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Sample records for basin northeast china

  1. Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong wetland within a river basin, Northeast China

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    X. Q. Feng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and loss. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, water surface area and water volume, as well as their variations during the period 1985–2006, were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system (SWAT. A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989 and was validated for the period 2005–2006. The calibration achieved a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens of 0.86, and the validation yielded an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, water surface area in the Zhalong wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, water volume decreased largely in the preserve, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for future water resources management within the river basin.

  2. The Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous of eastern Heilongjiang, Northeast China: stratigraphy and regional basin history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, J.G.; Matsukawa, M.; Cai, H.W.; Jiang, B.Y.; Ito, M.; He, C.Q.; Gu, Z.W. [Academy of Sinica, Nanjing (China)

    2003-12-01

    In eastern Heilongjiang, the Upper Jurassic is marine and restricted to the Suibin and Dong'an areas, where it is characterized faunally by Callovian-Volgian (Tithonian) bivalves and florally by dinoflagellates. The Lower Cretaceous is widely distributed in eastern Heilongjiang, and characterized faunally by Berriasian-Valanginian bivalves, Barremian-Albian ammonites and Aucellina, and florally by dinoflagellates. To the west, the marine facies grade into non-marine beds. Thus, in the east, for example in the Dong'an and Dajiashan areas, near the northwestern Palaeo-Pacific, the Lower Cretaceous is marine; westward, in the Yunshan, Longzhaogou. Peide, and Zhushan areas, marine and non-marine deposits alternate, whereas further west still, e.g. in the Jixi Basin, non-marine facies are intercalated with marine beds. This regional distribution is indicative of a large, shallow embayment opening eastwards to the Palaeo-Pacific; during the Early Cretaceous successive transgressive-regressive events influenced the climate and biota of eastern Heilongjiang and northeastern China. Many of the Lower Cretaceous sections contain abundant coals, demonstrating that in this region the Early Cretaceous was an important coal-forming period.

  3. Micropaleontology and palaeoclimate during the early Cretaceous in the Lishu depression, Songliao basin, Northeast China

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    Wei Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diverse and abundant microfossils, such as palynomorphs, algae and Ostracoda, were collected from lower Cretaceous strata of Lishu depression, located in southeastern Songliao basin, and were identified and classified in order to provide relevant, detailed records for paleoclimate research. The early Cretaceous vegetation and climate of southeastern Songliao basin have been inferred from the analysis of palynomorph genera, algae and Ostracoda of the LS1 and SW110 wells. The lower Cretaceous strata include, in ascending stratigraphic order, the Shahezi, Yingcheng and Denglouku formations. Palynological assemblages for each formation, based on biostratigraphic and statistical analyses, provide an assessment of their longitudinal variations. During deposition of the Shahezi Formation, the climate was mid-subtropical. Vegetation consisted of coniferous forest and herbage. During deposition of the Yingcheng Formation, the climate was south Asian tropical. Vegetation consisted mainly of coniferous forest and herbal shrub. In addition, fresh and saline non-marine water dominated the lacustrine setting during deposition of these formations. Deposition of the Denglouku Formation, however, occurred under a hot and dry tropical climate. The vegetation was mostly coniferous forest and lake waters became saline. Palaeoclimate variation is correlated by the lake level change and the development of sedimentary facies. Palaeoclimate contribute to the formation of hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoir.

  4. Nitrogen pollution and source identification in the Haicheng River basin in Northeast China.

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    Bu, Hongmei; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Yuan

    2011-08-15

    A survey was conducted in the Haicheng River near Liaodong Bay to analyze the characteristics and sources of the in-stream nitrogen pollution throughout the year 2010. The results indicated that the total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in the river water all exceeded the GB3838-2002 standard for Class V guideline of 2.0 mg/l at all sampling sites during the sampling seasons. Ammoniacal nitrogen (NH₃-N) dominated TN during the spring season, while nitrate nitrogen (NO₃-N) dominated during the summer and autumn seasons. Different forms of nitrogen had significant seasonal variations (pnitrogen were interrelated with physicochemical parameters during different seasons, displaying nitrification and denitrification processes that occurred in the river rather than seasonal biological demand. Based on the nitrogen parameters, the 30 sampling sites were divided into three clusters, by which the pollution sources from chemical nitrogen fertilizers, animal wastes, domestic sewage, and industrial wastewater were identified. Generally, the Haicheng River basin provided about 700tons of the annual TN flux, contributing to the eutrophication of the Liaodong Bay and Bohai Sea. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The spatiotemporal distribution of dissolved carbon in the main stems and their tributaries along the lower reaches of Heilongjiang River Basin, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Song, Changchun; Guo, Yuedong

    2016-01-01

    The Heilongjiang River Basin in the eastern Siberia, one of the largest river basins draining to the North Pacific Ocean, is a border river between China, Mongolia, and Russia. In this study, we examined the spatial and seasonal variability in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved total carbon (DTC) concentrations along lower reaches of Heilongjiang River Basin, China. Water samples were collected monthly along the mouths of main rivers (Heilongjiang River, Wusuli River, and Songhua River) and their ten tributary waters for 2 years. The DOC concentrations of waters ranged from 1.74 to 16.64 mg/L, with a mean value of 8.90 ± 0.27 mg/L (n = 165). Notably, mean DIC concentrations were 9.08 ± 0.31 mg/L, accounting for 13.26∼83.27% of DTC. DIC concentrations increased significantly after the Heilongjiang River passed through Northeast China, while DOC concentrations decreased. Over 50% of DIC concentrations were decreased during exports from groundwater to rice fields and from rice fields to ditches. Water dissolved carbon showed large spatial and temporal variations during the 2-year measurement, suggesting that more frequently samplings were required. Carbon (DIC + DOC) loads from the Heilongjiang River to the Sea of Okhotsk were estimated to be 3.26 Tg C/year in this study, accounting for 0.64% of the global water dissolved carbon flux. DIC export contributed an average of 51.84% of the estimated carbon load in the Heilongjiang River, acting as an important carbon component during riverine transport. Our study could provide some guides on agricultural water management and contribute to more accurately estimate global carbon budgets.

  6. Biostratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental implications of an Early Cretaceous miospore assemblage from the Muling Formation, Jixi Basin, northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.J.; Li, W.B.; Batten, D.J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China)

    2007-04-15

    In the Jixi Basin, eastern Heilongjiang Province, China, the lower part of the Lower Cretaceous succession consists of coal-bearing strata including the Muling Formation, which, in addition to plant megafossils, yields abundant spores and pollen grains and a few dinoflagellate cysts. The spore-pollen assemblage consists of more than 42 species belonging to 34 genera. Most of these are derived from pteridophytes and gymnosperms. The association of Aequitriradites echinatus, Cicatricosisporites australiensis, C. imbricatus, C. mediostriatus, C. undosus, Contignisporites glebulentus, Crybelosporites punctatus, Foranminisporis asymmetricus, Gleicheniidites laetus, Impardecispora purverulenta, Kuylisporites lunaris, Pilosisporites trichopapillosus and Triporoletes singularis suggests that the formation is unlikely to be older than late Hauterivian and younger than Aptian, with emphasis placed on the Barremian-early Aptian. The composition of the dinoflagellate cyst and plant megafossil assemblages is consistent with this determination. Based on palynofloral content, a comparison between the miospores recovered and the spores and pollen produced by extant plant taxa, the associated plant megafossils, and the sedimentary facies that characterize the Muling Formation, it is concluded that the source vegetation was dominated by ferns and that the climate was wet subtropical but seasonally dry.

  7. Precipitation variability assessment of northeast China: Songhua

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variability in precipitation is critical for the management of water resources. In this study, the researchentropy base concept was applied to investigate spatial and temporal variability of the precipitationduring 1964–2013 in the Songhua River basin of Heilongjiang Province in China. Sample entropy wasapplied on ...

  8. Assessment of Micro-Basin Tillage as a Soil and Water Conservation Practice in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China.

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    Sui, Yuanyuan; Ou, Yang; Yan, Baixing; Xu, Xiaohong; Rousseau, Alain N; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Micro-basin tillage is a soil and water conservation practice that requires building individual earth blocks along furrows. In this study, plot experiments were conducted to assess the efficiency of micro-basin tillage on sloping croplands between 2012 and 2013 (5°and 7°). The conceptual, optimal, block interval model was used to design micro-basins which are meant to capture the maximum amount of water per unit area. Results indicated that when compared to the up-down slope tillage, micro-basin tillage could increase soil water content and maize yield by about 45% and 17%, and reduce runoff, sediment and nutrients loads by about 63%, 96% and 86%, respectively. Meanwhile, micro-basin tillage could reduce the peak runoff rates and delay the initial runoff-yielding time. In addition, micro-basin tillage with the optimal block interval proved to be the best one among all treatments with different intervals. Compared with treatments of other block intervals, the optimal block interval treatments increased soil moisture by around 10% and reduced runoff rate by around 15%. In general, micro-basin tillage with optimal block interval represents an effective soil and water conservation practice for sloping farmland of the black soil region.

  9. The Human Threat to River Ecosystems at the Watershed Scale: An Ecological Security Assessment of the Songhua River Basin, Northeast China

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    Yuan Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human disturbances impact river basins by reducing the quality of, and services provided by, aquatic ecosystems. Conducting quantitative assessments of ecological security at the watershed scale is important for enhancing the water quality of river basins and promoting environmental management. In this study, China’s Songhua River Basin was divided into 204 assessment units by combining watershed and administrative boundaries. Ten human threat factors were identified based on their significant influence on the river ecosystem. A modified ecological threat index was used to synthetically evaluate the ecological security, where frequency was weighted by flow length from the grids to the main rivers, while severity was weighted by the potential hazard of the factors on variables of river ecosystem integrity. The results showed that individual factors related to urbanization, agricultural development and facility construction presented different spatial distribution characteristics. At the center of the plain area, the provincial capital cities posed the highest level of threat, as did the municipal districts of prefecture-level cities. The spatial relationships between hot spot locations of the ecological threat index and water quality, as well as the distribution areas of critically endangered species, were analyzed. The sensitivity analysis illustrated that alteration of agricultural development largely changed the ecological security level of the basin. By offering a reference for assessing ecological security, this study can enhance water environmental planning and management.

  10. [Dynamic coupling and spatial disparity of economic development and water environmental quality in Songhua River Basin of Jilin Province, Northeast China].

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    Yang, Li-Hua; Tong, Lian-Jun

    2013-02-01

    By using coupling model, this paper analyzed the relationships between the economic development and water environment quality in Songhua River Basin of Jilin Province from 1991 to 2010. During the study period, both the economic development index and the water environment index in the Basin showed an uptrend, basically in a coordination state. From the perspective of coupling coordination degree, the economic development and the water environment system were in interactive coupling, with the features of complexity, nonlinearity, and time-variation. As a whole, the coupling experienced three stages, i.e., low level stage, antagonistic stage, and breaking-in stage. As for the coupling degree, the coupling of the economic development and the water environment system was in the first quadrant, i.e., at a development stage of basic coordination. From the perspective of spatial disparity, the coupling degree of the economic development and the water environment system was higher in the upper reaches of the Songhua River Basin, including Changchun and Jilin, than in the lower reaches, including Songyuan and Baicheng. The coupling degree was not only significantly positively correlated with regional economic development, but also affected by the links between the regions as well as the industrial structure within the regions. The economic development of the cities in the upper reaches of the Songhua River Basin was obviously higher than that in the lower reaches, and, due to the adopting of more strict and effective measures for environmental protection and pollution emissions reduction, the water environment quality in the upper reaches of the Songhua River Basin was better.

  11. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

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    Boekhorst, D.G.J. te; Smits, A.J.M.; Yu, X.; Lifeng, L.; Lei, G.; Zhang, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are

  12. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China

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    Wang, X; Yang, Fang; Bots, Michiel L.; Guo, Wei Ying; Zhao, Bing; Hoes, Arno W.; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of metabolic abnormalities and has been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China. Methods:

  13. Precipitation variability assessment of northeast China: Songhua ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1School of Water Conservancy & Civil Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin Heilongjiang. 150030 ... are the key problems for the development of water ... in the study area. The climate is temperate zone continental monsoon with long winters and short summers. We used entropy theories to estimate the.

  14. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

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    Dorri G. J. te Boekhorst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This article demonstrates that the World Wildlife Fund for Nature uses various strategies of different types to support a transition process towards integrated river basin management. Successful deployment of these strategies for change in environmental policy requires special skills, actions, and attitudes on the part of the policy entrepreneur, especially in China, where the government has a dominant role regarding water management and the position of policy entrepeneurs is delicate.

  15. A remarkable climate warming hiatus over Northeast China since 1998

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    Sun, Xiubao; Ren, Guoyu; Ren, Yuyu; Fang, Yihe; Liu, Yulian; Xue, Xiaoying; Zhang, Panfeng

    2017-07-01

    Characteristics and causes of global warming hiatus (GWH) phenomenon have received much attention in recent years. Monthly mean data of land surface air maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), and mean temperature (Tmean) of 118 national stations since 1951 in Northeast China are used in this paper to analyze the changes of land surface air temperature in recent 64 years with an emphasis on the GWH period. The results show that (1) from 1951 to 2014, the warming trends of Tmax, Tmin, and Tmean are 0.20, 0.42, and 0.34 °C/decade respectively for the whole area, with the warming rate of Tmin about two times of Tmax, and the upward trend of Tmean obviously higher than mainland China and global averages; (2) in the period 1998-2014, the annual mean temperature consistently exhibits a cooling phenomenon in Northeast China, and the trends of Tmax, Tmin, and Tmean are -0.36, -0.14, and -0.28 °C/decade respectively; (3) in the GWH period, seasonal mean cooling mainly occurs in northern winter (DJF) and spring (MAM), but northern summer (JJA) and autumn (SON) still experience a warming, implying that the annual mean temperature decrease is controlled by the remarkable cooling of winter and spring; (4) compared to the global and mainland China averages, the hiatus phenomenon is more evident in Northeast China, and the cooling trends are more obvious in the cold season; (5) the Northeast China cooling trend occurs under the circulation background of the negative phase Arctic Oscillation (AO), and it is also closely related to strengthening of the Siberia High (SH) and the East Asian Trough (EAT), and the stronger East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) over the GWH period.

  16. Forest management in Northeast China: history, problems, and challenges.

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    Yu, Dapao; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wangming; Ding, Hong; Wang, Qingwei; Wang, Yue; Wu, Xiaoqing; Dai, Limin

    2011-12-01

    Studies of the history and current status of forest resources in Northeast China have become important in discussions of sustainable forest management in the region. Prior to 1998, excessive logging and neglected cultivation led to a series of problems that left exploitable forest reserves in the region almost exhausted. A substantial decrease in the area of natural forests was accompanied by severe disruption of stand structure and serious degradation of overall forest quality and function. In 1998, China shifted the primary focus of forest management in the country from wood production to ecological sustainability, adopting ecological restoration and protection as key foci of management. In the process, China launched the Natural Forest Conversion Program and implemented a new system of Classification-based Forest Management. Since then, timber harvesting levels in Northeast China have decreased, and forest area and stocking levels have slowly increased. At present, the large area of low quality secondary forest lands, along with high levels of timber production, present researchers and government agencies in China with major challenges in deciding on management models and strategies that will best protect, restore and manage so large an area of secondary forest lands. This paper synthesizes information from a number of sources on forest area, stand characteristics and stocking levels, and forest policy changes in Northeastern China. Following a brief historical overview of forest harvesting and ecological research in Northeast China, the paper discusses the current state of forest resources and related problems in forest management in the region, concluding with key challenges in need of attention in order to meet the demands for multi-purpose forest sustainability and management in the future.

  17. Analysis of Energy Industry Upgrading in Northeast China

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    Liu, Xiao-jing; Ji, Yu-liang; Guan, Bai-feng; Jing, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Promoting regional economic growth and realizing the transformation of the mode of economic growth are in industrial upgrading essence The product is a carrier that represents a series of links of production, management and marketing behind the enterprise, and is a comprehensive reflection of the knowledge and ability of a country or region. Based on the industrial spatial structure, this paper visualizes the industrial space in Northeast China from 2005 to 2015, analyzes the comparative advantages of the energy industry in Northeast China, and examines the status quo of the upgrade of the energy industry according to the industrial upgrading status. Based on the industrial spatial structure, Industry intensity in the industrial space, put forward the future direction of the energy industry upgrade and upgrade path.

  18. Frequency-dependent Lg attenuation in Northeast China and its implications

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    Ranasinghe, Nishath Rajiv; Gallegos, Andrea; Hearn, Thomas; Ni, James; Sandvol, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Lg attenuation and site responses in Northeast (NE) China are estimated by implementing the Reverse Two Station Method (RTSM) at narrow band central frequencies of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 Hz using 453 earthquakes recorded by 201 seismic stations deployed in the region from 1995 to 2013. The RTSM has the advantage of removing source and site effects without requiring a priori models. Tomographic images produced at a resolution of 2° × 2° at all frequencies exhibit a high degree of lateral variation of Lg attenuation in NE China. The Great Xing'an, Lesser Xing'an and Songen-Zhangguangcai Ranges show Q values above 400 at all frequencies. At central frequencies of 0.5 and 1 Hz, Sanjiang Basin Songliao Basin, Erlian Basin and Hailar Basin consistently show Q values lower than 400. Holocene and Pleistocene volcanoes, including the Wudalianchi and Jingpuhi volcanic fields, also appear as regions of low Q (frequencies the effects of volcanoes diminish. At high frequencies (≥2 Hz), the sedimentary basins show Q values higher than 400 and overall Q values increase with frequency in NE China, thus obeying a power-law frequency dependence. A linear regression of frequencies in the range of 0.25-4.5 Hz results in the parameters describing the power-law frequency dependence of the region, with an average Q0 value of 428 and a frequency-dependent factor (η), describing the strength of dependence, of 0.68. Overall, Lg attenuation in NE China appears to be due to thick late Cretaceous sediments, Holocene and Pleistocene volcanism, moderate to high heat flow, partial melts and variation in the thickness of the crustal wave guide. The site responses calculated at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3 Hz show a high degree of lateral variation as well as variation with frequency in NE China. At 0.5 and 1.0 Hz, the Great Xing'an and Lesser Xing'an Ranges show deamplification while the Hailar, Erlian and southern Songliao basins and the Songen-Zhangguangcai Range show amplification. At higher

  19. Self-propelled prospection methodology: first results obtained in the northeast basin (Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, H; Spoturno, J; Peciozzi, F.

    2008-01-01

    This report refers about uranium prospection methodology in Uruguay and its first results obtained in the northeast basin.The preliminary radiometric researching is carried out four works phases: material preparation, radiometric, statistics analysis, anomalies revision

  20. The abyssal and deep circulation of the Northeast Pacific Basin

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    Hautala, Susan L.

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional abyssal and deep circulation of the region to the east and north of the Emperor Seamount Chain/Hawaiian Ridge is determined from a compilation of CTD and Argo float data, using a new overdetermined inverse technique for the geostrophic reference velocity and diapycnal/lateral mixing coefficients. The Northeast Pacific Basin is primarily sourced from its northern boundary, at a rate of 3.5 Sv across 47°N below 3000 m. Bottom water in the western subarctic gyre recirculates cyclonically between the Emperor Seamount Chain and 155°W. Bottom water east of 155°W takes a more direct path southward along the flank of a broad topographic slope. In the deep water, a ridge of potential vorticity lying along the Mendocino Fracture Zone separates circulation systems north and south of ∼40°N. The region has very weak diapycnal and lateral mixing, and an aspect ratio for the overturning circulation that is correspondingly flat, with bottom water parcels rising less than 1 km during their long transit from the Aleutian Trench to the latitude of Hawaii.

  1. Multiple Active Volcanoes in the Northeast Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Lupton, J. E.; Walker, S. L.; Embley, R. W.; Rubin, K. H.; Buck, N.; de Ronde, C. E.; Arculus, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    The northeast Lau Basin occupies a complex geological area between the Tafua arc front, the E-W trending Tonga Trench, and the Northeast Lau Spreading Center. These boundaries create multiple zones of extension and thus provide abundant opportunities for magma to invade the crust. The 25-km-long chain of “Mata” volcanoes lies near the center of this area, separated from both the arc front and the spreading ridge. In 2008 we discovered hydrothermal venting on the largest and most southerly of these volcanoes, W and E Mata. In 2010 we visited the 7 smaller volcanoes that form a 15-km-long arcuate sweep to the north from W and E Mata (the “North Matas”). We also revisited W and E Mata. Over each volcano we conducted CTD tows to map plumes and collect water samples. Based on the CTD results, camera tows searched for seafloor sources on three volcanoes. The N Mata volcanoes, extending from Mata Taha (1) in the south to Mata Fitu (7) in the north, lie within a prominent gap in the shallow bathymetry along the southern border of the Tonga trench. Northward from E Mata the Mata volcanoes degrade from large symmetrical cones to smaller and blocky volcanic edifices. Summit depths range from 1165 m (W Mata) to 2670 m (Mata Nima (5)). The most active volcano in the chain is the erupting W Mata, with an intense plume that extended 250 m above the summit. Hydrothermal temperature anomalies (Δθ, corrected for hydrographic masking effects) reached ˜1.7°C, with light-scattering values as high as 2-5 ΔNTU. The 2010 surveys now show that 6 of the 7 N Mata volcanoes are also hydrothermally active. Along the N Matas, Δθ and ΔNTU signals ranged from robust to weak, but distinct oxidation-reduction potential (aka Eh) anomalies confirmed active venting in each case. The most concentrated plumes were found near Mata Ua (2) and Mata Fitu (7), with Δθ and ΔNTU maxima of 0.1-0.17°C and 0.3, respectively. Despite the variability in plume strength, however, ΔNTU/Δθ ratios

  2. Significance of Northeast-Trending Features in Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, D. R.; Jackson, H. R.; Houseknecht, D. W.; Li, Q.; Shimeld, J. W.; Mosher, D. C.; Chian, D.; Saltus, R. W.; Oakey, G. N.

    2017-11-01

    Synthesis of seismic velocity, potential field, and geological data from Canada Basin and its surrounding continental margins suggests that a northeast-trending structural fabric has influenced the origin, evolution, and current tectonics of the basin. This structural fabric has a crustal origin, based on the persistence of these trends in upward continuation of total magnetic intensity data and vertical derivative analysis of free-air gravity data. Three subparallel northeast-trending features are described. Northwind Escarpment, bounding the east side of the Chukchi Borderland, extends ˜600 km and separates continental crust of Northwind Ridge from high-velocity transitional crust in Canada Basin. A second, shorter northeast-trending zone extends ˜300 km in northern Canada Basin and separates inferred continental crust of Sever Spur from magmatically intruded crust of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province. A third northeast-trending feature, here called the Alaska-Prince Patrick magnetic lineament (APPL) is inferred from magnetic data and its larger regional geologic setting. Analysis of these three features suggests strike slip or transtensional deformation played a role in the opening of Canada Basin. These features can be explained by initial Jurassic-Early Cretaceous strike slip deformation (phase 1) followed in the Early Cretaceous (˜134 to ˜124 Ma) by rotation of Arctic Alaska with seafloor spreading orthogonal to the fossil spreading axis preserved in the central Canada Basin (phase 2). In this model, the Chukchi Borderland is part of Arctic Alaska.

  3. Significance of northeast-trending features in Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah; Jackson, H.R.; Houseknecht, David W.; Li, Q.; Shimeld, J.W.; Mosher, D.C.; Chian, D.; Saltus, Richard; Oakey, G.N.

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of seismic velocity, potential field, and geological data from Canada Basin and its surrounding continental margins suggests that a northeast-trending structural fabric has influenced the origin, evolution, and current tectonics of the basin. This structural fabric has a crustal origin, based on the persistence of these trends in upward continuation of total magnetic intensity data and vertical derivative analysis of free-air gravity data. Three subparallel northeast-trending features are described. Northwind Escarpment, bounding the east side of the Chukchi Borderland, extends ∼600 km and separates continental crust of Northwind Ridge from high-velocity transitional crust in Canada Basin. A second, shorter northeast-trending zone extends ∼300 km in northern Canada Basin and separates inferred continental crust of Sever Spur from magmatically intruded crust of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province. A third northeast-trending feature, here called the Alaska-Prince Patrick magnetic lineament (APPL) is inferred from magnetic data and its larger regional geologic setting. Analysis of these three features suggests strike slip or transtensional deformation played a role in the opening of Canada Basin. These features can be explained by initial Jurassic-Early Cretaceous strike slip deformation (phase 1) followed in the Early Cretaceous (∼134 to ∼124 Ma) by rotation of Arctic Alaska with seafloor spreading orthogonal to the fossil spreading axis preserved in the central Canada Basin (phase 2). In this model, the Chukchi Borderland is part of Arctic Alaska.

  4. China's quest for energy and Northeast Asian security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2003-01-01

    The Iraq conflict has China striving to secure reliable, long-term sources of foreign energy to reduce their dependence on Middle East oil fields. As the world's third largest oil consumer, China became a net importer of crude in 1993. The major energy players in China are negotiating contracts with overseas producers and financing new developments for crude oil and natural gas. For example, China signed a contract in June 2003 for the delivery of 30 metric tonnes of oil per year from Siberia. Military planning and politics play a major role in a country where oil giants are majority-owned by the state. Diversification of domestic energy supplies from crude to natural gas has slowly begun. Construction of a massive gas pipeline to supply Shanghai from the Tarim Basin began in July 2002. It is feared that this pipeline could become a target for terrorists. Agreements for building terminals along the southeast coast to receive shipments of liquid natural gas (LNG) and ethylene from foreign suppliers were recently signed. Keeping shipping lanes safe from Indonesia and Australia will require cooperation from China's neighbours. Oil and gas markets in China are being opened according to World Trade Organization requirements. Rising energy demand will increasingly be met through increased oil shipments from foreign sources, judged by the behaviour of major Chinese players in the industry. Both China and Japan are looking to Russia to provide them with oil. Proposals for the construction of a pipeline from Russia to East Asia are lamenting over the termination point of the pipeline. Bilateral ties would be greatly improved by a Sino-Russian deal. Security in Central Asia is changing. Every country in the region has indicated its willingness to attract investment from China, Russia and the United States. 2 figs

  5. 1946: The Transition of the Kuomintang Government’s Policies towards Korean Immigrants in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyun Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Northeast China, which witnessed many controversial incidents, was the arena of Korea, China and Japan in the modern history. Meanwhile, Korean immigrants in Northeast China were the target to be won over by various political powers during the twentieth century. When the World War Ⅱended, nearly five-sixths of Korean immigrants lived in the liberated areas (the Communist Party of China- controlled areas. Some young Korean immigrants were mobilized by the CPC to join the Chinese civil war. To strengthen its reign and gain support, KMT government changed the policies of settling Korean on June 10th of 1946 and established the Northeast Korean Immigrants Department to address the problems in the fields of education, welfare and repatriation in 1947.This paper, with careful analysis of the historical documents, aims to build the ground for future research on the Korean immigrants in Northeast China.

  6. Evolution of Parnaíba Cratonic Basin, Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, V.; White, N. J.; Coelho, D. L. O.; Julià, J.

    2017-12-01

    Cratonic sedimentary basins are underlain by thick (200-250 km) lithosphere. They are 2-3 km thick and subside continuously for hundreds of millions of years. The driving mechanism of these enigmatic basins is unclear, due to the paucity of crustal-scale constraints. To address this shortcoming, a multi-disciplinary study of the Parnaíba cratonic basin has been carried out. Here, we combine analysis of a 1400 km long deep seismic reflection profile that crosses the basin, teleseismic earthquakes recorded by 12 broadband and 10 short-period seismometers, 25 ancillary seismic reflection profiles, and 46 well logs. Our objective is to shed light on the subsidence history of this basin in the context of its stratigraphic architecture and crustal structure. Interpretation of the deep seismic profile and joint modeling of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion measurements show that the Moho occurs at depths of 35 and 38 km outside the basin at either end of the deep profile. Beneath the basin itself, Moho depths of 39 km and 40-42 km were obtained for the eastern and western parts, respectively. Given the uncertainties, these results suggest that the crust is slightly thinner beneath the basin compared with its edges. Lithologic descriptions and borehole analysis reveal a stratigraphic succession that comprises interbedded shallow marine and continental deposits bounded by basin-wide disconformities. On shallow profiles, this succession is manifest as packages of parallel-bedded reflections separated by rugose surfaces that correspond to significant disconformities that resemble buried landscapes. Graben structures of Proterozoic and Early Paleozoic age are imaged beneath the southwest and southeast regions of the basin, respectively. Water-loaded subsidence curves show an exponential decrease over 350 Ma. A thermal model suggests that unfaulted subsidence can be characterized with time constants of 70-100 Ma. The relationship between apparently prolonged

  7. Development of the Hatton-Rockall Basin, North-East Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.W.F. [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2002-02-01

    Magnetic anomaly and Bouguer gravity anomaly maps have been prepared over the Hatton-Rockall Basin in the North-East Atlantic. A qualitative interpretation of these maps is presented. Two cross-sectional models have been constructed along lines perpendicular to the axis of the basin. The north-eastern part of the Hatton-Rockall Basin is characterised by circular intrusions and has evolved differently from the southwestern part, which is characterised by linear intrusions that reach the base of the sedimentary sequence. It is proposed that the two parts of the Basin evolved initially along similar lines, and that the southwestern part of the Basin evolved further with a period of extension at the same time as extension between Endymion Spur and Hatton Bank. (author)

  8. The Rotifera Fauna Of Gongola River Basin, Northeast Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to characterize the taxa composition, distribution pattern and the abundance of rotifers in surface waterbodies in the Gongola basin of Nigeria, West Africa. It was based on the analysis of net zooplankton samples collected from the River Gongola, its flow-through reservoirs, borrow-pit ponds and ...

  9. World energy outlook in 2020 focusing on China's energy impacts on the world and Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, R.; Ito, K.; Li Zhidong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a consistent international energy projection developed by an integrated econometric model for the purpose of analysing China's energy impacts on the energy markets in the world and Northeast Asia to 2020. Vigorous economic growth, soaring electricity demand and progressive motorisation are going to expand the primary energy demand in China, which accounts for a large part of the world primary energy increase, eventually positioning China as an important player in the world energy market and in terms of CO 2 emissions. Focusing on Northeast Asia, considerable oil demand growth in China, which has only a limited oil production, would increase the regional reliance on Middle Eastern oil thereby underlining a serious energy security problem of oil importing countries in this region. It is becoming increasingly important for the energy issue to be addressed as one where all Northeast Asian countries have a common stake and can commit themselves. (author)

  10. Genesis of Cenozoic intraplate high Mg# andesites in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. Q.; Chen, L. H.; Zhong, Y.; Wang, X. J.

    2017-12-01

    High-Mg# andesites (HMAs) are usually generated in the converged plate boundary and have genetic relationships with slab subduction. However, it still remained controversial about the origin of those HMAs erupted in the intra-plate setting. Here we present major, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions for the Cenozoic intra-plate HMAs from Northeast China to constrain their origin and formation process. Cenozoic Xunke volcanic rocks are located in the northern Lesser Khingan Range, covering an area of about 3, 000 km2. These volcanic rocks are mainly basaltic andesite and basaltic trachyandesite, with only several classified as trachyandesite and andesites. They have high SiO2 contents (54.3-57.4 wt%) and Mg# (49.6-57.8), falling into the scope of high Mg# andesites. The Xunke HMAs are enriched in large ion lithophile elements but depleted in high field strength elements, with positive Ba, K, Sr and negative Zr-Hf, and Ti anomalies. Their trace element absolute concentrations are between those of potassic basalts and Wuchagou HMAs. The Xunke HMAs have relatively enriched Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes (87Sr/86Sr = 0.705398-0.705764, ɛNd=-8.8-3.8, ɛHf=0.5-11.7), and low radiogenic Pb isotopes (206Pb/204Pb = 16.701-17.198), towards to the EM1 end-member, which indicates that they are ultimately derived from ancient, recycled crustal components. Primitive silica-rich melts were generated from higher degrees of partial melting of recycled crustal materials (relative to potassic basalts) and then interacted with the peridotite to produce the Xunke HMAs.

  11. Loess deposits since early Pleistocene in northeast China and implications for desert evolution in east China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao; Zhang, Xujiao; Tian, Mingzhong; Liu, Ru; He, Zexin; Qi, Lin; Qiao, Yansong

    2018-04-01

    Loess deposits and deserts are regarded as coupled geological systems and loess deposits on the periphery of deserts can often be used to reconstruct desert evolution. Previous studies of desert evolution in Asia are mainly concentrated in northwest China and the China Loess Plateau, and little is known about long-term desert evolution in east China. In this study, we selected the Sishijiazi loess section in the Chifeng area in northeast China to study the long-term evolution of the desert in east China. A high-resolution magnetostratigraphy combined with optically stimulated luminescence dating indicated that the age of the section base is approximately 1.02 Ma. The Brunhes-Matuyama boundary is at the depth of 39.8 m in loess unit L8, and the upper boundary of the Jaramillo Subchron is at the depth of 60.8 m in paleosol S10. The results of grain-size analysis indicate a coarsening grain-size trend in the past 1.0 Ma. In addition, based on grain-size variations, the desert evolution in east China since ∼1.0 Ma can be divided into three stages: stability from 1.0 to 0.8 Ma, desert recession from 0.8 to 0.5 Ma, and gradual expansion since 0.5 Ma. Our results further indicate that the evolution of desert in east China was mainly controlled by changes in global ice volume, and that the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau may have had an additional effect.

  12. Deposition behavior, risk assessment and source identification of heavy metals in reservoir sediments of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Liu, Jianwei; Xu, Shiguo; Xie, Zaigang

    2017-08-01

    Sediment cores from five reservoirs, located in the Liaoning and Jilin Provinces in Northeast China, were collected to investigate the accumulation and potential toxicity of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cr) during a sampling campaign in February, 2015. The results showed that all the detected metals accumulated significantly, especially Cd, compared to their respective background values. Among these reservoirs, Biliuhe Reservoir had markedly increasing trends for organic matter and all the metals, among which Mn was elevated by 280% to 3411mg/kg in a core of only 18cm in depth. Xinlicheng Reservoir was characterized by heavy siltation and varying metal distribution due to its regular geometric features and pulsed flood events. The Enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (I geo ) indicated Cd was strongly enriched by anthropogenic inputs, with the values of EF and I geo greater than 8 and 3, respectively. The toxicity assessment calculated using consensus-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) implied the whole cores of Tanghe and Dahuofang and the upper cores of Biliuhe, Xinlicheng and Fengman exhibited toxicity to sediment-dwelling organisms. Cr contributed more to Q m-PEC than the other heavy metals, because only Cr exceeded the probable effect concentration (PEC) despite its low enrichment. According to the results of correlation analysis (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA), mining industries and agricultural activities within the basin were the main anthropogenic pollution sources for these heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Expansion of the South China Sea basin: Constraints from magnetic anomaly stripes, sea floor topography, satellite gravity and submarine geothermics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely distributed E–W-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the central basin and the N–E-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the southwest sub-basin provide the most important evidence for Neogene expansion of the South China Sea. The expansion mechanism remains, however, controversial because of the lack of direct drilling data, non-systematic marine magnetic survey data, and irregular magnetic anomaly stripes with two obvious directions. For example, researchers have inferred different ages and episodes of expansion for the central basin and southwest sub-basin. Major controversy centers on the order of basinal expansion and the mechanism of expansion for the entire South China Sea basin. This study attempts to constrain these problems from a comprehensive analysis of the seafloor topography, magnetic anomaly stripes, regional aeromagnetic data, satellite gravity, and submarine geothermics. The mapped seafloor terrain shows that the central basin is a north-south rectangle that is relatively shallow with many seamounts, whereas the southwest sub-basin is wide in northeast, gradually narrows to the southwest, and is relatively deeper with fewer seamounts. Many magnetic anomaly stripes are present in the central basin with variable dimensions and directions that are dominantly EW-trending, followed by the NE-, NW- and NS-trending. Conversely such stripes are few in the southwest sub-basin and mainly NE-trending. Regional magnetic data suggest that the NW-trending Ailaoshan-Red River fault extends into the South China Sea, links with the central fault zone in the South China Sea, which extends further southward to Reed Tablemount. Satellite gravity data show that both the central basin and southwest sub-basin are composed of oceanic crust. The Changlong seamount is particularly visible in the southwest sub-basin and extends eastward to the Zhenbei seamount. Also a low gravity anomaly zone coincides with the central fault zone in the sub-basin

  14. Research on the competitiveness of high-tech industries in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Yang; Wang, Ming-Quan; Xiao, Yan-Bo; Gao, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Based on characteristics of high-tech industry in Northeast China, high-tech industry competitiveness index system was developed, and the competitiveness of high-tech industry was evaluated through principal component analysis and location quotient method. The results showed that the scale of high-tech industry in Northeast China as a whole was small, and presented a decreasing trend for the proportion in the country. The competitiveness of high-tech industry in Northeast China lagged far behind that of the eastern and central regions. The high-tech industry competitiveness of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in China ranked 15, 19 and 21, respectively. The manufacture of medicine in Jilin province, and the manufacture of aircraft and spacecraft and the related equipment in Liaoning and Heilongjiang provinces had high competitive advantage, but the manufacture of electronic equipment and communication equipment and the manufacture of computers and office equipment was lack of competitiveness. The development suggestions were put forward to improve the competitiveness of high-tech industries in Northeast China.

  15. Next-Generation Sequencing Analyses of Bacterial Community Structures in Soybean Pastes Produced in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Hwa; Li, Fan-Zhu; Lee, Jiyeon; Kang, Jisu; Lim, Seong-Il; Nam, Young-Do

    2017-04-01

    Fermented soybean foods contain nutritional components including easily digestible peptides, cholesterol-free oils, minerals, and vitamins. Various fermented soybean foods have been developed and are consumed as flavoring condiments in Asian regions. While the quality of fermented soybean foods is largely affected by microorganisms that participate in the fermentation process, our knowledge about the microorganisms in soybean pastes manufactured in Northeast China is limited. The current study used a culture-independent barcoded pyrosequencing method targeting hypervariable V1/V2 regions of the 16S rRNA gene to evaluate Korean doenjang and soybean pastes prepared by the Hun Chinese (SPHC) and Korean minority (SPKM) populations in Northeast China. In total, 63399 high-quality sequences were derived from 16 soybean paste samples collected in Northeast China. Each bacterial species-level taxon of SPHC, SPKM, and Korean doenjang was clustered separately. Each paste contained representative bacterial species that could be distinguished from each other: Bacillus subtilis in SPKM, Tetragenococcus halophilus in SPHC, and Enterococcus durans in Korean doenjang. This is the 1st massive sequencing-based study analyzing microbial communities in soybean pastes manufactured in Northeast China, compared to Korean doenjang. Our results clearly showed that each soybean paste contained unique microbial communities that varied depending on the manufacturing process and location. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Using Toponyms to Analyze the Endangered Manchu Language in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available UNESCO has classified Manchu in Northeast China as a critically endangered language. Toponyms can act as carriers of languages and can be preserved for a long time. The Manchu language was the national language in the Qing Dynasty, and there are many Manchu place names in Northeast China that serve as “living heritages” that retain traces of ancient local cultures. We studied Manchu and other related ethnic place names in Northeast China by integrating spatial statistical measures using geographic information systems (GIS to analyze the endangered languages in the region. The objective was to explore not only the distribution of ethnic toponyms within a relevant historical context but also the environmental factors associated with the endangered Manchu languages. This study reveals that the distributions of ethnic groups and languages can be revealed by the Sinification of ethnic toponyms in Northeast China. The evolution of spatial patterns of toponyms shows the interactive process between Manchus and Han Chinese. The Manchu language is endangered by the influences of Han Chinese migrants on the original culture, as reflected by crops and the distances to the nearest roads, which are indicators of farming culture and accessibility.

  17. Flood of May 23, 2004, in the Turkey and Maquoketa River basins, northeast Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eash, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred on May 23, 2004, in the Turkey River Basin in Clayton County and in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware County following intense thunderstorms over northeast Iowa. Rain gages at Postville and Waucoma, Iowa, recorded 72-hour rainfall of 6.32 and 6.55 inches, respectively, on May 23. Unofficial rainfall totals of 8 to 10 inches were reported in the Turkey River Basin. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Turkey River at Garber streamflow-gaging station was 66,700 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) and is the largest flood on record in the Turkey River Basin. The timing of flood crests on the Turkey and Volga Rivers, and local tributaries, coincided to produce a record flood on the lower part of the Turkey River. Three large floods have occurred at the Turkey River at Garber gaging station in a 13-year period. Peak discharges of the floods of June 1991 and May 1999 were 49,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 150 years) and 53,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 220 years), respectively. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Maquoketa River at Manchester gaging station was 26,000 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 100 years) and is the largest known flood in the upper part of the Maquoketa River Basin.

  18. Characteristics of uranium mineralization and prospecting direction in the northeast of Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xide

    2012-01-01

    With greenness considered a kind of symbol of ancient interformational oxidation in under subsegment of Zhiluo Group in the northeast of Ordos Basin, Zaohuohao Uranium deposit , Husiliang, Hantaimiao, and Chaidenghao Uranium mines have been founded one after the other in the exploration process of Sandstone-type uranium deposits and achieved results. The thickness in different sections of the ore bearing sand bodies, Output features in space of ancient interformational oxidation, ore body scales, and configuration are more difference. In the paper some characteristics of Uranium mineralization are summarized, and preliminary proposals are given on prospecting direction in different sections. (author)

  19. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from slaughter pigs in northeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei; Yu, Xiaojie; Tao, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Binghua; Dong, Rui; Xue, Chengyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Zhang, Jianzhong

    To describe the prevalence and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that colonize pigs at slaughterhouses in northeastern China, nose swabs were collected from pigs in two slaughterhouses in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China in 2009.S. aureus isolates were characterized by

  20. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Aleutian mink disease virus isolates in north-east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xue; Liu, Dongxu; Li, Jianming; Shi, Kun; Zeng, Fanli; Zong, Ying; Liu, Yi; Sun, Zhibo; Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Yadong; Du, Rui

    2018-05-01

    Aleutian mink disease is the most important disease in the mink-farming industry worldwide. So far, few large-scale molecular epidemiological studies of AMDV, based on the NS1 and VP2 genes, have been conducted in China. Here, eight new Chinese isolates of AMDV from three provinces in north-east China were analyzed to clarify the molecular epidemiology of AMDV. The seroprevalence of AMDV in north-east China was 41.8% according to counterimmuno-electrophoresis. Genetic variation analysis of the eight isolates showed significant non-synonymous substitutions in the NS1 and VP2 genes, especially in the NS1 gene. All eight isolates included the caspase-recognition sequence NS1:285 (DQTD↓S), but not the caspase recognition sequence NS1:227 (INTD↓S). The LN1 and LN2 strains had a new 10-amino-acid deletion in-between amino acids 28-37, while the JL3 strain had a one-amino-acid deletion at position 28 in the VP2 protein, compared with the AMDV-G strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on most of NS1 (1755 bp) and complete VP2 showed that the AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their pathogenicity or geographic origin. Local and imported ADMV species are all prevalent in mink-farming populations in the north-east of China. This is the first study to report the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in north-east China based on most of NS1 and the complete VP2, and further provides information about polyG deletions and new variations in the amino acid sequences of NS1 and VP2 proteins. This report is a good foundation for further study of AMDV in China.

  1. Hydrocarbon seeps in petroliferous basins in China: A first inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guodong; Xu, Wang; Etiope, Giuseppe; Ma, Xiangxian; Liang, Shouyun; Fan, Qiaohui; Sajjad, Wasim; Li, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Natural hydrocarbon seepage is a widespread phenomenon in sedimentary basins, with important implications in petroleum exploration and emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. China has vast petroleum (oil and gas) bearing sedimentary basins, but hydrocarbon seepage has rarely been the object of systematic studies and measurements. Based on the available Chinese literature, we report a first inventory of 932 hydrocarbon seeps or seepage zones (710 onshore seeps and 222 offshore seeps), including 81 mud volcanoes, 449 oil seeps, 215 gas seeps, and 187 solid seeps (bitumen outcrops). The seeps are located within the main 20 Mesozoic-Cenozoic petroliferous sedimentary basins, especially along the marginal, regional and local faults. The type of manifestations (oil, gas or mud volcano) reflects the type and maturity of the subsurface petroleum system and the sedimentary conditions of the basin. Oil seeps are particularly abundant in the Junggar Basin. Gas seeps mostly developed in the Lunpola Basin, in smaller basins of the eastern Guizhou and Yunnan provinces, onshore Taiwan and in the offshore Yinggehai Basin. Mud volcanoes developed in basins (Junggar, Qaidam, Qiangtang, onshore and offshore Taiwan) that experienced rapid sedimentation, which induced gravitative instability of shales and diapirism. In comparison to available global onshore seep data-bases, China results to be the country with the highest number of seeps in the world. The massive gas seepage in China could represent a considerable natural source of methane to the atmosphere, and a key process that may drive future hydrocarbon exploration.

  2. Possible Biogeophysical Effects of Cultivated Land Conversion in Northeast China in 2010–2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There will be substantial cultivated land change in China as the society strives to meet the growing food demands, which will greatly influence the future climate. This study analyzed the possible biogeophysical effects of cultivated land change on the climate in Northeast China during 2010–2030 on the basis of simulation with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF model. Scenario analysis was first carried out on the possible changing trends of cultivated land. Then the climate effects of the cultivated land change were analyzed on the basis of the simulation with the WRF model. The simulation results indicate that the total cultivated land area in Northeast China will decrease during 2010–2030, mainly converting into urban and built-up land and forests due to the urbanization and governmental policies. Besides, the cultivated land change will lead to the increase of the sensible heat flux in the regions where a lot of cultivated land will change into urban and built-up land, while it will make the latent heat flux increase in the regions where the cultivated land will be mainly converted into forests through influencing the evapotranspiration. All these results can provide theoretical support for implementing the future land management in Northeast China.

  3. Chemical composition, source, and process of urban aerosols during winter haze formation in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Lei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ren, Yong; Wang, Xin; Shi, Zongbo; Zhang, Daizhou; Che, Huizheng; Zhao, Hujia; Liu, Yanfei; Niu, Hongya; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye; Lingaswamy, A P; Wang, Zifa; Li, Weijun

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of aerosol particles have been poorly evaluated even though haze episodes frequently occur in winter in Northeast China. OC/EC analysis, ion chromatography, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), and soluble ions in PM 2.5 and the mixing state of individual particles during a severe wintertime haze episode in Northeast China. The organic matter (OM), NH 4 + , SO 4 2- , and NO 3 - concentrations in PM 2.5 were 89.5 μg/m 3 , 24.2 μg/m 3 , 28.1 μg/m 3 , and 32.8 μg/m 3 on the haze days, respectively. TEM observations further showed that over 80% of the haze particles contained primary organic aerosols (POAs). Based on a comparison of the data obtained during the haze formation, we generate the following synthetic model of the process: (1) Stable synoptic meteorological conditions drove the haze formation. (2) The early stage of haze formation (light or moderate haze) was mainly caused by the enrichment of POAs from coal burning for household heating and cooking. (3) High levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), sulfates, and nitrates formation via heterogeneous reactions together with POAs accumulation promoted to the evolution from light or moderate to severe haze. Compared to the severe haze episodes over the North China Plain, the PM 2.5 in Northeast China analyzed in the present study contained similar sulfate, higher SOA, and lower nitrate contents. Our results suggest that most of the POAs and secondary particles were likely related to emissions from coal-burning residential stoves in rural outskirts and small boilers in urban areas. The inefficient burning of coal for household heating and cooking should be monitored during wintertime in Northeast China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Geohydrology of the Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jerry E.; Halasz, Stephen J.; Peters, Henry B.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is considering the feasibility of using salt domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin as repositories for radioactive wastes that may require complete confinement for as much as 250,000 years. Four of fourteen known shallow piercement salt domes within the basin--Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine Salt Domes—have been selected as candidate domes for further study and possible selection as storage sites.

  5. Impacts of Cultivated Land Reclamation on the Climate and Grain Production in Northeast China in the Future 30 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available China, as a large agricultural country as well as a major country with great demand for grain, has played a more and more important role in the international grain market. As Northeast China is one of the major commodity grain bases in China as well as one of the regions with the highest intensity of human activities, it plays an important role in influencing the global food security. This study first generally analyzed the cultivated land reclamation and the climate change of temperature and precipitation in Northeast China during 2000–2010. Then, on the basis of these data, the climatic effects of cultivated land reclamation in Northeast China during 2030–2040 were simulated by the weather research forecast (WRF model. Finally, the possible effects of the climate change on the grain yield and the potential influence on the food security were analyzed. The simulation result indicated that the temperature in Northeast China would be increasing on the whole, while the precipitation would be decreasing. The result of this study can provide some theoretical support to the agricultural economic development in Northeast China and serve the national macropolicy and food security strategy of the whole China.

  6. [Impacts of climate warming on growth period and yield of rice in Northeast China during recent two decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-jia; Geng, Ting; Chen, Qun; Chen, Chang-qing

    2015-01-01

    By using rice growth period, yield and climate observation data during the recent two decades, the impact of climate warming on rice in Northeast China was investigated by mathematical statistics methods. The results indicated that in the three provinces of Northeast China, the average, maximum and minimum temperatures in rice growing season were on the. rise, and the rainfall presented a downward trend during 1989-2009. Compared to 1990s, the rice whole growth periods of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces in 2000s were prolonged 14 d, 4.5 d and 5.1 d, respectively. The increase of temperature in May, June and September could extend the rice growth period, while that in July would shorten the growth duration. The rice growth duration of registered varieties and experiment sites had a similar increasing trend in Northeast China except for the Heilongjiang Province, and the extension of registered varieties growth period was the main factor causing the prolonged growth period of rice at experiment sites. The change in daily average, minimum and maximum temperatures all could affect the rice yield in Northeast China. The increasing temperature significantly increased the rice yield in Heilongjiang Province, especially in the west region of Sanjiang Plain. Except for the south of Liaoning Province, rice yields in other regions of Northeast China were promoted by increasing temperature. Proper measures for breeding, cultivation and farming, could be adopted to fully improve the adaptation of rice to climate warming in Northeast China.

  7. Monitoring growth condition of spring maize in Northeast China using a process-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peijuan; Zhou, Yuyu; Huo, Zhiguo; Han, Lijuan; Qiu, Jianxiu; Tan, Yanjng; Liu, Dan

    2018-04-01

    Early and accurate assessment of the growth condition of spring maize, a major crop in China, is important for the national food security. This study used a process-based Remote-Sensing-Photosynthesis-Yield Estimation for Crops (RS-P-YEC) model, driven by satellite-derived leaf area index and ground-based meteorological observations, to simulate net primary productivity (NPP) of spring maize in Northeast China from the first ten-day (FTD) of May to the second ten-day (STD) of August during 2001-2014. The growth condition of spring maize in 2014 in Northeast China was monitored and evaluated spatially and temporally by comparison with 5- and 13-year averages, as well as 2009 and 2013. Results showed that NPP simulated by the RS-P-YEC model, with consideration of multi-scattered radiation inside the crop canopy, could reveal the growth condition of spring maize more reasonably than the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator. Moreover, NPP outperformed other commonly used vegetation indices (e.g., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI)) for monitoring and evaluating the growth condition of spring maize. Compared with the 5- and 13-year averages, the growth condition of spring maize in 2014 was worse before the STD of June and after the FTD of August, and it was better from the third ten-day (TTD) of June to the TTD of July across Northeast China. Spatially, regions with slightly worse and worse growth conditions in the STD of August 2014 were concentrated mainly in central Northeast China, and they accounted for about half of the production area of spring maize in Northeast China. This study confirms that NPP is a good indicator for monitoring and evaluating growth condition because of its capacity to reflect the physiological characteristics of crops. Meanwhile, the RS-P-YEC model, driven by remote sensing and ground-based meteorological data, is effective for monitoring crop growth condition over large areas in a near real

  8. Taxonomic Review on the Genus Sciota (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-jie Qi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three species of the genus Sciota Hulst, 1888 are recognized from Northeast China: Sciota cynicella (Christoph, 1881, Sciota fumella (Eversmann, 1844, and Sciota adelphella (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1836, of which Sciota cynicella (Christoph, 1881 is reported for the first time from China. This species can be distinguished from congeners by the gray color of basal area, the straight antemedial line and the distinct postmedial line on the forewing; by the stout aedeagus in male genitalia. In this study, a key to Northeastern Chinese species of genus Sciota is presented, and the illustrations of adults and genitalia are also provided.

  9. Taxonomic Review on the Genus Sciota (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi, Mu-Jie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three species of the genus Sciota Hulst, 1888 are recognized from Northeast China: Sciota cynicella (Christoph, 1881, Sciota fumella (Eversmann, 1844, and Sciota adelphella (Fischer von R$\\ddot{o} $ 수식 이미지slerstamm, 1836, of which Sciota cynicella (Christoph, 1881 is reported for the first time from China. This species can be distinguished from congeners by the gray color of basal area, the straight antemedial line and the distinct postmedial line on the forewing; by the stout aedeagus in male genitalia. In this study, a key to Northeastern Chinese species of genus Sciota is presented, and the illustrations of adults and genitalia are also provided.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of dental caries in an elderly population in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Min; Li, Yan; Cheng, Ruibo

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65-74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (Ppopulation in urban areas (OR 1.713; 95% CI 1.337-2.195), smoking (OR 1.779; 95% CI 1.384-2.288), and individuals without dental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120-3.754) with dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Dental Caries in an Elderly Population in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Min; Li, Yan; Cheng, Ruibo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65–74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). Results 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (Pcaries accounted for 2.08% with a rate higher in urban areas (Pcaries. Conclusions The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries. PMID:24260129

  12. Morphology, Composition, and Mixing State of Individual Aerosol Particles in Northeast China during Wintertime

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    Liang Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Northeast China is located in a high latitude area of the world and undergoes a cold season that lasts six months each year. Recently, regional haze episodes with high concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5 have frequently been occurring in Northeast China during the heating period, but little information has been available. Aerosol particles were collected in winter at a site in a suburban county town (T1 and a site in a background rural area (T2. Morphology, size, elemental composition, and mixing state of individual aerosol particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Aerosol particles were mainly composed of organic matter (OM and S-rich and certain amounts of soot and K-rich. OM represented the most abundant particles, accounting for 60.7% and 53.5% at the T1 and T2 sites, respectively. Abundant spherical OM particles were likely emitted directly from coal-burning stoves. Soot decreased from 16.9% at the T1 site to 4.6% at the T2 site and sulfate particles decrease from 35.9% at the T2 site to 15.7% at the T1 site, suggesting that long-range transport air masses experienced more aging processes and produced more secondary particles. Based on our investigations, we proposed that emissions from coal-burning stoves in most rural areas of the west part of Northeast China can induce regional haze episodes.

  13. Atmospheric organic nitrogen deposition: analysis of nationwide data and a case study in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C M; Yu, W T; Ma, Q; Xu, Y G; Zou, H; Zhang, S C; Sheng, W P

    2013-11-01

    The origin of atmospheric dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) deposition is not very clear at present. Across China, the DON deposition was substantially larger than that of world and Europe, and we found significant positive correlation between contribution of DON and the deposition flux with pristine site data lying in outlier, possibly reflecting the acute air quality problems in China. For a case study in Northeast China, we revealed the deposited DON was mainly derived from intensive agricultural activities rather than the natural sources by analyzing the compiled dataset across China and correlating DON flux with NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N. Crop pollens and combustion of fossil fuels for heating probably contributed to summer and autumn DON flux respectively. Overall, in Northeast China, DON deposition could exert important roles in agro-ecosystem nutrient management and carbon sequestration of natural ecosystems; nationally, it was suggested to found rational network for monitoring DON deposition. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application study of monthly precipitation forecast in Northeast China based on the cold vortex persistence activity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Liu; Meihui, Qu; Guolin, Feng; Qucheng, Chu; Jing, Cao; Jie, Yang; Ling, Cao; Yao, Feng

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces three quantitative indicators to conduct research for characterizing Northeast China cold vortex persistence activity: cold vortex persistence, generalized "cold vortex," and cold vortex precipitation. As discussed in the first part of paper, a hindcast is performed by multiple regressions using Northeast China precipitation from 2012 to 2014 combination with the previous winter 144 air-sea system factors. The results show that the mentioned three cold vortex index series can reflect the spatial and temporal distributions of observational precipitation in 2012-2014 and obtain results. The cold vortex factors are then added to the Forecast System on Dynamical and Analogy Skills (FODAS) to carry out dynamic statistical hindcast of precipitation in Northeast China from 2003 to 2012. Based on the characteristics and significance of each index, precipitation hindcast is carried out for Northeast China in May, June, July, August, May-June, and July-August. It turns out that the Northeast Cold Vortex Index Series, as defined in this paper, can make positive corrections to the FODAS forecast system, and most of the index correction results are higher than the system's own correction value. This study provides quantitative index products and supplies a solid technical foundation and support for monthly precipitation forecast in Northeast China.

  15. An empirical study on the spatial distribution of the population, economy and water resources in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Conglin; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Haijuan

    The relationship among the population, economy and water resources is complex, and the contradictions and conflicts will appear and aggravate with the rapid development of economy and society in Northeast China. Based on the statistical analysis of the available data, this paper depicted the static distribution characteristics of the population, economy and water resources of Northeast China in 2011. It was found that the spatial distribution of the population, economy and water resources was unbalanced in Northeast China. The water resources mismatched with the population and economy. The population and economy were relatively dense and developed in the southwestern part of Northeast China respectively, while the water resources was relatively scarce. However, the situations in the northern part of Northeast China were opposite to those in the southwestern part. The population-economy inconsistence indexes of the cities in northern part of Northeast China showed a significant trend of spatial aggregation and heterogeneity. The cities with lower (1) inconsistence indexes all faced the problem of water resources shortage. Applying geometric gravity center method and grey correlation model, the result indicated that there was relatively high spatial relevance and the relative deviation among the spatial dynamic distributions of the population, economy and water resources was large. The gravity centers of economy and per capita average annual total water resources moved westward, while the gravity center of population gravity center moved eastward in the period of 1997-2011 in Northeast China. It must be noted that, the migration trend of the economy gravity center was more significant than those of the population and water resources.

  16. Yields of alfalfa varieties with different fall dormancy levels in northeast china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.S.; Zhu, R.F.; Di, G.L.

    2014-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) is an important indicator of winter hardiness in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the relationship between FD and the yield potential of alfalfa varieties were investigated to survey annual dry matter (DM) yields with FD levels in the northeast regions with cold winters. During three consecutive years, all varieties of five FD levels survived over the winter without any persistency problems and there were no differences in annual DM yields of varieties among FD levels. Among the same FD varieties, DM yields for some of the dormant, semi-dormant and non-dormant varieties were found no correlated with FD levels. In conclusion, it suggests that different FD levels no effected on yields of alfalfa in the cold regions, such as North-east China. (author)

  17. Water Availability for Shale Gas Development in Sichuan Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengjun; Weinthal, Erika; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Deshusses, Marc A; Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-03-15

    Unconventional shale gas development holds promise for reducing the predominant consumption of coal and increasing the utilization of natural gas in China. While China possesses some of the most abundant technically recoverable shale gas resources in the world, water availability could still be a limiting factor for hydraulic fracturing operations, in addition to geological, infrastructural, and technological barriers. Here, we project the baseline water availability for the next 15 years in Sichuan Basin, one of the most promising shale gas basins in China. Our projection shows that continued water demand for the domestic sector in Sichuan Basin could result in high to extremely high water stress in certain areas. By simulating shale gas development and using information from current water use for hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin (20,000-30,000 m(3) per well), we project that during the next decade water use for shale gas development could reach 20-30 million m(3)/year, when shale gas well development is projected to be most active. While this volume is negligible relative to the projected overall domestic water use of ∼36 billion m(3)/year, we posit that intensification of hydraulic fracturing and water use might compete with other water utilization in local water-stress areas in Sichuan Basin.

