected by weather conditions. Light intensity under the forest canopy was the key factor that controlled seedlings growth and saplings survival. Periodic seeds setting caused the fluctuations of rodents and other related animals in the food chain. Squirrels played a very important role in the forest regeneration, theses animals were the absolutely indispensable components of the forest ecosystem. How to understand the coevolutionary relationships among species in the forest ecosystems was very important for the conservation of biodiversity and maintenance of ecosystem integrity. In conservation of the natural resources, we studied the social and economic environment of the forested mountain area. It is very hard to effectively protect the forest resources and maintain the normal life of the local people under the regime of the "unified administration and enterprise system". Reforms are needed both in administrative institutions and in enterprise management. In the end, this paper proposed that we should not only protect the trees, the related animals, the ecological habitats, and the whole forest ecosystems, but also consider the human activities and their basic requirements so as to realize a sustainable development in the forested mountain areas.

  4. Using 137Cs Tracer Technique to Evaluate Erosion and Deposition of Black Soil in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Soil and water losses through erosion have been serious in the black soil region of Northeast China. Therefore, a sloping cultivated land in Songnen Plain was selected as a case study to: 1) determine the 137Cs reference inventory in the study area; 2) calculate erosion and deposition rates of black soil on different slope locations; 3) conduct a sensitivity analysis of some model parameters; and 4) compare overall outputs using four different models. Three transects were set in the field with five slope locations for each transect, including summit, shoulder-slope, back-slope, foot-slope, and toe-slope. Field measurements and model simulation were used to estimate a bomb-derived 137Cs reference inventory in the study area.Soil erosion and deposition rates were estimated using four 137Cs models and percentage of 137Cs loss/gain. The 137Cs reference value in the study area was 2 232.8 Bq m-2 with 137Cs showing a clear topographic pattern, decreasing from the summit to shoulder-slope, then increasing again at the foot-slope and reaching a maximum at the toe-slope. Predicted soil redistribution rates for different slope locations varied. Among models, the Yang Model (YANG-M) overestimated erosion loss but underestimated deposition. However, the standard mass balance model (MBM1) gave predictions similar to a mass balance model incorporating soil movement by tillage (MBM2). Sensitivity analysis of the proportion factor γand distribution pattern of 137Cs in the surface layer demonstrated the impact of 137Cs enrichment on calculation of the soil erosion rate. Factors influencing the redistribution of fallout 137Cs in landscape should be fully considered as calculating soil redistribution rate using 137Cs technique.

  5. Basin-Scale Sand Deposition in the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation of the Sichuan Basin, Southwest China: Sedimentary Framework and Conceptual Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiucheng Tan; Qingsong Xia; Jingshan Chen; Ling Li; Hong Liu; Bing Luo; Jiwen Xia; Jiajing Yang

    2013-01-01

    The Upper Triassic Xujiahe(须家河) Formation in the Sichuan (四川) Basin,Southwes China is distinctive for the basin-scale sand deposition.This relatively rare sedimentary phenomenon has not been well interpreted.Here we addressed this issue by discussing sedimentary framework and conceptual model.Analysis of sedimentary setting implied that the basin received transgression during the deposition.It had multiple provenance supplies and river networks,as being surrounded by oldlands in multiple directions including the north,east and south.Thus,the basin was generally characterized by coastal and widely open and shallow lacustrine deposition during the Late Triassic Xujiahe period.This is similar to the modern well-known Poyang(鄱阳) Lake.Therefore,we investigated the framework and conceptual model of the Sichuan Basin during the Xujiahe period with an analogue to the Poyang Lake.Results show that the conceptual model of the deposition can be divided into transgressive and regressive stages.The first,third and fifth members of the formation are in transgressive stage and the deposits are dominated by shore and shallow lacustrine mud.In contrast,the deposition is mainly of braided river channel sand deposits during the regressive stage,mainly including the second,fourth and sixth members of the formation.The sand deposited in almost the entire basin because of the lateral migration and forward moving of the cross networks of the braided rivers.The multiple alternations of short and rapid transgression and relatively long regression are beneficial to the basin-scale sand deposition.Thus,the main channel of the braided river and its extensional areas are favorable for the development of hydrocarbon reservoir.This provides practical significance to the reservoir evaluation and exploration.In addition,the results also justify the relatively distinctive sedimentary phenomenon in the study area and may also have implications for understanding the large

  6. Effect of low income on health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ou, Fengrong; Gao, Shuang; Gao, Qian; Hu, Liwen; Liu, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Following the dramatic socioeconomic transition since the 1980s in China, some people became unemployed and experienced a significant drop in income. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low income on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among the population in northeast China. A total of 5100 individuals in northeast China were randomly sampled and investigated using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) from November 2005 to October 2006. According to the monthly per capita income level, the population was divided into different groups for analysis. Multiple linear regressions showed that low income, older age, disease, and unemployment were the important factors that could lead to worse HRQOL. Covariance analysis showed that there were significant differences in HRQOL scores among the subgroups of the low-income population. When the income level increased, HRQOL scores improved. This study could provide valuable information for planning integrated economic and public health policies to improve the health of people living in poverty.

  7. Stratigraphy of the Neogene Sahabi units in the Sirt Basin, northeast Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shawaihdi, M. H.; Mozley, P. S.; Boaz, N. T.; Salloum, F.; Pavlakis, P.; Muftah, A.; Triantaphyllou, M.

    2016-06-01

    A revision of the nomenclature of lithostratigraphic units of Neogene strata at As Sahabi, northeast Libya, is presented, based on new fieldwork conducted during 2006-2008. The Sahabi units are correlated across the Ajdabya Sheet (NH 34-6) in northeastern Libya. Major conclusions are: (1) Miocene (Langhian through Messinian) strata are predominantly carbonate and should be referred to as formation "M"; (2) A local unconformity of Miocene (early Messinian) age overlies strata of the formation "M"; (3) This unconformity is overlain by Messinian gypsiferous sand and mud (formerly formation "P" and partially member "T"), which are designated as the "lower member" (gypsiferous) of the Sahabi Formation; (4) The "lower member" is overlain by sand and mud of late Messinian age (formerly partially member "T" and members "U1", "UD", and "U2") in a generally fining-upwards sequence, and are designated as the "upper member" (non-gypsiferous) of the Sahabi Formation; (5) The latest Miocene sand and mud of the "upper member" are capped by an unconformity that is correlated with the regression and desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea during the Messinian Salinity Crisis and with Eosahabi Channel cutting; (6) The unconformity is overlain by Pliocene medium, coarse, and pebbly sands, which are referred to as the Qarat Weddah Formation (formerly Garet Uedda Formation); (7) The Pliocene sands of Qarat Weddah Formation are overlain by carbonate soil (calcrete) of Late Pliocene age, which is referred to as formation "Z" (formerly member "Z"). The major outcome of this study is a revised stratigraphic description and nomenclature of the Sahabi units that helps to provide a formal and unified context for understanding paleontological discoveries in northeastern Libya, which will serve to facilitate a broader correlation of the Sahabi units with their equivalents elsewhere in Africa and in Europe and Asia.

  8. Geological conditions of coal and gas(oil)-bearing basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tingbin

    2005-01-01

    There are various types of coal basins in China. Indosinian movement can be regarded as their evolutionary limit, and the basins can be divided into two developmental stages, three structural patterns and two sedimentary environments. However, only those coal measure strata that have been deeply buried in the earth are possible to be converted into coal and gas (oil)-bearing basins. Among which, only part of the coal measures possess the essential geological conditions to the formation of commercial humic oil. However, humic gas will be the major exploration target for natural gas in China. Among various coal basins, foreland basins have the best prospect for humic gas. Rift (faulted) basins accumulate the most abundance of humic gas, and are most favorable to generate humic oil. Craton basins have relatively low abundance of humic gas, but the evolution is rather great. The three kinds of coal basins mentioned above constitute China's three primary accumulation areas of humic gas: western, central and offshore areas. The major basins for humic gas field exploration include Tarim, Ordos, Sichuan, East China Sea and Yingqiong basins.

  9. Natural and artificial radioactivity in surface waters of the Ebro river basin (Northeast Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, Ll.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A

    2000-11-01

    A radiological characterisation of surface waters of the Ebro river basin was carried out during November 1994. For this purpose, 75 water samples were collected from points distributed throughout the Ebro river basin. Analysis included gross alpha and gross beta activities, relevant natural radionuclides ({sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 234,238}U -uranium total-) and several artificial radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr and radiocaesium). Mean gross alpha and gross beta activities in surface waters of the river's main course were 0.095{+-}0.004 and 0.213{+-}0.012 Bq l{sup -1}, respectively. Mean activities of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and uranium (total) were 0.132{+-}0.009, 0.0282{+-}0.0008 and 0.053{+-}0.006 Bq l{sup -1}, respectively. Regarding artificial radionuclides, the mean {sup 90}Sr activity was 6.6{+-}0.3 mBq l{sup -1}, {sup 3}H was detected in 8% of the samples, and radiocaesium was not detected in any sample. It is estimated that almost 100% of gross alpha and 97% of gross beta activities of surface waters in the Ebro river came from natural sources. Furthermore, results showed that the geological setting, large cities, agricultural areas and dams strongly influence the occurrence of natural radionuclides. Contamination from nuclear power plants located along the river was not detected. Finally, we estimated that the annual dose equivalent due to the hypothetical ingestion of Ebro river waters was 7.59 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}, which represented only 0.3% of the average annual effective dose attributable to natural background radiation in the area.

  10. Modern pollen rain in the Lake Qinghai basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Lake Qinghai is the largest inland brackish lake in China and lies within the NE Tibetan Plateau. Our study shows that pollen assemblages in each vegetation belt are significantly correlated with the vegetation types of this area. Among the herbaceous and shrubby pollen assemblages, Artemisia is over-represented, while Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Polygonaceae are under-represented. Artemisia/ Chenopodiaceae (A/C) ratios with the regional vegetation characteristic can be used as a proper index to reconstruct the history of vegetation and climate in Lake Qinghai basin. Modern pollen in the lake mainly comes from the nearby vegetation, controlled by the directions and velocity of the wind. The distribution of modern pollen in Lake Qinghai tends to be similar in most part of the lake. The difference of pollen sedimentation process in the lake can be potentially influenced by the focusing function of the lake, river streams, and lake current.

  11. The stress regime in a Rotliegend reservoir of the Northeast German Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Inga; Schandelmeier, Heinz; Holl, Heinz-Gerd

    2009-10-01

    In-situ stresses have significant impact, either positive or negative, on the short and long term behaviour of fractured reservoirs. The knowledge of the stress conditions are therefore important for planning and utilization of man-made geothermal reservoirs. The geothermal field Groß Schönebeck (40 km north of Berlin/Germany) belongs to the key sites in the northeastern German Basin. We present a stress state determination for this Lower Permian (Rotliegend) reservoir by an integrated approach of 3D structural modelling, 3D fault mapping, stress ratio definition based on frictional constraints, and slip-tendency analysis. The results indicate stress ratios of the minimum horizontal stress S hmin being equal or increasing 0.55 times the amount of the vertical stress S V ( S hmin ≥ 0.55 S V ) and of the maximum horizontal stress S Hmax ≤ 0.78-1.00 S V in stress regimes from normal to strike slip faulting. Thus, acting stresses in the 4,100-m deep reservoir are S V = 100 MPa, S hmin = 55 MPa and S Hmax = 78-100 MPa. Values from hydraulic fracturing support these results. Various fault sets of the reservoir are characterized in terms of their potential to conduct geothermal fluids based on their slip and dilatation tendency. This combined approach can be adopted to any other geothermal site investigation.

  12. The association of ideal cardiovascular health and left ventricle hypertrophy in rural population of northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ye; Li, Yuan; Guo, Xiaofan; Li, Tan; Chen, Yintao; Dai, Dongxue; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In 2010, the American Heart Association (AHA) published a new concept “ideal cardiovascular health” (CVH), which consisted of 4 behaviors (smoking, body mass index [BMI], physical activity, and diet score) and 3 health factors (total cholesterol [TC], blood pressure [BP], and fasting plasma glucose [FPG]). This study was aimed to investigate the association between CVH with left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH) in a rural general population. From January 2012 to August 2013, we conducted this cross-sectional study using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. A representative sample of individuals who were at 35 years or older was selected. All the 7 CVH metrics were estimated for ideal, intermediate, and poor levels. LVH was accessed by echocardiography and classified into concentric remodeling, concentric LVH, and eccentric LVH. The association between CVH and LVH was determined. The final data were obtained from 10,684 adults (5497 men and 5187 women) in the rural areas of northeast China. Overall, the prevalence rates of concentric remodeling, concentric LVH, and eccentric LVH were 5.1%, 4.9%, and 12.8%, respectively. The prevalence of concentric/eccentric LVH was inversely related to the numbers of ideal CVH metrics. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that only poor BP was associated with concentric remodeling among the 7 CVH metrics; poor BP was highly associated with concentric LVH (OR: 8.49; 95% CI: 4.59–15.7); poor BMI was highly associated with eccentric LVH (OR: 5.87; 95% CI: 4.83–7.14). Compared to subjects with 5 to 7 ideal CVH metrics, subjects with 4, 3, 2, 1, and 0 ideal CVH metrics had an increased risk for both concentric and eccentric LVH in a number-dependent manner. The subjects with poor CVH status had a 5.90-fold higher risk of developing concentric LVH and a 3.24-fold higher risk of developing eccentric LVH, compared to subjects with ideal-intermediate CVH. Our study found that an inversely gradient relationship

  13. Sulfur cycle in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingshuang; LI Xinhua

    2008-01-01

    The sulfur cycle and its compartmental distribution within an atmosphere-plant-soil system was studied using a compartment model in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in the Sanjiang Plain Northeast China. The results showed that in the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem, soil was the main storage compartment and current hinge of sulfur in which 98.4% sulfur was accumulated, while only 1.6% sulfur was accumulated in the plant compartment. In the plant subsystem, roots and litters were the main storage compartment of sulfur and they remained 83.5% of the total plant sulfur. The calculations of sulfur turnover through the compartments of the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem demonstrated that the above-ground component took up 0.99 gS/m2 from the root, of which 0.16 gS/m2 was translocated to the roots and 0.83 gS/m2 to the litter. The roots took in 1.05 gS/m2 from the soil, subsequent translocation back to the soil accounted for 1.31 gS/m2, while there was 1.84 gS/m2 in the litter and the net transfer of sulfur to the soil was more than 0.44 gS/(m2·a). The emission of H2S from the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem to the atmosphere was 1.83 mgS/(m2·a), while carbonyl sulfide (COS) was absorbed by the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem from the atmosphere at the rate of 1.76 mgS/(m2·a). The input of sulfur by the rainfall to the ecosystem was 4.85 mgS/m2 during the growing season. The difference between input and output was 4.78 mgS/m2, which indicated that sulfur was accumulated in the ecosystem and may cause wetland acidify in the future.

  14. Sulfur cycle in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingshuang; Li, Xinhua

    2008-01-01

    The sulfur cycle and its compartmental distribution within an atmosphere-plant-soil system was studied using a compartment model in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in the Sanjiang Plain Northeast China. The results showed that in the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem, soil was the main storage compartment and current hinge of sulfur in which 98.4% sulfur was accumulated, while only 1.6% sulfur was accumulated in the plant compartment. In the plant subsystem, roots and litters were the main storage compartment of sulfur and they remained 83.5% of the total plant sulfur. The calculations of sulfur turnover through the compartments of the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem demonstrated that the above-ground component took up 0.99 gS/m2 from the root, of which 0.16 gS/m2 was translocated to the roots and 0.83 gS/m2 to the litter. The roots took in 1.05 gS/m2 from the soil, subsequent translocation back to the soil accounted for 1.31 gS/m2, while there was 1.84 gS/m2 in the litter and the net transfer of sulfur to the soil was more than 0.44 gS/(m2 x a). The emission of H2S from the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem to the atmosphere was 1.83 mgS/(m2 x a), while carbonyl sulfide (COS) was absorbed by the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem from the atmosphere at the rate of 1.76 mgS/(m2 x a). The input of sulfur by the rainfall to the ecosystem was 4.85 mgS/m2 during the growing season. The difference between input and output was 4.78 mgS/m2, which indicated that sulfur was accumulated in the ecosystem and may cause wetland acidify in the future.

  15. Distribution of major hydrocarbon source rocks in the major oil-gas-bearing basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Luofu; ZHAO Suping; CHEN Lixin; HUO Hong

    2005-01-01

    The distribution characteristics of major hydrocarbon source rocks in the major oil-gas-bearing basins in China were discussed in this paper, and differences between the East and the West basins in tectonic setting, age, lithology, sedimentary environment, and hydrocarbon generation feature and potential were also studied. Considering the Lüliang Mountains-Dalou Mountains as the boundary, source rocks in the East basins are distributed mainly in three NNE-trend subsiding belts, and those in the West basins are distributed in the north and south of the Tianshan Mountains and Qilian Mountains. They are mainly NWW trending and can be divided into four basin groups.

  16. Forecasting database for the tsunami warning center for the western Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, A.; Hebert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hernandez, B.

    2011-12-01

    Improvements in the availability of sea-level observations and advances in numerical modeling techniques are increasing the potential for tsunami warnings to be based on numerical model forecasts. Numerical tsunami propagation and inundation models are well developed, but they present a challenge to run in real-time, partly due to computational limitations and also to a lack of detailed knowledge on the earthquake rupture parameters. A first generation model-based tsunami prediction system is being developed as part of the French Tsunami Warning Center that will be operational by mid 2012. It involves a pre-computed unit source functions database (i.e., a number of tsunami model runs that are calculated ahead of time and stored) corresponding to tsunami scenarios generated by a source of seismic moment 1.75E+19 N.m with a rectangular fault 25 km by 20 km in size and 1 m in slip. The faults of the unit functions are placed adjacent to each other, following the discretization of the main seismogenic faults bounding the western Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic basins. An authomatized composite scenarios calculation tool is implemented to allow the simulation of any tsunami propagation scenario (i.e., of any seismic moment). The strategy is based on linear combinations and scaling of a finite number of pre-computed unit source functions. The number of unit functions involved varies with the magnitude of the wanted composite solution and the combined wave heights are multiplied by a given scaling factor to produce the new arbitrary scenario. Uncertainty on the magnitude of the detected event and inaccuracy on the epicenter location are taken into account in the composite scenarios calculation. For one tsunamigenic event, the tool produces finally 3 warning maps (i.e., most likely, minimum and maximum scenarios) together with the rough decision matrix representation. A no-dimension code representation is chosen to show zones in the main axis of energy at the basin

  17. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the late Cenozoic Qaidam Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Wang, Y.; Li, Q.; Wang, X.; Deng, T.; Tseng, Z. J.; Takeuchi, G.; Xie, G.; Xu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Reconstruction of paleoenvironments in the Tibetan region is important to understanding the linkage between tectonic force and climate change. Here we report new isotope data from the Qaidam Basin, China, which is located on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, including stable C and O isotope analyses of a wide variety of late Cenozoic mammalian tooth enamel samples (including deer, giraffe, horse, rhino, and elephant), and O isotope compositions of phosphate (δ18Op) in fish bone samples. Mammalian tooth enamel δ13C values, when combined with fossil assemblage and other geological evidence, indicate that the Qaidam Basin was warmer and more humid during the late Miocene and early Pliocene, and that there was lush C3 vegetation with significant C4 components at that time, although the C4 plants were not consistently utilized. In contrast, the modern Qaidam Basin is dominated by C3 plants. Fish bone δ18Op values showed statistically significant enrichment from the Tuxi-Shengou-Naoge interval (late Miocene) to the Yahu interval (early Pliocene) and from the Yahu interval to the present day. This most likely reflects increases in the δ18O of lake water over time, as a result of increased aridification of the Qaidam Basin. Assuming that mammals drank exclusively from the lake, temperatures were calculated from average δ18Op values and average δ18Ow derived from large mammal tooth enamel δ18O. Temperatures were also estimated from δ18Op and δ18Ow estimated from co-ocurring large mammal tooth enamel δ18O. The temperature estimates were all lower than the average temperature of the modern Qinghai Lake surface water during the summer, and mostly too low to be reasonable, indicating that the fish and the large mammals were not in equilibrium with the same water. Assuming the relationship between salinity and δ18Ow observed for the modern Qinghai Lake and its surrounding lakes and ponds applied in the past, we calculated the paleosalinities of lake waters to be ~0 to

  18. An integrated multiscale river basin observing system in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Liu, S.; Xiao, Q.; Ma, M.; Jin, R.; Che, T.

    2015-12-01

    Using the watershed as the unit to establish an integrated watershed observing system has been an important trend in integrated eco-hydrologic studies in the past ten years. Thus far, a relatively comprehensive watershed observing system has been established in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China. In addition, two comprehensive remote sensing hydrology experiments have been conducted sequentially in the Heihe River Basin, including the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) (2007-2010) and the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) (2012-2015). Among these two experiments, an important result of WATER has been the generation of some multi-scale, high-quality comprehensive datasets, which have greatly supported the development, improvement and validation of a series of ecological, hydrological and quantitative remote-sensing models. The goal of a breakthrough for solving the "data bottleneck" problem has been achieved. HiWATER was initiated in 2012. This project has established a world-class hydrological and meteorological observation network, a flux measurement matrix and an eco-hydrological wireless sensor network. A set of super high-resolution airborne remote-sensing data has also been obtained. In addition, there has been important progress with regard to the scaling research. Furthermore, the automatic acquisition, transmission, quality control and remote control of the observational data has been realized through the use of wireless sensor network technology. The observation and information systems have been highly integrated, which will provide a solid foundation for establishing a research platform that integrates observation, data management, model simulation, scenario analysis and decision-making support to foster 21st-century watershed science in China.

  19. Inter-shelf nutrient transport from the East China Sea as a major nutrient source supporting winter primary production on the northeast South China Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Han

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The East China Sea (ECS and the South China Sea (SCS are two major marginal seas of the north Pacific with distinct seasonal primary productivity. Based upon field observation in December 2008–January 2009 covering both the ECS and the northern SCS (NSCS in wintertime, we examined southward long-range nutrient-transport from the ECS to the northeast SCS (NESCS carried by the China Coastal Current (CCC driven by the northeast prevailing monsoon. These nutrients escaped from the cold ECS shelf to refuel the primary production on the NESCS shelf where river-sourced nutrients were limited yet water temperature remained favorable. By coupling the field observation of nitrate + nitrite (DIN with the volume transport of the CCC, we derived a first order estimate of DIN flux of ~ 1430 ± 260 mol s−1. This DIN flux was ~ 7 times the wintertime DIN input from the Pearl River, a primary riverine nutrient source to the NSCS. By assuming DIN was the limiting nutrient, such southward DIN transport would have stimulated ~ 8.8 ± 1.6 × 1011 gC of new production (NP, accounting for ~ > 58 ± 10% of the total NP or ~ 38 ± 7–24 ± 4% of primary production on the NESCS shelf shallower than 100 m.

  20. Investigating the effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence in northeast China using ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Junqiao

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence have gained more recent concern. However, the multi-collinearity among meteorological factors affects the accuracy of correlation with bacillary dysentery incidence. Methods As a remedy, a modified method to combine ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis was proposed for investigating the effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence in northeast China. Results All weather indicators, temperatures, precipitation, evaporation and relative humidity have shown positive correlation with the monthly incidence of bacillary dysentery, while air pressure had a negative correlation with the incidence. Ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis showed that during 1987–1996, relative humidity, temperatures and air pressure affected the transmission of the bacillary dysentery. During this period, all meteorological factors were divided into three categories. Relative humidity and precipitation belonged to one class, temperature indexes and evaporation belonged to another class, and air pressure was the third class. Conclusion Meteorological factors have affected the transmission of bacillary dysentery in northeast China. Bacillary dysentery prevention and control would benefit from by giving more consideration to local climate variations.

  1. Response of CH4 emission to moss removal and N addition in boreal peatland of Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Meng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Boreal peatlands are an important natural source of atmospheric methane (CH4. Recently, boreal peatlands have been experiencing increased nitrogen (N input and decreased moss production. However, little is known about the interactive effect of moss and N availability on CH4 emission in boreal peatlands. In this study, the effects of moss removal and N addition (6 g N m−2 yr−1 on CH4 emission were examined during the growing seasons of 2011 to 2013 in a boreal peatland in the Great Hinggan Mountain of Northeast China. Notably, the response of CH4 emission to moss removal and N addition varied with experimental duration. Moss removal and N addition did not affect CH4 emission in 2011 and 2012, but respectively declined CH4 emission by 50% and 66% in 2013. However, moss removal and N addition did not produce an interactive effect on CH4 emission. Specifically, moss removal plus N addition had no effect on CH4 emission in 2011 and 2012, but decreased CH4 emission by 68% in 2013. These results suggest that the effects of moss removal and N enrichment on CH4 emission are time-dependent in boreal peatlands, and also imply that increased N loading and decreased moss growth would independently inhibit CH4 emission in the boreal peatlands of Northeast China.

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Population-Based Study in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF has attracted increasing attention worldwide. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of HFpEF and analyze its correlates in a sample of residents of northeast China; Methods: A population-based study of 2230 participants ≥35 years old was conducted in rural areas of Liaoning Province from January 2012 through August 2013. Information about lifestyle and other potential risk factors was obtained. HFpEF was diagnosed according to the recommendations of European Society of Cardiology; Results: The overall prevalence of HFpEF was 3.5% (1.8% in men and 4.9% in women. The prevalence of HFpEF increased with age in both genders and was greater in women than in men for every age group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that female gender (OR, 3.575; 95% CI, 1.761–7.256, hypertension (OR, 3.711; 95% CI, 2.064–6.674, and history of heart disease (2.086; 95% CI, 1.243–3.498 were associated factors for prevalent HFpEF; Conclusions: In a general population from rural northeast China, we found that female gender, hypertension, and history of heart disease were risk factors for prevalent HFpEF.

  3. More Trade with Northeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ To establish a long-term platform where China and other Northeast Asian countries could enjoy mutual benefits, interchange and communica-tion, NAITE faithfully plays its role. This Sep-tember 2 to 6, Changchun International Confer-ence & Exhibition Center welcomes again the NAITE, China Jilin-Northeast Asia Investment and Trade Expo, and it was the fourth session in Changchun, Jilin Province in the northeast of China. The impact is accumulating.

  4. Quantification of Climate Changes and Human Activities That Impact Runoff in the Taihu Lake Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Dingzhi Peng; Linghua Qiu; Jing Fang; Zhongyuan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Although a fragile climate region, the Taihu Lake Basin is among the most developed regions in China and is subjected to intense anthropogenic interference. In this basin, water resources encounter major challenges (e.g., floods, typhoons, and water pollution). In this study, the impacts of climate changes and human activities on hydrological processes were estimated to aid water resource management in developed regions in China. The Mann-Kendall test and cumulative anomaly curve were applied...

  5. Tectono-thermal modeling of the Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Lijuan

    2001-01-01

    [1]Li Yuliang, Huang Zhongming, Thermal history about northern margin of South China Sea, China Offshore Oil and Gas (Geology) (in Chinese), 1990, 4(6): 31.[2]Li Yuliang, Zhang Quanxing, Zhang Qiming, Thermal abnormality of Ya13-1 gas field, China Offshore Oil and Gas (Geology) (in Chinese), 1992, 6(5): 33.[3]Gong Zaisheng, Li Sitian et al., Basin Analysis and Accumulation of Oil and Gas in Northern Margin of South China Sea (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1997.[4]He Lijuan, Xiong Liangping, Wang Jiyang et al., Calculation of stretching factors in the multi-phase modeling of sedimentary basins, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 1995, 40(24): 2261.[5]He Lijuan, Xiong Liangping, Wang Jiyang, Effects on the tectono-thermal modeling of extensional basins, Scientia Geologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1998, 33(2): 222.[6]Pitman, W. C., Andrews, J. A., Subsidence and thermal history of small pull-apart basins, in Strike-slip Deformation, Basin Formation and Sedimentation (eds. Kevin, T. B., Nicholas, C. B.), Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Special Publication, 1985.[7]Zhang Qiming, Hu Zhongliang, High-temperature and high-pressure conditions and migration of hydrocarbons in Yinggehai-Qiongdongnan basin, A Collection on Petroleum Geology of Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea (in Chinese), Beijing: Seismology Press, 1993, 78-84.

  6. Origin and Distribution of Hydrogen Sulfide in Oil-Bearing Basins, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guangyou; ZHANG Shuichang; LIANG Yingbo

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of hydrogen sulfide gas (H_2S) varies greatly in the oil-bearing basins of China, from zero to 90%. At present, oil and gas reservoirs with high H_2S concentration have been discovered in three basins, viz. the Bohai Bay Basin, Sichuan Basin and the Tarim Basin, whereas natural gas with low H_2S concentration has been found in the Ordos Basin, the Songiiao Basin and the Junggar Basin. Studies suggest that in China H_2S origin types are very complex. In the carbonate reservoir of the Sichuan Basin, the Ordos Basin and the Tarim Basin, as well as the carbonate-dominated reservoir in the Luojia area of the Jiyang depression in the Bohai Bay Basin, Wumaying areas of the Huanghua depression, and Zhaolanzhuang areas of the Jizhong depression, the H_2S is of Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction (TSR) origin. The H_2S is of Bacterial Sulphate Reduction (BSR) origin deduced from the waterflooding operation in the Changheng Oiifieid (placanticline oil fields) in the Songliao Basin. H_2S originates from thermal decomposition of sulfur-bearing crude oil in the heavy oil area in the Junggar Basin and in the Liaohe heavy oil steam pilot area in the western depression of the Bohai Bay Basin. The origin types are most complex, including TSR and thermal decomposition of sulfcompounds among other combinations of causes. Various methods have been tried to identify the origin mechanism and to predict the distribution of H_2S. The origin identification methods for H_2S mainly comprise sulfur and carbon isotopes, reservoir petrology, particular biomarkers, and petroleum geology integrated technologies; using a combination of these applications can allow the accurate identification of the origins of H_2S. The prediction technologies for primary and secondary origin of H_2S have been set up separately.

  7. InSAR time-series analysis of land subsidence due to groundwater overexploitation in groundwater basins of central and northeast Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, M.; Motagh, M.; Aipour, S.; Akbari, V.; Walter, T.; Rajabi, M.; Samadzadegan, F.; Djamour, Y.; Sedighi, M.

    2008-12-01

    We use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture (InSAR) observations acquired by the Envisat satellite during 2002-2008 to study land subsidence caused by groundwater over-exploitation in groundwater basins of central and northeast Iran. Earlier studies in these regions using a few interferograms showed rapid subsidence in the order of several centimetres per year. Here we use additional ENVISAT data and perform a time-series analysis using the small-baseline concept to better determine the temporal and spatial evolution of surface deformation.

  8. Abiogenic hydrocarbons in commercial gases from the Songliao Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XianBin; WANG LianSheng; LIU ChunXue; YAN Hong; LI LiWu; ZHOU XiaoFeng; WANG YongLi; YANG Hui; WANG Guang; GUO ZhanQian; TUO JinCai; GUO HongYan; LI ZhenXi; ZHUO ShengGuang; JIANG HongLiang; ZENG LongWei; ZHANG MingJie

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the kinetic fractionation, composition and distribution characteristics of carbon and hydrogen isotopes for various alkane gases formed in different environments, by different mecha-nisms and from different sources in nature. It is demonstrated that the biodegradation or thermode-gradation of complex high-molecule sedimentary organic material can form microbial gas or ther-mogenic gas. The δ13C1 value ranges from -110‰ to -50‰ for microbial gases but from -51‰ to -35‰ (even heavier) for thermogenic gases. Controlled by the kinetic isotope fractionation, both microbial and thermogenic gases have δ13C and δD values characterized by normal distribution, i.e. δ13C1 δ13C2> δ13C3> δ13C4 and δDCH4<δDC2H6< δDC3H8< δDC4H10. The δ13C values and δD values are negatively correlated. Natural gases from 26 commercial gas wells distributed in the Xujiaweizi and Yingshan-Miaotaizi faulted de-pressions in the Songliao Basin, China, show δ13C1 values ranging from -30.5‰. to -16.7‰, with a very narrow δD range between -203‰--196‰. These gases are characterized by a reverse distribution of δ13C values but a normal distribution of δD values, and a negative correlation between their δ13C and δD values, indicating an abiological origin. The present study has revealed that abiogenic hydrocar-bons not only exist in nature but also can make significant contribution to commercial gas reserviors. It is estimated that the reserve volume of alkane gases with abiogenic characteristics in these 26 gas wells in the Songliao Basin is over 500×108 m3, The prospecting practice in the Songliao Basin has demonstrated that abiogenic alkane gases are of a promising resource, and it provides an example for the investigation of and search for abiogenic commercial natural gases worldwide.