  18. Estimating the Population Size and Genetic Diversity of Amur Tigers in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hailong; Yang, Haitao; Feng, Limin; Mou, Pu; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Over the past century, the endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) has experienced a severe contraction in demography and geographic range because of habitat loss, poaching, and prey depletion. In its historical home in Northeast China, there appears to be a single tiger population that includes tigers in Southwest Primorye and Northeast China; however, the current demographic status of this population is uncertain. Information on the abundance, distribution and genetic diversity of this population for assessing the efficacy of conservation interventions are scarce. We used noninvasive genetic detection data from scats, capture-recapture models and an accumulation curve method to estimate the abundance of Amur tigers in Northeast China. We identified 11 individual tigers (6 females and 5 males) using 10 microsatellite loci in three nature reserves between April 2013 and May 2015. These tigers are confined primarily to a Hunchun Nature Reserve along the border with Russia, with an estimated population abundance of 9-11 tigers during the winter of 2014-2015. They showed a low level of genetic diversity. The mean number of alleles per locus was 2.60 and expected and observed heterozygosity were 0.42 and 0.49, respectively. We also documented long-distance dispersal (~270 km) of a male Amur tiger to Huangnihe Nature Reserve from the border, suggesting that the expansion of neighboring Russian populations may eventually help sustain Chinese populations. However, the small and isolated population recorded by this study demonstrate that there is an urgent need for more intensive regional management to create a tiger-permeable landscape and increased genetic connectivity with other populations.

  19. Estimating the Population Size and Genetic Diversity of Amur Tigers in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Dou

    Full Text Available Over the past century, the endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica has experienced a severe contraction in demography and geographic range because of habitat loss, poaching, and prey depletion. In its historical home in Northeast China, there appears to be a single tiger population that includes tigers in Southwest Primorye and Northeast China; however, the current demographic status of this population is uncertain. Information on the abundance, distribution and genetic diversity of this population for assessing the efficacy of conservation interventions are scarce. We used noninvasive genetic detection data from scats, capture-recapture models and an accumulation curve method to estimate the abundance of Amur tigers in Northeast China. We identified 11 individual tigers (6 females and 5 males using 10 microsatellite loci in three nature reserves between April 2013 and May 2015. These tigers are confined primarily to a Hunchun Nature Reserve along the border with Russia, with an estimated population abundance of 9-11 tigers during the winter of 2014-2015. They showed a low level of genetic diversity. The mean number of alleles per locus was 2.60 and expected and observed heterozygosity were 0.42 and 0.49, respectively. We also documented long-distance dispersal (~270 km of a male Amur tiger to Huangnihe Nature Reserve from the border, suggesting that the expansion of neighboring Russian populations may eventually help sustain Chinese populations. However, the small and isolated population recorded by this study demonstrate that there is an urgent need for more intensive regional management to create a tiger-permeable landscape and increased genetic connectivity with other populations.

  20. Carboniferous geology and uranium potential of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, S.M. de; Camarco, P.E.N.

    1984-01-01

    The Carboniferous sequences of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and those of the southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin have been the subject of discussion and polemics for quite a long time, especially in terms of their stratigraphic relations and depositional environments. Thus, we reinforce our main objective, which is to furnish data for the definition of the uranium potential in these Carboniferous sediments, by adding recently acquired information that should aid in the clarification of the existing controversies. The Carboniferous along the northeast flank of the Parana Basin is represented by the Aquidauana Formation which has been informally divided into three members: lower, middle and upper members. The middle member, of marine origin, constitutes a prospective target for uranium and phosphate associations, in which sandstones interbedded with shales constitute the host rocks. On the other hand, the Carboniferous of the southwest margin of the Parnaiba Basin, which encompasses the Longa, Poti and Piaui Formations has shown very remote possibilities of uranium occurrences. The regional structural framework, as reflected by the Carboniferous rocks along both basin flanks, is characterized by homoclines cut by gravity faults. The faults along these weakness zones were occasionally intruded by basic rocks of Cretaceous age. Superimposed on the regional structure, open folds appear in the form of anticlines and domes. These folds are discontinuous structures resulting from uplift due to vertical stresses or result from differential subsidence along the limbs of the folds. (Author) [pt

  1. Spatial Preference Heterogeneity for Integrated River Basin Management: The Case of the Shiyang River Basin, China

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    Fanus Asefaw Aregay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated river basin management (IRBM programs have been launched in most parts of China to ease escalating environmental degradation. Meanwhile, little is known about the benefits from and the support for these programs. This paper presents a case study of the preference heterogeneity for IRBM in the Shiyang River Basin, China, as measured by the Willingness to Pay (WTP, for a set of major restoration attributes. A discrete choice analysis of relevant restoration attributes was conducted. The results based on a sample of 1012 households in the whole basin show that, on average, there is significant support for integrated ecological restoration as indicated by significant WTP for all ecological attributes. However, residential location induced preference heterogeneities are prevalent. Generally, compared to upper-basin residents, middle sub-basin residents have lower mean WTP while lower sub-basin residents express higher mean WTP. The disparity in utility is partially explained by the difference in ecological and socio-economic status of the residents. In conclusion, estimating welfare benefit of IRBM projects based on sample responses from a specific sub-section of the basin only may either understate or overstate the welfare estimate.

  2. Fault assessment for basement reservoir compartmentalization: Case study at Northeast Betara gas field, South Sumatra Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risyad, M.; Suta, I. N.; Haris, A.

    2017-07-01

    Northeast Betara field is situated on the northern part of prolific South Sumatra Basin. It has produced gas from Lower Talang Akar Formation sandstone and over 90 wells have been drilled. A 3D seismic data was acquired in 2000 and reprocessed in 2012 to enhance the subsurface image. In 2013 an exploratory well NEB Base-1 was drilled and made gas and condensate discovery from the subsequent pre-tertiary basement which is confirmed as granite. The well proved fractured basement reservoir play on paleo high of the structure. The absence of full-diameter conventional core prompts well logs and seismic data analysis by using a workstation. Main methods for fracture prediction have been seismic attributes extraction and structural geology studies of basement provided by image logs on a few exploration wells. Ant tracking attribute is widely employed to image seismic event discontinuities due to extensive faults which generated the natural fractures. Delineations well NEB Base-2 was drilled on second paleo high and unfortunately, it did not find any gas indication from pre-tertiary basement target. Seismic structural interpretation and seismic attributes are conducted to image distribution of event discontinuities related to faults or fracture. We found that compartmentalization on basement involved old faults and both paleo high have undergone different structural history and stress character which resulted in separated fractures distribution.

  3. Impact of potash mining in streams: the Llobregat basin (northeast Spain as a case study

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    Ruben Ladrera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Potash mining is significantly increasing the salt concentration of rivers and streams due to lixiviates coming from the mine tailings. In the present study, we have focused on the middle Llobregat basin (northeast Spain, where an important potash mining activity exists from the beginning of the XX century. Up to 50 million tonnes of saline waste have been disposed in the area, mainly composed of sodium chloride. We assessed the ecological status of streams adjacent to the mines by studying different physicochemical and hydromorphological variables, as well as aquatic macroinvertebrates. We found extraordinary high values of salinity in the studied streams, reaching conductivities up to 132.4 mS/cm. Salt-polluted streams were characterized by a deterioration of the riparian vegetation and the fluvial habitat. Both macroinvertebrate richness and abundance decreased with increasing salinity. In the most polluted stream only two families of macroinvertebrates were found: Ephydridae and Ceratopogonidae. According to the biotic indices IBMWP and IMMi-T, none of the sites met the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD; i.e., good ecological status. Overall, we can conclude that potash-mining activities have the potential to cause severe ecological damage to their surrounding streams. This is mainly related to an inadequate management of the mine tailings, leading to highly saline runoff and percolates entering surface waters. Thus, we urge water managers and policy makers to take action to prevent, detect and remediate salt pollution of rivers and streams in potash mining areas.

  4. Spatial pattern characteristics of water footprint for maize production in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Peili; Qin, Lijie; Wang, Yeqiao; He, Hongshi

    2016-01-30

    Water footprint (WF) methodology is essential for quantifying total water consumption of crop production and making efficient water management policies. This study calculated the green, blue, grey and total WFs of maize production in Northeast China from 1998 to 2012 and compared the values of the provinces. This study also analyzed the spatial variation and structure characteristics of the WFs at the prefecture level. The annual average WF of maize production was 1029 m(3) per ton, which was 51% green, 21% blue and 28% grey. The WF of maize production was highest in Liaoning Province, moderate in Heilongjiang Province and lowest in Jilin Province. The spatial differences of the WFs calculated for the 36 major maize production prefectures were significant in Northeast China. There was a moderate positive spatial autocorrelation among prefectures that had similar WFs. Local indicator of spatial autocorrelation index (LISA) analysis identified prefectures with higher WFs in the southeast region of Liaoning Province and the southwest region of Heilongjiang Province and prefectures with lower WFs in the middle of Jilin Province. Spatial differences in the WF of maize production were caused mainly by variations in climate conditions, soil quality, irrigation facilities and maize yield. The spatial distribution of WFs can help provide a scientific basis for optimizing maize production distribution and then formulate strategies to reduce the WF of maize production. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Modified Ideal Cardiovascular Health Status is Associated with Lower Prevalence of Stroke in Rural Northeast China

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    Liang Guo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010, the American Heart Association developed a new definition of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH based on seven cardiovascular health metrics. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between modified ideal CVH metrics and the risk of stroke in the rural population of Northeast China. Methods: We included 11,417 adults from the rural population in Northeast China and collected all the information, including the baseline characteristics, history of stroke, and the seven ideal CVH metrics. Results: Our results showed that the presence of stroke was associated with high body mass index (BMI, poor diet score (salt intake, high total cholesterol (TC, high blood pressure (BP, and high fasting plasma glucose (FPG. The prevalence of stroke increased as the number of ideal CVH metrics decreased, and peaked to 13.1% among those with only one ideal CVH metric. Participants with only one ideal CVH had a 4.40-fold increased susceptibility of stroke than those with all seven ideal health metrics. Conclusion: This study revealed that people with a better CVH status had a lower prevalence of stroke and the susceptibility of stroke increased with the decreasing of the number of ideal CVH metrics.

  6. Phenotypic and molecular identification of Sporothrix isolates of clinical origin in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohong; Wan, Zhe; Zhang, Zhenying; Li, Fuqiu; Li, Ruoyu; Liu, Xiaoming

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is the most common deep mycosis in Northeast China which is an area of high epidemicity due to contact with reeds or cornstalks. In this study, we have characterized a total of 74 clinical isolates from fixed cutaneous, lymphocutaneous and disseminated clinical forms and from Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning provinces, respectively. All isolates (previously as Sporothrix schenckii) were identified as Sporothrix globosa according to their phenotypic characteristics and calmodulin gene sequences analysis. They were subdivided into two sub-clades (S. globosa I and S. globosa II). Most of our isolates (71/74) presented restricted growth at 37 °C, which differed from a previous report. Up to now, S. globosa is the only pathogenic species in Northeast China, no matter what kind of clinical form and which region it is isolated from. Most of our clinical isolates (68/74) were clustered with three Chinese environmental isolates reported in the literature. The new findings of S. globosa isolates on division and thermotolerance at 37 °C described in this study will help us gain a better understanding of S. globosa.

  7. Characteristics of surface O{sub 3} over Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Zhenxing, E-mail: zxshen@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Cao, Junji [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Leiming [Air Quality Research Division, Environment Canada, Toronto (Canada); Zhao, Zhuzi [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Dong, Jungang [School of Architecture, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China); Wang, Linqing [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Liu, Suixin [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Qian [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2014-12-01

    Surface O{sub 3} was monitored continuously during Aug. 12, 2010 to Jul. 21, 2011 at a high elevation site (3200 m above sea level) in Qinghai Lake area (36°58′37″N, 99°53′56″E) in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. Daily average O{sub 3} ranged from 21.8 ppbv to 65.3 ppbv with an annual average of 41.0 ppbv. Seasonal average of O{sub 3} followed a decreasing order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. Diurnal variations of O{sub 3} showed low concentrations during daytime and high concentrations during late night and early morning. An intensive campaign was also conducted during Aug. 13–31, 2010 to investigate correlations between meteorological or chemical conditions and O{sub 3}. It was found that O{sub 3} was poorly correlated with solar radiation due to the insufficient NO{sub x} in the ambient air, thus limiting O{sub 3} formation under strong solar radiation. In contrast, high O{sub 3} levels always coincided with strong winds, suggesting that stratospheric O{sub 3} and long range transport might be the main sources of O{sub 3} in this rural area. Back-trajectory analysis supported this hypothesis and further indicated the transport of air masses from northwest, northeast and southeast directions. - Highlights: • Surface O{sub 3} was measured in Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. • The O{sub 3} chemical formation was under a strong NOx-limited in Qinghai Lake areas. • Stratospheric O{sub 3} and transport might be the main sources of O{sub 3} in this area.

  8. Characteristics of surface O3 over Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Leiming; Zhao, Zhuzi; Dong, Jungang; Wang, Linqing; Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Surface O 3 was monitored continuously during Aug. 12, 2010 to Jul. 21, 2011 at a high elevation site (3200 m above sea level) in Qinghai Lake area (36°58′37″N, 99°53′56″E) in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. Daily average O 3 ranged from 21.8 ppbv to 65.3 ppbv with an annual average of 41.0 ppbv. Seasonal average of O 3 followed a decreasing order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. Diurnal variations of O 3 showed low concentrations during daytime and high concentrations during late night and early morning. An intensive campaign was also conducted during Aug. 13–31, 2010 to investigate correlations between meteorological or chemical conditions and O 3 . It was found that O 3 was poorly correlated with solar radiation due to the insufficient NO x in the ambient air, thus limiting O 3 formation under strong solar radiation. In contrast, high O 3 levels always coincided with strong winds, suggesting that stratospheric O 3 and long range transport might be the main sources of O 3 in this rural area. Back-trajectory analysis supported this hypothesis and further indicated the transport of air masses from northwest, northeast and southeast directions. - Highlights: • Surface O 3 was measured in Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. • The O 3 chemical formation was under a strong NOx-limited in Qinghai Lake areas. • Stratospheric O 3 and transport might be the main sources of O 3 in this area

  9. The water footprint of hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Li, Jian; Kondash, Andrew; Coyte, Rachel; Lauer, Nancy; Cui, Huiying; Liao, Fengrong; Vengosh, Avner

    2018-02-23

    Shale gas is likely to play a major role in China's transition away from coal. In addition to technological and infrastructural constraints, the main challenges to China's sustainable shale gas development are sufficient shale gas production, water availability, and adequate wastewater management. Here we present, for the first time, actual data of shale gas production and its water footprint from the Weiyuan gas field, one of the major gas fields in Sichuan Basin. We show that shale gas production rates during the first 12 months (24 million m 3 per well) are similar to gas production rates in U.S. shale basins. The amount of water used for hydraulic fracturing (34,000 m 3 per well) and the volume of flowback and produced (FP) water in the first 12 months (19,800 m 3 per well) in Sichuan Basin are also similar to the current water footprints of hydraulic fracturing in U.S. basins. We present salinity data of the FP water (5000 to 40,000 mgCl/L) in Sichuan Basin and the treatment operations, which include sedimentation, dilution with fresh water, and recycling of the FP water for hydraulic fracturing. We utilize the water use data, empirical decline rates of shale gas and FP water productions in Sichuan Basin to generate two prediction models for water use for hydraulic fracturing and FP water production upon achieving China's goals to generate 100 billion m 3 of shale gas by 2030. The first model utilizes the current water use and FP production data, and the second assumes a yearly 5% intensification of the hydraulic fracturing process. The predicted water use for hydraulic fracturing in 2030 (50-65 million m 3 per year), FP water production (50-55 million m 3 per year), and fresh water dilution of FP water (25 million m 3 per year) constitute a water footprint that is much smaller than current water consumption and wastewater generation for coal mining, but higher than those of conventional gas production in China. Given estimates

  10. Program of Regional Collaboration between Eastern Part of Russia and Northeast China: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Izotov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The author uses Russian and Chinese sources of information to analyze the current status and evaluate realization prospects of investment projects within the Cooperation Program between eastern regions of Russia and northeast China. State budget financed construction of transport and border infrastructure is being implemented as planned both in Russia and China. Sectoral distribution of key Program projects is found to be unbalanced: Russian regions specialize in mining and primary processing of natural resources while Chinese ones - in products with high share of added value. The study reveals that among 104 scheduled key Russian projects (at the cost of 47,9 billion USD only 24 projects are under implementation (11,77 billion USD, 8 of which are carried out with the help of Chinese investments (1,77 billion USD. Joint ventures are connected with mining operations, primary processing of wood, construction of houses, manufacturing of building materials, assembly production and trade. Among 111 scheduled Program Chinese projects (at the cost of 9,87 billion USD only 42 projects are under implementation (6,1 billion USD; they are associated with engineering products. There is only one Russian-Chinese joint venture on the territory of China (at the cost of 0,63 billion USD. The author suggests that in the near future 20 additional Program projects can be implemented in Russia (at the cost of more than 20 billion USD and 6 projects (about 0,5 billion USD - in China

  11. Evaluation of CDOM sources and their links with water quality in the lakes of Northeast China using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Song, Kaishan; Wen, Zhidan; Fang, Chong; Shang, Yingxin; Lv, Lili

    2017-07-01

    The spatial distributions of the fluorescence intensities Fmax for chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) components, the fluorescence indices (FI370 and FI310) and their correlations with water quality of 19 lakes in the Songhua River Basin (SHRB) across semiarid regions of Northeast China were examined with the data collected in September 2012 and 2015. The 19 lakes were divided into two groups according to EC (threshold value = 800 μS cm-1): fresh water (N = 13) and brackish water lakes (N = 6). The fluorescent characteristics of CDOM in the 19 lakes were investigated using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEM) coupled with parallel factor (PARAFAC) and multivariate analysis. Two humic-like components (C1 and C3), one tryptophan-like component (C2), and one tyrosine-like component (C4) were identified by PARAFAC. The component C4 was not included in subsequent analyses due to the strong scatter in some colloidal water samples from brackish water lakes. The correlations between Fmax for the three EEM-PARAFAC extracted CDOM components C1-C3, the fluorescence indices (FI370 and FI310) and the water quality parameters (i.e., TN, TP, Chl-a, pH, EC, turbidity (Turb) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) were determined by redundancy analysis (RDA). The results of RDA analysis showed that spatial variation in land cover, pollution sources, and salinity/EC gradients in water quality affected Fmax for the fluorescent components C1-C3 and the fluorescence indices (FI370 and FI310). Further examination indicated that the CDOM fluorescent components and the fluorescence indices (FI370 and FI310) did not significantly differ (t-test, p > 0.05) in fresh water (N = 13) and brackish water lakes (N = 6). There was a difference in the distribution of the average Fmax for the CDOM fluorescent components between C1 to C3 from agricultural sources and urban wastewater sources in hypereutrophic brackish water lakes. The Fmax for humic-like components C1 and

  12. Spatial distribution and hazard degree of soil erosion of sloping croplands in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.

    2017-12-01

    Soil erosion is causing damage to the sloping croplands of northeast China and threatening the food security of the nation. However, little is known about the problem in macro scale. This study aims to investigate the area, slope gradient, soil erosion rate and year limit of erosion of the sloping croplands in whole northeast China and different geomorphologic regions, soil types, watersheds and administrative divisions of it, to estimate quantitatively the necessity and urgency of soil conservation and to offer advices. Meteorological data, topography data, geomorphology data, soil data and landuse data were collected. The China Soil Loss Equation was applied. The results indicated that: (1) Total area of the sloping croplands of northeast China is 195000 km2. They mainly distributed in Changbai mountainous region, eastern Songnen plain and Daxinganling mountainous region, with dark-brown earth, black soil and brown earth as main soil types. Total area of the sloping croplands steeper than 5 degree is 31000 km2. They mainly distributed in the mountain regions, with dark-brown earth and brown earth as main soil types. (2) The soil erosion rates of 92% of the sloping croplands have exceeded the soil loss tolerance in the national standard (0.15 mm/a). These croplands need to be conserved. The A horizon depths of 66% of the sloping croplands are less than 30 cm , while the year limit of A horizon erosion of 59% of the sloping croplands are less than 100 a. These croplands need to be conserved immediately. (3) Contour farming is suitable to 84% of the sloping croplands and deserves more attention. The sloping croplands steeper than 15 degree and those located in the aeolian sandy soil and some others soil types contributed little in grain production with high hazard degrees of erosion and should be reused for other purposes, as soon as possible. (4) The Changbai mountainous region, Daxinganling mountainous region, the dark-brown earth region and the brown earth region

  13. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of canine kobuviruses in diarrhoetic dogs in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunqiu; Wei, Shan; Guo, Donghua; Wang, Zhihui; Geng, Yufei; Wang, Enyu; Zhao, Xiwen; Su, Mingjun; Wang, Xinyu; Sun, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses that have been recently detected in dogs in the U.S.A., Italy, U.K., the Republic of Korea and Tanzania. To trace the evolution of CaKV strains, a total of 201 fecal samples from rectal swabs of diarrheic dogs, which were obtained from May 2014 to April 2015 in northeast China, were detected by reverse transcription-PCR targeting a partial (504 bp) fragment of the 3D gene. Furthermore, a phylogenetic analysis of the CaKV strains identified in northeast China was conducted based on the partial 3D gene sequence. The results indicated that 36 fecal samples (17.91%, 36/201) were positive for CaKV, in which the co-infection rates of canine coronavirus, canine parvovirus-2 and canine bocavirus were 58.33%, 41.67%, and 11.11%, respectively. Sequence comparison of the partial 3D gene revealed nucleotide homologies of 94.4-100%, 95.6-98.6%, 94.3-97.6%, 94.4-96.3% and 93.3-95.1% within the 36 Chinese CaKV strains, and between the 36 Chinese CaKV strains and four CaKV reference strains from South Korea, Italy, U.S.A. and Tanzania, respectively. A phylogenetic tree revealed that the 36 Chinese CaKV strains formed one specific CaKV lineage with CaKVs that have recently been identified in other countries. The 36 Chinese CaKV strains were closely related to CaKV reference strains from Asia and Europe, but differed genetically from CaKV reference strains from North America and Africa. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoetic dogs in China and that they exhibit substantial genetic diversity and high co-infection rates with other enteric viruses.

  14. Identity and specificity of Rhizoctonia-like fungi from different populations of Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ding

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal association is known to be important to orchid species, and a complete understanding of the fungi that form mycorrhizas is required for orchid ecology and conservation. Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae is a widespread terrestrial photosynthetic orchid in Northeast China. Previously, we found the genetic diversity of this species has been reduced recent years due to habitat destruction and fragmentation, but little was known about the relationship between this orchid species and the mycorrhizal fungi. The Rhizoctonia-like fungi are the commonly accepted mycorrhizal fungi associated with orchids. In this study, the distribution, diversity and specificity of culturable Rhizoctonia-like fungi associated with L. japonica species were investigated from seven populations in Northeast China. Among the 201 endophytic fungal isolates obtained, 86 Rhizoctonia-like fungi were identified based on morphological characters and molecular methods, and the ITS sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all these Rhizoctonia-like fungi fell in the same main clade and were closely related to those of Tulasnella calospora species group. These findings indicated the high mycorrhizal specificity existed in L. japonica species regardless of habitats at least in Northeast China. Our results also supported the wide distribution of this fungal partner, and implied that the decline of L. japonica in Northeast China did not result from high mycorrhizal specificity. Using culture-dependent technology, these mycorrhizal fungal isolates might be important sources for the further utilizing in orchids conservation.

  15. A Survey-Based Exploration of Land-System Dynamics in an Agricultural Region of Northeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Wu, W.; Verburg, P.H.; van Vliet, J.; Yang, P.; Zhou, Q.; Tang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the complexity of agricultural systems requires insight into the human-environment interactions. In this paper we used survey data to analyze land system change and its relation to farmer's attitudes in a typical agricultural region of Northeast China, focusing on land tenure, crop

  16. Reform and efficiency of state-owned forest enterprises in Northeast China as “social firms”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han Xue; Gregory E. Frey; Geng Yude; Frederick W. Cubbage; Zhang Zhaohui

    2018-01-01

    State-owned forest enterprises (SOFEs) in northeast China have experienced past economic loss andenvironmental degradation, causing government to seek reforms. Measurement of technical efficiencyallows us to evaluate overall trends and how reforms affect production of social and environmental goods.Previous assessments have used small samples, short time...

  17. Soybeans or Soybean Products Consumption and Depressive Symptoms in Older Residents in Rural Northeast China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S; Guo, X; Yang, H; Zheng, L; Sun, Y

    2015-11-01

    Depression is one of the most common mental disorders among elderly subjects. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the association between soybeans consumption and depressive symptoms among older residents in rural Northeast China. Cross-sectional study. A representative sample of the rural Northeast residents. This survey was conducted from July 2012 to August 2013 which randomly selected and examined a total of 1717 residents aged ≥ 65 years from the rural Northeast China. All participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Information on demographic and lifestyle characteristics and blood biochemical indexes were collected by well-trained personnel. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the elderly was 8.9%. Women had significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than men (13.3% vs.4.6%, Psoybeans ≥4times/week had statically lower possibility to have depressive symptoms than those rarely consuming (3.6%vs. 12.5%, Psoybeans or soybean products [OR (95%CI): 0.36 (0.15,0.87) for 2-3times/week and OR (95%CI):0.50 (0.34,0.74) for ≥4times/week] significantly decreased the risk of depressive symptoms among elderly in rural Northeast China. Women had significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than men in rural China. Individuals who rarely consume soybeans or soybean products are more likely to suffer depressive symptoms. Rural elderly residents should be cautiously screened to prevent or treat depression.

  18. Soil acidification increases metal extractability and bioavailability in old orchard soils of Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Lianzhen; Wu, Huifeng; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Allen, Herbert E.

    2014-01-01

    The bioavailability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from field-aged orchard soils in a certified fruit plantation area of the Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China was assessed using bioassays with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and chemical assays. Soil acidity increased with increasing fruit cultivation periods

  19. Effects of Spring Drought on Carbon Sequestration, Evapotranspiration and Water Use Efficiency in the Songnen Meadow Steppe in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang Dong; Jixun Guo; Jiquan Chen; Ge Sun; Song Gao; et al

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change projections suggest an increasing frequency of droughts and extreme rain events in the steppes of the Eurasian region. Using the eddy covariance method, we measured carbon and water balances of a meadow steppe ecosystem in Northeast China during 2 years which had contrasting precipitation patterns in spring seasons in 2007 and 2008. The meadow...

  20. Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Signal Propagating Through the South China Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ANALYSIS OF ACOUSTIC SIGNAL PROPAGATING THROUGH THE SOUTH CHINA SEA BASIN by Meihuei Chen March 2016 Thesis Advisor...ACOUSTIC SIGNAL PROPAGATING THROUGH THE SOUTH CHINA SEA BASIN 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Meihuei Chen 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...China Sea (SCS) basin to study the effects of nonlinear internal waves on 400- Hz acoustic signal propagation. The acoustic arrival structure for this

  1. Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yinqiu; Li, Hongjie; Ning, Chao; Zhang, Ye; Chen, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Hagelberg, Erika; Zhou, Hui

    2013-09-30

    The West Liao River valley in Northeast China is an ecologically diverse region, populated in prehistory by human populations with a wide range of cultures and modes of subsistence. To help understand the human evolutionary history of this region, we performed Y chromosome analyses on ancient human remains from archaeological sites ranging in age from 6500 to 2700 BP. 47 of the 70 individuals provided reproducible results. They were assigned into five different Y sub-haplogroups using diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms, namely N1 (xN1a, N1c), N1c, C/C3e, O3a (O3a3) and O3a3c. We also used 17 Y short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome. There appears to be significant genetic differences between populations of the West Liao River valley and adjacent cultural complexes in the prehistoric period, and these prehistoric populations were shown to carry similar haplotypes as present-day Northeast Asians, but at markedly different frequencies. Our results suggest that the prehistoric cultural transitions were associated with immigration from the Yellow River valley and the northern steppe into the West Liao River valley. They reveal the temporal continuity of Y chromosome lineages in populations of the West Liao River valley over 5000 years, with a concurrent increase in lineage diversity caused by an influx of immigrants from other populations.

  2. Land use/cover changes, the environment and water resources in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yansui; Wang, Dawei; Gao, Jay; Deng, Wei

    2005-11-01

    Land use/cover in Northeast China went through extensive changes during the 1990s. This report explores the interaction between these changes and the environment, and the implication of these changes for rational allocation of water resources. Two maps of land use/cover produced from 1990 and 2000 Landsat TM satellite images were overlaid in Arc Info to reveal changes in land cover. Results indicate that farmland and grassland decreased by 386,195 and 140,075 ha, respectively, while water, built-up areas, and woodland increased by 238,596, 194,231, and 192,682 ha, respectively. These changes bore a mutual relationship with the environmental change. On the one hand, climate warming made some of these changes (e.g., conversion of woodland and grassland to farmland) possible. On the other hand, the changed surface cover modified the local climate. These changes, in turn, caused severe environmental degradation and increased flooding. The change between dry field and rice paddy, in particular, raised severe implications for the proper allocation of limited water resources in the Northeast. Efforts are needed to coordinate their rational allocation to reap maximum and sustainable return over the entire area, not just in some localities. Results obtained in this study should be of interest to the international audience of Environmental Management in that they highlight the interactive nature of human activities and the environment and the off-site impact of these activities on the environment.

  3. Development of a solar thermal storage system suitable for the farmhouse heating in northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, M.K. [Shenyang Agricultural Univ., Shenyang (China)

    2010-07-01

    This study reported on the performance of a passive solar radiant floor heating system designed for standard energy-saving farmhouses in northeast China. Weather data in the region was analyzed in terms of solar radiation, temperature, humidity and light levels. The heating characteristics of the building materials such as windows, doors, walls and roofs were also analyzed along with the indoor thermal environment of the farmhouse. The heating load was then calculated along with the size of the thermal storage element and the area of the collector element. The passive solar radiant floor heating system was designed for heating during the winter and cooling in summer. According to the results, the heating characteristics of the system have the potential to improve farming villages environment and the use of renewable energy.

  4. Plutonium in Soils from Northeast China and Its Potential Application for Evaluation of Soil Erosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    Surface and soil core samples from northeast China were analyzed for Pu isotopes. The measured 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios and 239 1 240Pu/137Cs activity ratios revealed that the global fallout is the dominant source of Pu and 137Cs at these sites. Migration behavior of Pu varying with land type....... While only half inventory of Pu was obtained in another soil core and no sub-surface maximum value occurred. Erosion of topsoil in the site should be the most possible reason for the significantly lower Pu inventory, which is also supported by the reported 137Cs profiles. These results demonstrated...... that Pu could be applied as an ideal substitute of 137Cs for soil erosion study in the future....

  5. Adapting maize production to drought in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most prominent crop in the Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR), and drought has been the largest limitation for maize production in this area during recent decades. The question of how to adapt maize production to drought has received great attention from policy...... counties across NFR. Our survey results indicated that using variety diversification, drought resistant varieties and dibbling irrigation are the three major adaptation strategies against drought in spring, and farmers also adopted changes in sowing time, conservation tillage and mulching to cope...... makers, researchers and farmers. In order to evaluate the effects of adaptation strategies against drought and examine the influences of policy supports and farmer households’ characteristics on adopting decisions, a large scale household survey was conducted in five representative maize production...

  6. Climate effects on crop yields in the Northeast Farming Region of China during 1961–2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    and soybean yield and HDD in the pre-flowering phase reduced rice yield. Such effects suggest that projected future climate change may have marked effects on crop yield through effects of several climatic variables, calling for adaptation measures such as breeding and changes in crop, soil and agricultural......Crop production in the Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR) is affected considerably by variation in climatic conditions. Data on crop yield and weather conditions from a number of agro-meteorological stations in NFR were used in a mixed linear model to evaluate the impacts of climatic variables...... at each station, comprising pre-flowering (from sowing to just prior to flowering), flowering (20 days around flowering) and post-flowering (10 days after flowering to maturity). The climatic variables were mean minimum temperature, thermal time (which is used to indicate changes in the length of growth...

  7. Quantifying Urban Land Sprawl and its Driving Forces in Northeast China from 1990 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drastic urbanization has resulted in numerous problems worldwide, and many studies were devoted to individual cities. There is an urgent need to quantify urbanization patterns and illustrate their driving forces in the regional area on a large scale over a longer time period. This study produced a land cover dataset to characterize sequential urban land expansion in Northeast China from 1990 to 2015 using object-based backdating classification and calculating the expansion index. The drivers were investigated using Pearson correlation analysis and the multiple linear stepwise regression model. The results revealed that the total area of urban land increased by 43.15% from 1990 to 2015, mainly in the middle part of the study area, and especially in the coastal area of Liaoning. Liaoning had the fastest growth rate, while Heilongjiang showed a decrease in growth rate rankings. Urban land expanded northward and southward within Harbin City, towards the west and east within Changchun City, and relatively equally in all directions within Shenyang City. Expansion patterns changed from edge expansion (42% to outlying expansion (47%. Urban land of Liaoning and the Eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous region expanded with similar patterns as the entire area, but that of Heilongjiang grew in an opposite pattern, and Jilin maintained outlying major expansion. The influence of factors on urban land sprawl varied temporally. Tertiary industry product, gross domestic product, secondary industry product, total population and urban population were driving factors of urban land sprawl in Northeast China from 1990 to 2015. This research provides quantitative methods for better understanding urban land dynamics and devising feasible strategies for sustainable urban development.

  8. Mapping and Evaluating the Urbanization Process in Northeast China Using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunpeng Yi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Urban Light Index (ULI is constructed to facilitate analysis and quantitative evaluation of the process of urbanization and expansion rate by using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data during the years from 1992 to 2010. A unit circle urbanization evaluation model is established to perform a comprehensive analysis of the urbanization process of 34 prefecture-level cities in Northeast China. Furthermore, the concept of urban light space is put forward. In this study, urban light space is divided into four types: the core urban area, the transition zone between urban and suburban areas, suburban area and fluorescent space. Proceeding from the temporal and spatial variation of the four types of light space, the pattern of morphologic change and space-time evolution of the four principal cities in Northeast China (Harbin, Changchun, Shenyang, Dalian is analyzed and given particular attention. Through a correlation analysis between ULI and the traditional urbanization indexes (urban population, proportion of the secondary and tertiary industries in the regional GDP and the built-up area, the advantages and disadvantages as well as the feasibility of using the ULI in the study of urbanization are evaluated. The research results show that ULI has a strong correlation with urban built-up area (R2 = 0.8277. The morphologic change and history of the evolving urban light space can truly reflect the characteristics of urban sprawl. The results also indicate that DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data is applicable for extracting urban space information and has strong potential to urbanization research.

  9. Plutonium as a tracer for soil erosion assessment in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Pan, Shaoming; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per; Cao, Liguo

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental and agricultural problems faced by human society. Assessing intensity is an important issue for controlling soil erosion and improving eco-environmental quality. The suitability of the application of plutonium (Pu) as a tracer for soil erosion assessment in northeast China was investigated by comparing with that of 137Cs. Here we build on preliminary work, in which we investigated the potential of Pu as a soil erosion tracer by sampling additional reference sites and potential erosive sites, along the Liaodong Bay region in northeast China, for Pu isotopes and 137Cs. 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios in all samples were approximately 0.18, which indicated that the dominant source of Pu was the global fallout. Pu showed very similar distribution patterns to those of 137Cs at both uncultivated and cultivated sites. 239+240Pu concentrations in all uncultivated soil cores followed an exponential decline with soil depth, whereas at cultivated sites, Pu was homogenously distributed in plow horizons. Factors such as planted crop types, as well as methods and frequencies of irrigation and tillage were suggested to influence the distribution of radionuclides in cultivated land. The baseline inventories of 239+240Pu and 137Cs were 88.4 and 1688 Bq m(-2) respectively. Soil erosion rates estimated by 239+240Pu tracing method were consistent with those obtained by the 137Cs method, confirming that Pu is an effective tracer with a similar tracing behavior to that of 137Cs for soil erosion assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Soil Quality of Croplands in the Corn Belt of Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing global demands for land resource with increasing population have resulted in occurrence of soil degradation in many regions of the world. Assessment of soil quality has become the basic work for agricultural sustainable development and selecting regional indicators effectively has become very important since there are no standard evaluation methods and universal indicators. In this study, taking the Corn Belt of Northeast China as the study area, seven indicators—obstacle horizon thickness, cation exchange capacity, pH, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total potassium, and available Fe—were selected to constitute the minimum data set from sixteen indictors of the total data set to assess the soil quality. The soil quality of the study area was dominated by moderate grade, increasing from west to east. The soil quality of Yushu, Changchun and Shuangyang had higher values, and that of Nongan was the lowest. We found that the distribution of cation exchange capacity has a good consistency with the assessment result of the soil quality. Black soils were distributed in the middle part of the study region from north to south and accounted for a higher quality, exactly where the areas of rapid urbanization are located. An ANOVA analysis showed that soil quality in the Corn Belt of Northeast China was greatly affected by topographic factors and agricultural management and climate was not the principal factor affecting soil quality. Though the minimum data set slightly reduced the evaluation accuracy, a large sampling density in our study was able to improve the precision loss that resulted from reducing the number of indicators to a certain extent.

  11. Metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms among rural Northeast general population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous researches aiming to estimate the association between metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms come out with inconsistent results. Besides, most of them are conducted in the developed areas. There is lack of the data from rural China. The aim of this study is to confirm whether gender difference exists among the relationship between MetS, metabolic components and depressive symptoms in the rural Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional analysis enrolled 11430 subjects’ aged ≥35 from rural Northeast China. Metabolic and anthropometric indicators were measured according to standard methods. Depressive symptoms were defined using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 6% among rural Northeast general population and the prevalence of MetS and its components were 39.0% for MetS, 42.9% for abdominal obesity, 67.1% for elevated blood pressure, 47.1% for hyperglycemia, 32.1% for hypertriglyceridemia, 29.5% for low HDL-C. Depressive symptoms were associated with triglyceride component (OR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.05–1.46, P = 0.01 but not MetS (OR = 1.11, 95%CI: 0.94–1.30, P = 0.23. Moreover, depressive symptoms were associated with triglyceride component (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.00–1.47, P = 0.05 in women only. But once adjusted for menopause status, depressive symptoms were no longer statically associated with triglyceride component (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.99–1.46, P = 0.07. Conclusions Depressive symptoms were associated with triglyceride component but not MetS in rural Chinese population. Routine lipid screening should be recommended among rural depressed residents especially among female.

  12. The influence of facility agriculture production on phthalate esters distribution in black soils of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Pengjie; Wang, Lei; Sun, Guoqiang; Zhao, Jiaying; Zhang, Hui; Du, Na

    2015-02-15

    The current study investigates the existence of 15 phthalate esters (PAEs) in surface soils (27 samples) collected from 9 different facility agriculture sites in the black soil region of northeast China, during the process of agricultural production (comprising only three seasons spring, summer and autumn). Concentrations of the 15 PAEs detected significantly varied from spring to autumn and their values ranged from 1.37 to 4.90 mg/kg-dw, with a median value of 2.83 mg/kg-dw. The highest concentration of the 15 PAEs (4.90 mg/kg-dw) was determined in summer when mulching film was used in the greenhouses. Probably an increase in environmental temperature was a major reason for PAE transfer from the mulching film into the soil and coupled with the increased usage of chemical fertilizers in greenhouses. Results showed that of the 15 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were in abundance with the mean value of 1.12 ± 0.22, 0.46 ± 0.05, 0.36 ± 0.04, and 0.17 ± 0.01 mg/kg-dw, respectively; and their average contributions in spring, summer, and autumn ranged between 64.08 and 90.51% among the 15 PAEs. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated the concentration of these four main PAEs significantly differed among the facility agricultures investigated, during the process of agricultural production. In comparison with foreign and domestic results of previous researches, it is proved that the black soils of facility agriculture in northeast China show higher pollution situation comparing with non-facility agriculture soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The needs of the science teachers of Shenyang area, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao

    Purpose of the study. The purpose of this research was to survey those individuals teaching science in the middle schools of the Shenyang area, Northeast China. Specifically, the study attempted to differentiate between rural and nonrural teachers with respect to demographic differences, problem areas, instructional activities, and perceived needs. Procedure. A 100-item survey was used to collect data for this study. The sample consisted of 224 science teachers (Rural 114, nonrural 110) who taught at least science class in 1996--97 academic year in a middle school of Shenyang area, Northeast China. Frequencies and percentages presented the needs of the teachers. The differences between rural and nonrural groups were analyzed by Chi Square statistics. Findings. Almost three quarters (74.9%) of returns were younger than 41, and 43.9% of returns held no degree. Significant differences were fond between rural and nonrural groups according to age, classroom experience, school enrollment, lab activities, motivating students to learn science, using science test data bank, peer tutoring and evaluating your own instructional effectiveness as a science teacher. Rural and nonrural teachers shared 10 of 14 greatest needs. Conclusions. Teacher in-service program designers need to establish academic training programs which lead to entry level degrees and certificates and improve young teacher's instructional skills. Increased efforts should be given to meet the perceived needs addressed in this study in order to improve teachers' teaching and students' learning. Lack of person energy or motivation and program fail to meet teachers' needs were considered as barriers of attending inservice programs.

  14. Estimation of maize yield by using a process-based model and remote sensing data in the Northeast China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fengmei; Tang, Yanjing; Wang, Peijuan; Zhang, Jiahua

    Climate change significantly impact on agriculture in recent year, the accurate estimation of crop yield is of great importance for the food security. In this study, a process-based mechanism model was modified to estimate yield of C4 crop by modifying the carbon metabolic pathway in the photosynthesis sub-module of the RS-P-YEC (Remote-Sensing-Photosynthesis-Yield estimation for Crops) model. The yield was calculated by multiplying net primary productivity (NPP) and the harvest index (HI) derived from the ratio of grain to stalk yield. The modified RS-P-YEC model was used to simulate maize yield in the Northeast China Plain during the period 2002-2011. The 111 statistical data of maize yield from study area was used to validate the simulated results at county-level. The results showed that the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was 0.827 (p yield and the statistical data, and the root mean square error (RMSE) was 712 kg/ha with a relative error (RE) of 9.3%. From 2002 to 2011, the yield of maize planting zone in the Northeast China Plain was increasing with smaller coefficient of variation (CV). The spatial pattern of simulated maize yield was consistent with the actual distribution in the Northeast China Plain, with an increasing trend from the northeast to the southwest. Hence the results demonstrated that the modified process-based model coupled with remote sensing data was suitable for yield prediction of maize in the Northeast China Plain at the spatial scale.

  15. New insights into the distribution and evolution of the Cenozoic Tan-Lu Fault Zone in the Liaohe sub-basin of the Bohai Bay Basin, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Liu, Chi-yang; Xu, Chang-gui; Wu, Kui; Wang, Guang-yuan; Jia, Nan

    2018-01-01

    As the largest strike-slip fault system in eastern China, the northeast-trending Tan-Lu Fault Zone (TLFZ) is a significant tectonic element contributing to the Mesozoic-Cenozoic regional geologic evolution of eastern Asia, as well as to the formation of ore deposits and oilfields. Because of the paucity of data, its distribution and evolutionary history in the offshore Liaohe sub-basin of the northern Bohai Bay Basin (BBB) are still poorly understood. Investigations of the strike-slip fault system in the western portion of the offshore Liaohe sub-basin via new seismic data provide us with new insights into the characteristics of the Cenozoic TLFZ. Results of this study show that Cenozoic dextral strike-slip faults occurred near the center of the Liaoxi graben in the offshore Liaohe sub-basin; these strike-slip faults connect with their counterparts to the north, the western part of the onshore Liaohe sub-basin, and have similar characteristics to those in other areas of the BBB in terms of kinematics, evolutionary history, and distribution; consequently, these faults are considered as the western branch of the TLFZ. All strike-slip faults within the Liaoxi graben merge at depth with a central subvertical basement fault induced by the reactivation of a pre-existing strike-slip basement fault, the pre-Cenozoic TLFZ. Data suggest that the TLFZ across the whole Liaohe sub-basin comprises two branches and that the Cenozoic distribution of this system was inherited from the pre-Cenozoic TLFZ. This characteristic distribution might be possessed by the whole TLFZ, thus the new understandings about the distribution and evolutionary model of the TLFZ in this study can be inferred in many research fields along the whole fault zone, such as regional geology, ore deposits, petroleum exploration and earthquake hazard.

  16. LDL-cholesterol goal attainment under persistent lipid-lowering therapy in northeast China: Subgroup analysis of the dyslipidemia international study of China (DYSIS-China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Bu, Xiang-Ting; Guo, Xin-Zhu; Hu, Da-Yi; Li, Zhan-Quan; Sun, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Lipid-lowering therapy with statins reduces the risk of cardiovascular events, but the efficacy of persistent treatment in a real-world setting may vary from regions. Routine lipid-lowering therapy in the region with a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease may lead to more failures of goal attainment. We therefore performed a study to observe different lipid-lowering strategies in northeast (NE) China with respect to low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction and goal attainments.A cross-sectional study (DYSIS-China) was conducted in 2012, involving 25,317 patients from 122 centers across China who were diagnosed with hyperlipidemia and treated with lipid-lowering therapy for at least 3 months. Of these patients, 4559 (18.0%) were assigned to the NE group according to their residential zones.Patients in the NE group tended to be younger, female, overweight, and had more comorbidities and higher blood lipid levels than those in the non-NE group (P 24 kg/m, drinking alcohol, smoking, and being residence in NE China as independent predictors of LDL-C attainment.Despite having received persistent lipid-lowering treatments, the current situation of dyslipidemia patients in NE China is unsatisfactory. The main treatment gap might be related to the choice of statin and effective combination therapy and the control of comorbidities and obesity, especially for high-risk patients.

  17. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) to Model the Hydrocarbon Migration: Case Study from North-East Malay Basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudini; Nasir Matori, Abd; Talib, Jasmi Ab; Balogun, Abdul-Lateef

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to model the migration of hydrocarbon using Geographic Information System (GIS). Understanding hydrocarbon migration is important since it can mean the difference between success and failure in oil and gas exploration project. The hydrocarbon migration modeling using geophysical method is still not accurate due to the limitations of available data. In recent years, GIS has emerged as a powerful tool for subsurface mapping and analysis. Recent studies have been carried out about the abilities of GIS to model hydrocarbon migration. Recent advances in GIS support the establishment and monitoring of prediction hydrocarbon migration. The concept, model, and calculation are based on the current geological situation. The spatial data of hydrocarbon reservoirs is determined by its geometry of lithology and geophysical attributes. Top of Group E horizon of north-east Malay basin was selected as the study area due to the occurrence of hydrocarbon migration. Spatial data and attributes data such as seismic data, wells log data and lithology were acquired and processed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was constructed from the selected horizon as a result of seismic interpretation using the Petrel software. Furthermore, DEM was processed in ArcGIS as a base map to shown hydrocarbon migration in north-east Malay Basin. Finally, all the data layers were overlaid to produce a map of hydrocarbon migration. A good data was imported to verify the model is correct.

  18. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS to Model the Hydrocarbon Migration: Case Study from North-East Malay Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to model the migration of hydrocarbon using Geographic Information System (GIS. Understanding hydrocarbon migration is important since it can mean the difference between success and failure in oil and gas exploration project. The hydrocarbon migration modeling using geophysical method is still not accurate due to the limitations of available data. In recent years, GIS has emerged as a powerful tool for subsurface mapping and analysis. Recent studies have been carried out about the abilities of GIS to model hydrocarbon migration. Recent advances in GIS support the establishment and monitoring of prediction hydrocarbon migration. The concept, model, and calculation are based on the current geological situation. The spatial data of hydrocarbon reservoirs is determined by its geometry of lithology and geophysical attributes. Top of Group E horizon of north-east Malay basin was selected as the study area due to the occurrence of hydrocarbon migration. Spatial data and attributes data such as seismic data, wells log data and lithology were acquired and processed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM was constructed from the selected horizon as a result of seismic interpretation using the Petrel software. Furthermore, DEM was processed in ArcGIS as a base map to shown hydrocarbon migration in north-east Malay Basin. Finally, all the data layers were overlaid to produce a map of hydrocarbon migration. A good data was imported to verify the model is correct.

  19. Food Addiction in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Northeast China

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    Fan Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AimThe aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of food addiction (FA in individuals with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in China and to analyze risk factors of FA.MethodsA total of 624 subjects [312 individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM, 312 age-matched and body mass index (BMI-matched healthy participants] were recruited. All participants were asked to complete the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS and received physical and lab examinations. The T2DM group was further divided into a FA group and a non-FA group.ResultsOf the patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, 8.6% (27/312 met the FA diagnostic criteria proposed by the YFAS (7.6% in men and 10.1% in women, P = 0.43, while 1.3% (4/312 met the criteria in the control group. Logistic regression analysis showed that FA in the T2DM group was positively related to BMI and negatively related to age. T2DM with FA had a significantly higher uric acid (UA.ConclusionBoth men and women with newly diagnosed T2DM, especially in northeast China, were more likely to suffer from FA. T2DM patients with FA were younger and had higher UA.

  20. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in Shenyang industrial district, Northeast China.

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    Xudong Jiao

    Full Text Available To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995. There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources.

  1. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents in northeast China.

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    Yang Xiaoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To describe the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders and comorbidity in a large school-based sample of 6-17 year old children and adolescents in northeast China. METHODS: A two-phase cross-sectional study was conducted on 9,806 children. During the screening phase, 8848 children (90.23% and their mothers and teachers were interviewed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. During the diagnostic phase, 1129 children with a positive SDQ and 804 randomly selected children with a negative SDQ (11%, and their mothers and teachers, were interviewed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of DSM-IV disorders was 9.49% (95% CI = 8.10-11.10%. Anxiety disorders were the most common (6.06%, 95% CI = 4.92-7.40, followed by depression (1.32%, 95% CI = 0.91-1.92%, oppositional defiant disorder (1.21%, 95%CI = 0.77-1.87 and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (0.84%, 95% CI = 0.52-1.36%. Of the 805 children with a psychiatric disorder, 15.2% had two or more comorbid disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one in ten Chinese school children has psychiatric disorders involving a level of distress or social impairment likely to warrant treatment. Prevention, early identification and treatment of these disorders are urgently needed and pose a serious challenge in China.

  2. Five-year trends of selected halogenated flame retardants in the atmosphere of Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Long; Liu, Li-Yan; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Qiao, Li-Na [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Ma, Wan-Li, E-mail: mawanli002@163.com [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Li, Yi-Fan, E-mail: ijrc_pts_paper@yahoo.com [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); IJRC-PTS-NA, Toronto M2N 6X9 (Canada)

    2016-01-01

    This study collected 227 pairs of gas phase and particle phase air samples in a typical urban city of Northeast China from 2008 to 2013. Four alternative halogenated flame retardants for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed, namely 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB), bis (2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP), syn-dechlorane plus (syn-DP) and anti-dechlorane plus (anti-DP). The average concentrations for EHTBB and BEHTBP were 5.2 ± 20 and 30 ± 200 pg/m{sup 3}, respectively, while for syn-DP and anti-DP were 1.9 ± 5.1 and 5.8 ± 18 pg/m{sup 3}, respectively. Generally, they were frequently detected in the particle phase, and the gas/particle partitioning suggested they were the maximum partition chemicals. The fractional abundance of EHTBB (f{sub EHTBB}) and syn-DP (f{sub syn}) were comparable with those in other studies. Strong local sources were identified based on the air parcel backward trajectories and the potential source contribution function. The concentrations of these chemicals were significantly increased during this sampling campaign, possibly suggesting their increasing usages from 2008 to 2013 in China. - Highlights: • Five-year air samples were analyzed for four alternative HFRs. • BEHTBP and DP were frequently detected in the particle phase. • Local and nearby city sources of these HFRs were suggested. • Concentrations of these HFRs were significantly increased in the five-year period.

  3. The association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome among adolescents in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Nan; Li, Ping; Jiang, Ran-Hua; Li, Ling; Li, Xue; Li, Liang; Liu, Cong; Tian, Cong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Data about the association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome in healthy adolescents are sparse. This study examined this association and determined the optimal cutoffs for serum uric acid to predict metabolic syndrome among healthy adolescents. During 2010-2011, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 927 adolescents (53.0% boys) aged 11-16 years from junior and senior high schools in northeast China. All participants received a physical examination and gave venous blood samples. Serum uric acid was positively associated with abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension in boys and with abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia in girls. For those with hyperurecemia, the odds ratios (95% CI) for metabolic syndrome were 7.67 (95% CI, 2.58~22.78) for boys and 4.77 (95% CI, 1.01~22.60) for girls. SUA was a better predictor of metabolic syndrome than fasting glucose, though not as good as waist circumference. Among adolescents in China, serum uric acid level may be a useful predictor of metabolic syndrome.

  4. Soil Heavy Metal Pollution and Risk Assessment in Shenyang Industrial District, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xudong; Teng, Yanguo; Zhan, Yanhong; Wu, Jin; Lin, Xueyu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As). Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg) but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995). There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources. PMID:25997173

  5. Five-year trends of selected halogenated flame retardants in the atmosphere of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Long; Liu, Li-Yan; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Qiao, Li-Na; Ma, Wan-Li; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-01-01

    This study collected 227 pairs of gas phase and particle phase air samples in a typical urban city of Northeast China from 2008 to 2013. Four alternative halogenated flame retardants for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed, namely 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB), bis (2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP), syn-dechlorane plus (syn-DP) and anti-dechlorane plus (anti-DP). The average concentrations for EHTBB and BEHTBP were 5.2 ± 20 and 30 ± 200 pg/m3, respectively, while for syn-DP and anti-DPwere 1.9±5.1 and 5.8±18 pg/m3, respectively. Generally, they were frequently detected in the particle phase, and the gas/particle partitioning suggested they were the maximum partition chemicals. The fractional abundance of EHTBB (fEHTBB) and syn-DP (fsyn)were comparablewith those in other studies. Strong local sources were identified based on the air parcel backward trajectories and the potential source contribution function. The concentrations of these chemicals were significantly increased during this sampling campaign, possibly suggesting their increasing usages from 2008 to 2013 in China.

  6. Mineralization of the ancient hydrogeological conditions in the northeast of Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Junyi

    2012-01-01

    Ordos basin, North East, to the Eocene as a turning point, in the generation of the ancient hydrogeological conditions have distinct changes experienced at least two ancient evolution of hydrogeological conditions, that is closed in the early flow into basin Late open drain basin. Closed in the early period of the inner flow basin, since the purpose of layer deposition, the direction of the ancient hydrodynamic interlayer oxidation is consistent with the direction of oxidation. Hydrogeological conditions of the ancient point of view, in the Ordos basin, North East looking for interlayer oxidation zone type uranium has a guiding role. (author)

  7. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and associated factors among the hypertensive population from rural Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shasha; Yang, Hongmei; Guo, Xiaofan; Zhang, Xingang; Zheng, Liqiang; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-11-21

    Our latest study reported the grim status of hypertension in rural China with the prevalence of hypertension reached 51.1%. However, we lack the latest data about the prevalence and epidemiological features of dyslipidemia among hypertensive residents in rural China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July 2012 to August 2013 through a cluster multistage sampling to a resident group of 4048 individuals (2152 men, 2896 women) with hypertension, age ≥ 35 years, in the rural Northeast China. Serum lipids level were proposed by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Of the hypertension residents without antihypertension treatment, 34.5% had borderline high total cholesterol, 19.2% had high total cholesterol, 11.4% had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and 37.4% had high non HDL-C. The population with borderline high, high, and very high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 20.9, 6.7 and 2.3%, respectively. In addition, 14.3% had borderline high triglycerides, 17.4% had high TG and 2.4% had very high TG. The awareness rate of dyslipidemia among the study population was 5.9%. After adjusting for independent variables, fasting plasma glucose, body mass index, Han nationality, current drinking and smoking, higher annual income and classification of blood pressure were risk factors for dyslipidemia while moderate physical activity was protective factor for dyslipidemia. On the contrary, gender and current drinking decrease the risk of HDL-C. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was dramatically high and dyslipidemia screening was in-need in all diagnosed hypertensive individuals.

  8. Spatiotemporal Correlations between Water Footprint and Agricultural Inputs: A Case Study of Maize Production in Northeast China

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    Peili Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To effectively manage water resources in agricultural production, it is necessary to understand the spatiotemporal variation of the water footprint (WF and the influences of agricultural inputs. Employing spatial autocorrelation analysis and a geographically weighted regression (GWR model, we explored the spatial variations of the WF and their relationships with agricultural inputs from 1998 to 2012 in Northeast China. The results indicated that: (1 the spatial distribution of WFs for the 36 major maize production prefectures was heterogeneous in Northeast China; (2 a cluster of high WFs was found in southeast Liaoning Province, while a cluster of low WFs was found in central Jilin Province, and (3 spatial and temporal differentiation in the correlations between the WF of maize production and agricultural inputs existed according to the GWR model. These correlations increased over time. Our results suggested that localized strategies for reducing the WF should be formulated based on specific relationships between the WF and agricultural inputs.

  9. Badlands in humid regions - redbed desertification in Nanxiong Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Luobin; Hua, Peng; Simonson, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The redbed badlands in Nanxiong City, China, well represent badlands in humid regions. The erosion rate in humid regions is much higher than that in arid regions and can reach 1 cm per month during the summer. The purpose of this study is to introduce the research of badlands in China, which have not been extensively studied so far, and to compare the badlands between arid and humid regions. Furthermore, the aim is to study the impact of mineralogical and chemical composition on the disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands. For the purpose of this study field observations, sampling, and digging profiles were done. The mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Nanxiong Basin badland lithologies were determined by XRD, XRF and thin sections. Weathering resistance, process of weathering, and disintegration features were studied by weathering experiments under natural conditions. Weathering profiles can be easily divided into four layers: regolith, a strongly weathered layer, a poorly weathered layer, and an unweathered sediment. The depth of the weathering profile is influenced by the weathering resistance of the soft rock. Weathering resistance affects the erosion rate and evolution of landforms in badlands by influencing the rate from unweathered rock to regolith. Analyzed sediments have high content of illite and illite-smectite interstratifications. This composition of clay minerals together with poor sediment consolidation jointly leads to weathering prone sediment. The weathering and disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands has a close relationship with rainfall. Sheet erosion, a kind of solid-liquid phase flow, formed in the regolith of the badland during rainfall events and can be the most instrumental to erosion. The mineral composition and liquidity plasticity index were also analyzed, and the results show that the regolith are low liquid limit silts with liquid limit of 21%-25%, plastic limit of 13%-18% and plasticity index

  10. Plutonium as a tracer for soil erosion assessment in northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yihong [School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Qiao, Jixin [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Pan, Shaoming, E-mail: span@nju.edu.cn [School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Hou, Xiaolin, E-mail: xiho@dtu.dk [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Xi' an AMS Center, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, CAS, Xi' an 710075 (China); Roos, Per [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Cao, Liguo [School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental and agricultural problems faced by human society. Assessing intensity is an important issue for controlling soil erosion and improving eco-environmental quality. The suitability of the application of plutonium (Pu) as a tracer for soil erosion assessment in northeast China was investigated by comparing with that of {sup 137}Cs. Here we build on preliminary work, in which we investigated the potential of Pu as a soil erosion tracer by sampling additional reference sites and potential erosive sites, along the Liaodong Bay region in northeast China, for Pu isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratios in all samples were approximately 0.18, which indicated that the dominant source of Pu was the global fallout. Pu showed very similar distribution patterns to those of {sup 137}Cs at both uncultivated and cultivated sites. {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations in all uncultivated soil cores followed an exponential decline with soil depth, whereas at cultivated sites, Pu was homogenously distributed in plow horizons. Factors such as planted crop types, as well as methods and frequencies of irrigation and tillage were suggested to influence the distribution of radionuclides in cultivated land. The baseline inventories of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 137}Cs were 88.4 and 1688 Bq m{sup −2} respectively. Soil erosion rates estimated by {sup 239+240}Pu tracing method were consistent with those obtained by the {sup 137}Cs method, confirming that Pu is an effective tracer with a similar tracing behavior to that of {sup 137}Cs for soil erosion assessment. - Highlights: • The potential for the use of Pu as a soil erosion tracer was investigated. • Pu would be a good tracer given its long half-life. • Depth profiles of Pu in soils were systematically studied and compared to {sup 137}Cs. • Pu is an effective soil erosion tracer with behavior similar to that of {sup 137}Cs. • Thus, Pu provides a means of

  11. Study of the genus Gomphocerippus (Orthoptera, Acridoidea, Acrididae, Gomphocerinae) with a new species from northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Jian; Ren, Bing-Zhong; Li, An

    2016-02-04

    A new species Gomphocerippus longipennis Li & Ren sp. nov. of the genus Gomphocerippus Roberts, 1941 is described and illustrated from the most northern region of China. The new species is allied to Gomphocerippus rufus (Linnaeus, 1758), but differs from the latter by length of lateral foveola 3.0 times width, tegmina partially surpassing the apex of hind femur, costal area of tegmina in male 1.5 times of subcostal area in width and media area of tegmina in male 1.2 times cubital area in width. The type specimens are deposited in the Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resource Conservation and Utilization, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin, China.

  12. Atherogenic Index of Plasma Predicts Hyperuricemia in Rural Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ye; Li, Yuan; Guo, Xiaofan; Guo, Liang; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-09-02

    We aimed to determine the association of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) with hyperuricemia (HUA) in the rural population of northeast China. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of northeast China from January 2012 to August 2013, and the final analysis included data obtained form 5253 men and 6092 women. 1104 participants (9.7%) suffered from HUA. Spearman rank test showed that AIP was positively correlated with uric acid in both sexes (r = 0.310 for men and r = 0.347 for women, both p 0.21) risk. The prevalence of HUA increased with AIP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, compared to the low AIP group, participants in increased AIP group had a 2.536-fold risk for HUA (2.164-fold in male and 2.960-fold in female) after adjustment for covariates. Results of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the area under the curve (95% confidence intervals) was 0.686 (0.665-0.707) for male and 0.730 (0.706-0.755) for female. We indicated that increased AIP was associated with higher serum uric acid levels and could be identified as an independent risk factor of HUA in the rural population of northeast China.

  13. Atherogenic Index of Plasma Predicts Hyperuricemia in Rural Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the association of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP with hyperuricemia (HUA in the rural population of northeast China. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of northeast China from January 2012 to August 2013, and the final analysis included data obtained form 5253 men and 6092 women. 1104 participants (9.7% suffered from HUA. Spearman rank test showed that AIP was positively correlated with uric acid in both sexes (r = 0.310 for men and r = 0.347 for women, both p < 0.001. AIP was classified into three groups: the low (<0.11, the intermediate (0.11–0.21 and the increased (>0.21 risk. The prevalence of HUA increased with AIP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, compared to the low AIP group, participants in increased AIP group had a 2.536-fold risk for HUA (2.164-fold in male and 2.960-fold in female after adjustment for covariates. Results of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the area under the curve (95% confidence intervals was 0.686 (0.665–0.707 for male and 0.730 (0.706–0.755 for female. We indicated that increased AIP was associated with higher serum uric acid levels and could be identified as an independent risk factor of HUA in the rural population of northeast China.

  14. Geology of permian basin in the northeast of Uruguay: Sedimentology exam about uranium trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Homer, A; Manigault, B; Doyhernart, A; Rossi, P; Spoturno, J; De Santana, H; Vaz Chaves, N.

    1982-01-01

    The Uranium project was prepared from BRGM to DINAMIGE. Its has got three zones of investigation: zone 1 composed by precambrian basin in the N W; zone 2 the precambrian insular shelf and rocks belts; zone 3 wich include parts of the basin Cretaceous in Salto and Santa Lucia

  15. Allometric models for aboveground biomass of ten tree species in northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Cai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available China contains 119 million hectares of natural forest, much of which is secondary forest. An accurate estimation of the biomass of these forests is imperative because many studies conducted in northeast China have only used primary forest and this may have resulted in biased estimates. This study analyzed secondary forest in the area using information from a forest inventory to develop allometric models of the aboveground biomass (AGB. The parameter values of the diameter at breast height (DBH, tree height (H, and crown length (CL were derived from a forest inventory of 2,733 trees in a 3.5 ha plot. The wood-specific gravity (WSG was determined for 109 trees belonging to ten species. A partial sampling method was also used to determine the biomass of branches (including stem, bark and foliage in 120 trees, which substantially easy the field works. The mean AGB was 110,729 kg ha–1. We developed four allometric models from the investigation and evaluated the utility of other 19 published ones for AGB in the ten tree species. Incorporation of full range of variables with WSG-DBH-H-CL, significantly improved the precision of the models. Some of models were chosen that best fitted each tree species with high precision (R2 = 0.939, SEE 0.167. At the latitude level, the estimated AGBof secondary forest was lower than that in mature primary forests, but higher than that in primary broadleaf forest and the average level in other types of forest likewise. 

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of being overweight or obese among children and adolescents in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofan; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Shasha; Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Xingang; Sun, Zhaoqing; Sun, Yingxian

    2013-10-01

    We determined the prevalence and risk profiles of being overweight or obese among children and adolescents in rural northeast China. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisting of 4,094 children and adolescents aged 5-18 y. Anthropometric measurements and information on health-related variables were collected by well-trained personnel. Odds ratios (ORs) are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall prevalence of subjects who were overweight or obese was 21.8% (15.4% overweight and 6.4% obese). Among boys, getting more sleep was found to be a protective factor against being overweight or obese, and a higher monthly family income (2,000-5,000 Chinese yuan (CNY); 1 CNY = 0.163 US dollar) was associated with an increased risk as compared with lower incomes. For girls, not having breakfast every day conferred higher odds of being overweight or obese (OR, 1.45 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.91)). When both parents were overweight, this increased the risk of a child being overweight or obese in both boy (overweight father: OR, 1.54 (95% CI, 1.26-1.89); overweight mother: OR, 1.73 (95% CI, 1.35-2.22)) and girl participants (overweight father: OR, 2.01 (95% CI, 1.57-2.57); overweight mother: OR, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.07-1.96)). The prevalence of pediatric obesity in rural China was relatively high. Risk profiles should be fully considered when planning prevention and treatment programs for pediatric obesity.

  17. Predictable and unpredictable modes of seasonal mean precipitation over Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Kairan; Frederiksen, Carsten S.; Zhao, Tianbao; Zheng, Xiaogu; Xiong, Zhe; Yi, Xue; Li, Chunxiang

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the patterns of interannual variability that arise from the potentially predictable (slow) and unpredictable (intraseasonal) components of seasonal mean precipitation over Northeast (NE) China, using observations from a network of 162 meteorological stations for the period 1961-2014. A variance decomposition method is applied to identify the sources of predictability, as well as the sources of prediction uncertainty, for January-February-March (JFM), April-May-June (AMJ), July-August-September (JAS) and October-November-December (OND). The averaged potential predictability (ratio of slow to total variance) of NE China precipitation has the highest value of 0.32 during JAS and lowest value of 0.1 in AMJ. Possible sources of seasonal prediction for the leading predictable precipitation EOF modes come from the SST anomalies in the Japan Sea, as well as the North Atlantic during JFM, the Indian Ocean SST in AMJ, and the eastern tropical Pacific SST in JAS and OND. The prolonged linear trend, which is seen in the principal component time series of the leading predictable mode in JFM and OND, may also serve as a source of predictability. The Polar-Eurasia and Northern Annular Mode atmospheric teleconnection patterns are closely connected with the leading and the second predictable mode of JAS, respectively. The Hadley cell circulation is closely related to the leading predictable mode of OND. The leading/second unpredictable precipitation modes for all these four seasons show a similar monopole/dipole structure, and can be largely attributed to the intraseasonal variabilities of the atmosphere.

  18. The dose-response analysis between BMI and common chronic diseases in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianxing; Tao, Yuchun; Dou, Jing; Ye, Junsen; Yu, Yaqin; Jin, Lina

    2018-03-09

    High body mass index (BMI) predisposes to several chronic diseases, but a large-scale systematic and detailed study of dose-response relationship between BMI and chronic diseases has not been reported previously. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between BMI and 3 chronic diseases (hypertension, dyslipidemia and MetS) in northeast China. A sample of 16412 participants aged 18~79 years old were included in Jilin province in 2012. The lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method was applied to examine the trend of BMI by age, and the restricted cubic splines were used to investigate the non-linear associations (dose-response curve) between BMI and chronic diseases. It was pointed out that BMI increased rapidly when young, then kept steady in middle age, and finally declined slowly in old age, and accordingly age was divided into 3 segments, which were different by gender. The odds ratios (ORs) of BMI for the chronic diseases increased relatively slowly when young, then increased dramatically in middle-age and old population, especially for men. Further, the ORs of BMI among non-smokers were lower than those among smokers, and the same trend was shown to be more apparent among drinkers and non-drinkers. The risk of BMI for common chronic diseases increased dramatically in middle-aged, especially for men with drinking and smoking habits.

  19. [Simulation of urban expansion based on SLEUTH model in Fuxin City, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Hua; Hu, Yuan-Man; Huang, Pei-Quan

    2014-09-01

    Urban expansion was simulated by SLEUTH model based on the data of Fuxin City, Northeast China in 1997-2013. The optimal parameters of urban expansion were obtained from SLEUTH model calibration, with the diffusion coefficient as 6, breed coefficient as 64, spread coefficient as 44, slope resistance as 52 and road gravity as 90. Urban growth types in Fuxin mainly belonged to new center growth and edge growth, i.e., the further expansion of new and old urban centers. Urban expansion was greatly influenced by roads. Fuxin, as a resource-exhausted city, suffered from the natural disasters, such as landslides, subsidence, and so on. The slope resistance of urban expansion was large in the development of urban land. From the perspective of urban scale, road gravity in smaller city was greater than in larger city. The urban expansion in smaller city was more inclined to the new center growth. The locations of enterprises and new development zones were more interested in the area of good transport facilities. Meanwhile, they were inclined to new center growth. Urban expansions were simulated based on optimal parameters of SLEUTH model. The simulated result of edge growth was better than the simulated result of new spreading center growth, because new spreading center growth was susceptible to policymaking, and cellular influence was little. The simulated accuracy of urban land in 2001, 2006, 2010 and 2013 was high.

  20. Diet and brain cancer in adults: a case-control study in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; La Vecchia, C; Negri, E; Chatenoud, L; Bosetti, C; Jia, X; Liu, R; Huang, G; Bi, D; Wang, C

    1999-03-31

    A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the Heilongjiang Province of northeast China between May 1993 and May 1995. A total of 129 histologically confirmed brain cancer cases (73 gliomas and 56 meningiomas) and 258 matched controls were interviewed in 6 major hospitals to examine the influence of dietary factors in developing brain cancer. Information was obtained about frequency of consumption of 57 food items. Odds ratios (ORs) were obtained from conditional logistic regression, including allowance for socio-demographic factors, alcohol, tobacco and total energy intake. Consumption of fresh vegetables (OR = 0.29 for the highest quartile compared with the lowest one), and specifically of Chinese cabbage and onion, fruit (OR = 0.15), fresh fish (OR = 0.38) and poultry (OR = 0.16) was inversely related to the risk of developing brain cancer. A protective effect was also seen for vitamin E intake, calcium and, although non-significantly, beta-carotene and vitamin C. Risk of brain cancer increased with consumption of salted vegetables (OR = 2.54) and salted fish.

  1. Bioassay-directed identification of toxicants in sediments of Liaohe River, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Xu, Jian; Guo, Changsheng; Lv, Jiapei; Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Contaminants accumulated in sediments may directly harm benthic organisms, however, the specific contaminants responsible for adverse effects have been poorly described. In this study, a bioassay-directed analysis combined with toxicity tests and chemistry analysis was conducted to determine the compounds eliciting the greatest toxicological effect in the sediments in Liaohe River, northeast China. A total of 24 sediment samples were examined to determine their acute toxicity to midge Chironomus tentans (C. tentans). Of these samples, 15 exhibited significant toxicity, with a mortality of 23%-93% (p organochlorine pesticides, 6 organophosphate pesticides, 8 pyrethroids, and 5 heavy metals were analyzed. On the basis of toxic unit (TU) analysis results, pyrethroids may contribute to the toxicity of 9 of the 15 toxic samples with concentrations of >1 TU. The significant correlation between the TUs of pyrethroids and the mortality of C. tentans (r 2  = 0.74, p < 0.01) confirmed the major role of pyrethroids in toxicity. The selected sediment samples responding to piperonyl butoxide and low temperature with the increased toxicity exhibited the characteristics of pyrethroids. The bioassay-based screening framework provided strong evidence that pyrethroids were the primary cause of sediment toxicity in Liaohe River. Further studies should therefore be conducted to regulate this important class of pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Land-use changes influence soil bacterial communities in a meadow grassland in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chengyou; Zhang, Ying; Qian, Wei; Liang, Caiping; Wang, Congmin; Tao, Shuang

    2017-10-01

    The conversion of natural grassland into agricultural fields is an intensive anthropogenic perturbation commonly occurring in semiarid regions, and this perturbation strongly affects soil microbiota. In this study, the influences of land-use conversion on the soil properties and bacterial communities in the Horqin Grasslands in Northeast China were assessed. This study aimed to investigate (1) how the abundances of soil bacteria changed across land-use types, (2) how the structure of the soil bacterial community was altered in each land-use type, and (3) how these variations were correlated with soil physical and chemical properties. Variations in the diversities and compositions of bacterial communities and the relative abundances of dominant taxa were detected in four distinct land-use systems, namely, natural meadow grassland, paddy field, upland field, and poplar plantation, through the high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing technique. The results indicated that land-use changes primarily affected the soil physical and chemical properties and bacterial community structure. Soil properties, namely, organic matter, pH, total N, total P, available N and P, and microbial biomass C, N, and P, influenced the bacterial community structure. The dominant phyla and genera were almost the same among the land-use types, but their relative abundances were significantly different. The effects of land-use changes on the structure of soil bacterial communities were more quantitative than qualitative.

  3. Research on snow cover monitoring of Northeast China using Fengyun Geostationary Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Zhou, TIngting

    2017-09-01

    Snow cover information has great significance for monitoring and preventing snowstorms. With the development of satellite technology, geostationary satellites are playing more important roles in snow monitoring. Currently, cloud interference is a serious problem for obtaining accurate snow cover information. Therefore, the cloud pixels located in the MODIS snow products are usually replaced by cloud-free pixels around the day, which ignores snow cover dynamics. FengYun-2(FY-2) is the first generation of geostationary satellite in our country which complements the polar orbit satellite. The snow cover monitoring of Northeast China using FY-2G data in January and February 2016 is introduced in this paper. First of all, geometric and radiometric corrections are carried out for visible and infrared channels. Secondly, snow cover information is extracted according to its characteristics in different channels. Multi-threshold judgment methods for the different land types and similarity separation techniques are combined to discriminate snow and cloud. Furthermore, multi-temporal data is used to eliminate cloud effect. Finally, the experimental results are compared with the MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 (MODIS daily snow cover) product. The MODIS product can provide higher resolution of the snow cover information in cloudless conditions. Multi-temporal FY-2G data can get more accurate snow cover information in cloudy conditions, which is beneficial for monitoring snowstorms and climate changes.

  4. Differences of the changes in soil temperature of cold and mid-temperate zones, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wu, Zhengfang; He, Hongshi; Du, Haibo; Wang, Lei; Guo, Xiangyu; Zhao, Weihong

    2017-10-01

    Rapid changes in soil temperature are unequivocal under global change, especially in mid-high latitudes. Studies on the relationships between soil temperature and climate system are lacking at regional climatic scale. Here, changes in shallow soil temperature (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 cm), both in the cold temperate zone (CTZ) and the mid-temperate zone (MTZ) in Northeast China, were compared and analyzed using daily data from growing seasons (May to September) from 1964 to 2011. The influences of air temperature and precipitation on soil temperature were analyzed. The results showed that for nearly half a century, the increasing trend of surface soil temperature in the CTZ was lower than that in the MTZ, with + 0.17 and + 0.54 °C/decade, respectively. Air temperature increased faster for the MTZ than the CTZ. Precipitation increased in the CTZ but decreased in the MTZ. Since 1996, the temperature increase and precipitation decrease were more obvious in the MTZ. In summary, given the complex effects of temperature and precipitation, the response of soil temperature was more significant in the MTZ than in the CTZ. These results emphasize the importance of independently researching soil temperature of different climate zones. Susceptibility of soil temperature to global warming will advance our understanding on utilization of climatic resources in the development of agricultural production.

  5. Occurrence and Removal Characteristics of Phthalate Esters from Typical Water Sources in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of phthalate esters (PAEs in the environment has gained a considerable attention due to their potential impacts on public health. This study reports the first data on the occurrence of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir—the new and important water source of Harbin city in Northeast China. As drinking water is a major source for human exposure to PAEs, the fate of target PAEs in the two waterworks (Mopanshan Waterworks and Seven Waterworks was also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the total concentrations of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir were relatively moderate, ranging from 355.8 to 9226.5 ng/L, with the mean value of 2943.1 ng/L. DBP and DEHP dominated the PAE concentrations, which ranged from 52.5 to 4498.2 ng/L and 128.9 to 6570.9 ng/L, respectively. The occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were heavily spatially dependent. Meanwhile, the results on the waterworks samples suggested no significant differences in PAE levels with the input of the raw waters. Without effective and stable removal of PAEs after the conventional drinking water treatment in the waterworks (25.8% to 76.5%, the risks posed by PAEs through drinking water ingestion were still existing, which should be paid special attention to the source control in the Mopanshan Reservoir and some advanced treatment processes for drinking water supplies.

  6. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities.

  7. Continuous measurement of leaf area index (LAI) over broadleaf crop fields in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H.; Ye, Y.; Liu, W.; Wei, S.; Ma, L.

    2017-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the essential climate variables used in many ecological and land surface process models. Global LAI products have been provided routinely by many remote sensing projects. Reliable and consistent LAI estimates are a priority for LAI validation study and the application communities. In situ LAI measurements are a critical component of our ongoing global LAI validation efforts. Automatic methods, e.g., PASTIS-57, and smartphone applications (APPs) have become increasingly available for efficient field LAI measurements. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of automatic and portable smartphone LAI measurements together with traditional indirect optical LAI measurements. A seasonal field campaign was carried out to take continuous LAI measurements over corn, soybean, and sorghum fields in northeast China in 2016. Field LAI measurement was made with the automatic PASTIS-57, two smartphone applications, PocketLAI and LAISmart, and two handheld optical instruments, LAI-2200 and digital hemispherical photography (DHP). The results show that PASTIS-57 provides a convenient and accurate LAI estimation method as compared to LAI-2200 and DHP. LAI estimates from smartphone applications are generally smaller than the LAI-2200 and DHP values. In addition to the LAI measurements, continuous clumping index (CI) measurements were also obtained. The seasonal continuous LAI and CI measurements obtained from this study are valuable for the validation of remote sensing products.

  8. Plutonium in soils from northeast China and its potential application for evaluation of soil erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Pan, Shaoming

    2013-12-16

    Surface and soil core samples from northeast China were analyzed for Pu isotopes. The measured (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratios and (239 + 240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios revealed that the global fallout is the dominant source of Pu and (137)Cs at these sites. Migration behavior of Pu varying with land type and human activities resulted in different distribution of Pu in surface soils. A sub-surface maximum followed by exponential decline of (239 + 240)Pu concentrations was observed in an undisturbed soil core, with a total (239 + 240)Pu inventory of 86.9 Bq/m(2) and more than 85% accumulated in 0 ~ 20 cm layers. While only half inventory of Pu was obtained in another soil core and no sub-surface maximum value occurred. Erosion of topsoil in the site should be the most possible reason for the significantly lower Pu inventory, which is also supported by the reported (137)Cs profiles. These results demonstrated that Pu could be applied as an ideal substitute of (137)Cs for soil erosion study in the future.

  9. Vegetation Cover based on Eagleson's Ecohydrological Optimality in Northeast China Transect (NECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Z.; Mo, K.; Qinshu, L.; Zhang, L.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation is considered as the indicator of climate, thus the study of vegetation growth and distribution is of great importance to cognize the ecosystem construction and functions. Vegetation cover is used as an important index to describe vegetation conditions. In Eagleson's ecohydrological optimality, the theoretical optimal vegetation cover M* can be estimated by solving water balance equations. In this study, the theory is applied in the Northeast China Transect (NECT), one of International Geosphere-Biosphere Programs (IGBP) terrestrial transects. The spatial distribution of actual vegetation cover M, which is derived from Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), shows that there is a significant gradient ranging from 1 in the east forests to 0 in the west desert. The result indicates that the theoretical M* fits the actual M well (for forest, M* = 0.822 while M = 0.826; for grassland, M* = 0.353 while M = 0.352; the correlation coefficient between M and M* is 0.81). The reasonable calculated proportion of water balance components further demonstrates the applicability of the ecohydrological optimality theory. M* increases with the increase of LAI, leaf angle, stem fraction and temperature, and decreases with the increase of precipitation amount. This method offers the possibility to analyze the impacts of climate change to vegetation cover quantitatively, thus providing advices for eco-restoration projects.

  10. Dynamics of methane emissions from a freshwater marsh of northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wenyan; Song, Changchun; Zhang, Jinbo [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academic Science, Changchun Jilin, 130012 (China)

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, CH{sub 4} flux was measured from Nov. 2002 to Oct. 2005, to estimate CH{sub 4} emissions in winter and during freeze-thaw period, and interannual variation in CH{sub 4} emissions in freshwater marsh in northeast China. The results showed that there was an obvious CH{sub 4} emission (0.1-2.3 mg m{sup -2} h{sup -1}) in the freshwater marsh in winter. Flux of CH{sub 4} in winter (November to March the next year) was about 3.8%, 5.5%, and 2.2% of the whole year in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively. Emission of CH{sub 4} significantly increased during the freeze-thaw period (April-June), and was about 30.8%, 20.9%, and 20.6% of the whole year in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively. Standing water depth greatly governed interannual variation of CH{sub 4} emissions from marshes during the thaw-freeze period. Interannual variation of CH{sub 4} emissions was significant during the growing season (p<0.05). Standing water depth during April to June was a primary factor, which affected the interannual variation of CH{sub 4} flux during the growing season. Precipitation during the preceding non-growing season affected CH{sub 4} emission indirectly via standing water depth. (author)

  11. Comparison of three NDVI time-series fitting methods in crop phenology detection in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Tao, Fulu

    2014-03-01

    Phenological changes of cropland are the pivotal basis for farm management, agricultural production, and climate change research. Over the past decades, a range of methods have been used to extract phenological events based on satellite derived continuous vegetation index time series, however, large uncertainties still exist. In this study, three smoothing methods were compared to reduce the potential uncertainty and to quantify crop green-up dates over Northeast China. The results indicated that the crop spring onset dates estimated by three methods show variance in the dates, but with similar spatial pattern. In 60% of the study area, the standard deviation (SD) of the estimated starting date from different method is less than 10 days, while 39.5% of total pixels have SDs between 10days and 30 days. Through comparative analysis against the observation phenological data, we concluded that Asymmetric Gaussians produced the most approximative results of all, followed by Double Logistic algorithm, and Savizky-Glolay algorithm performed worst. The starting dates of crops occur mostly between May and June in this region. The Savitzky-Golay has the earliest estimates, while the Asymmetric Gaussians and Double logistic fitting method show similar and later estimates, which are more consistent with the observed data.

  12. Comparison of three NDVI time-series fitting methods in crop phenology detection in Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Meng; Tao, Fulu

    2014-01-01

    Phenological changes of cropland are the pivotal basis for farm management, agricultural production, and climate change research. Over the past decades, a range of methods have been used to extract phenological events based on satellite derived continuous vegetation index time series, however, large uncertainties still exist. In this study, three smoothing methods were compared to reduce the potential uncertainty and to quantify crop green-up dates over Northeast China. The results indicated that the crop spring onset dates estimated by three methods show variance in the dates, but with similar spatial pattern. In 60% of the study area, the standard deviation (SD) of the estimated starting date from different method is less than 10 days, while 39.5% of total pixels have SDs between 10days and 30 days. Through comparative analysis against the observation phenological data, we concluded that Asymmetric Gaussians produced the most approximative results of all, followed by Double Logistic algorithm, and Savizky-Glolay algorithm performed worst. The starting dates of crops occur mostly between May and June in this region. The Savitzky-Golay has the earliest estimates, while the Asymmetric Gaussians and Double logistic fitting method show similar and later estimates, which are more consistent with the observed data

  13. Characteristics of petroleum-contaminated groundwater during natural attenuation: a case study in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Zhang, Yuling; Wang, Jiali; Si, Chaoqun; Chen, Zaixing

    2018-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate a petroleum-contaminated groundwater site in northeast China. We determined the physicochemical properties of groundwater that contained total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with a view to developing a scientifically robust strategy for controlling and remediating pollution of groundwater already contaminated with petroleum. Samples were collected at regular intervals and were analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), iron (Fe 3+ ), sulfate (SO 4 2- ), electrical conductivity (Eh), pH, hydrogen carbonate (HCO 3 - ), and enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (HRP), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O). We used factor analysis in SPSS to determine the main environmental characteristics of the groundwater samples. The results confirmed that the study site was slightly contaminated and that TPH levels were decreasing slightly. Some of the physicochemical variables showed regular fluctuations; DO, Fe 3+ , and SO 4 2- contents decreased gradually, while the concentrations of one of the microbial degradation products, HCO 3 - , increased. Microorganism enzyme activities decreased gradually. The microbiological community deteriorated noticeably during the natural attenuation process, so microbiological degradation of pollutants receded gradually. The HCO 3 - content increased and the pH and Eh decreased gradually. The groundwater environment tended to be reducing.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Saponin-Producing Fungal Endophytes from Aralia elata in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of endophytic fungi of Aralia elata distributed in Northeast China as well as their capacity to produce saponins. Ninety-six strains of endophytic fungi were isolated, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing were employed to identify the isolates. The saponin concentrations of the culture filtrates of representative strains were measured. The agar diffusion method was used to test antimicrobial activity, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to identify the saponins produced by representative strains. Alternaria, Botryosphaeria, Camarosporium, Cryptosporiopsis, Diaporthe, Dictyochaeta, Penicillium, Fusarium, Nectria, Peniophora, Schizophyllum, Cladosporium and Trichoderma species were isolated in this study. Overall, 25% of the isolates belonged to Diaporthe (Diaporthe eres, and 12.5% belonged to Alternaria. The highest concentration of saponins was produced by G22 (2.049 mg/mL. According to the results of the phylogenetic analysis, G22 belonged to the genus Penicillium. The culture filtrate of G22 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and ginsenosides Re and Rb2 were detected in G22 culture filtrates by HPLC.

  15. Barriers and benefits to desired behaviors for single use plastic items in northeast Ohio's Lake Erie basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Jill F; Hardy, Scott D

    2018-02-01

    Given the growing saliency of plastic marine debris, and the impact of plastics on beaches and aquatic environments in the Laurentian Great Lakes, applied research is needed to support municipal and nongovernmental campaigns to prevent debris from reaching the water's edge. This study addresses this need by examining the barriers and benefits to positive behavior for two plastic debris items in northeast Ohio's Lake Erie basin: plastic bags and plastic water bottles. An online survey is employed to gather data on the use and disposal of these plastic items and to solicit recommendations on how to positively change behavior to reduce improper disposal. Results support a ban on plastic bags and plastic water bottles, with more enthusiasm for a bag ban. Financial incentives are also seen as an effective way to influence behavior change, as are location-specific solutions focused on education and outreach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fishes from the Itapecuru River basin, State of Maranhão, northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Barros

    Full Text Available The Itapecuru is a relatively large river in the northeastern Brazilian state of Maranhão. During several expeditions to this basin, we collected 69 fish species belonging to 65 genera, 29 families and 10 orders. Characiformes and Siluriformes were the orders with the largest number of species and Characidae, Loricariidae, Cichlidae, Auchenipteridae and Pimelodidae were the richest families. About 30% of the fish fauna of the Itapecuru basin is endemic or restricted to northeastern Brazil. Just over a fifth (22% of the species is also known to occur in the Amazon basin and only a few are more widely distributed in South American.

  17. Geological evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the Hatton Basin (UK sector), north-east Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    McInroy, David; Hitchen, Ken

    2008-01-01

    The deep-water Hatton Basin (flanked by the Hatton and Rockall Highs) is located 600km west of Scotland (NE Atlantic Ocean) on the western margin of the Eurasian continental plate. Prior to Atlantic opening the area was adjacent to SE Greenland. The basin straddles the UK/Irish median line. Water depths increase southwards from 1000m to over 1300m. The basin has never been licensed for hydrocarbon exploration and is currently the subject of ownership negotiations related to the UN Conven...

  18. Streamflow distribution maps for the Cannon River drainage basin, southeast Minnesota, and the St. Louis River drainage basin, northeast Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Lorenz, David L.; Jacobsen, Katrin E.

    2017-12-27

    Streamflow distribution maps for the Cannon River and St. Louis River drainage basins were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Legislative-Citizen Commission on Minnesota Resources, to illustrate relative and cumulative streamflow distributions. The Cannon River was selected to provide baseline data to assess the effects of potential surficial sand mining, and the St. Louis River was selected to determine the effects of ongoing Mesabi Iron Range mining. Each drainage basin (Cannon, St. Louis) was subdivided into nested drainage basins: the Cannon River was subdivided into 152 nested drainage basins, and the St. Louis River was subdivided into 353 nested drainage basins. For each smaller drainage basin, the estimated volumes of groundwater discharge (as base flow) and surface runoff flowing into all surface-water features were displayed under the following conditions: (1) extreme low-flow conditions, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.95; (2) low-flow conditions, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.90; (3) a median condition, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.50; and (4) a high-flow condition, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.02.Streamflow distribution maps were developed using flow-duration curve exceedance-probability quantiles in conjunction with Soil-Water-Balance model outputs; both the flow-duration curve and Soil-Water-Balance models were built upon previously published U.S. Geological Survey reports. The selected streamflow distribution maps provide a proactive water management tool for State cooperators by illustrating flow rates during a range of hydraulic conditions. Furthermore, after the nested drainage basins are highlighted in terms of surface-water flows, the streamflows can be evaluated in the context of meeting specific ecological flows under different flow regimes and potentially assist with decisions regarding groundwater and surface

  19. A population-based study on health-related quality of life among urban community residents in Shenyang, Northeast of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tian; Ding, Yan-wei; Sun, Yan; He, Yi-Ni; Qi, Dian-Jun; Wu, Ying; Wu, Bin; Lang, Lang; Yu, Kai; Zhao, Xin; Zhu, Liang-liang; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Xiao-Song

    2015-09-19

    Due to the rising standard of living environment and advances in public health and medical care in China, it has been a tendency in recent years that health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been increasingly acknowledged in community health management. However, large-scale population-based study on evaluating HQRoL in northeast of China was not conducted. This article aims to investigate the HRQoL in community residents in Northeast China and explore the associated factors. Stratified multiple-stage sampling method was used in the cross-sectional survey to investigate HRQoL of community residents in northeast of China. Univariate analysis and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the factors associated to HRQoL of the community residents. The results were confirmed that HRQoL in general population was well performed for the first time in northeast of China in a large scale population. Community residents had better mental health than physical health. The factors influencing HRQoL included gender, age, educational level, marital status, ethnic group, chronic disease status, having breakfast frequency weekly and sleep quality. However, drinking and smoking habits did not affect residents' HRQoL. In this study, the result of the large-scale survey was satisfactory in northeast of China, providing HRQoL status of community residents. Policies on specific health management in community public health would emphasize on lifestyle behaviors especially eating habits in order to improving HRQoL.

  20. A study of soil organic carbon distribution and storage in the Northeast Plain of China

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    Xiaohuan Xi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Employing the Unit Soil Carbon Amount (USCA approach, soil carbon storage was calculated across the Northeast Plain of China based on the Multi-purpose Regional Geochemical Survey conducted in 2004–2006 (MRGS. The results indicated that the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in topsoil (0–0.2 m, subsoil (0–1 m and deep soil (0–1.8 m was 768.1 Mt, 2978.4 Mt and 3729.2 Mt with densities of 3327.8 t/km2, 12,904.7 t/km2 and 16,157.5 t/km2, respectively. These values were consistent with national averages, whereas the soil carbon densities showed a clear increasing trend from the southern area of the Northeast Plain (Liaoning, to the middle (Jilin and the northern Plain (Heilongjiang — particularly in terms of topsoil carbon density, which increased from 2284.2, to 3436.7 and 3861.5 t/km2, respectively. In comparison to carbon data obtained from the Second National Soil Survey in 1984–1986 (SNSS, the topsoil SOC storage values from the MRGS were found to have decreased by 320.59 Mt (29.4%, with an average annual decline of 16.0 Mt (l.73% over the 20 years. In the southern, middle and northern areas of the plain, soil carbon densities decreased by 1060.6 t/km2, 1646.4 t/km2 and 1300.2 t/km2, respectively, with an average value of 1389.0 t/km2 for the whole plain. These findings indicate that the decrease in soil carbon density varied according to the different ecosystems and land-use types. Therefore, ratios of soil carbon density were calculated in order to study the carbon dynamic balance between ecosystems, and to further explore distribution characteristics, as well as the sequestration potential of SOC.

  1. Spectroscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction of trunk fossils from the Parnaíba Basin, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Wemerson J; Santos, F Eroni P; Cisneros, Juan C; da Silva, João H; Freire, Paulo T C; Viana, Bartolomeu C

    2015-01-25

    The Parnaiba Sedimentary Basin is of the Paleozoic age and is located in Northeast Brazil, covering the states of Piauí, Maranhão and Tocantins and a small part of Ceará and Pará. In this work we applied several chemical analytical techniques to characterize trunk fossils found in the Parnaíba Sedimentary Basin, collected from four different sites, and discuss their fossilization process. We performed a study of the trunk fossils through X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The analysis allow us to identify the different compositions which are present in the trunk fossils: kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), hematite (Fe2O3) and quartz (SiO2). Based in these results we were able to identify that the main fossilization mechanism of the trunk fossil was silicification. Furthermore, through Raman spectroscopy, we have observed the presence of carbonaceous materials in the Permian fossils, as evidenced by the D and G Raman bands. The relative intensities and bandwidths of the D and G bands indicated that the carbon has a low crystallinity. Thus, most of trunk fossils analyzed were permineralized and not petrified, because there is the presence of carbon that characterizes the partial decomposition of the organic matter in some trunks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Geological evolution history of petroliferous basins on continental shelf of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidesheng

    1983-03-01

    Coastlines of China are about 18,000 km (11,118 mi) in length, and their aggregate continental shelf area within 200 m (656 ft) seawater depth is more than one million km/sup 2/ (386,102 mi/sup 2/). Recent geophysical exploration work and numerous petroleum drilling records are available and give a general understanding of the geological evolution history of these petroliferous basins. There are two tectonic types of basins distributed on the continental shelf areas: the tectonic types of Bohai Gulf, South Yellow Sea, and Beibu Gulf basins are the intraplate polyphase rifting-depression basins; the East China Sea, Pearl River mouth, and Yingge Sea basin are the epicontinental rifting-depression basins. They are believed to be extensional in origin. Because of the severe convergence of Indian plate with Eurasia plate, there has been produced NNE-spreading movement of the South China Sea basin, which permits two triple junctions on its northern margins. The extension mechanism could be derived from the rising of an upper mantle plume to produce two NNE weak fracturing zones, resulting in a series of intraplate and epicontinental rifting-depression basins. The depositional models and sea-level variations of these basins are interpreted from the drilling records and seismic profiles. They can be explained by the tectono-eustatic changes in sea level and Cenozoic climate changes of China.

  3. Model elucidating the sources and formation mechanisms of severe haze pollution over Northeast mega-city cluster in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Gbaguidi, Alex; Yan, Pingzhong; Zhang, Wending; Zhu, Lili; Yao, Xuefeng; Wang, Zifa; Chen, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies on regional haze pollution over China come up in general with strong variability of main causes of heavy polluted episodes, in linkage with local specificities, sources and pollution characteristics. This paper therefore aims at elucidating the main specific sources and formation mechanisms of observed strong haze pollution episodes over 1-15 November 2015 in Northeast region considered as one of biggest megacity clusters in China. The Northeast China mega-city cluster, including Heilong Jiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces, is adjacent to Russia in the north, Mongolian at the west, North Korea at east, and representing key geographical location in the regional and transnational air pollution issues in China due to the presence of heavy industries and intense economic activities. The present study, based on air quality monitoring, remote sensing satellite data and sensitivity experiments carried on the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS), quantitatively assesses the impact of meteorological conditions and potential contributions from regional chemical transport, intensive energy combustion, illegal emission and biomass burning emissions to PM 2.5 concentration variation. The results indicate strong inversion occurrence at lower atmosphere with weak near-surface wind speed and high relative humidity, leading to PM 2.5 concentration increase of about 30-50%. Intensive energy combustion (plausibly for heating activities) and illegal emission also significantly enhance the overall PM 2.5 accumulation by 100-200 μg m -3 (60-70% increase), against 75-100 μg m -3 from the biomass burning under the northeast-southwest transport pathway, corresponding to a contribution of 10-20% to PM 2.5 concentration increase. Obviously, stagnant meteorological conditions, energy combustion, illegal emission and biomass burning are main drivers of strong haze formation and spatial distribution over Northeast China megacity cluster. In clear, much

  4. Investigation of the Optical Properties of Aerosols over the Coastal Region at Dalian, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hujia Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD and the Ångström exponent were retrieved from level 1.5 data obtained by the CE318 sun photometer at Dalian monitoring station from April 2007 to April 2012 to characterize the aerosol spatial and temporal characteristics in this coastal region of Northeast China. The results suggest that the highest mean ± SD value for the AOD over Dalian occurred in the month of July (0.86 ± 0.45, whereas a lower value was observed in the month of January (0.42 ± 0.31. The monthly mean Ångström exponent was at a maximum (about 1.27 in September and October and the minimum value of about 0.60 was recorded in March. The frequency distributions of the AOD and Ångström exponent at Dalian both presented a single peak distribution, with peak values of 0.26 and 1.06, respectively. The scatter grams of the AOD and Ångström exponent suggested that the aerosol size in Dalian was affected by both fine and coarse particles in different seasons. The spectral difference in Ångström exponent wavelength pairs between 440–675 and 675–870 nm indicate that high AOD440 nm values (>1.50 could be clearly identified by the fine mode growth in summer and the addition of coarse mode particles in spring over Dalian. The AOD440 nm value on a foggy day was almost 2.15 times larger than that on a day with high levels of dust. The Ångström exponents (440–870 nm were about 0.13 and 1.46 on the days with high levels of dust and on the foggy days, respectively.

  5. Environmental Influences on Forest Fire Regime in the Greater Hinggan Mountains, Northeast China

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    Qian Fan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fires are the major disturbances in the Greater Hinggan Mountains, the only boreal forest in Northeast China. A comprehensive understanding of the fire regimes and influencing environmental parameters driving them from small to large fires is critical for effective forest fire prevention and management. Assisted with satellite imagery, topographic data, and climatic records in this region, this study examines its fire regimes in terms of ignition causes, frequencies, seasonality, and burned sizes in the period of 1980–2005. We found an upward trend for fire occurrences and burned areas and an elongated fire season over the three decades. The dates of the first fire in a year did not vary largely but those of the last fire were significantly delayed. Topographically, spring fires were prevalent throughout the entire region, while summer fires mainly occurred at higher elevations under severe drought conditions. Fall fires were mostly human-caused in areas at lower elevations with gentle terrains. An ordinal logistic regression revealed temperature and elevation were both significant factors to the fire size severity in spring and summer. Other than that, environmental impacts were different. Precipitation in the preceding year greatly influenced spring fires, while summer fires were significantly affected by wind speed, fuel moisture, and human accessibility. An important message from this study is that distinct seasonal variability and a significantly increasing number of summer and fall fires since the mid-1990s suggest a changing fire regime of the boreal forests in the study area. The observed and modeled results could provide insights on establishing a sustainable, localized forest fire prevention strategy in a seasonal manner.

  6. Nitrogen additions affect litter quality and soil biochemical properties in a peatland of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanyu; Song, Changchun; Meng, Henan; Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Wang, Xianwei; Tan, Wenwen

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a limiting nutrient in many peatland ecosystems. Enhanced N deposition, a major component of global climate change, affects ecosystem carbon (C) balance and alters soil C storage by changing plant and soil properties. However, the effects of enhanced N deposition on peatland ecosystems are poorly understood. We conducted a two-year N additions field experiment in a peatland dominated by Eriophorum vaginatum in the Da Xing’an Mountains, Northeast China. Four levels of N treatments were applied: (1) CK (no N added), (2) N1 (6 g N m−2 yr−1), (3) N2 (12 g N m−2 yr−1), and (4) N3 (24 g N m−2  yr−1). Plant and soil material was harvested at the end of the second growing season. N additions increased litter N and phosphorus (P) content, as well as β-glucosidase, invertase, and acid-phosphatase activity, but decreased litter C:N and C:P ratios. Litter carbon content remained unchanged. N additions increased available NH4+–N and NO3−–N as well as total Gram-positive (Gram+), Gram-negative (Gram−), and total bacterial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) in shallow soil (0–15 cm depth). An increase in these PLFAs was accompanied by a decrease in soil labile organic C (microbial biomass carbon and dissolved organic carbon), and appeared to accelerate decomposition and reduce the stability of the soil C pool. Invertase and urease activity in shallow soils and acid-phosphatase activity in deep soils (15–30 cm depth) was inhibited by N additions. Together, these findings suggest that an increase in N deposition in peatlands could accelerate litter decomposition and the loss of labile C, as well as alter microbial biomass and function.

  7. Impacts of the 2013 Extreme Flood in Northeast China on Regional Groundwater Depth and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihua Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Flooding’s impact on shallow groundwater is not well investigated. In this study, we analyzed changes in the depth and quality of a regional shallow aquifer in the 10.9 × 104 km2 Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China, following a large flood in the summer of 2013. Pre- (2008–2012 and post-flood records on groundwater table depth and groundwater chemistry were gathered from 20 wells across the region. Spatial variability of groundwater recharge after the flood was assessed and the changes in groundwater quality in the post-flood period were determined. The study found a considerable increase in the groundwater table after the 2013 summer flood across the region, with the largest (3.20 m and fastest (0.80 m·s−1 rising height occurring in western Sanjiang Plain. The rising height and velocity gradually declined from the west to the east of the plain. For the entire region, we estimated an average recharge height of 1.24 m for the four flood months (June to September of 2013. Furthermore, we found that the extreme flood reduced nitrate (NO3− and chloride (Cl− concentrations and electrical conductivity (EC in shallow groundwater in the areas that were close to rivers, but increased NO3− and Cl− concentrations and EC in the areas that were under intensive agricultural practices. As the region’s groundwater storage and quality have been declining due to the rapidly increasing rice cultivation, this study shows that floods should be managed as water resources to ease the local water shortage as well as shallow groundwater pollution.

  8. [Variation of forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Wei; Huang, Mei; Zhai, Yin-Li; Chen, Ke; Gong, Ya-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The forest vegetation carbon stock and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China, were predicted by using Canadian carbon balance model (CBM-CFS3) combining with the forest resource data. The future spatio-temporal distribution and trends of vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate were projected, based on the two scenarios, i. e. with or without afforestation. The result suggested that the total forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon density in Liaoning Province in 2005 were 133.94 Tg and 25.08 t x hm(-2), respectively. The vegetation carbon storage in Quercus was the biggest, while in Robinia pseudoacacia was the least. Both Larix olgensis and broad-leaved forests had higher vegetation carbon densities than others, and the vegetation carbon densities of Pinus tabuliformis, Quercus and Robinia pseudoacacia were close to each other. The spatial distribution of forest vegetation carbon density in Liaoning Province showed a decrease trend from east to west. In the eastern forest area, the future increase of vegetation carbon density would be smaller than those in the northern forest area, because most of the forests in the former part were matured or over matured, while most of the forests in the later part were young. Under the scenario of no afforestation, the future increment of total forest vegetation carbon stock in Liaoning Province would increase gradually, and the total carbon sequestration rate would decrease, while they would both increase significantly under the afforestation scenario. Therefore, afforestation plays an important role in increasing vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate.

  9. Assessment of Paleozoic shale gas resources in the Sichuan Basin of China, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2015-10-14

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 23.9 trillion cubic feet of technically recoverable shale gas resources in Paleozoic formations in the Sichuan Basin of China.

  10. Assessing spatiotemporal variation of drought and its impact on maize yield in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Enliang; Liu, Xingpeng; Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Yongfang; Wang, Cailin; Wang, Rui; Li, Danjun

    2017-10-01

    In the context of global climate change, drought has become an important factor that affects the maize yield in China. To analyse the impact of drought on maize yield loss in Northeast China in current and future climate scenarios, the Composite Meteorological Drought Index (CI) is introduced to reconstruct the following drought indicators: drought accumulative days (DAD), drought accumulative intensity (DAI), and consecutive drought days (CDD). These three drought indicators are used to describe the three-dimensional characteristics of drought in this study. Sen's slope method and three-dimensional copula functions are adopted to analyse the variety of drought features, and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is used to analyse the variations in maize yield. A temporal assessment of the standardized yield residuals series (SYRS) of maize from 1961 to 2014 is conducted. A panel regression model is applied to demonstrate the drought impact on maize yield at various growth stages under the RCP4.5 scenario. The results show that the drought risk level for midwest Jilin Province, western Liaoning, and eastern Heilongjiang increase with global warming in the current scenario. The shorter three-dimensional joint return periods, 44-80 yr, were mainly located in western Jilin Province, Liaodong Peninsula, and northwestern Liaoning. Eastern Heilongjiang has a slightly longer joint return period of 80-100 yr. The SYRS shows a strong statistical correlation with drought indicator variations; drought-prone regions exhibit strong positive correlations. In comparison, excess precipitation regions show strong negative correlations with drought indicators in most growth stages. Drought indicators have a relatively strong association with SYRS at the milky-mature maize growth stage, and the occurrence of drought during this period primarily determines the maize yield changes in the future. Maize yield changes are -2.04%, -2.65% and -1.57% for Liaoning, Jilin, and

  11. Evaluation and simulation of nitrogen mineralization of paddy soils in Mollisols area of Northeast China under waterlogged incubation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling Zhang

    Full Text Available Understanding the nitrogen (N mineralization process and applying appropriate model simulation are key factors in evaluating N mineralization. However, there are few studies of the N mineralization characteristics of paddy soils in Mollisols area of Northeast China.The soils were sampled from the counties of Qingan and Huachuan, which were located in Mollisols area of Northeast China. The sample soil was incubated under waterlogged at 30°C in a controlled temperature cabinet for 161 days (a 2: 1 water: soil ratio was maintained during incubation. Three models, i.e. the single first-order kinetics model, the double first-order kinetics model and the mixed first-order and zero-order kinetics model were used to simulate the cumulative mineralised N (NH4+-N and TSN in the laboratory and waterlogged incubation.During 161 days of waterlogged incubation, the average cumulative total soluble N (TSN, ammonium N (NH4+-N, and soluble organic N (SON was 122.2 mg kg-1, 85.9 mg kg-1, and 36.3 mg kg-1, respectively. Cumulative NH4+-N was significantly (P 0.05 correlated with C/N ratio, cation exchange capacity (CEC, extractable iron (Fe, clay, and sand. When the cumulative NH4+-N and TSN were simulated, the single first-order kinetics model provided the least accurate simulation. The parameter of the double first-order kinetics model also did not represent the actual data well, but the mixed first-order and zero-order kinetics model provided the most accurate simulation, as demonstrated by the estimated standard error, F statistic values, parameter accuracy, and fitting effect.Overall, the results showed that SON was involved with N mineralization process, and the mixed first-order and zero-order kinetics model accurately simulates the N mineralization process of paddy soil in Mollisols area of Northeast China under waterlogged incubation.

  12. Distributions of recent gullies on hillslopes with different slopes and aspects in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dichen; Fan, Haoming; Fan, Xiangguo

    2017-09-17

    Gully erosion is an important environmental problem worldwide and the main process by which water and soil losses occur in the Black Soil Region (BSR) of Northeast China. At the end of 2012, 295,663 gullies were present in this region. However, few studies have examined the gullies of the Black Soil Region as a whole. Studying the distribution of recent gullies can reveal the pattern of gully distribution and can help predict their spatial development according to the soil and water conservation regionalization of China. This study examines the recorded gullies in the BSR of Northeast China, which is included in the first census of water resources in China and in six sub-regions of the soil and water conservation regionalization of China. Specifically, digital elevation model (DEM) data are combined with data on gullies occurring on hillslopes with different slopes and aspects to study the distribution of these features. The results illustrate that gully density, developing gully density, and the proportion of cutting land initially increase with increasing slope up to some threshold value, then decrease as the slope increases further. The patterns of stable gullies are divided into unimodal and bimodal types. Three patterns of gully intensity are identified. The areas and lengths of gullies are larger on sunny slopes, but larger numbers of gullies are present on shaded slopes. In addition, more space is available for gully development in the Hulun Buir hilly and plain sub-region and the Changbai Mountain-Wanda Mountain sub-region than in the other sub-regions.

  13. Temporal and diurnal analysis of trace elements in the Cryospheric water at remote Laohugou basin in northeast Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiwen; Kang, Shichang; Qin, Dahe; Qin, Xiang; Yan, Fangping; Du, Wentao; Wei, Ting

    2017-03-01

    An evaluation of glacial meltwater chemistry is needed under recent dramatic glacier melting when water resources might be significantly impacted. This study investigated trace elements variation in the meltwater stream, and its related aquatic environmental information, at the Laohugou (LHG) glacier basin (4260 m a.s.l.) at a remote location in northeast Tibetan Plateau. We focused on the spatial, temporal and diurnal change of trace elements during the glacier ablation period. Results showed evident elements spatial difference on the glacier surface meltwater, as most of the elements showed increased concentration at the terminus compared to higher elevations sites. Dominant elements in the meltwater were Ba, Sr and Cr, whereas elements with high enrichment factors (EFs) were Sb, Ni, Mo and Zn. Temporal change of some trace elements concentration (e.g. Sc, Cu, and Rb) indicated increasing trend with accelerated snow-ice melting, whereas others (e.g. Ni, Zn, and Pb) showed decreasing trend. We find that, trace elements showed evident diurnal change and a peak value of concentration was observed each day at about 15:00-17:00, and the diurnal change was influenced by runoff level and pH. Moreover, EFs calculations revealed that heavy metals were partially originated from regional anthropogenic sources. Overall, the accelerated diurnal and temporal snow-ice melting (with high runoff level) were correlated to increased elemental concentration, pH, EC and elemental change mode, and thus this work is of great importance for evaluating the impacts of accelerated glacier melting to meltwater chemistry and downstream ecosystem in the northeast Tibetan Plateau. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial heterogeneity of stream environmental conditions and macroinvertebrates community in an agriculture dominated watershed and management implications for a large river (the Liao River, China) basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Niu, Cuijuan; Chen, Yushun; Yin, Xuwang

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the effects of watershed land uses (e.g., agriculture, urban industry) on stream ecological conditions is important for the management of large river basins. A total of 41 and 56 stream sites (from first to fourth order) that were under a gradient of watershed land uses were monitored in 2009 and 2010, respectively, in the Liao River Basin, Northeast China. The monitoring results showed that a total of 192 taxa belonging to four phyla, seven classes, 21 orders and 91 families were identified. The composition of macroinvertebrate community in the Liao River Basin was dominated by aquatic insect taxa (Ephemeroptera and Diptera), Oligochaeta and Molluscs. The functional feeding group GC (Gatherer/Collector) was dominant in the whole basin. Statistical results showed that sites with less watershed impacts (lower order sites) were characterized by higher current velocity and habitat score, more sensitive taxa (e.g., Ephemeroptera), and the substrate was dominated by high percentage of cobble and pebble. The sites with more impacts from agriculture and urban industry (higher order sites) were characterized by higher biochemical (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), more tolerant taxa (e.g., Chironominae), and the substrate was dominated by silt and sand. Agriculture and urban-industry activities have reduced habitat condition, increased organic pollutants, reduced macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity, and sensitive taxa in streams of the lower Liao River Basin. Restoration of degraded habitat condition and control of watershed organic pollutants could be potential management priorities for the Basin.

  15. Impacts and adaptation of the cropping systems to climate change in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR) is a very important crop growing area, comprising seven sub-regions: Xing’anling (XA), Sanjiang (SJ), Northwest Songliao (NSL), Central Songliao (CSL), Southwest Songliao (SSL), Changbaishan (CB) and Liaodong (LD), which has been severely affected...... to become more severe for crop production under climate change. Adaptation measures that have already been implemented in recent decades to cope with current climatic limitations include changes in timing of cultivation, variety choice, soil tillage practices, crop protection, irrigation and use of plastic...

  16. Geochemical characterization and miospore biochronostratigraphy of the Frasnian anoxic event in the Parnaiba basin, Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.; De Melo, J.H.G.; Alves, D.B.; Loboziak, S.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive shales of Frasnian age in the Parnaiba Basin present high concentrations of organic matter. They correspond to a condensed section related to the Devonian maximum marine transgression. Combined geochemical, palynological and clay mineral data point out to a dominant algal contribution in the composition of the organic matter, as well as to anoxic depositional settings. This radioactive shale interval corresponds to the onset of a long-lasting, global anoxic event which was to be intensified in the Late Frasnian, and thus can be regarded as a marker for chronostratigraphic correlations. It includes the main source rocks of Devonian age in the Palaeozoic basins of north Brazil, and therefore represents a target of potential interest for hydrocarbon exploration. (authors). 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab., 17 photos

  17. Geochemical characterization and miospore biochronostratigraphy of the Frasnian anoxic event in the Parnaiba basin, Northeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R.; De Melo, J.H.G.; Alves, D.B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Loboziak, S. [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d`Ascq (France)

    1995-12-31

    Radioactive shales of Frasnian age in the Parnaiba Basin present high concentrations of organic matter. They correspond to a condensed section related to the Devonian maximum marine transgression. Combined geochemical, palynological and clay mineral data point out to a dominant algal contribution in the composition of the organic matter, as well as to anoxic depositional settings. This radioactive shale interval corresponds to the onset of a long-lasting, global anoxic event which was to be intensified in the Late Frasnian, and thus can be regarded as a marker for chronostratigraphic correlations. It includes the main source rocks of Devonian age in the Palaeozoic basins of north Brazil, and therefore represents a target of potential interest for hydrocarbon exploration. (authors). 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab., 17 photos.

  18. Sea-floor drainage features of Cascadia Basin and the adjacent continental slope, northeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, M.A.; Karl, Herman A.; Kenyon, Neil H.

    1989-01-01

    Sea-floor drainage features of Cascadia Basin and the adjacent continental slope include canyons, primary fan valleys, deep-sea valleys, and remnant valley segments. Long-range sidescan sonographs and associated seismic-reflection profiles indicate that the canyons may originate along a mid-slope escarpment and grow upslope by mass wasting and downslope by valley erosion or aggradation. Most canyons are partly filled with sediment, and Quillayute Canyon is almost completely filled. Under normal growth conditions, the larger canyons connect with primary fan valleys or deep-sea valleys in Cascadia Basin, but development of accretionary ridges blocks or re-routes most canyons, forcing abandonment of the associated valleys in the basin. Astoria Fan has a primary fan valley that connects with Astoria Canyon at the fan apex. The fan valley is bordered by parallel levees on the upper fan but becomes obscure on the lower fan, where a few valley segments appear on the sonographs. Apparently, Nitinat Fan does not presently have a primary fan valley; none of the numerous valleys on the fan connect with a canyon. The Willapa-Cascadia-Vancouver-Juan de Fuca deep-sea valley system bypasses the submarine fans and includes deeply incised valleys to broad shallow swales, as well as within-valley terraces and hanging-valley confluences. ?? 1989.

  19. Neoproterozoic rift basins and their control on the development of hydrocarbon source rocks in the Tarim Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang-You; Ren, Rong; Chen, Fei-Ran; Li, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yong-Quan

    2017-12-01

    The Proterozoic is demonstrated to be an important period for global petroleum systems. Few exploration breakthroughs, however, have been obtained on the system in the Tarim Basin, NW China. Outcrop, drilling, and seismic data are integrated in this paper to focus on the Neoproterozoic rift basins and related hydrocarbon source rocks in the Tarim Basin. The basin consists of Cryogenian to Ediacaran rifts showing a distribution of N-S differentiation. Compared to the Cryogenian basins, those of the Ediacaran are characterized by deposits in small thickness and wide distribution. Thus, the rifts have a typical dual structure, namely the Cryogenian rifting and Ediacaran depression phases that reveal distinct structural and sedimentary characteristics. The Cryogenian rifting basins are dominated by a series of grabens or half grabens, which have a wedge-shaped rapid filling structure. The basins evolved into Ediacaran depression when the rifting and magmatic activities diminished, and extensive overlapping sedimentation occurred. The distributions of the source rocks are controlled by the Neoproterozoic rifts as follows. The present outcrops lie mostly at the margins of the Cryogenian rifting basins where the rapid deposition dominates and the argillaceous rocks have low total organic carbon (TOC) contents; however, the source rocks with high TOC contents should develop in the center of the basins. The Ediacaran source rocks formed in deep water environment of the stable depressions evolving from the previous rifting basins, and are thus more widespread in the Tarim Basin. The confirmation of the Cryogenian to Ediacaran source rocks would open up a new field for the deep hydrocarbon exploration in the Tarim Basin.

  20. Floods of July 23-26, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River and Maquoketa River Basins, Northeast Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eash, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Minor flooding occurred July 23, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River Basin and major flooding occurred July 23–26, 2010, in the Maquoketa River Basin in northeast Iowa following severe thunderstorm activity over the region during July 22–24. A breach of the Lake Delhi Dam on July 24 aggravated flooding on the Maquoketa River. Rain gages at Manchester and Strawberry Point, Iowa, recorded 72-hour-rainfall amounts of 7.33 and 12.23 inches, respectively, on July 24. The majority of the rainfall occurred during a 48-hour period. Within the Little Maquoketa River Basin, a peak-discharge estimate of 19,000 cubic feet per second (annual flood-probability estimate of 4 to 10 percent) at the discontinued 05414500 Little Maquoketa River near Durango, Iowa streamgage on July 23 is the sixth largest flood on record. Within the Maquoketa River Basin, peak discharges of 26,600 cubic feet per second (annual flood-probability estimate of 0.2 to 1 percent) at the 05416900 Maquoketa River at Manchester, Iowa streamgage on July 24, and of 25,000 cubic feet per second (annual flood-probability estimate of 1 to 2 percent) at the 05418400 North Fork Maquoketa River near Fulton, Iowa streamgage on July 24 are the largest floods on record for these sites. A peak discharge affected by the Lake Delhi Dam breach on July 24 at the 05418500 Maquoketa River near Maquoketa, Iowa streamgage, located downstream of Lake Delhi, of 46,000 cubic feet per second on July 26 is the third highest on record. High-water marks were measured at five locations along the Little Maquoketa and North Fork Little Maquoketa Rivers between U.S. Highway 52 near Dubuque and County Road Y21 near Rickardsville, a distance of 19 river miles. Highwater marks were measured at 28 locations along the Maquoketa River between U.S. Highway 52 near Green Island and State Highway 187 near Arlington, a distance of 142 river miles. High-water marks were measured at 13 locations along the North Fork Maquoketa River between

  1. Identifying entry points to improve fertilizer use efficiency in Taihu Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Li; Feng, S.; Reidsma, P.; Qu, F.; Heerink, N.