  9. Abiogenic hydrocarbons in commercial gases from the Songliao Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the kinetic fractionation, composition and distribution characteristics of carbon and hydrogen isotopes for various alkane gases formed in different environments, by different mecha- nisms and from different sources in nature. It is demonstrated that the biodegradation or thermode- gradation of complex high-molecule sedimentary organic material can form microbial gas or thermogenic gas. The δ 13C1 value ranges from -110‰ to -50‰ for microbial gases but from -50‰ to -35‰ (even heavier) for thermogenic gases. Controlled by the kinetic isotope fractionation, both microbial and thermogenic gases have δ 13C and δ D values characterized by normal distribution, i.e. δ 13C1< δ 13C2< δ 13C3< δ 13C4 and δ DCH4< δ DC2H6< δ DC3H8<δ DC4H10, and by a positive correlation between the δ 13C and δ D values. Simple carbonbearing molecules (CH4, CO and CO2) can form abiogenic alkane gases via polymerization in the abiological chemical process in nature, with δ 13C1 heavier than -30‰. Moreover, controlled by the kinetic isotope fractionation, abiogenic alkane gases are characterized by a reverse distribution of δ 13C values and a normal trend of δ D values, namely δ 13C1> δ 13C2> δ 13C3> δ 13C4 and δ DCH4<δ DC2H6< δ DC3H8< δ DC4H10. The δ 13C values and δ D values are negatively correlated. Natural gases from 26 commercial gas wells distributed in the Xujiaweizi and Yingshan-Miaotaizi faulted depressions in the Songliao Basin, China, show δ13C1 values ranging from -30.5‰ to -16.7‰ with a very narrow δ D range between -203‰―-196‰. These gases are characterized by a reverse distribution of δ 13C values but a normal distribution of δ D values, and a negative correlation between their δ 13C and δ D values, indicating an abiological origin. The present study has revealed that abiogenic hydrocarbons not only exist in nature but also can make significant contribution to commercial gas reserviors. It is estimated that

  10. Analysis and prediction of reference evapotranspiration with climate change in Xiangjiang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-e Tao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reference evapotranspiration (ET0 is often used to estimate actual evapotranspiration in water balance studies. In this study, the present and future spatial distributions and temporal trends of in the Xiangjiang River Basin (XJRB in China were analyzed. during the period from 1961 to 2010 was calculated with historical meteorological data using the FAO Penman-Monteith (FAO P-M method, while during the period from 2011 to 2100 was downscaled from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 outputs under two emission scenarios, representative concentration pathway 4.5 and representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP45 and RCP85, using the statistical downscaling model (SDSM. The spatial distribution and temporal trend of were interpreted with the inverse distance weighted (IDW method and Mann-Kendall test method, respectively. Results show that: (1 the mean annual of the XJRB is 1 006.3 mm during the period from 1961 to 2010, and the lowest and highest values are found in the northeast and northwest parts due to the high latitude and spatial distribution of climatic factors, respectively; (2 the SDSM performs well in simulating the present and can be used to predict the future in the XJRB; and (3 CMIP5 predicts upward trends in annual under the RCP45 and RCP85 scenarios during the period from 2011 to 2100. Compared with the reference period (1961 to 1990, increases by 9.8%, 12.6%, and 15.6% under the RCP45 scenario and 10.2%, 19.1%, and 27.3% under the RCP85 scenario during the periods from 2011 to 2040, from 2041 to 2070, and from 2071 to 2100, respectively. The predicted increasing under the RCP85 scenario is greater than that under the RCP45 scenario during the period from 2011 to 2100.

  11. Identifying entry points to improve fertilizer use efficiency in Taihu Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Li; Feng, S.; Reidsma, P.; Qu, F.; Heerink, N.

    2014-01-01

    Overuse of fertilizers in China causes environmental problems and high costs for farmers. In this paper we aim to identify entry points to improve fertilizer use efficiency in Taihu Basin, China. We use stochastic frontier analysis to estimate the technical and fertilizer use efficiency of rice prod

  12. Impact of cultivation year, nitrogen fertilization rate and irrigation water quality on soil salinity and soil nitrogen in saline-sodic paddy fields in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saline-sodic soils are a valuable potential arable land resource, and are widely distributed in the western Songnen Plain of Northeast China. Reclaiming and planting rice is an effective and feasible approach for improving saline-sodic soil and increasing food production. Assessment of the effective...

  13. Factors influencing CO2 and CH4 emissions from coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, L.; Ye, S.; Wei, M.

    2015-01-01

    temperature and vegetation on CH4 emissions and ecosystem respiration (Reco) from five coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, northeast China: two Phragmites australis (common reed) wetlands, two Suaeda salsa (sea blite) marshes and a rice (Oryza sativa) paddy. Throughout the growing season, the Suaeda...

  14. ANALYSIS OF VOLCANIC FACIES AND APPARATUS OF YINGCHENG FORMATION IN XUJAWEIZI FAULTING DEPRESSION,SONGLIAO BASIN NORTHEAST CHINA%松辽盆地徐家围子断陷营城组 火山岩相和火山机构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    徐家围子断陷营城组火山岩极为发育。文章通过对火山岩的岩芯观察、薄片鉴定、岩芯测试及测井资料、二维、三维地震资料的综合分析,将营城组火山岩盆地分为3大相区,即火山喷发区、过渡区和沉积区。火山喷发区岩性由各种熔岩、火山碎屑岩和少量砂砾岩组成;过渡区岩性以火山碎屑岩与沉积岩互层为特征,夹少量火山熔岩;沉积区岩性包括砂砾岩、砂岩、粉砂岩和泥岩。火山喷发区内可识别出8种类型的火山岩相(空落相、溢流相、基底涌流相、火山碎屑流相、火山泥石流相、火山沉积相、次火山相、隐爆角砾岩相)和3种类型的火山机构(层火山、微型盾火山和渣锥火山)。不同类型的火山机构具有不同火山作用、岩相分布特征和含油气性。因此火山岩相及火山机构分析对火山作用研究和油气勘探均有重要意义。%Yingcheng formation in Xujaweizi faulting depression, Songliao Basin, is rich in volcanic rock. Based on core observation, thin sections identification and integration of well log and 2D/3D seismic data, 3 facies zones are identified in Yingcheng Formation in this basin, which is the eruption zone of volcanic, transitional zone and sedimentary zone. The eruption zone consists of lava, pyroclastic and limited sandy conglomerate. The transitional zone is characterized by interbedding of pyroclastic and sedimentary rocks,and a little volcanic lava rocks was also found in the strata. Sandy conglomerate, sandy stone and siltstone are developed in the sedimentary zone. Moreover, 8 types of volcanic lithofacies such as fallout facies, effusion facies, base surges facies, pyroclastics flow facies, lahar facies, eruption-sedimentary facies, sub-volcanic rock facis and sub-explosive breccia facies, and three kinds of volcanic apparatus such as layered volcano, micro-shield volcano and cone Volcano can be identified in the

  15. Distribution Characteristics and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Liaohe River Drainage Basin,Northeast China.%辽河流域多环芳烃(PAHs)的分布特征及来源解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩林; 胡健; 刘宝剑; 李思亮; 灌瑾

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) in surface water and suspended particulate matter(SPM) in the major rivers of the Liaohe River drainage basin were determined by GC/MS.The concentrations and distribution characteristics,pollution levels,and sources of PAHs were discussed.The total PAHs concentrations range from 0.41 to 76.45 μg·g-1(dry weight) in SPM,and 32.57 to 108.47 ng·L-1 in surface water,respectively.The PAHs concentrations in western Liaohe River are higher than those in eastern Liaohe River and its main streams.The compositions of PAHs are predominant by low-ring PAHs(including two-and three-ring PAHs),while the percentage of low-ring PAHs in dissolved form is higher than that in SPM.The two-ring PAHs percentage is highest with an average of 68.19 % in dissolved PAHs,while the three-ring PAHs percentage is highest with an average of 66.28% in SPM,respectively.Compared with other rivers both at home and abroad,the PAHs concentrations in the Liaohe River drainage basin are at a lower level,and some rivers have suffered PAHs contamination to a certain extent.The main sources of PAHs are petroleum and fossil fuel combustion-based mixture,which are related to the complex energy structure of Liaoning Province.%采用气相色谱-质谱(GC/MS)的分析方法,对辽河水系主要河流的表层水和悬浮物中的16种PAHs进行了定量分析,并对其分布特征、污染水平以及来源进行了探讨。结果显示:颗粒态PAHs的浓度范围为0.41~76.45μg.g-1,溶解态PAHs的浓度范围为32.57~108.47ng.L-1,西辽河PAHs的浓度比东辽河以及辽河干流中PAHs的浓度要高。在多环芳烃组成上,溶解态和颗粒态样品的PAHs均以低环数(二、三环)为主,且溶解态中低环数PAHs所占比例较颗粒态中所占的比例高。其中,溶解态中二环的PAHs比例最高(平均为68.19%),颗粒态中三环的PAHs比例最高(平均为66.28%)。相对于国内外

  16. Thallium distribution in sediments from the Pearl river basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Juan [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Jin; Chen, Yongheng [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Qi, Jianying [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Lippold, Holger [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Chunlin [Guangdong Provincial Academy of Environmental Science, Guangzhou (China)

    2010-10-15

    Thallium (Tl) is a rare element of high toxicity. Sediments sampled in three representative locations near industries utilizing Tl-containing raw materials from the Pearl River Basin, China were analyzed for their total Tl contents and the Tl contents in four sequentially extracted fractions (i.e., weak acid exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fraction). The results reveal that the total Tl contents (1.25-19.1 {mu}g/g) in the studied sediments were slightly high to quite high compared with those in the Chinese background sediments. This indicates the apparent Tl contamination of the investigated sediments. However, with respect to the chemical fractions, Tl is mainly associated with the residual fraction (>60%) of the sediments, especially of those from the mining area of Tl-bearing pyrite minerals, indicating the relatively low mobility, and low bioavailability of Tl in these sediments. This obviously contrasts with the previous findings that Tl is mainly entrapped in the first three labile fractions of the contaminated samples. Possible reasons were given for the dominating association of Tl with the residual fraction (>95%) of the mining area sediments. The significant role of certain K-containing silicates or minerals of these sediments on retaining Tl in the residual fraction, discovered by this study, provides a special field of research opportunity for the Tl-containing wastewater treatment. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Origin of Natural Gas in Kekeya Field, Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Dujie; Xiao Zhongyao; Tang Youjun; Zhu Junzhang; Li Xianqing

    2004-01-01

    This paper is mainly concentrated on the geochemical characteristics and origin of gas of Kekeya field in the Tarim basin, NW China. This study shows that Permian mudstone is the main source rock of oil and gas. Based on the carbon isotopes of C1-C4, the carbon isotope of gas in Kekeya field is a little heavier than that in the typical marine-derived gas. The relationship between carbon isotopes of methane and ethane is coincident with Faber equation of gas derived from organic matter Ⅰ/Ⅱ. The majority of gas maturity is estimated, based on the formula, at 1.8 %-2.2 % besides K2 and K18 wells. In addition, the gas derived from 0.9 %-1.2 % Ro source rocks may also be mixture. 40Ar/36Ar and 3He/4He ratios from the gas samples also support the mixing process. Moreover, the gas in this region is mainly generated from more mature source rocks although the low mature gas exists.

  18. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors as well as Attitudes and Perceptions towards Tobacco Control in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, the associated factors of current smoking among adults, and their attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 using a self-reported questionnaire. A representative sample of adults aged 18–79 years was collected in the Jilin Province of Northeast China by a multistage stratified random cluster sampling design. Descriptive data analysis was conducted, and 95% confidence intervals (CI of prevalence/frequency were calculated to enable comparisons between the alleged differences and similarities. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the risk factors associated with current smoking. Results: 21,435 adults responded to the survey (response rate: 84.9%. The overall prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, and former smoking or smoking cessation was 39.1% (95% CI: 38.3–39.9, 31.8% (95% CI 31.1–32.6, and 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9–7.7, respectively. The proportion of ETS exposure among adult non-smokers in Jilin Province was 61.1% (95% CI: 60.1–62.1, and 23.1% (95% CI: 22.3–24.0 of the non-smokers reported daily ETS exposure. The proportion of ETS exposure at home was 33.4% (95% CI: 32.5–34.4, but the proportion of ETS exposure at restaurants was lower (6.5% (95% CI: 6.0–7.1. More than 90% of the participants had positive attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control, but 23.2% (95% CI: 22.5–24.0 of them did not agree with the perception of “smoking is fully quit in public places”, and almost half of the adults (49.5% (95% CI: 48.7–50.3 did not agree with the perception of “hazards of low-tar cigarettes are equal to general cigarettes”. Conclusions: Smoking and exposure to ETS are prevalent among adults from the Jilin Province of Northeast China. Our findings suggest that tobacco control should be advocated in

  19. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  20. Natural gas origins of large and medium-scale gas fields in China sedimentary basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China sedimentary basins present abundant natural gas resource thanks to its unique geological settings.Marine highly-matured hydrocarbon source rocks,widespread coal-measure strata and low temperature Quaternary saline strata,etc.,indicate the wide foreground of China natural gas resources. Up to now,most of the petroliferous basins have been discovered to have wholesale natural gas accumulation from Precambrian,Paleozoic,Mesozoic to Cenozoic in the east,the central,the west and the coast of China.These large and medium-scale gas reservoirs are mainly composed of hydrocarbon gas with big dry coefficient,tiny non-hydrocarbon,wide carbon isotope distribution and varying origin types,the hydrocarbon gas includes coal-formed gas,oil-formed gas,biogenic gas and inorganic gas, etc.Coal-formed gas is the main type of China natural gas resources,in particular several explored large-scale gas fields(>100 billion cubic meter)of Kela 2,Sulige and Daniudi,etc.,they all belong to coal-formed gas fields or the gas fields consisting mostly of coal-formed gas.Oil-formed gas is also abundant in China marine basins,for example marine natural gas of Sichuan Basin generated from crude oil cracking gas.Primary and secondary biogenic gas fields were discovered respectively in the Qaidam Basin and Western Slope of Songliao Basin.In addition,inorganic gases are mainly distributed in the eastern China,in particular the Songliao Basin with abundant carbon dioxide accumulation,indicating that the eastern China present large exploration potential of inorganic gas.

  1. Accuracy assessment of global historical cropland datasets based on regional reconstructed historical data——A case study in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Historical cropland datasets are fundamental for quantifying the effects of human land use activities on climatic change and the carbon cycle. Two representative global land-use datasets, the Global Land Use Database (termed SAGE dataset) and the Historical Database of the Global Environment (termed HYDE dataset) have been established and used widely. Despite improvement of data quality and methodologies for extracting historical land use information, certain dataset limitations exist that need to be quantified and communicated to users so that they can make informed decisions on whether and how these land-use products should be used. The Cropland data of Northeast China (CNEC) is based on calibrated historical data and a multi-sourced data conversion model, and reconstructs cropland cover change in Northeast China over the last 300 years. Us- ing the CNEC as a reference, we evaluated the accuracy of cropland cover for SAGE and HYDE in Northeast China at spatial scales ranging from the entire Northeast China to provinces and even individual raster grid cells. Neither SAGE nor HYDE reflects real historical land reclamation. Cropland areas in SAGE are overestimated by 20.98 times in 1700 to 1.6 times in 1990. Although HYDE is better, there are significant disagreements in cropland area and distribution between HYDE and CNEC, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. The proportion of total grid cells whose relative error was greater than 100% was 63.55% in 1700 and 53.27% in 1780. Global cropland dataset errors over Northeast China originate mainly from both the reverse calculation method for historical cropland data based on modern spatial patterns, and modern land-use outputs from satellite data.

  2. Phylogenetic distribution of the capsid assembly protein gene (g20 of cyanophages in paddy floodwaters in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyong Jing

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have revealed the high diversity of cyanophages in marine and freshwater environments, but little is currently known about the diversity of cyanophages in paddy fields, particularly in Northeast (NE China. To elucidate the genetic diversity of cyanophages in paddy floodwaters in NE China, viral capsid assembly protein gene (g20 sequences from five floodwater samples were amplified with the primers CPS1 and CPS8. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE was applied to distinguish different g20 clones. In total, 54 clones differing in g20 nucleotide sequences were obtained in this study. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the distribution of g20 sequences in this study was different from that in Japanese paddy fields, and all the sequences were grouped into Clusters α, β, γ and ε. Within Clusters α and β, three new small clusters (PFW-VII∼-IX were identified. UniFrac analysis of g20 clone assemblages demonstrated that the community compositions of cyanophage varied among marine, lake and paddy field environments. In paddy floodwater, community compositions of cyanophage were also different between NE China and Japan.

  3. Discussion on marine source rocks thermal evolvement patterns in the Tarim Basin and Sichuan Basin, west China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Taking marine source rocks of lower Paleozoic in the Tarim Basin and Paleozoic ones in the Sichuan Basin as examples, their sedimentation process could be classified into four styles: continuous subsldence with deep sedimentation in early stage, continuous subsidence with deep sedimentation in later stage, that deeply buried-uplift-shallowly buried, and that shallowly buried-uplift-deeply buried.Unlike that in East China, the marine source rocks evolvement patterns did not accord with sedimentation styles one by one in superimposed basins in west China. Taking local geothermal field into account, four types of source rock evolvement patterns were built: that evolved fast in early stage,evolved fast in middle stage, evolved continuously and evolved in multistage. Among them, the 1st pattern contributed little to the present industrial oil pools directly, but paleo-oil reservoirs and gases cracked from crude oils were main exploration targets. Although some gases were found in the 2nd pattern, the scale was not big enough. For the 3rd and 4th patterns, the hydrocarbon potential depended on organic matters maturity in early stage. For relatively low mature rocks, it was possible to generate some oils in later stage; otherwise the main products were gases. Paleo-oil reservoirs remained fairly well in the Sichuan Basin, and most source rocks underwent kerogen-oil-gas processes,which was useful reference to gas exploration in the Tarim Basin.

  4. Short-term Effects of Tillage Practices on Organic Carbon in Clay Loam Soil of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A tillage experiment, consisting of moldboard plow (MP), ridge tillage (RT), and no-tillage (NT), was performed in a randomized complete block design with four replicates to study the effect of 3-year tillage management on SOC content and its distribution in surface layer (30 cm) of a clay loam soil in northeast China. NT did not lead to significant increase of SOC in topsoil (0-5 cm) compared with MP and RT; however, the SOC content in NT soil was remarkably reduced at a depth of 5-20 cm. Accordingly, short-term (3-year) NT management tended to stratify SOC concentration, but not necessarily increase its storage in the plow layer for the soil.

  5. [Prediction of litter moisture content in Tahe Forestry Bureau of Northeast China based on FWI moisture codes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Jin, Sen; Di, Xue-Ying

    2014-07-01

    Canadian fire weather index system (FWI) is the most widely used fire weather index system in the world. Its fuel moisture prediction is also a very important research method. In this paper, litter moisture contents of typical forest types in Tahe Forestry Bureau of Northeast China were successively observed and the relationships between FWI codes (fine fuel moisture code FFMC, duff moisture code DMC and drought code DC) and fuel moisture were analyzed. Results showed that the mean absolute error and the mean relative error of models.established using FWI moisture code FFMC was 14.9% and 70.7%, respectively, being lower than those of meteorological elements regression model, which indicated that FWI codes had some advantage in predicting litter moisture contents and could be used to predict fuel moisture contents. But the advantage was limited, and further calibration was still needed, especially in modification of FWI codes after rainfall.

  6. The influence of frozen soil change on water balance in the upper Yellow River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuo, L.; Zhao, L.; Zhou, B.

    2013-12-01

    Yellow River supports 30% of China's population and 13% of China's total cultivated area. About 35% of the Yellow River discharge comes from the upper Yellow River Basin. Seasonally frozen, continuous and isolated permafrost soils coexist and cover the entire upper Yellow River Basin. The spatial distribution of various frozen soisl is primarily determined by the elevation in the basin. Since the past five decades, air temperature has increased by a rate of 0.03 C/year in the upper Yellow River Basin. Many studies reported the conversions of continuous to isolated permafrost soil, permafrost soil to seasonally frozen soil and the thickening of the active layer due to rising temperature in the basin. However, very few studies reported the impact of the change of frozen soil on the water balance in the basin. In this study, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is applied in the upper Yellow River Basin to study the change of frozen soil and its impact on the water balance. Soil temperature and soil liquid content measured up to 3 m below ground surface at a number of sites in the upper Yellow River Basin and the surroundings are used to evaluate the model simulation. Streamflow is also calibrated and validated using historical streamflow records. The validated VIC model is then used to investigate the frozen soil change and the impact of the change on water balance terms including surface runoff, baseflow, evapotranspiration, soil water content, and streamflow in the basin.

  7. Provenance and sediment dispersal of the Triassic Yanchang Formation, southwest Ordos Basin, China, and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiangyang

    2016-04-01

    The Ordos Basin in north central China records a transition from marine to non-marine deposition during the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. As a result, the northern and southern regions of the Ordos Basin show different tectonic histories and very distinctive sedimentation styles. Two deformation belts, the Qinling orogenic belt to the south and the Liupanshan thrust and fold belt to the west, controlled the structural evolution of the southern Ordos Basin during the early Mesozoic. Paleocurrent analysis, net-sand ratio maps, sandstone modal analysis, and U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology were used to document sediment sources and dispersal patterns of the Triassic Yanchang Formation in the southwest Ordos Basin. Paleocurrent measurements suggest that the sediments were mainly derived from the Liupanshan and the Qinling orogenic belts. Net-sand ratio maps show that several fan delta systems controlled sediment delivery in the south Ordos Basin. Both sandstone modal analysis and U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology suggest that the Yanchang Formation is locally sourced from both of the basin marginal deformation belts; the lower and middle sections are recycled Paleozoic sedimentary rocks mainly derived from the north Qinling orogenic belt, whereas for the upper section, the Qilian-Qaidam terranes and possibly the west Qinling orogenic belt began to shed sediments into the southwest Ordos Basin. Results have important implications for basin marginal tectonics and its controls on sedimentation of intracratonic basins in China and similar settings.

  8. An urban neo-poverty population-based quality of life and related social characteristics investigation from northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengrong Ou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate quality of life (QOL and related characteristics among an urban neo-poverty population in northeast China, and to compare this population with a traditional poverty cohort. DESIGN: The research was a cross-sectional survey executed from June 2005 to October 2007, with a sample of 2940 individuals ages 36 to 55 in three different industrial cities of northeast China. Data were collected on QOL status and sociodemographic characteristics. QOL was assessed using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (Chinese version. Multiple regression analysis was employed to analyze association between sociodemographic variables and QOL. RESULTS: The scores for QOL in the neo-poverty group were higher than those in the traditional poverty group, but lower than those in the general population. When the neo-poverty population was divided into two subgroups by age, 36-45 years and 46-55 years, the differences in QOL scores were not significant. However, there were significant differences in several dimensions between two subgroups according to unemployment time (5 years. Additionally, stepwise regression analysis indicated that disease burden, including disease and medical expenditures, was a common risk factor for declining QOL in the neo-poverty group. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, this study provides initial evidence that the QOL of the urban neo-poverty population lies between that of the general population and traditional poverty. QOL of the neo-poverty group approached QOL of the traditional poverty group with increased unemployment years. In addition to decreased income, disease burden is the most important factor influencing QOL status in urban neo-poverty.

  9. Brominated flame retardants in the urban atmosphere of Northeast China: Concentrations, temperature dependence and gas-particle partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Hong; Li, Wen-Long; Liu, Li-Yan; Song, Wei-Wei; Ma, Wan-Li, E-mail: mawanli002@163.com; Li, Yi-Fan, E-mail: ijrc_pts_paper@yahoo.com

    2014-09-01

    57 pairs of air samples (gas and particle phases) were collected using a high volume air sampler in a typical city of Northeast China. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, including BDEs 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, 183, and 209) and 9 alternative BFRs (p-TBX, PBBZ, PBT, PBEB, DPTE, HBBZ, γ-HBCD, BTBPE, and DBDPE) were analyzed. The annual average total concentrations of the 13 PBDEs and the 9 alternative BFRs were 69 pg/m{sup 3} and 180 pg/m{sup 3}, respectively. BDE 209 and γ-HBCD were the dominant congeners, according to the one-year study. The partial pressure of BFRs in the gas phase was significantly correlated with the ambient temperature, except for BDE 85, γ-HBCD and DBDPE, indicating the important influence of ambient temperature on the behavior of BFRs in the atmosphere. It was found that the gas–particle partitioning coefficients (logK{sub p}) for most low molecular weight BFRs were highly temperature dependent as well. Gas–particle partitioning coefficients (logK{sub p}) also correlated with the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (logP{sub L}{sup o}). Our results indicated that absorption into organic matter is the main control mechanism for the gas–particle partitioning of atmospheric PBDEs. - Highlights: • Both PBDEs and alternative BFRs were analyzed in the atmosphere of Northeast China. • Partial pressure of BFRs was significantly correlated with the ambient temperature. • A strong temperature dependence of gas-particle partitioning was found. • Absorption into organic matter was the control mechanism for G-P partitioning.

  10. Efects of Crop Growth on Hydrological Processes in River Basins and on Regional Climate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN; Pei-Hua; CHEN; Feng; XIE; Zheng-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The regional climate model RegCM3 incorporating the crop model CERES,called the RegCM3CERES model,was used to study the efects of crop growth and development on regional climate and hydrological processes over seven river basins in China.A 20-year numerical simulation showed that incorporating the crop growth and development processes improved the simulation of precipitation over the Haihe River Basin,Songhuajiang River Basin and Pearl River Basin.When compared with the RegCM3 control run,RegCM3CERES reduced the negative biases of monthly mean temperature over most of the seven basins in summer,especially the Haihe River Basin and Huaihe River Basin.The simulated maximum monthly evapotranspiration for summer(JJA)was around 100 mm in the basins of the Yangtze,Haihe,Huaihe and Pearl Rivers.The seasonal and annual variations of water balance components(runof,evapotranspiration and total precipitation)over all seven basins indicate that changes of evapotranspiration agree well with total precipitation.Compared to the RegCM3,RegCM3CERES simulations indicate reduced local water recycling rate over most of the seven basins due to lower evapotranspiration and greater water flux into these basins and an increased precipitation in the Heihe River Basin and Yellow River Basin,but reduced precipitation in the other five basins.Furthermore,a lower summer leaf area index(1.20 m2m 2),greater root soil moisture(0.01 m3m 3),lower latent heat flux(1.34 W m 2),and greater sensible heat flux(2.04 W m 2)are simulated for the Yangtze River Basin.

  11. Geothermal Regime, Thermal History and Hydrocarbon Generation Types of Sedimentary Basins in the Continental Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuNansheng; JamesPuckette; JinZhijun; WangJiyang

    2005-01-01

    The thermal regimes in sedimentary basins in the continental area of China are varied and reflect differences in geological settings. As a result of these variable thermal regimes, the history of hydrocarbon generation in each basin is also different. An east-west profile of the thermal threshold across the continental basins of China, like the Liaohe Basin, the North China Basin, the Ordos Basin, the Qaidam Basin and the Tarim Basin, was constructed using large numbers of heat flow measurements, temperature data and rock thermophysical parameters. Isotherms, surface heat flow, mantle heat flow and Moho temperature beneath the basins are shown in the profile, which illustrates changes in some thermal characteristics between basins in east China and those in west China. Thermal evolution histories in basins were reconstructed using Easy%Ro method, apatite fission track annealing and other paleothermometers. Typical hydrocarbon generation histories of the primary source rocks were modeled by referring to the thermal evolution data. Thermal stages controlled source rocks maturation and oil and gas generation, and influenced the type of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) production in the basins.

  12. Gully Erosion Mapping and Monitoring at Multiple Scales Based on Multi-Source Remote Sensing Data of the Sancha River Catchment, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranghu Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on gully erosion mapping and monitoring at multiple spatial scales using multi-source remote sensing data of the Sancha River catchment in Northeast China, where gullies extend over a vast area. A high resolution satellite image (Pleiades 1A, 0.7 m was used to obtain the spatial distribution of the gullies of the overall basin. Image visual interpretation with field verification was employed to map the geometric gully features and evaluate gully erosion as well as the topographic differentiation characteristics. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV remote sensing data and the 3D photo-reconstruction method were employed for detailed gully mapping at a site scale. The results showed that: (1 the sub-meter image showed a strong ability in the recognition of various gully types and obtained satisfactory results, and the topographic factors of elevation, slope and slope aspects exerted significant influence on the gully spatial distribution at the catchment scale; and (2 at a more detailed site scale, UAV imagery combined with 3D photo-reconstruction provided a Digital Surface Model (DSM and ortho-image at the centimeter level as well as a detailed 3D model. The resulting products revealed the area of agricultural utilization and its shaping by human agricultural activities and water erosion in detail, and also provided the gully volume. The present study indicates that using multi-source remote sensing data, including satellite and UAV imagery simultaneously, results in an effective assessment of gully erosion over multiple spatial scales. The combined approach should be continued to regularly monitor gully erosion to understand the erosion process and its relationship with the environment from a comprehensive perspective.

  13. Cenozoic Fault Distribution Characteristics and Evolution in Qikou Sag of Bohai Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongdong Zhang; Chiyang Liu; Yijian Huang; Siqian Chen; Yi Lu; Zhipan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Qikou sag, located in north-center of Huanghua depression in Bohai Basin, is a Cenozoic sag with rich hydrocarbon. As a microcosm of Bohai Basin, the fault characteristics of Cenozoic struc-tural layers in Qikou sag could indicate and record the evolution of Cenozoic stress field in Bohai Basin. Based on the latest 3-D seismic data, the study takes statistics on the fault system of Cenozoic structural layers and analyzes the fault throws of major large faults along the strikes in different periods in Qikou sag, then the fault distribution regularities and the fault direction characteristics in each structural layer are summarized. The result shows that during Cenozoic, the fault activity strength migrates from southwest to northeast and the strikes of faults changes from northwestward in Sha-3 period to nearly east-westward since Sha-1 period.

  14. Geochemistry of Late Triassic pelitic rocks in the NE part of Songpan-Ganzi Basin, western China: Implications for source weathering, provenance and tectonic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Tang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Major, trace and rare earth element (REE concentrations of Late Triassic sediments (fine-grained sandstones and mudstones from Hongcan Well 1 in the NE part of the Songpan-Ganzi Basin, western China, are used to reveal weathering, provenance and tectonic setting of inferred source areas. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA reflects a low to moderate degree of chemical weathering in a cool and somewhat dry climate, and an A-CN-K plot suggests an older upper continental crust provenance dominated by felsic to intermediate igneous rocks of average tonalite composition. Based on the various geochemical tectonic setting discrimination diagrams, the Late Triassic sediments are inferred to have been deposited in a back-arc basin situated between an active continental margin (the Kunlun-Qinling Fold Belt and a continental island arc (the Yidun Island Arc. The Triassic sediments in the study area underwent a rapid erosion and burial in a proximal slope-basin environment by the petrographic data, while the published flow directions of Triassic turbidites in the Aba-Zoige region was not supported Yidun volcanic arc source. Therefore, we suggest that the Kunlun-Qinling terrane is most likely to have supplied source materials to the northeast part of the Songpan-Ganzi Basin during the Late Triassic.

  15. Analysis of developing non-timber forest products of Sanjiang Plain,Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tong; ZHOU Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    The Sanjiang Plain is a vast area of alluvial floodplains and low hills in northeast Heilongjiang Province. Because of the excessive land reclamation in the past, the whole forest area and the quality have decreased. In the view of sustainable development, this paper analyzed the possibilities for Non-timber Forest Product in terms of developing potentialities, markets, social effects and the status of NTFPs in several counties of Sanjiang Plain. The result showed that, active development and management for NTFPs is an optimistic option to how to balance the wetlands conservation and sustainable economic development.