    2014-01-01

    Overuse of fertilizers in China causes environmental problems and high costs for farmers. In this paper we aim to identify entry points to improve fertilizer use efficiency in Taihu Basin, China. We use stochastic frontier analysis to estimate the technical and fertilizer use efficiency of rice

  2. Tephrostratigraphy of Changbaishan volcano, northeast China, since the mid-Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunqing; Liu, Jiaqi; You, Haitao; Nemeth, Karoly

    2017-12-01

    A detailed tephrostratigraphy of an active volcano is essential for evaluating its eruptive history, forecasting future eruptions and correlation with distal tephra records. Changbaishan volcano is known for its Millennium eruption (ME, AD 940s; VEI 7) and the ME tephra has been detected in Greenland ice cores ∼9000 km from the vent. However, the pre-Millennium (pre-ME) and post-Millennium (post-ME) eruptions are still poorly characterized. In this study, we present a detailed late Holocene eruptive sequence of Changbaishan volcano based on single glass shard compositions from tephra samples collected from around the caldera rim and flanks. Tephra ages are constrained by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and AMS 14C dates. Tephra from the mid-Holocene pre-ME eruption can be divided into two pyroclastic fall subunits, and it cannot be correlated with any known Changbaishan-sourced tephra recorded in the Japan Sea based on major element composition of glass shards, such as the B-J (Baegdusan-Japan Basin) and B-V (Baegdusan-Vladivostok-oki) tephras. ME pyroclastic fall deposits from the caldera rims and volcanic flanks can be correlated to the juvenile pumice lapilli or blocks within the pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits deposited in the valleys around the volcano based on glass shard compositions. Our results indicate that the glass shard compositions of proximal ME tephra are more varied than previously thought and can be correlated with distal ME tephra. In addition, widely-dispersed mafic scoria was ejected by the ME Plinian column and deposited on the western and southern summits and the eastern flank of the volcano. Data for glass from post-ME eruptions, such as the historically-documented AD 1403, AD 1668 and AD 1702 eruptions, are reported here for the first time. Except for the ME, other Holocene eruptions, including pre-ME and post-ME eruptions, had the potential to form widely-distributed tephra layers around northeast Asia, and our dataset

  3. Tectonic subsidence of the Zhu 1 Sub-basin in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyin; Yang, Shuchun; Zhu, Junzhang; Long, Zulie; Jiang, Guangzheng; Huang, Shaopeng; Hu, Shengbiao

    2017-12-01

    The Pearl River Mouth Basin, which is situated on the northern margin of the South China Sea, has attracted great attention not only because of its tectonic setting but also because of its abundant hydrocarbon resources. We have analyzed the Cenozoic tectonic subsidence history of 4 drilled wells and 43 artificial wells from the Zhu 1 Sub-basin of the Pearl River Mouth Basin by back-stripping, using newly interpreted seismic profiles. We also calculated the average tectonic subsidence rates of the four sags in the Zhu 1 Sub-basin. The rifting and post-rifting stages are separated by abrupt changes in the tectonic subsidence curves and average subsidence rates. In the eastern sags of the Zhu 1 Sub-basin, tectonic subsidence started to slow at ca. 30 Ma, compared with ca. 23.8 Ma in the western sags. This probably corresponds to the timing of break-up and suggests that rifting in the Pearl River Mouth Basin ended earlier in the eastern sags than in the western sags. Anomalously accelerated tectonic subsidence occurred at 17.5-16.4 Ma during the post-rifting stage, with average subsidence rates as high as 301.9 m/Myr. This distinguishes the Pearl River Mouth Basin from classical Atlantic passive continental marginal basins, which demonstrate exponentially decaying post-rift tectonic subsidence.

  4. New insights into the tectonic evolution of the Andaman basin, northeast Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A.; Ramprasad, T.; Rao, P.S.; Rao, B.R.; Varghese, J.

    rifts and transforms in the central basin of the Andaman Sea has been suggested to be the con- sequence of spreading with an opening rate of 3.72 cm/yr [2]. This spreading center is connected to the Sagaing fault system in the eastern Burma highlands... spreading center. The western part is dominated by volcanic con- structs that are related to arc volcanism and back- arc spreading activity, whereas the eastern part represents distinctly smooth topography probably resulting from the sediment ¢ll...

  5. Depletion of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury by plant uptake at Mt. Changbai, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There exists observational evidence that gaseous elemental mercury (GEM can be readily removed from the atmosphere via chemical oxidation followed by deposition in the polar and sub-polar regions, free troposphere, lower stratosphere, and marine boundary layer under specific environmental conditions. Here we report GEM depletions in a temperate mixed forest at Mt. Changbai, Northeast China. The strong depletions occurred predominantly at night during the leaf-growing season and in the absence of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM enrichment (GOM  <  3 pg m−3. Vertical gradients of decreasing GEM concentrations from layers above to under forest canopy suggest in situ loss of GEM to forest canopy at Mt. Changbai. Foliar GEM flux measurements showed that the foliage of two predominant tree species is a net sink of GEM at night, with a mean flux of −1.8 ± 0.3 ng m2 h−1 over Fraxinus mandshurica (deciduous tree species and −0.1 ± 0.2 ng m2 h−1 over Pinus Koraiensis (evergreen tree species. Daily integrated GEM δ202Hg, Δ199Hg, and Δ200Hg at Mt. Changbai during 8–18 July 2013 ranged from −0.34 to 0.91 ‰, from −0.11 to −0.04 ‰ and from −0.06 to 0.01 ‰, respectively. A large positive shift in GEM δ202Hg occurred during the strong GEM depletion events, whereas Δ199Hg and Δ200Hg remained essentially unchanged. The observational findings and box model results show that uptake of GEM by forest canopy plays a predominant role in the GEM depletion at Mt. Changbai forest. Such depletion events of GEM are likely to be a widespread phenomenon, suggesting that the forest ecosystem represents one of the largest sinks ( ∼ 1930 Mg of atmospheric Hg on a global scale.

  6. New discovery on geopressured geothermal resources in China - case history from Ying-Qiong Basins, S. China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ji-yang; Xiong Liang-ping [Institute of Geology, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    Geopressured geothermal resources are regarded as a new type of {open_quotes}high-energy-level{close_quotes} geothermal resources. In recent years, this kind of resources has been discovered in Ying-Qiong Basins at the northern margin of South China Sea. The geological environment and tectonic settings, geotemperature and heat flow pattern, high (over) pressure distribution and sedimentation rates of the basins as well as the perspectives of development and utilization of these resources were discussed briefly by the authors.

  7. Effect of tillage and crop residue on soil temperature following planting for a Black soil in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; McLaughlin, Neil; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xu, Minggang; Liang, Aizhen

    2018-03-14

    Crop residue return is imperative to maintain soil health and productivity but some farmers resist adopting conservation tillage systems with residue return fearing reduced soil temperature following planting and crop yield. Soil temperatures were measured at 10 cm depth for one month following planting from 2004 to 2007 in a field experiment in Northeast China. Tillage treatments included mouldboard plough (MP), no till (NT), and ridge till (RT) with maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) crops. Tillage had significant effects on soil temperature in 10 of 15 weekly periods. Weekly average NT soil temperature was 0-1.5 °C lower than MP, but the difference was significant (P temperature. Higher residue coverage caused lower soil temperature; the effect was greater for maize than soybean residue. Residue type had significant effect on soil temperature in 9 of 15 weekly periods with 0-1.9 °C lower soil temperature under maize than soybean residue. Both tillage and residue had small but inconsistent effect on soil temperature following planting in Northeast China representative of a cool to temperate zone.

  8. Mink (Mustela vison) Gut Microbial Communities from Northeast China and Its Internal Relationship with Gender and Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiping; Sun, Weili; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Ting; Fan, Yanyan; Gu, Haijun; Li, Guangyu

    2017-10-01

    It is well documented that the microbial interactions and biodiversity play an important role in health and disease in mammalian species. There is a rare study about gut microbiota of Mustelidae family. In this study, 40 male and female minks from Northeast China were divided into three groups and fed until they reached maturity. The V3 region of 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced using NGS. There were 526 OTUs principally concentrated among five bacterial phyla. Two points about mink's body weight gaining were observed: (1) the weight of male individuals increased more rapidly than female individuals; (2) the weight of individuals whose feed was supplemented with Chinese herb additives increased more rapidly than individuals without giving food additives. The differences of microorganism abundance were shown in two points: (1) two genera which had ≥2-fold change difference were found between male and female minks. (2) Ten genera which had a ≥2-fold change difference were found among minks with and without Chinese herb additive. Findings from this study provide new and fundamental knowledge on the gut microbiota composition of minks farmed in Northeast China, which can contribute to the general well-being of minks worldwide.

  9. Investigating the effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence in northeast China using ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Junqiao

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence have gained more recent concern. However, the multi-collinearity among meteorological factors affects the accuracy of correlation with bacillary dysentery incidence. Methods As a remedy, a modified method to combine ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis was proposed for investigating the effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence in northeast China. Results All weather indicators, temperatures, precipitation, evaporation and relative humidity have shown positive correlation with the monthly incidence of bacillary dysentery, while air pressure had a negative correlation with the incidence. Ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis showed that during 1987–1996, relative humidity, temperatures and air pressure affected the transmission of the bacillary dysentery. During this period, all meteorological factors were divided into three categories. Relative humidity and precipitation belonged to one class, temperature indexes and evaporation belonged to another class, and air pressure was the third class. Conclusion Meteorological factors have affected the transmission of bacillary dysentery in northeast China. Bacillary dysentery prevention and control would benefit from by giving more consideration to local climate variations.

  10. Investigating the effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence in northeast China using ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Desheng; Guan, Peng; Guo, Junqiao; Wang, Ping; Zhou, Baosen

    2008-09-25

    The effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence have gained more recent concern. However, the multi-collinearity among meteorological factors affects the accuracy of correlation with bacillary dysentery incidence. As a remedy, a modified method to combine ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis was proposed for investigating the effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence in northeast China. All weather indicators, temperatures, precipitation, evaporation and relative humidity have shown positive correlation with the monthly incidence of bacillary dysentery, while air pressure had a negative correlation with the incidence. Ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis showed that during 1987-1996, relative humidity, temperatures and air pressure affected the transmission of the bacillary dysentery. During this period, all meteorological factors were divided into three categories. Relative humidity and precipitation belonged to one class, temperature indexes and evaporation belonged to another class, and air pressure was the third class. Meteorological factors have affected the transmission of bacillary dysentery in northeast China. Bacillary dysentery prevention and control would benefit from by giving more consideration to local climate variations.

  11. Scale Effects of Water Saving on Irrigation Efficiency: Case Study of a Rice-Based Groundwater Irrigation System on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haorui Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the scale effect of water saving in Bielahonghe (BLH Basin, a rice-cultivating district on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. Water budgets with different surface irrigation water supply ratios and water-saving measures were simulated with a semi-distributed water balance model. PFnws, representing the ratio of rice evapotranspiration to net water supply (the total amount of irrigation and precipitation minus the amount of water reused, was employed to assess the water use efficiency. Seven spatial scales (noted from S1 to S7, ranging from a single field (317.87 ha to the whole basin (about 100,800 ha were determined. PFnws values were quantified across scales and several water-saving measures, including water-saving irrigation regimes, canal lining, and a reduction of the surface water supply ratio (SWSR. The results indicated that PFnws increased with scale and could be calculated by a fitted power function (PFnws = 0.736Area0.033, R2 = 0.58. Furthermore, PFnws increased most prominently when the scale increased from S1 to S2. The water-saving irrigation regime (WSIR had the most substantial water-saving effect (WSE at S1. Specifically, PFnws improved by 21.2% at S1 when high-intensity WSIR was applied. Additionally, the WSE values of S3 and S5 were slightly higher than at other scales when the branch canal water delivery coefficient increased from 0.65 to 0.80 through canal lining. Furthermore, the PFnws at each scale varied with SWSR. Specifically, PFnws from S3 to S7 improved as SWSR decreased from 0.4 to 0.3 but remained approximately constant when SWSR decreased from 0.3 to 0.

  12. Stratigraphy of the Neogene Sahabi units in the Sirt Basin, northeast Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shawaihdi, M. H.; Mozley, P. S.; Boaz, N. T.; Salloum, F.; Pavlakis, P.; Muftah, A.; Triantaphyllou, M.

    2016-06-01

    A revision of the nomenclature of lithostratigraphic units of Neogene strata at As Sahabi, northeast Libya, is presented, based on new fieldwork conducted during 2006-2008. The Sahabi units are correlated across the Ajdabya Sheet (NH 34-6) in northeastern Libya. Major conclusions are: (1) Miocene (Langhian through Messinian) strata are predominantly carbonate and should be referred to as formation "M"; (2) A local unconformity of Miocene (early Messinian) age overlies strata of the formation "M"; (3) This unconformity is overlain by Messinian gypsiferous sand and mud (formerly formation "P" and partially member "T"), which are designated as the "lower member" (gypsiferous) of the Sahabi Formation; (4) The "lower member" is overlain by sand and mud of late Messinian age (formerly partially member "T" and members "U1", "UD", and "U2") in a generally fining-upwards sequence, and are designated as the "upper member" (non-gypsiferous) of the Sahabi Formation; (5) The latest Miocene sand and mud of the "upper member" are capped by an unconformity that is correlated with the regression and desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea during the Messinian Salinity Crisis and with Eosahabi Channel cutting; (6) The unconformity is overlain by Pliocene medium, coarse, and pebbly sands, which are referred to as the Qarat Weddah Formation (formerly Garet Uedda Formation); (7) The Pliocene sands of Qarat Weddah Formation are overlain by carbonate soil (calcrete) of Late Pliocene age, which is referred to as formation "Z" (formerly member "Z"). The major outcome of this study is a revised stratigraphic description and nomenclature of the Sahabi units that helps to provide a formal and unified context for understanding paleontological discoveries in northeastern Libya, which will serve to facilitate a broader correlation of the Sahabi units with their equivalents elsewhere in Africa and in Europe and Asia.

  13. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2017-05-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  14. Summary of Surface-Water Quality Data from the Illinois River Basin in Northeast Oklahoma, 1970-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Becker, Mark F.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of streams in the Illinois River Basin of northeastern Oklahoma is potentially threatened by increased quantities of wastes discharged from increasing human populations, grazing of about 160,000 cattle, and confined animal feeding operations raising about 20 million chickens. Increasing numbers of humans and livestock in the basin contribute nutrients and bacteria to surface water and groundwater, causing greater than the typical concentrations of those constituents for this region. Consequences of increasing contributions of these substances can include increased algal growth (eutrophication) in streams and lakes; impairment of habitat for native aquatic animals, including desirable game fish species; impairment of drinking-water quality by sediments, turbidity, taste-and-odor causing chemicals, toxic algal compounds, and bacteria; and reduction in the aesthetic quality of the streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Scenic Rivers Commission, prepared this report to summarize the surface-water-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at five long-term surface-water-quality monitoring sites. The data summarized include major ions, nutrients, sediment, and fecal-indicator bacteria from the Illinois River Basin in Oklahoma for 1970 through 2007. General water chemistry, concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, chlorophyll-a (an indicator of algal biomass), fecal-indicator bacteria counts, and sediment concentrations were similar among the five long-term monitoring sites in the Illinois River Basin in northeast Oklahoma. Most water samples were phosphorus-limited, meaning that they contained a smaller proportion of phosphorus, relative to nitrogen, than typically occurs in algal tissues. Greater degrees of nitrogen limitation occurred at three of the five sites which were sampled back to the 1970s, probably due to use of detergents containing greater concentrations of phosphorus than in subsequent

  15. Inversion of the Erlian Basin (NE China) in the early Late Cretaceous: Implications for the collision of the Okhotomorsk Block with East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Xin; Shi, Yuan-Peng; Yang, Yong-Tai; Jiang, Shuan-Qi; Li, Lin-Bo; Zhao, Zhi-Gang

    2018-04-01

    A significant transition in tectonic regime from extension to compression occurred throughout East Asia during the mid-Cretaceous and has stimulated much attention. However, the timing and driving mechanisms of the transition remain disputed. The Erlian Basin, a giant late Mesozoic intracontinental petroliferous basin located in the Inner Mongolia, Northeast China, contains important sedimentary and structural records related to the mid-Cretaceous compressional event. The stratigraphical, sedimentological and structural analyses reveal that a NW-SE compressional inversion occurred in the Erlian Basin between the depositions of the Lower Cretaceous Saihan and Upper Cretaceous Erlian formations, causing intense folding of the Saihan Formation and underlying strata, and the northwestward migration of the depocenters of the Erlian Formation. Based on the newly obtained detrital zircon U-Pb data and previously published paleomagnetism- and fossil-based ages, the Saihan and Erlian formations are suggested as latest Aptian-Albian and post-early Cenomanian in age, respectively, implying that the inversion in the Erlian Basin occurred in the early Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian time). Apatite fission-track thermochronological data record an early Late Cretaceous cooling/exhuming event in the basin, corresponding well with the aforementioned sedimentary, structural and chronological analyses. Combining with the tectono-sedimentary evolutions of the neighboring basins of the Erlian Basin, we suggest that the early Late Cretaceous inversional event in the Erlian Basin and the large scale tectonic transition in East Asia shared the common driving mechanism, probably resulting from the Okhotomorsk Block-East Asia collisional event at about 100-89 Ma.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Changes in the Rice Planting Area and Their Relationship to Climate Change in Northeast China: A Model-Based Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, T.; Wu, W.; Zhou, Q.; Yu, Q.; Verburg, P.H.; Yang, P.; Lu, Z.F.; Tang, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important grain crops in Northeast China (NEC) and its cultivation is sensitive to climate change. This study aimed to explore the spatio-temporal changes in the NEC rice planting area over the period of 1980-2010 and to analyze their relationship to climate change. To do so,

  17. Systematic impact assessment on inter-basin water transfer projects of the Hanjiang River Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Hong, Xingjun; Chang, Fi-John

    2017-10-01

    China's inter-basin water transfer projects have gained increasing attention in recent years. This study proposes an intelligent water allocation methodology for establishing optimal inter-basin water allocation schemes and assessing the impacts of water transfer projects on water-demanding sectors in the Hanjiang River Basin of China. We first analyze water demands for water allocation purpose, and then search optimal water allocation strategies for maximizing the water supply to water-demanding sectors and mitigating the negative impacts by using the Standard Genetic Algorithm (SGA) and Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA), respectively. Lastly, the performance indexes of the water supply system are evaluated under different scenarios of inter-basin water transfer projects. The results indicate that: the AGA with adaptive crossover and mutation operators could increase the average annual water transfer from the Hanjiang River by 0.79 billion m3 (8.8%), the average annual water transfer from the Changjiang River by 0.18 billion m3 (6.5%), and the average annual hydropower generation by 0.49 billion kW h (5.4%) as well as reduce the average annual unmet water demand by 0.40 billion m3 (9.7%), as compared with the those of the SGA. We demonstrate that the proposed intelligent water allocation schemes can significantly mitigate the negative impacts of inter-basin water transfer projects on the reliability, vulnerability and resilience of water supply to the demanding sectors in water-supplying basins. This study has a direct bearing on more intelligent and effectual water allocation management under various scenarios of inter-basin water transfer projects.

  18. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors as well as Attitudes and Perceptions towards Tobacco Control in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, the associated factors of current smoking among adults, and their attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 using a self-reported questionnaire. A representative sample of adults aged 18–79 years was collected in the Jilin Province of Northeast China by a multistage stratified random cluster sampling design. Descriptive data analysis was conducted, and 95% confidence intervals (CI of prevalence/frequency were calculated to enable comparisons between the alleged differences and similarities. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the risk factors associated with current smoking. Results: 21,435 adults responded to the survey (response rate: 84.9%. The overall prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, and former smoking or smoking cessation was 39.1% (95% CI: 38.3–39.9, 31.8% (95% CI 31.1–32.6, and 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9–7.7, respectively. The proportion of ETS exposure among adult non-smokers in Jilin Province was 61.1% (95% CI: 60.1–62.1, and 23.1% (95% CI: 22.3–24.0 of the non-smokers reported daily ETS exposure. The proportion of ETS exposure at home was 33.4% (95% CI: 32.5–34.4, but the proportion of ETS exposure at restaurants was lower (6.5% (95% CI: 6.0–7.1. More than 90% of the participants had positive attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control, but 23.2% (95% CI: 22.5–24.0 of them did not agree with the perception of “smoking is fully quit in public places”, and almost half of the adults (49.5% (95% CI: 48.7–50.3 did not agree with the perception of “hazards of low-tar cigarettes are equal to general cigarettes”. Conclusions: Smoking and exposure to ETS are prevalent among adults from the Jilin Province of Northeast China. Our findings suggest that tobacco control should be advocated in

  19. Primary investigation on contamination pattern of legacy and emerging halogenated organic pollutions in freshwater fish from Liaohe River, Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Guofa; Wang Zhao; Yu Zhiqiang; Wang Yang; Ma Shengtao; Wu Minghong; Sheng Guoying; Fu Jiamo

    2013-01-01

    Legacy halogenated compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and emerging organo-halogen pollutants such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were detected in fish from an old industrial region in Northeast China. PCBs and PBDEs were detected in all of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 38.15 to 170.51 ng/g lipid weight, and 9.40–39.69 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. DP was detected in more than 90% of the samples with concentrations ranging from not detected (ND) to 470 pg g/g lipid weight. Compared with similar data in other areas of the world, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in fish from Liaohe River were at medium or low level. An unusually high percentage of PCB-209 was first reported in the fish samples collected from China. Other halogenated pollutions, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, octachlorostyrene, chlorinated anisole, chlorinated thioanisole, triclosan-methyl, and other pesticides, have also been identified in the fish samples. - Highlights: ► DP was reported in fish samples from river close to an old industrial base in China. ► The first report on the unusually high fraction of PCB-209 in samples from China. ► GC × GC–TOFMS was used to identify non-targeted halogenated pollutants. - An unusually high percentage of PCB-209 was first reported in the fish samples collected from China, which might indicate that there were distinct sources of pure PCB-209 in the region of Liaohe River.

  20. Estimation of the depth of faulting in the northeast margin of Argyre basin (Mars) by structural analysis of lobate scarps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Gil, Andrea; Ruiz, Javier; Egea-González, Isabel; Romeo, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    Lobate scarps are tectonic structures considered as the topographic expression of thrust faults. For this study we have chosen three large lobate scarps (Ogygis Rupes, Bosporos Rupes and a third unnamed one) located in Aonia Terra, in the southern hemisphere of Mars near the northeast margin of the Argyre impact basin. These lobate scarps strike parallel to the edge of Thaumasia in this area, showing a roughly arcuate to linear form and an asymmetric cross section with a steeply frontal scarp and a gently dipping back scarp. The asymmetry in the cross sections suggests that the three lobate scarps were generated by ESE-vergent thrust faults. Two complementary methods were used to analyze the faults underlying these lobate scarps based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and the Mars imagery available: (i) analyzing topographic profiles together with the horizontal shortening estimations from cross-cut craters to create balanced cross sections on the basis of thrust fault propagation folding [1]; (ii) using a forward mechanical dislocation method [2], which predicts fault geometry by comparing model outputs with real topography. The objective is to obtain fault geometry parameters as the minimum value for the horizontal offset, dip angle and depth of faulting of each underlying fault. By comparing the results obtained by both methods we estimate a preliminary depth of faulting value between 15 and 26 kilometers for this zone between Thaumasia and Argyre basin. The significant sizes of the faults underlying these three lobate scarps suggest that their detachments are located at a main rheological change. Estimates of the depth of faulting in similar lobate scarps on Mars or Mercury [3] have been associated to the depth of the brittle-ductile transition. [1] Suppe (1983), Am. J. Sci., 283, 648-721; Seeber and Sorlien (2000), Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 112, 1067-1079. [2] Toda et al. (1998) JGR, 103, 24543-24565. [3] i.e. Schultz and Watters (2001) Geophys. Res. Lett., 28

  1. South China connected to north India in Gondwana: sedimentary basin and detrital provenance analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, W.; Li, Z. X.; Li, W. X.; Li, X. H.; Yang, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The paleoposition of South China during the Ediacaran-Silurian is important for understanding the assembly of Gondwana. We report here the tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Ediacaran-Silurian Nanhua foreland basin in South China, and discuss South China's connection with Gondwana and potential tectonic triggers for both the Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China and the Bhimphedian orogeny in north India. The Nanhua basin was involved in a three-stage evolution, which are: Stage 1 (the Ediacaran-Cambrian) recording the start of tectonic subsidence with turbiditic marine clastic deposition, fed by exotic orogens outboard South China; Stage 2 (the Ordovician to earliest-Silurian) featured by migrating depocentres with dominant shallow marine to deltaic clastic deposition, fed by the local Wuyi-Yunkai orogen; and Stage 3 (the Silurian) showing the arrival of depocentre in the Yangtze Block during the waning stage of the Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny with deltaic deposition in the remanent foreland basin. Detrital zircon analyses of the Ediacaran-Silurian sandstones across the Nanhua basin reveal a prominent age population of 1100-900 Ma (with a peak age at ~980 Ma) and moderate populations of Archean-Paleozoic ages, grossly matching that of crystalline and sedimentary rocks in northern India. Zircon isotopes of the Stage 1 samples suggest three Precambrian episodes of juvenile crustal growth at 3.0 Ga, 2.5 Ga and 1.0 Ga, and a major crustal reworking at 580-500 Ma for the source areas, which are constraint to be northwestern India and its surrounding orogens. Together with other evidence, we propose that South China likely collided with northwestern India during the Gondwana assembly, generated the Bhimphedian orogeny in north India and formed two foreland basins on both the north India and South China sides. Far-field stress of the collision triggered the Ordovician-Silurian Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China. The Stage 2-3 samples in the Nanhua basin of South China were shed

  2. Change in the Green-Up Dates for Quercus mongolica in Northeast China and Its Climate-Driven Mechanism from 1962 to 2012.

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    Deqin Fan

    Full Text Available The currently available studies on the green-up date were mainly based on ground observations and/or satellite data, and few model simulations integrated with wide coverage satellite data have been reported at large scale over a long time period (i.e., > 30 years. In this study, we combined phenology mechanism model, long-term climate data and synoptic scale remote sensing data to investigate the change in the green-up dates for Quercus mongolica over 33 weather stations in Northeast China and its climate-driven mechanism during 1962-2012. The results indicated that the unified phenology model can be well parameterized with the satellite derived green-up dates. The optimal daily mean temperature for chilling effect was between -27°C and 1°C for Q. mongolica in Northeast China, while the optimal daily mean temperature for forcing effect was above -3°C. The green-up dates for Q. mongolica across Northeast China showed a delayed latitudinal gradient of 2.699 days degree-1, with the earliest date on the Julian day 93 (i.e., 3th April in the south and the latest date on the Julian day 129 (i.e., 9th May in the north. The green-up date for Q. mongolica in Northeast China has advanced 6.6 days (1.3 days decade-1 from 1962 to 2012. With the prevailing warming in autumn, winter and spring in Northeast China during the past 51 years, the chilling effect for Q. mongolica has been weakened, while the forcing effect has been enhanced. The advancing trend in the green-up dates for Q. mongolica implied that the enhanced forcing effect to accelerate green-up was stronger than the weakened chilling effect to hold back green-up while the changes of both effects were caused by the warming climate.

  3. [Prediction of litter moisture content in Tahe Forestry Bureau of Northeast China based on FWI moisture codes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Jin, Sen; Di, Xue-Ying

    2014-07-01

    Canadian fire weather index system (FWI) is the most widely used fire weather index system in the world. Its fuel moisture prediction is also a very important research method. In this paper, litter moisture contents of typical forest types in Tahe Forestry Bureau of Northeast China were successively observed and the relationships between FWI codes (fine fuel moisture code FFMC, duff moisture code DMC and drought code DC) and fuel moisture were analyzed. Results showed that the mean absolute error and the mean relative error of models.established using FWI moisture code FFMC was 14.9% and 70.7%, respectively, being lower than those of meteorological elements regression model, which indicated that FWI codes had some advantage in predicting litter moisture contents and could be used to predict fuel moisture contents. But the advantage was limited, and further calibration was still needed, especially in modification of FWI codes after rainfall.

  4. Males' Later-Life Mortality Consequences of Coresidence With Paternal Grandparents: Evidence From Northeast China, 1789-1909.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Emma; Campbell, Cameron

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of early-life coresidence with paternal grandparents on male mortality risks in adulthood and older age in northeast China from 1789 to 1909. Despite growing interest in the influence of grandparents on child outcomes, few studies have examined the effect of coresidence with grandparents in early life on mortality in later life. We find that coresidence with paternal grandmothers in childhood is associated with higher mortality risks for males in adulthood. This may reflect the long-term effects of conflicts between mothers and their mothers-in-law. These results suggest that in extended families, patterns of coresidence in childhood may have long-term consequences for mortality, above and beyond the effects of common environmental and genetic factors, even when effects on childhood mortality are not readily apparent.

  5. Distribution, Source, and Ecological Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Sediment of Liaodong Bay, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuang; Tao, Ping; Li, Yuxia; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Man; Jia, Hongliang; Shao, Mihua

    2018-01-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in surface sediments from Liaodong Bay, northeast China. The concentration levels of total PAHs (Σ16PAHs) in sediment were 11.0∼249.6 ng·g-1 dry weight (dw), with a mean value of 89.9 ng·g-1 dry weight (dw). From the point of the spatial distribution, high PAHs levels were found in the western areas of Liaodong Bay. In the paper, sources of PAHs were investigated by diagnostic ratios, which indicated that pyrogenic sources were the main sources of PAHs in the sediment of Liaodong Bay. Therefore, selected PAH levels in sediments were compared with Sediments Quality Guidelines (ERM–ERL indexes) for evaluation probable toxic effects on marine organism.

  6. Thermal-Mechanical Regime beneath Tarim Basin, Northwestern China and its Implications for Cenozoic Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Wang, L.

    2005-12-01

    As one of the super-large scale sedimentary basins in China, the Tarim basin is also the strategic basement for Chinese `Natural gas transportation from west to east' project. To know its thermal regime is vital for understanding the deformation and oil gas resource in Tarim basin. Integrated the abundant data of geotemperature and rock thermophysical parameters collected and measured in the basin with corresponding geothermal modeling, here we present the characteristics of geotemperature field, thermal evolution and lithospheric thermo-rheological structure of the Tarim basin, along with the implications for formation and deformation of basin and hydrocarbon reservoir. Our results show that the average present-day heat flow of the basin is about 45 mW/m2 and 18-20°/km for geotemperature gradient, respectively. The basin is characterized by lower temperature in a whole. Lateral heterogeneities exist for the distribution of geotemperature field in the basin. The structural units of basin differ much in the geothermal features; generally, the depression areas are of relatively low geotemperature while high for those uplifts and highs in the basin. Thermal evolution modeling of the basin indicated that it has experienced four different phases since basin formation as follows: high heat flow phase from Sinian to Ordovician, thermal attenuation phase during Silurian to late Paleozoic, then stable thermal evolution phase in Mesozoic, and flexural deformation of lithosphere in Cenozoic. The thickness of the thermal lithosphere of basin is 168-192 km, and 25-28km for the crustal brittle-ductile transition depth; the total lithospheric strength is 1.6-7.8*10**13 N/m. The lithosphere beneath basin is characterized by the rigid block with low temperature but large strength, and deform in a whole. Responded to the far field effect of the Cenozoic India-Eurasia collision, the lithosphere beneath Tarim basin is characterized by flexure deformation, resulting in the intensive

  7. Effects of Land Use Changes on the Ecosystem Service Values of a Reclamation Farm in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fanghua; Lai, Xuehui; Ouyang, Wei; Xu, Yiming; Wei, Xinfeng; Song, Kaiyu

    2012-11-01

    Intensive agricultural development can change land use, which can further affect regional ecosystem services and functions. With the rapid growth of the population and the national demand for food, the northeast of China, which is located in the high latitudes, has experienced four agricultural developments since the 1950s. The original wetlands of this area were developed for farmland. The evaluation of ecosystem services is conducted to reveal the ecosystem status and variable trends caused by land reclamation. The aim of this study is to provide scientific basis for environmental management and for the sustainable development of agriculture in Northeast China. With GIS-RS technology, a typical farm was chosen to analyze variations in the ecosystem service value in response to land use changes during the study period. The total ecosystem service value of the farm decreased from 7523.10 million Yuan in 1979 to 4023.59 million Yuan in 2009 with an annual rate of -1.6 % due to the decreasing areas of woodland and wetland. The increased areas of cropland, water area and grassland partly offset the loss of the total value, but the loss was still greater than the compensation. Waste treatment and climate regulation were the top two service functions with high service values, contributing to approximately 50 % of the total service value. The spatial difference of the ecosystem service value also was analyzed. The wetlands located in the central and northeastern sections of the farm changed significantly. From the aspect of ecosystem service value, the wetland and water area should be conserved, as they have the highest value coefficients. The accuracy of the value coefficient, however, needs to be studied further in future research.

  8. Multiresidue determination and potential risks of emerging pesticides in aquatic products from Northeast China by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lei; Lu, Xianbo; Tan, Jun; Wang, Longxing; Chen, Jiping

    2018-01-01

    A simple method for determining 33 pesticides with a wide polarity range (logK ow 0.6-4.5) in aquatic products was developed based on LC-MS/MS. The target analytes included three types of widely used pesticides: insecticides, fungicides and herbicides. Based on the optimization of ultrasonic assisted extraction and GPC clean-up procedures, the matrix effect, extraction recoveries and LOD were improved distinctively. LOQ of this method was below 0.5ng/g for all pesticides, which is superior to values in the literature, and the matrix effect was reduced effectively (-14.7% to 7.5%). The method was successfully applied to investigate the pesticide residue levels of twenty-five samples including seven common kinds of fishes from Northeast China. The results showed that all targeted pesticides were present in the fish samples; however, their levels were low, except for atrazine, linuron, ethoprophos, tetrachlorvinphos, acetochlor and fenthion. Atrazine and linuron caught our attention because the concentrations of atrazine in fish samples from Liaoning province were in the range of 0.5-8ng/g (w/w) with mean concentration of 2.3ng/g, which were far above those of other pesticides. The levels of linuron were in the range of 0.6-6ng/g (mean concentration 2.8ng/g), which were the highest among all targeted pesticides in the Inner Mongolia. This is the first systematic investigation on the characteristics and levels of these pesticides in aquatic products from northeast China. Considering their toxicity and bioaccumulation, the potential risk of atrazine and linuron from consuming aquatic products should be paid more attention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. An Urban Neo-Poverty Population-Based Quality of Life and Related Social Characteristics Investigation from Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Fengrong; Li, Kai; Gao, Qian; Liu, Dan; Li, Jinghai; Hu, Liwen; Wu, Xian; Edmiston, E. Kale; Liu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate quality of life (QOL) and related characteristics among an urban neo-poverty population in northeast China, and to compare this population with a traditional poverty cohort. Design The research was a cross-sectional survey executed from June 2005 to October 2007, with a sample of 2940 individuals ages 36 to 55 in three different industrial cities of northeast China. Data were collected on QOL status and sociodemographic characteristics. QOL was assessed using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (Chinese version). Multiple regression analysis was employed to analyze association between sociodemographic variables and QOL. Results The scores for QOL in the neo-poverty group were higher than those in the traditional poverty group, but lower than those in the general population. When the neo-poverty population was divided into two subgroups by age, 36–45 years and 46–55 years, the differences in QOL scores were not significant. However, there were significant differences in several dimensions between two subgroups according to unemployment time (5 years). Additionally, stepwise regression analysis indicated that disease burden, including disease and medical expenditures, was a common risk factor for declining QOL in the neo-poverty group. Conclusions Despite some limitations, this study provides initial evidence that the QOL of the urban neo-poverty population lies between that of the general population and traditional poverty. QOL of the neo-poverty group approached QOL of the traditional poverty group with increased unemployment years. In addition to decreased income, disease burden is the most important factor influencing QOL status in urban neo-poverty. PMID:22719968

  10. The effects of plastic film mulching on maize growth and water use in dry and rainy years in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Li, Congfeng; Liu, Huitao; Zhou, Peilu; Tao, Zhiqiang; Wang, Pu; Meng, Qingfeng; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Plastic film mulching (PM) has been widely used to improve maize (Zea mays L.) yields and water use efficiency (WUE) in Northeast China, but the effects of PM in a changing climate characterized by highly variable precipitation are not well understood. Six site-year field experiments were conducted in the dry and rainy years to investigate the effects of PM on maize growth, grain yield, and WUE in Northeast China. Compared to crops grown without PM treatment (control, CK), PM significantly increased the grain yield by 15-26% in the dry years, but no significant yield increase was observed in the rainy years. Yield increase in the dry years was mainly due to a large increase in dry matter accumulation pre-silking compared to the CK, which resulted from a greater dry matter accumulation rate due to the higher topsoil temperature and water content. As a result, the WUE of the crops that underwent PM (3.27 kg m(-3)) treatment was also increased by around 16% compared to the CK, although the overall evapotranspiration was similar between the two treatments. In the rainy years, due to frequent precipitation and scant sunshine, the topsoil temperature and water content in the field that received PM treatment was improved only at some stages and failed to cause higher dry matter accumulation, except at the 8th leaf stage. Consequently, the grain yield and WUE were not improved by PM in the rainy years. In addition, we found that PM caused leaf senescence at the late growth stage in both dry and rainy years. Therefore, in practice, PM should be applied cautiously, especially when in-season precipitation is taken into account.

  11. Spatial Distribution of Diffuse Attenuation of Photosynthetic Active Radiation and Its Main Regulating Factors in Inland Waters of Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhang Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Light availability in lakes or reservoirs is affected by optically active components (OACs in the water. Light plays a key role in the distribution of phytoplankton and hydrophytes, thus, is a good indicator of the trophic state of an aquatic system. Diffuse attenuation of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR (Kd(PAR is commonly used to quantitatively assess the light availability. The PAR and the concentration of OACs were measured at 206 sites, which covered 26 lakes and reservoirs in Northeast China. The spatial distribution of Kd(PAR was depicted and its association with the OACs was assessed by grey incidences(GIs and linear regression analysis. Kd(PAR varied from 0.45 to 15.04 m−1. This investigation revealed that reservoirs in the east part of Northeast China were clear with small Kd(PAR values, while lakes located in plain areas, where the source of total suspended matter (TSM varied, displayed high Kd(PAR values. The GIs and linear regression analysis indicated that the TSM was the dominant factor in determining Kd(PAR values and best correlated with Kd(PAR (R2 = 0.906, RMSE = 0.709. Most importantly, we have demonstrated that the TSM concentration is a reliable measurement for the estimation of the Kd(PAR as 74% of the data produced a relative error (RE of less than 0.4 in a leave-one-out cross validation (LOO-CV analysis. Spatial transferability assessment of the model also revealed that TSM performed well as a determining factor of the Kd(PAR for the majority of the lakes. However, a few exceptions were identified where the optically regulating dominant factors were chlorophyll-a (Chl-a and/or the chromophroic dissolved organic matter (CDOM. These extreme cases represent lakes with exceptionally clear waters.

  12. Geochemical variability of heavy metals in soil after land use conversions in Northeast China and its environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Liu, Bing; Wang, Fangli

    2014-04-01

    The long-term agricultural reclamation since the 1950s has resulted in significant land use change from natural landscape to cultivated land in the Sanjiang Plain of Northeast China, which has had important consequences for many soil physical, chemical and biological processes. To understand the impact of land use conversions on heavy metal geochemistry, soil samples were collected from natural wetland, natural forestland, paddy land and dry farmland in a case study area and analyzed for total concentrations and chemical fractions of six heavy metals. Results showed that the natural wetland reclamation for the paddy land has caused obvious losses of Cd, Cu and Zn from the soils. In addition, a significant decrease in the Zn concentration was found after the land conversion from natural forestland to dry farmland. Because all the analyzed heavy metals predominated in the stable residual fraction regardless of the land use type, the response of metal mobility to the land use conversions was generally weak. Consequently, soil erosion was identified as the major factor that enhances heavy metal losses in the cultivated lands, especially in the paddy land. The close link between heavy metal loss and the reduction of clay and organic matter contents after land reclamation suggested that the diffuse heavy metal pollution occurred mainly in small erosion events. Considering the continuous paddy land expansion, special attention should be paid to the bioaccumulation of Pb in the paddy rice. Overall, these findings can help to improve the sustainability and safety of intensive agricultural activities in Northeast China as well as other similar areas.

  13. Brominated flame retardants in the urban atmosphere of Northeast China: Concentrations, temperature dependence and gas-particle partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Hong; Li, Wen-Long; Liu, Li-Yan; Song, Wei-Wei; Ma, Wan-Li, E-mail: mawanli002@163.com; Li, Yi-Fan, E-mail: ijrc_pts_paper@yahoo.com

    2014-09-01

    57 pairs of air samples (gas and particle phases) were collected using a high volume air sampler in a typical city of Northeast China. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, including BDEs 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, 183, and 209) and 9 alternative BFRs (p-TBX, PBBZ, PBT, PBEB, DPTE, HBBZ, γ-HBCD, BTBPE, and DBDPE) were analyzed. The annual average total concentrations of the 13 PBDEs and the 9 alternative BFRs were 69 pg/m{sup 3} and 180 pg/m{sup 3}, respectively. BDE 209 and γ-HBCD were the dominant congeners, according to the one-year study. The partial pressure of BFRs in the gas phase was significantly correlated with the ambient temperature, except for BDE 85, γ-HBCD and DBDPE, indicating the important influence of ambient temperature on the behavior of BFRs in the atmosphere. It was found that the gas–particle partitioning coefficients (logK{sub p}) for most low molecular weight BFRs were highly temperature dependent as well. Gas–particle partitioning coefficients (logK{sub p}) also correlated with the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (logP{sub L}{sup o}). Our results indicated that absorption into organic matter is the main control mechanism for the gas–particle partitioning of atmospheric PBDEs. - Highlights: • Both PBDEs and alternative BFRs were analyzed in the atmosphere of Northeast China. • Partial pressure of BFRs was significantly correlated with the ambient temperature. • A strong temperature dependence of gas-particle partitioning was found. • Absorption into organic matter was the control mechanism for G-P partitioning.

  14. Late Mesozoic basin and range tectonics and related magmatism in Southeast China

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    Dezi Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Late Mesozoic Middle Jurassic–Late Cretaceous, basin and range tectonics and associated magmatism representative of an extensional tectonic setting was widespread in southeastern China as a result of Pacific Plate subduction. Basin tectonics consists of post-orogenic (Type I and intra-continental extensional basins (Type II. Type I basins developed in the piedmont and intraland during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, in which coarse-grained terrestrial clastic sediments were deposited. Type II basins formed during intra-continental crustal thinning and were characterized by the development of grabens and half-grabens. Graben basins were mainly generated during the Middle Jurassic and were associated with bimodal volcanism. Sediments in half-grabens are intercalated with rhyolitic tuffs and lavas and are Early Cretaceous in age with a dominance of Late Cretaceous–Paleogene red beds. Ranges are composed of granitoids and bimodal volcanic rocks, A-type granites and dome-type metamorphic core complexes. The authors analyzed lithological, geochemical and geochronological features of the Late Mesozoic igneous rock assemblages and proposed some geodynamical constraints on forming the basin and range tectonics of South China. A comparison of the similarities and differences of basin and range tectonics between the eastern and western shores of the Pacific is made, and the geodynamical evolution model of the Southeast China Block during Late Mesozoic is discussed. Studied results suggest that the basin and range terrane within South China developed on a pre-Mesozoic folded belt was derived from a polyphase tectonic evolution mainly constrained by subduction of the western Pacific Plate since the Late Mesozoic, leading to formation of various magmatism in a back-arc extensional setting. Its geodynamic mechanism can compare with that of basin and range tectonics in the eastern shore of the Pacific. Differences of basin and range

  15. Methane emissions and production potentials of forest swamp wetlands in the Eastern Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Stott, Philip; Yu, Hongxian; Li, Xiaoyu

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of methane flux at a few inundated sites in China have been extrapolated to obtain estimates on a national scale. To enable those national estimates to be refined and to compare flux from geographically separated sites comprising the same wetland types, we used a closed chamber method to measure methane flux in uninundated Betula platyphylla-and Larix gmelinii-dominated peatlands in the Northeast China. Our measurements were taken from both vegetated and bare soil surfaces, and we compared flux with environmental measures including vegetation biomass, soil temperature and soil characteristics. We found that methane flux was low, and that there were no significant differences between wetland types, indicating that environmental influences were dominant. We found that flux was positively correlated to temperature in the surface layers of the soil, the above-ground biomass of the shrub and herb layers, total soil carbon and total soil nitrogen; and we suggest that emissions may be due to anaerobic microcosms in the surface layers. The methane production potentials of the soils were low and similar between both sites but inconsistent with the differences between fluxes, and inconsistent with production potentials and fluxes reported from the same wetland types elsewhere, indicating that there were subtle environmental differences between wetlands classed as being of the same type. Differences between fluxes in vegetated chambers with bare soil chambers were insignificant, indicating that no methane emission through aerenchyma occurred at our sites. We concluded that wetland type was not an accurate predictor of methane flux.

  16. Hot and Saline Spring Behaviour in the Taupo Volcanic Zone and the North-East German Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, M.; Kissling, W.

    2012-04-01

    Hot springs occur in geothermal regions worldwide, and often have important economic or cultural values which can be threatened by geothermal developments. In this paper we describe models of hot springs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand, and of saline springs in the Northeast German Basin (NEGB). In New Zealand, the operation of the Wairakei geothermal power station in the 1950's and early 1960's lead to the collapse of the thermal area known as 'Geyser Valley', and more recently, the spring and Geyser activity in Rotorua was threatened by the widespread and uncontrolled drawoff of geothermal water for domestic use. Similarly, in the NEGB, discharge of saline springs poses serious challenges for groundwater management for agricultural and domestic use, having additional implications for future geothermal energy projects. Despite their obviously very different nature the springs in NEGB and TVZ do have some common characteristics: they both feed fluid to the surface from deeper (geothermal) aquifers through embedded hydrogeological heterogeneities (e.g. fracture systems, erosional gaps and unconformities in the internal stratigraphic sequence), and data shows that they both exhibit irregular flowrates, temperatures and chemistries. Currently used models of hot/saline springs do not show these types of behaviour and offer no understanding of the mechanisms of variability in either setting, or indeed the nature of the connections to deeper aquifers. In this paper we present early results from a study aimed at identifying the most important physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of these systems. We use the simulation code NaCl-Tough2 (Kissling, 2005a,b) to accurately represent the thermodynamics of fluids in both systems. Though relatively simplistic in terms of the modelled geometry these models provide new important insights into the variability of the observed flow dynamics as well as in their causative processes at depths. The results obtained

  17. The Qing Invention of Nature: Environment and Identity in Northeast China and Mongolia, 1750-1850

    OpenAIRE

    Schlesinger, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies the nexus of empire, environment, and market that defined Qing China in 1750-1850, when unprecedented commercial expansion and a rush for natural resources – including furs, pharmaceuticals, and precious minerals – transformed the ecology of China and its borderlands. That boom, no less than today’s, had profound institutional, ideological, and environmental causes and consequences. Nature itself was redefined. In this thesis, I show that it was the activism, not the...

  18. An update on overweight and obesity in rural Northeast China: from lifestyle risk factors to cardiometabolic comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofan; Li, Zhao; Guo, Liang; Zheng, Liqiang; Yu, Shasha; Yang, Hongmei; Zou, Lu; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Yaowen; Zhu, Luoning; Zhang, Yonghong; Sun, Yingxian

    2014-10-08

    Not enough is known about the prevalence of overweight and obesity in rural China in the current decade. We aim to update our knowledge of the prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors and comorbidities in a large population sample in rural Northeast China. A population-based survey of 11,579 participants aged 35 years and older was conducted in rural areas of Liaoning Province during 2012-2013. Anthropometric measurements, information on health-related variables and blood biochemical indexes were collected by well-trained personnel. The prevalence of general obesity and overweight was found to be 7.8% and 37.2%, respectively. The overall prevalence of abdominal obesity was 15.1%. Female gender, ethnic minority, middle-school education and a family income of 5,000-20,000 CNY per year were found to be risk factors for general obesity, while older age, female gender, ethnic minority and longer sleep duration (>8 h/d) increased the risk of abdominal obesity, after adjusting for confounders. Overweight and obese participants had significantly higher risks to develop prehypertension, hypertension, high LDL-C and low HDL-C compared with normal weight participants, while abdominal obesity was associated with increased risks of diabetes and high TG after adjusted for multiple factors. Compared with participants with a normal BMI and no abdominal obesity, the participants classified as abdominally obese and normal BMI; as abdominally obese and overweight; and abdominally obese and generally obese each had a progressive increase in the odds of hypertension (OR: 1.961, 95% CI: 1.154 to 3.331, OR: 2.744, 95% CI: 2.126 to 3.541, and OR: 8.990, 95% CI: 5.858 to 13.795, respectively) and high TG (OR: 3.165, 95% CI: 2.183 to 4.588, OR: 3.980, 95% CI: 3.332 to 4.755, and OR: 4.340, 95% CI: 3.574 to 5.271, respectively). The prevalence of obesity in rural Northeast China exhibited a remarkably increasing upwards trend. General and abdominal obesity were associated with

  19. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2018-02-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.0 billion barrels of oil and 20.3 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China.

  20. The role of social capital for farmers’ climate change adaptation in Lancang River basin in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Li, Hao; Parks, Moon; Fraiture, de C.M.S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper distinguishes between bridging and bonding social capital to assess their roles for individual farmers’ adaptation strategies taken through technology adoption. Based on primary data collected in Langcang River (LCR) basin area in southwestern China, the paper finds: (1) adaptation

  1. Assessment of Permian tight oil and gas resources in the Junggar basin of China, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.

    2017-04-05

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 764 million barrels of oil and 3.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in tight reservoirs in the Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar basin of northwestern China.

  2. Analysis and prediction of reference evapotranspiration with climate change in Xiangjiang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-e Tao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reference evapotranspiration (ET0 is often used to estimate actual evapotranspiration in water balance studies. In this study, the present and future spatial distributions and temporal trends of ET0 in the Xiangjiang River Basin (XJRB in China were analyzed. ET0 during the period from 1961 to 2010 was calculated with historical meteorological data using the FAO Penman-Monteith (FAO P-M method, while ET0 during the period from 2011 to 2100 was downscaled from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 outputs under two emission scenarios, representative concentration pathway 4.5 and representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP45 and RCP85, using the statistical downscaling model (SDSM. The spatial distribution and temporal trend of ET0 were interpreted with the inverse distance weighted (IDW method and Mann-Kendall test method, respectively. Results show that: (1 the mean annual ET0 of the XJRB is 1 006.3 mm during the period from 1961 to 2010, and the lowest and highest values are found in the northeast and northwest parts due to the high latitude and spatial distribution of climatic factors, respectively; (2 the SDSM performs well in simulating the present ET0 and can be used to predict the future ET0 in the XJRB; and (3 CMIP5 predicts upward trends in annual ET0 under the RCP45 and RCP85 scenarios during the period from 2011 to 2100. Compared with the reference period (1961–1990, ET0 increases by 9.8%, 12.6%, and 15.6% under the RCP45 scenario and 10.2%, 19.1%, and 27.3% under the RCP85 scenario during the periods from 2011 to 2040, from 2041 to 2070, and from 2071 to 2100, respectively. The predicted increasing ET0 under the RCP85 scenario is greater than that under the RCP45 scenario during the period from 2011 to 2100.

  3. Technical status and challenges of shale gas development in Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingli Liu

    2015-03-01

    This paper begins with the introduction of shale gas reserve distribution in China and the identified shale gas formation in Sichuan Basin. The following paper reviews the methodology employed in the geophysical prospecting, drilling and completion, and hydraulic fracturing process. Since China is in the early stage of shale gas development, there is a great technical gap between China and North America. Based on literature review, the major challenges faced in the exploration and production process are identified. What presented in this paper should be of particular interest to the personnels involved in shale gas production in China and countries that are about to set foot in shale gas business. It will also be of interest to researchers who are dedicated to developing these technologies to unlock unconventional gas resources in China.

  4. [Health assessment of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Li-Xia; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-10-01

    With the development of economy, the health of river ecosystem is severely threatened because of the increasing effects of human activities on river ecosystem. In this paper, the authors assessed the river ecosystem health in aspects of chemical integrity and biological integrity, using the criterion in water quality, nutrient, and benthic macroinvertebrates of 73 samples in Haihe River Basin. The research showed that the health condition of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin was bad overall since the health situation of 72. 6% of the samples was "extremely bad". At the same time, the health situation in Haihe River Basin exhibited obvious regional gathering effect. We also found that the river water quality was closely related to human activities, and the eutrophication trend of water body was evident in Haihe River Basin. The biodiversity of the benthic animal was low and lack of clean species in the basin. The indicators such as ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were the key factors that affected the river ecosystem health in Haihe River Basin, so the government should start to curb the deterioration of river ecosystem health by controlling these nutrients indicators. For river ecosystem health assessment, the multi-factors comprehensive evaluation method was superior to single-factor method.

  5. Annual distributions and variations of dust weather occurrence over the Tarim Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Minzhong; Huo, Wen; Huang, Anning; Yang, Xinhua; Yang, Fan

    2018-04-01

    The annual distribution and variations in dust weather occurrence (DWO) have been analyzed using monthly DWO data from 26 stations over the Tarim Basin during the period of 1961 to 2010. The results show that the DWO presents a significant decreasing trend for different parts of the Tarim Basin in recent decades. The monthly DWO has two peaks in the east and west. In the first half of the year, the peak is in April, but in the second half of the year, the peak is in September. According to the concentration period and concentration degree (CD) of DWO, we can find that the maximum DWO occurs in April in the eastern, western, and northern parts of the basin, but it occurs in May in the southern part. The dust weather season is shorter for the northern and eastern parts of the basin than those of the remaining parts. On average, the dust weather season initiates in April in the northeast and in May for the rest of the region. As an indicator for the length of dust weather season, the CD is significantly related to DWO, with a correlation coefficient of -0.51, revealing an interesting feature of regional climate change with declining DWO and declining dust weather season over the Tarim Basin. The correlation analysis exhibits that all the Arctic Oscillation, Antarctic Oscillation, and North Atlantic Oscillation have a negative relation with the DWO but a positive relation with the length of dust weather season.

  6. Recent interdecadal shift in the relationship between Northeast China's winter precipitation and the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingting, Han; Shengping, He; Xin, Hao; Huijun, Wang

    2018-02-01

    This study documents an interdecadal change in the interannual relationship between Northeast China's winter precipitation (NECWP) and the sea surface temperature (SST) in the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans in the 1990s. It is revealed that the NECWP shows a significant simultaneous correlation with the SST anomalies in the North Atlantic (SST_Atlantic)/tropical Indian Ocean (SST_Indian) during 1996-2013/1961-1990. Generally, the NECWP anomaly is concurrent with apparent Eurasian wave pattern during 1961-1990 whereas anomalous Okhotsk high and East Asia trough during 1996-2013. It is found that, before the 1990s, the warming SST anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean could stimulate the Eurasian wave pattern via inducing significant anomalous upper-level convergence over the northern Europe, which tends to favor a positive NECWP anomaly. During 1996-2013, the SST_Indian-NECWP connection is disrupted. Instead, the North Atlantic tri-polar SST anomaly pattern exerts a dominant impact on the NECWP through triggering a stationary Rossby wave that originates from the North Atlantic and propagates eastward to Northeast Asia and further modulates the Okhotsk high and East Asia trough. Further analyses indicate that the weakened connection between the tropical SST_Indian anomalies and the northern Ferrell circulation likely contributes to the weakening of the NECWP-SST_Indian relationship after the 1990s. However, the eastward shift and the enlarged anomalous magnitudes of the North Atlantic Oscillation might favor the strengthening of the NECWP-SST_Atlantic relationship after the mid-1990s. It is therefore suggested that the strengthened variability of the SST_Atlantic anomalies after the 1990s might partially contribute to the intensification of the interannual variability of the NECWP.

  7. Transfer and transformation of soil iron and implications for hydrogeomorpholocial changes in Naoli River catchment, sanjiang plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, J.; Xianguo, L.; Hongqing, W.; Yuanchun, Z.; Haitao, W.

    2011-01-01

    Wetland soils are characterized by alternating redox process due to the fluctuation of waterlogged conditions. Iron is an important redox substance, and its transfer and transformation in the wetland ecosystem could be an effective indicator for the environment changes. In this paper, we selected the Naoli River catchment in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China as the study area to analyze the dynamics of transfer and transformation of soil iron, and the relationship between iron content change and environmental factors. The results show that the total and crystalline iron contents reach the peak in the depth of 60 cm in soil profile, while the amorphous iron content is higher in the topsoil. In the upper reaches, from the low to high landscape positions, the total and crystalline iron contents decrease from 62.98 g/kg to 41.61 g/kg, 22.82 g/kg to 10.53 g/kg respectively, while the amorphous iron content increases from 2.42 g/kg to 8.88 g/kg. Amorphous iron content has positive correlation with organic matter and soil water contents, while negative correlation with pH. Moreover, both the crystalline and amorphous iron contents present no correlation with total iron content, indicating that environmental factors play a more important role in the transfer and transformation of iron other than the content of the total iron. Different redoximorphic features were found along the soil profile due to the transfer and transformation of iron. E and B horizons of wetland soil in the study area have a matrix Chroma 2 or less, and all the soil types can meet the criteria of American hydric soil indicators except albic soil. ?? Science Press, Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  8. Mesozoic basins and associated palaeogeographic evolution in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qing Liu

    2015-04-01

    Besides, during the Late Mesozoic, a huge terrestrial biota, mainly dinosaur fauna, dominated in North China. The Yanliao biota of the Middle–Late Jurassic and the Jehol biota of the Early Cretaceous are characterized by feathered dinosaurs, primitive birds, mammals, pterosaur, insects and plants (angiosperms. In northeastern Asia, this Late Mesozoic tectonic background , palaeogeoraphy and palaeoecology were shared by East China, Korean Peninsula, Japan and the Far East of Russia.

  9. Characteristics of air pollution in different zones of Sichuan Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Guicai; Wang, Shigong; Ma, Minjin; Ni, Changjian; Shang, Ziwei; Wang, Jiaxin; Li, Jingxin

    2018-01-15

    Sichuan Basin, located in southwest China, has been ranked as the fourth of heavily air polluted regions in China partly due to its deep mountain-basin topography. However, spatial-temporal distribution of air pollution over the basin is still unclear due to the lack of monitoring data and poor knowledge. Since January 2015, six criteria air pollutants began to be monitored in 20 cities across the basin. The measured data enable us to analyze the basin-wide spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of these air pollutants. Results revealed heavy air pollution in the bottom zone, medium in the slope zone, and light pollution in the edge zone of the Basin in terms of the altitudes of air quality monitoring stations across the Basin. The average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were 55.87μg/m 3 and 86.49μg/m 3 in the bottom, 33.76μg/m 3 and 63.33μg/m 3 in the slope, and 19.71μg/m 3 and 35.06μg/m 3 in the edge, respectively. In the bottom and slope of the basin, high PM 2.5 concentration events occurred most frequently in winter . While in summer, ozone became primary pollutant. Among the six air pollutants, concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 decrease dramatically with increasing altitude which was fitted by a nonlinear relationship between particulate matter (PM) concentrations and altitude. This relationship was validated by extinction coefficient profiles from CALIPSO observations and EV-lidar data, and hence used to reflect vertical distribution of air PM concentrations. It has been found that the thickness of higher PM concentrations is less than 500m in the basin. In the bottom of the basin, PM concentrations exhibited stronger horizontal homogeneities as compared with those in the North China Plain and Yangtze River Delta. However, gaseous pollutants seemed not to show clear relationships between their concentrations and altitudes in the basin. Their horizontal homogeneities were less significant compared to PM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  10. Tectonic evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Yabulai Basin, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Min; Wu, Xiaozhi

    2014-05-01

    The Yabulai petroliferous basin is located at the north of Hexi Corridor, western China, striking NEE and covering an area of 1.5×104 km2. It is bounded on the south by Beidashan Mountain to the Chaoshui Basin, on the east by Bayanwulashan Mountain to the Bayanhaote Basin, and on the northwest by Yabulai Mountain to the Yingen-Ejinaqi Basin. It is a Meso-cenozoic compressive depression residual basin. In view of regional geotectonics, the Yabulai basin sits in the middle-southern transition belt of Arershan massif in North China Craton. Driven by Indosinian movement at the late Triassic, two near EW normal faults were developed under the regional extensional stress along the northern fringe of Beidashan Mountain and the southern fringe of Yabulai Mountain front in the Arershan massif, forming the embryonic form of the Yabulai rift lake basin. Since Yanshan period, the Yabulai basin evolved in two major stages: Jurassic rift lake basin and Cretaceous rift lake basin. During early Yanshan period, EW striking Yabulai tensional rift was formed. Its major controlling fault was Beidashan normal fault, and the depocenter was at the south of this basin. During middle Yanshan period, collision orogenesis led to sharp uplift at the north of this basin where the middle-lower Jurassic formations were intensely eroded. During late Yanshan period, the Alashan massif and its northern area covered in an extensional tectonic environment, and EW striking normal faults were generated at the Yabulai Mountain front. Such faults moved violently and subsided quickly to form a new EW striking extensional rift basin with the depocenter at the south of Yabulai Mountain. During Himalayan period, the Alashan massif remained at a SN horizontal compressional tectonic environment; under the compressional and strike slip actions, a NW striking and south dipping thrusting nappe structure was formed in the south of the Yabulai basin, which broke the Beidashan normal fault to provide the echelon

  11. Adaptive Fusion of Information for Seeing into Ordos Basin, China: A China-Germany-US Joint Venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T. C. J.; Yin, L.; Sauter, M.; Hu, R.; Ptak, T.; Hou, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive fusion of information for seeing into geological basins is the theme of this joint venture. The objective of this venture is to initiate possible collaborations between scientists from China, Germany, and US to develop innovative technologies, which can be utilized to characterize geological and hydrological structures and processes as well as other natural resources in regional scale geological basins of hundreds of thousands of kilometers (i.e., the Ordos Basin, China). This adaptive fusion of information aims to assimilate active (manmade) and passive (natural) hydrologic and geophysical tomography surveys to enhance our ability of seeing into hydrogeological basins at the resolutions of our interests. The active hydrogeophysical tomography refers to recently developed hydraulic tomgoraphic surveys by Chinese and German scientists, as well as well-established geophysical tomography surveys (such as electrical resistivity tomography, cross-borehole radars, electrical magnetic surveys). These active hydrogeophysical tomgoraphic surveys have been proven to be useful high-resolution surveys for geological media of tens and hundreds of meters wide and deep. For basin-scale (i.e., tens and hundreds of kilometers) problems, their applicabilities are however rather limited. The passive hydrogeophysical tomography refers to unexplored technologies that exploit natural stimuli as energy sources for tomographic surveys, which include direct lightning strikes, groundwater level fluctuations due to earthquakes, river stage fluctuations, precipitation storms, barometric pressure variations, and long term climate changes. These natural stimuli are spatially varying, recurrent, and powerful, influencing geological media over great distances and depths (e.g., tens and hundreds of kilometers). Monitoring hydrological and geophysical responses of geological media to these stimuli at different locations is tantamount to collecting data of naturally occurring tomographic

  12. Detecting runoff variation in Weihe River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing, F.; Qiang, H.; Shen, C.; Aijun, G.