  16. Tectonic implications of Late Paleozoic stratigraphic distribution in Northeast China and adjacent region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ChengWen; SUN YueWu; LI Ning; ZHAO GuoWei; MA XiaoQin

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the distribution of the Late Paleozoic strata on Northeast Chinaand adjacent region re-veals a zonal pattern of the distribution around the core of the Jiamusi-Mongolia Block. The main part of Late Paleozoic marine strata in this area is considered the continental margin deposits of the Jia-musi-Mongolia Block by analyzing the stratigraphic contact relationship, lithofacies, etc. The results are exhibited in a series of tectonic paleogeographic maps. This presents an important proof for the foundation of the Jiamusi-Mongolia Block, and confines the forming time of Jiamusi-Mongolia Block to the Late Silurian.

  17. Geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids from the PACMANUS, Northeast Pual and Vienna Woods hydrothermal fields, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Eoghan P.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Saccocia, Peter; Bach, Wolfgang; Craddock, Paul R.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Sylva, Sean P.; Walsh, Emily; Pichler, Thomas; Rosner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Processes controlling the composition of seafloor hydrothermal fluids in silicic back-arc or near-arc crustal settings remain poorly constrained despite growing evidence for extensive magmatic-hydrothermal activity in such environments. We conducted a survey of vent fluid compositions from two contrasting sites in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, to examine the influence of variations in host rock composition and magmatic inputs (both a function of arc proximity) on hydrothermal fluid chemistry. Fluid samples were collected from felsic-hosted hydrothermal vent fields located on Pual Ridge (PACMANUS and Northeast (NE) Pual) near the active New Britain Arc and a basalt-hosted vent field (Vienna Woods) located farther from the arc on the Manus Spreading Center. Vienna Woods fluids were characterized by relatively uniform endmember temperatures (273-285 degrees C) and major element compositions, low dissolved CO2 concentrations (4.4 mmol/kg) and high measured pH (4.2-4.9 at 25 degrees C). Temperatures and compositions were highly variable at PACMANUS/NE Pual and a large, newly discovered vent area (Fenway) was observed to be vigorously venting boiling (358 degrees C) fluid. All PACMANUS fluids are characterized by negative delta DH2O values, in contrast to positive values at Vienna Woods, suggesting substantial magmatic water input to circulating fluids at Pual Ridge. Low measured pH (25 degrees C) values (~2.6-2.7), high endmember CO2 (up to 274 mmol/kg) and negative delta 34SH2S values (down to -2.7 permille) in some vent fluids are also consistent with degassing of acid-volatile species from evolved magma. Dissolved CO2 at PACMANUS is more enriched in 13C (-4.1 permille to -2.3 permille) than Vienna Woods (-5.2 permille to -5.7 permille), suggesting a contribution of slab-derived carbon. The mobile elements (e.g. Li, K, Rb, Cs and B) are also greatly enriched in PACMANUS fluids reflecting increased abundances in the crust there relative to the Manus

  18. South China connected to north India in Gondwana: sedimentary basin and detrital provenance analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, W.; Li, Z. X.; Li, W. X.; Li, X. H.; Yang, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The paleoposition of South China during the Ediacaran-Silurian is important for understanding the assembly of Gondwana. We report here the tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Ediacaran-Silurian Nanhua foreland basin in South China, and discuss South China's connection with Gondwana and potential tectonic triggers for both the Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China and the Bhimphedian orogeny in north India. The Nanhua basin was involved in a three-stage evolution, which are: Stage 1 (the Ediacaran-Cambrian) recording the start of tectonic subsidence with turbiditic marine clastic deposition, fed by exotic orogens outboard South China; Stage 2 (the Ordovician to earliest-Silurian) featured by migrating depocentres with dominant shallow marine to deltaic clastic deposition, fed by the local Wuyi-Yunkai orogen; and Stage 3 (the Silurian) showing the arrival of depocentre in the Yangtze Block during the waning stage of the Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny with deltaic deposition in the remanent foreland basin. Detrital zircon analyses of the Ediacaran-Silurian sandstones across the Nanhua basin reveal a prominent age population of 1100-900 Ma (with a peak age at ~980 Ma) and moderate populations of Archean-Paleozoic ages, grossly matching that of crystalline and sedimentary rocks in northern India. Zircon isotopes of the Stage 1 samples suggest three Precambrian episodes of juvenile crustal growth at 3.0 Ga, 2.5 Ga and 1.0 Ga, and a major crustal reworking at 580-500 Ma for the source areas, which are constraint to be northwestern India and its surrounding orogens. Together with other evidence, we propose that South China likely collided with northwestern India during the Gondwana assembly, generated the Bhimphedian orogeny in north India and formed two foreland basins on both the north India and South China sides. Far-field stress of the collision triggered the Ordovician-Silurian Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China. The Stage 2-3 samples in the Nanhua basin of South China were shed

  19. Identification and Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates from Primeval Forests in Yunnan and Hainan Provinces and Northeast Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ninety-two Bacillus thuringiensis isolates were screened from 683 soil samples collected from tropical and semitropical primeval forests in Yunnan and Hainan provinces of China. Several shapes of crystals, including bipyramidal, square,ovoid, spherical, and amorphous, were observed in the B. thuringiensis isolates. Twenty-six pairs of primers were used to identify 31 holotype cry genes at primary rank of the B. thuringiensis cry gene nomenclature system. The cry gene-types of 92 B. thuringiensis isolates and 33 B. thuringiensis isolates screened from Northeast region of China were identified by PCR-RFLP and SDS-PAGE methods. Fifty-eight isolates harbored cryl genes, 32 isolates cry2 genes, 12 isolates cry8 genes, 3 isolates cry9 genes, 12 isolates cry11 genes, and 13 isolates cry30 genes. Of the tested isolates, 42 produced no reaction product with 26 pairs of primers and also exhibited no toxicity against 8 insect species tested. The isolate Z2-34 harbored a novel cry30 gene, exhibited insecticidal activity against Aedes albopictus of Dipterans. The accession number of the novel genes in this study is AY916046. Isolation and identification of B. thuringiensis and cry gene are important for investigating the diversity of B. thuringiensis resources and cloning new cry gene.

  20. Contribution of Root Respiration to Total Soil Respiration in a Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. Grassland of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The loss of carbon through root respiration is an important component of grassland carbon budgets. However,few data are available concerning the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration in grasslands in China. We investigated seasonal variations of soil respiration rate, root biomass, microbial biomass C and organic C content of the soil in a semi-arid Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. grassland of northeast China during the 2002 growing season (from May to September). The linear regression relationship between soil respiration rate and root biomass was used to determine the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration. Soil respiration rate ranged from 2.5 to 11.9 g C/m2 per d with the maximum in late June and minimum in September.The microbial biomass C and organic C content of the soil ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 g C/m2 and from 29 to 34 g C/kg respectively. Root biomass had two peaks, in early June (1.80 kg/m2) and mid-August (1.73 kg/m2). Root respiration rate peaked in mid-August (6.26 g C/m2 per d), whereas microbial respiration rate peaked in late June (7.43 g C/m2 per d). We estimated that the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration during the growing season ranged from 38% to 76%.

  1. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration and irrigation on photosynthetic parameters and yield of maize in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanchao Meng

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the major cultivated crops of China, having a central role in ensuring the food security of the country. There has been a significant increase in studies of maize under interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2] and other factors, yet the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and increasing precipitation on maize has remained unclear. In this study, a manipulative experiment in Jinzhou, Liaoning province, Northeast China was performed so as to obtain reliable results concerning the later effects. The Open Top Chambers (OTCs experiment was designed to control contrasting [CO2] i.e., 390, 450 and 550 µmol·mol(-1, and the experiment with 15% increasing precipitation levels was also set based on the average monthly precipitation of 5-9 month from 1981 to 2010 and controlled by irrigation. Thus, six treatments, i.e. C550W+15%, C550W0, C450W+15%, C450W0, C390W+15% and C390W0 were included in this study. The results showed that the irrigation under elevated [CO2] levels increased the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci of maize. Similarly, the stomatal conductance (Gs and transpiration rate (Tr decreased with elevated [CO2], but irrigation have a positive effect on increased of them at each [CO2] level, resulting in the water use efficiency (WUE higher in natural precipitation treatment than irrigation treatment at elevated [CO2] levels. Irradiance-response parameters, e.g., maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pnmax and light saturation points (LSP were increased under elevated [CO2] and irrigation, and dark respiration (Rd was increased as well. The growth characteristics, e.g., plant height, leaf area and aboveground biomass were enhanced, resulting in an improved of yield and ear characteristics except axle diameter. The study concluded by reporting that, future elevated [CO2] may favor to maize when coupled with increasing amount of precipitation in Northeast China.

  2. Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis on Regional Economic Disparity of Northeast Economic Region in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fei; Zhou Chenghu

    2009-01-01

    Popular regional inequality indexes such as variation coefficient and Gini coefficient can only reveal overall inequal-it),, and have limited ability in revealing spatial dependence or spatial agglomeration.Recently some methods of exploratory spatial data analysis such as spatial autocorrelation have provid-ed effective tools to analyze spatial agglomeration and cluster, which can reveal the pattern of regional inequality.This article attempts to use spatial autocorrelation at county level to get refined spatial pattern of regional disparity in Chinese northeast economic region over 2000-2006 (2001 absent).The result in-dicates that the basic trend of regional economy is an increasing concentration of growth among counties in northeast economic region, and there are two geographical clusters of poorer coun-ties including the counties in western Liaoning Province and adjacent counties in Inner Mongolia, poorer counties of Heihe, Qiqihar and Suihua in Heilongjiang Province.This article also reveals that we can use the methods of exploratory spatial data analysis as the supplementary analysis methods in regional eco-nomic analysis.

  3. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim [Geology Programme, School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1–5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

  4. Recent developments in study of the typical superimposed basins and petroleum accumulation in China:Exemplified by the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhijun; WANG Qingchen

    2004-01-01

    Most of petroliferous sedimentary basins in China have experienced multiple phases of tectonic evolution and deposition, and are characterized by tectonic and depositional superimposition. The term "superimposed basin" is suggested to describe those basins which consist of two or more simple prototype basins superimposing vertically and/or coalescing laterally. The characteristics of petroliferous superimposed basins are "multiple stages of basin forming and reworking, multiple layers of source rocks, multiple periods of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion, multiple periods of petroleum migration-accumulation-escape". Therefore,applying the wave process analysis method to studying the process of basin formation, hydrocarbon generation, and reservoir formation, and then establishing theory of "petroleum accumulation system" is helpful to enhancing petroleum exploration efficiency in superimposed basins.This paper will, based on case study in the Tarim basin, report the major developments in studying basin formation, hydrocarbon generation and petroleum accumulation. In study of basin formation, (1) geophysical comprehensive profiles reveal that the Tarim plate has been subducted beneath the Tianshan orogenic belt with an interfinger structure and that the deep structure in the eastern section of the Tianshan orogenic belt is different from that in the western section. (2) The vertical variation in debris and geochemical composition reveals the nature and Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution history of the Kuqa Depression. (3) Field investigation and paleostress reconstruction show that the Kuqa Depression has undergone gravity-driven extension in sedimentary cover when the Tianshan uplifted vertically. In hydrocarbon generation study, new developments include (1) setting environmental index to judge high grade source rocks in marine carbonates, and (2) establishing the lower limit of the organic carbon content for effective carbonate source rocks. In petroleum accumulation

  5. Recent developments in study of the typical superimposed basins and petroleum accumulation in China: Exemplified by the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Zhijun; WANG; Qingchen

    2004-01-01

    Most of petroliferous sedimentary basins in China have experienced multiple phases of tectonic evolution and deposition, and are characterized by tectonic and depositional superimposition. The term "superimposed basin" is suggested to describe those basins which consist of two or more simple prototype basins superimposing vertically and/or coalescing laterally. The characteristics of petroliferous superimposed basins are "multiple stages of basin forming and reworking, multiple layers of source rocks, multiple periods of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion, multiple periods of petroleum migration-accumulation-escape". Therefore,applying the wave process analysis method to studying the process of basin formation, hydrocarbon generation, and reservoir formation, and then establishing theory of "petroleum accumulation system" is helpful to enhancing petroleum exploration efficiency in superimposed basins.This paper will, based on case study in the Tarim basin, report the major developments in studying basin formation, hydrocarbon generation and petroleum accumulation. In study of basin formation, (1) geophysical comprehensive profiles reveal that the Tarim plate has been subducted beneath the Tianshan orogenic belt with an interfinger structure and that the deep structure in the eastern section of the Tianshan orogenic belt is different from that in the western section. (2) The vertical variation in debris and geochemical composition reveals the nature and Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution history of the Kuqa Depression. (3) Field investigation and paleostress reconstruction show that the Kuqa Depression has undergone gravity-driven extension in sedimentary cover when the Tianshan uplifted vertically. In hydrocarbon generation study, new developments include (1) setting environmental index to judge high grade source rocks in marine carbonates, and (2) establishing the lower limit of the organic carbon content for effective carbonate source rocks. In petroleum accumulation

  6. Discovery of Early Permian Reefs in Xichang Basin, Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Jianxiong; Zeng Yunfu; Wu Yong

    1996-01-01

    @@ In 1992, Lower Permian reefs were found in various stratigraphic sections in such counties as Ganluo,Puge, and Butuo, in Xichang Basin. This discovery not only promotes the development of Lower Permain sedimentology in Xichang Basin, but also is of great significance for oil-gas exploration along the western margin of Yangtze platform.

  7. Tectonic Characteristics and Evolution of Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Pengju; ZHANG Meisheng; SUN Xiaomeng; YANG Baojun

    2002-01-01

    Synthetical analyzing the deep geophysical data within Bohai bay basin the authors detect the deep crustal structure presenting high geothermal flux, thinned crust and arched Moho discontinuity, and the basin basement belongs to rigid continental crust. The development of the basin was controlled by two - dimensional faults in NNE and NWW directions. The tectonic units of the basin can be subdivided into three structural divisions: the east, middle and west division. The basin is considered as a continental rift. The tectonic background and regional right - lateral stress field during the late Cretaceous and Paleogene were a compound result of the Kula Plate W - directional subducting under Eurasia Continental Plate in 80 ~ 74Ma and the Philippine sea Plate W -directional subducting under the Eurasia Continental Plate since 60Ma, the long-rang effect of the India Continental Plate wedging into the Eurasia Continental Plate and of the Siberia Plate SE - directional relatively moving.

  8. Impacts of Climate Change on Water and Agricultural Production in Ten Large River Basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jin-xia; HUANG Ji-kun; YAN Ting-ting

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of this paper is to examine impacts of climate change on water supply and demand balance and their consequences on agricultural production in ten river basins in China. To realize this goal, China Water Simulation Model (CWSM) is used to analyze three alternative climate scenarios (A1B, A2 and B2). The results show that the impacts of climate change on water supply and demand balance differ largely among alternative scenarios. While significant impacts of climate change on water balance will occur under the A1B scenario, the impacts of climate change under the A2 and B2 scenarios will be marginal. Under the A1B scenario, the water shortage in the river basins located in the northern China will become more serious, particularly in Liaohe and Haihe river basins, but the other river basins in the southern China will improve their water balance situations. Despite larger impacts of climate change on water balance in the northern China, its impacts on total crops’ production will be moderate if farmers would be able to reallocate water among crops and adjust irrigated and rainfed land. The paper concludes with some policy implications.

  9. A double-cycle lake basin formed in extensional to transtensional setting: The Paleogene Nanpu Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Jiang, Zaixing; Gierlowski-Kordesch, Elizabeth; Xian, Benzhong; Li, Zhenpeng; Wang, Siqi; Wang, Xiabin

    2017-03-01

    It has been known that both extensional and transtensional tectonics commonly trigger a one-cycle evolution of lake sediments, but lake-cycle development co-controlled by extensional and transtensional tectonics still need identification. Here we report a double-cycle of lake sediments formed in extensional to transtensional phases in the Paleogene Nanpu Sag of the Bohai Bay Basin, China. The sag successively experienced five phases of lake-type evolution, characterized by: 1) overfilled, 2) balanced-fill, 3) overfilled, 4) balanced-fill, and 5) overfilled. Extensional tectonics was responsible for the opening of the basin and the initial creation of accommodation (1st through 3rd phase). Next, subsidence increased again through transtensional tectonics resulting in the creation of new accommodation (4th-5th phases). Investigations show this double-cycle lake-type evolution is also present in other lake-basins with similar tectonic settings (e.g., both extensional and transtensional tectonics). A different exploration and exploitation strategy should be devoted to the double-cycle evolution of lake basins controlled by extensional to transtensional tectonics in comparison to the single-cycle evolution in extensional or transtensional lake basins.

  10. Transfer and transformation of soil iron and implications for hydrogeomorpholocial changes in Naoli River catchment, sanjiang plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, J.; Xianguo, L.; Hongqing, W.; Yuanchun, Z.; Haitao, W.

    2011-01-01

    Wetland soils are characterized by alternating redox process due to the fluctuation of waterlogged conditions. Iron is an important redox substance, and its transfer and transformation in the wetland ecosystem could be an effective indicator for the environment changes. In this paper, we selected the Naoli River catchment in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China as the study area to analyze the dynamics of transfer and transformation of soil iron, and the relationship between iron content change and environmental factors. The results show that the total and crystalline iron contents reach the peak in the depth of 60 cm in soil profile, while the amorphous iron content is higher in the topsoil. In the upper reaches, from the low to high landscape positions, the total and crystalline iron contents decrease from 62.98 g/kg to 41.61 g/kg, 22.82 g/kg to 10.53 g/kg respectively, while the amorphous iron content increases from 2.42 g/kg to 8.88 g/kg. Amorphous iron content has positive correlation with organic matter and soil water contents, while negative correlation with pH. Moreover, both the crystalline and amorphous iron contents present no correlation with total iron content, indicating that environmental factors play a more important role in the transfer and transformation of iron other than the content of the total iron. Different redoximorphic features were found along the soil profile due to the transfer and transformation of iron. E and B horizons of wetland soil in the study area have a matrix Chroma 2 or less, and all the soil types can meet the criteria of American hydric soil indicators except albic soil. ?? Science Press, Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  11. Late Mesozoic basin and range tectonics and related magmatism in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezi Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Late Mesozoic Middle Jurassic–Late Cretaceous, basin and range tectonics and associated magmatism representative of an extensional tectonic setting was widespread in southeastern China as a result of Pacific Plate subduction. Basin tectonics consists of post-orogenic (Type I and intra-continental extensional basins (Type II. Type I basins developed in the piedmont and intraland during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, in which coarse-grained terrestrial clastic sediments were deposited. Type II basins formed during intra-continental crustal thinning and were characterized by the development of grabens and half-grabens. Graben basins were mainly generated during the Middle Jurassic and were associated with bimodal volcanism. Sediments in half-grabens are intercalated with rhyolitic tuffs and lavas and are Early Cretaceous in age with a dominance of Late Cretaceous–Paleogene red beds. Ranges are composed of granitoids and bimodal volcanic rocks, A-type granites and dome-type metamorphic core complexes. The authors analyzed lithological, geochemical and geochronological features of the Late Mesozoic igneous rock assemblages and proposed some geodynamical constraints on forming the basin and range tectonics of South China. A comparison of the similarities and differences of basin and range tectonics between the eastern and western shores of the Pacific is made, and the geodynamical evolution model of the Southeast China Block during Late Mesozoic is discussed. Studied results suggest that the basin and range terrane within South China developed on a pre-Mesozoic folded belt was derived from a polyphase tectonic evolution mainly constrained by subduction of the western Pacific Plate since the Late Mesozoic, leading to formation of various magmatism in a back-arc extensional setting. Its geodynamic mechanism can compare with that of basin and range tectonics in the eastern shore of the Pacific. Differences of basin and range

  12. Genesis of Marine Carbonate Natural Gas in the Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qu; TENGER; MENG Qingqiang; QIN Jianzhong; JIANG Qigui; ZHENG Lunju

    2008-01-01

    Sichuan Basin is one of the structurally stable and gas-rich basins, being regarded as one of China's important natural gas industry bases. Puguang and Jiannan gas fields, located in the eastern Sichuan Basin are two large fields with gas derived from Permian and Lower Triassic marine carbonate. The genesis of marine carbonate natural gas was examined using carbon isotope composition and hydrocarbon components of natural gas samples from the eastern and western Sichuan Basin, and compared with that of acidolysis gas derived from marine source rock in the eastern Sichuan Basin. It is concluded that the natural gas in the marine carbonate reservoir originated from pyrolysis of the earlier crude oil and light-oil, and then mixed with kerogen pyrolysis gas of the Permian and Lower Silurian source rock.

  13. 东北亚合作背景下的中俄关系%On Relationship between China and Russia under the Background of Northeast Asia Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛

    2014-01-01

    In the current world political situation , the status and function of great power is becoming increas-ingly important , and plays a critical role in regional and global affairs .In Northeast Asia , as two more powerful neighboring nations , China and Russia ’ s bilateral relations will produce a decisive influence on the situation and trend of the area under the background of Northeast Asia regional cooperation and especially in the context of “Re-turning to Asia” of the hegemonistic United States , cooperation between the two countries will play an more impor-tant role in the fight against the penetration of the United States in Northeast Asia even the whole Asia .From the background of the cooperation in Northeast Asia , this thesis analyzes the various countries in Northeast Asia region-al cooperation , and then analyzes the important role of China and Russia‘s bilateral relations , which is an excellent way to resist the United States ’ penetration and promotes regional peace and stability in Northeast Asia and even the Asia.At the same time, due to difference in the core interests of both countries , Russia and China will also face some problems in the development of the two countries , thereby how to overcome the contradictions and differences between China and Russia is becoming a common problem that they will resolve .This thesis proposes a number of measures to promote the development of relations between the two countries and to achieve deeper cooperation be -tween the two countries so that China and Russia will achieve the smooth development of bilateral strategic coopera -tive partnership .%在当前的世界政治格局中,大国的地位和作用日益突出,在地区和全球事务中扮演着重要的角色。在东北亚,中俄作为两个力量较为强大的邻国,两国关系的发展对该地区的和平和稳定有着十分重大的意义。因而,在东北亚合作的背景下,力图突破中俄两国合作中的各种

  14. FORESTAR:A decision—support system for multi—objective forest management in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAOGuo-fan; DAILi-min; LIYing-shan; LiuYong-min; BAIGuang-xin

    2003-01-01

    Past monoculture forestry in China has contributed to countrywide ecological disasters and economic difficulties in forestry regions. China's new forestry programs, Natural Forest Conservation Program and Returning Farmlands to Forests Program, provide opportunities for ecosystem management of mountain forests in China. A decision support system, FORE-STAR, has been developed for better managing and protecting natural forests in Changbai Mountain area. It uses GIS-based forest inventory data at a scale of forestry bureau. The first version contains two sub-modules: forest operation and forest res-toration. Under each sub-module, users can compare several decision options and make optimal choices. It can help field for-esters, forest managers, and policy makers make multi-objective and consistent decisions in planning forest management at hierarchical administrative scales.

  15. Tectonostratigraphic history of the Ediacaran-Silurian Nanhua foreland basin in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wei-Hua; Li, Zheng-Xiang

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Ediacaran-Silurian Nanhua Basin in South China and explores the relationship between clastic sedimentation in the basin and evolution of the adjacent Wuyi-Yunkai orogen. Sedimentary facies in the basin comprises, in an ascending order, turbiditic marine, shallow marine, and fluvial-dominated deltaic facies, featuring a lateral migration from southeast to northwest. We interpret the Ediacaran-Silurian Nanhua Basin as a foreland basin with a three-stage evolution history. Stage 1: the Ediacaran-Cambrian stage, recording the start of tectonic subsidence with turbiditic marine siliciclastic deposition, fed by exotic orogens outboard South China; Stage 2: the Ordovician to earliest-Silurian stage, characterized by a migrating depocenter with dominant shallow marine and deltaic siliciclastic deposition, fed by the local and northwestward propagating Wuyi-Yunkai orogen; Stage 3: the Silurian stage, showing the arrival of depocenter in the Yangtze Block during the waning stage of the orogeny with deltaic deposition in the remanent foreland basin. The Wuyi-Yunkai orogen remained the dominant sedimentary source region during Stage 3. Stage 1 was likely related to the collision of the South China Block toward northern India during the assembly of Gondwana, whereas Stages 2 and 3 recorded sedimentation during the northwestward propagation and subsequent orogenic root delamination/collapse of the Wuyi-Yunkai orogen, respectively. The Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China is interpreted to have resulted from the far-field stress of the collision between South China and Indian Gondwana.

  16. Remote estimation of Kd (PAR) using MODIS and Landsat imagery for turbid inland waters in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kaishan; Ma, Jianhang; Wen, Zhidan; Fang, Chong; Shang, Yingxin; Zhao, Ying; Wang, Ming; Du, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Light availability for photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is one of the major factors governing photosynthesis in aquatic ecosystems. Conventional measurements of light attenuation in the PAR domain (Kd(PAR)) is representative for only small areas of water body. Remotely sensed optical imagery can be utilized to monitor Kd(PAR) in large areas of water bodies, based on the relationship between water leaving radiance and Kd(PAR). In this study, six field surveys were conducted over 20 lakes (or reservoirs) across Northeast China from April to September 2015. In order to derive the Kd(PAR) at regional scale, the Landsat/TM/ETM+/OLI and the MODIS daily surface reflectance data (MOD09GA ∼500 m, Bands 1-7) were used to establish empirical inversion models. Through multiple stepwise regression analysis, the band difference (Red-Blue) and band ratio (NIR/Red) were used in Landsat imagery modeling, and the band difference (Red-Blue) and ratio (Red/Blue) were used in MODIS imagery modeling. The accuracy of the two models was evaluated by 10-fold cross-validation in ten times. The results indicate that the models performed well for both Landsat (R2 = 0.83, RMSE = 0.95, and MRE = 0.33), and MODIS (R2 = 0.86, RMSE = 0.91, and MRE = 0.19) imagery. However, the Kd(PAR) derived by MODIS is slightly higher than that estimated by Landsat (slope = 1.203 and R2 = 0.972). Consistency of model performance between the MODIS daily (MYD09G A) and the 8-Day composite reflectance (MYD09A1) data was verified by Kd(PAR) estimations and regression analysis (slope = 1.044 and R2 = 0.966). Finally, the spatial and temporal distribution of Kd(PAR) in Northeast China indicated that specific geographical characteristics as well as meteorological alterations can influence Kd(PAR) calibrations. Specifically, we have revealed that the wind speed and algal bloom are the major determinants of Kd(PAR) in Lake Hulun (2050 km2) and Xingkai (4412 km2).

  17. Carbon fluxes and their response to environmental variables in a Dahurian larch forest ecosystem in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-min; SAIGUSA Nobuko; ZU Yuan-gang; WANG Wen-jie; YAMAMOTO Susumu; KONDO Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    The Dahurian larch forest in northeast China is important due to its vastness and location within a transitional zone from boreal to temperate and at the southern distribution edge of the vast Siberian larch forest. The continuous carbon fluxes were measured from May 2004 to April 2005 in the Dahurian larch forest in Northeast China using an eddy covariance method. The results showed that the ecosystem released carbon in the dormant season from mid-October 2004 to April 2005, while it assimilated CO2 from the atmosphere in the growing season from May to September 2004. The net carbon sequestration reached its peak of 112 g·m-2·month-1 in June 2004 (simplified expression of g (carbon) ·m-2·month-1) and then gradually decreased. Annually, the larch forest was a carbon sink that sequestered carbon of 146 g·m-2·a-1 (simplified expression of g (carbon)·m-2·a-1) during the measurements. The photosynthetic process of the larch forest ecosystem was largely affected by the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and temperature. Under humid conditions (VPD < 1.0 kPa), the gross ecosystem production (GEP) increased with increasing temperature. But the net ecosystem production (NEP) showed almost no change with increasing temperature because the increment of GEP was counterbalanced by that of the ecosystem respiration. Under a dry environment (VPD > 1.0 kPa), the GEP decreased with the increasing VPD at a rate of 3.0 μmol·m-2·s-1·kPa-1 and the ecosystem respiration was also enhanced simultaneously due to the increase of air temperature, which was linearly correlated with the VPD. As a result, the net ecosystem carbon sequestration rapidly decreased with the increasing VPD at a rate of 5.2 μmol·m-2·s-1·kPa-1. Under humid conditions (VPD < 1.0 kPa), both the GEP and NEP were obviously restricted by the low air temperature but were insensitive to the high temperature because the observed high temperature value comes within the category of the optimum range.

  18. Hydrological changes in the U.S. Northeast using the Connecticut River Basin as a case study: Part 2. Projections of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Dana; Wang, Guiling; Ahmed, Kazi F.

    2015-10-01

    The focus of this study is on whether the recent warming-induced hydrologic changes in the U.S. Northeast will continue in the future (2046-2065) and how future changes of precipitation characteristics may influence other hydrological processes in the Connecticut River Basin (CRB). Our previous study (Parr and Wang 2014) examines the impact of climate changes during 1950-2011 on hydrological processes in the Northeast using the CRB as a case study. Our results showed a clear increase of precipitation intensity and suggested that the basin is entering a wetter regime more subject to meteorological flood conditions than to drought conditions. For this future analysis, three North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) models are used to derive the meteorological forcing for the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model, using both present day and the future projected A1B scenario climate. Our future projections indicate wetter winters including significantly greater precipitation, runoff, and soil moisture, decreases to spring runoff, and enhanced ET for all four seasons. We also find a shift toward earlier and faster snow melting and an earlier date of peak discharge. Future precipitation extremes show a decreased amount compared to the early 21st Century, but increased when compared to our entire historic period or the late 20th Century, as well as a consistently increasing mean intensity throughout the past and future. Analyses of extreme hydrologic events reveals changing characteristics of flooding involving increasing duration but decreasing frequency of flood events as well as a reduction of drought risk.

  19. Evaluation of transitional behavior of wetness/drought regimes in the Poyang Lake Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Peng; Singh, Vijay P.; Li, Jianfeng; Tu, Xinjun

    2016-11-01

    Transitional behavior of wetness/dryness regimes is investigated using the standardized precipitation/runoff indices (SPI-SRI) and the Markov chain model, and wetness/drought conditions are predicted. Results indicate that (1) the wetness/drought hazards have large negative impacts during initial conditions in the Xiuhe River Basin and manifest their negative impacts during the development condition of the wetness/droughts in the Fuhe and Xiuhe River Basins; in the Ganjiang and Raohe River Basins, however, droughts have their greatest impacts during the lasting time intervals, (2) the occurrence of meteorological or hydrological droughts/floods individually is subject to very low probability, implying close relations between meteorological and hydrological conditions within the Poyang Lake Basin, and (3) an abrupt shift between hydrometeorological wetness and dryness events is identified, specifically in northwest and northeast parts of the Poyang Lake Basin, which could be due to intensifying precipitation regimes in these regions under the influence of increasing temperature. The prediction of droughts indicates that the transitional probability from the second condition to the hydrological drought is the lowest and the transitional probability from the first (or third) condition to the fourth condition is the largest. Results of this study will be of value for developing measures for mitigation of droughts in a changing environment.

  20. Annual distributions and variations of dust weather occurrence over the Tarim Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Minzhong; Huo, Wen; Huang, Anning; Yang, Xinhua; Yang, Fan

    2017-02-01

    The annual distribution and variations in dust weather occurrence (DWO) have been analyzed using monthly DWO data from 26 stations over the Tarim Basin during the period of 1961 to 2010. The results show that the DWO presents a significant decreasing trend for different parts of the Tarim Basin in recent decades. The monthly DWO has two peaks in the east and west. In the first half of the year, the peak is in April, but in the second half of the year, the peak is in September. According to the concentration period and concentration degree (CD) of DWO, we can find that the maximum DWO occurs in April in the eastern, western, and northern parts of the basin, but it occurs in May in the southern part. The dust weather season is shorter for the northern and eastern parts of the basin than those of the remaining parts. On average, the dust weather season initiates in April in the northeast and in May for the rest of the region. As an indicator for the length of dust weather season, the CD is significantly related to DWO, with a correlation coefficient of -0.51, revealing an interesting feature of regional climate change with declining DWO and declining dust weather season over the Tarim Basin. The correlation analysis exhibits that all the Arctic Oscillation, Antarctic Oscillation, and North Atlantic Oscillation have a negative relation with the DWO but a positive relation with the length of dust weather season.