    2015-05-01

    Dramatic changes in hydrological factors in the Weihe River basin are analysed. These changes have exacerbated ecological problems and caused severe water shortages for agriculture, industries and the human population in the region, but their drivers are uncertain. The Mann-Kendall test, accumulated departure analysis, sequential clustering and the sliding t-test methods were used to identify the causes of changes in precipitation and runoff in the Weihe basin. Change-points were identified in the precipitation and runoff records for all sub-catchments. For runoff, the change in trend was most pronounced during the 1990s, whereas changes in precipitation were more prominent earlier. The results indicate that human activities have had a greater impact than climate change on the hydrology of the Weihe basin. These findings have significant implications for the establishment of effective strategies to counter adverse effects of hydrological changes in the catchment.

  13. Detecting runoff variation in Weihe River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jingjing

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic changes in hydrological factors in the Weihe River basin are analysed. These changes have exacerbated ecological problems and caused severe water shortages for agriculture, industries and the human population in the region, but their drivers are uncertain. The Mann-Kendall test, accumulated departure analysis, sequential clustering and the sliding t-test methods were used to identify the causes of changes in precipitation and runoff in the Weihe basin. Change-points were identified in the precipitation and runoff records for all sub-catchments. For runoff, the change in trend was most pronounced during the 1990s, whereas changes in precipitation were more prominent earlier. The results indicate that human activities have had a greater impact than climate change on the hydrology of the Weihe basin. These findings have significant implications for the establishment of effective strategies to counter adverse effects of hydrological changes in the catchment.

  14. Impact of climatic and environmental changes on flood-duration-frequencies in the Fengle Rriver (YangTze Basin, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Christian; Chu, Yin; Tournoud, Marie-George; Ou, Mengli; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Cres, François-Noël; Ma, Youhua

    2016-04-01

    Future water management challenges such as flood risk are highly relevant to climate and land use changes. Climate change is expected to lead to an ongoing intensification of effects on changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration which could exacerbate flooding issues. Land use changes, modifications of agricultural practices and urbanization alter the apportionment of the different hydrological processes at the basin scale and could significantly affect the seasonality of streamflow. At the local scale, the consequences of climate and land use changes on flood occurrence and magnitude are a major issue for the economic development and management policy of basin area. This study apply a methodology for investigating the potential consequences of land use ,as well as precipitation and temperature changes on flood occurrence, duration and magnitude, accounting for uncertainties in scenario data and hydrological model parameters. The discharge time series predicted for the future were simulated from a calibrated and validated distributed hydrological model. The model was run from inputs which are -predicted rainfall time series based on scenarios of changes identified from a literature review, -future evapotranspiration rates assessed from temperature changes identified from a literature review -and scenarios of land-use changes The study area, the Fengle River basin (1500 km2), is located in the northeast part of Yangtze basin. The river is one of the main tributaries of the Chao Lake, the fifth largest natural lake of China. The lake catchment is 9130 km2 in area, including the city of Hefei and a large extent of agricultural and rural areas. Many changes are expected in land use and agricultural practices in the future, due to the touristic appeal of the Chao Lake shore and the growth of the city of Hefei. Climate changes are also expected in this region, with a high impact on rainfall regime. In the current period heavy storms and floods occur predominantly

  15. Impacts from Land Use Pattern on Spatial Distribution of Cultivated Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in Typical Rural-Urban Fringe of Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Qing; Liu, Shuhan; Zhu, Yuanli; Wu, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study?s aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive cultivated soil heavy metal pollution and peri-urban land use patterns in the black soil region. We applied spatial lag regression to analyze the relationship between PLI (pollution load index) and influencing factors ...

  16. Epidemiology of general obesity, abdominal obesity and related risk factors in urban adults from 33 communities of northeast china: the CHPSNE study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Jing; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Yang; Huang, Mei-Meng; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity increases the risk of many diseases. However, there has been little literature about the epidemiology of obesity classified by body mass index (BMI) or waist (abdominal obesity) among urban Chinese adults. This study is to fill the gap by assessing the prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among urban Chinese adults. Methods A representative sample of 25,196 urban adults aged 18 to 74 years in Northeast China was selected and measurements of height, wei...

  17. Ecosystem Service Value for the Common Reed Wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Siyuan; Laws, Edward A.; Costanza, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The largest reed field in the world, with an area of 1000 km2 in 1953, is located in the Liaohe Delta, which lies in the five-point-in-a-line economic strategic zone of northeastern China. However, the area of reeds has declined dramatically in recent years to accommodate oil field infrastructure...

  18. Chemical and microbial properties in contaminated soils around a magnesite mine in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    D Yang; D-H Zeng; J Zhang; L-J Li; R. Mao

    2012-01-01

    We measured soil chemical and microbial properties at a depth of 0–20 cm among mine tailings, abandoned mined land, contaminated cropland, and uncontaminated cropland around a magnesite mine near Haicheng City, Liaoning Province, China. The objective was to clarify the impact of Mg on the soils. We found that soluble Mg2+ concentration and pH...

  19. The prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia in northeast China: a population-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Liang; Xing, Ying-Qi; Wu, Yan-Hua; Liu, Hao-Yuan; Luo, Yun; Sun, Ming-Shuo; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Yang, Yi

    2017-03-23

    Dyslipidemia is an important independent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to explore the current prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia and its associated influence factors in northeast China. In this population-based cross-sectional study, we adopted a multi-stage, stratified sampling method to obtain a representative sample of 4052 permanent residents aged 40 years and over from different urban and rural regions in Dehui City of Jilin Province. All subjects completed a questionnaire and were examined for risk factors. Continuous data were presented as means ± standard deviations (SD) and compared using the Student's t-test. Categorical variables were presented as proportions and compared using the Rao-Scott-χ 2 test in different subgroups. The associated influence factors for the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia were evaluated through multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 62.1% overall, with 33.5, 43.9, 0.6, and 8.8% for high total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, respectively. Among those with dyslipidemia, the proportion of subjects who were aware, treated, and controlled was 14.4, 33.9, and 19.9%, respectively. Overweight or obesity (OR = 2.156; 95% CI: 1.863, 2.533), hypertension (OR = 1.643; 95% CI: 1.425, 1.893), or diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.173; 95% CI: 1.661, 2.844) increased the prevalence of dyslipidemia, also these participants were more likely to be aware of their condition, however, this did not increase the likelihood of treatment and control. Living in urban areas and higher education level also increased the awareness of dyslipidemia. Personal history of coronary heart disease was the strongest influence factors associated with better awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia. Overweight or obesity (OR = 0.404; 95% CI

  20. Investigating the evolutionary history of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Wei, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H.

    2017-12-01

    Human's innovative abilities do not only enable rapid expansion of civilization, but also lead to enormous modifications on the natural environment. Technology, while a key factor embedded in socioeconomic developments, its impacts have been rarely appropriately considered in river basin management. This research aims to examine the evolutionary history of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe River Basin, China, and how its characteristics interacted with the river basin environment. It adopts a content analysis approach to collect and summarize quantitative technological information in the Heihe River Basin across a time span of more than 2000 years from the Han Dynasty (206 BC) to 2015. Two Chinese academic research databases: Wan Fang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were chosen as data sources. The results show that irrigated agricultural technologies in Heihe River Basin have shifted from focusing on developing new farming tools and cultivation methods to adapting modernized, water-saving irrigation methods and water diversion infrastructures. In additions, the center of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe river basin has moved from downstream to middle stream since the Ming Dynasty (1368AD) as a result of degraded natural environment. The developing trend of technology in the Heihe River Basin thus coincides with the change of societal focus from agricultural production efficiency to the human-water balance and environmental remediation. This research demonstrates that irrigated agricultural technologies had a twisted evolutionary history in the Heihe River Basin, influenced by a diverse range of environmental and socioeconomic factors. It provides insights into the fact that technology exhibits a co-evolutionary characteristic with the social development history in the region, pointing towards the urgent need to maintain the balance between human and environment.

  1. Water risk assessment for river basins in China based on WWF water risk assessment tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water resource problems, one of the most important environmental and socio-economic issues, have been a common concern worldwide in recent years. Water resource risks are attracting more and more attention from the international community and national governments. Given the current situations of water resources and the water environment, and the characteristics of water resources management and information statistics of China, this paper establishes an index system for water risk assessment in river basins of China based on the index system of water risk assessment proposed by the World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF and German Investment and Development Co., Ltd (DEG. The new system is more suitable for Chinese national conditions and endorses the international assessment index. A variety of factors are considered to determine the critical values of classification for each index, and the indexes are graded by means of 5-grade and 5-score scales; the weights and calculation methods of some indexes are adjusted, with the remaining indexes adopting the method of WWF. The Weighted Comprehensive Index Summation Process is adopted to calculate the integrated assessment score of the river basin. The method is applied to the Haihe River basin in China. The assessment shows that the method can accurately reflect the water risk level of different river basins. Finally, the paper discusses the continuing problems in water risk assessment and points out the research required to provide a reference for further study in this field.

  2. Earth fissures in Qinglong Graben in Yuncheng Basin, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    72

    factors in the development and expansion of the earth fissures in Qinglong Graben. 20. The earth fissures forming ... Keywords: Earth fissure, Qinglong Graben, Yuncheng Basin, syn-sedimentary. 26 fault, forming process. 27. 1. ...... double spring flat earthquake, West-Central Nevada. Seismol Soc Am Bull 93(6):. 367.

  3. Changes and Relationships of Climatic and Hydrological Droughts in the Jialing River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Na; Sun, Huaiwei; Ye, Lei; Zhai, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts in terms of their temporal and spatial evolutions is very important for water resources management and social development in the basin scale. To study the spatial and temporal changes of climatic and hydrological droughts and the relationships between them, the SPEI and SDI are adopted to assess the changes and the correlations of climatic and hydrological droughts by selecting the Jialing River basin, China as the research area. The SPEI and SDI at different time scales are assessed both at the entire Jialing River basin and at the regional levels of the three sub basins. The results show that the SPEI and SDI are very suitable for assessing the changes and relationships of climatic and hydrological droughts in large basins. Based on the assessment, for the Jialing River basin, climatic and hydrological droughts have the increasing tendency during recent several decades, and the increasing trend of climatic droughts is significant or extremely significant in the western and northern basin, while hydrological drought has a less significant increasing trend. Additionally, climatic and hydrological droughts tend to increase in the next few years. The results also show that on short time scales, climatic droughts have one or two months lag impact on hydrological droughts in the north-west area of the basin, and have one month lag impact in south-east area of the basin. The assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts based on the SPEI and SDI could be very useful for water resources management and climate change adaptation at large basin scale.

  4. Changes and Relationships of Climatic and Hydrological Droughts in the Jialing River Basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Zeng

    Full Text Available The comprehensive assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts in terms of their temporal and spatial evolutions is very important for water resources management and social development in the basin scale. To study the spatial and temporal changes of climatic and hydrological droughts and the relationships between them, the SPEI and SDI are adopted to assess the changes and the correlations of climatic and hydrological droughts by selecting the Jialing River basin, China as the research area. The SPEI and SDI at different time scales are assessed both at the entire Jialing River basin and at the regional levels of the three sub basins. The results show that the SPEI and SDI are very suitable for assessing the changes and relationships of climatic and hydrological droughts in large basins. Based on the assessment, for the Jialing River basin, climatic and hydrological droughts have the increasing tendency during recent several decades, and the increasing trend of climatic droughts is significant or extremely significant in the western and northern basin, while hydrological drought has a less significant increasing trend. Additionally, climatic and hydrological droughts tend to increase in the next few years. The results also show that on short time scales, climatic droughts have one or two months lag impact on hydrological droughts in the north-west area of the basin, and have one month lag impact in south-east area of the basin. The assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts based on the SPEI and SDI could be very useful for water resources management and climate change adaptation at large basin scale.

  5. Geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids from the PACMANUS, Northeast Pual and Vienna Woods hydrothermal fields, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Eoghan P.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Saccocia, Peter; Bach, Wolfgang; Craddock, Paul R.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Sylva, Sean P.; Walsh, Emily; Pichler, Thomas; Rosner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Processes controlling the composition of seafloor hydrothermal fluids in silicic back-arc or near-arc crustal settings remain poorly constrained despite growing evidence for extensive magmatic-hydrothermal activity in such environments. We conducted a survey of vent fluid compositions from two contrasting sites in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, to examine the influence of variations in host rock composition and magmatic inputs (both a function of arc proximity) on hydrothermal fluid chemistry. Fluid samples were collected from felsic-hosted hydrothermal vent fields located on Pual Ridge (PACMANUS and Northeast (NE) Pual) near the active New Britain Arc and a basalt-hosted vent field (Vienna Woods) located farther from the arc on the Manus Spreading Center. Vienna Woods fluids were characterized by relatively uniform endmember temperatures (273-285 degrees C) and major element compositions, low dissolved CO2 concentrations (4.4 mmol/kg) and high measured pH (4.2-4.9 at 25 degrees C). Temperatures and compositions were highly variable at PACMANUS/NE Pual and a large, newly discovered vent area (Fenway) was observed to be vigorously venting boiling (358 degrees C) fluid. All PACMANUS fluids are characterized by negative delta DH2O values, in contrast to positive values at Vienna Woods, suggesting substantial magmatic water input to circulating fluids at Pual Ridge. Low measured pH (25 degrees C) values (~2.6-2.7), high endmember CO2 (up to 274 mmol/kg) and negative delta 34SH2S values (down to -2.7 permille) in some vent fluids are also consistent with degassing of acid-volatile species from evolved magma. Dissolved CO2 at PACMANUS is more enriched in 13C (-4.1 permille to -2.3 permille) than Vienna Woods (-5.2 permille to -5.7 permille), suggesting a contribution of slab-derived carbon. The mobile elements (e.g. Li, K, Rb, Cs and B) are also greatly enriched in PACMANUS fluids reflecting increased abundances in the crust there relative to the Manus

  6. Holocene evolution of the Liaohe Delta, a tide-dominated delta formed by multiple rivers in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Xue, Chunting; Ye, Siyuan; Laws, Edward Allen; Yuan, Hongming; Yang, Shixiong; Du, Xiaolei

    2018-02-01

    The Liaohe Delta in Northeast China is one of the ecologically important estuarine deltas in China. It has been formed via the accumulation of sediment discharged by four rivers in the Liaohe Plain that enter Liaodong Bay. Twenty-seven 30-40 m long cores recovered from the Liaohe Plain and Liaodong Bay were analyzed for sedimentary characteristics, grain size, foraminifera species, and ages determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C to document the stratigraphical sequence and the spatio-temporal evolution of the Liaohe Delta. Our results revealed that the sedimentary environments have evolved from fluvial, tidal flat/estuarine, to neritic and finally to a deltaic environment since the Late Pleistocene. The Holocene transgression arrived at the present coastline at ∼8500 cal a BP and flooded the maximum area of land at ∼7000 cal a BP. A deltaic environment prevailed in this area after 7000 cal a BP. Bounded by the modern Liaohe River mouth, the present deltaic sedimentary system can be divided into the eastern and western components. The rate of seaward progradation of the eastern paleocoastline was estimated to be ∼8.6 m/a since 7000 cal a BP; the eastern cores in the present coastline began receiving the deltaic sediments at ∼5000 cal a BP. The rate of seaward progradation of the western paleocoastline was estimated to be only ∼2.8 m/a since 7000 cal a BP. The coastline on the western side began accumulating deltaic sediments about 2000 years later than the eastern coastline. Depocenter shifting was hypothesized to be the reason for the spatial differences in the sedimentary processes. However, the change of sediment fluxes of the western rivers due to climate changes and ancient human impacts might be the reason for the differences of the temporal evolution of the eastern and western sedimentary systems in the Liaohe Delta.

  7. Land surface phenology of Northeast China during 2000-2015: temporal changes and relationships with climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Lin; Wang, Hongbin; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Naijia; Chen, Junpeng

    2017-10-01

    As an important crop growing area, Northeast China (NEC) plays a vital role in China's food security, which has been severely affected by climate change in recent years. Vegetation phenology in this region is sensitive to climate change, and currently, the relationship between the phenology of NEC and climate change remains unclear. In this study, we used a satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to obtain the temporal patterns of the land surface phenology in NEC from 2000 to 2015 and validated the results using ground phenology observations. We then explored the relationships among land surface phenology, temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours for relevant periods. Our results showed that the NEC experienced great phenological changes in terms of spatial heterogeneity during 2000-2015. The spatial patterns of land surface phenology mainly changed with altitude and land cover type. In most regions of NEC, the start date of land surface phenology had advanced by approximately 1.0 days year -1 , and the length of land surface phenology had been prolonged by approximately 1.0 days year -1 except for the needle-leaf and cropland areas, due to the warm conditions. We found that a distinct inter-annual variation in land surface phenology related to climate variables, even if some areas presented non-significant trends. Land surface phenology was coupled with climate variables and distinct responses at different combinations of temperature, precipitation, sunshine hours, altitude, and anthropogenic influence. These findings suggest that remote sensing and our phenology extracting methods hold great potential for helping to understand how land surface phenology is sensitive to global climate change.

  8. [Effect of climatic mean value change on the evaluation result of rice delayed cold damage in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui-peng; Yu, Wen-ying; Wu, Jin-wen; Feng, Rui; Zhang, Yu-shu

    2015-06-01

    The anomaly of mean temperature summation from May to September (ΔT5-9) was commonly used to assess delayed cold damage of rice in Northeast China, but whether the change of statistics years for climatic mean value (ΣT5-9) would affect the, evaluation results of Liaoning rice under cold damage needed to be further studied. By using the meteorological industry standard of the People's Republic of China "technical standard on rice cold damage evaluation" (QX/T 182- 2013) and the supplemental indices (ΔT5-9), the index (ΣT5-9) was calculated in four periods 1961-1990 (S1), 1971-2000 (S2), 1981-2010 (S3) and 1961-2010 (S4), and the spatial and temporal changes of cold damage in Liaoning Province were analyzed based on the ratio between cold damage stations and total stations (IOC) and the occurrence frequency. The results showed that the heat condition (Σ T5-9) in rice growing season increased obviously and the spatial and temporal changes were significant from 1961 to 2010. The original meteorological index of rice cold damage was improved by using quadratic polynomial model. The identification results were similar between S2 and S4. The variation coefficient of IOC in S3 was lower than that of the other three. Compared with the typical rice yield reduction years, the evaluation results accorded better with the actual situation in evaluating the rice delayed cold damage in Liaoning during study period by using the S3 climate mean value. The results could provide evidence for accurately evaluating the variation of rice cold damage in spatial and temporal distribution in Liaoning Province under the background of global climate change.

  9. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

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    Chunping Liu

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE, whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC. In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM. Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278 among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  10. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunping; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Shen, Hailong; Hu, Lijiang; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE), whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC). In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM). Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278) among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  11. Ecological Land Fragmentation Evaluation and Dynamic Change of a Typical Black Soil Farming Area in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhan Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological land is a land use category provided with considerable ecological value and a vital indicator reflecting regional eco-environmental quality. However, it has experienced severe fragmentation during the rapid urbanization in China which strongly threatened the regional ecological security, land use pattern and human living environment. Therefore, analysis of spatiotemporal change of ecological land use and ecological landscape pattern is particularly essential. In this paper, a case study was made in Nong’an County, which is a typical black soil farming area located in northeast China facing severe conflicts among cultivated land protection, urban expansion and ecological security. A landscape fragmentation evaluation model was proposed to measure the degree of regional ecological land fragmentation. We also determined the land use change features through the methods of dynamic change information exploration and by performing transfer trajectory analysis during the period from 1996 to 2014. The results showed that the ecological land in Nong’an County has experienced increasing fragmentation during the past 18 years. The statistical results showed that the land transition between ecological land and other land categories was quite frequent, and it especially appeared as a dramatic decline of grassland and severe increase of saline-alkali land. In addition, human interferences especially construction activities and cultivated land occupation were still the dominant factors to the fragmentation of ecological land and the frequent transition among the land use categories. The fragmentation degree showed a downward tendency at the end of the study, which indicated noticeable benefits of land use regulation and land protection policies directed towards land ecological value. This study aims to provide a scientific evaluation model for measuring ecological land fragmentation degree, and figure out the regional land use transition

  12. The Research of Tectonic Framework and the Fault Activity in Large Detachment Basin System on Northern Margin of South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L., Sr.; Ren, J.

    2017-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest marginal sea on southeast Asia continental margin, developed Paleogene extension-rifting continental margin system which is rare in the world and preserving many deformed characterizes of this kind system. With the investigation of the SCS, guiding by the development of tectonics and geo-physics, especially the development of tectonics and the high quality seismic data based on the development of geo-physics, people gradually accept that the northern margin of the SCS has some detachment basin characterizes. After researching the northern margin of the SCS, we come up with lithosphere profiles across the shelf, slope and deep sea basin in the northeast of the SCS to confirm the tectonic style of ocean-continental transition and the property of the detachment fault. Furthermore, we describe the outline of large detachment basins at northern SCS. Based on the large number of high-quality 2D and 3D deep seismic profile(TWT,10s), drilling and logging data, combined with domestic and international relevant researches, using basin dynamics and tectono-stratigraphy theory, techniques and methods of geology and geophysics, qualitative and quantitative, we describe the formation of the detachment basin and calculate the fault activity rate, stretching factor and settlement. According to the research, we propose that there is a giant and complete detachment basin system in the northern SCS and suggest three conclusions. First of all, the detachment basin system can be divided into three domains: proximal domain covering the Yangjiang Sag, Shenhu uplift and part of Shunde Sag, necking zone covering part of the Shunde Sag and Heshan Sag, distal domain covering most part of Heshan Sag. Second, the difference of the stretching factor is observed along the three domains of the detachment basin system. The factor of the proximal domain is the minimum among them. On the other side, the distal domain is the maximum among them. This

  13. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-09-01

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1-5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

  14. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1–5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform

  15. [Effects of heavy machinery operation on the structural characters of cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, En-Heng; Chai, Ya-Fan; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2008-02-01

    With the cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China as test objects, this paper measured their structural characters such as soil strength, bulk density, and non-capillary porosity/capillary porosity (NCP/CP) ratio before and after heavy and medium-sized machinery operation, aimed to study the effects of machinery operation on the physical properties of test soils. The results showed that after machinery operation, there existed three distinct layers from top to bottom in the soil profiles, i.e., plowed layer, cumulative compacted layer, and non-affected layer, according to the changes of soil strength. Under medium-sized machinery operation, these three layers were shallower, and there was a new plow pan at the depth between 17.5 and 30 cm. Heavy machinery operation had significant positive effects on the improvement of topsoil structure (P heavy machinery, the bulk density of topsoil decreased by 7.2% and 3.5%, respectively, and NCP/CP increased by 556.6% after subsoiling, which would benefit water infiltration, reinforce water storage, and weaken the threat of soil erosion. The main action of heavy machinery operation was soil loosening, while that of medium-sized machinery operation was soil compacting.

  16. Impact of MTHFR polymorphisms on methylation of MGMT in glioma patients from Northeast China with different folate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N; Jiang, J; Song, Y J; Zhao, S G; Tong, Z G; Song, H S; Wu, H; Zhu, J Y; Gu, Y H; Sun, Y; Hua, W; Qi, J P

    2013-10-29

    Hypomethylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter in glioma cells has been associated with temozolomide resistance. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is produced during folate metabolism, is the main source of methyl groups during DNA methylation. As a key enzyme during folate metabolism, polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) may regulate folate end-products. We investigated the effect of typical polymorphisms of MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) on MGMT methylation based on different serum folate levels in patients with glioma from Northeast China. A total of 275 patients with glioma and 329 without malignant tumors were tested. Serum folate concentration was assayed by using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. MTHFR polymorphisms were detected by Taqman-Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methylation-specific PCR was used to assess MGMT methylation. The constituent ratio of glioma patients below the serum folate biological reference value was significantly higher than that of the control population (P A1298C mutation were found in higher frequency than homozygotes or wild types (oligodendroglioma, P methylation of MGMT (median, P < 0.001; biological reference value, P = 0.036). These data suggest that, in combination with a negative folate balance in glioma patients, T/T genotypes in MTHFR C677T may be associated with MGMT demethylation.

  17. Identification of nitrate sources in groundwater using a stable isotope and 3DEEM in a landfill in Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhifei [School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yang, Yu; Lian, Xinying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Jiang, Yonghai, E-mail: jyhai203@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Gansu 730070 (China); Peng, Xing [School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); and others

    2016-09-01

    The groundwater was sampled in a typical landfill area of the Northeast China. Coupled stable isotope and three dimensional excitation–emission matrix (3DEEM) were applied to dentify diffused NO{sub 3}{sup −} inputs in the groundwater in this area. The results indicated that combined with the feature of groundwater hydrochemistry and three-dimensional fluorescence technology can effectively identify the nitrate pollution sources. The nitrate was derived from manure and sewage by δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 18}O–NO{sub 3}{sup −} values of groundwater in the different periods. The excitation–emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy was further evidence of groundwater DOM mainly which comes from the landfill. The protein-like was very significant at the sampling points near the landfill (SPNL), but only fulvic acid-like appeared at downstream of the landfill groundwater sampling points (DLGSP) in the study area. Partial denitrification processes helped to attenuate nitrate concentration in anaerobic environment. - Highlights: • We used stable isotope and 3DEEM to evaluate of nitrate sources. • Groundwater hydrochemistry was used to assess groundwater recharge. • The degradation process of organic matters was assessed using 3DEEM in groundwater. • This approach is a effective tool for trace to the nitrate sources in groundwater.

  18. Depression and Quality of Life in Relation to Decreased Glomerular Filtration Rate Among Adults with Hypertension in Rural Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Guo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We aim to investigate the extent to which depression and quality of life might be associated with decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR in a large hypertensive population in rural Northeast China. Methods: A total of 5566 hypertensive participants aged 35 years and older were screened with a stratified cluster multistage sampling scheme in rural areas of Liaoning Province during 2012-2013. Decreased GFR was defined as estimated GFR 2. Results: The overall prevalence of decreased GFR was 3.2%. In the multivariable regression model, participants with moderate or greater depression had a greater risk for having a decreased GFR (OR: 1.739, 95%CI: 1.004 to 3.014 after full adjustment. Every 1-point increase of all the domains in WHOQOL-BREF, except for physical and environment domains, was significantly related to a lower risk for decreased GFR adjusting for age, gender and race. However, after fully adjustment, only social relations remained significant (OR: 0.899, 95%CI: 0.820 to 0.985. Increasing in total scores of WHOQOL-BREF was a protective factor against decreased GFR after fully adjustment. Conclusion: We found that moderate or greater depression and lower quality of life were associated with higher risks for developing decreased GFR.

  19. Regional Economic Resilience: Resistance and Recoverability of Resource-Based Cities during Economic Crises in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper quantitatively analyzes the economic resilience of resource-based cities (RBCs in Northeast China in terms of resistance and recoverability during two economic crises: the Asian financial crisis and the global financial crisis. Moreover, it analyzes the main factors that affected regional resilience. There are three main findings. First, the RBCs in general demonstrated poor resistance during both recessions, but there were variations among the different types of RBCs. Petroleum and metal cities demonstrated the most resistance, whereas coal cities performed the worst. Second, the influential factors affecting economic resilience varied across the two economic cycles, but location advantage, research and development (R and D intensity, foreign trade dependence ratio, and supporting policies had positive effects on resilience during both economic cycles, while the proportion of employed persons in resource industries had a negative effect. Industrial diversity had a weak and ambiguous effect on resilience. Third, the secondary industry was more resilient during the Asian financial crisis, but the tertiary industry was more resilient during the global financial crisis. This shift may be attributed to both the nature of the crises and the strength of the sectors at the time of the crises.

  20. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Artisanal Milk Cheese from Northeast China Against Enteropathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xingyang; Shi, Yunjia; Gu, Shanshan; Yan, Xin; Chen, Hongyan; Ge, Junwei

    2017-12-07

    The present study aims to investigate the probiotic properties of novel strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional artisanal milk cheese from Northeast China and to explore their antibacterial activity against enteropathogenic bacteria. Of the 321 isolates, 86 exhibited survival in low pH, resistance to pancreatin, and tolerance to bile salts; of these, 12 inhibited the growth of more than seven enteropathogenic bacteria and exhibited antibiofilm activities against Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003 and/or Escherichia coli CVCC230. Based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis, the 12 isolates were assigned to Lactobacillus plantarum (7), Lactobacillus helveticus (3), Pediococcus acidilactici (1), and Enterococcus faecium (1) species. In addition, 5 of the 12 strains were susceptible to most of the tested antibiotics. Furthermore, four strains with sensitivity to antibiotics showed significantly high levels of hydrophobicity similar to or better than the reference strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Moreover, three strains were confirmed safe through non-hemolytic activities and bacterial translocation. Overall, the selected Lact. plantarum 27053 and 27172 and Lact. helveticus 27058 strains can be considered potential probiotic strains and candidates for further application in functional food and prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal diseases.

  1. Chemical composition and nutritive value of hot pepper seed (Capsicum annuum grown in Northeast Region of China

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    Yu ZOU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and nutritive value of hot pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum grown in Northeast Region of China were investigated. The proximate analysis showed that moisture, ash, crude fat, crude protein and total dietary fiber contents were 4.48, 4.94, 23.65, 21.29 and 38.76 g/100 g, respectively. The main amino acids were glutamic acid and aspartic acid (above 2 g/100 g, followed by histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, arginine, cysteine, leucine, tryptophan, serine, glycine, methionine, threonine and tyrosine (0.8-2 g/100 g. The contents of proline, alanine, valine and isoleucine were less than 0.8 g/100 g. The fatty acid profile showed that linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid and linolenic acid (above 0.55 g/100 g as the most abundant fatty acids followed lauric acid, arachidic acid, gondoic acid and behenic acid (0.03-0.15 g/100 g. Analyses of mineral content indicated that the most abundant mineral was potassium, followed by magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, sodium and manganese. The nutritional composition of hot pepper seeds suggested that they could be regarded as good sources of food ingredients and as new sources of edible oils.

  2. [Quantitative prediction of soil salinity content with visible-near infrared hyper-spectra in northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-guang; Huang, Biao; Ji, Jun-feng; Hu, Wen-you; Sun, Wei-xia; Zhao, Yong-cun

    2012-08-01

    Studying the spectral property of salinized soil is an important work, for it is the base of monitoring soil salinization by remote sense. To investigate the spectral property of salinized soil and the relationship between the soil salinity and the hyperspectral data, the field soil samples were collected in the region of Northeast China and then reflectance spectra were measured. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was established based on the statistical analysis of the soil salinity content and the reflectance of hyperspectra. The feasibility of soil salinity prediction by hyperspectra was decided by analyzed calibration model and independent validation. Models accuracy was also analyzed, which was established in the conditions of different treatment methods and different re-sampling intervals. The results showed that it was feasible to predict soil salinity content based on measured reflectance spectrum. The results also revealed that it was necessary to smooth measured hyperspectra for spectral prediction accuracy to be improved significantly after smoothing. The best model was established based on smoothed and log(l/x) transformed hyperspectra with high determination coefficients (R2) of 0.6677 and RPD = 1.61, which showed that this math transformation could eliminate noise effectively and so as to improve the prediction accuracy. The largest re-sampling interval is 8 nm that could meet the accuracy of the soil salinity prediction. Therefore, it provided scientific reference of monitoring soil salinization by remote sensing from satellite platform.

  3. Climate Change and Anthropogenic Impacts on Wetland and Agriculture in the Songnen and Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Influences of the increasing pressure of climate change and anthropogenic activities on wetlands ecosystems and agriculture are significant around the world. This paper assessed the spatiotemporal land use and land cover changes (LULCC, especially for conversion from marshland to other LULC types (e.g., croplands over the Songnen and Sanjiang Plain (SNP and SJP, northeast China, during the past 35 years (1980–2015. The relative role of human activities and climatic changes in terms of their impacts on wetlands and agriculture dynamics were quantitatively distinguished and evaluated in different periods based on a seven-stage LULC dataset. Our results indicated that human activities, such as population expansion and socioeconomic development, and institutional policies related to wetlands and agriculture were the main driving forces for LULCC of the SJP and SNP during the past decades, while increasing contributions of climatic changes were also found. Furthermore, as few studies have identified which geographic regions are most at risk, how the future climate changes will spatially and temporally impact wetlands and agriculture, i.e., the suitability of wetlands and agriculture distributions under different future climate change scenarios, were predicted and analyzed using a habitat distribution model (Maxent at the pixel-scale. The present findings can provide valuable references for policy makers on regional sustainability for food security, water resource rational management, agricultural planning and wetland protection as well as restoration of the region.

  4. Quantifying Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Solar Radiation over the Northeast China Based on ACO-BPNN Model and Intensity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqian Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable information on the spatiotemporal dynamics of solar radiation plays a crucial role in studies relating to global climate change. In this study, a new backpropagation neural network (BPNN model optimized with an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO algorithm was developed to generate the ACO-BPNN model, which had demonstrated superior performance for simulating solar radiation compared to traditional BPNN modelling, for Northeast China. On this basis, we applied an intensity analysis to investigate the spatiotemporal variation of solar radiation from 1982 to 2010 over the study region at three levels: interval, category, and conversion. Research findings revealed that (1 the solar radiation resource in the study region increased from the 1980s to the 2000s and the average annual rate of variation from the 1980s to the 1990s was lower than that from the 1990s to the 2000s and (2 the gains and losses of solar radiation at each level were in different conditions. The poor, normal, and comparatively abundant levels were transferred to higher levels, whereas the abundant level was transferred to lower levels. We believe our findings contribute to implementing ad hoc energy management strategies to optimize the use of solar radiation resources and provide scientific suggestions for policy planning.

  5. Health impact of bioaccessible metal in lip cosmetics to female college students and career women, northeast of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Sa; Zhang, Zhaohan; Meng, Ping; Lin, Nan; Lu, Binyu; Cui, Fuyi; Feng, Yujie; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-01-01

    Actual measure-based studies have estimated ingestion rate of moderate and high daily use to female college students and career women in northeast of China. Sequential extraction analyses showed that total bioaccessible metals concentration in lipstick ranged from 2.103 to 31.103 μg/g and in lip balm ranged from 0.100 to 3.716 μg/g. The relationship between total bioaccessible metal concentrations and the cost of lip cosmetics showed a negative correlation. Lead was detected in all 30 products (100%), with an average concentration of 0.346 for lip balm and 0.407 μg/g for lipstick. With the exception of chromium content in three lipsticks, the estimated exposure in female college students and career women to target metals via lipstick and lip balm ingestion (calculated for moderate and high use) were much lower than the acceptable reference limits. The findings strongly emphasize the need to focus on the health risk of lip balm. - Highlights: • Lip cosmetics are one of non-dietary exposure source for metals. • Binding force of trace metals was possibly weaker in lip balm, not lipstick. • Bioaccessible metal intakes from lip cosmetics are below reference dose values. - Bioaccessible Metal in Lip Cosmetics and Exposure Assessment

  6. [Spatial-temporal evolution characteristic of coordination between urbanization and eco-environment in Jilin Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun-tao; Zhang, Ping-yu; Li, Jing; Liu, Shi-wei

    2015-12-01

    By building urbanization and eco-environment evaluation index systems, the levels of urbanization and eco-environment, and the degree of their coupling coordination of Jilin Province from 2000 to 2012 were evaluated. The level of comprehensive urbanization showed a continued growth trend, and the economic urbanization contributed the largest share. The eco-environment comprehensive level fluctuated upward. The eco-environment state, response and pressure increased faster since the implementation of the strategy of revitalizing Northeast China and other old industrial regions. Coupling coordination degree between urbanization and eco-environment increased continuously, from uncoordinated status to advanced coordinated status, changing from eco-environment lagged to urbanization lagged. The level of urbanization in central region was higher than east and west regions in Jilin Province, but its eco-environment level was low. Coupling coordination degree in Changchun was the highest, and that of Baishan was the lowest. Coupling coordination degree of Chang-Ji integrated region was always at the leading level, but the level of eco-environment lagged behind was growing since 2000. Coupling coordination degree of Siping, Liaoyuan, Songyuan and Yanbian increased, but that of Baicheng decreased.

  7. Evaluation of the yield and nitrogen use efficiency of the dominant maize hybrids grown in North and Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanjun; Fang, Zenguo; Gao, Qiang; Ye, Youliang; Jia, Liangliang; Yuan, Lixing; Mi, Guohua; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-06-01

    Breeding high-yielding and nutrient-efficient cultivars is one strategy to simultaneously resolve the problems of food security, resource shortage, and environmental pollution. However, the potential increased yield and reduction in fertilizer input achievable by using high-yielding and nutrient-efficient cultivars is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of 40 commercial maize hybrids at five locations in North and Northeast China in 2008 and 2009. The effect of interaction between genotype and nitrogen (N) input on maize yield was significant when the yield reduction under low-N treatment was 25%-60%. Based on the average yields achieved with high or low N application, the tested cultivars were classified into four types based on their NUE: efficient-efficient (EE) were efficient under both low and high N inputs, high-N efficient (HNE) under only high N input, low-N efficient (LNE) under only low N input, and nonefficient-nonefficient under neither low nor high N inputs. Under high N application, EE and HNE cultivars could potentially increase maize yield by 8%-10% and reduce N input by 16%-21%. Under low N application, LNE cultivars could potentially increase maize yield by 12%. We concluded that breeding for N-efficient cultivars is a feasible strategy to increase maize yield and/or reduce N input.

  8. Temporal and Spatial Changes in Black Carbon Sedimentary Processes in Wetlands of Songnen Plain, Northeast of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiabao; Gao, Chuanyu; Lin, Qianxin; Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhao, Winston; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC), an important component of organic carbon (OC) produced from incomplete combustion of carbon compounds, is widespread and affects the global carbon storage. The objectives of this study were to analyze the BC contents and fluxes in the last 150 years to determine the causes of differences in the three profiles of the Songnen Plain of Northeast China and to estimate the BC storage in the wetlands of the Songnen Plain. In the three sampling sites, BC fluxes in the period between 1950 and the present time increased by the ratios of 1.3, 31.1 and 1.4, respectively, compared to their own baseline between 1850 and 1900. Furthermore, the BC fluxes varying from 0.76 to 5.63 g m-2 y-1 in the three profiles had an opposite trend with the sand percentages with mean values changing from 78.9% to 19.6%, suggesting that sand desertification might additionally affect the BC processes in the region. PMID:26469981

  9. Characterization of the major capsid genes (g23) of T4-type bacteriophages in the wetlands of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunyu; Wang, Guanghua; Liu, Junjie; Song, Changchun; Gao, Hongxing; Liu, Xiaobing

    2013-04-01

    To obtain genetic information and to evaluate the composition of T4-type bacteriophage (phage) communities in wetlands, environmental soil and water DNAs were obtained from two natural wetlands dominated by Carex lasiocarpa and Deyeuxia angustifolia plant species, and a neighboring paddy field in Sanjiang plain of northeast China. The biomarker gene of g23, which encodes the major capsid protein of T4-type phages, was amplified with primers MZIA1bis and MZIA6, and the PCR products were cloned and sequenced. In total, 96 and 50 different g23 clones were obtained from natural wetlands and a paddy field, respectively. A larger number of clones with low levels of identity to known sequences were found in water than in soil both in the natural wetlands and the paddy field, suggesting that many of T4-type phages in wetland water and paddy floodwater in Sanjiang plain are uncharacterized. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the g23 clones in natural wetlands, irrespective of water and soil, were distinctly different from those in marine waters, lake waters, and upland black soils, but were similar to those in paddy fields. The UniFrac analysis of g23 assemblages indicated that T4-type phage community compositions were different between soils and waters, and also were different between the natural wetlands and the paddy field. In general, the global analysis of g23 clone assemblages demonstrated that T4-type phage community compositions were different among natural wetlands, marines, lakes, paddy fields, and upland black soils.

  10. [Topsoil phosphorus forms and availability of different soil and water conservation plantations in typical black soil region, northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Fan, Rui-Ying; Wang, En-Heng; Xia, Xiang-You; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2014-06-01

    Aiming to understand soil phosphorus status of plantations in typical black soil region of Northeast China, the topsoil (0-10 cm) phosphorus fractionations and its availability were examined in four soil and water conservation plantations dominantly composed of Larix gmelini, Fraxinus mandshurica, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and Populus nigra var. italica x P. cathayan, respectively. The results showed that total P, Olsen-P and the concentration of different P fractionations in F. mandshurica and P. nigra var. italica x P. cathayan plantations were significantly higher than that of the other two coniferous plantations. Organic P was the major fractionation in the four plantations' topsoil, and sodium hydroxide extractable organic P (NaOH-Po ) representing moderately labile organic phosphorus was predominant, which accounted for 58.9% of total P. The contents of H2O-Pi and NaHCO3-P which were more labile to plant were lower, only accounting for 1.2% and 6.6% of total P, respectively. Except for NaHCO3-Po, all the other P fractions of four plantations correlated with each other, and they also had significant correlations with soil organic matter, total P, Olsen-P. Compared with the coniferous plantations, the broadleaf plantations presented higher availability of phosphorus.

  11. Temporal and Spatial Changes in Black Carbon Sedimentary Processes in Wetlands of Songnen Plain, Northeast of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabao He

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC, an important component of organic carbon (OC produced from incomplete combustion of carbon compounds, is widespread and affects the global carbon storage. The objectives of this study were to analyze the BC contents and fluxes in the last 150 years to determine the causes of differences in the three profiles of the Songnen Plain of Northeast China and to estimate the BC storage in the wetlands of the Songnen Plain. In the three sampling sites, BC fluxes in the period between 1950 and the present time increased by the ratios of 1.3, 31.1 and 1.4, respectively, compared to their own baseline between 1850 and 1900. Furthermore, the BC fluxes varying from 0.76 to 5.63 g m-2 y-1 in the three profiles had an opposite trend with the sand percentages with mean values changing from 78.9% to 19.6%, suggesting that sand desertification might additionally affect the BC processes in the region.

  12. Clinical and cytogenetic results of a series of amniocentesis cases from Northeast China: a report of 2500 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, N; Li, L L; Wang, R X; Li, L L; Yue, J M; Liu, R Z

    2015-12-02

    The aims of this study were to demonstrate the clinical and cytogenetic results of amniocentesis (AS) cases in Northeast China, to compare the incidence of different kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, and to study the association between the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities and different indications for prenatal diagnosis. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on long-term tissue cultures of 2500 second-trimester amniotic fluid samples. The most common indication for genetic AS was abnormal maternal serum-screening test (69.56%), followed by advanced maternal age (15.04%). Chromosomal abnormality was detected in 206 (8.24%) of the 2500 samples. The detection rate of abnormal karyotypes was 62.5% in the group in which one member of the couple was a carrier of a chromosome abnormality; in the group having a positive result from noninvasive prenatal testing, the frequency was 50%. To determine the origin of fetal chromosome abnormal karyotype, 45 fetuses were analyzed. Of these, 20 were found to be de novo abnormalities and 25 were familial. The frequency and proportion of abnormal karyotypes varied substantially across different maternal AS indications. Knowing the origin and type of chromosomal abnormality would help determine termination or continuation of the pregnancy.

  13. Effects of Natural and Human-Assisted Regeneration on Landscape Dynamics in a Korean Pine Forest in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fuqiang; Yang, Jian; He, Hong S.; Dai, Limin

    2013-01-01

    Improper forest harvesting can potentially degrade forest ecosystem functions and services. Human-assisted regeneration (e.g., planting) is often used to increase the rate of forest recovery and thereby reduce regeneration failure. Seed dispersal is a fundamental ecological process that can also influence spatio-temporal patterns of forest regeneration. In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of planting and seed dispersal on forest regeneration at landscape scales. Because such influences can be further complicated by timber harvest intensity and seed availability within and around harvested area, we also evaluated the effects of those factors on forest landscape dynamics. We used the forest landscape model LANDIS to simulate the dynamics of Korean pine-broadleaf mixed forests in Northeast China. We considered three factors: timber harvest intensity (3 levels), seed dispersal and whether or not planting was used. The results showed that planting was more important in maintaining the abundance of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis), a climax keystone species in this region, under the high-intensity harvesting option during early succession. In contrast, seed dispersal was more important during late succession. Korean pine can be successfully regenerated through seed dispersal under low and medium harvest intensities. Our results also indicated that effective natural regeneration will require protecting seed-production trees (seed rain). This study results provide a basis for more effectively managing Chinese temperate forests and possibly other similar ecosystems. PMID:24324785

  14. Temporal and Spatial Changes in Black Carbon Sedimentary Processes in Wetlands of Songnen Plain, Northeast of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiabao; Gao, Chuanyu; Lin, Qianxin; Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhao, Winston; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC), an important component of organic carbon (OC) produced from incomplete combustion of carbon compounds, is widespread and affects the global carbon storage. The objectives of this study were to analyze the BC contents and fluxes in the last 150 years to determine the causes of differences in the three profiles of the Songnen Plain of Northeast China and to estimate the BC storage in the wetlands of the Songnen Plain. In the three sampling sites, BC fluxes in the period between 1950 and the present time increased by the ratios of 1.3, 31.1 and 1.4, respectively, compared to their own baseline between 1850 and 1900. Furthermore, the BC fluxes varying from 0.76 to 5.63 g m-2 y-1 in the three profiles had an opposite trend with the sand percentages with mean values changing from 78.9% to 19.6%, suggesting that sand desertification might additionally affect the BC processes in the region.

  15. [A heterozygous transversion of connexin 50 in a family with congenital nuclear cataract in the northeast of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian-qiu; Ma, Zhi-wei; Sun, Hui-min

    2005-02-01

    To identify the genetic defect causing autosomal dominant congenital cataract (ADCC) in a five-generation family in the northeast of China. Linkage analysis was carried out with polymorphic microsatellites on the Human MapPairs marker set, special known loci. Mutation analysis of the candidate gene in the critical region was performed to detect the potential mutation. The maximum Lod score (2.44 at recombination fraction theta=0) was obtained for markers D1S498,D1S305, and D1S2844. The cataract locus in this family constellation was mapped to 1q21.1 and 21.44 cM interval between D1S2344 and D1S2844, which were known to flank the gene coding Connexin 50 (Cx50) or gap junction protein alpha-8 (GJA8). Sequencing of the coding region of GJA8 gene showed a heterozygous transversion T>G in exon 2, which resulted in the substitution of glycine for valine at amino acid 64, and this position was in the first connexin signature region that characterized this protein. This is the first report on a mutation in the first connexin signature region of the GJA8 and a different mutation within Cx50 revealed in this family, which might account for the phenotypic differences observed. Furthermore, this study confirmed that GJA8 plays a vital role in the maintenance of human lens transparency.

  16. Brominated flame retardants in the urban atmosphere of Northeast China: concentrations, temperature dependence and gas-particle partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hong; Li, Wen-Long; Liu, Li-Yan; Song, Wei-Wei; Ma, Wan-Li; Li, Yi-Fan

    2014-09-01

    57 pairs of air samples (gas and particle phases) were collected using a high volume air sampler in a typical city of Northeast China. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, including BDEs 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, 183, and 209) and 9 alternative BFRs (p-TBX, PBBZ, PBT, PBEB, DPTE, HBBZ, γ-HBCD, BTBPE, and DBDPE) were analyzed. The annual average total concentrations of the 13 PBDEs and the 9 alternative BFRs were 69 pg/m(3) and 180 pg/m(3), respectively. BDE 209 and γ-HBCD were the dominant congeners, according to the one-year study. The partial pressure of BFRs in the gas phase was significantly correlated with the ambient temperature, except for BDE 85, γ-HBCD and DBDPE, indicating the important influence of ambient temperature on the behavior of BFRs in the atmosphere. It was found that the gas-particle partitioning coefficients (logKp) for most low molecular weight BFRs were highly temperature dependent as well. Gas-particle partitioning coefficients (logKp) also correlated with the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (logPL(o)). Our results indicated that absorption into organic matter is the main control mechanism for the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric PBDEs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of nitrate sources in groundwater using a stable isotope and 3DEEM in a landfill in Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Zhifei; Yang, Yu; Lian, Xinying; Jiang, Yonghai; Xi, Beidou; Peng, Xing

    2016-01-01

    The groundwater was sampled in a typical landfill area of the Northeast China. Coupled stable isotope and three dimensional excitation–emission matrix (3DEEM) were applied to dentify diffused NO 3 − inputs in the groundwater in this area. The results indicated that combined with the feature of groundwater hydrochemistry and three-dimensional fluorescence technology can effectively identify the nitrate pollution sources. The nitrate was derived from manure and sewage by δ 15 N and δ 18 O–NO 3 − values of groundwater in the different periods. The excitation–emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy was further evidence of groundwater DOM mainly which comes from the landfill. The protein-like was very significant at the sampling points near the landfill (SPNL), but only fulvic acid-like appeared at downstream of the landfill groundwater sampling points (DLGSP) in the study area. Partial denitrification processes helped to attenuate nitrate concentration in anaerobic environment. - Highlights: • We used stable isotope and 3DEEM to evaluate of nitrate sources. • Groundwater hydrochemistry was used to assess groundwater recharge. • The degradation process of organic matters was assessed using 3DEEM in groundwater. • This approach is a effective tool for trace to the nitrate sources in groundwater.

  18. Recent ground fissures in the Hetao basin, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongtai; Ma, Baoqi; Long, Jianyu; Zhang, Hao; Liang, Kuan; Jiang, Dawei

    2017-10-01

    Ground fissures are a geological hazard with complex formation mechanisms. Increasing amounts of human activity have created more ground fissures, which can destroy buildings and threaten human security. Some ground fissures indicate potentially devastating earthquakes, so we must pay attention to these hazards. This paper documents recently discovered ground fissures in the Hetao basin. These ground fissures are located along the frontal margins of the terraces of the Sertengshan piedmont fault. These fissures are 600-1600 m long, 5-50 cm wide, and at most 1 m deep. These ground fissures emerged after 2010 and ruptured newly constructed roads and field ridges. The deep geodynamic mechanisms within this extensional environment, which is dominated by NE-SW principal compressive shear, involve N-S tensile stress, which has produced continuous subsidence in the Hetao basin and continuous activity along the Sertengshan piedmont fault since the late Quaternary. Trenches across the ground fissures reveal that the fissures are the latest manifestation of the activity of preexisting faults and are the result of creep-slip movement along the faults. The groundwater level in the Hetao basin has been dropping since the 1960s because of overexploitation, resulting in subsidence. When the tensile stress exceeds the ultimate tensile strength of the strata, the strata rupture along preexisting faults, producing ground fissures. Thus, the Sertengshan piedmont fault planes are the structural foundation of the ground fissures, and groundwater extraction induces the development of ground fissures.

  19. Mid-Pleistocene Acheulean-like stone technology of the Bose basin, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamei, H; Potts, R; Baoyin, Y; Zhengtang, G; Deino, A; Wei, W; Clark, J; Guangmao, X; Weiwen, H

    2000-03-03

    Stone artifacts from the Bose basin, South China, are associated with tektites dated to 803,000 +/- 3000 years ago and represent the oldest known large cutting tools (LCTs) in East Asia. Bose toolmaking is compatible with Mode 2 (Acheulean) technologies in Africa in its targeted manufacture and biased spatial distribution of LCTs, large-scale flaking, and high flake scar counts. Acheulean-like tools in the mid-Pleistocene of South China imply that Mode 2 technical advances were manifested in East Asia contemporaneously with handaxe technology in Africa and western Eurasia. Bose lithic technology is associated with a tektite airfall and forest burning.

  20. Analysis of the evolution of precipitation in the Haihe river basin of China under changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiangyi; Liu, Jiahong; Gong, Jiaguo

    2018-02-01

    Precipitation is one of the important factors of water cycle and main sources of regional water resources. It is of great significance to analyze the evolution of precipitation under changing environment for identifying the evolution law of water resources, thus can provide a scientific reference for the sustainable utilization of water resources and the formulation of related policies and measures. Generally, analysis of the evolution of precipitation consists of three levels: analysis the observed precipitation change based on measured data, explore the possible factors responsible for the precipitation change, and estimate the change trend of precipitation under changing environment. As the political and cultural centre of China, the climatic conditions in the Haihe river basin have greatly changed in recent decades. This study analyses the evolution of precipitation in the basin under changing environment based on observed meteorological data, GCMs and statistical methods. Firstly, based on the observed precipitation data during 1961-2000 at 26 meteorological stations in the basin, the actual precipitation change in the basin is analyzed. Secondly, the observed precipitation change in the basin is attributed using the fingerprint-based attribution method, and the causes of the observed precipitation change is identified. Finally, the change trend of precipitation in the basin under climate change in the future is predicted based on GCMs and a statistical downscaling model. The results indicate that: 1) during 1961-2000, the precipitation in the basin showed a decreasing trend, and the possible mutation time was 1965; 2) natural variability may be the factor responsible for the observed precipitation change in the basin; 3) under climate change in the future, precipitation in the basin will slightly increase by 4.8% comparing with the average, and the extremes will not vary significantly.

  1. A river basin as a commom-pool resource: a case study fot the Jaguaribe basin in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies 'common-pool resource' concepts to analyse to which extent the physical characteristics of a river basin facilitate or impede good management of water in different parts of a river basin. In addition, we compare the apparent manageability of water in the different parts of the

  2. Impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities on stream flow and sediment discharge in the Wei River basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, P.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.J.; Mu, X.M.; Wang, F.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced stream flow and increased sediment discharge are a major concern in the Yellow River basin of China, which supplies water for agriculture, industry and the growing populations located along the river. Similar concerns exist in the Wei River basin, which is the largest tributary of the Yellow

  3. Mapping and Assessment of Degraded Land in the Heihe River Basin, Arid Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Cai

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is a great threat in the Heihe River Basin, located in the aridinland of northwestern China and land desertification is one of the main aspects ofenvironmental changes in this basin. Previous studies have focused on water resourceutilization and soil erosion, but the status of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, suchas its distribution, extent and precise characteristics is often inadequately known. Based onfield observations and TM images from the year 2003, this study provides classificationand evaluation information concerning the degraded land in the basin of the Heihe River.There are five types of degraded land types in the Heihe River Basin: water eroded in thesouthern mountains, sandified and vegetation degraded near the oases, aridized in the lowreaches, and salinized in the lowlands. The total degraded area covers 29,355.5 km2,22.58% of the land in the study area. Finally, degraded land in the Heihe River Basin wasevaluated according to changes in the physical structure and chemical components of soils,land productivity, secondary soil salt, and water conditions.

  4. Epidemiology of pemphigus vulgaris in the Northeast China: a 10-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoling; Pan, Jisheng; Yu, Zhiming; Wang, Yanhua; Cai, Limin; Zheng, Shuyun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence, epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of patients with pemphigus vulgaris in China. We retrospectively investigated a total of 221 patients with pemphigus vulgaris. The parameters including age at diagnosis/onset, sex, diagnostic methods, hospitalizations, side-effects with different treatments, pemphigus vulgaris-associated diseases, the therapeutic features and duration of follow up were evaluated. The male : female ratio was 1:1.40. The incidence rate was obviously higher in two age groups, 31-40 years and 41-50 years. The mean age at onset was 44.19 ± 21.45 years. The majority of patients (56.56%) presented the mucocutaneous type. In addition, we found that various doses of corticosteroids (including the mean initial dose, maximum control dose, total dose before reducing and hospitalized total dose) exhibited statistical differences between only corticosteroids and corticosteroids-immunosuppressant groups in mild, moderate and severe pemphigus vulgaris (P pemphigus vulgaris most frequently occurred in the 41-50-year age group in China and the majority of patients manifested mucocutaneous lesions. Importantly, the incidence rate in females was higher than in males. The patients who needed combined immunosuppressant treatment, usually needed higher doses of corticosteroids initially, to control the disease and over the total course of treatment. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. Odonata diversity of the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin, Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty six species of Odonata are recorded from the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin. Archineura hetaerinoides is recorded from China for the first time. Five genera and five species are new to Yunnan Province. Among the six types of odonate habitats, forest streams have the highest species diversity whereas ponds have the most species shared with other habitats. Both of these two habitats are important in biodiversity conservation and need urgent protection.

  6. Evaluation of ecological instream flow considering hydrological alterations in the Yellow River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Zongjiao; Shi, Peijun; Singh, Vijay P.; Gu, Xihui

    2018-01-01

    The Yellow River is the second largest river in China and is the important source for water supply in the northwestern and northern China. It is often regarded as the mother river of China. Owing to climatic change and intensifying human activities, such as increasing withdrawal of water for meeting growing agricultural irrigation needs since 1986, the flow of Yellow River has decreased, with serious impacts on the ecological environment. Using multiple hydrological indicators and Flow Duration Curve (DFC)-based ecodeficit and ecosurplus, this study investigates the impact of hydrological alterations, such as the impact of water reservoirs or dams, on downstream ecological instream flow. Results indicate that: (1) due to the impoundment and hydrological regulations of water reservoirs, occurrence rates and magnitudes of high flow regimes have decreased and the decrease is also found in the magnitudes of low flow events. These changes tend to be more evident from the upper to the lower Yellow River basin; (2) human activities tend to enhance the instream flow variability, particularly after the 1980s;(3) the ecological environment in different parts of the Yellow River basin is under different degrees of ecological risk. In general, lower to higher ecological risk can be detected due to hydrological alterations from the upper to the lower Yellow River basin. This shows that conservation of ecological environment and river health is facing a serious challenge in the lower Yellow River basin; (4) ecological instream flow indices, such as ecodeficit and ecosurplus, and IHA32 hydrological indicators are in strong relationships, suggesting that ecodeficit and ecosurplus can be regarded as appropriate ecological indicators for developing measures for mitigating the adverse impact of human activities on the conservation of ecological environment in the Yellow River basin.

  7. Mercury exports from a High-Arctic river basin in Northeast Greenland (74°N) largely controlled by glacial lake outburst floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Tamstorf, Mikkel P.; Elberling, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Riverine mercury (Hg) export dynamics from the Zackenberg River Basin (ZRB) in Northeast Greenland were studied for the period 2009-2013. Dissolved and sediment-bound Hg was measured regularly in the Zackenberg River throughout the periods with running water (June-October) and coupled to water di...... fraction of flood-controlled Hg export in this area. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....... lake outburst floods in the ZRB in late summer at the time of maximum soil thaw depth, the location of the glacier in the upper ZRB, and increased thawing of the permafrost in Zackenberg in recent years leading to destabilisation of river banks are considered central factors explaining the high...

  8. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  9. Joint inversion of high resolution S-wave velocity structure underneath North China Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Li, G.; Niu, F.

    2017-12-01

    North China basin is one of earthquake prone areas in China. Many devastating earthquakes occurred in the last century and before, such as the 1937 M7.0 Heze Earthquake in Shandong province, the 1966 M7.2 Xingtai Earthquake and 1976 Tangshan Earthquake in Hebei province. Knowing the structure of the sediment cover is of great importance to predict strong ground motion caused by earthquakes. Unconsolidated sediments are loose materials, ranging from clay to sand to gravel. Earthquakes can liquefy unconsolidated sediments, thus knowing the distribution and thickness of the unconsolidated sediments has significant implication in seismic hazard analysis of the area. Quantitative estimates of the amount of extension of the North China basin is important to understand the thinning and evolution of the eastern North China craton and the underlying mechanism. In principle, the amount of lithospheric stretching can be estimated from sediment and crustal thickness. Therefore an accurate estimate of the sediment and crustal thickness of the area is also important in understanding regional tectonics. In this study, we jointly invert the Rayleigh wave phase-velocity dispersion and Z/H ratio data to construct a 3-D S-wave velocity model beneath North China area. We use 4-year ambient noise data recorded from 249 temporary stations, and 139 earthquake events to extract Rayleigh wave Z/H ratios. The Z/H ratios obtained from ambient noise data and earthquake data show a good agreement within the overlapped periods. The phase velocity dispersion curve was estimated from the same ambient noise data. The preliminary result shows a relatively low Z/H ratio and low velocity anomaly at the shallow part of sediment basins.

  10. The influence of large-scale climate phenomena on precipitation in the Ordos Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yu; Lei, Liyuan; Liu, Youcun; Hao, Yonghong; Zou, Chris; Zhan, Hongbin

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale atmospheric circulations significantly affect regional precipitation patterns. However, it is not well known whether and how these phenomena affect regional precipitation distribution in northern China. This paper reported the individual and coupled effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian summer monsoon (ISM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on annual precipitation for the Ordos Basin, an arid and semi-arid basin, currently with major industries of coal, fossil oil, natural gas, and halite in north central China. Our results showed that ENSO and ISM exerted substantial impact on annual precipitation while the impact of PDO and AMO was relatively limited. There were 24 and 15 out of 33 stations showing significant differences ( p e., Hobq Desert and Mu Us Sandy Land) in the center of the basin were less affected by these large-scale climatic phenomena. An improved understanding of such relationships would be helpful in water resource planning and disaster management for the Ordos Basin.

  11. Hydrological long-term dry and wet periods in the Xijiang River basin, South China

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    T. Fischer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hydrological long-term dry and wet periods are analyzed for the Xijiang River basin in South China. Daily precipitation data of 118 stations and data on daily discharge at Gaoyao hydrological station at the mouth of the Xijiang River for the period 1961–2007 are used. At a 24-month timescale, the standardized precipitation index (SPI-24 for the six sub-basins of the Xijiang River and the standardized discharge index (SDI-24 for Gaoyao station are applied. The monthly values of the SPI-24 averaged for the Xijiang River basin correlate highly with the monthly values of the SDI-24. Distinct long-term dry and wet sequences can be detected.

    The principal component analysis is applied and shows spatial disparities in dry and wet periods for the six sub-basins. The correlation between the SPI-24 of the six sub-basins and the first principal component score shows that 67% of the variability within the sub-basins can be explained by dry and wet periods in the east of the Xijiang River basin. The spatial dipole conditions (second and third principal component explain spatiotemporal disparities in the variability of dry and wet periods. All sub-basins contribute to hydrological dry periods, while mainly the northeastern sub-basins cause wet periods in the Xijiang River. We can also conclude that long-term dry events are larger in spatial extent and cover all sub-basins while long-term wet events are regional phenomena.

    A spectral analysis is applied for the SPI-24 and the SDI-24. The results show significant peaks in periodicities of 11–14.7 yr, 2.8 yr, 3.4–3.7 yr, and 6.3–7.3 yr. The same periodic cycles can be found in the SPI-24 of the six sub-basins but with some variability in the mean magnitude. A wavelet analysis shows that significant periodicities have been stable over time since the 1980s. Extrapolations of the reconstructed SPI-24 and SDI-24 represent the continuation of observed significant periodicities

  12. [Driving forces of carbon emission from energy consumption in China old industrial cities: a case study of Shenyang City, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wan-Xia; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing

    2012-10-01

    To quantitatively analyze the effects of anthropogenic factors on regional environmental quality is a hot topic in the field of sustainable development research. Taking the typical old industrial city Shenyang in Northeast China as a case, and by using the IPCC method for calculating carbon emission from energy consumption, this paper estimated the carbon emission from energy consumption in the city in 1978-2009, and a time series analysis on the anthropogenic factors driving this carbon emission was made by the STIRPAT model based upon Kaya equation and ridge regression. In 1978-2009, the carbon emission in the city had a slow increase first, slow decrease then, and a rapid increase thereafter. The total carbon emission in 2009 was 4.6 times of that in 1978. Population growth was the main factor driving the growth of the emission, and there existed an equal-proportional variation between the population growth and the carbon emission growth. Urbanization was another main driving factor followed by population growth, and the per capita GDP was positively correlated with the carbon emission. Kuznets curve did not exist for the relationship between economic development and carbon emission in Shenyang. Energy source intensity reduction (representing technology improvement) was the main factor driving the reduction of the total carbon emission.

  13. A Novel Workflow for Geothermal Prospectively Mapping Weights-of-Evidence in Liaoning Province, Northeast China

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    Xuejia Sang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Geological faults are highly developed in the eastern Liaoning Province in China, where Mesozoic granitic intrusions and Archean and Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks are widely distributed. Although the heat flow value in eastern Liaoning Province is generally low, the hot springs are very developed. It is obvious that the faults have significant control over the distribution of hot springs, and traditional methods of spatial data analysis such as WofE (weight of evidence usually do not take into account the direction of the distribution of geothermal resources in the geothermal forecast process, which seriously affects the accuracy of the prediction results. To overcome the deficiency of the traditional evidence weight method, wherein it does not take the direction of evidence factor into account, this study put forward a combination of the Fry and WofE methods, Fry-WofE, based on geological observation, gravity, remote sensing, and DEM (digital elevation model multivariate data. This study takes eastern Liaoning Province in China as an example, and the geothermal prospect was predicted respectively by the Fry-WofE and WofE methods from the statistical data on the spatial distribution of the exposed space of geothermal anomalies the surface. The result shows that the Fry-WofE method can achieve better prediction results when comparing the accuracy of these two methods. Based on the results of Fry-WofE prediction and water system extraction, 13 favorable geothermal prospect areas are delineated in eastern Liaoning Province. The Fry-WofE method is effective in study areas where the geothermal distribution area is obviously controlled by the fault. We provide not only a new method for solving the similar issue of geothermal exploration, but also a new insight into the distribution of geothermal resources in Liaoning Province.

  14. Performance of RegCM4 over major river basins in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuejie; Shi, Ying; Han, Zhenyu; Wang, Meili; Wu, Jia; Zhang, Dongfeng; Xu, Ying; Giorgi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    A long-term simulation for the period 1990-2010 is conducted with the latest version of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics' Regional Climate Model (RegCM4), driven by ERA-Interim boundary conditions at a grid spacing of 25 km. The Community Land Model (CLM) is used to describe land surface processes, with updates in the surface parameters, including the land cover and surface emissivity. The simulation is compared against observations to evaluate the model performance in reproducing the present day climatology and interannual variability over the 10 main river basins in China, with focus on surface air temperature and precipitation. Temperature and precipitation from the ERA-Interim reanalysis are also considered in the model assessment. Results show that the model reproduces the present day climatology over China and its main river basins, with better performances in June-July-August compared to December-January-February (DJF). In DJF, we find a warm bias at high latitudes, underestimated precipitation in the south, and overestimated precipitation in the north. The model in general captures the observed interannual variability, with greater skill for temperature. We also find an underestimation of heavy precipitation events in eastern China, and an underestimation of consecutive dry days in northern China and the Tibetan Plateau. Similar biases for both mean climatology and extremes are found in the ERA-Interim reanalysis, indicating the difficulties for climate models in simulating extreme monsoon climate events over East Asia.

  15. Are large farms more efficient? Tenure security, farm size and farm efficiency: evidence from northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuepeng; Ma, Xianlei; Shi, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    How to increase production efficiency, guarantee grain security, and increase farmers' income using the limited farmland is a great challenge that China is facing. Although theory predicts that secure property rights and moderate scale management of farmland can increase land productivity, reduce farm-related costs, and raise farmer's income, empirical studies on the size and magnitude of these effects are scarce. A number of studies have examined the impacts of land tenure or farm size on productivity or efficiency, respectively. There are also a few studies linking farm size, land tenure and efficiency together. However, to our best knowledge, there are no studies considering tenure security and farm efficiency together for different farm scales in China. In addition, there is little study analyzing the profit frontier. In this study, we particularly focus on the impacts of land tenure security and farm size on farm profit efficiency, using farm level data collected from 23 villages, 811 households in Liaoning in 2015. 7 different farm scales have been identified to further represent small farms, median farms, moderate-scale farms, and large farms. Technical efficiency is analyzed with stochastic frontier production function. The profit efficiency is regressed on a set of explanatory variables which includes farm size dummies, land tenure security indexes, and household characteristics. We found that: 1) The technical efficiency scores for production efficiency (average score = 0.998) indicate that it is already very close to the production frontier, and thus there is little room to improve production efficiency. However, there is larger space to raise profit efficiency (average score = 0.768) by investing more on farm size expansion, seed, hired labor, pesticide, and irrigation. 2) Farms between 50-80 mu are most efficient from the viewpoint of profit efficiency. The so-called moderate-scale farms (100-150 mu) according to the governmental guideline show no

  16. [Comparison on appearance and non-ginsenoside composition in Panax ginseng and its products processed from different producing areas in northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuesong; Ye, Zhengliang; Guo, Qiaosheng; Lu, Zhengmin

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the appearance and moisture, ash content, extract, volatile oil of Panax ginseng and its processed products from different producing areas of northeast China, and thus provide the useful reference data for its quality standard establishment and standardized cultivation. Base on the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and literatures relating to P. ginseng, the content of moisture, ash, extract, volatile oil in P. ginseng and its processed products from northeast 10 different producing areas were measured, and data analysis of these various indicators was carried out by DTOPSIS. The samples from Changbai, Jian Kangmei and Fusong reached the standard of Chinese pharmacopoeia and national standard, and in addition comprehensive evaluation indicators of them were higher than others samples. The quality of ginseng from different producing areas appears very different. Some samples failed to reach the standard of Chinese pharmacopoeia and national standard. Ginseng samples from those 3 producing areas of GAP planting bases showed good quality, which reflects the importance of GAP for ginseng cultivation.

  17. [Effects of light quality on the seed germination of main tree species in a secondary forest ecosystem of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Yan, Qiao-Ling

    2012-10-01

    This paper explored the effects of light quality on the seed germination of five dominant tree species (Larix kaempferi, Phellodendron amurense, Acer mono, Fraxinus mandshurica, and Pinus koraiensis) in a secondary forest ecosystem of Northeast China, based on the experiments with the seeds of the five tree species in laboratory and those of the P. koraiensis and L. kaempferi in the field. Four treatments of different light quality were designed in laboratory (taking dark as the control), and three treatments of R/FR (the ratio of red light and far red light intensity) were installed in the field. The laboratory experiment showed that light quality had less effect on the seed germination of L. kaempferi, but the seed germination rates of the other four tree species were significantly different under the treatments of different light quality. P. amurense had the highest seed germination rate under white light, whereas A. mono, F. mandshurica, and P. koraiensis had the highest one under the alternative irradiation with red light and far red light (R-FR-R). In consistence with the results in laboratory, the seed germination rate of P. koraiensis in the field decreased with decreasing R/FR ratio, while that of L. kaempferi was less affected. Under natural condition, the R-FR-R fluctuated with the activity of sun-fleck, and the seed germination patterns of A. mono, F. mandshurica, and P. koraiensis could be the adaptation to the sun-fleck environment in forest stand. The germination of large seeds was significantly affected by light quality.

  18. A Gateway to Successful River Restorations: A Pre-Assessment Framework on the River Ecosystem in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural rivers have been disturbed for hundreds of years by human activities. Previous water conservancy projects in the form of dams, reservoirs, dykes, and irrigation infrastructure focused on the social and economic benefits and disregarded the adverse effects on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the affected rivers. Since the 2000s, the comprehension of river remolding has transformed so decisions are more socially and ecologically beneficial. However, restoration actions are often implemented aimlessly, without a detailed plan or sufficient communication, leading to the failure of accomplishing objectives for a variety of ecologic, financial, and social reasons. Thus, a pre-assessment framework is proposed in this paper, to determine river restoration priorities, emphasizing both social and ecological aspects. The vague notion of river health is evaluated using the Variable Fuzzy Assessment Model (VFAM and expressed by modified Nightingale Rose Diagrams (NRDs. The river social ecosystem was subsequently analysed using this framework in the Ashihe River near Harbin City, Northeast China. The application of VFAM demonstrated that the health status of the upper, middle, and lower sections of the river could be classified as sub-healthy, degraded, or sick in terms of ecosystem structures, and sub-healthy, degraded, or degraded in terms of social functions, respectively. The health status of the lower section was the poorest and should be restored first. Using NRDs, we found that water quality deterioration and irrigation works are the two key factors in river degradation, which must be improved throughout the entire watershed. Aesthetics and recreation should also be given priority to restore the lower section due to the demands of nearby residents. Several measures are also suggested for decision makers who need a more detailed design to implement. This framework potentially assists with communicating with stakeholders

  19. Composition and content analysis of sugars and organic acids for 45 grape cultivars from northeast region of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaozhu, G.N.; Jia, Z.; Zhihu, R.; Zuhui, Z.; Quan, G.; Hongyan, G.; Xiuwu, G.

    2017-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of sugars and acids of grape cultivars from northeast region of China was carried out for quality evaluation and variety improvement of grape. Analysis of major sugars and organic acids for 45 grape berries was carried out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that glucose and fructose were the major sugars, beside that, some grape cultivars also contained sucrose. The quantity of glucose and fructose was almost equal in most of grape berries. A significant positive correlation existed between them, glucose content ranged from 53.24 mg/ml to 124.18mg/ml and fructose content ranged from 48.39 mg/ml to118.84 mg/ml. Tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid were organic acids and tartaric acid was the main constituent in most grape berries and its concentration was higher than the other organic acids. However, in some grape cultivars, malic acid and citric acid were two highest organic acids while oxalic acid content was the lowest and even in some cultivars it could not be detected. Tartaric acid ranged from 1.28mg/ml to 6.82 mg/ml, malic acid ranged from 0.09mg/ml to 3.95 mg/ml, citric acid ranged from 0.08mg/ml to 4.43 mg/ml, oxalic acid ranged from mg/ml to 0.370 mg/ml. Thirty-four grape cultivars out of 45 cultivars accounted more than 50% tartic acid of the total organic acid contents. However, in cultivars Bixiang Wuhe and Shennong Jinhuanghou citric acid was the main organic acid. Malic acid and citric acid were significantly positively related with total acid. In 43 grape cultivars, the soluble sugars were glucose and fructose. Besides glucose and fructose, sucrose was also observed in cultivars of LN33 and Cayuga white. (author)

  20. Investigating Within-Field Variability of Rice from High Resolution Satellite Imagery in Qixing Farm County, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanying Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a primary staple food for the world population and there is a strong need to map its cultivation area and monitor its crop status on regional scales. This study was conducted in the Qixing Farm County of the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. First, the rice cultivation areas were identified by integrating the remote sensing (RS classification maps from three dates and the Geographic Information System (GIS data obtained from a local agency. Specifically, three FORMOSAT-2 (FS-2 images captured during the growing season in 2009 and a GIS topographic map were combined using a knowledge-based classification method. A highly accurate classification map (overall accuracy = 91.6% was generated based on this Multi-Data-Approach (MDA. Secondly, measured agronomic variables that include biomass, leaf area index (LAI, plant nitrogen (N concentration and plant N uptake were correlated with the date-specific FS-2 image spectra using stepwise multiple linear regression models. The best model validation results with a relative error (RE of 8.9% were found in the biomass regression model at the phenological stage of heading. The best index of agreement (IA value of 0.85 with an RE of 13.6% was found in the LAI model, also at the heading stage. For plant N uptake estimation, the most accurate model was again achieved at the heading stage with an RE of 11% and an IA value of 0.77; however, for plant N concentration estimation, the model performance was best at the booting stage. Finally, the regression models were applied to the identified rice areas to map the within-field variability of the four agronomic variables at different growth stages for the Qixing Farm County. The results provide detailed spatial information on the within-field variability on a regional scale, which is critical for effective field management in precision agriculture.

  1. Deflated rims along the Xiangshui River on the Xiliaohe Plain, Northeast China: A case of active fluvial-aeolian interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang; Zhang, Guifang; You, Li; Wang, Yong; Yang, Lin; Yang, Ji; Zhou, Liang; Yuan, Minghuan; Zou, Xueyong; Cheng, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Riverine source-bordering sand dunes, as a result of active fluvial-aeolian interactions, are a pronounced feature on the semiarid Xiliaohe Plain, Northeast China. By means of satellite imagery analysis, and both field survey and observation, this paper presents a new type of riverine source-bordering sand dunes - deflated rims, on the downwind margins of the Xiangshui River. They largely result from the deflation of escarpments on the downwind side of valley by local prevailing winds of NW direction, not from the reworking of point bars on floodplain by wind. In general, a rim is primarily composed of three distinct zones: 1) the upwind frontal escarpment zone with variable plan-form shape, gradient and relief, which is formed by either active lateral erosion by river or significant erosion by wind and transient slope runoff; 2) the deflation zone with gentle slopes of 8-18° and small-scale aeolian bedforms, i.e. ripples of fine sand, ridges of coarse sand; and 3) the downwind dynamic deposition zone with distinctive bedforms with variable superficial texture and slip faces. The sand mass on rims derives overwhelmingly from underlying loose late Quaternary sediments, is sufficient and sustainable by successive retreats of the escarpment, and is gradually transported downwind by pulse motions of bedforms, coupled with high wind events. Essentially, deflated rims are a starting point and the incipient phase of mature riverine dunefields. The superimposed bedforms on rims are fundamentally governed by windflow dynamics, sand sediments and antecedent bedform, exhibiting in turn the manner and intensity of rim development. Consequently, the upwind river valley and downwind deflated rim can jointly stimulate marked wave-like motion of both windflow and aeolian bedforms at different scales, especially when high wind events occur. This study sheds some light on the understanding of the origin and development of riverine source-bordering dunefields, and offers new

  2. Comparison of Different Machine Learning Approaches for Monthly Satellite-Based Soil Moisture Downscaling over Northeast China

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    Yangxiaoyue Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although numerous satellite-based soil moisture (SM products can provide spatiotemporally continuous worldwide datasets, they can hardly be employed in characterizing fine-grained regional land surface processes, owing to their coarse spatial resolution. In this study, we proposed a machine-learning-based method to enhance SM spatial accuracy and improve the availability of SM data. Four machine learning algorithms, including classification and regression trees (CART, K-nearest neighbors (KNN, Bayesian (BAYE, and random forests (RF, were implemented to downscale the monthly European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI SM product from 25-km to 1-km spatial resolution. During the regression, the land surface temperature (including daytime temperature, nighttime temperature, and diurnal fluctuation temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, surface reflections (red band, blue band, NIR band and MIR band, and digital elevation model were taken as explanatory variables to produce fine spatial resolution SM. We chose Northeast China as the study area and acquired corresponding SM data from 2003 to 2012 in unfrozen seasons. The reconstructed SM datasets were validated against in-situ measurements. The results showed that the RF-downscaled results had superior matching performance to both ESA CCI SM and in-situ measurements, and can positively respond to precipitation variation. Additionally, the RF was less affected by parameters, which revealed its robustness. Both CART and KNN ranked second. Compared to KNN, CART had a relatively close correlation with the validation data, but KNN showed preferable precision. Moreover, BAYE ranked last with significantly abnormal regression values.

  3. [Effects of harvest disturbance on soil CH4 flux in a secondary hardwood forest in Northeast china].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-Long, Sun

    2013-10-01

    From June, 2007 to October, 2009, a measurement with static chamber/gas chromatograph techniques was conducted on the soil CH4 flux in a typical secondary hardwood forest in Northeast China under the effects of different harvest disturbances, i.e., uncut (control), clear cutting (including both farming and reforestation after clear cutting), 50% stand volume removed, and 25% stand volume removed. In all of the four treatments, the soil was the sink of atmospheric CH4, but cutting decreased the soil CH4 uptake flux, with the order of uncut (-85.03 microg CH4 x m;(-2) x h(-1)) > 50% stand volume removed (-80.31 microg CH4 x m(-2) x h(-1)) > 25% stand volume removed (-70.97 microg CH4 x m(-2)h(-1)) > farming after clear cutting (-65.57 microg CH4 x m(-2) x h(-1)) > reforestation after clear cutting (-62.02 miocrog CH4 x m(-2) x h(-1)). During the study period, the seasonal patterns of the soil CH4 uptake flux in all treatments were similar, with a higher value in growth season and a lower one in winter. After the harvest disturbance, the soil temperature, humidity, and NO(3-)-N, and NH(4+)-N contents were all increased, and the soil CH4 flux had a significant quadratic correlation with soil temperature, and a negative linear correlation with soil moisture content. It was suggested that the increase of the soil moisture, NO(3-)-N, and NHa(4+)-N contents after the forest harvest was the main cause of the decrease of the soil CH4 uptake flux.

  4. [Impacts of drought stress on the growth and development and grain yield of spring maize in Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui-Peng; Che, Yu-Sheng; Zhu, Yong-Ning; Liang, Tao; Feng, Rui; Yu, Wen-Ying; Zhang, Yu-Shu

    2012-11-01

    Taking spring maize variety Danyu-39 as test object, an experiment was conducted in a large-scale agricultural water controlling experimental field to study the impacts of drought stress at three key growth stages, i. e. , 3-leaf-jointing, jointing-silking, and silking-milk ripe, on the growth and development and grain yield of spring maize in Northeast China. Two treatments were installed, including moderate drought stress (MS) and re-watering to suitable water (CK). Compared with CK, the MS at 3-leaf-jointing stage postponed the whole growth period of Danyu-39 by 13 d, and the plant height and leaf area at jointing stage were decreased by 29.8% and 41.2%, respectively. After re-watering, the plant height and grain yield recovered obviously, and the differences in ear characteristics and final yield were insignificant. The MS at jointing-silking stage shortened the whole growth period by 7 d, the plant height and leaf area at silking stage were decreased by 18.6% and 14.1%, respectively, the ear length, grain number per ear, ear dry mass, and grain mass per ear decreased by 6.9%, 19.1%, 28.1%, and 29.4%, respectively, and the blank stem rate increased by 13.3%. When the maize suffered from moderate drought stress at silking-milk ripe stage, the whole growth period was shortened by 15 d, the plant height and leaf area at milk ripe stage were decreased by 2.3% and 37.3%, respectively, the ear length, grain number per ear, ear dry mass, and grain mass per ear decreased by 9.2%, 24.1%, 30.8%, and 27.9%, respectively, and the blank stem rate increased by 24.5%. After re-watering at the latter two stages, the recovery of plant height was little, and the grain yield decreased significantly.

  5. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor dust from varying categories of rooms in Changchun city, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zucheng; Wang, Shengzhong; Nie, Jiaqin; Wang, Yuanhong; Liu, Yuyan

    2017-02-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were isolated from indoor dust from various categories of rooms in Changchun city, northeast China, including dormitory, office, kitchen, and living rooms. PAH concentrations ranged from 33.9 to 196.4 μg g -1 and 21.8 to 329.6 μg g -1 during summer and winter, respectively, indicating that total PAH concentrations in indoor dust are much higher than those in other media from the urban environment, including soils and sediments. The percentage of five- to six-ring PAHs was high, indicating that PAHs found in indoor dust mainly originate from pyrolysis rather than a petrogenic source. Rooms were divided into three groups using cluster analysis on the basis of 16 PAH compositions, namely smoke-free homes, homes exposed to smoke and offices. Results showed that the source of PAHs in smoke-free residential homes is primarily the burning of fossil fuels. In addition to the burning of fossil fuels, biomass combustion and cooking contributed to PAHs in houses exposed to smoke (including kitchens). Motor vehicles are an additional source of PAHs in offices because of greater interactions with the outdoor environment. The results of health risk assessment showed that the cancer risk levels by dermal contact and ingestion are 10 4 - to 10 5 -fold higher than that by inhalation, suggesting that ingestion and dermal contact of carcinogenic PAHs in dust are more important exposure routes than inhalation of PAHs from air. Although the results showed high potential of PAH concentrations in indoor dust in Changchun for human health risk, caution should be taken to evaluate the risk of PAHs calculated by USEPA standard models with default parameters because habitation styles are different in various categories of rooms.

  6. Factors influencing CO2 and CH4 emissions from coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, L.; Ye, S.; Yu, X.; Wei, M.; Krauss, K. W.; Brix, H.

    2015-08-01

    Many factors are known to influence greenhouse gas emissions from coastal wetlands, but it is still unclear which factors are most important under field conditions when they are all acting simultaneously. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of water table, salinity, soil temperature and vegetation on CH4 emissions and ecosystem respiration (Reco) from five coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China: two Phragmites australis (common reed) wetlands, two Suaeda salsa (sea blite) marshes and a rice (Oryza sativa) paddy. Throughout the growing season, the Suaeda wetlands were net CH4 sinks whereas the Phragmites wetlands and the rice paddy were net CH4 sources emitting 1.2-6.1 g CH4 m-2 yr-1. The Phragmites wetlands emitted the most CH4 per unit area and the most CH4 relative to CO2. The main controlling factors for the CH4 emissions were water table, temperature, soil organic carbon and salinity. The CH4 emission was accelerated at high and constant (or managed) water tables and decreased at water tables below the soil surface. High temperatures enhanced CH4 emissions, and emission rates were consistently low ( 18 ppt, the CH4 emission rates were always low (< 1 mg CH4 m-2 h-1) probably because methanogens were out-competed by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Saline Phragmites wetlands can, however, emit significant amounts of CH4 as CH4 produced in deep soil layers are transported through the air-space tissue of the plants to the atmosphere. The CH4 emission from coastal wetlands can be reduced by creating fluctuating water tables, including water tables below the soil surface, as well as by occasional flooding by high-salinity water. The effects of water management schemes on the biological communities in the wetlands must, however, be carefully studied prior to the management in order to avoid undesirable effects on the wetland communities.

  7. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y. Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region. PMID:27097325

  8. Epidemiological investigation and analysis of bronchial asthma in combat troops garrisoned in the cold areas of northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang SHI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the incidence and related risk factors of occurrence of bronchial asthma in troops garrisoned in the cold areas of northeast China, and explore the corresponding prevention strategy. Methods  A portion of the recruits enlisted in 2012 to Shenyang Command were enrolled as the subjects of the study with three questionnaires. The first questionnaire was carried out during training just after recruit. The second survey was carried out after winter training in selected recruits entering the army for two years, and the last questionnaire was carried out to select recruits just before their discharge from army. The final diagnosis of bronchial asthma in the suspected cases was established by pulmonary function test. Results  In the first period of the survey, the prevalence of asthma was found to be 3.55‰in the newly enlisted recruits; in the second survey 1067 cases were found to be suspicious to have asthma; in the last survey, 26 subjects were finally diagnosed to have asthma, the incidence was 1.73‰. The most common symptoms of the illness at first attack were cough (88.5% and wheeziness (56.3%, and the main inducing factors were respiratory tract infection (76.9% and exposure to cold air (65.4%, and it frequently appeared at early morning (30.8% and forenoon (23.1%. Asthmatic attack presented obvious seasonal predisposition, and it occurred in 19 of 26 patients (73.1% during winter, and 10 (38.5% during spring. The attacks of asthma could be increased by fatigue, allergy, exposure to cold air, chronic bronchitis, smoking, inhalation of gunpowder exhaust, or dysthymia. Conclusion  Fatigue may be the most frequent factor in inducing asthma, and allergy, exposure to cold air, chronic bronchitis, smoking, inhalation of gunpowder exhaust and dysthymia are the risk factors of asthmatic attack. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.13

  9. Spatial Patterns and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils in a Resource-Exhausted City, Northeast China.

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    Hongwei Chen

    Full Text Available Northeast China is an intensive area of resource-exhausted city, which is facing the challenges of industry conversion and sustainable development. In order to evaluate the soil environmental quality influenced by mining activities over decades, the concentration and spatial distribution of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and Zinc (Zn in surface soils (0-20cm of a typical resource-exhausted city were investigated by analyzing 306 soil samples. The results showed that the average concentrations in the samples were 6.17 mg/kg for As, 0.19 mg/kg for Cd, 51.08 mg/kg for Cr, 23.27 mg/kg for Cu, 31.15 mg/kg for Ni, 22.17 mg/kg for Pb, and 54.21 mg/kg for Zn. Metals distribution maps produced by using the inverse distance weighted interpolation method and results revealed that all investigated metals showed distinct geographical patterns, and the concentrations were higher in urban and industrial areas than in farmland. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations (p<0.05 between all of the metals, and As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were closely associated with the first principal component (PC1, which explained 39.81% of the total variance. Cu and As were mainly associated with the second component (PC2. Based on the calculated Nemerow pollution index, percentage for slightly polluted (1

  10. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China.

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    Yanjing Lou

    Full Text Available Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region.

  11. Soil acidification increases metal extractability and bioavailability in old orchard soils of Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lianzhen; Wu, Huifeng; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Peijnenburg, Willie J.G.M.; Allen, Herbert E.

    2014-01-01

    The bioavailability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from field-aged orchard soils in a certified fruit plantation area of the Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China was assessed using bioassays with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and chemical assays. Soil acidity increased with increasing fruit cultivation periods with a lowest pH of 4.34. Metals were enriched in topsoils after decades of horticultural cultivation, with highest concentrations of Cu (132 kg −1 ) and Zn (168 mg kg −1 ) in old apple orchards and Pb (73 mg kg −1 ) and Cd (0.57 mg kg −1 ) in vineyard soil. Earthworm tissue concentrations of Cu and Pb significantly correlated with 0.01 M CaCl 2 -extractable soil concentrations (R 2  = 0.70, p < 0.001 for Cu; R 2  = 0.58, p < 0.01 for Pb). Because of the increased bioavailability, regular monitoring of soil conditions in old orchards and vineyards is recommended, and soil metal guidelines need reevaluation to afford appropriate environmental protection under acidifying conditions. - Highlights: • Soil acidity of Chinese orchards increased with increasing fruit cultivation period. • Metal levels were enriched in topsoils after decades of horticultural cultivation. • Earthworm bioassays and chemical assays were used to assess metal bioavailability. • Earthworm Cu and Pb concentrations correlated with CaCl 2 -extractable concentrations. • Regular monitoring of soil conditions in old orchards and vineyards is recommended. - Long-term cultivation leads to increased acidification and metal accumulation in horticultural soils, with higher metal bioavailability to earthworms

  12. Burns induced by cupping therapy in a burn center in northeast china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing-Chun, Zhao; Jia-Ao, Yu; Chun-Jing, Xian; Kai, Shi; Lai-Jin, Lu

    2014-07-01

    Cupping therapy as a curative skill has been developed and applied throughout history. Despite reports of adverse effects, this therapy is considered to be relatively safe with no systemic reviews documenting negative side effects. The aim of this study was to explore methods that avoid the adverse effects sometimes associated with this therapy. Clinical records of 14 outpatients and inpatients that visited the First Hospital of Jilin University (Changchun, China) for management of burn injuries caused by cupping therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Characteristics, history of injury, and treatment of each patient was collected and analyzed. Burn injury induced by cupping therapy was not uncommon. Most of the injuries were mild to moderate and cured by conservative methods without severe complications. The use of wet cupping was more prevalent among injured patients than dry cupping. Cupping therapy as an ancient alternative treatment is still popular with a large number of devoted practitioners. Although there is the potential for injury during the application of this therapy, this is mostly preventable. Standardized training for health care professionals and increased the awareness among the public about the proper methods to administer this therapy to avoid adverse effects is important.

  13. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

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    Rui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI, hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention.

  14. Hydrochemical characteristics and water quality assessment of surface water and groundwater in Songnen plain, Northeast China.

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    Zhang, Bing; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yinghua; Han, Dongmei; Tang, Changyuan; Yu, Yilei; Ma, Ying

    2012-05-15

    Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health and quantity and quality of grain production in semi-humid and semi-arid area. Songnen plain is one of the grain bases in China, as well as one of the three major distribution regions of soda saline-alkali soil in the world. To assess the water quality, surface water and groundwater were sampled and analyzed by fuzzy membership analysis and multivariate statistics. The surface water were gather into class I, IV and V, while groundwater were grouped as class I, II, III and V by fuzzy membership analysis. The water samples were grouped into four categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagrams of USDA. Most water samples distributed in category C1-S1, C2-S2 and C3-S3. Three groups were generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. Four principal components were extracted from principal component analysis. The indicators to water quality assessment were Na, HCO(3), NO(3), Fe, Mn and EC from principal component analysis. We conclude that surface water and shallow groundwater are suitable for irrigation, the reservoir and deep groundwater in upstream are the resources for drinking. The water for drinking should remove of the naturally occurring ions of Fe and Mn. The control of sodium and salinity hazard is required for irrigation. The integrated management of surface water and groundwater for drinking and irrigation is to solve the water issues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identifying the regional-scale groundwater-surface water interaction on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

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    Wang, Xihua; Zhang, Guangxin; Xu, Y Jun; Sun, Guangzhi

    2015-11-01

    Assessment on the interaction between groundwater and surface water (GW-SW) can generate information that is critical to regional water resource management, especially for regions that are highly dependent on groundwater resources for irrigation. This study investigated such interaction on China's Sanjiang Plain (10.9 × 10(4) km(2)) and produced results to assist sustainable regional water management for intensive agricultural activities. Methods of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and statistical analysis were used in this study. One hundred two water samplings (60 from shallow groundwater, 7 from deep groundwater, and 35 from surface water) were collected and grouped into three clusters and seven sub-clusters during the analyses. The PCA analysis identified four principal components of the interaction, which explained 85.9% variance of total database, attributed to the dissolution and evolution of gypsum, feldspar, and other natural minerals in the region that was affected by anthropic and geological (sedimentary rock mineral) activities. The analyses showed that surface water in the upper region of the Sanjiang Plain gained water from local shallow groundwater, indicating that the surface water in the upper region was relatively more resilient to withdrawal for usage, whereas in the middle region, there was only a weak interaction between shallow groundwater and surface water. In the lower region of the Sanjiang Plain, surface water lost water to shallow groundwater, indicating that the groundwater was vulnerable to pollution by pesticides and fertilizers from terrestrial sources.

  16. Mercury Distribution Along the Food Chain of a Wetland Ecosystem at Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilong, Ma; Qiang, Wang; Zhongsheng, Zhang; Xuehong, Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a wetland food chain were determined at Majuan Island of the Sanjiang Plain in China. Four tissues (muscle, liver, kidney and brain) of three waterbird species (great cormorant, grey heron and great egret), muscle tissues of fish (grass carp, crucian carp and longnose gudgeon), insects (predacious diving beetle), aquatic plants (ditch reed) and soil were analyzed. The mean concentrations of T-Hg were 0.392 ± 0.237 mg/kg for tissues of all juveniles, 1.999 ± 2.053 mg/kg for great cormorant adults, and 0.029 ± 0.019 mg/kg for fish muscle, respectively. While the relative contents of T-Hg of insects, plants and sediments were 0.012 ± 0.002, 0.006 ± 0.001 and 0.020 ± 0.002 mg/kg, respectively. Bioaccumulation of Hg along the wetland food chain may be able to show the current situation of Hg contamination in remote regions of East Asia.

  17. High prevalence of maternal vitamin D deficiency in preterm births in northeast China, Shenyang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Liu, Tian-Jing; Ge, Xin; Kong, Juan; Zhang, Li-Jun; Zhao, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a number of fetal and neonatal health problems. Preterm birth is one of the most detrimental, and the role of maternal vitamin D deficiency in preterm births has not been universally acknowledged. There had been limited epidemiological studies of vitamin D deficiency on the Chinese population. 1103 women delivered in Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University from January 1(st), 2012 to January 1(st), 2013. Finally, 821 mother-newborn pairs which contained 143 mother-newborn pairs who were preterm delivery were recruited for analysis. There was significant difference between spring and summer (Pwomen in very preterm group, compared with 36.61% in in-term group. Vitamin D nutritional status of pregnant women and their newborns in Shenyang were relatively good compared to cities in similar latitudes. Vitamin D deficiency was most severe in late spring and least in summer. Severe preterm births before 31 weeks of gestation was associated with maternal vitamin D deficiency.

  18. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiao; Yutong, Zong; Shenggao, Lu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations and health risk of heavy metals in urban soils from a steel industrial district in China. A total of 115 topsoil samples from Anshan city, Liaoning, Northeast China were collected and analyzed for Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk index (PER) were calculated to assess the pollution level in soils. The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (RI) were used to assess human health risk of heavy metals. The average concentration of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni were 69.9, 0.86, 45.1, 213, 52.3, and 33.5mg/kg, respectively. The Igeo and PI values of heavy metals were in the descending order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr. Higher Igeo value for Cd in soil indicated that Cd pollution was moderate. Pollution index indicated that urban soils were moderate to highly polluted by Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metals revealed that steel industrial district was the contamination hotspots. Principal component analysis (PCA) and matrix cluster analysis classified heavy metals into two groups, indicating common industrial sources for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Matrix cluster analysis classified the sampling sites into four groups. Sampling sites within steel industrial district showed much higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the rest of sampling sites, indicating significant contamination introduced by steel industry on soils. The health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic values were below the threshold values. The hazard index (HI) for children and adult has a descending order of Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Ni>Zn. Carcinogenic risks due to Cr, Cd, and Ni in urban soils were within acceptable range for adult. Carcinogenic risk value of Cr for children is slightly higher than the threshold value, indicating that children are facing slight threat of Cr. These results provide basic information of heavy metal pollution control

  19. First occurrence of the Salvador Formation in the Jatobá Basin (Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil): Facies characterization and depositional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Bruno Ludovico Dihl; Melo Ferrer de Morais, Débora

    2016-12-01

    Fan deltas, constituting proximal depositional systems adjacent to boundary faults, are common features associated with rift basins. The Cretaceous fan delta systems of the Salvador Formation, deposited during the rift phase of the Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá Basin, were first reported in the Recôncavo Basin and later discovered in the Tucano Basin. Because of the absence of any outcrops in the Jatobá Basin until now, these alluvial fans were interpreted solely through seismic analysis. We report the first revealed outcrops of the Salvador Formation in that basin and characterize their depositional systems as interlayered with the lacustrine Candeias Formation. Based on facies and architecture, the alluvial system can be subdivided into three associations: (1) proximal fan delta, characterized by meter-scale conglomerate bodies with a predominance of boulders and cobbles with thin sandstone layers; (2) distal fan delta, characterized by sheet-like pebble conglomerate and sandstone layers with flame and load structures; and (3) lacustrine, further subdivided into shallow lake facies reddish shales and mudstones with oolitic limestones and deep lake facies grey to green shales with pyrite. Paleocurrent measurements for the proximal fan association show paleoflow direction varying from SW to SE, which is expected for the rift phase alluvial system. The Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá rift system has two conglomeratic units, namely the Salvador and Marizal Formations, the former a syn-rift and the latter a post-rift unit. The absence of sedimentary clasts in the conglomerates, very low maturity, the presence of giant clasts, and a visible relationship between boundary faults in the outcrop, define the syn-rift Salvador Formation characteristics. Based on the facies and paleocurrent analyses, the Salvador Formation deposits in Jatobá Basin were interpreted as a deposition of a debris flow-dominated fan delta, indicating the lacustrine setting represented by the Candeias

  20. Calibrating the Cretaceous normal superchron with high-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology from Songliao Basin, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Ramezani, J.; Wang, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS) or C34n is defined as the prolonged period of normal geomagnetic polarity, which lasted for approximately 38 Myr from the Aptian to the beginning of the Campanian. Along with the Kiaman Reverse Superchron (Carboniferous-Permian), they constitute the two longest periods of stability in the Earth's magnetic field. Polarity reversals are geologically abrupt events of global extent that form the basis of the Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale. In addition, a causal relationship between the end of a superchron and global environmental change has been hypothesized by some workers. Thus, the precise timing of the onset and termination of CNS has important implications for the correlation of global tectonic, paleoclimatic and paleobiotic events, and may help us better understand the causes and consequences of superchrons. At present, the exact age and duration of CNS are poorly understood, in part due to the relative scarcity of relevant paleomagnetic and radioisotopic data. The end of CNS or the C34n/C33r chron boundary is also considered a suitable proxy for the Santonian-Campanian stage boundary in the absence of diagnostic fossils of global distribution for the latter. The early Campanian ( 84 Ma to 76 Ma) is characterized by a steady cooling of the (greenhouse) climate, preceded by an abrupt (possibly 5-6°C) drop in the global temperatures at the Santonain-Campanian boundary, based on the oxygen isotope record of benthic foraminifera. The peak of dinosaur diversity throughout vast swaths of the continents was reached during the Campanian, as well. Here we present a new age constraint for the termination of CNS based on ash bed geochronology from a near-continuous, subsurface, Cretaceous lacustrine record recovered from the Songliao Basin in Northeast China. This extraordinary record allows integration of high-precision U-Pb geochronology, magnetostratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy that enables a multi-chronometer approach to the

  1. Controlling factors of volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs in Bohai Bay Basin, China

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    Chun Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs are developed in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata in Bohai Bay Basin in China. There is more than one hundred million tons of proven oil reserves in the said reservoir. They performed different actors for oil and gas accumulation in the basin. Faults controlled the distribution and accumulation of oil and gas related to volcanic rocks in Bohai Bay Basin. Not to mention, the zone near the faults is favorable for the development of good reservoirs. Volcanic rocks and volcanism can serve several roles during the course of hydrocarbon generation and accumulation. Volcanism can promote hydrocarbon generation from source rocks. Simultaneously, volcanic activity can damage petroleum reservoirs. Volcanic rocks can be both the reservoirs and the cap-rocks or obscured layer in the basin. The occurrence of volcanic rocks in source rocks can form fractures more easily compared to that in sandstones. Finally, volcanic rocks also control the distribution of mantle-derived CO2 gas reservoirs in the basin.

  2. Geophysical prospecting for the deep geothermal structure of the Zhangzhou basin, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaofeng; Liu, Shuang; Hu, Xiangyun; Wang, Guiling; Lin, Wenjing

    2017-04-01

    Zhangzhou basin located at the Southeast margins of Asian plate is one of the largest geothermal fields in Fujian province, Southeast China. High-temperature natural springs and granite rocks are widely distributed in this region and the causes of geothermal are speculated to be involved the large number of magmatic activities from Jurassic to Cretaceous periods. To investigate the deep structure of Zhangzhou basin, magnetotelluric and gravity measurements were carried out and the joint inversion of magnetotelluric and gravity data delineated the faults and the granites distributions. The inversion results also indicated the backgrounds of heat reservoirs, heat fluid paths and whole geothermal system of the Zhangzhou basin. Combining with the surface geological investigation, the geophysical inversion results revealed that the faults activities and magma intrusions are the main reasons for the formation of geothermal resources of the Zhangzhou basin. Upwelling mantle provides enormous heats to the lower crust leading to metamorphic rocks to be partially melt generating voluminous magmas. Then the magmas migration and thermal convection along the faults warm up the upper crust. So finally, the cap rocks, basements and major faults are the three favorable conditions for the formation of geothermal fields of the Zhangzhou basin.

  3. Assessment of Climate Change Effects on Water Resources in the Yellow River Basin, China

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    Zhiyong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The water resources in the Yellow River basin (YRB are vital to social and economic development in North and Northwest China. The basin has a marked continental monsoon climate and its water resources are especially vulnerable to climate change. Projected runoff in the basin for the period from 2001 to 2030 was simulated using the variable infiltration capacity (VIC macroscale hydrology model. VIC was first calibrated using observations and then was driven by the precipitation and temperature projected by the RegCM3 high-resolution regional climate model under the IPCC scenario A2. Results show that, under the scenario A2, the mean annual temperature of the basin could increase by 1.6°C, while mean annual precipitation could decrease by 2.6%. There could be an 11.6% reduction in annual runoff in the basin according to the VIC projection. However, there are marked regional variations in these climate change impacts. Reductions of 13.6%, 25.7%, and 24.6% could be expected in the regions of Hekouzhen to Longmen, Longmen to Sanmenxia, and Sanmenxia to Huayuankou, respectively. Our study suggests that the condition of water resources in the YRB could become more severe in the period from 2001 to 2030 under the scenario A2.

  4. Impacts of local circulations on the wintertime air pollution in the Guanzhong Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Naifang; Zhao, Linna; Xiao, Bo; Meng, Ning; Feng, Tian

    2017-08-15

    Urbanization and industrialization in the recent 30years have caused frequent heavy haze pollution in the Guanzhong basin, China during wintertime. Based on the categorized large-scale synoptic situations, the local circulation and its impact on the air pollution in the basin have been investigated using observational data analyses and model simulations with the WRF-CHEM model. The simulated mountain-valley breeze circulations are well established under most of the large-scale synoptic situations in the south-north direction. The downward mountain-breeze not only causes the convergence zone in the basin but also tends to bring the pollutants back from the mountain areas to the basin and enhance pollutants concentrations in the evening. The intensity of the mountain-valley breeze circulations may be different under different synoptic situations, but in general, aside emissions, every pollution event is the synthetic result of the synoptic situation at the large scale and the local circulation at the small scale in the Guanzhong basin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of the distribution patterns of BK polyomavirus lineages among China, Korea and Japan: implications for human migrations in northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shan; Jeong, Byung-Hoon; Ikegaya, Hiroshi; Kim, Yong-Sun; Xu, Yawei; Zhu, Mengyun; Chao, Yuegen; Suzuki, Makoto; Kitamura, Tadaichi; Homma, Yukio; Yogo, Yoshiaki

    2009-05-01

    BKV is widespread among humans, infecting children asymptomatically and then persisting in renal tissue. Based on the serological or phylogenetic method, BKV isolates worldwide are classified into four subtypes (I-IV), with subtypes I and IV further divided into several genetically-distinct subgroups. Since, similarly to JCV, a close relationship exists between BKV lineages and human populations, BKV should be useful as a marker to trace human migrations. To elucidate ancient human migrations in northeast Asia, urine samples were collected from immunocompetent elderly patients in Shanghai, China; Anyang, South Korea; and various locations in Japan. Partial and complete BKV genomes from these samples were amplified and sequenced using PCR, and the determined sequences were classified into subtypes and subgroups by phylogenetic and SNP analyses. In addition, based on an SNP analysis, the major subtype I subgroup (I/c) was classified into two subdivisions, I/c/Ch and I/c/KJ. The distribution patterns of BKV subgroups and subdivisions among the three regions were compared. Some aspects of the subgroup and subdivision distribution were more similar between Korea and Japan, but others were more similar between China and Korea or between China and Japan. Based on these findings, we inferred various northeast Asian migrations. Most of the JCV-based inferences of northeastern Asian migrations were consistent with those based on BKV, but the previously suggested migration route from the Asian continent to the Japanese archipelago seemed to need revision.

  6. Changes of land use and of ecosystem service values in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongming; Zhang, Bai; Zhang, Shuqing; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Dianwei; Song, Kaishan; Li, Jianping; Li, Fang; Duan, Hongtao

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural activities, especially reclamation, are considered major threats to the wetland ecosystems in Sanjiang Plain, the largest concentrated area of the freshwater wetlands in China. In the past decades, the area of the cultivated land and its grain production have been increased at the cost of wetlands shrinkage. The large-scale land reclamation severely affected the ecosystems in this region. However, such effects at the regional scale are seldom evaluated quantitatively. We used three datasets of LANDSAT MSS and/or TM imagery to estimate the area changes and the transition of land use types from 1980 to 2000. We also valued changes in ecosystem services delivered by each land category using value coefficients published by Costanza et al. Sensitivity analysis suggested that these estimates were relatively robust. Finally, the contribution of various ecosystem functions was ranked to the overall value of the ecosystem services in this study. According to our estimates, the total annual ecosystem service values in Sanjiang Plain have declined by about 40% between 1980 and 2000 (156284-182572.18 million US dollars in total over 20 years). This substantial decline is largely attributed to the 53.4% loss of wetlands. For individual ecosystem functions, waste treatment, water supply and disturbance regulation account for more than 60% to the total ecological values. During those two decades, the contribution of disturbance regulation, cultural and recreation decreased, while the contribution of water regulation, nutrient cycling, food production, raw materials and climate regulation increased during the same period. We also put forward a few proposals concerning the future land use policy formulation and sustainable ecosystems. They are adjusting the 'food first' agricultural policy, establishing more nature reserves for wetlands, creating systems for the rational use of water, harnessing the degraded cultivated land and encouraging eco-tourism.

  7. Estimates of Forest Biomass Carbon Storage in Liaoning Province of Northeast China: A Review and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dapao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yin, You; Zhan, Jinyu; Lewis, Bernard J.; Tian, Jie; Bao, Ye; Zhou, Wangming; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest carbon storage and changes in storage capacity are critical for scientific assessment of the effects of forest management on the role of forests as carbon sinks. Up to now, several studies reported forest biomass carbon (FBC) in Liaoning Province based on data from China's Continuous Forest Inventory, however, their accuracy were still not known. This study compared estimates of FBC in Liaoning Province derived from different methods. We found substantial variation in estimates of FBC storage for young and middle-age forests. For provincial forests with high proportions in these age classes, the continuous biomass expansion factor method (CBM) by forest type with age class is more accurate and therefore more appropriate for estimating forest biomass. Based on the above approach designed for this study, forests in Liaoning Province were found to be a carbon sink, with carbon stocks increasing from 63.0 TgC in 1980 to 120.9 TgC in 2010, reflecting an annual increase of 1.9 TgC. The average carbon density of forest biomass in the province has increased from 26.2 Mg ha−1 in 1980 to 31.0 Mg ha−1 in 2010. While the largest FBC occurred in middle-age forests, the average carbon density decreased in this age class during these three decades. The increase in forest carbon density resulted primarily from the increased area and carbon storage of mature forests. The relatively long age interval in each age class for slow-growing forest types increased the uncertainty of FBC estimates by CBM-forest type with age class, and further studies should devote more attention to the time span of age classes in establishing biomass expansion factors for use in CBM calculations. PMID:24586881

  8. Quantifying Tree and Soil Carbon Stocks in a Temperate Urban Forest in Northeast China

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    Hailiang Lv

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Society has placed greater focus on the ecological service of urban forests; however, more information is required on the variation of carbon (C in trees and soils in different functional forest types, administrative districts, and urban-rural gradients. To address this issue, we measured various tree and soil parameters by sampling 219 plots in the urban forest of the Harbin city region. Averaged tree and soil C stock density (C stocks per unit tree cover for Harbin city were 7.71 (±7.69 kg C·m−2 and 5.48 (±2.86 kg C·m−2, respectively. They were higher than those of other Chinese cities (Shenyang and Changchun, but were much lower than local natural forests. The tree C stock densities varied 2.3- to 3.2-fold among forest types, administrative districts, and ring road-based urban-rural gradients. In comparison, soil organic C (SOC densities varied by much less (1.4–1.5-fold. We found these to be urbanization-dependent processes, which were closely related to the urban-rural gradient data based on ring-roads and settlement history patterns. We estimated that SOC accumulation during the 100-year urbanization of Harbin was very large (5 to 14 thousand tons, accounting for over one quarter of the stored C in trees. Our results provide new insights into the dynamics of above- and below-ground C (especially in soil during the urbanization process, and that a city’s ability to provide C-related ecosystem services increases as it ages. Our findings highlight that urbanization effects should be incorporated into calculations of soil C budgets in regions subject to rapid urban expansion, such as China.

  9. [Relationships of forest fire with lightning in Daxing' anling Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Jia, Bing-Rui; Li, Shuai

    2012-07-01

    Forest fire is an important factor affecting forest ecosystem succession. Recently, forest fire, especially forest lightning fire, shows an increasing trend under global warming. To study the relationships of forest fire with lightning is essential to accurately predict the forest fire in time. Daxing' anling Mountains is a region with high frequency of forest lightning fire in China, and an important experiment site to study the relationships of forest fire with lightning. Based on the forest fire records and the corresponding lightning and meteorological observation data in the Mountains from 1966 to 2007, this paper analyzed the relationships of forest fire with lightning in this region. In the period of 1966-2007, both the lightning fire number and the fired forest area in this region increased significantly. The meteorological factors affecting the forest lighting fire were related to temporal scales. At yearly scale, the forest lightning fire was significantly correlated with precipitation, with a correlation coefficient of -0.489; at monthly scale, it had a significant correlation with air temperature, the correlation coefficient being 0.18. The relationship of the forest lightning fire with lightning was also related to temporal scales. At yearly scale, there was no significant correlation between them; at monthly scale, the forest lightning fire was strongly correlated with lightning and affected by precipitation; at daily scale, a positive correlation was observed between forest lightning fire and lightning when the precipitation was less than 5 mm. According to these findings, a fire danger index based on ADTD lightning detection data was established, and a forest lightning fire forecast model was developed. The prediction accuracy of this model for the forest lightning fire in Daxing' anling Mountains in 2005-2007 was > 80%.

  10. Characterizing spatiotemporal dynamics of methane emissions from rice paddies in Northeast China from 1990 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice paddies have been identified as major methane (CH(4 source induced by human activities. As a major rice production region in Northern China, the rice paddies in the Three-Rivers Plain (TRP have experienced large changes in spatial distribution over the recent 20 years (from 1990 to 2010. Consequently, accurate estimation and characterization of spatiotemporal patterns of CH₄ emissions from rice paddies has become an pressing issue for assessing the environmental impacts of agroecosystems, and further making GHG mitigation strategies at regional or global levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Integrating remote sensing mapping with a process-based biogeochemistry model, Denitrification and Decomposition (DNDC, was utilized to quantify the regional CH(4 emissions from the entire rice paddies in study region. Based on site validation and sensitivity tests, geographic information system (GIS databases with the spatially differentiated input information were constructed to drive DNDC upscaling for its regional simulations. Results showed that (1 The large change in total methane emission that occurred in 2000 and 2010 compared to 1990 is distributed to the explosive growth in amounts of rice planted; (2 the spatial variations in CH₄ fluxes in this study are mainly attributed to the most sensitive factor soil properties, i.e., soil clay fraction and soil organic carbon (SOC content, and (3 the warming climate could enhance CH₄ emission in the cool paddies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study concluded that the introduction of remote sensing analysis into the DNDC upscaling has a great capability in timely quantifying the methane emissions from cool paddies with fast land use and cover changes. And also, it confirmed that the northern wetland agroecosystems made great contributions to global greenhouse gas inventory.

  11. Prevalence and Correlation with Clinical Diseases of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA Genotype among Gastric Patients from Northeast China

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    Faisal Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes have significant genetic heterogenicity, resulting in different clinical outcomes. Northeast part of China has reported high prevalence of H. pylori infections and gastric cancer. Hence, we investigated the H. pylori cagA and vacA genotypes with clinical outcomes in Northeast China. Gastric tissue samples (n=169, chronic gastritis (GIs, gastric ulcer (GU, and gastric cancer (GC were analysed for 16S rRNA ureA, cagA, and cagA genotypes by PCR. A total of 141 (84% cases were found positive for H. pylori by 16S rRNA and ureA. GC showed high H. pylori infection (93% compared with GIs (72% and GU (84%. The vacAs1am1 was highly found in GC (40% and GU (36%, vacAs1am2 in GIs (33%, vacAs1bm1 (14% and vacAs1bm2 (8% in GU cases, and s2m1 in normal cases (33%, while vacAs1cm1 showed low frequency in GIs (2% and GU (3% and GC showed negative result. The East-Asian cagA strain was highly observed in GC (43%, as compared to GIs (41% and GU (20%. The East-Asian cagA/vacAs1am1 was significantly higher in GC (23% than in GU (22% and GIs (145 patients. The East-Asian type cagA with vacAs1a and vacAm1 is the most predominant genotype in H. pylori strains of Northeast China.

  12. Observed Effects of Vegetation Growth on Temperature in the Early Summer over the Northeast China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaxiang Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vegetation on temperature is an emerging topic in the climate science community. Existing studies have mostly examined the effects of vegetation on daytime temperature (Tmax, whereas this study investigates the effects on nighttime temperature (Tmin. Ground measurements from 53 sites across northeastern China (NEC from 1982 to 2006 show that early summer (June Tmax and Tmin increased at mean rates of approximately 0.61 °C/10 year and 0.67 °C/10 year, respectively. Over the same period, the satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI decreased by approximately 0.10 (accounting for 18% of the climatological NDVI for 1982–1991. It is highlighted that a larger increase in Tmax (Tmin co-occurred spatially with a larger (smaller decrease in NDVI. Deriving from such spatial co-occurrences, we found that the spatial variability of changes in Tmax (i.e., ΔTmax is negatively correlated with the spatial variability of changes in NDVI (i.e., ΔNDVI, while the spatial variability of changes in Tmin (i.e., ΔTmin is positively correlated (r2 = 0.10; p < 0.05 with that of ΔNDVI. Similarly, we detected significant positive correlations between the spatial variability of ΔNDVI and the change in surface latent heat flux (r2 = 0.16; p < 0.01 and in surface air specific humidity (r2 = 0.28; p < 0.001. These findings on the spatial co-occurrences suggest that the vegetation growth intensifies the atmospheric water vapor through evapotranspiration, which enhances the atmospheric downward longwave radiation and strengthens the greenhouse warming effects at night. Thereby, the positive correlation between ΔNDVI and ΔTmin is better understood. These results indicate that vegetation growth may not only exert effects on daytime temperature but also exert warming effects on nighttime temperature by increasing atmospheric water vapor and thus intensifying the local greenhouse effect. This study presents new observation evidence of the

  13. Dominance of Candidatus Scalindua species in anammox community revealed in soils with different duration of rice paddy cultivation in Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria play an important role in the oxygen-limited zone for nitrogen cycling, but their roles in agricultural ecosystems are still poorly understood. In this study, soil samples were taken from the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere and from surface (0?5?cm) and subsurface (20?25?cm) layers with 1, 4, and 9?years of rice cultivation history on the typical albic soil of Northeast China to examine the diversity and distribution of anammox bacteria base...

  14. Modeled effects of irrigation on surface climate in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhen; Xiong, Zhe; Tang, Qiuhong

    2017-08-01

    In Northwest China, water originates from the mountain area and is largely used for irrigation agriculture in the middle reaches. This study investigates the local and remote impact of irrigation on regional climate in the Heihe River Basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. An irrigation scheme was developed and incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Noah-MP land surface scheme (WRF/Noah-MP). The effects of irrigation is assessed by comparing the model simulations with and without consideration of irrigation (hereafter, IRRG and NATU simulations, respectively) for five growth seasons (May to September) from 2009 to 2013. As consequences of irrigation, daily mean temperature decreased by 1.7°C and humidity increased by 2.3 g kg-1 (corresponding to 38.5%) over irrigated area. The temperature and humidity of IRRG simulation matched well with the observations, whereas NATU simulation overestimated temperature and underestimated humidity over irrigated area. The effects on temperature and humidity are generally small outside the irrigated area. The cooling and wetting effects have opposing impacts on convective precipitation, resulting in a negligible change in localized precipitation over irrigated area. However, irrigation may induce water vapor convergence and enhance precipitation remotely in the southeastern portion of the Heihe River Basin.