  1. Tracking changes of forest carbon density following mega-fires: comparison studies in the Yellowstone National Park and Boreal Forests of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Huang, Chengquan; Huang, Chao; He, Hong; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires and post-fire management directly change C stored in biomass and soil pools, and can have indirect impacts on long-term C balance. Two mega fires occurred in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and the boreal forests of Northeast China in 1988 and 1987, respectively, making them ideal sites to examine and compare the effects of management and disturbances on regional carbon dynamics. In this study, we quantified effects of the 1988 Yellowstone fires on YNP carbon storages and fluxes. And then we tracked and modeled post-1988 forest carbon stocks change in YNP, and compared with simulation results of carbon stock changes in post-1987 fire boreal forests of Northeast China. Preliminary results show that in YNP, the mega fires in 1988 were responsible for an immediate loss of 900 g/m2 ecosystem average C density and it would take about a decade before the YNP ecosystem recover to the pre-fire average C condition. In boreal forests of Northeast China, fire reduced aboveground and belowground carbon by 230±60 g/m2 and 460±340 g/m2, respectively.

  2. A quantitative assessment of crop residue feedstocks for biofuel in North and Northeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, L.; Wang, X.Y.; Han, L.P.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Liao, S.H.; Wei, M.G.; Xie, G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Crop residue resources may affect soil quality, global carbon balance, and stability of crop production, but also contribute to future energy security. This study was performed to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation in residue quantities of field crops in five provinces of North China (NC) a

  3. Ecosystem Service Value for the Common Reed Wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Siyuan; Laws, Edward A.; Costanza, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The largest reed field in the world, with an area of 1000 km2 in 1953, is located in the Liaohe Delta, which lies in the five-point-in-a-line economic strategic zone of northeastern China. However, the area of reeds has declined dramatically in recent years to accommodate oil field infrastructure...

  4. Thermal-rheological structure of the lithosphere beneath two types of basins in eastern and western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良书; 李成; 刘福田; 李华; 卢华复; 刘绍文

    2000-01-01

    After calculating thermal-rheological properties of the lithosphere in the Northern Jiangsu basin, the Bohaiwan basin as well as the Jiyang depression in the east and Tarim basin in the west of China, this paper analyzes the relationship between thermal-rheological structures and tectonic evolution of the two types of basins. The results show that the thermal-rheoiogical structures of the lithosphere directly reflect the dynamic processes. Under different dynamic environments, the style of basin formation and the differences in basin evolution are closely related to the dynamic properties of the lithosphere indicated by thermal-rheological structures.

  5. Managing water resources for sustainable development: the case of integrated river basin management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X; Ravesteijn, W; Frostell, B; Wennersten, R

    2010-01-01

    The emerging water crisis in China shows that the current institutional frameworks and policies with regard to water resources management are incapable of achieving an effective and satisfactory situation that includes Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). This paper analyses this framework and related policies, examines their deficiencies in relation to all water stress problems and explores alternatives focusing on river basins. Water resources management reforms in modern China are reviewed and the main problems involved in transforming the current river management system into an IRBM-based system are analysed. The Huai River basin is used as an example of current river basin management, with quantitative data serving to show the scale and scope of the problems in the country as a whole. The institutional reforms required are discussed and a conceptual institutional framework is proposed to facilitate the implementation of IRBM in China. In particular, the roles, power and responsibilities of River Basin Commissions (RBCs) should be legally strengthened; the functions of supervising, decision-making and execution should be separated; and cross-sectoral legislation, institutional coordination and public participation at all levels should be promoted.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources of the Ordos Basin Province, China, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2016-01-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 28 trillion cubic feet of tight gas and 5.6 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in upper Paleozoic rocks in the Ordos Basin Province, China.

  7. Magnetostratigraphic dating of the Huojiadi Paleolithic site in the Nihewan Basin, North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Ping; Deng, Chenglong; Li, Shihu; Zhu, Rixiang

    2010-01-01

    The fluvio-lacustrine sequences in the Nihewan Basin, northern China provide important terrestrial archives of paleoclimate and paleoenvironment as well as an important source of Paleolithic settlements and therefore early human occupation in the eastern Old World. Magnetostratigraphic dating of the

  8. Linking Tarim Basin sea retreat (west China) and Asian aridification in the late Eocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosboom, R.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Grothe, A.; Brinkhuis, H.; Villa, G.; Mandic, O.; Stoica, M.; Huang, W.; Yang, W.; Guo, Z.; Krijgsman, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Tarim Basin in western China formed the easternmost margin of a shallow epicontinental sea that extended across Eurasia and was well connected to the western Tethys during the Paleogene. Climate modelling studies suggest that the westward retreat of this sea from Central Asia may have been as im

  9. Assessment of Permian tight oil and gas resources in the Junggar basin of China, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.

    2017-04-05

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 764 million barrels of oil and 3.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in tight reservoirs in the Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar basin of northwestern China.

  10. The influence of large-scale climate phenomena on precipitation in the Ordos Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yu; Lei, Liyuan; Liu, Youcun; Hao, Yonghong; Zou, Chris; Zhan, Hongbin

    2016-09-01

    Large-scale atmospheric circulations significantly affect regional precipitation patterns. However, it is not well known whether and how these phenomena affect regional precipitation distribution in northern China. This paper reported the individual and coupled effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian summer monsoon (ISM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on annual precipitation for the Ordos Basin, an arid and semi-arid basin, currently with major industries of coal, fossil oil, natural gas, and halite in north central China. Our results showed that ENSO and ISM exerted substantial impact on annual precipitation while the impact of PDO and AMO was relatively limited. There were 24 and 15 out of 33 stations showing significant differences (p planning and disaster management for the Ordos Basin.

  11. Impact of climatic and environmental changes on flood-duration-frequencies in the Fengle Rriver (YangTze Basin, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Christian; Chu, Yin; Tournoud, Marie-George; Ou, Mengli; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Cres, François-Noël; Ma, Youhua

    2016-04-01

    Future water management challenges such as flood risk are highly relevant to climate and land use changes. Climate change is expected to lead to an ongoing intensification of effects on changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration which could exacerbate flooding issues. Land use changes, modifications of agricultural practices and urbanization alter the apportionment of the different hydrological processes at the basin scale and could significantly affect the seasonality of streamflow. At the local scale, the consequences of climate and land use changes on flood occurrence and magnitude are a major issue for the economic development and management policy of basin area. This study apply a methodology for investigating the potential consequences of land use ,as well as precipitation and temperature changes on flood occurrence, duration and magnitude, accounting for uncertainties in scenario data and hydrological model parameters. The discharge time series predicted for the future were simulated from a calibrated and validated distributed hydrological model. The model was run from inputs which are -predicted rainfall time series based on scenarios of changes identified from a literature review, -future evapotranspiration rates assessed from temperature changes identified from a literature review -and scenarios of land-use changes The study area, the Fengle River basin (1500 km2), is located in the northeast part of Yangtze basin. The river is one of the main tributaries of the Chao Lake, the fifth largest natural lake of China. The lake catchment is 9130 km2 in area, including the city of Hefei and a large extent of agricultural and rural areas. Many changes are expected in land use and agricultural practices in the future, due to the touristic appeal of the Chao Lake shore and the growth of the city of Hefei. Climate changes are also expected in this region, with a high impact on rainfall regime. In the current period heavy storms and floods occur predominantly

  12. [Atmospheric deposition fluxes and seasonal variations of elements in northeast of Sichuan, central China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiao-Ning; Zhou, Hou-Yun; You, Chen-Feng; Tang, Jing; Liu, Hou-Chun; Huang, Ying; He, Hai-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Monthly atmospheric deposition was collected in Northeast of Sichuan Province from August 2011 to July 2012. Contents of Na, Mg, Ca, K, Si, Sr, Ba and Zn in weak-acid leachable fraction (with pH values of ca. 2) of the deposition were determined using ICP-MS. The results indicated that the deposition fluxes of all these elements exhibited notable seasonal variations. For example, the deposition flux of Na increased with precipitation, suggesting a dominant derivation from wet deposition; whereas the fluxes of Ca, Ba, Si, Sr and Mg displayed higher values during winter or spring season, suggesting that these elements may be closely associated with atmospheric dust activity. The annual fluxes of these elements were remarkably different in value. Na had the highest flux of 30 497 microg x (10(2) cm2 x a)(-1), more than three orders of magnitude higher than the lowest flux of Ba of 27.4 microg x (10(2) cm2 x a)(-1).

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Northeast China Rice Fields in Fallow Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    CH4, N2O and CO2 emissions from northeast Chinese rice fields were measured in the fallow season (November to March) to investigate the effects of freezing-thawing on the emissions. Both CH4 emission from and atmospheric CH4oxidation by the soil occurred, but the flux was small. During the fallow season, rice fields acted as a minor source of atmospheric CH4, which accounted for about 1% of the CH4 emission during the rice growing period. The field was also a substantial source of atmospheric N2O, which ranged between 40 to 77 mg m-2 and accounted for 40%-50% of the annual N2O emission. The largest N2O flux was observed in the thawing period during the fallow season. Laboratory incubation tests showed that the largest N2O flux came from the release of N2O trapped in frozen soil. Tillage and rice straw application (either mulched on the soil surface or incorporated in the soil) stimulated the CH4 and CO2 emissions during the fallow season, but only straw application stimulated N2O emission substantially.

  14. Ecology of testate amoebae and their potential use as palaeohydrologic indicators from peatland in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lihong; Li, Hongkai; Wang, Kehong; Wu, Donghui; Wu, Haitao

    2014-12-01

    Testate amoebae are sensitive indicators of substrate moisture in peatlands. Over the last decades, they have been studied to reconstruct hydrological changes since the Holocene. However, these studies have been geographically restricted to North America and Europe. We conducted the first investigation of testate amoebae on the largest continental fresh water wetland in the Sanjiang Plain, China. The objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the ecology of testate amoebae in the peatlands of Northeast China and to assess the potential of using them as environmental indicators in this ecosystem. We examined modern testate amoeba assemblages and species-environmental relationships at 46 microsites within 5 waterlogged depressions. The environmental parameters measured included: depth to water table, pH, and loss on ignition. The results showed that the dominant species were Trinema complanatum type, Euglypha rotunda type, Euglypha strigosa type, and Centropyxis cassis type. Redundancy analysis demonstrates that water table depth has the most important effect on testate amoeba assemblages, explaining 16.7% ( p = 0.002) of the total variance. pH was not a statistically significant factor for testate amoeba assemblages. Weighted averaging and weighted averaging partial least squares models were used to build transfer functions for depth to water table. The best performing transfer function was generated by the weighted averaging partial least squares model with an r 2 LOSO of 0.62 and RMSEPLOSO of 6.96 cm. Results indicate that testate amoebae in waterlogged depression peatland have the potential to be used as indicators for hydrological changes and for palaeohydrologic reconstructions in the Sanjiang Plain.

  15. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Liu

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE, whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC. In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM. Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278 among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  16. Effects of natural and human-assisted regeneration on landscape dynamics in a Korean pine forest in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fuqiang; Yang, Jian; He, Hong S; Dai, Limin

    2013-01-01

    Improper forest harvesting can potentially degrade forest ecosystem functions and services. Human-assisted regeneration (e.g., planting) is often used to increase the rate of forest recovery and thereby reduce regeneration failure. Seed dispersal is a fundamental ecological process that can also influence spatio-temporal patterns of forest regeneration. In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of planting and seed dispersal on forest regeneration at landscape scales. Because such influences can be further complicated by timber harvest intensity and seed availability within and around harvested area, we also evaluated the effects of those factors on forest landscape dynamics. We used the forest landscape model LANDIS to simulate the dynamics of Korean pine-broadleaf mixed forests in Northeast China. We considered three factors: timber harvest intensity (3 levels), seed dispersal and whether or not planting was used. The results showed that planting was more important in maintaining the abundance of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis), a climax keystone species in this region, under the high-intensity harvesting option during early succession. In contrast, seed dispersal was more important during late succession. Korean pine can be successfully regenerated through seed dispersal under low and medium harvest intensities. Our results also indicated that effective natural regeneration will require protecting seed-production trees (seed rain). This study results provide a basis for more effectively managing Chinese temperate forests and possibly other similar ecosystems.

  17. Effects of natural and human-assisted regeneration on landscape dynamics in a Korean pine forest in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Zhao

    Full Text Available Improper forest harvesting can potentially degrade forest ecosystem functions and services. Human-assisted regeneration (e.g., planting is often used to increase the rate of forest recovery and thereby reduce regeneration failure. Seed dispersal is a fundamental ecological process that can also influence spatio-temporal patterns of forest regeneration. In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of planting and seed dispersal on forest regeneration at landscape scales. Because such influences can be further complicated by timber harvest intensity and seed availability within and around harvested area, we also evaluated the effects of those factors on forest landscape dynamics. We used the forest landscape model LANDIS to simulate the dynamics of Korean pine-broadleaf mixed forests in Northeast China. We considered three factors: timber harvest intensity (3 levels, seed dispersal and whether or not planting was used. The results showed that planting was more important in maintaining the abundance of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis, a climax keystone species in this region, under the high-intensity harvesting option during early succession. In contrast, seed dispersal was more important during late succession. Korean pine can be successfully regenerated through seed dispersal under low and medium harvest intensities. Our results also indicated that effective natural regeneration will require protecting seed-production trees (seed rain. This study results provide a basis for more effectively managing Chinese temperate forests and possibly other similar ecosystems.

  18. [Urban heat island effect based on urban heat island source and sink indices in Shenyang, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Guang; Xu, Shen-Lai; Wang, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Zi-Qi; Cai, Fu; Wu, Jin-Wen; Chen, Peng-Shi; Zhang, Yu-Shu

    2013-12-01

    Based on the remote images in 2001 and 2010, the source and sink areas of urban heat island (UHI) in Shenyang City, Northeast China were determined by GIS technique. The effect of urban regional landscape pattern on UHI effect was assessed with land surface temperature (LST), area rate index (CI) of the source and sink areas and intensity index (LI) of heat island. The results indicated that the land use type changed significantly from 2001 to 2010, which significantly changed the source and sink areas of UHI, especially in the second and third circle regions. The source and sink areas were 94.3% and 5.7% in the first circle region, 64.0% and 36.0% in the third circle region in 2001, while they were 93.4% and 6.6%, 70.2% and 29.8% in 2010, respectively. It suggested that the land use pattern extended by a round shape in Shenyang led to the corresponding UHI pattern. The LST in the study area tended to decrease from the first circle region to the third. The UHI intensity was characterized with a single center in 2001 and with several centers in 2010, and the grade of UHI intensity was in a decreasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The absolute value of CI increased from the first circle region to the third, and the L1 was close to 1, suggesting the change in land use pattern had no significant influence on UHI in Shenyang.

  19. [Topsoil phosphorus forms and availability of different soil and water conservation plantations in typical black soil region, northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Fan, Rui-Ying; Wang, En-Heng; Xia, Xiang-You; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2014-06-01

    Aiming to understand soil phosphorus status of plantations in typical black soil region of Northeast China, the topsoil (0-10 cm) phosphorus fractionations and its availability were examined in four soil and water conservation plantations dominantly composed of Larix gmelini, Fraxinus mandshurica, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and Populus nigra var. italica x P. cathayan, respectively. The results showed that total P, Olsen-P and the concentration of different P fractionations in F. mandshurica and P. nigra var. italica x P. cathayan plantations were significantly higher than that of the other two coniferous plantations. Organic P was the major fractionation in the four plantations' topsoil, and sodium hydroxide extractable organic P (NaOH-Po ) representing moderately labile organic phosphorus was predominant, which accounted for 58.9% of total P. The contents of H2O-Pi and NaHCO3-P which were more labile to plant were lower, only accounting for 1.2% and 6.6% of total P, respectively. Except for NaHCO3-Po, all the other P fractions of four plantations correlated with each other, and they also had significant correlations with soil organic matter, total P, Olsen-P. Compared with the coniferous plantations, the broadleaf plantations presented higher availability of phosphorus.

  20. [Community structure and biological integrity of periphyton in Hunhe River water system of Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xu-wang; Zhang, Yuan; Qu, Xiao-dong; Liu, Ying; Li, Qing-nan; Meng, Wei

    2011-10-01

    Taking the Hunhe River water system in Liaoning Province of Northeast China as a case, this paper investigated the community structure of periphyton and the physical and chemical characteristics of water environment at 62 sampling sites, and, by using the biological integrity index of periphyton (P-IBI) and the habitat environment quality index (QHEI), a health assessment on the aquatic ecosystem of the water system was conducted. There was a great spatial heterogeneity in the periphyton community structure, and the sampling sites could be divided into 4 groups, with significant differences in the community structure, species richness, density, and Shannon diversity index among the groups. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and dissolved phosphorus (PO4(3-)-P) were the main water environment factors driving the formation of the periphyton community structure in the water system. The health assessment of the water system based on P-IBI and QHEI was basically in consistency, though the assessment of several reaches had large discrepancy. Overall, the Suzi River at the upper reaches of the water system had a better health status, while the upper reaches of Hunhe River and the main stream of Hunhe River at its middle and lower reaches were worse in health.

  1. Observed Climatic Variations in the Growing Season of Field Crops in Northeast China from 1992 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; JIANG Wen-lai; XIAO Bi-lin; LEI Bo

    2014-01-01

    To determine the potential effects of climate change on crop phenological development and productivity, an integrated analysis was conducted based on the observed climatic and phenological records of Northeast China from 1992 to 2012. A set of quality assurance procedures, including repeated record checks, agro-meteorological station selection, internal consistency checks, temporal outlier checks, spatial outlier checks, and interpolation of missing data, were designed and applied to the phenology datasets of spring maize and paddy rice. Our results indicated that almost all phenological dates of spring maize and paddy rice became increasingly delayed from 1992 to 2012. The duration of the growing season was prolonged, particularly for the grain-iflling stage (GS3). The prolonged growing season was beneifcial to productivity. For spring maize, the average precipitation during GS3 decreased at a rate of 27.46 mm/decade, and the annual accumulated temperature over 10°C increased at a rate of 31.07°C/decade. Farmers initiatively adjusted crop cultivars and selected drought-resistant crops to cope with the challenges of drought.

  2. [Spatial-temporal evolution characteristic of coordination between urbanization and eco-environment in Jilin Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun-tao; Zhang, Ping-yu; Li, Jing; Liu, Shi-wei

    2015-12-01

    By building urbanization and eco-environment evaluation index systems, the levels of urbanization and eco-environment, and the degree of their coupling coordination of Jilin Province from 2000 to 2012 were evaluated. The level of comprehensive urbanization showed a continued growth trend, and the economic urbanization contributed the largest share. The eco-environment comprehensive level fluctuated upward. The eco-environment state, response and pressure increased faster since the implementation of the strategy of revitalizing Northeast China and other old industrial regions. Coupling coordination degree between urbanization and eco-environment increased continuously, from uncoordinated status to advanced coordinated status, changing from eco-environment lagged to urbanization lagged. The level of urbanization in central region was higher than east and west regions in Jilin Province, but its eco-environment level was low. Coupling coordination degree in Changchun was the highest, and that of Baishan was the lowest. Coupling coordination degree of Chang-Ji integrated region was always at the leading level, but the level of eco-environment lagged behind was growing since 2000. Coupling coordination degree of Siping, Liaoyuan, Songyuan and Yanbian increased, but that of Baicheng decreased.

  3. Experimental and Statistical Evaluation of the Size Effect on the Bending Strength of Dimension Lumber of Northeast China Larch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the size effect on the bending strength (modulus of rupture—MOR of dimension lumber of Northeast China larch (Larix gmelinii; providing a basis for the further application in light wood frame construction. Experimental and statistical evaluations were conducted on the bending strength. A total of 2409 full-size dimension lumber samples were tested by static bending tests; which included three different sizes: 2 × 3; 2 × 4; and 2 × 6. Results indicate that the size has a significant effect on the MOR. Both the chi-square (χ2 and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S test results show that the lognormal distribution generally fits to the MOR better than to the normal distribution. Additionally; the effects of partial safety factor (γR and live-to-dead load ratio (ρ were studied by reliability analysis. Reliability analysis results indicate that the reliability index increases nonlinearly with the decrease of γR and the rise of ρ. Finally; the design value of bending strength and its adjusting factor of size effect of 2 × 3; 2 × 4; and 2 × 6 larch dimension lumber were obtained according to the Chinese National Standards’ requirements of the reliability index.

  4. Response of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in the black soil of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoke ZHANG; Yong JIANG; Lei LIANG; Xiaofan ZHAO; Qi LI

    2009-01-01

    The effects of inorganic fertilizers on soil nematode communities were studied in a long-term fertilization experimental field in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China,where no fertilizer (CK),N fertilizer (N),combined application of N and P (NP),combined application of N and K (NK),and combined application of N,P and K (NPK) were compared.The results showed that the total nematode abundance was not affected significantly by inorganic fertilizers in the long-term field experiment.The numbers of bacterivores increased significantly in the NP treatment compared to the CK treatment,and those of fungivores and plant-parasites were inhibited in the NPK treatment.The similarity between CK and NPK treatment and the nematode diversity were higher than in other treatments.The stability of the soil ecosystem was disturbed by the inorganic fertilizers,as indicated by the change in MI values under different treatments.The response of soil nematodes mainly depended on the types of inorganic fertilizers applied.

  5. Health impact of bioaccessible metal in lip cosmetics to female college students and career women, northeast of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Sa; Zhang, Zhaohan; Meng, Ping; Lin, Nan; Lu, Binyu; Cui, Fuyi; Feng, Yujie; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-02-01

    Actual measure-based studies have estimated ingestion rate of moderate and high daily use to female college students and career women in northeast of China. Sequential extraction analyses showed that total bioaccessible metals concentration in lipstick ranged from 2.103 to 31.103 μg/g and in lip balm ranged from 0.100 to 3.716 μg/g. The relationship between total bioaccessible metal concentrations and the cost of lip cosmetics showed a negative correlation. Lead was detected in all 30 products (100%), with an average concentration of 0.346 for lip balm and 0.407 μg/g for lipstick. With the exception of chromium content in three lipsticks, the estimated exposure in female college students and career women to target metals via lipstick and lip balm ingestion (calculated for moderate and high use) were much lower than the acceptable reference limits. The findings strongly emphasize the need to focus on the health risk of lip balm.

  6. Identification of nitrate sources in groundwater using a stable isotope and 3DEEM in a landfill in Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhifei [School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yang, Yu; Lian, Xinying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Jiang, Yonghai, E-mail: jyhai203@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Gansu 730070 (China); Peng, Xing [School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); and others

    2016-09-01

    The groundwater was sampled in a typical landfill area of the Northeast China. Coupled stable isotope and three dimensional excitation–emission matrix (3DEEM) were applied to dentify diffused NO{sub 3}{sup −} inputs in the groundwater in this area. The results indicated that combined with the feature of groundwater hydrochemistry and three-dimensional fluorescence technology can effectively identify the nitrate pollution sources. The nitrate was derived from manure and sewage by δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 18}O–NO{sub 3}{sup −} values of groundwater in the different periods. The excitation–emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy was further evidence of groundwater DOM mainly which comes from the landfill. The protein-like was very significant at the sampling points near the landfill (SPNL), but only fulvic acid-like appeared at downstream of the landfill groundwater sampling points (DLGSP) in the study area. Partial denitrification processes helped to attenuate nitrate concentration in anaerobic environment. - Highlights: • We used stable isotope and 3DEEM to evaluate of nitrate sources. • Groundwater hydrochemistry was used to assess groundwater recharge. • The degradation process of organic matters was assessed using 3DEEM in groundwater. • This approach is a effective tool for trace to the nitrate sources in groundwater.

  7. Mass movements in small canyons in the northeast of Baiyun deepwater area, north of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xishuang; LIU Lejun; LI Jiagang; GAO Shan; ZHOU Qingjie; SU Tianyun

    2015-01-01

    The process of mass movements and their consequent turbidity currents in large submarine canyons has been widely reported, however, little attention was paid to that in small canyons. In this paper, we document mass movements in small submarine canyons in the northeast of Baiyun deepwater area, north of the South China Sea (SCS), and their strong effects on the evolution of the canyons based on geophysical data. Submarine canyons in the study area arrange closely below the shelf break zone which was at the depth of –500 m. Within submarine canyons, seabed surface was covered with amounts of failure scars resulted from past small-sized landslides. A complex process of mass transportation in the canyons is indicated by three directions of mass movements. Recent mass movement deposits in the canyons exhibit translucent reflections or parallel reflections which represent the brittle deformation and the plastic deformation, respectively. The area of most landslides in the canyons is less than 3 km2. The trigger mechanisms for mass movements in the study area are gravitational overloading, slope angle and weak properties of soil. Geophysical data indicate that the genesis of submarine canyons is the erosion of mass movements and consequent turbidity currents. The significant effects of mass movements on canyon are incision and sediment transportation at the erosion phases and fillings supply at the fill phases. This research will be helpful for the geological risk assessments and understanding the sediment transportation in the northern margin of the SCS.

  8. Relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particle size in dated core sediments in Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zang, Shuying

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric particle associated with pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses serious threats to human health by inhalation exposure, especially in semiarid areas. Hence, the distributions of PAHs and particle size in two core sediments collected from Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China were studied. The sediments were dated radiometrically, and particle size distribution and PAH concentration were evaluated and potential human health risk was assessed. From 1980 to 2007, the dominant PAHs in the two cores were 2- and 3-ring PAHs, and the concentrations of 3-6 ring PAHs gradually increased from the early 1990s. Diagnostic ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs were the main sources of PAHs which changed over time from combustions of wood and coal to liquid fossil fuel sources. Fine particles (PAHs (especially carcinogenic 5-6 ring PAHs) and 10-35 μm particulate fractions indicated that eolian particles played an important role in adsorbing pyrogenic PAHs. Petroleum source of PAHs was only identified during the 1980s in one core sediments, in which positive correlations between 2-ring PAHs and particulate fractions of >125 μm were found. Future research should focus on the seven carcinogenic pyrogenic PAHs due to a rapidly increasing trend since 1995 based on the assessment of toxic equivalency factors.

  9. Chemical composition and nutritive value of hot pepper seed (Capsicum annuum grown in Northeast Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu ZOU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and nutritive value of hot pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum grown in Northeast Region of China were investigated. The proximate analysis showed that moisture, ash, crude fat, crude protein and total dietary fiber contents were 4.48, 4.94, 23.65, 21.29 and 38.76 g/100 g, respectively. The main amino acids were glutamic acid and aspartic acid (above 2 g/100 g, followed by histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, arginine, cysteine, leucine, tryptophan, serine, glycine, methionine, threonine and tyrosine (0.8-2 g/100 g. The contents of proline, alanine, valine and isoleucine were less than 0.8 g/100 g. The fatty acid profile showed that linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid and linolenic acid (above 0.55 g/100 g as the most abundant fatty acids followed lauric acid, arachidic acid, gondoic acid and behenic acid (0.03-0.15 g/100 g. Analyses of mineral content indicated that the most abundant mineral was potassium, followed by magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, sodium and manganese. The nutritional composition of hot pepper seeds suggested that they could be regarded as good sources of food ingredients and as new sources of edible oils.

  10. New mutation points in 23S rRNA gene associated with Helicobacter Pylori resistance to clarithromycin in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Hao; Yan Li; Zhi-Jie Zhang; Yong Liu; Hong Gao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the resistance rate of Helicobacter pylori (Hpylori) to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin and tetracycline to guide clinical practice, and to study the mechanism of H pyloriresistant to clarithromycin.METHODS: Thirty H pyloristrains were isolated from the mucosa of peptic ulcer, gastric tumor and chronic gastritis patients, then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin and tetracycline was evaluated by E-test method. The sequence analysis of PCR fragments was conducted in 23S rRNA gene of H pylori resistant to clarithromycin to get the resistance mechanism of the bacteria.RESULTS: Among 30 H pyloristrains, 7 cases were resistant to clarithromycin, 12 to metronidazole, 2 to tetracycline and no strain was found to be resistant to amoxicillin. The resistance rates were 23.3%, 40%, 6.7% and 0%,respectively. Three new mutation points were found to be related to the clarithromycin resistance in H pyloriisolates,which were G2224A, C2245T and T2289C.CONCLUSION: In northeast China, H pylorishows high resistance to metronidazole, while sensitive to amoxicillin.The mechanism of resistance to clarithromycin may be related to the mutation of G2224A, C2245T and T2289C in the 23S rRNA gene.

  11. Variation Character of Grain Yield per Unit Area in Main Grain-producing Area of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yeqing; ZHANG Pingyu; ZHANG Huimin

    2007-01-01

    Based on the surveys and the statistic data during 1980-2003, the variation character of grain yield per unit area in Northeast China and its main factors have been discussed by the methods of statistics and grey correlation analysis. The results show that: 1) the grain yield per unit area has been taking on an increasing trend in the recent 20 years. It increased from 2519.80kg/ha in 1980 to 4216.11 kg/ha in 2003, with an increasing rate of 67.32%; 2) the variation of grain yield per unit area is considerably prominent and its range is also very great, with the maximal increase rate of 42.59% and maximal decrease rate of 21.13%, respectively, which are far above the whole Chinese average level; 3) the variation of main crops' yield per unit area is remarkable, which takes on the character that the yield of corn is much higher than that of soybean and rice; and 4) the grey correlation analysis shows that the most important factors impacting the variation of grain yield per unit area are the total power of agricultural machinery, the consumption of chemical fertilizer and effective irrigated area. However, the influence of natural disaster and income level should not be ignored. Effective ways to improve grain yield per unit area are to construct farmland improvement groundwork, reclaim the middle- and low-yield farmland, etc.

  12. Turbulent exchange of CO2 over a broadleaf-Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiabing WU; Dexin GUAN; Xiaomin SUN; Tingting SHI; Shijie HAN; Changjie JIN

    2008-01-01

    Turbulent exchange of CO2 was measured con-tinuously via the open-path eddy covariance technique over a broadleaf-Korean pine forest in Changbai Moun-tain, northeast China. The results show that with near-neutral atmospheric stratification, CO2 and vertical wind components measured over the forest canopy in the iner-tial sub-range followed the expected -2/3 power law. The dominant vertical eddy scale was about 100 m. The fre-quency ranges of eddy contributions to CO2 fluxes were mostly within 0.01-2.0 Hz. Large eddies with low fre-quency over the canopy contributed more to CO2 fluxes than small eddies. The open-path eddy covariance system could satisfy the estimation of turbulent fluxes over the canopy, but the CO2 fluxes between forest and atmo-sphere were generally underestimated at night because of the increment non-turbulent processes, suggesting that the CO2 fluxes estimated under weak turbulence need to be revised correspondingly.

  13. [Soil organic carbon storage in different aged Larix gmelinii plantations in Great Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guang; Wang, Qing-Li; Wang, Xin-Chuang; Yu, Da-Pao; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wang-Ming; Peng, Shun-Lei; Dai, Li-Min

    2013-01-01

    A sampling plot investigation was conducted to study the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in 0-40 cm layer in 10-, 15-, 26- and 61 years old Larix gmelinii plantations in Great Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China as well as the temporal variation pattern of the SOC source/sink during the plantation management after the clear cutting of primary L. gmelinii forest. With the increasing age of the plantations, the SOC storage increased after an initial decrease, and the inflection point was at a stand age between 15- and 26-years old. Compared with that of primary forest, the SOC storage of the plantations played a role of carbon source at early stage (10-26 years old), but gradually transformed into carbon sink then, with a SOC storage of 158.91 t x hm(-2) in 61-year-old plantation. The SOC storage of the plantations increased with soil depth initially, but was higher in upper soil layer than in deeper soil layer after the stand age being 26, which implied that human disturbance had strong effects on the vertical distribution of SOC. It was considered that the appropriate cutting age for the L. gmelinii plantations in Great Xing' an Mountains could be at least 60 years old.