  15. Simulation of blue and green water resources in the Wei River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the model performance. Water resources components of blue water flow, green water flow and green water storage were estimated at the HRU (Hydrological Response Unit scales. Water resources in HRUs were also aggregated to sub-basins, river catchments, and then city/region scales for further analysis. The results showed that most parts of the WRB experienced a decrease in blue water resources between the 1960s and 2000s, with a minimum value in the 1990s. The decrease is particularly significant in the most southern part of the WRB (Guanzhong Plain, one of the most important grain production basements in China. Variations of green water flow and green water storage were relatively small on the spatial and temporal dimensions. This study provides strategic information for optimal utilization of water resources and planning of cultivating seasons in the Wei River basin.

  16. Monitoring and evaluation of antibiotic resistance genes in four municipal wastewater treatment plants in Harbin, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Duan, Ruan; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    The development and proliferation of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and environmental microorganisms is of great concern for public health. In this study, the distribution and removal efficiency of intI1 and eight subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for tetracycline, sulfonamides, beta-lactams resistance in four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Harbin, which locates in Songhua River basin in cold areas of China, were monitored by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that intI1 and 6 ARGs except for blaTEM and blaSHV were detected in wastewater and sludge samples and 0.3-2.7 orders of magnitude of ARGs removal efficiency in the four WWTPs were observed. The investigation on the removal of ARGs of different treatment units in one WWTP showed that the biological treatment unit played the most important role in ARGs removal (1.2-1.8 orders of magnitude), followed by UV disinfection, while primary physical treatment units can hardly remove any ARGs. Although all the WWTPs can remove ARGs effectively, ARGs concentrations are still relatively high in the effluent, their further attenuation should be investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal-spatial evolution of the hydrologic drought characteristics of the karst drainage basins in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhonghua; Liang, Hong; Yang, Chaohui; Huang, Fasu; Zeng, Xinbo

    2018-02-01

    Hydrologic drought, as a typical natural phenomenon in the context of global climate change, is the extension and development of meteorological and agricultural droughts, and it is an eventual and extreme drought. This study selects 55 hydrological control basins in Southern China as research areas. The study analyzes features, such as intensity and occurrence frequency of hydrologic droughts, and explores the spatial-temporal evolution patterns in the karst drainage basins in Southern China by virtue of Streamflow Drought Index. Results show that (1) the general hydrologic droughts from 1970s to 2010s exhibited ;an upward trend after having experienced a previous decline; in the karst drainage basins in Southern China; the trend was mainly represented by the gradual alleviation of hydrologic droughts from 1970s to 1990s and the gradual aggravation from 2000s to 2010s. (2) The spatial-temporal evolution pattern of occurrence frequency in the karst drainage basins in Southern China was consistent with the intensity of hydrologic droughts. The periods of 1970s and 2010s exhibited the highest occurrence frequency. (3) The karst drainage basins in Southern China experienced extremely complex variability of hydrologic droughts from 1970s to 2010s. Drought intensity and occurrence frequency significantly vary for different types of hydrology.

  18. Organic petrology and geochemistry of mudrocks from the lacustrine Lucaogou Formation, Santanghu Basin, northwest China: Application to lake basin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Fishman, Neil; Wu, Tao; Baugher, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Exploration for tight oil in the frontier Santanghu Basin of northwest China has resulted in recent commercial discoveries sourced from the lacustrine Upper Permian Lucaogou Formation, already considered a “world class source rock” in the Junggar Basin to the west. Here we apply an integrated analytical program to carbonate-dominated mudrocks from the Lucaogou Formation in Santanghu Basin to document the nature of organic matter (OM) in the context of an evolving lake system. The organic-rich samples (TOC 2.8–11.4 wt%; n = 10) were widely spaced from an ~ 200 m cored section, interpreted from textural and mineralogical evidence to document transition from a lower under-filled to an overlying balanced-filled lake. Organic matter is dominated by moderate to strongly fluorescent amorphous material with Type I geochemical signature (HI values 510–755; n = 10) occurring in a continuum from lamellar stringers, 10–20 μm thick, some ≥ 1 mm in length (possible microbial mat; preserved only in lower under-filled section) to finely-disseminated amorphous groundmass intimately intermixed with mineral matrix. Biomarkers for methanotrophs and photosynthetic cyanobacteria indicate a complex microbial consortium. A unicellular prasinophyte green alga(?), similar to Tasmanites in marine rocks, is present as discrete flattened discs 50–100 μm in diameter. Type III OM including vitrinite (some fluorescent) and inertinite also is abundant. Solid bitumen, indicating local kerogen conversion, fills voids and occurs throughout the cored section. Vitrinite reflectance values are 0.47–0.58%, consistent with strong OM fluorescence but may be “suppressed”. Other proxies, e.g., biomarker parameters, indicate the Lucaogou Formation is in the early oil window at this location. On average, slightly more amorphous OM and telalginite are present in the lower section, consistent with a shallow, stratified, saline environment with low sediment dilution. More

  19. Influence of basin- and local-scale environmental conditions on nearshore production in the northeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Kruse, Gordon H.; Mueter, Franz J.; Black, Bryan A.; Douglas, David C.; Bodkin, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Nearshore marine habitats are productive and vulnerable owing to their connections to pelagic and terrestrial landscapes. To understand how ocean basin- and local-scale conditions may influence nearshore species, we developed an annual index of nearshore production (spanning the period 1972–2010) from growth increments recorded in otoliths of representative pelagic-feeding (Black Rockfish Sebastes melanops) and benthic-feeding (Kelp Greenling Hexagrammos decagrammus) nearshore-resident fishes at nine sites in the California Current and Alaska Coastal Current systems. We explored the influence of basin- and local-scale conditions across all seasons at lags of up to 2 years to represent changes in prey quantity (1- or 2-year time lags) and quality (within-year relationships). Relationships linking fish growth to basin-scale (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, and multivariate El Niño–Southern Oscillation index) and local-scale (sea surface temperature, sea surface height anomalies, upwelling index, photosynthetically active radiation, and freshwater discharge) environmental conditions varied by species and current system. Growth of Black Rockfish increased with cool basin-scale conditions in the California Current and warm local-scale conditions in the Alaska Coastal Current, consistent with existing hypotheses linking climate to pelagic production on continental shelves in the respective regions. Relationships for Kelp Greenlings in the California Current were complex, with faster growth related to within-year warm conditions and lagged-year cool conditions. These opposing, lag-dependent relationships may reflect differences in conditions that promote quantity versus quality of benthic invertebrate prey in the California Current. Thus, we hypothesize that benthic production is maximized by alternating cool and warm years, as benthic invertebrate recruitment is food limited during warm years while growth is temperature limited by cool

  20. The Jiuxi basin, Hexi Corridor, NW China: foreland structural features and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.M. (JAPEX Geoscience Inst. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Coward, M.P. (Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The Jiuxi (Western Jiuquan) Basin, located in the west of the Hexi Corridor, NW China, is a foreland basin which has been active since the Early Jurassic. It was formed as a consequence of the progressive northwards migration of the North Qilian thrusts in response to sinistral shearing along the 2,000-km long Aerjin (Altun) Fault. Sedimentary deposits in the basin are controlled not only by foreland loading and thrusting, but also by the development of listric normal faults at high angles to the thrust belt. At the junctions of these two sets of faults, thick organic-rich sediments and reservoirs have accumulated. During the Tertiary and Quaternary, thrusts propagated along the foot-wall of the North Qilian Fault, truncating earlier-formed oil pools and source-rock layers and thereby causing great difficulties for petroleum exploration. A basin development model is proposed in this paper from an integrated study of sedimentary facies, drilling and seismic data, structural analyses and cross-section reconstructions. The average northwards movement in the frontal zone of the North Qilian Mountains since the Pliocene is estimated at about 8 mm/yr. Therefore, about one-half of the Jurassic-Cretaceous oil-bearing basin could be buried beneath the Laojunmiao and North Qilian Marginal Faults and is virtually untouched by drilling. Source rocks in the basin are black, lacustrine shales of Late Jurassic through Early Cretaceous ages, with a maximum thickness of up to 1.2 km in the Qingxi Depression. The generation of liquid hydrocarbons began in the Late Cretaceous or mid-Oligocene: seven stratigraphical reservoirs, ranging in age from Silurian to Miocene, are described - anticlinal, fault- and ''buriedhill'' structures are the most important traps. The petroleum potential of individual depressions is discussed, and suggestions for potential regional oil prospects are made. (author)

  1. Groundwater sustainability and groundwater/surface-water interaction in arid Dunhuang Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingjing; Ma, Rui; Hu, Yalu; Sun, Ziyong; Wang, Yanxin; McCarter, Colin P. R.

    2018-03-01

    The Dunhuang Basin, a typical inland basin in northwestern China, suffers a net loss of groundwater and the occasional disappearance of the Crescent Lake. Within this region, the groundwater/surface-water interactions are important for the sustainability of the groundwater resources. A three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model was established and calibrated using MODFLOW 2000, which was used to predict changes to these interactions once a water diversion project is completed. The simulated results indicate that introducing water from outside of the basin into the Shule and Danghe rivers could reverse the negative groundwater balance in the Basin. River-water/groundwater interactions control the groundwater hydrology, where river leakage to the groundwater in the Basin will increase from 3,114 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 11,875 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 17,039 × 104 m3/year in 2036. In comparison, groundwater discharge to the rivers will decrease from 3277 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 1857 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 510 × 104 m3/year by 2036; thus, the hydrology will switch from groundwater discharge to groundwater recharge after implementing the water diversion project. The simulation indicates that the increased net river infiltration due to the water diversion project will raise the water table and then effectively increasing the water level of the Crescent Lake, as the lake level is contiguous with the water table. However, the regional phreatic evaporation will be enhanced, which may intensify soil salinization in the Dunhuang Basin. These results can guide the water allocation scheme for the water diversion project to alleviate groundwater depletion and mitigate geo-environmental problem.

  2. Accumulation conditions of Lower Paleozoic shale gas from the southern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianqing Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the raw data of the organic-rich shale in the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation and Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation which were collected from the drilling core, we investigated the accumulation conditions of the Lower Paleozoic marine shale gas in the southern Sichuan Basin, China. The results indicate that the Qiongzhusi and the Longmaxi Formations' black shales in this region are mainly deposited in the deep water shelf sedimentary environment. Both the Qiongzhusi and Longmaxi Formations in the southern Sichuan Basin have great organic-rich shale thickness (mainly 50–300 m. The marine shales of the Qiongzhusi and the Longmaxi Formations are characterized by high total organic carbon contents (average TOC>2%, I–II1 kerogen types, highthermal maturity level (equivalent RO>1.9%, abundant rich brittle mineral (average > 50%, micro- and nanometer pore development, as well as high gas content of shale (average > 1.8 m3/t. All these features are favorable for marine shale gas generation and enrichment in the southern Sichuan Basin. Compared to the Barnett shale in North America, in which shale gas has been explored and developed successfully, it is suggested that the Lower Paleozoic in the southern Sichuan Basin would possess good conditions for shale gas accumulation. Therefore, the Qiongzhusi and the Longmaxi Formations are considered as potential targets for marine shale gas exploration, and favorable areas for shale gas enrichment are also purposed. The favorable areas for shale gas enrichment for the Qiongzhusi Formation in the southern Sichuan Basin are the Zhigong-Yibin, Changning-Gongxian, Jianwei-Muchuan, and Weiyuan areas. The favorable areas for shale gas enrichment for the Longmaxi Formation in the southern Sichuan Basin are the Longchang-Rongchang, Yibin-Luzhou-Changning, and Weiyuan areas.

  3. Typical synoptic situations and their impacts on the wintertime air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialization and urbanization have caused severe air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, northwestern China, with heavy haze events occurring frequently in recent winters. Using the NCEP reanalysis data, the large-scale synoptic situations influencing the Guanzhong basin during wintertime of 2013 are categorized into six types to evaluate the contribution of synoptic situations to the air pollution, including “north-low”, “southwest-trough”, “southeast-high”, “transition”, “southeast-trough”, and “inland-high”. The FLEXPART model has been utilized to demonstrate the corresponding pollutant transport patterns for the typical synoptic situations in the basin. Except for “southwest-trough” and “southeast-high” (defined as favorable synoptic situations, the other four synoptic conditions (defined as unfavorable synoptic situations generally facilitate the accumulation of air pollutants, causing heavy air pollution in the basin. In association with the measurement of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm in the basin, the unfavorable synoptic situations correspond to high PM2.5 mass concentrations or poor air quality and vice versa. The same analysis has also been applied to winters of 2008–2012, which shows that the basin was mainly influenced by the unfavorable synoptic situations during wintertime leading to poor air quality. The WRF-CHEM model has further been applied to simulate the selected 6 days representing the typical synoptic situations during the wintertime of 2013, and the results generally show a good agreement between the modeled distributions and variations of PM2.5 and the corresponding synoptic situations, demonstrating reasonable classification for the synoptic situations in the basin. Detailed meteorological conditions, such as temperature inversion, low-level horizontal wind speed, and planetary boundary layer, all contribute to heavy air pollution

  4. Regional variation in the chemical composition of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens in relation to sources of acid emissions in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.R.; Crittenden, P.D.; Young, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    The chemistry of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens indicate pollution distribution in Arctic Russia. - The chemical composition of snow and terricolous lichens was determined along transects through the Subarctic towns of Vorkuta (130 km west-east), Inta (240 km south-north) and Usinsk (140 km, southwest-northeast) in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia. Evidence of pollution gradients was found on two spatial scales. First, on the Inta transect, northward decreases in concentrations of N in the lichen Cladonia stellaris (from 0.57 mmol N g -1 at 90 km south to 0.43 mmol N g -1 at 130 km north of Inta) and winter deposition of non-sea salt sulphate (from 29.3 to 12.8 mol ha -1 at 90 km south and 110 km north of Inta, respectively) were attributed to long range transport of N and S from lower latitudes. Second, increased ionic content (SO 4 2- , Ca 2+ , K + ) and pH of snow, and modified N concentration and the concentration ratios K + :Mg 2+ and K + : (Mg 2+ +Ca 2+ ) in lichens (Cladonia arbuscula and Flavocetraria cucullata) within ca. 25-40 km of Vorkuta and Inta were largely attributed to local deposition of alkaline coal ash. Total sulphate concentrations in snow varied from ca. 5 μmol l -1 at remote sites to ca. 19 μmol l -1 near Vorkuta. Nitrate concentration in snow (typically ca. 9 μmol l -1 ) did not vary with proximity to perceived pollution sources

  5. [Ecosystem's soil conservation function and its spatial distribution in Lancang River Basin, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Xie, Gao-Di; Pei, Sha; Zhang, Chang-Shun; Fan, Na; Zhang, Cai-Xia; Li, Shi-Mei

    2012-08-01

    Based on the RUSLE model, this paper analyzed the ecosystem's soil conservation function and its spatial distribution in Lancang River Basin. This Basin could be one of the regions having the highest ecosystem' s soil conservation capability in China, with an annual ecosystem's soil conservation amount being 2.36 x 10(10) t x a(-1) and the soil conservation amount per unit area being 1453.72 t x a(-1) per hectare. The total amounts of the N, P, and K conserved in soils were 5.74 x 10(7), 3.07 x 10(7), and 3.75 x 10(8) t x a(-1), respectively, and presented an increasing trend from upstream to downstream. Among the ecosystems in the Basin, forest ecosystem had the highest soil conservation capability, followed by grassland and farmland, while desert ecosystem had the lowest one. The soil conservation capability of the ecosystems was linearly increased with the increase of vegetation coverage. Averagely, a 10% increment in the vegetation coverage could result in a 35.3% increment in soil conservation capability. To rationally increase the vegetation coverage by reliable ecosystem management based on local conditions would make good effect in preventing soil erosion and maintaining soil nutrients in the Basin.

  6. Survey and discussion of history of prospecting in the oil and gas basin Tszyankhan. [China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, S.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed description is made of the history of prospecting for oil and gas which started in the first half of the 1950's. The oil and gas basin Tszinkhan is located in the central part of Eastern China, and southwest of Ukhan. A large number of oil and gas reserves are confined to the mass of lake-saline deposits which were formed in the late Paleogene under conditions of isolated groove basins. The greatest part of the reserves is confined to the northern part of the asymmetrical basin Tszyantsyan. Accumulation of oil here was controlled by sandstones of alluvial fans (Tszyantsyan series) and saline-cupola structures associated with eddy tectonic systems (specific type of structure isolated by the Chinese geologists for which concentric arrangement of the structural axes is characteristic). This special type of trap was isolated for the first time in this oil and gas basin. Initially, until the role of sandy bodies in the ancient alluvial fans was established in controlling oil content, prospecting encountered great difficulties.

  7. Distribution of Actual Evapotranspiration over Qaidam Basin, an Arid Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Jin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration is a major loss flux of the water balance in arid and semi-arid areas. The estimation of actual evapotranspiration has significance for hydrological and environmental purposes. The Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS algorithm was applied to estimate actual evapotranspiration in the Qaidam Basin and its eight hydrological sub-regions, Northwest China. There were 3,036 cloud-free and atmospherically corrected MODIS satellite images from 2001 to 2011 used in the SEBS algorithm to determine the actual evapotranspiration. The result indicated that the estimated annual actual evapotranspiration of the basin increased with time and the value varied from 72.7 to 182.3 mm. SEBS estimates were 7.5% and 14.1% of observed pan evaporation over the western and eastern areas, respectively. The variation of SEBS actual evapotranspiration is influenced by climate factors, vegetation, net radiation, land cover type and water table depth. The analysis of the evaporative behavior of different land cover types in the basin presented that water bodies, marsh, and farmland had relatively higher mean actual evapotranspiration though these land cover types make up less than 3.5% of the total basin. Bare soil has very low evapotranspiration and covered almost 60% of the study area. The actual evapotranspiration was observed to be decreased with an increase of water table depth. Overall, the SEBS algorithm proved to be useful and has potential for estimating spatial actual evapotranspiration on a regional scale.

  8. Heat flow, deep formation temperature and thermal structure of the Tarim Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaowen; Lei, Xiao; Feng, Changge; Li, Xianglan

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal regime of a sedimentary basin not only provides constraint on understanding the basin formation and evolution, but also offers fundamental parameters for hydrocarbon resources assessment. As one of three Precambrian blocks in China, the Tarim craton is also a current hydrocarbon exploration target where the largest sedimentary basin (Tarim Basin) develops with great potential. Although considerable advancement of geothermal regime of this basin has been made during the past decades, nearly all the temperature data in previous studies are from the exploration borehole formation testing temperatures. Recently, we have conducted the steady-state temperature logging in the Tarim basin, and measured abundant rock thermal properties, enabling us to re-visit the thermal regime of this area with more confidence. Our results show that the present-day geothermal gradients for the Tarim Basin vary from 23 K/km to 27 K/km, with a mean of 22 K/km; the values of heat flow range from 40 mW/m2 to 49 mW/m2, with a mean of 43 mW/m2. These new data confirmed that the Tarim Basin has relatively low heat flow and shares similar geothermal regime with other Precambrian cratons in the world. In addition, the new temperatures from the steady-state logs are larger than the bottom hole temperatures (BHT) as 22 degree Celsius, indicating the thermal non-equilibrium for the BHTs used in previous studies. Spatial distribution of the estimated formation temperatures-at-depth of 1~5km within the basin is similar and mainly controlled by crystalline basement pattern. Generally, the temperatures at the depth of 1km range from 29 to 41 degree Celsius, with a mean of 35 degree Celsius; while the temperatures at 3km vary from 63 to 100 degree Celsius, and the mean is 82 degree Celsius; at 5km below the surface, the temperatures fall into a range between 90 and 160 degree Celsius, with a mean of 129 degree Celsius. We further proposed the long-term low geothermal background and large burial

  9. The Tarim Basin, NW China: formation and aspects of petroleum geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.M.; Coward, M.P. (Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology); Nishidai, T. (Japex Geoscience Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    The formation and evolution since the Sinian of the Tarim Basin, in Northwest China, are introduced in this paper, on the basis of a study of stratigraphical and sedimentary facies, and an analysis of structural features. Mechanisms of basin formation have varied throughout this time, caused by frequent tectonic movements along the southern margin of the Eurasian Plate. As regards petroleum geology, six structural units have been classified from a consideration of the distribution of major source-rock sequences. An overall evaluation is made concerning hydrocarbon exploration in the individual structural units. Moreover, a general review is presented regarding source rocks, hydrocarbon reservoirs, trap structures, sealing layers and hydrocarbon generation, as well as possible recent exploration successes. (author)

  10. Detecting Variation Trends of Temperature and Precipitation for the Dadu River Basin, China

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    Ying Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the variation trends of temperature and precipitation in the Dadu River Basin of China based on observed records from fourteen meteorological stations. The magnitude of trends was estimated using Sen’s linear method while its statistical significance was evaluated using Mann-Kendall’s test. The results of analysis depict increase change from northwest to southeast of annual temperature and precipitation in space. In temporal scale, the annual temperature showed significant increase trend and the annual precipitation showed increase trend. For extreme indices, the trends for temperature are more consistent in the region compared to precipitation. This paper has practical meanings for an effective management of climate risk and provides a foundation for further study of hydrological situation in this river basin.

  11. The Implication of Climate Signal for Precipitation in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

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    Fei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the stochastic dynamic variability of precipitation, for the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Heihe River basin in Northwest China, by employing Mann-Kendall statistic, Pettitt test, and wavelet transform methods. The possible associations with three prominent climatic patterns, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO, Artic Oscillation (AO, and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD, are examined by using multiscale wavelet coherence method. No significant trend is identified for the interannual precipitation variability. However, about 2-year significant variability is detected for the lower reach of the Heihe River basin, and this dominating precipitation variability is essentially depicted by AO. The possible influences of ENSO are exerted on long-term timescale, 8–16 years. The obtained knowledge is helpful for the predications of extreme hydroclimatological events and better reservoir operations for regional water resources.

  12. Long-Term Impacts of China’s New Commercial Harvest Exclusion Policy on Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity in the Temperate Forests of Northeast China

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    Kai Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Temperate forests in Northeast China have been severely exploited by timber harvesting in the last century. To reverse this trend, China implemented the Classified Forest Management policy in the Natural Forest Conservation Program in 1998 to protect forests from excessive harvesting. However, the policy was unable to meet the 2020 commitment of increasing growing stock (set in the Kyoto Protocol because of high-intensity harvesting. Accordingly, China banned all commercial harvesting in Northeast China in 2014. In this study, we investigated the long-term impacts of the no commercial harvest (NCH policy on ecosystem services and biodiversity using a forest landscape model, LANDIS PRO 7.0, in the temperate forests of the Small Khingan Mountains, Northeast China. We designed three management scenarios: The H scenario (the Classified Forest Management policy used in the past, the NCH scenario (the current Commercial Harvest Exclusion policy, and the LT scenario (mitigation management, i.e., light thinning. We compared total aboveground forest biomass, biomass by tree species, abundance of old-growth forests, and diversity of tree species and age class in three scenarios from 2010 to 2100. We found that compared with the H scenario, the NCH scenario increased aboveground forest biomass, abundance of old-growth forests, and biomass of most timber species over time; however, it decreased the biomass of rare and protected tree species and biodiversity. We found that the LT scenario increased the biomass of rare and protected tree species and biodiversity in comparison with the NCH scenario, while it maintained aboveground forest biomass and abundance of old-growth forests at a high level (slightly less than the NCH scenario. We concluded there was trade-off between carbon storage and biodiversity. We also concluded that light thinning treatment was able to regulate the trade-off and alleviate the negative effects associated with the NCH policy. Our

  13. Meso–Cenozoic lithospheric thermal structure in the Bohai Bay Basin, eastern North China Craton

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    Zongxing Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bohai Bay Basin is a region where part of the North China Craton has been thinned and destroyed. It has experienced two periods of crustal thinning that occurred during the Cretaceous and Paleogene, but investigations of its Mesozoic and Cenozoic lithospheric thermal structure are limited. Therefore, in this study, the distributions of mantle heat flow, crustal heat flow, and Moho temperatures during the Meso–Cenozoic are calculated based on analyses of the thermal history of the Bohai Bay Basin. The results indicate that the ratio of mantle heat flow to surface heat flow peaked during the late stages of the early Cretaceous and during the middle to late Paleogene. The corresponding mantle heat flow was more than 65% of the surface heat flow. Moho temperatures reached three peaks: 900–1100 °C in the late stages of the early Cretaceous; 820–900 °C in the middle to late Paleogene; and (in the Linqing Depression, Cangxian Uplift, and Jizhong Depression 770–810 °C during the early Neogene. These results reveal that the Bohai Bay Basin experienced significant geological change during the Cretaceous, including the transformation of lithospheric thermal structure from “cold mantle and hot crust” before the Cretaceous to “hot mantle and cold crust” after the Cretaceous. The results also indicate that the basin experienced two large-scale rifting events. Therefore, this work may provide the thermal parameters for further investigations of the geodynamic evolution of eastern China.

  14. P and SH velocity structure in the upper mantle beneath Northeast China: Evidence for a stagnant slab in hydrous mantle transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xiujiao; Yuen, David A.

    2013-04-01

    Using high-dense regional body waves for three deep earthquakes that occurred around Russia-China border, we investigate both S and P wave velocity structures in the mantle transition zone beneath Northeast China and northern part of North China Craton, where the northwestern Pacific plate is imaged to subhorizontally lie above the 660-km discontinuity. We observe an increasing trend of S-P travel time residuals along the epicentral distance within a distance range of 11-16.5°, indicating a velocity anomaly in MTZ. We seek the simplest model that explains the observed broadband waveforms and relative travel times of triplication for a confined azimuth sector. Both SH and P data suggest a ˜140±20 km high velocity layer lying above a slightly depressed and broad 660-km discontinuity. Shear velocity reduction of ˜2.5% in the deeper part of the transition zone is required to compensate for the significantly large relative time between AB and CD triplicate branches and the increased trending of S-P travel time residuals as well. The MTZ, as a whole, is featured by low shear velocity and high Vp/Vs ratio. A water-rich mantle transition zone with 0.2-0.4 wt% of H2O may account for the discrepancy between the observed Vp and Vs velocity structures. Our result supports the scenario of a viscosity-dominated stagnant slab with an increased thickness of ˜140 km, which was caused by the large viscosity contrast between the lower and upper mantles. The addition of water and eastward trench retreat might facilitate stagnation of the subducting Pacific slab beneath Northeast China.

  15. Combining social policy and scientific knowledge with stakeholder participation can benefit on salted grassland production in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Yang, Zhiming; Wang, Ling; Sun, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Soil salinization is a serious environmental problem across the Eurasian steppes, where millions people have been living for at least five thousand years and will still depend on it in the near future. During the last several decades, ecologists and grassland scientists have done much research on rational grassland utilization avoiding land degradation and reduction in ecological services. Meanwhile, the central and local governments took some attempts of agricultural policy and ecological subsidy to mitigate large scale land salinization in Northeast China. Fortunately, more and more farmers and stakeholders begin to adopt rational grassland management with the guidance of scientists and the help of local governments. However, up to date, there is still a gap between farmers, scientists and governments, which often negatively affect grassland production and remission of soil salinization in these areas. We conducted a case study on sustainable grassland production adapted to steppe salinization funded by EC project from 2011 to 2013. Our goal is trying to establish a mode of adaptive grassland management integrating previous scientific knowledge (grazing and seeding), current agricultural policies (ecological subsidy) and stakeholders' participation or performance. The study showed that: A. Despite of some grassland utilization techniques available for stakeholders (regulating stocking rate and seeding in pastures, or planting high quality forages), they tended to take the simplest action to enhance animal production and prevent grassland salinization; B. Compared to educating or training stakeholders, demonstration of grazing management is the most effective mean for knowledge dissemination or technology transfer; C. Ecological subsidy is absolutely welcome to the local people, and technology transfer became easier when combined with ecological subsidy; D. There was a contrasting effect in grassland production and land degradation mitigation for experimental farm

  16. Surface energy fluxes and control of evapotranspiration from a Carex lasiocarpa mire in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuedong; Sun, Li

    2012-03-01

    Data from four components of the radiation balance were used to investigate the surface energy budgets for a Carex lasiocarpa mire in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China, and the controlling factors of the evapotranspiration (ET) were discussed in detail. During the growing season 2006, the shortwave radiation (SW↓) reaching the mire surface added up to 2,854.3 MJ m(-2) and the net radiation (Rn) was 1,637.4 MJ m(-2) in total, with an average of 9.86 MJ m(-2) day(-1). G was the smallest flux at the water-atmosphere interface, with an average of about 0.91 MJ m(-2) day(-1), but showed high relative variability, even changing its sign. The latent and sensible heat fluxes (LE and H) amounted to 787.48 and 476.26 MJ m(-2), respectively, and the total sum of LE and H accounted for 77.18% of Rn. By conversion from LE, the average value of ET from the mire was 1.84 mm day(-1), amounting to 298.8 mm. The total ET was almost 60% of the total rainfall in the same period, proving that ET is the primary water consumer in the mire. The growth of C. lasiocarpa was related closely with surface resistance (r (s)), and analysis of partial correlation indicated that r (s) correlated negatively with leaf area index (LAI) when the interference of the available energy, Rn-G, was removed. There was a strong linkage between r (s) and the evaporative fraction [LE/(LE + H)] as well as Bowen ratio (β). r (s) was the key factor in controlling the variation of ET and regulating energy partitioning between LE and H. During the whole growing season, r (s) and R (n)-G were the two main factors coupled in ET processes. In spring, r (s) dominated ET processes, and the increase in LAI led to a decrease in r (s), which in turn accelerated ET as vegetation developed until late August. After August, the available energy controlled the process of ET completely until ET reached an equilibrium in mid-October.

  17. Lower crustal earthquakes in the North China Basin and implications for crustal rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, D. A.; Dong, Y.; Ni, S.; LI, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The North China Basin is a Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental rift basin on the eastern North China Craton. It is the central region of craton destruction, also a very seismically active area suffering severely from devastating earthquakes, such as the 1966 Xingtai M7.2 earthquake, the 1967 Hejian M6.3 earthquake, and the 1976 Tangshan M7.8 earthquake. We found remarkable discrepancies of depth distribution among the three earthquakes, for instance, the Xingtai and Tangshan earthquakes are both upper-crustal earthquakes occurring between 9 and 15 km on depth, but the depth of the Hejian earthquake was reported of about 30 72 km, ranging from lowermost crust to upper mantle. In order to investigate the focal depth of earthquakes near Hejian area, we developed a method to resolve focal depth for local earthquakes occurring beneath sedimentary regions by P and S converted waves. With this method, we obtained well-resolved depths of 44 local events with magnitudes between M1.0 and M3.0 during 2008 to 2016 at the Hejian seismic zone, with a mean depth uncertainty of about 2 km. The depth distribution shows abundant earthquakes at depth of 20 km, with some events in the lower crust, but absence of seismicity deeper than 25 km. In particular, we aimed at deducing some constraints on the local crustal rheology from depth-frequency distribution. Therefore, we performed a comparison between the depth-frequency distribution and the crustal strength envelop, and found a good fit between the depth profile in the Hejian seismic zone and the yield strength envelop in the Baikal Rift Systems. As a conclusion, we infer that the seismogenic thickness is 25 km and the main deformation mechanism is brittle fracture in the North China Basin . And we made two hypotheses: (1) the rheological layering of dominant rheology in the North China Basin is similar to that of the Baikal Rift Systems, which can be explained with a quartz rheology at 0 10 km depth and a diabase rheology at 10 35 km

  18. Mesozoic to Cenozoic tectonic transition process in Zhanhua Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanjun; Wu, Zhiping; Lu, Shunan; Li, Xu; Lin, Chengyan; Huang, Zheng; Su, Wen; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Shouye

    2018-04-01

    The Zhanhua sag is part of the Bohai Bay intracontinental basin system that has developed since the Mesozoic in East China. The timing of this basin system coincides with the final assembly of East Asia and the development of Western Pacific-type plate margin. Here we use 3-D seismic and core log data to investigate the evolution of this basin and discuss its broad tectonic settings. Our new structural study of Zhanhua sag suggests that there are four major tectonic transitions occurred in the Bohai Bay Basin during Mesozoic and Cenozoic: (1) The first tectonic transition was from stable Craton to thrusting during the Triassic, mainly caused by the South China Block's subduction northward beneath the North China Block, which induced the formation of the NW-striking thrust faults. (2) The second tectonic transition was mainly characterized by a change from compression to extension, which can be further divided into two-stages. At the first stage, two episodes of NW-SE shortening occurred in East Asia during Early-Middle Jurassic and Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous, respectively. At the second stage, the extension and left-lateral shearing took place during Early Cretaceous while compression occurred during Late Cretaceous. The NW-striking thrust faults changed to normal faults and the NNE-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults started to influence the eastern part of the basin. (3) The third transition occurred when the NW-SE extension and NNE-striking right-lateral shearing started to form during Paleogene, and the peak deformation happen around 40 Ma due to the change of the subduction direction of Pacific Plate relative to Eurasia Plate. The NE-striking normal faults are the main structure, and the pre-existing NNE-striking strike-slip faults changed from left-lateral to right-lateral. (4) The fourth transition saw the regional subsidence during Neogene, which was probably caused by the India-Asia "Hard collision" between 25 and 20 Ma.

  19. Can Trade Help Overcome Economic Crisis? Implications for Northeast Asia Creating Regional FTA between Korea, China, and Japan and Mega FTAs such as RCEP and TPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Chul Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization processes have formed a triad of economic and trade systems in terms of GDP and trade volume. These are the European Union (EU, North America Free Trade Association (NAFTA, and Northeast Asia, the major actors in the global economic system and trade since 1990s. However, the global financial crisis in 2008 created a new global economic order and governance that consisted of existing global economic power such as the G7 as well as new emerging economic powers, such as G20 and BRICS. Under such rapidly changing global economic conditions, global trade has contributed to rapid economic growth in the world in the last half-century. Regarding FTAs, the European Union (EU is the frontrunner and has developed the most advanced system for regional economic integration. The EU’s single market provides several implications for Northeast Asian countries trying to build their own regional bilateral and multilateral FTAs and participate in different mega-FTAs such as RCEP and TPP. As a result, their economic interests are rather divided deeply and related to political and security issues in the context of Northeast Asia. Therefore, it is more difficult for Northeast Asian countries to economically integrate in a way that is comparable with the EU. This paper addresses a regional FTA between South Korea, China, and Japan that could be a starting point for their formal economic integration and create a reliable platform to strengthen their trade, boosting further economic growth. It also asks which of the three nations’ economic interests are served by participating in mega FTAs such as RCEP and TPP. Finally, it analyses the best scenario for participating in the multilateral FTA and mega FTAs for each nation.

  20. A new prediction model for grain yield in Northeast China based on spring North Atlantic Oscillation and late-winter Bering Sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengzi; Wang, Huijun; Huo, Zhiguo

    2017-04-01

    Accurate estimations of grain output in the agriculturally important region of Northeast China are of great strategic significance for guaranteeing food security. New prediction models for maize and rice yields are built in this paper based on the spring North Atlantic Oscillation index and the Bering Sea ice cover index. The year-to-year increment is first forecasted and then the original yield value is obtained by adding the historical yield of the previous year. The multivariate linear prediction model of maize shows good predictive ability, with a low normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) of 13.9%, and the simulated yield accounts for 81% of the total variance of the observation. To improve the performance of the multivariate linear model, a combined forecasting model of rice is built by considering the weight of the predictors. The NRMSE of the model is 12.9% and the predicted rice yield explains 71% of the total variance. The corresponding cross-validation test and independent samples test further demonstrate the efficiency of the models. It is inferred that the statistical models established here by applying year-to-year increment approach could make rational prediction for the maize and rice yield in Northeast China before harvest. The present study may shed new light on yield prediction in advance by use of antecedent large-scale climate signals adequately.

  1. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

  2. Multimedia fate modeling and risk assessment of a commonly used azole fungicide climbazole at the river basin scale in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ying, Guang-Guo; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Liu, You-Sheng; Liu, Wang-Rong; Zhao, Jian-Liang

    2015-07-01

    Climbazole is an antidandruff active ingredient commonly used in personal care products, but little is known about its environmental fate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of climbazole in water, sediment, soil and air compartments of the whole China by using a level III multimedia fugacity model. The usage of climbazole was calculated to be 345 t in the whole China according to the market research data, and after wastewater treatment a total emission of 245 t was discharged into the receiving environment with approximately 93% into the water compartment and 7% into the soil compartment. The developed fugacity model was successfully applied to estimate the contamination levels and mass inventories of climbazole in various environmental compartments of the river basins in China. The predicted environmental concentration ranges of climbazole were: 0.20-367 ng/L in water, and 0.009-25.2 ng/g dry weight in sediment. The highest concentration was mainly found in Haihe River basin and the lowest was in basins of Tibet and Xinjiang regions. The mass inventory of climbazole in the whole China was estimated to be 294 t, with 6.79% in water, 83.7% in sediment, 9.49% in soil, and 0.002% in air. Preliminary risk assessment showed high risks in sediment posed by climbazole in 2 out of 58 basins in China. The medium risks in water and sediment were mostly concentrated in north China. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report on the emissions and multimedia fate of climbazole in the river basins of the whole China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The current strain distribution in the North China Basin of eastern China by least-squares collocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J. C.; Tang, H. W.; Chen, Y. Q.; Li, Y. X.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the velocities of 154 stations obtained in 2001 and 2003 GPS survey campaigns are applied to formulate a continuous velocity field by the least-squares collocation method. The strain rate field obtained by the least-squares collocation method shows more clear deformation patterns than that of the conventional discrete triangle method. The significant deformation zones obtained are mainly located in three places, to the north of Tangshan, between Tianjing and Shijiazhuang, and to the north of Datong, which agree with the places of the Holocene active deformation zones obtained by geological investigations. The maximum shear strain rate is located at latitude 38.6°N and longitude 116.8°E, with a magnitude of 0.13 ppm/a. The strain rate field obtained can be used for earthquake prediction research in the North China Basin.

  4. The Chinese Cretaceous Continental Scientific Drilling Project in the Songliao Basin, NE China: Organic-rich source rock evaluation with geophysical logs from Borehole SK-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Zou, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Cretaceous strata have been recognized as an important target of oil or gas exploration in the Songliao Basin, northeast China. The second borehole (SK-2) of the Chinese Cretaceous Continental Scientific Drilling Project in the Songliao Basin (CCSD-SK) is the first one to drill through the Cretaceous continental strata in the frame of ICDP. It was designed not only to solve multiple scientific problems (including the Cretaceous paleoenvironment and paleoclimate, as well as deep resources exploration of the Songliao Basin), but also to expect to achieve new breakthroughs in oil and gas exploration. Based on the project, various geophysical log data (including gamma, sonic, resistivity, density etc.) and core samples have been collected from Borehole SK-2. We do research on organic-rich source rocks estimation using various geophysical log data. Firstly, we comprehensively analyzed organic-rich source rocks' geophysical log response characteristics. Then, source rock's identification methods were constructed to identify organic-rich source rocks with geophysical logs. The main identification methods include cross-plot, multiple overlap and Decision Tree method. Finally, the technique and the CARBOLOG method were applied to evaluate total organic carbon (TOC) content from geophysical logs which provide continuous vertical profile estimations (Passey, 1990; Carpentier et al., 1991). The results show that source rocks are widely distributed in Borehole SK-2, over a large depth strata (985 5700m), including Nenjiang, Qingshankou, Denglouku, Yingcheng, Shahezi Formations. The organic-rich source rocks with higher TOC content occur in the Qingshankou (1647 1650m), Denglouku (2534 2887m) and Shahezi (3367 5697m) Formations. The highest TOC content in these formations can reach 10.31%, 6.58%, 12.79% respectively. The bed thickness of organic-rich source rocks in the these formations are totally up to 7.88m, 74.34m, 276.60m respectively. These organic-rich rocks in the

  5. Monitoring and evaluation of antibiotic resistance genes in four municipal wastewater treatment plants in Harbin, Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Duan, Ruan; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The development and proliferation of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and environmental microorganisms is of great concern for public health. In this study, the distribution and removal efficiency of intI1 and eight subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for tetracycline, sulfonamides, beta-lactams resistance in four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Harbin, which locates in Songhua River basin in cold areas of China, were monitored by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that intI1 and 6 ARGs except for bla TEM and bla SHV were detected in wastewater and sludge samples and 0.3–2.7 orders of magnitude of ARGs removal efficiency in the four WWTPs were observed. The investigation on the removal of ARGs of different treatment units in one WWTP showed that the biological treatment unit played the most important role in ARGs removal (1.2–1.8 orders of magnitude), followed by UV disinfection, while primary physical treatment units can hardly remove any ARGs. Although all the WWTPs can remove ARGs effectively, ARGs concentrations are still relatively high in the effluent, their further attenuation should be investigated. - Highlights: • The distribution of 8 ARGs and intI1 in WWTPs in Harbin in winter were monitored. • ARGs removal in 4 WWTPs with different processes were investigated. • Biological treatment process plays the most important role in ARGs removal. • A relatively high level of ARGs is still present in the effluent after wastewater treatment. • Regional uses of antibiotics other than season temperature affects the fate of ARGs in WWTPs.

  6. Facies architecture of the fluvial Missão Velha Formation (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous), Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil: paleogeographic and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambrini, Gelson Luís; Neumann, Virgínio Henrique M. L.; Menezes-Filho, José Acioli B.; Da Silva-Filho, Wellington F.; De Oliveira, Édison Vicente

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentological analysis of the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin, northeast Brazil) is the aim of this paper through detailed facies analysis, architectural elements, depositional systems and paleocurrent data. The main facies recognized were: (i) coarse-grained conglomeratic sandstones, locally pebbly conglomerates, with abundant silicified fossil trunks and several large-to-medium trough cross-stratifications and predominantly lenticular geometry; (ii) lenticular coarse-to-medium sandstones with some granules, abundant silicified fossil wood, and large-to-medium trough cross-stratifications, cut-and fill features and mud drapes on the foresets of cross-strata, (iii) poorly sorted medium-grained sandstones with sparse pebbles and with horizontal stratification, (iv) fine to very fine silty sandstones, laminated, interlayered with (v) decimetric muddy layers with horizontal lamination and climbing-ripple cross-lamination. Nine architectural elements were recognized: CH: Channels, GB: Gravel bars and bed forms, SB: Sand bars and bedforms, SB (p): sand bedform with planar cross-stratification, OF: Overbank flow, DA: Downstream-accretion macroforms, LS: Laminated sandsheet, LA: Lateral-accretion macroforms and FF: Floodplain fines. The lithofacies types and facies associations were interpreted as having been generated by alluvial systems characterized by (i) high energy perennial braided river systems and (ii) ephemeral river systems. Aeolian sand dunes and sand sheets generated by the reworking of braided alluvial deposits can also occur. The paleocurrent measurements show a main dispersion pattern to S, SE and SW, and another to NE/E. These features imply a paleodrainage flowing into the basins of the Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá.

  7. Stationarity of annual flood peaks during 1951-2010 in the Pearl River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Xiao, Mingzhong; Xu, Chong-Yu

    2014-11-01

    The assumption of stationarity of annual peak flood (APF) records at 28 hydrological stations across the Pearl River basin, China, is tested. Abrupt changes in mean and variance are tested using the Pettitt technique and the Loess method. Trends of APFs are analyzed using the Mann-Kendall method and the Spearman technique. And then the stationarity of the APF series is further investigated by GAMLSS models and long-term persistence. Results indicate that: (1) abrupt changes in mean and variance have similar influences on the changing properties of APFs, such as stationarity. Abrupt changes in mean and variance are only field significant in the East River basin; (2) the change points have a considerable impact on the detection of trends, and these may be attributed to the fact that a abrupt increase or decrease in mean values will affect the trend variations. Besides, for the APF series being free of change points and trend, the GAMLSS models also corroborate stationarity of the APF series; (3) the nonstationarity in the Pearl River basin is mainly due to the existence of the change point. However, the APF series with change points in mean and/or variance are also characterized by long-term persistence, and thus it is infeasible to assert that the abrupt behaviors and/or trends of the APF series are the result of human activities or long-term persistence, especially in the East River basin. Results of this study will provide information for management of water resources and design of hydraulic facilities in the Pearl River basin in a changing environment.

  8. Assessing river water quality using water quality index in Lake Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoshi; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Yuwei; Cai, Yongjiu; Deng, Jiancai

    2018-01-15

    Lake Taihu Basin, one of the most developed regions in China, has received considerable attention due to its severe pollution. Our study provides a clear understanding of the water quality in the rivers of Lake Taihu Basin based on basin-scale monitoring and a water quality index (WQI) method. From September 2014 to January 2016, four samplings across four seasons were conducted at 96 sites along main rivers. Fifteen parameters, including water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, turbidity (tur), permanganate index (COD Mn ), total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonium (NH 4 -N), nitrite, nitrate (NO 3 -N), calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, were measured to calculate the WQI. The average WQI value during our study period was 59.33; consequently, the water quality was considered as generally "moderate". Significant differences in WQI values were detected among the 6 river systems, with better water quality in the Tiaoxi and Nanhe systems. The water quality presented distinct seasonal variation, with the highest WQI values in autumn, followed by spring and summer, and the lowest values in winter. The minimum WQI (WQI min ), which was developed based on a stepwise linear regression analysis, consisted of five parameters: NH 4 -N, COD Mn , NO 3 -N, DO, and tur. The model exhibited excellent performance in representing the water quality in Lake Taihu Basin, especially when weights were fully considered. Our results are beneficial for water quality management and could be used for rapid and low-cost water quality evaluation in Lake Taihu Basin. Additionally, we suggest that weights of environmental parameters should be fully considered in water quality assessments when using the WQI min method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Organic geochemistry and petroleum geology, tectonics and basin analysis of southern Tarim and northern Qaidam basins, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrew Dean

    Organic geochemistry of oils from the Tarim basin, NW China, distinguish at least seven genetic groups of oils. The largest group are derived from Middle-Upper Ordovician anoxic slope-facies marls coincident with the margins of structural uplifts. Other groups include non-marine derived oils in the Luntai uplift, from southwest Tarim, in the Kuqa depression, and west of the Bachu uplift. A seep sample from west of Kashi clusters with Luntai oils. These results suggest that numerous source-rock horizons occur, but they are really restricted. Organic geochemistry of oils from northern Qaidam defines a family of hypersaline, anoxic lacustrine derived oils. Cenozoic outcrop samples from northern Qaidam are too organic lean to be of source quality, but dark laminated upper Oligocene mudstones from the Shi 28 well are of fair to good quality. Biomarkers provide a good correlation between the oils and the core samples. Organic matter is from algae and bacteria and lacks terrestrial material. Hydrocarbons are contained in upper Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene reservoirs. Eight oils are from NW Qaidam, but one sample comes from NE Qaidam, an area previously believed to only produce oils derived from Jurassic source rocks. Thus an unidentified Cenozoic source rock occurs in NE Qaidam. Thermal modeling indicates generation occurred in northwestern Qaidam within the last 3 million years, agreeing with observed low maturity biomarker parameters. Cenozoic stratigraphy in northern Qaidam and southern Tarim basins record the tectonic history of the surrounding structural/topographic elements. Paleocurrents record flow away from adjacent ranges from the Miocene to the present. Provenance data tie sediments to adjacent structural elements. Petrography indicates increasingly immature sandstones in Miocene and younger sediments relative to pre-Miocene samples. Apatite fission-track results from southeastern Tarim yield a cooling age of 17 +/- 1 Ma indicative of unroofing since at

  10. Rotifer assemblages (Rotifera: Eurotatoria of the floodplain lakes of Majuli River Island, the Brahmaputra river basin, northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Kumar Sharma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our plankton and semi-plankton collections from twelve floodplain lakes (beels of Majuli River Island, Upper Assam reveal 124 rotifer species (32 genera and 17 families; these merit biodiversity value as ~52.0% and ~30.0% of species, ~68.0 and ~45.0% of  genera and ~74.0 and ~65.0% of the families of the Phylum known from northeast India (NEI and India, respectively. Two species are new to India with Trichocerca uncinata as new record to the Oriental region.  Eleven species are new to the study area and we provide an updated list (144 species for following meta-analyses of Majuli Rotifera. Biogeographically important elements include one Australasian, four Oriental, four Palaeotropical and one cosmo (sub tropical species while several species are of regional distribution interest. The rotifer fauna is predominantly tropical and Lecanidae > Lepadellidae collectively include ~53.0% species but it records paucity of Brachionus species. Individual beels record total richness of 60-100 (77 ± 12 species, monthly richness between 24 ± 7-34 ± 7 species and maximum up to 54 species/sample. The results are characterized by high community similarities (59.7-90.4% vide Sørensen’s index, more rotifer homogeneity amongst beels, lack of any pattern of temporal richness variations and much limited influence of abiotic parameters.

  11. Hydrochemical characterization and pollution sources identification of groundwater in Salawusu aquifer system of Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Luchen; Ma, Hongyun; Yu, Kun; Martín, Jordi Delgado

    2016-09-01

    Ordos Basin is located in an arid and semi-arid region of northwestern China, which is the most important energy source bases in China. Salawusu Formation (Q3 s) is one of the most important aquifer systems of Ordos Basin, which is adjacent to Jurassic coalfield areas. A large-scale exploitation of Jurassic coal resources over ten years results in series of influences to the coal minerals, such as exposed to the oxidation process and dissolution into the groundwater due to the precipitation infiltration. Therefore, how these processes impact groundwater quality is of great concerns. In this paper, the descriptive statistical method, Piper trilinear diagram, ratios of major ions and canonical correspondence analysis are employed to investigate the hydrochemical evolution, determine the possible sources of pollution processes, and assess the controls on groundwater compositions using the monitored data in 2004 and 2014 (before and after large-scale coal mining). Results showed that long-term exploration of coal resources do not result in serious groundwater pollution. The hydrochemical types changed from HCO3(-)-CO3(2-) facies to SO4(2-)-Cl facies during 10 years. Groundwater hardness, nitrate and sulfate pollution were identified in 2014, which was most likely caused by agricultural activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  13. The Impact of Hydraulic Resources on Sustainable Development of the Timgad Basin North-East of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, D; Ali, A.

    2009-01-01

    Algeria has undertaken a great project consisting to realise an interconnection hydraulic Work in objective to be satisfy in resource water for population and agriculture. Timgad basin located in Aures is characterized by a particular morpho structural relief with dense streams which favorise streaming rain water. This basin includes globally detritital geological formations represented by argilious and sand of Miocene. Concerning agriculture development in this area and to supply neighbouring population with fresh water, Forum Toub site is choose to built a reserve collinear. Geological and geotechnical investigations give interesting results concerning place. However from hydrological study appear that an important solid volume, on twenty years, is largely over capacity water. Then the apparition of this new problem makes this project unrealisable and the site must be changed. It is interesting to build another Work with great capacity on another site taking in account the characteristic of the catchment area. The second proposal will could be assure a sustainable development with availability of water. The handling methods of transported sediments must be applied in upstream in order to increase the life time of water stopping

  14. Sediment record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Liaohe River Delta wetland, Northeast China: Implications for regional population migration and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuanliang; Lin, Tian; Ye, Siyuan; Ding, Xigui; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-03-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of a 210 Pb-dated sediment core extracted from the Liaohe River Delta wetland were measured to reconstruct the sediment record of PAHs and its response to human activity for the past 300 years in Northeast China. The concentrations of the 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs (∑16PAHs) ranged from 46 to 1167 ng g -1 in this sediment core. The concentrations of the 16 PAHs (especially 4- and 5+6-ring PAHs) after the 1980s (surface sediments 0-6 cm) were one or two orders of magnitudes higher than those of the down-core samples. The exponential growth of 4-ring and 5+6-ring PAH concentrations after the 1980s responded well to the increased energy consumption and number of civil vehicles resulting from the rapid economic development in China. Prior to 1950, relatively low levels of the 16 PAHs and a high proportion of 2+3-ring PAHs was indicative of biomass burning as the main source of the PAHs. A significant increase in the 2 + 3 ring PAH concentration from the 1860s-1920s was observed and could be attributed to a constant influx of population migration into Northeast China. It was suggested that the link between historical trend of PAHs and population or energy use involves two different economic stages. Typically, in an agricultural economy, the greater the population size, the greater the emission of PAHs from biomass burning, while in an industrial economy, the increase in sedimentary PAH concentrations is closely related to increasing energy consumption of fossil fuels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogeochemistry of high-fluoride groundwater at Yuncheng Basin, northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengcheng [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology and School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gao, Xubo, E-mail: xubo.gao.cug@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology and School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78705 (United States); Wang, Yanxin, E-mail: yx.wang@cug.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology and School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-03-01

    Hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope methods were integrated to delineate the spatial distribution and enrichment of fluoride in groundwater at Yuncheng Basin in northern China. One hundred groundwater samples and 10 Quaternary sediment samples were collected from the Basin. Over 69% of the shallow groundwater (with a F{sup −} concentration of up to 14.1 mg/L), 44% of groundwater samples from the intermediate and 31% from the deep aquifers had F{sup −} concentrations above the WHO provisional drinking water guideline of 1.5 mg/L. Groundwater with high F{sup −} concentrations displayed a distinctive major ion chemistry: Na-rich and Ca-poor with a high pH value and high HCO{sub 3}{sup −} content. Hydrochemical diagrams and profiles and hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions indicate that variations in the major ion chemistry and pH are controlled by mineral dissolution, cation exchange and evaporation in the aquifer systems, which are important for F{sup −} mobilization as well. Leakage of shallow groundwater and/or evaporite (gypsum and mirabilite) dissolution may be the major sources for F{sup −} in groundwater of the intermediate and deep aquifers. - Highlights: • High-F{sup −} groundwater widely occurs in Yuncheng Basin of northern China. • High-F{sup −} groundwater is Na and HCO{sub 3}-rich and Ca-poor, with high pH. • Major hydrogeochemical processes are mineral dissolution, ion exchange and evaporation. • Shallow groundwater leakage/evaporite dissolution may cause F enrichment in lower aquifers.

  16. Water resources: the prerequisite for ecological restoration of rivers in the Hai River Basin, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenzhong; Mao, Zhanpo; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yuekui

    2015-01-01

    The competition for water resources between humans and river ecosystems is becoming ever more intense worldwide, especially in developing countries. In China, with rapid socioeconomic development, water resources to maintain river ecosystems are progressively decreasing, especially in the Hai River Basin (HRB), which has attracted much attention from the Chinese government. In the past 56 years, water resources have continuously decreased in the basin, such that there is 54.2 % less surface water now compared with then. Water shortages, mainly due to local anthropogenic activities, have emerged as the main limiting factor to river ecological restoration in the HRB. However, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, the largest such project in the world, presents a good opportunity for ecological restoration of rivers in this basin. Water diverted from the Danjiangkou Reservoir will restore surface water resources in the HRB to levels of 30 years ago and will amount to more than 20 billion m(3). Our findings highlight the fact that water resources are crucial for river ecological restoration.

  17. Heavy metal accumulation by periphyton is related to eutrophication in the Hai River Basin, Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhong Tang

    Full Text Available The Hai River Basin (HRB is one of the most polluted river basins in China. The basin suffers from various types of pollutants including heavy metals and nutrients due to a high population density and rapid economic development in this area. We assessed the relationship between heavy metal accumulation by periphyton playing an important role in fluvial food webs and eutrophication in the HRB. The concentrations of the unicellular diatoms (type A, filamentous algae with diatoms (type B, and filamentous algae (type C varied along the river, with type A dominating upstream, and types B then C increasing in concentration further downstream, and this was consistent with changes in the trophic status of the river. The mean heavy metal concentrations in the type A, B and C organisms were Cr: 18, 18 and 24 mg/kg, respectively, Ni: 9.2, 10 and 12 mg/kg, respectively, Cu: 8.4, 19 and 29 mg/kg, respectively, and Pb: 11, 9.8 and 7.1 mg/kg respectively. The bioconcentration factors showed that the abilities of the organisms to accumulate Cr, Ni and Pb decreased in the order type A, type B, then type C, but their abilities to accumulate Cu increased in that order. The Ni concentration was a good predictor of Cr, Cu and Pb accumulation by all three periphyton types. Our study shows that heavy metal accumulation by periphyton is associated with eutrophication in the rivers in the HRB.

  18. Simulating Water Resource Disputes of Transboundary River: A Case Study of the Zhanghe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; He, Weijun; Liao, Zaiyi; Mulugeta Degefu, Dagmawi; An, Min; Zhang, Zhaofang

    2018-01-01

    Water resource disputes within transboundary river basin has been hindering the sustainable use of water resources and efficient management of environment. The problem is characterized by a complex information feedback loop that involves socio-economic and environmental systems. This paper presents a system dynamics based model that can simulate the dynamics of water demand, water supply, water adequacy and water allocation instability within a river basin. It was used for a case study in the Zhanghe River basin of China. The base scenario has been investigated for the time period between 2000 and 2050. The result shows that the Chinese national government should change the water allocation scheme of downstream Zhanghe River established in 1989, more water need to be allocated to the downstream cities and the actual allocation should be adjusted to reflect the need associated with the socio-economic and environmental changes within the region, and system dynamics improves the understanding of concepts and system interactions by offering a comprehensive and integrated view of the physical, social, economic, environmental, and political systems.

  19. Sunshine Duration Variability in Haihe River Basin, China, during 1966–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunshine can have a profound impact on the systematic change in climate elements, such as temperature and wind speed, and in turn affects many aspects of the human society. In recent years, there has been a substantial interest in the variation of sunshine duration due to the dramatic global climate change. Hence, there is a need to better understand the variation of sunshine duration in order to cope with climate change. This study aimed to analyze the variation of sunshine duration in Haihe River basin, China, and its relationship with temperature, wind speed and low-level cloudiness. The annual, seasonal and monthly changes of sunshine duration were analyzed based on the data collected from 33 meteorological stations over the Haihe River basin during 1966–2015. It is evident that the annual, seasonal and monthly sunshine duration shows a decreasing trend over time. In addition, the annual sunshine duration is lower with a higher climate tendency rate in the southern and eastern coastal regions than that in the northwestern regions. It is negatively correlated with temperature (r = −0.50 and low-level cloudiness (r = −0.29, but positively with wind speed (r = 0.61. Wind speed may be one of the important causes of the decrease of sunshine duration in the Haihe River basin during 1966–2015. These changes may have significant implications for the hydrological cycle in the area.

  20. Multiphase timing of hominin occupations and the paleoenvironment in Luonan Basin, Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huayu; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Shejiang; Cosgrove, Richard; Sun, Xuefeng; Zhao, Jun; Sun, Donghuai; Zhao, Cunfa; Shen, Chen; Wei, Ming

    Thousands of Paleolithic artifacts have been recovered from Paleolithic sites in the Luonan Basin, in the upper South Luohe River of central China. Their discovery suggests that the basin was an important area for hominin settlement during the Pleistocene. However, the initial timing of this occupation and the environmental conditions for this period are still largely unknown. In addition, the sediments are not well dated and most of the artifacts lie on the surface. In an attempt to resolve these issues, a new systemic paleomagnetic analysis was carried out on the loess deposits that contain in situ stone tools. Our detailed loess-paleosol analyses of the stratigraphy of different sites in the basin and Chinese Loess Plateau shows the accumulation of the loess since at least 1.1 million years (Ma) ago. Moreover, recently discovered in situ cores, flakes and retouched stone tools in these deposits show that hominins used this region repeatedly from 0.8-0.7 Ma to 0.4-0.3 and 0.2-0.1 Ma. Pedostratigraphic analyses, magnetic susceptibility and carbon isotope analyses also indicate that these hominins lived in a subtropical to warm-temperate climate with broad-needle-leaf forest vegetation mixed with grasses.