  14. Influence of environment and substrate quality on the decomposition of wetland plant root in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xuelian; LU Xianguo; TONG Shouzheng; DAI Guohua

    2008-01-01

    The litterbag method was used to study the decomposition of wetland plant root in three wetlands along a water level gradient in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. These wetlands are Calamagrostis angustifolia ( C.aa), Carex meyeriana (C.ma) and Carex lasiocarpa (C.la). The objective of our study is to evaluate the influence of environment and substrate quality on decomposition rates in the three wetlands. Calico material was used as a standard substrate to evaluate environmental influences. Roots native to each wetland were used to evaluate decomposition dynamics and substrate quality influences. Calico mass loss was statistically different among the three wetlands in the upper soil profile (0-10 cm) and in the lower depth range (10-20 cm). Hydrology, temperature and pH all influence calico decomposition rates in different ways at different depths of the soil profiles. The decomposition rates of native roots declined differentially with the increase of depth in the soil profiles. The mass loss of native roots showed a statistical decrease among the three wetlands in the upper soil profile (0-10 cm) and in the lower depth range (10-20 cm) as C.ma wetland C.aa wetland C.la wetland. Both the C:P ratio and N:P ratio were positively interrelated with decomposition rates. Decomposition rates were negatively related to initial P concentration in all three wetlands, indicating that P concentration seems to be an important factor controlling the fitter loss.

  15. Depression and Quality of Life in Relation to Decreased Glomerular Filtration Rate Among Adults with Hypertension in Rural Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Guo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We aim to investigate the extent to which depression and quality of life might be associated with decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR in a large hypertensive population in rural Northeast China. Methods: A total of 5566 hypertensive participants aged 35 years and older were screened with a stratified cluster multistage sampling scheme in rural areas of Liaoning Province during 2012-2013. Decreased GFR was defined as estimated GFR 2. Results: The overall prevalence of decreased GFR was 3.2%. In the multivariable regression model, participants with moderate or greater depression had a greater risk for having a decreased GFR (OR: 1.739, 95%CI: 1.004 to 3.014 after full adjustment. Every 1-point increase of all the domains in WHOQOL-BREF, except for physical and environment domains, was significantly related to a lower risk for decreased GFR adjusting for age, gender and race. However, after fully adjustment, only social relations remained significant (OR: 0.899, 95%CI: 0.820 to 0.985. Increasing in total scores of WHOQOL-BREF was a protective factor against decreased GFR after fully adjustment. Conclusion: We found that moderate or greater depression and lower quality of life were associated with higher risks for developing decreased GFR.

  16. Interpretation of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptations by Local Household Farmers:a Case Study at Bin County, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qiang-yi; WU Wen-bin; LIU Zhen-huan; Peter H Verburg; XIA Tian; YANG Peng; LU Zhong-jun; YOU Liang-zhi; TANG Hua-jun

    2014-01-01

    Although climate change impacts and agricultural adaptations have been studied extensively, how smallholder farmers perceive climate change and adapt their agricultural activities is poorly understood. Survey-based data (presents farmers’ personal perceptions and adaptations to climate change) associated with external biophysical-socioeconomic data (presents real-world climate change) were used to develop a farmer-centered framework to explore climate change impacts and agricultural adaptations at a local level. A case study at Bin County (1980s-2010s), Northeast China, suggested that increased annual average temperature (0.6°C per decade) and decreased annual precipitation (46 mm per decade, both from meteorological datasets) were correctly perceived by 76 and 66.9%, respectively, of farmers from the survey, and that a longer growing season was conifrmed by 70%of them. These reasonably correct perceptions enabled local farmers to make appropriate adaptations to cope with climate change:Longer season alternative varieties were found for maize and rice, which led to a signiifcant yield increase for both crops. The longer season also affected crop choice:More farmers selected maize instead of soybean, as implicated from survey results by a large increase in the maize growing area. Comparing warming-related factors, we found that precipitation and agricultural disasters were the least likely causes for farmers’ agricultural decisions. As a result, crop and variety selection, rather than disaster prevention and infrastructure improvement, was the most common ways for farmers to adapt to the notable warming trend in the study region.

  17. Clinical and cytogenetic results of a series of amniocentesis cases from Northeast China: a report of 2500 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, N; Li, L L; Wang, R X; Li, L L; Yue, J M; Liu, R Z

    2015-12-02

    The aims of this study were to demonstrate the clinical and cytogenetic results of amniocentesis (AS) cases in Northeast China, to compare the incidence of different kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, and to study the association between the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities and different indications for prenatal diagnosis. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on long-term tissue cultures of 2500 second-trimester amniotic fluid samples. The most common indication for genetic AS was abnormal maternal serum-screening test (69.56%), followed by advanced maternal age (15.04%). Chromosomal abnormality was detected in 206 (8.24%) of the 2500 samples. The detection rate of abnormal karyotypes was 62.5% in the group in which one member of the couple was a carrier of a chromosome abnormality; in the group having a positive result from noninvasive prenatal testing, the frequency was 50%. To determine the origin of fetal chromosome abnormal karyotype, 45 fetuses were analyzed. Of these, 20 were found to be de novo abnormalities and 25 were familial. The frequency and proportion of abnormal karyotypes varied substantially across different maternal AS indications. Knowing the origin and type of chromosomal abnormality would help determine termination or continuation of the pregnancy.

  18. [Effects of heavy machinery operation on the structural characters of cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, En-Heng; Chai, Ya-Fan; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2008-02-01

    With the cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China as test objects, this paper measured their structural characters such as soil strength, bulk density, and non-capillary porosity/capillary porosity (NCP/CP) ratio before and after heavy and medium-sized machinery operation, aimed to study the effects of machinery operation on the physical properties of test soils. The results showed that after machinery operation, there existed three distinct layers from top to bottom in the soil profiles, i.e., plowed layer, cumulative compacted layer, and non-affected layer, according to the changes of soil strength. Under medium-sized machinery operation, these three layers were shallower, and there was a new plow pan at the depth between 17.5 and 30 cm. Heavy machinery operation had significant positive effects on the improvement of topsoil structure (P machinery, the bulk density of topsoil decreased by 7.2% and 3.5%, respectively, and NCP/CP increased by 556.6% after subsoiling, which would benefit water infiltration, reinforce water storage, and weaken the threat of soil erosion. The main action of heavy machinery operation was soil loosening, while that of medium-sized machinery operation was soil compacting.

  19. Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zeng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study is to quantify WF within the Heihe River Basin (HRB, a basin located in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China. The findings show that the WF was 1768 million m3 yr−1 in the HRB over 2004–2006. Agricultural production was the largest water consumer, accounting for 96% of the WF (92% for crop production and 4% for livestock production. The remaining 4% was for the industrial and domestic sectors. The "blue" component of WF was 811 million m3 yr−1. This indicates a blue water proportion of 46%, which is much higher than the world average and China's average, which is mainly due to the aridness of the HRB and a high dependence on irrigation for crop production. However, even in such a river basin, blue WF was still smaller than green WF, indicating the importance of green water. We find that blue WF exceeded blue water availability during eight months per year and also on an annual basis. This indicates that WF of human activities was achieved at a cost of violating environmental flows of natural freshwater ecosystems, and such a WF pattern is not sustainable. Considering the large WF of crop production, optimizing the crop planting pattern is often a key to achieving more sustainable water use in arid and semi-arid regions.

  20. Mercury exports from a High-Arctic river basin in Northeast Greenland (74°N) largely controlled by glacial lake outburst floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Tamstorf, Mikkel P.; Elberling, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Riverine mercury (Hg) export dynamics from the Zackenberg River Basin (ZRB) in Northeast Greenland were studied for the period 2009-2013. Dissolved and sediment-bound Hg was measured regularly in the Zackenberg River throughout the periods with running water (June-October) and coupled to water.......025 mg kg(-1). Temporal variations in river Hg were mainly associated with snowmelt, sudden erosion events, and outburst floods from a glacier-dammed lake in the upper part of the ZRB. Annual Hg exports from the 514 km(2) ZRB varied from 0.71 to >1.57 kg and the majority (86-96 was associated...... with sediment-bound Hg. Hg yields from the ZRB varied from 1.4-3.1 g Hg km(-2) yr(-1) and were among the highest yields reported from Arctic river basins. River exports of Hg from ZRB were found to be largely controlled by the frequency, magnitude and timing of the glacial lake outburst floods, which occurred...

  1. Cenozoic uplift of West Qinling, northeast margin of Tibetan plateau-a detrital apatite fission track record from the Tianshui basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiuxi; LI Jijun; SONG Chunbui; ZHANG Jun; ZHAO Zhijun; GAO Junping; PAN Meihui

    2007-01-01

    The Cenozoic sedimentation in the Tianshui basin, which is located at the junction of the Liupanshan and West Qinling, northeast margin of the Tibetan plateau,provides a record for the regional tectonism and exhumation history of the surrounding mountains. Thermochronologic study on the detrital apatite grains from sandstones at Yaodian, near Tianshui, has revealed two rapid tectonic uplift-exhumation events of the source area, which happened at 23.7 and 14.1 Ma, respectively. The fast exhumation(0.34 mm/a) at 23.7 Ma, which recorded the tectonic uplift ofWest Qinling, led to the formation of the Neogene Tianshuibasin and initiated the reception of alluvial deposits. This event is most likely in response to the synchronous tectonism of the Tibetan plateau. The source region experienced another rapid exhumation (1.05 mm/a) at 14.1 Ma, when the Tianshui basin began to depress broadly and fluvial-lacustrine sediments dominated the Late Miocene.

  2. Structural Geology of Daba Shan and its Tectonic Relationships with the Sichuan Basin and Central China Orogen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Kusky, T.; Li, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Daba Shan is a fold-and-thrust belt located on the northeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin, central China orogen. It is the transitional zone between the Sichuan Basin and Qinling orogenic belt, and it is located in the middle part of the Mianlu suture zone which is the boundary between the Qinling orogenic belt and Yangtze block. Numerous faults and fault-related folds are well preserved in Daba Shan. It is a natural laboratory to carry out fold-thrust belt research on relationships between the Qingling orogen and subsidence in the Sichuan basin. In this talk, I will introduce the general geologic background about and around Daba Shan, including the geologic history of the central China orogen, the formation and development of the Mianlue suture, and the most popular ideas about the geodynamic evolution of Daba Shan, as well as its geologic position between the Sichuan Basin and North China craton and its relative geodynamic relationship with Mianlue suture zone. Field investigations have shown the different fault-related structure styles, e.g. fault-bend fold, fault-propagation fold, duplex structure across the orogen. In addition, a major extensional detachment fault, the Chengkou fault, crops out in the center of the orogen and dips beneath northern Daba Shan fold-thrust belt and Mianlue suture. It is so impressive of the typical and complex geological structure scenarios there, which were mostly caused by the collisional and post-collisional activities between Qinling micro-continent and Yangtze block since mid-Triassic time. Daba Shan has very important tectonic and economic significance in China. Although geoscientists have been working on the Sichuan Basin and central China orogen for many years, Daba Shan has gained little attention. These years, with gas and oil exploration development in foreland basin and fold-thrust belt areas, especially after the discovery of carbonate strata in Daba Shan, its economic potential has become more prominent. This

  3. Tectonic ore-controlling in the middle southern segment of Da Hinggan Ling, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Studies on geotectonic evolution, regionally geological characteristics and ore-forming and ore-controlling structures have shown that since the Mesozoic the Da Hinggan Ling region has entered the typical intercontinental orogenic stage, which appears to be closely related to mantle plume activities. Da Hinggan Ling is a typical mantle branch structure and possesses obvious magmatic-metamorphic complexes in the core, detachment slip beds in the periphery and overlapped fault depression basins. Moreover, all these are the principal factors leading to ore formation and ore controlling in the region. This paper also further explores the mechanism of mineralization in the middle-southern segment of Da Hinggan Ling,summaries the rules of mineralization, puts forward the models of mineralization and points out the oresearch orientations in the future time.

  4. Changes and Relationships of Climatic and Hydrological Droughts in the Jialing River Basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Zeng

    Full Text Available The comprehensive assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts in terms of their temporal and spatial evolutions is very important for water resources management and social development in the basin scale. To study the spatial and temporal changes of climatic and hydrological droughts and the relationships between them, the SPEI and SDI are adopted to assess the changes and the correlations of climatic and hydrological droughts by selecting the Jialing River basin, China as the research area. The SPEI and SDI at different time scales are assessed both at the entire Jialing River basin and at the regional levels of the three sub basins. The results show that the SPEI and SDI are very suitable for assessing the changes and relationships of climatic and hydrological droughts in large basins. Based on the assessment, for the Jialing River basin, climatic and hydrological droughts have the increasing tendency during recent several decades, and the increasing trend of climatic droughts is significant or extremely significant in the western and northern basin, while hydrological drought has a less significant increasing trend. Additionally, climatic and hydrological droughts tend to increase in the next few years. The results also show that on short time scales, climatic droughts have one or two months lag impact on hydrological droughts in the north-west area of the basin, and have one month lag impact in south-east area of the basin. The assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts based on the SPEI and SDI could be very useful for water resources management and climate change adaptation at large basin scale.

  5. Changes and Relationships of Climatic and Hydrological Droughts in the Jialing River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Na; Sun, Huaiwei; Ye, Lei; Zhai, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts in terms of their temporal and spatial evolutions is very important for water resources management and social development in the basin scale. To study the spatial and temporal changes of climatic and hydrological droughts and the relationships between them, the SPEI and SDI are adopted to assess the changes and the correlations of climatic and hydrological droughts by selecting the Jialing River basin, China as the research area. The SPEI and SDI at different time scales are assessed both at the entire Jialing River basin and at the regional levels of the three sub basins. The results show that the SPEI and SDI are very suitable for assessing the changes and relationships of climatic and hydrological droughts in large basins. Based on the assessment, for the Jialing River basin, climatic and hydrological droughts have the increasing tendency during recent several decades, and the increasing trend of climatic droughts is significant or extremely significant in the western and northern basin, while hydrological drought has a less significant increasing trend. Additionally, climatic and hydrological droughts tend to increase in the next few years. The results also show that on short time scales, climatic droughts have one or two months lag impact on hydrological droughts in the north-west area of the basin, and have one month lag impact in south-east area of the basin. The assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts based on the SPEI and SDI could be very useful for water resources management and climate change adaptation at large basin scale.

  6. Adaptive Fusion of Information for Seeing into Ordos Basin, China: A China-Germany-US Joint Venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T. C. J.; Yin, L.; Sauter, M.; Hu, R.; Ptak, T.; Hou, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive fusion of information for seeing into geological basins is the theme of this joint venture. The objective of this venture is to initiate possible collaborations between scientists from China, Germany, and US to develop innovative technologies, which can be utilized to characterize geological and hydrological structures and processes as well as other natural resources in regional scale geological basins of hundreds of thousands of kilometers (i.e., the Ordos Basin, China). This adaptive fusion of information aims to assimilate active (manmade) and passive (natural) hydrologic and geophysical tomography surveys to enhance our ability of seeing into hydrogeological basins at the resolutions of our interests. The active hydrogeophysical tomography refers to recently developed hydraulic tomgoraphic surveys by Chinese and German scientists, as well as well-established geophysical tomography surveys (such as electrical resistivity tomography, cross-borehole radars, electrical magnetic surveys). These active hydrogeophysical tomgoraphic surveys have been proven to be useful high-resolution surveys for geological media of tens and hundreds of meters wide and deep. For basin-scale (i.e., tens and hundreds of kilometers) problems, their applicabilities are however rather limited. The passive hydrogeophysical tomography refers to unexplored technologies that exploit natural stimuli as energy sources for tomographic surveys, which include direct lightning strikes, groundwater level fluctuations due to earthquakes, river stage fluctuations, precipitation storms, barometric pressure variations, and long term climate changes. These natural stimuli are spatially varying, recurrent, and powerful, influencing geological media over great distances and depths (e.g., tens and hundreds of kilometers). Monitoring hydrological and geophysical responses of geological media to these stimuli at different locations is tantamount to collecting data of naturally occurring tomographic

  7. Sequence of the Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Tao; WANG Xiaoming; NI Xijun; LIU Liping

    2004-01-01

    In the Linxia Basin on the northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the Cenozoic strata are very thick and well exposed. Abundant mammalian fossils are discovered in the deposits from the Late Oligocene to the Early Pleistocene.The Dzungariotheriurn fauna comes from the sandstones of the Jiaozigou Formation, including many representative Late Oligocene taxa. The Platybelodon fauna comes from the sandstones of the Dongxiang Formation and the conglomerates of the Laogou Formation, and its fossils are typical Middle Miocene forms, such as Hemicyon, Amphicyon, Platybelodon,Choerolophodon, Anchitherium, and Hispanotherium. The Hipparion fauna comes from the red clay of the Liushu and Hewangjia Formations, and its fossils can be distinctly divided into four levels, including three Late Miocene levels and one Early Pliocene level. In the Linxia Basin, the Hipparion fauna has the richest mammalian fossils. The Equus fauna comes from the Wucheng Loess, and it is slightly older than that of the classical Early Pleistocene Nihewan Fauna. The mammalian faunas from the Linxia Basin provide the reliable evidence to divide the Cenozoic strata of this basin and correlate them with European mammalian sequence.

  8. Exploration of drought evolution using numerical simulations over the Xijiang (West River) basin in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jun; Chen, Ji; Sun, Liqun

    2015-07-01

    The knowledge of drought evolution characteristics may aid the decision making process in mitigating drought impacts. This study uses a macro-scale hydrological model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, to simulate terrestrial hydrological processes over the Xijiang (West River) basin in South China. Three drought indices, namely standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized runoff index (SRI), and soil moisture anomaly index (SMAI), are employed to examine the spatio-temporal and evolution features of drought events. SPI, SRI and SMAI represent meteorological drought, hydrological drought and agricultural drought, respectively. The results reveal that the drought severity depicted by SPI and SRI is similar with increasing timescales; SRI is close to that of SPI in the wet season for the Liu River basin as the high-frequency precipitation is conserved more by runoff; the time lags appear between SPI and SRI due to the delay response of runoff to precipitation variability for the You River basin. The case study in 2010 spring drought further shows that the spatio-temporal evolutions are modulated by the basin-scale topography. There is more consistency between meteorological and hydrological droughts for the fan-like basin with a converged river network. For the west area of the Xijiang basin with the high elevation, the hydrological drought severity is less than meteorological drought during the developing stage. The recovery of hydrological and agricultural droughts is slower than that of meteorological drought for basins with a longer mainstream.

  9. [Polypore species diversity, floral composition, and distribution characteristics in Changbai Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-lian

    2011-10-01

    Polypore is an important group of wood-rotting fungi, which can decompose wood cellulose, semi-cellulose, and lignin into nutrients to be utilized by itself and other organisms, and accordingly, can promote the material cycling in forest ecosystem. Based on more than 10 years investigation and collection, it was found that the polypore in Changbai Mountains was rich in species diversity, with the Shannon diversity index being 5.06. In the Mountains, a total of 246 polypore species were recorded, occupying 40.7% of the total in China. The polypore species recorded belonged to 80 genera, 11 families, and 6 orders, among which, Polyporaceae was the dominant family. The most important bio-geographical elements of the polypore in Changbai Mountains were north temperate element and cosmopolitan element, other elements also included, showing a distinct north temperate character in floral composition. Pinus was the main host of polypore, supporting 41.5% of the polypore in Changbai Mountains. Most of the polypore was saprophytic, and its quantity had a significant correlation with the decaying degree of substrates, implying its important role in the material cycling in forest ecosystem in Changbai Mountains. There were 18 threatened polypore species in the Mountains, accounting for 37.5% of total in China. Besides their important ecological functions, many of the polypore also had higher economic value. On the premise of complete protection on them, these fungal resources should be exploited reasonably.

  10. Avian leukosis virus subgroup A and B infection in wild birds of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Delong; Qin, Liting; Gao, Honglei; Yang, Bo; Liu, Wansi; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Zeng, Xiangwei; Liu, Sidang; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2013-05-03

    To analyze the status of wild birds infected with avian leukosis virus (ALV) in China, we collected 300 wild birds from various areas. Virus isolation and PCR showed that wild birds were infected by ALV-A and ALV-B. Two ALV-A and 4 ALV-B env sequences were obtained by PCR using primers designed to detect ALV-A and -B respectively. Our results showed that the gp85 genes of the 2 ALV-A strains have the highest homology with RAV-1, 99.8%, and more than 92% homology with other American strains. However, the gp85 genes of the two ALV-A strains showed slightly lower homology with Chinese strains (87.2-92.6%). Additionally, the 4 ALV-B strains have high homology with the prototype strain (RAV-2), from 99.1 to 99.4%, but they have slightly lower identity with Schmidt-Ruppin B and Prague subgroup B, from 93.3 to 98.4%. The 4 ALV-B strains showed the lowest identity with SDAU09C2 and SDAU09E3 (90%). In total, these results suggested that avian leukosis virus has infected wild birds in China.

  11. Epidemiology of pemphigus vulgaris in the Northeast China: a 10-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoling; Pan, Jisheng; Yu, Zhiming; Wang, Yanhua; Cai, Limin; Zheng, Shuyun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence, epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of patients with pemphigus vulgaris in China. We retrospectively investigated a total of 221 patients with pemphigus vulgaris. The parameters including age at diagnosis/onset, sex, diagnostic methods, hospitalizations, side-effects with different treatments, pemphigus vulgaris-associated diseases, the therapeutic features and duration of follow up were evaluated. The male : female ratio was 1:1.40. The incidence rate was obviously higher in two age groups, 31-40 years and 41-50 years. The mean age at onset was 44.19 ± 21.45 years. The majority of patients (56.56%) presented the mucocutaneous type. In addition, we found that various doses of corticosteroids (including the mean initial dose, maximum control dose, total dose before reducing and hospitalized total dose) exhibited statistical differences between only corticosteroids and corticosteroids-immunosuppressant groups in mild, moderate and severe pemphigus vulgaris (P pemphigus vulgaris most frequently occurred in the 41-50-year age group in China and the majority of patients manifested mucocutaneous lesions. Importantly, the incidence rate in females was higher than in males. The patients who needed combined immunosuppressant treatment, usually needed higher doses of corticosteroids initially, to control the disease and over the total course of treatment.

  12. Source of atmospheric moisture and precipitation over China's major river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongtiegang; Zhao, Jianshi; Hu, Hongchang; Ni, Guangheng

    2016-03-01

    Oceanic evaporation via the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) has been regarded as the major source of precipitation over China, but a recent study estimated that terrestrial evaporation might contribute up to 80% of the precipitation in the country. To explain the contradiction, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the contribution of oceanic and terrestrial evaporation to atmospheric moisture and precipitation in China's major river basins. The results show that from 1980 to 2010, the mean annual atmospheric moisture (precipitable water) over China was 13.7 mm, 39% of which originates from oceanic evaporation and 61% from terrestrial evaporation. The mean annual precipitation was 737 mm, 43% of which originates from oceanic evaporation and 57% from terrestrial evaporation. Oceanic evaporation makes a greater contribution to atmospheric moisture and precipitation in the East Asian Monsoon Region in South and East China than terrestrial evaporation does. Particularly, for the Pearl River and southeastern rivers, oceanic evaporation contributes approximately 65% of annual precipitation and more than 70% of summer precipitation. Meanwhile, terrestrial evaporation contributes more precipitation in northwest China due to the westerly wind. For the northwestern rivers, terrestrial evaporation from the Eurasian continents contributes more than 70% of precipitation. There is a linear relation between mean annual precipitation and the contribution of oceanic evaporation to precipitation, with a correlation coefficient of 0.92, among the ten major river basins in China.

  13. Source of atmospheric moisture and precipitation over China's major river basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tongtiegang ZHAO; Jianshi ZHAO; Hongchang HU; Guangheng NI

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic evaporation via the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) has been regarded as the major source of precipitation over China,but a recent study estimated that terrestrial evaporation might contribute up to 80% of the precipitation in the country.To explain the contradiction,this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the contribution of oceanic and terrestrial evaporation to atmospheric moisture and precipitation in China's major river basins.The results show that from 1980 to 2010,the mean annual atmospheric moisture (precipitable water) over China was 13.7 mm,39% of which originates from oceanic evaporation and 61% from terrestrial evaporation.The mean annual precipitation was 737 mm,43% of which originates from oceanic evaporation and 57% from terrestrial evaporation.Oceanic evaporation makes a greater contribution to atmospheric moisture and precipitation in the East Asian Monsoon Region in South and East China than terrestrial evaporation does.Particularly,for the Pearl River and southeastern rivers,oceanic evaporation contributes approximately 65% of annual precipitation and more than 70% of summer precipitation.Meanwhile,terrestrial evaporation contributes more precipitation in northwest China due to the westerly wind.For the northwestern rivers,terrestrial evaporation from the Eurasian continents contributes more than 70% of precipitation.There is a linear relation between mean annual precipitation and the contribution of oceanic evaporation to precipitation,with a correlation coefficient of 0.92,among the ten major river basins in China.

  14. The Canada Basin compared to the southwest South China Sea: Two marginal ocean basins with hyper-extended continent-ocean transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Stephenson, Randell; Clift, Peter D.

    2016-11-01

    Both the Canada Basin (a sub-basin within the Amerasia Basin) and southwest (SW) South China Sea preserve oceanic spreading centres and adjacent passive continental margins characterized by broad COT zones with hyper-extended continental crust. We have investigated strain accommodation in the regions immediately adjacent to the oceanic spreading centres in these two basins using 2-D backstripping subsidence reconstructions, coupled with forward modelling constrained by estimates of upper crustal extensional faulting. Modelling is better constrained in the SW South China Sea but our results for the Canada Basin are analogous. Depth-dependent extension is required to explain the great depth of both basins because only modest upper crustal faulting is observed. A weak lower crust in the presence of high heat flow and, accordingly, a lower crust that extends far more the upper crust are suggested for both basins. Extension in the COT may have continued even after seafloor spreading has ceased. The analogous results for the two basins considered are discussed in terms of (1) constraining the timing and distribution of crustal thinning along the respective continental margins, (2) defining the processes leading to hyper-extension of continental crust in the respective tectonic settings and (3) illuminating the processes that control hyper-extension in these basins and more generally.

  15. Hydrological modelling for siberian crane Grus Leucogeranus stopover sites in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haibo; He, Chunguang; Sheng, Lianxi; Tang, Zhanhui; Wen, Yang; Yan, Tingting; Zou, Changlin

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss is one of the key factors underlying the decline of many waterbird species, including Siberian Crane (Grus leucogeranus), a threatened species worldwide. Wetlands are the primary stopover for many waterbirds and restoration of these wetlands involves both hydrological restoration and water resource management. To protect the stopover sites of Siberian Cranes, we collected Siberian Crane stopover numbers, meteorological and hydrological data, and remote sensing data from 2008 to 2011 in Momoge National Nature Reserve, one of the largest wetlands in northeastern China. A model was developed to estimate the suitability of Siberian Crane stopover sites. According to our results, the most suitable daily water level for Siberian Cranes between 2008 and 2012 occurred in the spring of 2008 and in the Scirpus planiculmis growing season and autumn of 2010. We suggest a season-dependent water management strategy in order to provide suitable conditions at Siberian Crane stopover sites.

  16. The roles of a decision support system in applying forest ecosystem management in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI; Limin; ZHENG; Bofu; Guofan; Shao; ZHOU; Li

    2006-01-01

    Forest ecosystems provide a variety of services and forest ecosystem management (FEM) is an effective approach to maximize the services. Because of the complexity of forest ecosystems, the applications of FEM can be facilitated with decision support systems (DSS) that recognize and incorporate ecological and socio-economic variables. With the rapid development of computation and information technologies, DSS have been advanced in many ways. Traditional forest management within a forestry unit in China is planned on a yearly basis. The planning itself remains primarily a verbal concept as there are no quantitative decision-support tools available to translate the concept into forest management actions. For the purposes of FEM at the management level, a forest management DFF, FORESTAR(R), has been developed under a framework of geographic information system (GIS) and forest models. The paper explained the intelligent modeling mechanisms and demonstrated how the applications of FEM can be strengthened with the applications of FORESTAR(R).

  17. Sr, Nd, Pb Isotope geochemistry and magma evolution of the potassic volcanic rocks, Wudalianchi, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwen, W.; Guanghong, X.; Tatsumoto, M.; Basu, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Wudalianchi volcanic rocks are the most typical Cenozoic potassic volcanic rocks in eastern China. Compositional comparisons between whole rocks and glasses of various occurrences indicate that the magma tends to become rich in silica and alkalis as a result of crystal differentiation in the course of evolution. They are unique in isotopic composition with more radiogenic Sr but less radiogenic Pb.87Sr /86 Sr is higher and143Nd/144Nd is lower than the undifferentiated global values. In comparison to continental potash volcanic rocks, Pb isotopes are apparently lower. These various threads of evidence indicate that the rocks were derived from a primary enriched mantle which had not been subjected to reworking and shows no sign of incorporation of crustal material. The correlation between Pb and Sr suggests the regional heterogeneity in the upper mantle in terms of chemical composition. ?? 1989 Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Probabilistic forecasting of seasonal drought behaviors in the Huai River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mingzhong; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Chen, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    The Huai River basin is one of the major supplier of agricultural products in China, and droughts have critical impacts on agricultural development. Good knowledge of drought behaviors is of great importance in the planning and management of agricultural activities in the Huai River basin. With the copula functions to model the persistence property of drought, the probabilistic seasonal drought forecasting models have been built in the Huai River basin. In this study, droughts were monitored by the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) with the time scales of 3, 6, and 9 months, and their composite occurrence probability has been used to forecast the seasonal drought. Results indicated that the uncertainty related to the predicted seasonal drought is larger when more severe droughts occurred in the previous seasons, and the severe drought which occurs in summer and autumn will be more likely to be persistent in the next season while the severe drought in winter and spring will be more likely to be recovered in the subsequent season. Furthermore, given the different drought statuses in the previous season, spatial patterns of the predicted drought events with the largest occurrence probability have also been investigated, and results indicate that the Huai River basin is vulnerable to the extreme drought in most parts of the basin, e.g., the severe drought in winter will be more likely to be persistent in spring in the central part of the southern Huai River basin. Such persistent drought events pose serious challenges for planning and management of agricultural irrigation, then results of the study will be valuable for the planning of crop cultivation or mitigation of the losses caused by drought in the Huai River basin, China.

  19. [Driving forces of carbon emission from energy consumption in China old industrial cities: a case study of Shenyang City, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wan-Xia; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing

    2012-10-01

    To quantitatively analyze the effects of anthropogenic factors on regional environmental quality is a hot topic in the field of sustainable development research. Taking the typical old industrial city Shenyang in Northeast China as a case, and by using the IPCC method for calculating carbon emission from energy consumption, this paper estimated the carbon emission from energy consumption in the city in 1978-2009, and a time series analysis on the anthropogenic factors driving this carbon emission was made by the STIRPAT model based upon Kaya equation and ridge regression. In 1978-2009, the carbon emission in the city had a slow increase first, slow decrease then, and a rapid increase thereafter. The total carbon emission in 2009 was 4.6 times of that in 1978. Population growth was the main factor driving the growth of the emission, and there existed an equal-proportional variation between the population growth and the carbon emission growth. Urbanization was another main driving factor followed by population growth, and the per capita GDP was positively correlated with the carbon emission. Kuznets curve did not exist for the relationship between economic development and carbon emission in Shenyang. Energy source intensity reduction (representing technology improvement) was the main factor driving the reduction of the total carbon emission.

  20. Terrestrial heat flow in Junggar Basin,Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on temperature logs of 117 boreholes and thermal conductivity of 119 rock samples,the first group of 35 heat flow data in the Junggar Basin are presented.The thermal gradients vary between 11.6 and 26.5℃/km ,and the thermal conductivity changes from 0.17 to 3.6 W/mK.Heat flow ranges from 23.4 to 53.7 mW/m2 with a mean of (42.3± 7.7) mW/m2.The heat flow pattern shows that heat flow is higher in the uplifts and lower in the depressions.The factors affecting the heat flow and its distribution include basin type,basement structure,sediment thickness,radioactive heat generation,etc.The overall low present-day heat flow in the Junggar Basin reflected its tectonothermal evolution characterized by lithospheric thickening,thrust and fault at shallow crust as well as consequently quick subsidence during the Late Cenozoic.

  1. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor dust from varying categories of rooms in Changchun city, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zucheng; Wang, Shengzhong; Nie, Jiaqin; Wang, Yuanhong; Liu, Yuyan

    2017-02-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were isolated from indoor dust from various categories of rooms in Changchun city, northeast China, including dormitory, office, kitchen, and living rooms. PAH concentrations ranged from 33.9 to 196.4 μg g(-1) and 21.8 to 329.6 μg g(-1) during summer and winter, respectively, indicating that total PAH concentrations in indoor dust are much higher than those in other media from the urban environment, including soils and sediments. The percentage of five- to six-ring PAHs was high, indicating that PAHs found in indoor dust mainly originate from pyrolysis rather than a petrogenic source. Rooms were divided into three groups using cluster analysis on the basis of 16 PAH compositions, namely smoke-free homes, homes exposed to smoke and offices. Results showed that the source of PAHs in smoke-free residential homes is primarily the burning of fossil fuels. In addition to the burning of fossil fuels, biomass combustion and cooking contributed to PAHs in houses exposed to smoke (including kitchens). Motor vehicles are an additional source of PAHs in offices because of greater interactions with the outdoor environment. The results of health risk assessment showed that the cancer risk levels by dermal contact and ingestion are 10(4)- to 10(5)-fold higher than that by inhalation, suggesting that ingestion and dermal contact of carcinogenic PAHs in dust are more important exposure routes than inhalation of PAHs from air. Although the results showed high potential of PAH concentrations in indoor dust in Changchun for human health risk, caution should be taken to evaluate the risk of PAHs calculated by USEPA standard models with default parameters because habitation styles are different in various categories of rooms.

  2. [Impacts of drought stress on the growth and development and grain yield of spring maize in Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui-Peng; Che, Yu-Sheng; Zhu, Yong-Ning; Liang, Tao; Feng, Rui; Yu, Wen-Ying; Zhang, Yu-Shu

    2012-11-01

    Taking spring maize variety Danyu-39 as test object, an experiment was conducted in a large-scale agricultural water controlling experimental field to study the impacts of drought stress at three key growth stages, i. e. , 3-leaf-jointing, jointing-silking, and silking-milk ripe, on the growth and development and grain yield of spring maize in Northeast China. Two treatments were installed, including moderate drought stress (MS) and re-watering to suitable water (CK). Compared with CK, the MS at 3-leaf-jointing stage postponed the whole growth period of Danyu-39 by 13 d, and the plant height and leaf area at jointing stage were decreased by 29.8% and 41.2%, respectively. After re-watering, the plant height and grain yield recovered obviously, and the differences in ear characteristics and final yield were insignificant. The MS at jointing-silking stage shortened the whole growth period by 7 d, the plant height and leaf area at silking stage were decreased by 18.6% and 14.1%, respectively, the ear length, grain number per ear, ear dry mass, and grain mass per ear decreased by 6.9%, 19.1%, 28.1%, and 29.4%, respectively, and the blank stem rate increased by 13.3%. When the maize suffered from moderate drought stress at silking-milk ripe stage, the whole growth period was shortened by 15 d, the plant height and leaf area at milk ripe stage were decreased by 2.3% and 37.3%, respectively, the ear length, grain number per ear, ear dry mass, and grain mass per ear decreased by 9.2%, 24.1%, 30.8%, and 27.9%, respectively, and the blank stem rate increased by 24.5%. After re-watering at the latter two stages, the recovery of plant height was little, and the grain yield decreased significantly.

  3. Factors influencing CO2 and CH4 emissions from coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, L.; Ye, S.; Yu, X.; Wei, M.; Krauss, K. W.; Brix, H.

    2015-08-01

    Many factors are known to influence greenhouse gas emissions from coastal wetlands, but it is still unclear which factors are most important under field conditions when they are all acting simultaneously. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of water table, salinity, soil temperature and vegetation on CH4 emissions and ecosystem respiration (Reco) from five coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China: two Phragmites australis (common reed) wetlands, two Suaeda salsa (sea blite) marshes and a rice (Oryza sativa) paddy. Throughout the growing season, the Suaeda wetlands were net CH4 sinks whereas the Phragmites wetlands and the rice paddy were net CH4 sources emitting 1.2-6.1 g CH4 m-2 yr-1. The Phragmites wetlands emitted the most CH4 per unit area and the most CH4 relative to CO2. The main controlling factors for the CH4 emissions were water table, temperature, soil organic carbon and salinity. The CH4 emission was accelerated at high and constant (or managed) water tables and decreased at water tables below the soil surface. High temperatures enhanced CH4 emissions, and emission rates were consistently low ( 18 ppt, the CH4 emission rates were always low (bacteria. Saline Phragmites wetlands can, however, emit significant amounts of CH4 as CH4 produced in deep soil layers are transported through the air-space tissue of the plants to the atmosphere. The CH4 emission from coastal wetlands can be reduced by creating fluctuating water tables, including water tables below the soil surface, as well as by occasional flooding by high-salinity water. The effects of water management schemes on the biological communities in the wetlands must, however, be carefully studied prior to the management in order to avoid undesirable effects on the wetland communities.

  4. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls by loaches living in rice paddy fields of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Lu, Xianbo; Zhang, Yichi; Ma, Xindong; Wang, Shuqiu; Ni, Yuwen; Chen, Jiping

    2016-09-01

    The concentrations of 21 organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in two loach species (Misgurnus mohoity and Paramisgurnus dabryanus) and the soils of their inhabiting rice paddies from three typical rice production bases of Northeast China to explore the main factors influencing the bioaccumulation. The concentrations of ∑18PCBs and ∑21OCPs in loaches were determined to be in the ranges of 0.14-0.76 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) and 1.19-78.53 ng g(-1) ww, respectively. Most of loaches showed the considerably high contamination levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), which accounted for over 97% of the total OCPs. The much lower maximum allowable loach consumption rates (bioaccumulation potential. The comparisons of BSAF values and the results of multivariate analysis indicated that habitat-specific environmental conditions, mainly the paddy soil contamination levels and average temperature, decisively affected the bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants. When the influence of lipid contents was offset, M. mohoity loaches were found to have a higher potential to accumulation PCBs and OCPs than P. dabryanus loaches, while the bioaccumulation potentials did not exhibit significant differences between juvenile and adult loaches and between male and female loaches. The octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) was the main chemical factor influencing bioaccumulation potentials. The BSAF values presented an increasing tendency with increasing log KOW values from 6.0 to approximately 7.0, followed by a decreasing tendency with a continuous increase in log KOW values. Moreover, loaches exhibited an isomeric-selective bioaccumulation for p,p'-chlorinated DDTs, α-HCH, β-HCH, δ-HCH and cis-chlordane.

  5. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region.

  6. Epidemiological investigation and analysis of bronchial asthma in combat troops garrisoned in the cold areas of northeast China

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    Liang SHI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the incidence and related risk factors of occurrence of bronchial asthma in troops garrisoned in the cold areas of northeast China, and explore the corresponding prevention strategy. Methods  A portion of the recruits enlisted in 2012 to Shenyang Command were enrolled as the subjects of the study with three questionnaires. The first questionnaire was carried out during training just after recruit. The second survey was carried out after winter training in selected recruits entering the army for two years, and the last questionnaire was carried out to select recruits just before their discharge from army. The final diagnosis of bronchial asthma in the suspected cases was established by pulmonary function test. Results  In the first period of the survey, the prevalence of asthma was found to be 3.55‰in the newly enlisted recruits; in the second survey 1067 cases were found to be suspicious to have asthma; in the last survey, 26 subjects were finally diagnosed to have asthma, the incidence was 1.73‰. The most common symptoms of the illness at first attack were cough (88.5% and wheeziness (56.3%, and the main inducing factors were respiratory tract infection (76.9% and exposure to cold air (65.4%, and it frequently appeared at early morning (30.8% and forenoon (23.1%. Asthmatic attack presented obvious seasonal predisposition, and it occurred in 19 of 26 patients (73.1% during winter, and 10 (38.5% during spring. The attacks of asthma could be increased by fatigue, allergy, exposure to cold air, chronic bronchitis, smoking, inhalation of gunpowder exhaust, or dysthymia. Conclusion  Fatigue may be the most frequent factor in inducing asthma, and allergy, exposure to cold air, chronic bronchitis, smoking, inhalation of gunpowder exhaust and dysthymia are the risk factors of asthmatic attack. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.13

  7. Effects of long-term land use change on dissolved carbon characteristics in the permafrost streams of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuedong; Song, Changchun; Wan, Zhongmei; Tan, Wenwen; Lu, Yongzheng; Qiao, Tianhua

    2014-11-01

    Permafrost soils act as large sinks of organic carbon but are highly sensitive to interference such as changes in land use, which can greatly influence dissolved carbon loads in streams. This study examines the effects of long-term land reclamation on seasonal concentrations of dissolved carbons in the upper reaches of the Nenjiang River, northeast China. A comparison of streams in natural and agricultural systems shows that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration is much lower in the agricultural stream (AG) than in the two natural streams (WAF, wetland dominated; FR, forest dominated), suggesting that land use change is associated with reduced DOC exporting capacity. Moreover, the fluorescence indexes and the ratio of dissolved carbon to nitrogen also differ greatly between the natural and agricultural streams, indicating that the chemical characteristics and the origin of the DOC released from the whole reaches are also altered to some extent. Importantly, the exporting concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and its proportion of total dissolved carbon (TDC) substantially increase following land reclamation, which would largely alter the carbon cycling processes in the downstream fluvial system. Although the strong association between the stream discharge and the DOC concentration was unchanged, the reduction in total soil organic carbon following land reclamation led to remarkable decline of the total flux and exporting coefficient of the dissolved carbons. The results suggest that dissolved carbons in permafrost streams have been greatly affected by changes in land use since the 1970s, and the changes in the concentration and chemical characteristics of dissolved carbons will last until the alteration in both the traditional agriculture pattern and the persistent reclamation activities.

  8. Carbon and nitrogen allocations in corn grown in Central and Northeast China:different responses to fertilization treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Hui-tian; L Jia-long; XU Ming-gang; ZHANG Wen-ju; HUANG Shao-min; PENG Chang; CHEN Li-ming

    2015-01-01

    In order to reveal the impact of various fertilization strategies on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) accumulation and al ocation in corn (Zea mays L.), corn was grown in the ifelds where continuous fertilization management had been lasted about 18 years at two sites located in Central and Northeast China (Zhengzhou and Gongzhuling), and biomass C and N contents in different organs of corn at harvest were analyzed. The fertilization treatments included non-fertilizer (control), chemical fertilizers of either nitrogen (N), or nitrogen and phosphorus (NP), or phosphorus and potassium (PK), or nitrogen, phospho-rus and potassium (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM), 150%of the NPKM (1.5NPKM), and NPK plus straw (NPKS). The results showed that accumulated C in aboveground ranged from 2 550–5 630 kg ha–1 in the control treatment to 9 300–9 610 kg ha–1 in the NPKM treatment, of which 57–67%and 43–50%were al ocated in the non-grain organs, respectively. Accumulated N in aboveground ranged from 44.8–55.2 kg ha–1 in the control treatment to 211–222 kg ha–1 in the NPKM treatment, of which 35–48% and 33–44% were al ocated in the non-grain parts, respectively. C al ocated to stem and leaf for the PK treatment was 65 and 49%higher than that for the NPKM treatment at the both sites, respectively, while N al ocated to the organs for the PK treatment was 18 and 6%higher than that for the NPKM treatment, respectively. This study demonstrated that responses of C and N al ocation in corn to fertilization strategies were different, and C al ocation was more sensitive to fertilization treatments than N al ocation in the area.

  9. Molecular Records of Primary Producers and Sedimentary Environmental Conditions of Late Permian Rocks in Northeast Sichuan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan Xiaoyan; Luo Genming; Hu Shouzhi; Chen Feng; Sun Si; Wu Wenjun; Guo Qiaozhen; Liu Guoquan

    2008-01-01

    A series of biomarkers were identified in the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of the extracts from Late Permian Dalong (大隆) and Wujiaping (吴家坪) formations in Shangsi (上寺) Section, Northeast Sichuan (四川), South China, on the basis of the analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MC). The dominance of lower-molecular-weight n-alkanes throughout the profile suggests the dominant contribution of algae and bacteria to the organics preserved in the marine section. Wujiaping Formation is characterized by the elevated contribution from algae as well as other photoantotrophs such as photosynthetic bacteria as shown by the molecular ratios of hopanes to steranes or tricyclic terpanes as well as the ratio of pristane (Pr) and phytane (Ph) to C17 and C18 n-alkanes. This is in accord with the data from the microscopic measurement on the calcareous algae. In contrast, Dalong Formation is featured by enhanced contribution from bacteria and probably terrestrial organics indicated by the enhanced C24 tetracyclic terpanes relative to tricyclic terpanes. The two formations also show a distinct discrimination in sedimentary environmental conditions including redox condition and salinity. The anoxic condition was only found in the middle of the Dalong Formation as shown by the ratios of Pr/Ph and dibenzothiophene to phenanthrene, consistent with the reported data of Mo and U. An enhancedsalinity indicated by the homohopane index is observed at the shallow Wujiaping Formation. On the basis of the composition of primary productivity and the redox condition, Dalong Formation is proposed, herein, to be potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the study site. It is notable that the topmost end-Permian is characterized by a large perturbance in both the redox condition and salinity, with oxic conditions being frequently interrupted by short-term anoxia, likely showing a causal relationship with the episodic biotic crisis across the Permian-Triassic boundary.

  10. Investigating Within-Field Variability of Rice from High Resolution Satellite Imagery in Qixing Farm County, Northeast China

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    Quanying Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a primary staple food for the world population and there is a strong need to map its cultivation area and monitor its crop status on regional scales. This study was conducted in the Qixing Farm County of the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. First, the rice cultivation areas were identified by integrating the remote sensing (RS classification maps from three dates and the Geographic Information System (GIS data obtained from a local agency. Specifically, three FORMOSAT-2 (FS-2 images captured during the growing season in 2009 and a GIS topographic map were combined using a knowledge-based classification method. A highly accurate classification map (overall accuracy = 91.6% was generated based on this Multi-Data-Approach (MDA. Secondly, measured agronomic variables that include biomass, leaf area index (LAI, plant nitrogen (N concentration and plant N uptake were correlated with the date-specific FS-2 image spectra using stepwise multiple linear regression models. The best model validation results with a relative error (RE of 8.9% were found in the biomass regression model at the phenological stage of heading. The best index of agreement (IA value of 0.85 with an RE of 13.6% was found in the LAI model, also at the heading stage. For plant N uptake estimation, the most accurate model was again achieved at the heading stage with an RE of 11% and an IA value of 0.77; however, for plant N concentration estimation, the model performance was best at the booting stage. Finally, the regression models were applied to the identified rice areas to map the within-field variability of the four agronomic variables at different growth stages for the Qixing Farm County. The results provide detailed spatial information on the within-field variability on a regional scale, which is critical for effective field management in precision agriculture.

  11. Spatial distribution patterns of wetland plants in relation to environmental gradient in the Honghe National Nature Reserve, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Demin; LUAN Zhaoqing; GUO Xiaoyu; LOU Yanjing

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying correlation between the spatial patterns of natural wetland plants and environmental gradient gives better understanding of wetland habitats,which is the fundamental for the strategy making on the protection and restoration of natural wetlands.In this study,the spatial patterns of wetland plants and the environmental gradient of wetland habitats were assessed in the Honghe National Nature Reserve (HNNR) in Northeast China,a wetland of international importance on the Ramsar list.Biophysical parameters' values of wetland plants were obtained by field sampling methods,and wetland mapping at the community scale was completed using remote sensing techniques.Digital delineation of the surface water system,hydrological zoning and wetness index were produced by spatial analysis methods in Geographic Information System.An ecological ordination method and two clustering methods were used to quantify the relationship between the spatial distribution patterns of wetland plants and the corresponding environmental gradients.Such quantitative analyses also present the specific diversity of different types of wetland plants based on the environmental attributes of their habitats.With the support from modern geo-information techniques,the experimental results indicate how four ecotypes of wetland plants spatially transit from forest swamp,shrub wetland and meadow into marsh wetland with increasing wetness index and water table.And they also show how wetland spatial distribution patterns are controlled by an environmental gradient of wetness.Another key finding of this research work is that our results present the exact fundamental differences between marsh and non-marsh plants of 11 wetland plant communities within the core study area.Hence,this case study gives a good sample for better understanding of the complex correlation between the spatial patterns of wetland plants and their environmental attributes using advanced digital analysis methods.It is also useful to

  12. Landscape Dynamics and Driving Factors in Da'an County of Jilin Province in Northeast China During 1956-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zongming; ZHANG Yubo; ZHANG Bai; SONG Kaishan; GUO Zhixing; LIU Dianwei; LI Fang

    2008-01-01

    The landscape pattern of Da'an County,Northeast China has undergone significant changes since the 1950s as a result of climatic change and human activities.The aim of this paper is to quantitatively study landscape pattern and its spatial dynamics of Da'an County at the landscape level over the nearly 50-year span.Patch dynamics were examined according to land use and land cover change processes built from a series of images,as well as topographic maps,and temporal patterns built trom landscape pattern metrics.The transition matrix of landscape patch types and changes of various landscape metrics were applied.The results showed that,from 1956 to 2000,the landscape within the study area had undertaken a complicated evolution in landscape structure and composition.The outstanding characteristic is that saline-alkali land increased and grassland decreased.As some smaller patches amalgamated,the heterogeneity of patch decreased.All those changes were the synthetic result of both climatic and anthropogenic influences,but the predominant factor was different in different parts.In the southern part of the study area,the landscape pattern changes resulted from the modification of climate obviously,while in the northern part,the landscape pattern changes were mainly caused by human activities,such as the conversion between farmland and saline-alkali land.This phenomenon showed that human activities played more important role in the north than in the south of Da'an County.

  13. Factors influencing CO2 and CH4 emissions from coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China

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    L. Olsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many factors are known to influence greenhouse gas emissions from coastal wetlands, but it is still unclear which factors are most important under field conditions when they are all acting simultaneously. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of water table, salinity, soil temperature and vegetation on CH4 emissions and ecosystem respiration (Reco from five coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, northeast China: two Phragmites australis (common reed wetlands, two Suaeda salsa (sea blite marshes and a rice (Oryza sativa paddy. Throughout the growing season, the Suaeda wetlands were net CH4 sinks whereas the Phragmites wetlands and the rice paddy were net CH4 sources emitting 1.2–6.1 g CH4 m−2 y−1. The Phragmites wetlands emitted the most CH4 per unit area and the most CH4 relative to CO2. The main controlling factors for the CH4 emissions were water table, temperature and salinity. The CH4 emission was accelerated at high and constant (or managed water tables and decreased at water tables below the soil surface. High temperatures enhanced CH4 emissions, and emission rates were consistently low (4 m−2 h at soil temperatures 18 ppt, the CH4 emission rates were always low (4 m−2 h−1 probably because methanogens were outcompeted by sulphate reducing bacteria. Saline Phragmites wetlands can, however, emit significant amounts of CH4 as CH4 produced in deep soil layers are transported through the air-space tissue of the plants to the atmosphere. The CH4 emission from coastal wetlands can be reduced by creating fluctuating water tables, including water tables below the soil surface, as well as by occasional flooding by high-salinity water. The effects of water management schemes on the biological communities in the wetlands must, however, be carefully studied prior to the management in order to avoid undesirable effects on the wetland communities.

  14. Seasonal Variability in Soil Inorganic Nitrogen Across Borders Between Woodland and Farmland in the Songnen Plain of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chang-Cun; FU Yao; LIU Li; WANG Kun; WANG De-Li

    2013-01-01

    To study the seasonal variability of soil inorganic nitrogen (N) across borders at the woodland-farmland ecotone and potential mechanisms,contents of soil inorganic N were measured during the dry season (May 20 and June 30) and the rainy season (August 10 and September 20) of 2006 in the Songnen Plain of Northeast China.The borders between farmland and woodland were determined by a border-and-ecotone detection analysis (BEDA).The ecotone limits,often referred to as the depth-of-edge influence (DEI),are critical for determining the scale at which edge effect operates.The results showed that the soil inorganic N border between the woodland and farmland was located further toward the woodland interior during the rainy season (DEI =53.4 ±-8.7 m,August 10) than during the dry season (DEI =35.0 ± 12.6 m,May 20).The seasonal variability in the soil inorganic N border was found to be associated with seasonal changes of deposition flux of N (the correlation coefficients between them for the dry season and rainy season were 0.61 and 0.67,respectively),which resulted from foliation patterns of trees and crops.Accordingly,the leaf area index at woodland edges was lower than that in the woodland interior,so woodland edges captured large amounts of atmosphere nitrogen deposition.The average DEI was 44.1 m,which was in accordance with the values of other temperate forest boundaries in literatures; therefore,BEDA was an appropriate method to estimate the borders of ecotones.

  15. [Effects of harvest disturbance on soil CH4 flux in a secondary hardwood forest in Northeast china].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-Long, Sun

    2013-10-01

    From June, 2007 to October, 2009, a measurement with static chamber/gas chromatograph techniques was conducted on the soil CH4 flux in a typical secondary hardwood forest in Northeast China under the effects of different harvest disturbances, i.e., uncut (control), clear cutting (including both farming and reforestation after clear cutting), 50% stand volume removed, and 25% stand volume removed. In all of the four treatments, the soil was the sink of atmospheric CH4, but cutting decreased the soil CH4 uptake flux, with the order of uncut (-85.03 microg CH4 x m;(-2) x h(-1)) > 50% stand volume removed (-80.31 microg CH4 x m(-2) x h(-1)) > 25% stand volume removed (-70.97 microg CH4 x m(-2)h(-1)) > farming after clear cutting (-65.57 microg CH4 x m(-2) x h(-1)) > reforestation after clear cutting (-62.02 miocrog CH4 x m(-2) x h(-1)). During the study period, the seasonal patterns of the soil CH4 uptake flux in all treatments were similar, with a higher value in growth season and a lower one in winter. After the harvest disturbance, the soil temperature, humidity, and NO(3-)-N, and NH(4+)-N contents were all increased, and the soil CH4 flux had a significant quadratic correlation with soil temperature, and a negative linear correlation with soil moisture content. It was suggested that the increase of the soil moisture, NO(3-)-N, and NHa(4+)-N contents after the forest harvest was the main cause of the decrease of the soil CH4 uptake flux.

  16. Mixing effects of understory plant litter on decomposition and nutrient release of tree litter in two plantations in Northeast China.

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    Lei Zhao

    Full Text Available Understory vegetation plays a crucial role in carbon and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems; however, it is not clear how understory species affect tree litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics. In this study, we examined the impacts of understory litter on the decomposition and nutrient release of tree litter both in a pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and a poplar (Populus × xiaozhuanica plantation in Northeast China. Leaf litter of tree species, and senesced aboveground materials from two dominant understory species, Artemisia scoparia and Setaria viridis in the pine stand and Elymus villifer and A. sieversiana in the poplar stand, were collected. Mass loss and N and P fluxes of single-species litter and three-species mixtures in each of the two forests were quantified. Data from single-species litterbags were used to generate predicted mass loss and N and P fluxes for the mixed-species litterbags. In the mixture from the pine stand, the observed mass loss and N release did not differ from the predicted value, whereas the observed P release was greater than the predicted value. However, the presence of understory litter decelerated the mass loss and did not affect N and P releases from the pine litter. In the poplar stand, litter mixture presented a positive non-additive effect on litter mass loss and P release, but an addition effect on N release. The presence of understory species accelerated only N release of poplar litter. Moreover, the responses of mass loss and N and P releases of understory litter in the mixtures varied with species in both pine and poplar plantations. Our results suggest that the effects of understory species on tree litter decomposition vary with tree species, and also highlight the importance of understory species in litter decomposition and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems.

  17. Multilevel Nonlinear Mixed-Effect Crown Ratio Models for Individual Trees of Mongolian Oak (Quercus mongolica) in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liyong; Zhang, Huiru; Lu, Jun; Zang, Hao; Lou, Minghua; Wang, Guangxing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an individual tree crown ratio (CR) model was developed with a data set from a total of 3134 Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) trees within 112 sample plots allocated in Wangqing Forest Bureau of northeast China. Because of high correlation among the observations taken from the same sampling plots, the random effects at levels of both blocks defined as stands that have different site conditions and plots were taken into account to develop a nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effect model. Various stand and tree characteristics were assessed to explore their contributions to improvement of model prediction. Diameter at breast height, plot dominant tree height and plot dominant tree diameter were found to be significant predictors. Exponential model with plot dominant tree height as a predictor had a stronger ability to account for the heteroskedasticity. When random effects were modeled at block level alone, the correlations among the residuals remained significant. These correlations were successfully reduced when random effects were modeled at both block and plot levels. The random effects from the interaction of blocks and sample plots on tree CR were substantially large. The model that took into account both the block effect and the interaction of blocks and sample plots had higher prediction accuracy than the one with the block effect and population average considered alone. Introducing stand density into the model through dummy variables could further improve its prediction. This implied that the developed method for developing tree CR models of Mongolian oak is promising and can be applied to similar studies for other tree species.

  18. Spatial Patterns and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils in a Resource-Exhausted City, Northeast China.

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    Hongwei Chen

    Full Text Available Northeast China is an intensive area of resource-exhausted city, which is facing the challenges of industry conversion and sustainable development. In order to evaluate the soil environmental quality influenced by mining activities over decades, the concentration and spatial distribution of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and Zinc (Zn in surface soils (0-20cm of a typical resource-exhausted city were investigated by analyzing 306 soil samples. The results showed that the average concentrations in the samples were 6.17 mg/kg for As, 0.19 mg/kg for Cd, 51.08 mg/kg for Cr, 23.27 mg/kg for Cu, 31.15 mg/kg for Ni, 22.17 mg/kg for Pb, and 54.21 mg/kg for Zn. Metals distribution maps produced by using the inverse distance weighted interpolation method and results revealed that all investigated metals showed distinct geographical patterns, and the concentrations were higher in urban and industrial areas than in farmland. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations (p<0.05 between all of the metals, and As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were closely associated with the first principal component (PC1, which explained 39.81% of the total variance. Cu and As were mainly associated with the second component (PC2. Based on the calculated Nemerow pollution index, percentage for slightly polluted (1

  19. Male spike strobiles with Gnetum affinity from the Early Cretaceous in western Liaoning, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang-Xing GUO; Jin-Geng SHA; Li-Zeng BIAN; Yin-Long QIU

    2009-01-01

    A fossil with Gnetum affinity was found in the Jianshangou Member (Barremian Age) of the Yixian Formation (Lower Cretaceous Epoch) of the Jehol Group in western Liaoning, northeastern China. The single fossil specimen is represented by both elongate-cylindrical male spike strobiles which borne within a nodal bract of cauliflorous branch. The spike strobiles have apparent nodes, invisible internodes, and numerous verticillate involucral collars. The microsporangiate units within involucral collars are not seen. The male spike strobiles with verticillate involucral collars occur exclusively in Gnetum; hence, the fossil strobiles are attributed to a new taxon, Khitania columnispicata gen. & sp. nov., being closely related to Gnetum. The general isotopic dating suggests an age of Barremian, ca. 125-122 million years (Myr) ago for the Jianshangou Member. The palaeoecological and palaeoclimatic inference based on the compositions of flora and fauna, and lithological characters of the fossil locality suggests that the fossil plants grew in a subtropical mesophytic forest and under a warmer climate. The remains of male spike strobiles are the first record of gnetalean macrofossil. It documents the evolution of the distinct gnetoid morphology and indicates a wider range of distribution of Gnetaceae in the Early Cretaceous than present day.

  20. Mercury Distribution Along the Food Chain of a Wetland Ecosystem at Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilong, Ma; Qiang, Wang; Zhongsheng, Zhang; Xuehong, Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a wetland food chain were determined at Majuan Island of the Sanjiang Plain in China. Four tissues (muscle, liver, kidney and brain) of three waterbird species (great cormorant, grey heron and great egret), muscle tissues of fish (grass carp, crucian carp and longnose gudgeon), insects (predacious diving beetle), aquatic plants (ditch reed) and soil were analyzed. The mean concentrations of T-Hg were 0.392 ± 0.237 mg/kg for tissues of all juveniles, 1.999 ± 2.053 mg/kg for great cormorant adults, and 0.029 ± 0.019 mg/kg for fish muscle, respectively. While the relative contents of T-Hg of insects, plants and sediments were 0.012 ± 0.002, 0.006 ± 0.001 and 0.020 ± 0.002 mg/kg, respectively. Bioaccumulation of Hg along the wetland food chain may be able to show the current situation of Hg contamination in remote regions of East Asia.

  1. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

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    Rui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI, hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention.

  2. Soil water carrying capacity of vegetation in the northeast of Ulan Buh Desert, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youliang TIAN; Yanhong HE; Liansheng GUO

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic change of soil water as a function of leaf area index and the soil water deficit value, prerequisites for assuring the survival of plants, were simulated. We established a dynamic soil water model based on a theory of water balance, the characteristics of the environment, and the physiological ecology of the plants in the Ulan Buh Desert, northwestern China. We estimated the soil water carrying capacity of the vegetation in our study area of the desert. The results showed that the proportion of soil evaporation in the total amount of precipitation was greater than 60% in the wandering and semifixed sands and 44.8% in the fixed sand. When the leaf area index was less than 1.7 m2/m2, the soil water deficit was maintained at a low level, but when the leaf area index continued to increase, the soil water deficit increased rapidly as well. In consequence, we come to the conclusion that the leaf area index of the soil water carrying capacity of the vegetation is 1.7 m2/m2 in our study area.

  3. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiao; Yutong, Zong; Shenggao, Lu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations and health risk of heavy metals in urban soils from a steel industrial district in China. A total of 115 topsoil samples from Anshan city, Liaoning, Northeast China were collected and analyzed for Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk index (PER) were calculated to assess the pollution level in soils. The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (RI) were used to assess human health risk of heavy metals. The average concentration of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni were 69.9, 0.86, 45.1, 213, 52.3, and 33.5mg/kg, respectively. The Igeo and PI values of heavy metals were in the descending order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr. Higher Igeo value for Cd in soil indicated that Cd pollution was moderate. Pollution index indicated that urban soils were moderate to highly polluted by Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metals revealed that steel industrial district was the contamination hotspots. Principal component analysis (PCA) and matrix cluster analysis classified heavy metals into two groups, indicating common industrial sources for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Matrix cluster analysis classified the sampling sites into four groups. Sampling sites within steel industrial district showed much higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the rest of sampling sites, indicating significant contamination introduced by steel industry on soils. The health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic values were below the threshold values. The hazard index (HI) for children and adult has a descending order of Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Ni>Zn. Carcinogenic risks due to Cr, Cd, and Ni in urban soils were within acceptable range for adult. Carcinogenic risk value of Cr for children is slightly higher than the threshold value, indicating that children are facing slight threat of Cr. These results provide basic information of heavy metal pollution control

  4. Drought analysis using multi-scale standardized precipitation index in the Han River Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-ping XU; Sheng-ji LIN; Yan HUANG; Qin-qing ZHANG; Qi-hua RAN

    2011-01-01

    Regional drought analysis provides useful information for sustainable water resources management. In this paper, a standardized precipitation index (SPI) at multiple time scales was used to investigate the spatial patterns and trends of drought in the Han River Basin, one of the largest tributaries of Yangtze River, China. It was found that, in terms of drought severity, the upper basin of the Hart River is the least, while the growing trend is the most conspicuous; a less conspicuous growing trend can be observed in the middle basin; and there is an insignificant decreasing trend in the lower basin. Meanwhile, the impact of drought on the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project was investigated, and it is suggested that water intake must be reduced in times of drought, particularly when successive or simultaneous droughts in the upper and middle basins of the Han River Basin occur. The results can provide substantial information for future water allocation schemes of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project.

  5. Exploration Potential of Atectonic Oil-gas Pools in the Northern Shelf Basin of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuWeilin; WangZhenfeng; LvMing

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale oil exploration has been done and large quantities of oil-gas fields have been found in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea for more than 20 years. The tectonic oil-gas pools are the main type. With the exploration to be deepened, looking for atectonic oil-gas pools is listed in China's exploration strategy. There are advantages for the forming of atectonic oil-gas pools in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea. Because the level of water has been frequently changing within all historical periods, lithozones are changed alternately in both vertical and lateral directions and formed lithologic deposition especially at low water level stages, such as the low-lying fans of basin-floor fans and slope fans. Due to frequent tectonic movement within all historical periods, many structural surfaces and structural unconformities were formed. At the same time, they also formed many kinds of structural unconformity oil-gas pools. According to our exploration and research, the promising areas of atectonic reservoirs within marine basins include: (1) the basin-floor fan of the deep water district, such as the central depression of the Southeast Qiong basin and Baiyun sag in the Zhujiangkou basin; (2) the frontal area of the large ancient delta, such as the Lingao structural belt in the Yingge Sea basin and Huizhou sag in the Zhujiangkou basin; (3) the unconformity pinchout belt or denudation belt in the slope area and the uplift area, for instance, the Yingdong slope belt in the Yingge Sea basin and Yacheng 13-1 structural belt in the southeast Qiong basin. All this proves that the prospects for atectonic oil-gas pools in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea are very broad.

  6. Developing Two Additive Biomass Equations for Three Coniferous Plantation Species in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihu Dong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate quantification of tree biomass is critical and essential for calculating carbon storage, as well as for studying climate change, forest health, forest productivity, nutrient cycling, etc. Tree biomass is typically estimated using statistical models. In this study, a total of 289 trees were harvested and measured for stem, root, branch, and foliage biomass from three coniferous plantation species in northeastern P.R. China. We developed two additive systems of biomass equations based on tree diameter (D only and both tree diameter (D and height (H. For each system, likelihood analysis was used to verify the error structures of power functions in order to determine if logarithmic transformation should be applied on both sides of biomass equations. The model coefficients were simultaneously estimated using seemingly unrelated regression (SUR. The results indicated that stem biomass had the largest relative contribution to total biomass, while foliage biomass had the smallest relative proportion for the three species. The root to shoot ratio averaged 0.27 for Korean pine, 0.25 for larch, and 0.23 for Mongolian pine. The two additive biomass systems obtained good model fitting and prediction performance, of which the model Ra2 > 0.80, and the percent mean absolute bias (MAB%, was <17%. The second additive system (D and H had a relatively greater Ra2 and smaller root mean square error (RMSE. The model coefficient for the predictor H was statistically significant in eight of the twelve models, depending on tree species and biomass component. Adding tree height into the system of biomass equations can marginally improve model fitting and performance, especially for total, aboveground, and stem biomass. The two additive systems developed in this study can be applied to estimate individual tree biomass of three coniferous plantation species in the Chinese National Forest Inventory.

  7. Rainfall redistribution of a virgin Pinus koraiensis forest and secondary Betula platyphylla forest in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A virgin Pinus koraiensis forest in the Xiao-xing'an Mountains was selected to study its rainfall redistribution effect via 97 rainfall occurrences during a growing season.The following results were obtained:1) The canopy interception of the P.koraiensis virgin forest amounted to 98168 mm during a growing season (May to September),which was 19.6 per cent of the total rainfall and 1.3 times that of a secondary Betula platyphylla forest.Compared with other forest types in China (11.4%-36.5%),the ratio of the canopy interception in the virgin pine forest was at a medium level.2) The throughfall of the virgin pine forest was 395.77 mm,which accounted for 78.7% of total precipitation,and the stem-flow was 8.78 mm,accounting for 1.74% of total precipitation.Compared with the secondary birch forest,the virgin pine forest had lower throughfall but higher stem-flow.3) Cubic regression equations (p < 0.01)which describe the relation between throughfall,stem-flow and canopy interception in the virgin pine forest and rainfall in an open field were fitted.A linear regression equation (p < 0.01) was found to be a better fit for the relationship between throughfall of the secondary birch forest and rainfall outside the forest.Factors affecting throughfall and stem-flow were analyzed,with results providing a good reference to the study of rainfall redistribution in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests.

  8. Quantifying Tree and Soil Carbon Stocks in a Temperate Urban Forest in Northeast China

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    Hailiang Lv

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Society has placed greater focus on the ecological service of urban forests; however, more information is required on the variation of carbon (C in trees and soils in different functional forest types, administrative districts, and urban-rural gradients. To address this issue, we measured various tree and soil parameters by sampling 219 plots in the urban forest of the Harbin city region. Averaged tree and soil C stock density (C stocks per unit tree cover for Harbin city were 7.71 (±7.69 kg C·m−2 and 5.48 (±2.86 kg C·m−2, respectively. They were higher than those of other Chinese cities (Shenyang and Changchun, but were much lower than local natural forests. The tree C stock densities varied 2.3- to 3.2-fold among forest types, administrative districts, and ring road-based urban-rural gradients. In comparison, soil organic C (SOC densities varied by much less (1.4–1.5-fold. We found these to be urbanization-dependent processes, which were closely related to the urban-rural gradient data based on ring-roads and settlement history patterns. We estimated that SOC accumulation during the 100-year urbanization of Harbin was very large (5 to 14 thousand tons, accounting for over one quarter of the stored C in trees. Our results provide new insights into the dynamics of above- and below-ground C (especially in soil during the urbanization process, and that a city’s ability to provide C-related ecosystem services increases as it ages. Our findings highlight that urbanization effects should be incorporated into calculations of soil C budgets in regions subject to rapid urban expansion, such as China.

  9. Characterizing Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Methane Emissions from Rice Paddies in Northeast China from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Su, Shiliang; Zhang, Feng; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Background Rice paddies have been identified as major methane (CH4) source induced by human activities. As a major rice production region in Northern China, the rice paddies in the Three-Rivers Plain (TRP) have experienced large changes in spatial distribution over the recent 20 years (from 1990 to 2010). Consequently, accurate estimation and characterization of spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 emissions from rice paddies has become an pressing issue for assessing the environmental impacts of agroecosystems, and further making GHG mitigation strategies at regional or global levels. Methodology/Principal Findings Integrating remote sensing mapping with a process-based biogeochemistry model, Denitrification and Decomposition (DNDC), was utilized to quantify the regional CH4 emissions from the entire rice paddies in study region. Based on site validation and sensitivity tests, geographic information system (GIS) databases with the spatially differentiated input information were constructed to drive DNDC upscaling for its regional simulations. Results showed that (1) The large change in total methane emission that occurred in 2000 and 2010 compared to 1990 is distributed to the explosive growth in amounts of rice planted; (2) the spatial variations in CH4 fluxes in this study are mainly attributed to the most sensitive factor soil properties, i.e., soil clay fraction and soil organic carbon (SOC) content, and (3) the warming climate could enhance CH4 emission in the cool paddies. Conclusions/Significance The study concluded that the introduction of remote sensing analysis into the DNDC upscaling has a great capability in timely quantifying the methane emissions from cool paddies with fast land use and cover changes. And also, it confirmed that the northern wetland agroecosystems made great contributions to global greenhouse gas inventory. PMID:22235268

  10. Chemical fraction, leachability, and bioaccessibility of heavy metals in contaminated soils, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutong, Zong; Qing, Xiao; Shenggao, Lu

    2016-12-01

    Heavy metals in urban soils may pose risks to both urban environment and human health. However, only a fraction of heavy metals in soil is mobile and/or bioavailable for plant uptake and human ingestion. This study evaluates the chemical fraction and potential mobility and bioaccessibility of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in the contaminated urban topsoils from steel-industrial city (Anshan), Northeastern China. Chemical forms of heavy metals in soils are determined using Tessier sequential extraction technique. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and US Pharmacopeia methodology (USPM) are used to determine the operationally defined potentially mobile and bioaccessible metal fractions, respectively. Sequential extraction results show that Cd has the highest percentage of exchangeable form, whereas Cr primarily exists in residual form. The non-residual fraction of heavy metals increases in the order of Cr metals evaluated by TCLP test indicates that Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb have much higher mobile than Cr. The bioavailability of heavy metals determined by EDTA extraction decreases in the order of Pb > Cu ≅ Zn > Cd > Cr. The order of bioaccessibility determined by USPM extraction is Pb = Cu > Zn > Cd > Cr. The Cr exhibits the lowest leachability and bioaccessibility among the investigated metals. The Pb has the highest bioaccessibility, indicating higher potential hazard for the human health. There are significant relationships between the EDTA- and USPM-extractable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and the sum of first three steps of sequential extraction. Highly significant correlation is found between amounts of EDTA-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn and USPM-extractable metals. The result suggests that EDTA extraction can be helpful to estimate the bioaccessibility of heavy metals for human ingestion. Introduction of mobile and human bioaccessible concentrations into risk assessments can give more realistic

  11. Changes in labile soil organic matter fractions following land use change from monocropping to poplar-based agroforestry systems in a semiarid region of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Li, Lu-Jun; Hu, Ya-Lin

    2012-11-01

    Labile fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) respond rapidly to land management practices and can be used as a sensitive indicator of changes in SOM. However, there is little information about the effect of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions in semiarid regions of China. In order to test the effects of land use change from monocropping to agroforestry systems on labile SOM fractions, we investigated soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N, particulate organic matter C (POMC) and N (POMN), as well as total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN) in the 0- to 15-cm and the 15- to 30-cm layers in 4-year-old poplar-based agroforestry systems and adjoining monocropping systems with two different soil textures (sandy loam and sandy clay loam) in a semiarid region of Northeast China. Our results showed that poplar-based agroforestry practices affected soil MBC, POMC, and POMN, albeit there was no significant difference in TOC and TN. Agroforestry practices increased MBC, POMC, and POMN in sandy clay loam soils. However, in sandy loam soils, agroforestry practices only increased MBC and even decreased POMC and POMN at the 0- to 15-cm layer. Our results suggest that labile SOM fractions respond sensitively to poplar-based agroforestry practices and can provide early information about the changes in SOM in semiarid regions of Northeast China and highlight that the effects of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions vary with soil texture.

  12. Hydrological long-term dry and wet periods in the Xijiang River basin, South China

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    T. Fischer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hydrological long-term dry and wet periods are analyzed for the Xijiang River basin in South China. Daily precipitation data of 118 stations and data on daily discharge at Gaoyao hydrological station at the mouth of the Xijiang River for the period 1961–2007 are used. At a 24-month timescale, the standardized precipitation index (SPI-24 for the six sub-basins of the Xijiang River and the standardized discharge index (SDI-24 for Gaoyao station are applied. The monthly values of the SPI-24 averaged for the Xijiang River basin correlate highly with the monthly values of the SDI-24. Distinct long-term dry and wet sequences can be detected.

    The principal component analysis is applied and shows spatial disparities in dry and wet periods for the six sub-basins. The correlation between the SPI-24 of the six sub-basins and the first principal component score shows that 67% of the variability within the sub-basins can be explained by dry and wet periods in the east of the Xijiang River basin. The spatial dipole conditions (second and third principal component explain spatiotemporal disparities in the variability of dry and wet periods. All sub-basins contribute to hydrological dry periods, while mainly the northeastern sub-basins cause wet periods in the Xijiang River. We can also conclude that long-term dry events are larger in spatial extent and cover all sub-basins while long-term wet events are regional phenomena.

    A spectral analysis is applied for the SPI-24 and the SDI-24. The results show significant peaks in periodicities of 11–14.7 yr, 2.8 yr, 3.4–3.7 yr, and 6.3–7.3 yr. The same periodic cycles can be found in the SPI-24 of the six sub-basins but with some variability in the mean magnitude. A wavelet analysis shows that significant periodicities have been stable over time since the 1980s. Extrapolations of the reconstructed SPI-24 and SDI-24 represent the continuation of observed significant periodicities

  13. Geochemical characteristics of oils from the Chaidamu, Shanganning and Jianghan Basins, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, R. P.; Fan, P.; Lewis, C. A.; Zhu, H.; Wang, H.

    Thirty oil samples from the Shanganning, Jianghan and Chaidamu Basins in China have been examined by a number of geochemical techniques. The techniques included gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry using a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS/MS), stable isotope mass spectrometry. There were several reasons for undertaking this study. Firstly was the attempted oil-source rock correlation studies within the individual basins. Secondly was the continuing quest for novel, or sets of, biomarkers that could be assigned to saline and hypersaline environments and subsequently used to characterize other similar depositional environments. Thirdly was the desire to compare and contrast results obtained from these three basins with those from a similar study being undertaken on the South Florida Basin and the Anadarko Basin in the U.S.A. Whereas the Chinese basins are lacustrine, those in the U.S.A. are marine. For the purposes of this paper, only the results from the three Chinese basins will be discussed. In addition to examining the results from the biomarker distributions as determined by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, the results are correlated with those obtained from the δ 13C isotropic determinations. For example, three oils in the Shanganning Basin showed anomalous isotopic data, which immediately suggested that they should be examined in greater detail than the remaining oils, all of which correlated quite closely with each other. A combination of results used in this way is far more valuable than the biomarker data alone. In summary, the results demonstrate that various families of oils in the three basins can be distinguished on the basis of geochemical data and in many cases on the basis of the carbon isotopic composition alone. The oils from the Shanganning Basin had the lightest values, around -32%, whereas the Chaidamu were the heaviest in the -26% region. The Jianghan oils had values intermediate to

  14. Prevalence and Correlation with Clinical Diseases of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA Genotype among Gastric Patients from Northeast China

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    Faisal Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes have significant genetic heterogenicity, resulting in different clinical outcomes. Northeast part of China has reported high prevalence of H. pylori infections and gastric cancer. Hence, we investigated the H. pylori cagA and vacA genotypes with clinical outcomes in Northeast China. Gastric tissue samples (n=169, chronic gastritis (GIs, gastric ulcer (GU, and gastric cancer (GC were analysed for 16S rRNA ureA, cagA, and cagA genotypes by PCR. A total of 141 (84% cases were found positive for H. pylori by 16S rRNA and ureA. GC showed high H. pylori infection (93% compared with GIs (72% and GU (84%. The vacAs1am1 was highly found in GC (40% and GU (36%, vacAs1am2 in GIs (33%, vacAs1bm1 (14% and vacAs1bm2 (8% in GU cases, and s2m1 in normal cases (33%, while vacAs1cm1 showed low frequency in GIs (2% and GU (3% and GC showed negative result. The East-Asian cagA strain was highly observed in GC (43%, as compared to GIs (41% and GU (20%. The East-Asian cagA/vacAs1am1 was significantly higher in GC (23% than in GU (22% and GIs (145 patients. The East-Asian type cagA with vacAs1a and vacAm1 is the most predominant genotype in H. pylori strains of Northeast China.

  15. Odonata diversity of the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin, Yunnan, China

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    Jin Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty six species of Odonata are recorded from the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin. Archineura hetaerinoides is recorded from China for the first time. Five genera and five species are new to Yunnan Province. Among the six types of odonate habitats, forest streams have the highest species diversity whereas ponds have the most species shared with other habitats. Both of these two habitats are important in biodiversity conservation and need urgent protection.

  16. Regime Shift Identification of Runoff and Sediment Loads in the Yellow River Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Wang; Guangju Zhao; Xingmin Mu; Peng Gao; Wenyi Sun

    2014-01-01

    Runoff and sediment loads have exhibited significant changes over the past six decades in the Yellow River Basin, China. The current study evaluates the changing trends and regime shifts in runoff and sediment loads at both the annual and monthly time scales. The associated spatial and temporal variations are analyzed by a sequential t-test analysis of the regime shifts (STARS) approach and the “breaks for additive seasonal and trend” (BFAST) model using hydrological data at eight stations f...

  17. Formation and Identification of Unresolved Complex Mixtures in Lacustrine Biodegraded Oil from Nanxiang Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Pengfei Guo; Sheng He; Shukui Zhu; Derong Chai; Shiyan Yin; Wei Dai; Wanfeng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOFMS) method has been developed for the formation and identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) in lacustrine biodegraded oils that with the same source rock, similar maturity, and increasing degradation rank from Nanxiang Basin, China. Normal alkanes, light hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, steranes, and terpanes are degraded gradually from oil B330 to oil G574. The compounds in biodegraded oil ...

  18. The influence of volcanism on paleoclimate in the northeast of China: Insights from Jinchuan peat, Jilin Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Xumei; CHENG Shenggao; HONG Yetang; ZHU Yongxuan; WANG Fenglin

    2009-01-01

    Just like contemporary sediments, peat itself is a good repository of information about climate change, the effects of volcanic activity on climate change have been truly recorded in peat, since it is a major archive of volcanic eruption incidents. A section of sand was identified as tephra from the Jinchuan peat, Jilin Province, China, for the grains look like slag with surface bubbles and pits, characterized by high porosity, and loose structure with irregular edges and corners. According to the peat characteristics of uniform deposition, the tephra was dated at 2002-1976 a B.P. by way of linear interpolation, so the time of volcanic eruption was 15 B.C.-26 A.D. (the calibrated age). While the geochemical characteristics of tephra in this study are quite the same as those of tephra from the Jinlongdingzi volcano at Longgang and from alkaline basaltic magma, with the contents of SiO2K2O. We speculated that the tephra in this study came from the Longgang volcano group. Compared with 11 recorded volcanic eruption events as shown on the carbon and oxygen isotope curves of the Jinchuan peat cellulose, it is obviously seen that adjacent or large-scale volcanic eruptions are precisely corresponding to the minimum temperature and humidity. It seems that these volcanic eruptions indeed affected the local climate, leading to the drop of regional temperature and humidity. As a result, there was prevailing a cold and dry climate there, and all these changes can be well recorded in peat. So the comparison of volcanic eruption events with information about climate change developed from peat, can provide strong evidence for the impact of volcanism on climate change.

  19. Early Paleozoic magmatism and metallogeny in Northeast China: a record from the Tongshan porphyry Cu deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinlu; Yao, Shuzhen; Ding, Zhenju; He, Mouchun

    2017-01-01

    The Tongshan Cu deposit is located in the northern segment of the Great Xing'an Range and represents one of the few early Paleozoic porphyry Cu deposits in northeastern China. The granitic rocks in the Tongshan Cu deposit include concealed granodiorite and exposed tonalite, which yield LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of 478 ± 3 Ma and 214 ± 3 Ma, respectively. The granodiorite has relatively high SiO2 (60.5-63.5 wt%) and Sr (596-786 ppm) contents, low Yb (1.21-1.53 ppm) and Y (9.81-13.0 ppm) contents, and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7038-0.7040), suggesting adakitic affinity. Combined with its positive ɛNd( t) values (3.5-5.4), low Mg# values (41-50), and low contents of Cr (18.6-29.0 ppm) and Ni (7.3-9.1 ppm), we propose an origin by partial melting of a juvenile mafic lower crust in a post-collisional setting after the amalgamation of the Erguna and Xing'an Blocks. The tonalite is characterized by high SiO2 (63.1-65.9 wt%) and Al2O3 (16.0-16.3 wt%) contents, low (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios (0.7041-0.7042), positive ɛNd( t) values (2.6-3.0), along with LILE and LREE enrichments and Nb-Ta-Ti depletions, suggesting an origin by partial melting of juvenile mafic lower crust, coupled with fractional crystallization, in a post-orogenic setting after the collision between the Xing'an and Songnen Blocks. The δD values of ore-forming fluids range from -100 to -93 ‰, and the δ18O values calculated from hydrothermal quartz are between -3 and 10 ‰. The δ34S values of sulfides vary from -2.6 to -1.1 ‰. Field observations, as well as the geochronological and H-O-S isotopic data, suggest that the Cu mineralization at Tongshan was genetically linked with the granodiorite.

  20. DEM and GIS analysis of the geomorphic indices to evaluate recent uplift of the northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M.; Xu, X.; Zeilinger, G.; Wang, Q.; Hao, M.

    2011-12-01

    Geomorphic indices are indicators capable of detecting landform responses to deformation processes and therefore have been broadly used to investigate the tectonic geomorphology. The northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau is a tectonic active region consists of series of arc structures with its bounded intermountain basins. It is located in the transitional zone between the Tibetan Plateau and the Loess Plateau. However, the widely covered loess made the fault traces hard to be detected. The analysis of the geomorphic properties of landscape could possibly reflect recent tectonic activities of the whole region. Thus, we applied geomorphic indices including hypsometry integral and the Stream Length-gradient to reveal the effects of neotectonics in the northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. By using the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model, 197 drainage basins and 105 tributaries of the Yellow River have been analyzed. Together with the levelling data and the incision rates derived from the terraces dating, the long-term geologic/geomorphic rates and the short-term surface uplift rates are compared. Our results show the levelling data and the river incision rates have similar uplift pattern with the geomorphic indices. The high geomorphic values are corresponding with the hanging-wall of the active reverse faults and the certain segments of the active strike-slip faults. These uplifted segments may be the outcomes of the local stress concentration. The Maxianshan fault is identified to be a rapid uplift area. The SW-NE compression seems to be adjusted more by the thrust rather than strike-slip due to limited space for this fault propagating to the NW. The geomorphic indices appear to be effective to detect neotectonic activities in the loess-covered area. It helps to understand the differential uplift on a region such as the northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The comparison between the geomorphic indices with levelling data could be a useful approach to

  1. Ordovician Basement Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in the Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiangbin; LI Tiejun; ZHANG Tao

    2004-01-01

    Ordovician marine carbonate basement traps are widely developed in the paleo-highs and paleo-slopes in the Tarim Basin. Reservoirs are mainly altered pore-cavity-fissure reservoirs. Oil sources are marine carbonate rocks of the Lower Paleozoic. Thus, the paleo-highs and paleo-slopes have good reservoiring conditions and they are the main areas to explore giant and large-scale oil reservoirs. The main factors for their reservoiring are: (1) Effective combination of fenestral pore-cavity-fracture reservoirs, resulting from multi-stage, multi-cyclic karstification (paleo-hypergene and deep buried) and fracturing, with effective overlying seals, especially mudstone and gypsum mudstone in the Carboniferous Bachu Formation, is essential to hydrocarbon reservoiring and high and stable production; (2) Long-term inherited large rises and multi-stage fracture systems confine the development range of karst reservoirs and control hydrocarbon migration, accumulation and reservoiring; (3) Long-term multi-source hydrocarbon supply, early reservoiring alteration and late charging adjustment are important reservoiring mechanisms and determine the resource structure and oil and gas properties. Favorable areas for exploration of Ordovician carbonate basement hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Tarim Basin are the Akekule rise, Katahe uplift, Hetianhe paleo-high and Yakela faulted rise.

  2. Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows in inland river basins in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Zang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management in these has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.09 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and large areas of glaciers in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 88.0% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80–90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 95% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficient in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficient were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. glaciers in upstream and desert in downstream and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation in upstream and low precipitation in downstream. There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments for the entire Heihe river basin at sub-basin level. The results are helpful for formulating reasonable water policies to improve water resources management in the inland river basins of China.

  3. Quantification of Climate Changes and Human Activities That Impact Runoff in the Taihu Lake Basin, China

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    Dingzhi Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a fragile climate region, the Taihu Lake Basin is among the most developed regions in China and is subjected to intense anthropogenic interference. In this basin, water resources encounter major challenges (e.g., floods, typhoons, and water pollution. In this study, the impacts of climate changes and human activities on hydrological processes were estimated to aid water resource management in developed regions in China. The Mann-Kendall test and cumulative anomaly curve were applied to detect the turning points in the runoff series. The year of 1982 divides the study period (1956~2008 into a baseline period (1956~1981 and a modified period (1982~2008. The double mass curve method and the hydrological sensitivity method based on the Budyko framework were applied to quantitatively attribute the runoff variation to climate changes and human activities. The results demonstrated that human activities are the dominant driving force of runoff variations in the basin, with a contribution of 83~89%; climate changes contributed to 11~17% of the variations. Moreover, the subregions of the basin indicated that humans severely disturbed the runoff variation, with contributions as high as 95~97%.

  4. Detrital provenance of Early Mesozoic basins in the Jiangnan domain, South China: Paleogeographic and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianbing; Tang, Shuai; Lin, Shoufa

    2016-04-01

    Detrital provenance analysis is an effective way to understand paleogeographic change and geodynamics. In this paper, we present petrological, whole-rock geochemical and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological analysis of Early and Middle Jurassic terrestrial clastic rocks in the Jingdezhen Basin and the Huangshan Basin in the Jiangnan domain, South China. Petrology and whole-rock geochemistry show that the source rocks are dominated by intermediate to acid component. The Chemical Index of Alteration ranges from 69 to 86, suggesting a moderate weathering history for the source rocks. The Early-Middle Jurassic sediments in the Jingdezhen and Huangshan basins were mostly sourced from magmatogenic greywackes and felsic magmatic rocks, respectively. Detrital zircons have seven age peaks at 240 Ma, 430 Ma, 1390 Ma, 1880 Ma, 2500 Ma, -3200 Ma and 788-999 Ma (a wide peak). Provenance analysis indicates that the source rocks are in the Jiangnan domain, the Northwest Zhejiang Basin and the Wuyishan domain. Combining these with previous results and paleocurrent directions, we infer that the NE-trending Wuyishan and Xuefengshan domains and the nearly E-W-Jiangnan domain and Nanling tectonic belt were orogenic uplifts and watersheds during the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic. The Early Mesozoic geodynamics in the South China Block was related to the westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate and the northward continent-continent collision following the closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean.

  5. Critical role of meteorological conditions in a persistent haze episode in the Guanzhong basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Naifang; Xiao, Bo; Meng, Ning; Feng, Tian

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, the critical role of the meteorological condition in a persistent extreme haze episode that occurred in Guanzhong basin of China on December 16 to 25, 2013 has been investigated. Analyses of the large-scale meteorological conditions on 850hPa during the episode have been performed using the NCEP FNL data set, indicating that synoptic situations generally facilitate the accumulation of pollutants either in horizontal or vertical directions in the basin. The FLEXPART model has been utilized to illustrate the pollutant transport patterns during the episode, further showing the dominant role of synoptic conditions in accumulation of pollutants in the basin. Detailed meteorological conditions, such as temperature inversion, and low-level horizontal wind speed also contribute to the extreme haze episode. In addition, the WRF-CHEM model has been used to evaluate the responses of the surface PM2.5 level to the emission mitigation. Generally, the predicted PM2.5 spatial patterns and temporal variations agree well with the observations at the ambient monitoring sites. Sensitivity studies show that the emissions in the basin need to be mitigated by more than 91% to meet the excellent level of the China National Air Quality Standard under the extremely unfavorable meteorological conditions, demonstrating that it is imperative to implement stringent controls on emissions to improve the air quality.

  6. Plate Tectonic Setting and Eruptive Characteristics of the K—rich Volcanic Belt in HeilingJiang Province,Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱家骧; 吴志勤; 等

    1990-01-01

    Various lines of geological,geophysical and geochemical evidence indicate that the K-rich volcanic belt in Northeast China as represented by the volcanic groups at Wudalianchi,Erkeshan and Kelo was developed,in terms of plate tectonics,in a rift valley system within the continental plate,The volcanic material includes effusive lavas and explosive pyroclastics whose characteristics and flowing/accumulation mechanisms were studied in detail,The distribution of pyroclastics shows that the eruption is of Strombolian type with increasing intensity towards the late stages.

  7. Species and fauna distribution of mosquitoes in three provinces of Northeast China%东北三省蚊虫种类和区系分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国平; 任清明; 邢安辉; 王峰; 王旭

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查研究东北三省蚊虫种类和区系分布.方法 采用人帐诱、诱虫灯诱、动物诱和网捕采集蚊虫.结果 东北三省的蚊类现知6属60种,其中黑龙江省4属40种,35县市有分布;吉林省6属38种,27县市有分布;辽宁省5属36种,50县市有分布.区系分布研究结果表明,东北区分布58种,其中大兴安岭亚区分布25种,长白山亚区分布57种,松辽平原亚区分布38种,蒙新区东部草原亚区分布20种.广布种有6种:中华按蚊、背点伊蚊、刺扰伊蚊、凶小库蚊、淡色库蚊、迷走库蚊.结论 为东北三省蚊类的区系分布、媒介种群监测和防治研究提供了科学依据.%Objective To study species and fauna distribution of mosquitoes in three provinces of Northeast Chi-na. Methods Using human-baited nel trap, light trap,animal-baited trap, and insect net to collect mosquitoes;collecting the data of mosquitoes about species distribution in three provinces of Northeast China. Results There were 60 species and 6 genera mosquitoes in three provinces of Northeast China,of which 40 species and 4 genera in Heilongjiang province,distributed in 35 counties and cities;38 species and 6 genera were known in Jilin province,dis-tributed in 27 counties and cities;36 species and 5 genera in Manning Province,distributed in 50 counties and cities. Investigations of fauna distribution showed that 58 species were in Northeastern district,of which 26 species were in Daxinganling sublerritoy ,57 species in Changbaishan sublerrtoy, and 38 species in Songliao-plains 9ubterrtoy. 28 spe-cies were in Eastern-grasslands suhterrtny of Mongolia-xingjiang district. The mosquito species of extensive distribu-tion were Anopheles simnsis ,Aedes dorsalis, Ae. vexans, Culex modeslus, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. lagans. Conclusion The investigation provides the base for further study in three provinces of Northeast China.

  8. Comorbidity in Adult Patients Hospitalized with Type 2 Diabetes in Northeast China: An Analysis of Hospital Discharge Data from 2002 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wu, Di; Gong, Chunxiu; Pan, Qing; Dong, Xiao; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Kuan; Wang, Shiping; Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the comorbidity burden and patterns among adult patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Northeast China using hospital discharge data derived from the electronic medical record database between 2002 and 2013. 12.8% of 4,400,892 inpatients aged ≥18 had a diagnosis of T2DM. Sex differences in prevalence varied among those aged data can be used to estimate disease prevalence and identify comorbidities. The findings provided comprehensive information on comorbidity patterns, helping policy makers and programs in public health domains to estimate and evaluate the epidemic of chronic diseases.

  9. Soil carbon dioxide emission from intensively cultivated black soil in Northeast China. Nitrogen fertilization effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Kang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Ding, Weixin; Cai, Zucong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Xilin; Zhou, Baoku [Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin (China). Inst. of Soil and Fertilizer

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand the effect of nitrogen fertilization on soil respiration and native soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and to identify the key factor affecting soil respiration in a cultivated black soil. Materials and methods: A field experiment was conducted at the Harbin State Key Agroecological Experimental Station, China. The study consisted of four treatments: unplanted and N-unfertilized soil (U0), unplanted soil treated with 225 kg N ha{sup -1} (UN), maize planted and N-unfertilized soil (P0), and planted soil fertilized with 225 kg N ha{sup -1} (PN). Soil CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O fluxes were measured using the static closed chamber method. Results and discussion: Cumulative CO{sub 2} emissions during the maize growing season with the U0, UN, P0, and PN treatments were 1.29, 1.04, 2.30 and 2.27 Mg C ha{sup -1}, respectively, indicating that N fertilization significantly reduced the decomposition of native SOC. However, no marked effect on soil respiration in planted soil was observed because the increase of rhizosphere respiration caused by N addition was counteracted by the reduction of native SOC decomposition. Soil CO{sub 2} fluxes were significantly affected by soil temperature but not by soil moisture. The temperature sensitivity (Q{sub 10}) of soil respiration was 2.16-2.47 for unplanted soil but increased to 3.16-3.44 in planted soil. N addition reduced the Q{sub 10} of native SOC decomposition possibly due to low labile organic C but increased the Q{sub 10} of soil respiration due to the stimulation of maize growth. The estimated annual CO{sub 2} emission in N-fertilized soil was 1.28 Mg C ha{sup -1} and was replenished by the residual stubble, roots, and exudates. In contrast, the lost C (1.53 Mg C ha{sup -1}) in N-unfertilized soil was not completely supplemented by maize residues, resulting in a reduction of SOC. Although N fertilization significantly increased N{sub 2}O emissions, the global warming potential

  10. Drought assessment using a multivariate drought index in the Huaihe River basin of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Zeng, M.; Wang, H.; Li, P.; Wang, K.; Yu, M.

    2015-06-01

    The Huaihe River Basin having China's highest population density (662 persons per km2) lies in a transition zone between the climates of North and South China, and is thus prone to drought. Therefore, the paper aims to develop an appropriate drought assessment approach for drought assessment in the Huaihe River basin, China. Based on the Principal Component Analysis of precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture and runoff, the three latter variables of which were obtained by use of the Xin'anjiang model, a new multivariate drought index (MDI) was formulated, and its thresholds were determined by use of cumulative distribution function. The MDI, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI) time series on a monthly scale were computed and compared during 1988, 1999/2000 and 2001 drought events. The results show that the MDI exhibited certain advantages over the sc-PDSI and the SPI in monitoring drought evolution. The MDI formulated by this paper could provide a scientific basis for drought mitigation and management, and references for drought assessment elsewhere in China.

  11. Basin-mountain structures and hydrocarbon exploration potential of west Junggar orogen in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaozhi; He, Dengfa; Qi, Xuefeng

    2016-04-01

    Situated in northern Xinjiang, China, in NE-SW trend, West Junggar Orogen is adjacent to Altai fold belt on the north with the Ertix Fault as the boundary, North Tianshan fold belt on the south with the Ebinur Lake Strike-slip Fault as the boundary, and the Junggar Basin on the southeast with Zaire-Genghis Khan-Hala'alat fold belt as the boundary. Covering an area of about 10×104 km2 in China, there are medium and small intermontane basins, Burqin-Fuhai, Tacheng, Hefeng and Hoxtolgay, distributing inside the orogen. Tectonically West Junggar Orogen lies in the middle section of the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain where the Siberia, Kazakhstan and Tarim Plates converge, and is the only orogen trending NE-SW in the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain. Since the Paleozoic, the orogen experienced pre-Permian plate tectonic evolution and post-Permian intra-plate basin evolution. Complex tectonic evolution and multi-stage structural superimposition not only give rise to long term controversial over the basin basement property but also complex basin-mountain coupling relations, structures and basin superimposition modes. According to analysis of several kinds of geological and geophysical data, the orogen was dominated by compressive folding and thrust napping from the Siberia plate in the north since the Late Paleozoic. Compressive stress weakened from north to south, corresponding to subdued vertical movement and enhanced horizontal movement of crustal surface from north to south, and finally faded in the overthrust-nappe belt at the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin. The variation in compressive stress is consistent with the surface relief of the orogen, which is high in the north and low in the south. There are two kinds of basin-mountain coupling relationships, i.e. high angle thrusting and overthrusting and napping, and two kinds of basin superimposition modes, i.e. inherited and progressive, and migrating and convulsionary modes. West Junggar orogen has rich oil and gas

  12. Formation and syn-rifting process of the Wan'an Basin,South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Caili; YAO Yongjian; WU Shiguo; DONG Dongdong

    2013-01-01

    Based on seismic and drilling data,we calculated tectonic subsidence amounts and rates of the Wan'an Basin by backstripping.The genetic mechanism and syn-rifting process of the basin were analyzed in combination with the regional geological setting.The results reveal that the basin syn-rifted in the Eocene and early Miocene under the control of the dextral strike-slip Wan'an Fault Zone.The transtensional/extentional stresses along this fault zone may be attributed to seafloor spreading of the South China Sea (SCS) in multiple episodes.Extensive basal faults and some small initial rifts in the early Paleogene can be related to southeastward extrusion and clockwise rotation of the Indochina Block.During the Oligocene,the nearly N-S directed spreading of the SCS derived the transtensional stresses in a roughly NW-SE orientation.The basin subsided rapidly in the middle and north to form two major subsidence centers.In the early Miocene,the SCS spread again in a nearly NW-SE direction,resulting in rapid subsidence in the southern basin continuous extending until the period ~ 16.3 Ma.

  13. Mantle-derived helium in foreland basins in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng; Zheng, Guodong; Zheng, Jianjing; Zhou, Shixin; Shi, Pilong

    2017-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-rich natural gases from the Tarim, Junggar, Turpan-Hami and Santanghu basins in Xinjiang, Northwest China have measured 3He/4He ratios from 0.01 to 0.6 times higher than the atmospheric value, indicating 0-7% helium derived from the mantle. The mantle-derived helium is high in foreland basins associated with the Tianshan, Kunlun and Zhayier-Halalate orogenic mountains, but low towards the center of basins. This spatial distribution suggests that the mantle-derived helium originates either from fluids or small scale melts in the upper asthenospheric or lithospheric mantle which have found pathways into the root zones of the major faults defining these mountains, but do not significantly move into the basins themselves. During upward transport to near the surface, the mantle-derived helium is significantly diluted by radiogenic helium produced in the crust. Despite the lack of recent magmatic activity or extensional tectonics within the basins, this pattern shows strong evidence that the major faults play an important role in mantle-derived components degassing from the mantle to the surface.

  14. Assessment of Climate Change Effects on Water Resources in the Yellow River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The water resources in the Yellow River basin (YRB are vital to social and economic development in North and Northwest China. The basin has a marked continental monsoon climate and its water resources are especially vulnerable to climate change. Projected runoff in the basin for the period from 2001 to 2030 was simulated using the variable infiltration capacity (VIC macroscale hydrology model. VIC was first calibrated using observations and then was driven by the precipitation and temperature projected by the RegCM3 high-resolution regional climate model under the IPCC scenario A2. Results show that, under the scenario A2, the mean annual temperature of the basin could increase by 1.6°C, while mean annual precipitation could decrease by 2.6%. There could be an 11.6% reduction in annual runoff in the basin according to the VIC projection. However, there are marked regional variations in these climate change impacts. Reductions of 13.6%, 25.7%, and 24.6% could be expected in the regions of Hekouzhen to Longmen, Longmen to Sanmenxia, and Sanmenxia to Huayuankou, respectively. Our study suggests that the condition of water resources in the YRB could become more severe in the period from 2001 to 2030 under the scenario A2.

  15. Chemocline instability and isotope variations of the Ediacaran Doushantuo basin in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG GanQing; ZHANG ShiHong; SHI XiaoYing; WANG XinQiang

    2008-01-01

    Stable isotope analyses in sections across a shelf to basinal transect of the Ediacaran Doushantuo basin show substantial isotope variabilities.In Songlin section where sediments were deposited in an intrashelf basin,δ13C values are persistently negative (-3%.to -5%.VPDB) through the entire Doushantuo Formation,similar to those obtained from the slope section in Wuhe (-5%.to -10%.,VPDB).Shallow water sections in Weng'an and Duoding show two broad δ13C anomalies overprinted with significant meter-scale variations,but none of the curves has similar absolute δ13C values compared to the Yangtze Gorges areas in South China and other sections globally.Such isotope variations,if partially recording ancient seawater signature,imply spatial and temporal chemocline instability in the Doushantuo basin.In combination with available δ13C records from other Ediacaran successions globally,the data from the Doushantuo basin are consistent,in first order,with the existence and oxidation of a large dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reservoir in Ediacaran oceans,but imply local environmental controls on Neoproterozoic isotope values and call attentions for using δ13C anomalies as time lines in stratigraphic correlation.

  16. Desertification and Sustainable Development of the Heihe River Basin in Arid Northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Shanzhong; Luo Fang

    2004-01-01

    The Heihe River Basin of northwestern China is one of several areas severely affected by desertification. This article outlines the status of desertification in this basin. There are mainly 5 types of desertification in the Heihe River Basin, namely soil and water erosion, sandy desertification, soil aridization, soil salinization and vegetation degradation.Among the 5 types of desertification, the main desertification type is sandy desertification with an area of 10 771.97 km2; Second type is soil salinization with an area of 10 591.82 km2; Next to the soil salinization is the type of soil and water erosion with an area of 5 747.68 km2 and the other types of desertification in the Heihe River Basin are soil aridization with just area of 1 369.96 km2 and vegetation degradation type with an area of 1 490.48km2 respectively. Both natural and man-made factors are responsible for the causes of desertification development, among which the latter is the main driving force for desertification in the basin.

  17. Geochemistry evidence for depositional settings and provenance of Jurassic argillaceous rocks of Jiyuan Basin, North China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yao Meng; Deshun Zheng; Minglong Li

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to discuss the depositional settings and provenances for the Jurassic in Jiyuan basin, North China, based on the rare earth element (REE) and trace element features of 16 Jurassic argillaceous rock samples from the Anyao, Yangshuzhuang and Ma’ao Formations, respectively. Generally, geochemical analysis results show that chondrite-normalised REE distribution patterns of all the three formations are characterised by light-REE (LREE) enrichment, moderately negative Eu anomalies, slightly negative Ce anomalies, and strong fractionation between LREE and heavy-REE (HREE). Trace element proxies V/(V+Ni), Ceanom index, Ce/La, Sr/Ba, and Sr/Cu indicate a weak oxidation–reduction environment, progressively decreasing reducibility and water depth from the bottom up during Jurassic in Jiyuan basin. Palaeoclimate varied from humid in the Early Jurassic to arid in the Middle Jurassic, corresponding with the variations of palaeoredox and palaeosalinity. The provenances of Jurassic rocks in Jiyuan basin are mainly from felsic sources related to active continental margin and continental island arc. The Early–Middle Jurassic (Anyao and Yangshuzhuang Formations) provenances are mainly derived from North Qinling and partially from the eroded recycled felsic sedimentary covers of Taihang Mountain. In the late stage of Middle Jurassic (Ma’ao Formation), Taihang Mountain has been the primary source to Jiyuan basin. We conclude that the Jurassic rocks of Jiyuan basin reveal the progressive uplift and denudation processes of the Taihang Mountain.

  18. Quantitative Modelling of Multiphase Lithospheric Stretching and Deep Thermal History of Some Tertiary Rift Basins in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林畅松; 张燕梅; 李思田; 刘景彦; 仝志刚; 丁孝忠; 李喜臣

    2002-01-01

    The stretching process of some Tertiary rift basins in eastern China is characterized by multiphase rifting. A multiple instantaneous uniform stretching model is proposed in this paper to simulate the formation of the basins as the rifting process cannot be accurately described by a simple (one episode) stretching model. The study shows that the multiphase stretching model, combined with the back-stripping technique, can be used to reconstruct the subsidence history and the stretching process of the lithosphere, and to evaluate the depth to the top of the asthenosphere and the deep thermal evolution of the basins. The calculated results obtained by applying the quantitative model to the episodic rifting process of the Tertiary Qiongdongnan and Yinggehai basins in the South China Sea are in agreement with geophysical data and geological observations. This provides a new method for quantitative evaluation of the geodynamic process of multiphase rifting occurring during the Tertiary in eastern China.

  19. Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Tissue Nutrition and Biomass of Freshwater Wetland Plant in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhiguo; YAN Baixing; HE Yan; ZHAI Jinliang; SONG Changchun

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (4, 10, 20 and 40g/m2) and phosphorus (1.2, 4.8 and 9.6g/m2) were applied to tanks to evaluating the effects of N and P additions on plant tissue nutrition and the biomass of two freshwater wetland plants in the Sanjiang Plain of Northeast China, namely Carex lasiocarpa and Carex meyeriana. For C. lasiocarpa, the total N concentration (TN) of plant tissues under the treatment of 10g/m2 was lower compared with the other N treatments. Initially, C.lasiocarpa exhibited a significant increase of biomass as compared with the control value, reaching the maximum of 31.20±4.01 g/tank under the treatment of 10g/m2, and then dropped to 18.02±1.53g/tank under the treatment of 40g/m2.For C. meyeriana, TN generally increased with increasing amount of N applied. High N applied produced more aboveground biomass than low N applied. C. meyeriana, as the accompanying species, can adapt itself to the wetland enriched by N, and it may replace C. lasiocarpa as the dominant species of wetland. The total P concentration (TP) in tissues of C. lasiocarpa increased with P addition. The aboveground biomass of C. lasiocarpa increased with P addition,and it changed from 18.77±3.29g/tank to 46.03±3.95g/tank. However, TP of tissue may accelerate the C. meyeriana development under the treatment of 1.2g/m2. P accumulation contributes to the dominance of C. lasiocarpa but limits the production of C. meyeriana, and the latter may disappear gradually from the wetland enriched by P. Increased input of N and P might have an influence on wetland plant community composition and structure, so the effects of nutrient inputs and accumulation should be considered to protect the freshwater wetland.

  20. Combining social policy and scientific knowledge with stakeholder participation can benefit on salted grassland production in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Yang, Zhiming; Wang, Ling; Sun, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Soil salinization is a serious environmental problem across the Eurasian steppes, where millions people have been living for at least five thousand years and will still depend on it in the near future. During the last several decades, ecologists and grassland scientists have done much research on rational grassland utilization avoiding land degradation and reduction in ecological services. Meanwhile, the central and local governments took some attempts of agricultural policy and ecological subsidy to mitigate large scale land salinization in Northeast China. Fortunately, more and more farmers and stakeholders begin to adopt rational grassland management with the guidance of scientists and the help of local governments. However, up to date, there is still a gap between farmers, scientists and governments, which often negatively affect grassland production and remission of soil salinization in these areas. We conducted a case study on sustainable grassland production adapted to steppe salinization funded by EC project from 2011 to 2013. Our goal is trying to establish a mode of adaptive grassland management integrating previous scientific knowledge (grazing and seeding), current agricultural policies (ecological subsidy) and stakeholders' participation or performance. The study showed that: A. Despite of some grassland utilization techniques available for stakeholders (regulating stocking rate and seeding in pastures, or planting high quality forages), they tended to take the simplest action to enhance animal production and prevent grassland salinization; B. Compared to educating or training stakeholders, demonstration of grazing management is the most effective mean for knowledge dissemination or technology transfer; C. Ecological subsidy is absolutely welcome to the local people, and technology transfer became easier when combined with ecological subsidy; D. There was a contrasting effect in grassland production and land degradation mitigation for experimental farm

  1. Impact of mire reclamation on export potential and characteristics of dissolved carbons in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Guo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As an important dissolved organic carbon (DOC reservoir, the mires in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China, have been suffering from large scale of reclamation, and thus elevated loss and degradation since the 1960s. This study compares the export dynamics of the dissolved carbons, as well as the chemical characteristics of DOC, in the natural mire, degraded mire and drainage ditches during the growing seasons from 2008 to 2010 with the aim to clarify the final effects of the longterm reclamation on the export dynamics of the dissolved carbons. Results show that the average concentrations of total dissolved carbon (TC and DOC are much higher in natural mires than that in degraded mire and drainage ditches. The DOC concentration for natural mires, about 35.53 ± 5.15 mg l−1 on average, is nearly 2.39 times of that in degraded mire (14.84 ± 4.21 mg l−1 and 2.77 times of the average value in ditches (12.84 ± 4.49 mg l−1. Similarly, the hydrophobic fraction and SUVA254 of DOC also represent lower values in the degraded mire and ditches, which suggests that mire reclamation has resulted not only in the reduced DOC concentrations but also in the reduced chemical stability. Whereas the inorganic dissolved carbons (DIC exhibits obvious increased trends in drainage ditches in comparison to natural mires. Analyses of exitation-emission fluorescence spectra reveal that the reclamation has greatly altered the DOC composition with more biological organic substances exporting from the Sanjiang Plain. The presence of protein- and tryptophan-like substances in the ditches indicates there has been extensive agricultural pollution in the surface waters. Changes in the hydrological regime of the mire landscapes by sustained agriculture activities are deemed the prodominant reason, and the trends in the export dynamics of dissolved carbons will keep on if mire reclamation continues in the future.

  2. Scenario Analysis on the Adaptation of Diff erent Maize Varieties to Future Climate Change in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Jia

    2014-01-01

    Based on gridded meteorological data for the period 1981-2100 from the RegCM3 regional model, the changing trends of climatic resources in Northeast China are analyzed, and the distributions of maize va-rieties are accordingly adjusted. In order to explore the eff ects of diff erent adaptation countermeasures on climatic productivity and meteorological suitability in the future, maize cultivars with resistance to high temperatures and/or drought are selected. The results show that, in the future, there is likely to be a sig-nifi cant increase in thermal resources, and potential atmospheric evaporation will increase correspondingly. Meanwhile, radiation is predicted to increase signifi cantly during 2041-2070 in the growing season. How-ever, changes in precipitation are unlikely to be suffi cient enough to off set the intensifi cation in atmospheric evaporation caused by the temperature increase. Water resources and high temperatures are found to be the two major factors constraining grain yield. The results also show that the warming climate will be favorable for maize production where thermal resources are already limited, such as in central and northern Heilongjiang Province and eastern Jilin Province; while in areas that are already relatively warm, such as Liaoning Province, climatic productivity will be reduced. The climatic productivity and the meteorological suitability of maize are found to improve when the planting of resistant varieties is modeled. The utilization of agricultural climatic resources through the adaptation countermeasures of maize varieties is to increase obviously with time. Specifi cally, maize with drought-resistant properties will have a marked infl uence on meteorological suitability during 2011-2070, with suitable areas expanding. During 2071-2100, those maize varieties with their upper limit of optimum temperature and maximum temperature increased by 2℃, or water requirement reduced to 94%, or upper limit of optimum temperature and

  3. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of glycoprotein gp85 of avian leukosis virus subgroup J wild-bird isolates from Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Zeng, Xiangwei; Hua, Yuping; Gao, Qi; Fan, Zhaobin; Chai, Hongliang; Wang, Qi; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2014-07-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), first isolated in 1989, preferentially infects meat-type birds. Chinese layer flocks have experienced outbreaks of this virus since 2008. To analyze the status of ALV-J infection in wild birds in China, 585 wild birds collected from three provinces of Northeast China from 2010 to 2012 were tested, and six ALV-J strains were isolated for the first time. Furthermore, the gp85 genes of the six strains were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The results indicated that two different ALV-J strains coexisted in Chinese wild birds from 2010 to 2012. These results not only expand the epidemiological data available for ALV-J and provide necessary information for the further understanding of the evolution of ALV-J, but they also highlight the potential role of wild-bird migration in the spread of ALV-J.

  4. Coupling Mechanism of Slope-gully Erosion in Typical Black Soil Area of Northeast China%东北典型黑土区坡沟侵蚀耦合关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文娟; 张树文; 方海燕

    2012-01-01

    Black Soil Area of Northeast China is one of the most important marketable grain bases in China, but serious soil loss bring the crucial challenge to the marketable grain production. In this paper, supportad by Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System, taking typical Black Soil Area of Northeast China which is located in the Wuyuer River and Nemoer River basins as study area, based on USLE model and SPOT 5 imagery, the amount of soil erosion on hillslope and gully distribution data in 2005 were obtained respectively. Then the coupling relations be- tween hillslope erosion and gully erosion of different grades, slopes, aspects and so on were ana- lyzed. The results showed that slight erosion and light erosion were the main hillslope eroded area in the study area. Gully erosion was much serious and had a great potential for development. When the slope was below 5°, slope was the key factor causing gully erosion. However, when the slope was above 5°, slope was no more the important factor causing gully erosion. In addition, it showed that the amount of hillslope erosion on sunny slope was higher than shady slope, but for the gully erosion, aspect was not the key factor affecting the formation of gully erosion in Black Soil Area of Northeast China. In areas with an erosion intensity smaller than 2500 t/( km2· a) , erosion gully density increased with the amount of hillslope erosion. However, When it is greater than 2500 t/( km2· a), the erosion gully density would be comparatively stable.%东北黑土区是中国重要的商品粮基地,但是严重的水土流失给其粮食产量带来了严峻考验。论文在遥感和GIS支持下,选择黑龙江省乌裕尔河和讷谟尔河两流域包含的东北典型黑土区作为研究区,以USLE模型和SPOT5影像为基础,分别获取了2005年研究区的坡面侵蚀量和侵蚀沟分布数据,据此分析了典型黑土区坡面侵蚀和沟蚀之间在不同等级、坡度、坡向等方面的

  5. Recognition of relict Mesozoic Dongsha Basin in the northern margin, South China Sea and its implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Pin; Wang, Yanlin

    2015-04-01

    The Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB) is dominated by NE-trending rift architecture produced mainly during Cenozoic Era. It comprises a series of grabens built up with thick Paleogene and thick Neogene sediments, up to 12000 m, and dividing basement highs composing Yanshanian granitic rocks. Though previously considered as one constituent part of PRMB in the southeast, Dongsha Basin displays major differences in sedimentary architecture and tectonic framework. Firstly, Dongsha Basin is characterized by a prominent angular unconformity, interpreted as a spectacular planation or rough erosion surface which separates the sediment column into two distinct parts. It is interpreted with accumulating seismic and drill data that the underlying strata comprise Early Cretaceous terrestrial, Jurassic marine and possibly Triassic sedimentary rocks totaling to 4~9 km thick, whereas the overlying strata are very thin (usually 0.5~1 km in whole) composing mainly Neogene sediments. The major sedimentary hiatus between them corresponds to the Late Cretaceous to mid-Miocene Epoch, well during the rifting to spreading process when the PRMB developed. Secondly, unlike the PRMB, the Dongsha Basin has suffered considerably less extension except its boundary areas, and actually remained as a relatively stable block though Cenozoic Era. Moreover, there are a few compressive open fold structures within the buried Mesozoic strata over the central Dongsha Basin. These folds trend in NNE and are characterized mostly by few minor growing upthrust faults with offsets in the order of few tens to hundreds meter. The upthrust faults dipped mostly southeastward against the northwestward subduction of paleo-Pacific plate as postulated in other previous study. The blind folds featured more like back-thrust growth tectonics, formed a broad NNE-SSW trending belt, obviously oblique to the trend of northern margin of the South China Sea and the PRMB as well. In a few recent models, the most prominent

  6. Characteristics of high arsenic groundwater in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangChun Zhu; XueYong Zhao; Min Chen; YongQing Luo; Xin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the Hetao Basin is one of the most seriously arsenic-affected groundwater areas in China. In order to understand the characteristics of high arsenic (As) groundwater in the Basin, a brief overview of arsenic in groundwater follows. High arsenic in the Basin commonly occurs in shallow groundwater and the total arsenic concentrations range from 0.58 to 572 µg/L (average 99.73 µg/L), exceeding the maximum mandated value of 10 µg/L for drinking water in China;As(Ш) is the predominant species. The regional distribution pattern of arsenic in the groundwater increases from south/southeast to north/northwest. Hangjinhouqi and Wuyuan counties are considered as the most seriously affected areas, with high incidences of endemic arsenicosic diseases in the Hetao Basin. High groundwater arsenic correlates with the increase of well depth. Previous studies proposed that groundwater arsenic in the Basin is mainly originated from desorption of some natural solid materials in the sediments, under reducing condition. Generally, reducing condition is believed to be the primary factor for arsenic releasing from the sediment to groundwater in the region. Under inorganic or bacterial processes, Fe2O3 changes to FeS and arsenic adsorbed to Fe(OH)3 dissolves into groundwater, and As(V) is re-duced to As(Ш). Besides, reducing environments, groundwater hydraulic gradients, organic matter, pH, evapotranspiration, and soil texture are presumed to be the predominant factors that control arsenic mobilization.

  7. Mechanism of petroleum migration and accumulation in western China's superposed basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Yongshang; Li Peijun; Qi Xuefeng; Wen Yonghong; Li Shuijing

    2012-01-01

    In western China.most petroliferous basins are superposed due to their multi-periodic tectonic evolution,and the mechanisms of petroleum migration and accumulation are so complex that much more sophisticated methodologies are necessary for depiction of these mechanisms and identification of petroleum occurrences.For this purpose,in this article,a new methodology was formulated which includes:(1) vertical identification of petroleum migration and accumulation fluid dynamic systems in the superposed basins;(2) analysis of the effect of large scale regional faults and fault combinations on the fluids exchange between the vertically identified different systems;(3) analysis of petroleum migration and accumulation in each vertically identified system,and establishment of appropriate geological model of petroleum migration and accumulation for each vertically identified system.Using this methodology,the satisfactory results obtained in the Lunnan Uplift of Tarim Basin and Ludong Uplift of Jungar Basin case studies are:(1) existence of different vertical fluid dynamic systems in western China's superposed basins which are very necessary for understanding the mechanism of petroleum migration and accumulation;(2) in deep system,long-distance lateral petroleum migration and accumulation mainly take place along the long time exposed unconformity with weathered,fractured or karst reservoir rocks;(3) regional faults are the main conducts for fluids migration from deep system up to middle and/or upper systems.As to middle and/or upper systems,regional faults play a role of "petroleum source".Small faults within middle and/or upper systems conduct petroleum to carrier beds with less impeding force;(4) petroleum migrated from deep system vertically up to middle and/or upper systems will migrate laterally in carrier beds of these systems and accumulate to form pools near or far from faults.

  8. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L./maize (Zea mays L. intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoru Sun

    Full Text Available Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

  9. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

  10. A 414-year tree-ring-based April-July minimum temperature reconstruction and its implications for the extreme climate events, northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Shanna; Li, Zongshan; Zhang, Yuandong; Wang, Xiaochun

    2016-09-01

    A ring-width series was used as a proxy to reconstruct the past 414-year record of April-July minimum temperature at Laobai Mountain, northeast China. The chronology was built using standard tree-ring procedures for providing comparable information in this area while preserving low-frequency signals. By analyzing the relationship between the tree-ring chronology of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and meteorological data, we found that the standard chronology was significantly correlated with the April-July minimum temperature (r = 0.757, p century were consistent with the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the Northern Hemisphere, and the rate of warming in the 19th century was significantly slower than that in the late 20th century. In addition, the reconstructed series was fairly consistent with the historical and natural disaster records of extreme climate events (e.g., cold damage and frost disaster) in this area. This temperature record provides new evidence of past climate variability, and can be used to predict the climate trend in the future in northeast China.

  11. 满铁在中国东北设立的科研机构%Scientific Research Institutions in Northeast China by SMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2012-01-01

    After the Russo-Japanese War, the South Manchuria Railway Company (SMR) became Japan's Manchuria- management pioneer and main body. As colonial invasion mechanism established in Northeast China, SMR had the cultural aggression and colonialistic nature of the research institutions, objectively, which plays a Japanese militaristic evil accomplice role in the process of the armed invasion and colonization in Northeast China.%日俄战后,南满洲铁道株式会社(简称"满铁")成为日本"经营满洲"的先锋和主体。满铁作为日本在东北建立的殖民侵略机构,下设具有文化侵略性质和殖民主义性质的研究机构,在武装侵略中国东北及殖民统治过程中,客观上起到了日本军国主义邪恶帮凶的作用。

  12. Tectonic and Sedimentary Response of the Huangshan Basin to Paleo-Pacific Subduction undernearth Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Tang, S.; Lin, S.

    2015-12-01

    The subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate predominated the Late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of southeast China. This process is well documented by Jurassic-Cretaceous deposition and structural deformation. Zircon U-Pb ages of volcano-sedimentary rocks and fault-slip data of brittle faults were investigated in the Huangshan Basin. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages show that the provenances of the Huangshan Basin changed during Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. The source region of Early and Middle Jurassic sediments is mainly the Wuyishan domain to the southeast. But the Early Cretaceous clastic rocks are derived from the Jiangnan domain to the north. The inversions of fault-slip data show that paleostress fields also changed during Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. The strike-slip regime with nearly E-W compression and N-S extension predominated in the late Middle Jurassic whereas intense NW-SE-striking extensional one during Early Cretaceous. Moreover, geochemistry and zircon U-Pb ages of Late Jurassic (156~152 Ma) and Early Cretaceous (~130 Ma) felsic volcanic rocks in the Huangshan Basin also argue for a tectonic event occurred during Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Above results imply that the tectonic background of southeast China changed from the initial subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate during the Early and Middle Jurassic into subsequence back-arc extension in the Early Cretaceous. The paleostress field then changed into the strike-slip regime with N-S compression and E-W extension during late Early Cretaceous, which is caused by the collision between the Philippine and South China blocks. And after that, a weak and short-lived N-S extension was replaced by the strike-slip regime with NW-SE compression and NE-SW extension. Meanwhile, the South China continental margin also changed from an Andean-type to a Western Pacific-type plate boundary in early Late Cretaceous.

  13. Organic petrology and geochemistry of mudrocks from the lacustrine Lucaogou Formation, Santanghu Basin, northwest China: Application to lake basin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Fishman, Neil; Wu, Tao; Baugher, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Exploration for tight oil in the frontier Santanghu Basin of northwest China has resulted in recent commercial discoveries sourced from the lacustrine Upper Permian Lucaogou Formation, already considered a “world class source rock” in the Junggar Basin to the west. Here we apply an integrated analytical program to carbonate-dominated mudrocks from the Lucaogou Formation in Santanghu Basin to document the nature of organic matter (OM) in the context of an evolving lake system. The organic-rich samples (TOC 2.8–11.4 wt%; n = 10) were widely spaced from an ~ 200 m cored section, interpreted from textural and mineralogical evidence to document transition from a lower under-filled to an overlying balanced-filled lake. Organic matter is dominated by moderate to strongly fluorescent amorphous material with Type I geochemical signature (HI values 510–755; n = 10) occurring in a continuum from lamellar stringers, 10–20 μm thick, some ≥ 1 mm in length (possible microbial mat; preserved only in lower under-filled section) to finely-disseminated amorphous groundmass intimately intermixed with mineral matrix. Biomarkers for methanotrophs and photosynthetic cyanobacteria indicate a complex microbial consortium. A unicellular prasinophyte green alga(?), similar to Tasmanites in marine rocks, is present as discrete flattened discs 50–100 μm in diameter. Type III OM including vitrinite (some fluorescent) and inertinite also is abundant. Solid bitumen, indicating local kerogen conversion, fills voids and occurs throughout the cored section. Vitrinite reflectance values are 0.47–0.58%, consistent with strong OM fluorescence but may be “suppressed”. Other proxies, e.g., biomarker parameters, indicate the Lucaogou Formation is in the early oil window at this location. On average, slightly more amorphous OM and telalginite are present in the lower section, consistent with a shallow, stratified, saline environment with low sediment dilution. More

  14. Geomorphic assessment of the tectonic activity of Qiulitagh fold-belt, Kuqa foreland basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Carlier, Dimitri; Graveleau, Fabien; Delcaillau, Bernard; Hurtrez, Jean-Emmanuel; Vendeville, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The Qiulitagh fold belt is an anticline structure located in the Kuqa fold-and-thrust belt (southern Tian Shan, China), whose active folding is well documented by structural and palaeomagnetic studies (Chen et al., 2007; Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2007; Li et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2011). The topography of Quilitagh fold belt can be divided into two SW-NE parallel ridges: 1) a 90 km long northern ridge, composed of the Northern Qiulitagh anticline and the Yakelike anticline, and 2) a 165km long southern ridge, composed of the Southern Qiulitagh anticline and the Mishikantage anticline. Due to the current absence of vegetation and relative homogeneity of outcropping lithologies (mainly Neogene detrital sandstone and silstone), these anticlines provide exceptional field cases for investigating the dynamic relationships between fold growth mechanisms, the subsurface structures, the geomorphic entities and the drainage network evolution. We used free topographic and satellite image datasets to carry out a morphometric study of the Quilitagh fold-belt and investigate the kinematics of active folding. Topographic datasets include Digital Elevation Models (DEM) from the NASA SRTM V.4.0 and ASTER programs, whereas satellite images are extracted from Landsat 7 shots and Google Earth. These datasets were incorporated in GIS software where three scales of observation were investigated: 1) a global fold scale, 2) a drainage basin scale and 3) a valley scale. At the drainage basin scale, we selected about 250 items and quantified several geomorphic indices of relative active tectonic growth. These are the basin mean slope, hypsometric integral, basin asymmetry and local relief. We also used published seismic profiles to link the 3D subsurface geometry of the salt-related Qiulitagh fold belt with the geomorphic signal. Results indicate that the morphometry of Quilitagh drainage basins (hypsometry, drainage basin asymmetry, local relief, valley incision, steepness index) change

  15. Drought Trends and Temperature Influence in Zhanghe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtawar Wagan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study area is one of the semiarid region of the China with under water stress condition that causes economic damage. The main objective of this study is to apply standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI and to use linear regression to calculate drought conditions in the study area. For this purpose, data from 1980 to 2010 was analyzed at different (1, 6, 12, and 24 months time scales. Results depicted both dry and wet periods in the study area; occurrence of dry span with different frequency and magnitude was increased over last decades (2000–2010 at most of the stations. Statistical results demonstrated that temperature was decreased