  1. Analysis of Spatiotemporal Evolution of Isolated Rainstorm Events in Huai River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the impacts of extreme climate, the severity, areal extent, and frequency of rainstorm events are rapidly increasing, especially in the Huai River Basin of China. This article is based on hourly precipitation data of 229 meteorological stations from 1951 through 2012, combined with statistical and meteorological theory. We used the Mann-Kendall mutation test, moving t-test, and inverse distance weighting spatial interpolation to analyze the spatiotemporal evolution of precipitation, duration, intensity, and frequency of isolated rainstorm events under climate change. The main results are as follows: (1 isolated rainstorm events were obviously bimodal and their occurrence moved backward in time. Their average duration and time of maximum intensities changed dramatically, without a significant increasing trend. The period since the 2000s has seen an increase of rainstorms and their temporal regression across the entire basin. (2 The intensity of isolated rainstorm events in the study area decreased, but precipitation, its duration, areal extent, and frequency had increasing trends basin-wide. (3 Four rainstorm event indices were examined for the period of 1990–2000. Relative to the years before 2003, the average precipitation increased by 2.1%, the average total duration by 8.1%, and the average frequency of occurrence by 25.5%. All indices show smaller minimum and larger maximum values. Overall, the isolated rainstorm events tended to increase.

  2. Reservoir Space Evolution of Volcanic Rocks in Deep Songliao Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M.; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; HU, J.; Wang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years, large amount of natural gas has been discovered in volcanic rock of Lower Crataceous of Songliao basin. Volcanic reservoirs have become one of the important target reservoir types of eastern basin of China. In order to study the volcanic reservoirs, we need to know the main factors controlling the reservoir space. By careful obsercation on volcanic drilling core, casting thin sections and statistical analysis of petrophysical properties of volcanic reservoir in Songliao basin, it can be suggested that the igneous rock reservoir in Yingcheng formation of Lower Crataceous is composed of different rock types, such ad rohylite, rohylitic crystal tuff, autoclastic brecciation lava and so on. There are different reservoirs storage space in in various lithological igneous rocks, but they are mainly composed of primary stoma, secondary solution pores and fractures.The evolution of storage space can be divided into 3 stage: the pramary reservoir space,exogenic leaching process and burial diagenesis.During the evolution process, the reservoir space is effected by secondary minerals, tectonic movement and volcanic hydrothermal solution. The pore of volcanic reservoirs can be partially filled by secondary minerals, but also may be dissoluted by other chemical volcanic hydrothermal solution. Therefore, the favorable places for better-quality volcanic reservoirs are the near-crater facies of vocanic apparatus and dissolution zones on the high position of paleo-structures.

  3. Assessment of gamma radiation levels and natural radioactivity in soils along a subtropical river basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Dekun; Yu, Tao [Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China). Lab. of Marine Isotopic Technology and Environmental Risk Assessment

    2017-07-01

    The activities of natural radionuclides in the environment can be used to assess radiological effects. Monitoring the radiation level in soils is important for public health. It also has important geochemical implications as most of the sediment eroded from river basins is from soil. Therefore, we carried out a soil sampling campaign along a subtropical river basin in southeastern China (Jiulong River). Surface and depth profile soils were collected, and the natural radionuclide activities were measured. The activities of the natural radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K in the surface soils varied from 31.6 to 132.1 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, 37.8 to 174.0 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, and 52.3 to 596.2 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, with average values of 56.7±30.3 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, 86.7±41.3 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, and 352.8±190.6 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, respectively. The absorbed gamma dose in air and the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) in surface soils along the river basin were both higher than the world average. In the depth profiles, excess {sup 210}Pb ({sup 210}Pbex) decreased with depth and significant correlation between {sup 210}Pbex and TOC was observed, suggesting that they are affected by similar processes (leaching and sorption).

  4. Simulations of organic aerosol concentrations during springtime in the Guanzhong Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tian; Li, Guohui; Cao, Junji; Bei, Naifang; Shen, Zhenxing; Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Yichen; Huang, Ru-jin; Tie, Xuexi; Molina, Luisa T.

    2016-08-01

    The organic aerosol (OA) concentration is simulated in the Guanzhong Basin, China from 23 to 25 April 2013 utilizing the WRF-CHEM model. Two approaches are used to predict OA concentrations: (1) a traditional secondary organic aerosol (SOA) module; (2) a non-traditional SOA module including the volatility basis-set modeling method in which primary organic aerosol (POA) is assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive. Generally, the spatial patterns and temporal variations of the calculated hourly near-surface ozone and fine particle matters agree well with the observations in Xi'an and surrounding areas. The model also yields reasonable distributions of daily PM2.5 and elemental carbon (EC) compared to the filter measurements at 29 sites in the basin. Filter-measured organic carbon (OC) and EC are used to evaluate OA, POA, and SOA using the OC / EC ratio approach. Compared with the traditional SOA module, the non-traditional module significantly improves SOA simulations and explains about 88 % of the observed SOA concentration. Oxidation and partitioning of POA treated as semivolatile constitute the most important pathway for the SOA formation, contributing more than 75 % of the SOA concentrations in the basin. Residential emissions are the dominant anthropogenic OA source, constituting about 50 % of OA concentrations in urban and rural areas and 30 % in the background area. The OA contribution from transportation emissions decreases from 25 % in urban areas to 20 % in the background area, and the industry emission OA contribution is less than 6 %.

  5. How to allocate water resources under climate change in the arid endorheic river basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A.; Feng, D.; Tian, Y.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Water resource is of fundamental importance to the society and ecosystem in arid endorheic river basins, and water-use conflicts between upstream and downstream are usually significant. Heihe river basin (HRB) is the second largest endorheic river basin in china, which is featured with dry climate, intensively irrigated farmlands in oases and significant surface water-groundwater interaction. The irrigation districts in the middle HRB consume a large portion of the river flow, and the low HRB, mainly Gobi Desert, has an extremely vulnerable ecological environment. The water resources management has significantly altered the hydrological processes in HRB, and is now facing multiple challenges, including decline of groundwater table in the middle HRB, insufficient environmental flow for the lower HRB. Furthermore, future climate change adds substantial uncertainty to the water system. Thus, it is imperative to have a sustainable water resources management in HRB in order to tackle the existing challenges and future uncertainty. Climate projection form a dynamical downscaled climate change scenario shows precipitation will increase at a rate of approximately 3 millimeter per ten years and temperature will increase at a rate of approximately 0.2 centigrade degree per ten years in the following 50 years in the HRB. Based on an integrated ecohydrological model, we evaluated how the climate change and agricultural development would collaboratively impact the water resources and ecological health in the middle and lower HRB, and investigated how the water management should cope with the complex impact.

  6. Spatial distribution and output characteristics of nonpoint source pollution in the Dongjiang River basin in south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Q. Q.; Su, M. R.; Yang, Z. F.; Cai, Y. P.; Yue, W. C.; Dang, Z.

    2018-02-01

    In this research, the Dongjiang River basin was taken as the study area to analyze the spatial distribution and output characteristics of nonpoint source pollution, based on the export coefficient model. The results showed that the annual total nitrogen and phosphorus (i.e. TN and TP) loads from the Dongjiang River basin were 67916114.6 and 7215279.707 kg, respectively. Residents, forestland and pig were the main contributors for the TN load in the Dongjiang River basin, while residents, forestland and rainfed croplands were the three largest contributors for the TP load. The NPS pollution had a significant spatial variation in this area. The pollution loads overall decreased from the northeast to the southwest part of the basin. Also, the pollution loads from the gentle slope area were larger than those from steep slope areas. Among the ten tributary watersheds in the Dongjiang River basin, the TN and TP loads from the Hanxi River watershed were the largest. On the contrary, the Gongzhuang River watershed contributed least to the total pollution loads of the Dongjiang River basin. For the average pollution load intensities, Hanxi River watershed was still the largest. However, the smallest average TN and TP load intensities were in the Xinfeng River watershed.

  7. The Plateau Monsoon variation during the past 130 kyr revealed by loess deposit at northeast Qinghai-Tibet (China).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, H.; Wang, X.; Ma, H.; Tan, H.; Vandenberghe, J.; Miao, X.; Li, Z.; Sun, Y.; An, Z.; Cao, G.

    2004-01-01

    Climate in northeast Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is characterised by the alternation of summer and winter monsoon circulation, which is generated by thermodynamic and kinetic effects of the immense plateau. The Plateau Monsoon system during the recent geological past has been investigated through a 44-m

  8. Hydrological effects of cropland and climatic changes in arid and semi-arid river basins: A case study from the Yellow River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huazhen; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun; Sun, Peng

    2017-06-01

    The Yellow River basin is a typical semi-arid river basin in northern China. Serious water shortages have negative impacts on regional socioeconomic development. Recent years have witnessed changes in streamflow processes due to increasing human activities, such as agricultural activities and construction of dams and water reservoirs, and climatic changes, e.g. precipitation and temperature. This study attempts to investigate factors potentially driving changes in different streamflow components defined by different quantiles. The data used were daily streamflow data for the 1959-2005 period from 5 hydrological stations, daily precipitation and temperature data from 77 meteorological stations and data pertaining to cropland and large reservoirs. Results indicate a general decrease in streamflow across the Yellow River basin. Moreover significant decreasing streamflow has been observed in the middle and lower Yellow River basin with change points during the mid-1980s till the mid-1990s. The changes of cropland affect the streamflow components and also the cumulative effects on streamflow variations. Recent years have witnessed moderate cropland variations which result in moderate streamflow changes. Further, precipitation also plays a critical role in changes of streamflow components and human activities, i.e. cropland changes, temperature changes and building of water reservoirs, tend to have increasing impacts on hydrological processes across the Yellow River basin. This study provides a theoretical framework for the study of the hydrological effects of human activities and climatic changes on basins over the globe.

  9. Organic walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Tarim Basin, western China: Implications for the retreat of the Paratethys Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grothe, A.; Houben, A.J.P.; Bosboom, R.E.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2011-01-01

    Paleogene sediments of the Tarim basin in western China hold the easternmost extent of the Paratethys Sea, an epicontinental sea that covered a large part of Eurasia and probably extended to the Mediterranean Tethys in the west. The late Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary record of the

  10. Integrated assessment of agricultural land use policies on nutrient pollution and sustainable development in Taihu Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Feng, S.; Loon, van M.; Luo, X.; Kang, C.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Wolf, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Qu, F.

    2012-01-01

    Water pollution in Chinese lakes is a major problem. To reduce nutrient pollution and enhance sustainable development in Taihu Basin, China, an integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural land use policies has been performed, using the technical coefficient generator TechnoGIN and the

  11. Annual runoff and evapotranspiration of forestlands and non-forestlands in selected basins of the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanhui Wang; Pengtao Yu; Karl-Heinz Feger; Xiaohua Wei; Ge Sun; et al

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale forestation has been undertaken over decades principally to control the serious soil erosion in the Loess Plateau of China. A quantitative assessment of the hydrological effects of forestation, especially on basin water yield, is critical for the sustainable forestry development within this dry region. In this study, we constructed the multi-annual water...

  12. Molecular isotopic characterisation of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Palaeocene-Eocene evaporitic, lacustrine source rocks from the Jianghan Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Grice, Kliti; Schouten, S.; Peters, Kenneth E.

    1998-01-01

    Immature organic matter in lacustrine source rocks from the Jianghan Basin, eastern China, was studied for distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions (13C) of hydrocarbon biomarkers. All of the bitumens contain isorenieratane (13C ca. −17 ) indicating the presence of Chlorobiaceae, and

  13. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei

    2010-05-01

    The main part of Jiamusi Block, named as Huanan-Uplift, is located in the northeastern Heilongjiang, China. The Huanan-Uplift is surrounded by many relatively small Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins, e.g. Sanjiang Basin, Hulin Basin, Boli Basin, Jixi Basin, Shuangyashan Basin and Shuanghua Basin. However previous research works were mainly focused on stratigraphy and palaeontology of the basins, therefore, the coupling relation between the uplift and the surrounding basins have not been clear. Based on the field investigations, conglomerate provenance studies of the Houshigou Formation in Boli Basin, geochronology of the Huanan-Uplift basement, we have been studied the relationships between Huanan-Uplift and the surrounding basins. The regional stratigraphic correlations indicates that the isolated basins in the area experienced the same evolution during the period of the Chengzihe and the Muling Formations (the Early Cretaceous). The paleogeography reconstructions suggest that the area had been a large-scale basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. The Huanan-Uplift did not exist. The paleocurrent directions, sandstone and conglomerate provenance analyses show that the Huanan-Uplift started to be the source area of the surrounding basins during the period of Houshigou Formation (early Late Cretaceous), therefore, it suggests that the Jiamusi Block commenced uplift in the early Late Cretaceous. The granitic gneisses in Huanan-Uplift give 494-415 Ma monazite U-Th-total Pb ages, 262-259 Ma biotite and 246-241 Ma K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages. The cooling rates of 1-2 ℃/Ma from 500-260 Ma and 10-11 ℃/Ma from 260-240 Ma have been calculated based on the ages. This suggests that the Jiamusi Block had a rapid exhumation during late Permian, which should be related to the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between the Siberian and North China continents. It is concluded that during the late Paleozoic the Jiamusi Block was stable with a very slow uplifting. With the closure of

  14. Ecological Vulnerability Assessment Integrating the Spatial Analysis Technology with Algorithms: A Case of the Wood-Grass Ecotone of Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates ecological vulnerability of the wood-grass ecotone of northeast China integrating the spatial analysis technology with algorithms. An assessment model of ecological vulnerability is developed applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process. The composite evaluation index system is established on the basis of the analysis of contemporary status and potential problems in the study area. By the application of the evaluation model, ecological vulnerability index is calculated between 1990 and 2005. The results show that ecological vulnerability was mostly at a medium level in the study area, however the ecological quality was deteriorating. Through the standard deviational ellipse, the variation of ecological vulnerability can be spatially explicated. It is extremely significative for the prediction of the regions that will easily deteriorate. The deterioration zone was concentrating in the area of Da Hinggan Ling Mountain, including Xingan League, Chifeng, Tongliao, and Chengde, whereas the improvement zone was distributing in the north-central of Hulunbeier.

  15. Large-scale hydropower system optimization using dynamic programming and object-oriented programming: the case of the Northeast China Power Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Qing; Zhang, Yu-Shan; Ji, Chang-Ming; Wang, Ai-Jing; Lund, Jay R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines long-term optimal operation using dynamic programming for a large hydropower system of 10 reservoirs in Northeast China. Besides considering flow and hydraulic head, the optimization explicitly includes time-varying electricity market prices to maximize benefit. Two techniques are used to reduce the 'curse of dimensionality' of dynamic programming with many reservoirs. Discrete differential dynamic programming (DDDP) reduces the search space and computer memory needed. Object-oriented programming (OOP) and the ability to dynamically allocate and release memory with the C++ language greatly reduces the cumulative effect of computer memory for solving multi-dimensional dynamic programming models. The case study shows that the model can reduce the 'curse of dimensionality' and achieve satisfactory results.

  16. Understanding of crop phenology using satellite-based retrievals and climate factors – a case study on spring maize in Northeast China plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuai, Yanmin; Xie, Donghui; Wang, Peijuan; Wu, Menxin

    2014-01-01

    Land surface phenology is an efficient bio-indicator for monitoring terrestrial ecosystem variation in response to climate change. Numerous studies point out climate change plays an important role in modulating vegetation phenological events, especially in agriculture. In turn, surface changes caused by geo-biological processes can affect climate transition regionally and perhaps globally, as concluded by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2001. Large amounts of research concluded that crops, as one of the most sensitive bio-indicators for climate change, can be strongly influenced by local weather such as temperature, moisture and radiation. Thus, investigating the details of weather impact and the feedback from crops can help improve our understanding of the interaction between crops and climate change at satellite scale. Our efforts start from this point, via case studies over the famous agriculture region in the Northeast China's plain to examine the response of spring maize under temperature and moisture stress. MODIS-based daily green vegetation information together with frequent field specification of the surface phenology as well as continuous measurements of the routine climatic factors during seven years (2003-2009) is used in this paper. Despite the obvious difference in scale between satellite estimations and field observations, the inter- and intra-annual variation of maize in seven-years' growth was captured successfully over three typical spring maize regions (Fuyu, Changling, and Hailun) in Northeast China. The results demonstrate that weather conditions such as changes of temperature and moisture stress provide considerable contribution to the year-to-year variations in the timing of spring maize phenological events

  17. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yanghui; Gao, Jiping; Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong; Lan, Yu; Li, Shuhang; Meng, Jun; Xu, Zhengjin; Tang, Liang

    2016-02-15

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha(-1)) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha(-1)) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. 'Shennong 265') was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH4 emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha(-1) biochar. There were no differences in CO2 emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha(-1) biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha(-1) biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g(-1) and 11.69 mg g(-1) (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha(-1) biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g(-1). The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in a rural North-east China adult population: a population-based survey in Bin County, Harbin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wulian; Sun, Xian; Shao, Zhengbo; Zhou, Xinrong; Kang, Yang; Sui, Hong; Yuan, Huiping

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in a rural population in north-east China.   A population-based study was conducted within Bin County, Harbin of north-east China. Low vision and blindness were defined using the World Health Organization categories of visual impairment. The prevalence of visual impairment was estimated, and causes were identified based on best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) as well as presenting visual acuity (VA). Out of 5764 people, 4956 (86.01%) aged older than 40 participated in the study. The prevalence of visual impairment, low vision and blindness based on presenting VA was 9.6% (BCVA, 6.6%), 7.7% (BCVA, 4.9%) and 1.9% (BCVA, 1.7%), respectively. Taking the presenting VA, cataract (44%) was the most common cause for visual impairment followed by uncorrected refractive error (24%), treatable causes of visual impairment accounted for 68% of the total cases. Cataract (59%) and glaucoma (15%) were leading causes for blindness based on presenting VA. According to BCVA, cataract was the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness (58% and 60%, respectively), followed by glaucoma (17% and 15%, respectively). The prevalence of visual impairment was higher among women than men (peducation level (p=0.0075).   Visual impairment was a serious public health problem in this rural population, with most of it easily remedied. Results highlighted the need for visual impairment prevention programs to an increasing number of elderly people, with a special emphasis on female and those with little or no education. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  19. Understanding of crop phenology using satellite-based retrievals and climate factors - a case study on spring maize in Northeast China plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanmin; Xie, Donghui; Wang, Peijuan; Wu, Menxin

    2014-03-01

    Land surface phenology is an efficient bio-indicator for monitoring terrestrial ecosystem variation in response to climate change. Numerous studies point out climate change plays an important role in modulating vegetation phenological events, especially in agriculture. In turn, surface changes caused by geo-biological processes can affect climate transition regionally and perhaps globally, as concluded by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2001. Large amounts of research concluded that crops, as one of the most sensitive bio-indicators for climate change, can be strongly influenced by local weather such as temperature, moisture and radiation. Thus, investigating the details of weather impact and the feedback from crops can help improve our understanding of the interaction between crops and climate change at satellite scale. Our efforts start from this point, via case studies over the famous agriculture region in the Northeast China's plain to examine the response of spring maize under temperature and moisture stress. MODIS-based daily green vegetation information together with frequent field specification of the surface phenology as well as continuous measurements of the routine climatic factors during seven years (2003-2009) is used in this paper. Despite the obvious difference in scale between satellite estimations and field observations, the inter- and intra-annual variation of maize in seven-years' growth was captured successfully over three typical spring maize regions (Fuyu, Changling, and Hailun) in Northeast China. The results demonstrate that weather conditions such as changes of temperature and moisture stress provide considerable contribution to the year-to-year variations in the timing of spring maize phenological events.

  20. Detection of phonological transitions of spring maize in Northeast China during the last 20 years using daily NOAA/AVHRR NDVI temporal series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Xue, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) provides a rough measure of vegetation amount and growing condition of crops when vegetation activity is low to moderate. Based on the Leaf Collar Method, two key phenological phases, i.e., third leaf collar (TLC) and the maturity, are selected for NDVI modeling. The records on crop phenology were available from 1992 to 2013 at 103 stations in the Northeast China. However, there are large amount of missing data. Therefore, a statistic model is desirable to fill the gaps then, analyze the characteristics of the TLC and the maturity stage with the full data set. The Savitzky-Golay filter was used for noise reduction and temporal NDVI smoothing. The slope analysis was used for detection of TLC and maturity date of spring maize in the spring and in the fall, respectively. When NDVI slope values reach the turning point in certain period, the corresponding date is selected as TLC or maturity. Through comparison between observation and estimation, we find that 5-day slope method is robust to detect the changes of maize phenology. This study shows that the average estimation is 2 days earlier than observation. We then use this method to generate the TLC and mature dates for all the stations. The analyses of this full data set shows that the average TLC of spring maize in Northeast China emerges on Jun.2. The average maturity of spring maize appears on Sep. 18. The shortest growing season of 104 days appears in Jilin Province, while the longest growing season appears in Heilongjiang province of 116 days. When the latitude decreases, the annual average temperature and precipitation amount increases. Accordingly, TLC becomes earlier from Heilongjiang, Jilin to Liaoning Province. There is a significantly negative correlation between TLC that is around June and temperature of April and May. One-month time lags of climate factor, therefore, should be added to detection of phonological transitions of spring maize.

  1. Sedimentary record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a sediment core from a maar lake, Northeast China: evidence in historical atmospheric deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yu-Feng; Sun, Jian-Lin; Ni, Hong-Gang; Guo, Jian-Yang

    2012-09-01

    A maar lake is an excellent ecosystem to study the atmospheric deposition of pollutants, as its contaminants are primarily by atmospheric deposition. In this study, a sediment core from Sihailongwan Maar Lake, Northeast China, was collected and the historical atmospherically deposited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The concentrations of TPAHs (the sum of the US EPA proposed 16 priority PAHs, excluding naphthalene and pyrene) ranged from 473.9 to 2289 ng g(-1) with a slow increasing stage in the deeper sediments and a sharp increasing stage in the upper sediments. The input rate of TPAHs, especially that of PAH(9) (the sum of fluoranthene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, dibenzo(ah)anthrathene, and benzo(ghi)perylene), correlated well to the Chinese historical socioeconomic data. This indicates that sediment PAHs were mainly derived from human activities and PAH(9) can be regarded as a better indicator of the local socioeconomic development. Source identification suggested that PAHs were originated primarily from mixed sources (e.g., coal and biomass burning and petroleum combustion), except for perylene which was mostly of diagenetic origin. In addition, the down-core PAHs profile clearly illustrated that PAHs sources in Northeast China experienced a transformation from low- and moderate temperature to high-temperature combustion processes, especially after the late 1980s. Additionally, an ecological risk assessment using two redefined biological thresholds (TEQ(ERL) and TEQ(ERM)) indicated that most of the PAHs measured in the present sediment core would not cause an immediate toxic effect; only FLU and PHEN are a potential source of concern for biological impairment.

  2. Mercury exports from a High-Arctic river basin in Northeast Greenland (74°N) largely controlled by glacial lake outburst floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Tamstorf, Mikkel; Elberling, Bo; Larsen, Martin M; Mylius, Maria Rask; Lund, Magnus; Abermann, Jakob; Rigét, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Riverine mercury (Hg) export dynamics from the Zackenberg River Basin (ZRB) in Northeast Greenland were studied for the period 2009-2013. Dissolved and sediment-bound Hg was measured regularly in the Zackenberg River throughout the periods with running water (June-October) and coupled to water discharge measurements. Also, a few samples of snow, soil, and permafrost were analysed for Hg. Mean concentrations of dissolved and sediment-bound Hg in the river water (±SD) were 0.39 ± 0.13 and 5.5 ± 1.4 ngL(-1), respectively, and mean concentrations of Hg in the river sediment were 0.033 ± 0.025 mg kg(-1). Temporal variations in river Hg were mainly associated with snowmelt, sudden erosion events, and outburst floods from a glacier-dammed lake in the upper part of the ZRB. Annual Hg exports from the 514 km(2) ZRB varied from 0.71 to >1.57 kg and the majority (86-96%) was associated with sediment-bound Hg. Hg yields from the ZRB varied from 1.4-3.1 gH gk m(-2)yr(-1) and were among the highest yields reported from Arctic river basins. River exports of Hg from ZRB were found to be largely controlled by the frequency, magnitude and timing of the glacial lake outburst floods, which occurred in four of the five years in July-August. Floods accounted for 5 to >10% of the annual water discharge, and up to >31% of the annual Hg export. Also, the winter snowfall and the summer temperatures were found to be important indirect controls on the annual Hg export. The occurrence and timing of glacial lake outburst floods in the ZRB in late summer at the time of maximum soil thaw depth, the location of the glacier in the upper ZRB, and increased thawing of the permafrost in Zackenberg in recent years leading to destabilisation of river banks are considered central factors explaining the high fraction of flood-controlled Hg export in this area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical properties, vitrinite reflectance, and microstructure of coal, Taiyuan Formation, Qinshui Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Chen, Jie; He, Jian-Jun

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we experimentally established the relationship between physical properties, vitrinite reflectance, and microstructure of coal, Taiyuan Formation, Qinshui Basin, China using representative coal samples collected from three different mines via the rock mechanics testing system (MTS). We analyzed the organic macerals, vitrinite reflectance, and microstructure of 11 coal samples using petrography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results suggest that (1) the elastic parameters can be described by linear equations, (2) both P-and S-wave velocities display anisotropy, (3) the anisotropy negatively correlates with vitrinite reflectance, and (4) the acoustic velocities and Young's modulus are negatively correlated with the volume of micropores. The derived empirical equations can be used in the forward modeling and seismic inversion of physical properties of coal for improving the coal-bed methane (CBM) reservoir characterization.

  4. Feasibility of CO{sub 2} geological storage in the Xingou oil field, Jianghan Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Sanxi [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Changsha Engineering and Research Institute Ltd. of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Changsha, 410001 (China); Shana, Huimei; Li, Yilian [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Yang, Zhen; Zhong, Zhaohong [Changsha Engineering and Research Institute Ltd. of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Changsha, 410001 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Geological storage of CO{sub 2} as an effective way of reducing CO{sub 2} output to the atmosphere receives growing attention worldwide. To evaluate the feasibility of this technique in the Xingou oil field of Jianghan Basin in China, 2D and 3D models of CO{sub 2} geological storage were established using TOUGH2 software. Results showed that CO{sub 2} gas can be stored in the deepest reservoir through continuous injection over 50 years, and will remain effectively confined within the space under the second cap-rock during its diffusion over 500 years. Compared with 2D models, 3D models showed that the diffusion process of CO{sub 2} gas in the reservoir will create a mushroom-shaped zone of influence. (authors)

  5. Column-integrated aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing based on sun photometer measurements at a semi-arid rural site in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunfei; Zhu, Jun; Che, Huizheng; Xia, Xiangao; Zhang, Renjian

    2015-04-01

    Ground and satellite remote sensing measurements have revealed heavy aerosol loading in China; however, aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing in Northeast China - important in climate modeling and remote sensing - have not been widely studied. We studied four years of continuous sun photometer measurements at Tongyu, a typical semi-arid rural site in Northeast China, to better understand column-integrated aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing. The annual average aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm was 0.20 ± 0.26; the Ångström exponent (AE) between 440 and 870 nm was 1.37 ± 0.64; and the single scattering albedo (SSA) at 440 nm was 0.91 ± 0.05. The AOD at this rural site was a quarter of that observed in the polluted North China Plain and Yangtze River Delta regions. Anthropogenic fine-mode particles were the dominant contributor to AOD. The AOD and AE showed generally opposite seasonal variation patterns. Relatively higher AOD values in summer (0.26 ± 0.27) and spring (0.24 ± 0.30) were likely related to long-range transportation of anthropogenic aerosols from southern industrial regions in summer, and the increased contribution of dust events in spring. The minimum AOD (0.16 ± 0.22) was concurrent with the maximum AE (1.75 ± 0.76), observed in winter. On average, the absorption AOD (AAOD) at 440 nm and its absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) between 440 and 870 nm were 0.06 ± 0.03 and 1.04 ± 0.43, respectively. The mean AAE was considerably higher than 1 in autumn and winter, indicating that brown carbon from biomass burning contributed greatly to aerosol absorption. The AAE was lower than 1 in summer and spring, related to the coating of black carbon particles. Large negative aerosol direct radiative forcing was estimated at the bottom of the atmosphere, with relatively lower values estimated at the top of the atmosphere; the means were - 26.28 and - 9.42 W m- 2, respectively. This resulted in a strong cooling

  6. The collision of South China with NW India to join Gondwanaland in the Cambrian: Provenance constraints from foreland basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, W.; Li, Z.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Yang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The paleogeographic position of the South China Block (SCB) during the early Paleozoic is important for understanding its affinity with Gondwanaland and addressing potential tectonic trigger for both the early Paleozoic Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China and similar-aged orogenic events along Gondwanan margins. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of Cambrian sandstones/metasandstones from the southwestern SCB reveal a predominant population at 1100¬-950 Ma, and zircon Hf-O isotopic results suggest three Precambrian episodes of juvenile crustal growth for the source provenance (ca. 3.0 Ga, ca. 2.5 Ga and ca. 1.0 Ga), with major crustal reworking at 0.58-0.50 Ga. This provenance record is distinctly different from the known tectonomagmatic record of the SCB, but matches well with the provenance record of Cambrian sandstones and Cambro-Ordovician tectonomagmatic events in the NW Indian Himalaya. Such a provenance linkage between the two continents appears to have started from the Ediacaran. We thus propose that the SCB likely collided with NW India during the assembling of Gondwanaland between the Ediacaran and the Cambrian. The collisional event propagated to eastern Himalaya during Cambro-Ordovician time as South China rotated relative to India to close the remnant ocean, causing the Cambro-Ordovician North India orogeny (also known as the Kurgiakh orogeny) along the Himalaya, as well as the intraplate Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny (>460-415 Ma) in South China. This collisional event also generated two peripheral foreland basins on both the Indian Gondwanaland and the South China sides. The foreland basin on the South China side (the Nanhua foreland basin), started as a failed Neoproterozoic continental rift, and appears to have experienced two stage of development. During the first stage between the Ediacaran and the Cambrian, the basin likely shared the same detrital sources as the foreland basin in NW India, with sediments predominantly derived from the East Africa orogen and the

  7. research notes and comments: Regional density functions and growth patterns in major plains of China, 1982-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Fahui Wang

    2001-01-01

    This research analyzes the spatial patterns of regional development in China through the change of population density functions from 1982 to 1990, using several online digital data sets. To minimize the influence of physical environment on population densities, the study areas are limited to four major plains of China: the Northeast (Dongbei), North China (Huabei) and Hubei-Hunan (Lianghu) Plains, and the Sichuan Basin. A gravity-based delineation approach is used to delineate the influen ce ...

  8. Sedimentary and Paleoceanographic Responses to the South China Sea Basin Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Z.; Liu, Z.; Jin, H.; Larsen, H. C.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.; Stock, J. M.; Sun, Z.; Klaus, A.

    2017-12-01

    As the largest marginal sea of the western Pacific, the South China Sea (SCS) has experienced a complete Wilson cycle, which had inevitably exerted a profound impact on the sedimentary environment and ocean circulation. Based on the results of four ODP/IODP expeditions to the SCS since 1999, together with other research data in this region, this study aims to explore the sedimentary and paleoceanographic responses to the tectonic events and basin evolution in the SCS. The early history of the SCS from land to deep sea was revealed by foraminiferal fauna: (1) The SCS evolved from continental shelf to an upper bathyal environment around the Oligocene/Eocene boundary, and significantly deepened at the turn of Oligocene/Miocene; (2) The early Oligocene SCS was deep but its shelf was narrow, evidenced by the Para-Tethys type deep-sea agglutinated benthic foraminifers and abundant transported shallow-water species at ODP Site 1148. Along with the SCS basin formation and the development of this semi-closed basin, the deep-sea benthic foraminiferal δ13C decreased when the Antarctic ice sheet began to reestablish at 14 Ma, the Indonesian Seaway and the southern SCS deep-water channel were closed at 10 Ma, the Luzon arc collided with Taiwan at 6.5 Ma, and the Bashi Strait was restricted at 1.2 Ma. Nd isotopes of shark teeth at ODP Site 1148 also support these inferences. An early to middle Miocene succession of red clay was found at all sites deeper than 3500 m water depth, which may be correlated to a basin-wide event related to deep circulation of oxygenated water from the western Pacific. After the earliest late Miocene carbonate crash, the red clay disappeared while the large carbonate platforms were drowned and remarkably shrank in the SCS. Late Miocene sediments display a succession of hemi-pelagic and turbidite deposits, indicating that the deep basin entered its modern state below the CCD. Frequent turbidites ended when Pliocene growth of deep-sea manganese

  9. Oxygenation of a Cryogenian ocean (Nanhua Basin, South China) revealed by pyrite Fe isotope compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Zhu, Xiangkun; Yan, Bin; Kendall, Brian; Peng, Xi; Li, Jin; Algeo, Thomas J.; Romaniello, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    The nature of ocean redox chemistry between the Cryogenian Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations (ca. 663-654 Ma) is important for understanding the relationship between environmental conditions and the subsequent emergence and expansion of early animals. The Cryogenian-to-Ediacaran stratigraphic succession of the Nanhua Basin in South China provides a nearly complete sedimentary record of the Cryogenian, including a continuous record of interglacial sedimentation. Here, we present a high-resolution pyrite Fe isotope record for a ∼120-m-long drill-core (ZK105) through Sturtian glacial diamictites and the overlying interglacial sediments in the Nanhua Basin to explore changes in marine chemistry during the late Cryogenian. Our pyrite Fe isotope profile exhibits significant stratigraphic variation: Interval I, comprising middle to upper Tiesi'ao diamictites (correlative with the Sturtian glaciation), is characterized by light, modern seawater-like Fe isotope compositions; Interval II, comprising uppermost Tiesi'ao diamictites and the basal organic-rich Datangpo Formation, is characterized by an abrupt shift to heavier Fe isotope compositions; and Interval III, comprising organic-poor grey shales in the middle Datangpo Formation, is characterized by the return of lighter, seawater-like Fe isotope compositions. We infer that Interval I pyrite was deposited in a predominantly anoxic glacial Nanhua Basin through reaction of dissolved Fe2+ and H2S mediated by microbial sulfate reduction (MSR). The shift to heavier pyrite Fe isotope values in Interval II is interpreted as partial oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron and subsequent near-quantitative reduction and transformation of Fe-oxyhydroxides to pyrite through coupling with oxidation of organic matter in the local diagenetic environment. In Interval III, near-quantitative oxidation of ferrous iron to Fe-oxyhydroxides followed by near-quantitative reduction and conversion to pyrite in the local diagenetic environment

  10. Groundwater recharge history and hydrogeochemical evolution in the Minqin Basin, North West China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmunds, W.M. [Oxford Centre for Water Research, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: wme@btopenworld.com; Ma, Jinzhu [CAEP, Key Laboratory of West China' s Environmental System (Ministry of Education), Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Aeschbach-Hertig, W. [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kipfer, R. [Isotope Geology, ETH, CH-8092, Zurich (Switzerland); Darbyshire, D.P.F. [NERC Isotope Geoscience Laboratory, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    concentrations of around 2 mg L{sup -1} but there is little evidence of impact of high NO{sub 3} from irrigation returns. Strontium isotope and major ion ratios suggest that silicate reactions predominate in the aquifer. The results have important implications for groundwater management in the Minqin and other water-stressed basins in NW China - a region so far destined for rapid development. The large proportion of the water being used at present is in effect being mined and significant changes are urgently needed in water use strategy.

  11. Occurrence, distribution and bioaccumulation of antibiotics in the Liao River Basin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yangwei; Meng, Wei; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Changsheng

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence and distribution of 19 antibiotics including ten sulfonamides, four quinolones, three tetracyclines and two macrolides in water, sediment, and biota samples from the Liao River Basin, China were investigated in the present study. The samples were collected in May 2012, and laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely distributed in the Liao River Basin. Macrolides made up the majority of antibiotics in the water ranging from not detected (ND) to 3162.22 ng L(-1), while tetracyclines and macrolides were the predominant antibiotics in the sediments, ranging from ND to 404.82 μg kg(-1) (mean 32.11 μg kg(-1) dw) and ND to 375.13 (mean 32.77 μg kg(-1) dw), with detection frequencies of 37.3% and 38.1%, respectively. In biological samples, quinolones were the most frequently detected antibiotics (57.1-100%), with concentrations ranging from 286.6-1655.3 μg kg(-1). The highest bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of 45407 L kg(-1) was found for enrofloxacin. The phase distribution calculation showed that tetracyclines were the most strongly adsorbed antibiotics in the sediment, with the highest pseudo-partitioning coefficient values, ranging from 1299 to 1499 L kg(-1). The geographical differences of antibiotic concentrations were largely due to anthropogenic activities and the sewage discharges from the local cities along the rivers.

  12. Low Flow Regimes of the Tarim River Basin, China: Probabilistic Behavior, Causes and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are a frequent occurrence in Xinjiang, China, and therefore fundamental to determining their hydrologic characteristics is low flow analysis. To that end, 11 probability distribution functions and 26 copulas functions were employed to analyze the changing characteristics of low flow regime (defined as seven-day low flow of the Tarim River Basin. Results indicated that: (1 The Wakeby distribution satisfactorily described the probabilistic behavior of the low flow regime. According to Akaike Information Criterion (AIC, Bayesian Information Criterions (BIC, maximum likelihood, and other residual-based metrics, Tawn copula, Farlie–Gumbel–Morgenstern copula and Frank copula were the best choice and used in this current study. (2 After 1987, hydrological droughts of longer return periods were prone to higher occurrence frequency. (3 The low flow volume has been increasing in recent years due to the temperature-induced increase of snowmelt and increasing precipitation. However, hydrological droughts can be expected to occur due to the massive increase in water demand from the development of irrigated agriculture, increasing arable land and livestock farming. As a result, the water shortage in the lower Tarim River Basin will be increasingly severe under the influence of climate change and human activities. To alleviate the shortage would call for the development of water-saving agricultural irrigation, water-saving technology, conservation of eco-environment and sustainable development of local socio-economy.

  13. Seismic shaking in the North China Basin expected from ruptures of a possible seismic gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Benchun; Liu, Dunyu; Yin, An

    2017-05-01

    A 160 km long seismic gap, which has not been ruptured over 8000 years, was identified recently in North China. In this study, we use a dynamic source model and a newly available high-resolution 3-D velocity structure to simulate long-period ground motion (up to 0.5 Hz) from possibly worst case rupture scenarios of the seismic gap. We find that the characteristics of the earthquake source and the local geologic structure play a critical role in controlling the amplitude and distribution of the simulated strong ground shaking. Rupture directivity and slip asperities can result in large-amplitude (i.e., >1 m/s) ground shaking near the fault, whereas long-duration shaking may occur within sedimentary basins. In particular, a deep and closed Quaternary basin between Beijing and Tianjin can lead to ground shaking of several tens of cm/s for more than 1 min. These results may provide a sound basis for seismic mitigation in one of the most populated regions in the world.

  14. Microseepage of methane to the atmosphere from the Dawanqi oil-gas field, Tarim Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Junhong; Xu, Yue; Wang, Guojian; Etiope, Giuseppe; Han, Wei; Yao, Zhitong; Huang, Jingang

    2017-04-01

    The microseepage of natural gas from subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs is a widespread process in petroleum basins. On a global scale, microseepage represents an important natural source of atmospheric methane (CH4). To date, microseepage CH4 flux data have been obtained from 20 petroleum systems in North America, Europe, and Asia. While the seasonal variations of gas flux due to soil methanotrophic activity are known, the role of geological factors in controlling gas fluxes has been poorly investigated. Here we present new microseepage data from the Dawanqi oil-gas field located within the Tarim Basin (China), a petroleum system characterized by intense faulting and shallow (thermogenic, like that occurring within the Dawanqi reservoirs, as demonstrated by 13C enrichment (δ13C from -46.3‰ to -30.7‰) in the chamber. Mean and range microseepage values (17 mg m-2d-1; from -1.4 to 330 mg m-2d-1) are similar to those reported for other petroleum fields with active tectonics. Our results confirm that dry soil over petroleum fields can be a net source of atmospheric CH4 and its flux is primarily controlled by faulting, and reservoir depth and pressure. These factors shall be considered in global bottom-up seepage emission estimates.

  15. Methylotrophic methanogenesis governs the biogenic coal bed methane formation in Eastern Ordos Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hongguang; Yu, Zhisheng; Liu, Ruyin [Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). College of Resources and Environment; Zhang, Hongxun [Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). College of Resources and Environment; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences; Zhong, Qiding; Xiong, Zhenghe [China National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries, Beijing (China). Food Analysis using Isotope Technology Lab

    2012-12-15

    To identify the methanogenic pathways present in a deep coal bed methane (CBM) reservoir associated with Eastern Ordos Basin in China, a series of geochemical and microbiological studies was performed using gas and water samples produced from the Liulin CBM reservoir. The composition and stable isotopic ratios of CBM implied a mixed biogenic and thermogenic origin of the methane. Archaeal 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed the dominance of the methylotrophic methanogen Methanolobus in the water produced. The high potential of methane production by methylotrophic methanogens was found in the enrichments using the water samples amended with methanol and incubated at 25 and 35 C. Methylotrophic methanogens were the dominant archaea in both enrichments as shown by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that fermentative, sulfate-reducing, and nitrate-reducing bacteria inhabiting the water produced were a factor in coal biodegradation to fuel methanogens. These results suggested that past and ongoing biodegradation of coal by methylotrophic methanogens and syntrophic bacteria, as well as thermogenic CBM production, contributed to the Liulin CBM reserves associated with the Eastern Ordos Basin. (orig.)

  16. Drought Characteristic Analysis Based on an Improved PDSI in the Wei River Basin of China

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    Lei Zou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to improve the efficiency of the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI_original, we coupled the Soil and Water Assessment tool (SWAT and PDSI_original to construct a drought index called PDSI_SWAT. The constructed PDSI_SWAT is applied in the Wei River Basin (WRB of China during 1960–2012. The comparison of the PDSI_SWAT with four other commonly used drought indices reveals the effectiveness of the PDSI_SWAT in describing the drought propagation processes in WRB. The whole WRB exhibits a dry trend, with more significant trends in the northern, southeastern and western WRB than the remaining regions. Furthermore, the drought frequencies show that drought seems to occur more likely in the northern part than the southern part of WRB. The principle component analysis method based on the PDSI_SWAT reveals that the whole basin can be further divided into three distinct sub-regions with different drought variability, i.e., the northern, southeastern and western part. Additionally, these three sub-regions are also consistent with the spatial pattern of drought shown by the drought frequency. The wavelet transform analysis method indicates that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO events have strong impacts on inducing droughts in the WRB. The results of this study could be beneficial for a scientific water resources management and drought assessment in the current study area and also provide a valuable reference for other areas with similar climatic characteristics.

  17. Probability Modeling of Precipitation Extremes over Two River Basins in Northwest of China

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    Zhanling Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the probability modeling with a range of distribution models over two inland river basins in China, together with the estimations of return levels on various return periods. Both annual and seasonal maximum precipitations (MP are investigated based on daily precipitation data at 13 stations from 1960 to 2010 in Heihe River and Shiyang River basins. Results show that GEV, Burr, and Weibull distributions provide the best fit to both annual and seasonal MP. Exponential and Pareto 2 distributions show the worst fit. The estimated return levels for spring MP show decreasing trends from the upper to the middle and then to the lower reaches totally speaking. Summer MP approximates to annual MP both in the quantity and in the spatial distributions. Autumn MP shows a little higher value in the estimated return levels than Spring MP, while keeping consistent with spring MP in the spatial distribution. It is also found that the estimated return levels for annual MP derived from various distributions differ by 22%, 36%, and 53% on average at 20-year, 50-year, and 100-year return periods, respectively.

  18. Luminescence dating of the Zeketai loess section in the Ili Basin, northwestern China: Methodological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jintang; Zhou, Liping

    2018-04-01

    Loess deposits in Xinjiang, northwestern China are ideal archives for past environmental changes in the Westerlies-dominated central Asia. Among previous luminescence dating studies of loess in Xinjiang, few have attempted to systematically investigate the methodological aspects. In this study, we report results of a multiple-procedure luminescence dating of the Zeketai loess section in the Ili Basin, central Xinjiang. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIRIR) signals were used for quartz and polymineral grains of different sizes. The pIRIR ages obtained with two protocols agree well with each other and constrain the loess deposition between 50 ka and 88 ka. The OSL ages of fine-grained quartz are in stratigraphic order and range from 37 ka to 61 ka, but are ∼30% younger than the pIRIR295 ages of both fine and medium grained polyminerals. Although the causes of the discrepancy between the ages derived from different luminescence dating protocols are still to be understood, we stress that the quartz OSL ages of loess in this region are likely to be underestimated, especially for samples older than 40 ka. The polymineral or potassium feldspar pIRIR signal is recommended for dating loess in the Ili Basin, at least as an internal check.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for COPD in greenhouse farmers: a large, cross-sectional survey of 5,880 farmers from northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shuo Liu,1 Yangang Ren,1 Deliang Wen,1 Yu Chen,2 Donghong Chen,1 Liyun Li,3 Xuhua Zhang,1 Yibing Zhang,4 Shuang Fu,5 Zhenhua Li,3 Shuyue Xia,6 Dongliang Wang,7 Hong Chen,8 Jian Zhao,9 Xiaoge Wang1 1The Fourth Affiliated Hospital, 2The Second Affiliated Hospital, 3The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, 4The Shenyang Military General Hospital, Shenyang, 5The General Hospital of Fushun Mining Bureau, Fushun, 6Fengtian Hospital, Shenyang Medical College, 7202nd Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Shenyang, 8The First People’s Hospital of Kazuo, Chaoyang, 9205th Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Jinzhou, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China Background: COPD is one of the most common chronic diseases, and more and more farmers who were frequently exposed to greenhouse environments were diagnosed with COPD. However, little information is available on the prevalence of COPD among the greenhouse farmers. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of COPD and investigate the potential risk factors for COPD among the Chinese greenhouse farmers.Methods: Cross-sectional studies involving a sample of greenhouse farmers living in northeast China were performed via stratified-cluster-random sampling. All subjects were interviewed using a uniform questionnaire and underwent pulmonary function tests between 2006 and 2009, based on the diagnostic criteria of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the risk factors for COPD.Results: Of the 5,880 greenhouse farmers from northeast China who were originally selected for this study, 5,420 questionnaires were completed. The overall prevalence of COPD in greenhouse farmers was 17.5%. The COPD prevalence was significantly higher in elderly subjects (≥50 years, current smokers, in those with lower body mass index (≤18.5 kg/m2 and less education, in those who were exposed to mushroom, flowers and

  20. Deltaic Depositional Systems, Evolution Characteristics, and Petroleum Potential, Palaeogene Sub-Basin, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Guotao

    2015-04-01

    Deltaic depositional systems are detailed characterized by morphology and facies in a Palaeogene continental sub-basin of Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. Based on examination of 435 m of conventional cores from 30 wells, three major types of deltaic facies have been recognized: delta, beach and shoreface. Morphology and facies asymmetry between the down-drift and the up-drift sides present a typical asymmetric delta system:1) the down-rift, sourced primarily by the feeding river, are influenced by mixed river and wave processes. Deposits on this side are muddy and consist of barrier, bar, bay-fill, and bayhead delta facies with variable bioturbation intensity; 2)the up-rift, in contrast, is sourced by a second sediment source and typically consists of laterally continuous sandy beach and shoreface facies. Finally, two fundamentally different depositional models are established and reflect a different style of sequence stratigraphic patterns: 1) Multiple-stage faults slopes developed in the down-rift side feed fine grained sediment into two stages channelized front deltaic system; 2) Flexure slope break of the up-rift side, combining with deeper gradual slopes, conversely, feed coarser grained sediment from larger drainages into sandy beach and shoreface systems. Such a distinction has well explained the differentiation of the proven hydrocarbon reserves because the up-rift consists of well-sorted, mature, and laterally continuous homogeneous beach-shoreface reservoirs, whereas the down-rift, in contrast, is muddier and consists of less continuous, less mature, heterolithic reservoirs. The Delta asymmetry concepts and models don't only challenge the traditional definition of deltas in Fushan sub-basin, but also provides strong theoretical support for the future exploration. This process-based model may be applicable to many deep-water settings and provides a framework within which to interpret the stratigraphic and spatial distribution of these complex deposits.

  1. The distribution of antibiotics in water of a river basin in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, T.; Cheng, W.; Wang, M.; Wan, T.; Cheng, M.; Zhang, C. C.; Jia, Z. Y.

    2017-08-01

    In water environment field, one of the most attractive research topics is the determination of contamination characteristics of antibiotics in water. In order to investigate the distribution of antibiotics in surface water and drinking water of a certain river basin in southern China, we determined the types and concentrations of antibiotics that contaminated the river by performing HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method. Thus, we detected 17 antibiotics in four surface water samples (B1, B2, B3, and B4). In sampling points B3 and B4, we detected 16 antibiotics separately. The detection rates of norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and erythromycin-H2O were 100%, and the antibiotic erythromycin-H2O had the maximum concentration. In six drinking water samples (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, and A6), we detected 13 antibiotics. In A5 water samples, we detected all the 13 antibiotics. The detection rate of ofloxacin and erythromycin-H2O was 100%, and erythromycin-H2O was the antibiotic with the highest concentration. We also found that from the upstream to the downstream of the river basin, the types of antibiotics in river increased gradually. In the upstream water samples (B1), we detected three antibiotics. Erythromycin-H2O was the antibiotic with the highest concentration of 6.61 ng/L, and sulfapyridine had the lowest concentration of 2.82 ng/L. In the downstream water samples (B4), we detected 16 antibiotics. Erythromycin-H2O was the antibiotic with the highest concentration of 277.58 ng/L, and the Sulfamonomethoxine was the antibiotic with the second-highest concentration of 242.1 ng/L. In addition, different membrane treatment processes could remove different amounts of antibiotics from the water samples. The study is an important reference for providing environmental protection to river water basin.

  2. Simulations of organic aerosol concentrations during springtime in the Guanzhong Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The organic aerosol (OA concentration is simulated in the Guanzhong Basin, China from 23 to 25 April 2013 utilizing the WRF-CHEM model. Two approaches are used to predict OA concentrations: (1 a traditional secondary organic aerosol (SOA module; (2 a non-traditional SOA module including the volatility basis-set modeling method in which primary organic aerosol (POA is assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive. Generally, the spatial patterns and temporal variations of the calculated hourly near-surface ozone and fine particle matters agree well with the observations in Xi'an and surrounding areas. The model also yields reasonable distributions of daily PM2.5 and elemental carbon (EC compared to the filter measurements at 29 sites in the basin. Filter-measured organic carbon (OC and EC are used to evaluate OA, POA, and SOA using the OC ∕ EC ratio approach. Compared with the traditional SOA module, the non-traditional module significantly improves SOA simulations and explains about 88 % of the observed SOA concentration. Oxidation and partitioning of POA treated as semivolatile constitute the most important pathway for the SOA formation, contributing more than 75 % of the SOA concentrations in the basin. Residential emissions are the dominant anthropogenic OA source, constituting about 50 % of OA concentrations in urban and rural areas and 30 % in the background area. The OA contribution from transportation emissions decreases from 25 % in urban areas to 20 % in the background area, and the industry emission OA contribution is less than 6 %.

  3. Changes in Remotely Sensed Vegetation Growth Trend in the Heihe Basin of Arid Northwestern China.

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    Wenchao Sun

    Full Text Available The Heihe River Basin (HRB is the second largest inland river basin in China, characterized by high diversity in geomorphology and irrigated agriculture in middle reaches. To improve the knowledge about the relationship between biotic and hydrological processes, this study used Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data (1982-2006 to analyze spatiotemporal variations in vegetation growth by using the Mann-Kendall test together with Sen's slope estimator. The results indicate that 10.1% and 1.6% of basin area exhibit statistically significant (p < 0.05 upward and downward trends, and maximum magnitude is 0.066/10a and 0.026/10a, respectively. More specifically, an increasing trend was observed in the Qilian Mountains and Hexi Corridor and a decreasing trend detected in the transitional region between them. Increases in precipitation and temperature may be one possible reason for the changes of vegetation growth in the Qilian Mountains. And decreasing trend in transitional region may be driven by the changes in precipitation. Increases of irrigation contribute to the upward trend of NDVI for cropland in the Hexi Corridor, reflecting that agricultural development becomes more intensive. Our study demonstrates the complexity of the response of vegetation growth in the HRB to climate change and anthropogenic activities and correspondingly adopting mechanistic ecological models capable of describing both factors is favorable for reasonable predictions of future vegetation growth. It is also indicated that improving irrigation water use efficiency is one practical strategy to balance water demand between human and natural ecosystems in the HRB.

  4. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  5. Previously unrecognized ornithuromorph bird diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history.

  6. Evaluating Impacts of Industrial Transformation on Water Consumption in the Heihe River Basin of Northwest China

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    Feng Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing water scarcity is one of the central challenges for sustainability in China, given its burgeoning industry and huge population, especially in the arid and semi-arid inland river basin where precipitation is very limited. Industrial transformation is an important engine of economic growth, which is required to be implemented by governments at all levels in China. Economic models have generally been applied to evaluate the effects of economic policy change (e.g., industrial transformation or adjustment of price on the allocation of production factors. The computable general equilibrium (CGE model is an effective tool to reallocate the primary factors across sectors for different industrial transformation scenarios. In this research, we first briefly introduced the principles and structure of the CGE model, which embeds water resources as a primary factor of production. Then we chose Zhangye as an example to evaluate the impacts of industrial transformation on water consumption under three designed scenarios with the water-embedded CGE model. Simulation results showed that there will be considerable water saving benefit from industrial transformation when the output value of secondary industry and tertiary industry increases and the contribution of the planting sector to the total output value decreases. Finally, we put forward a scheme that can improve water utilization efficiency in policy options.

  7. Previously Unrecognized Ornithuromorph Bird Diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K.; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history. PMID:24147058

  8. Assessment of the hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality of the Tarim River Basin in an extreme arid region, NW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca(2+)-HCO3(-) water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na(+)-Cl(-) water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B(3+), F(-), and SO4(2-) and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future.

  9. Relationship between ancient bridges and population dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Jia, Xin; Lee, Harry F; Zhao, Hongqiang; Cai, Shuliang; Huang, Xianjin

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that population growth dynamics may be revealed by the geographic distribution and the physical structure of ancient bridges. Yet, this relationship has not been empirically verified. In this study, we applied the archaeological records for ancient bridges to reveal the population growth dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin in late imperial China. We investigated 89 ancient bridges in Yixing that were built during the Ming and Qing dynasties (AD1368-1911). Global Position System information and structure (length, width, and span) of those bridges was measured during our field investigations. Their distribution density was calculated by ArcGIS. The historical socio-economic dynamics of Yixing was inferred from the distribution and structure of ancient bridges. Based on the above information, the population growth dynamics in Yixing was projected. Our results show that 77 bridges were built in Yixing during the Qing dynasty, which is 6.41 times more than the number built during the Ming dynasty. In the Ming dynasty, bridges were built on pivotal routes; in the Qing dynasty, bridges were scattered across various places. Over the period, the density distribution of bridges shifted northwestward, while the average length and width of bridges decreased. The increasing number of bridges corresponded to population growth, largely attributable to massive clan migration from northern China during the Little Ice Age. The shift in the density distribution of bridges corresponded to the formation of settlements of large clans and the blossoming of Yixing Teapot handicrafts. The scattering and the reduction in average length and width of bridges was due to the dispersal of population and the associated formation of small settlements in the latter period. Our approach is innovative and robust, and could be employed to recover long-term historical population growth dynamics in other parts of China.

  10. Vegetation Carbon Storage, Spatial Patterns and Response to Altitude in Lancang River Basin, Southwest China

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    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation plays a very important role of carbon (C sinks in the global C cycle. With its complex terrain and diverse vegetation types, the Lancang River Basin (LRB of southwest China has huge C storage capacity. Therefore, understanding the spatial variations and controlling mechanisms of vegetation C storage is important to understand the regional C cycle. In this study, data from a forest inventory and field plots were used to estimate and map vegetation C storage distribution in the LRB, to qualify the quantitative relationships between vegetation C density and altitude at sublot and township scale, and a linear model or polynomial model was used to identify the relationship between C density and altitude at two spatial scales and two statistical scales. The results showed that a total of 300.32 Tg C was stored in the LRB, an important C sink in China. The majority of C storage was contributed by forests, notably oaks. The vegetation C storage exhibited nonlinear variation with latitudinal gradients. Altitude had tremendous influences on spatial patterns of vegetation C storage of three geomorphological types in the LRB. C storage decreased with increasing altitude at both town and sublot scales in the flat river valley (FRV region and the mid-low mountains gorge (MMG region, and first increased then decreased in the alpine gorge (AG region. This revealed that, in southwest China, altitude changes the latitudinal patterns of vegetation C storage; especially in the AG area, C density in the mid-altitude (3100 m area was higher than that of adjacent areas.

  11. Relationship between ancient bridges and population dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that population growth dynamics may be revealed by the geographic distribution and the physical structure of ancient bridges. Yet, this relationship has not been empirically verified. In this study, we applied the archaeological records for ancient bridges to reveal the population growth dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin in late imperial China. We investigated 89 ancient bridges in Yixing that were built during the Ming and Qing dynasties (AD1368-1911. Global Position System information and structure (length, width, and span of those bridges was measured during our field investigations. Their distribution density was calculated by ArcGIS. The historical socio-economic dynamics of Yixing was inferred from the distribution and structure of ancient bridges. Based on the above information, the population growth dynamics in Yixing was projected. Our results show that 77 bridges were built in Yixing during the Qing dynasty, which is 6.41 times more than the number built during the Ming dynasty. In the Ming dynasty, bridges were built on pivotal routes; in the Qing dynasty, bridges were scattered across various places. Over the period, the density distribution of bridges shifted northwestward, while the average length and width of bridges decreased. The increasing number of bridges corresponded to population growth, largely attributable to massive clan migration from northern China during the Little Ice Age. The shift in the density distribution of bridges corresponded to the formation of settlements of large clans and the blossoming of Yixing Teapot handicrafts. The scattering and the reduction in average length and width of bridges was due to the dispersal of population and the associated formation of small settlements in the latter period. Our approach is innovative and robust, and could be employed to recover long-term historical population growth dynamics in other parts of China.

  12. Relationship between ancient bridges and population dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Lee, Harry F.; Zhao, Hongqiang; Cai, Shuliang; Huang, Xianjin

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that population growth dynamics may be revealed by the geographic distribution and the physical structure of ancient bridges. Yet, this relationship has not been empirically verified. In this study, we applied the archaeological records for ancient bridges to reveal the population growth dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin in late imperial China. We investigated 89 ancient bridges in Yixing that were built during the Ming and Qing dynasties (AD1368–1911). Global Position System information and structure (length, width, and span) of those bridges was measured during our field investigations. Their distribution density was calculated by ArcGIS. The historical socio-economic dynamics of Yixing was inferred from the distribution and structure of ancient bridges. Based on the above information, the population growth dynamics in Yixing was projected. Our results show that 77 bridges were built in Yixing during the Qing dynasty, which is 6.41 times more than the number built during the Ming dynasty. In the Ming dynasty, bridges were built on pivotal routes; in the Qing dynasty, bridges were scattered across various places. Over the period, the density distribution of bridges shifted northwestward, while the average length and width of bridges decreased. The increasing number of bridges corresponded to population growth, largely attributable to massive clan migration from northern China during the Little Ice Age. The shift in the density distribution of bridges corresponded to the formation of settlements of large clans and the blossoming of Yixing Teapot handicrafts. The scattering and the reduction in average length and width of bridges was due to the dispersal of population and the associated formation of small settlements in the latter period. Our approach is innovative and robust, and could be employed to recover long-term historical population growth dynamics in other parts of China. PMID:28792976

  13. Water quality variation in the highly disturbed Huai River Basin, China from 1994 to 2005 by multi-statistical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaoyan; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Yongyong

    2014-10-15

    Water quality deterioration is a prominent issue threatening water security throughout the world. Huai River Basin, as the sixth largest basin in China, is facing the most severe water pollution and high disturbance. Statistical detection of water quality trends and identification of human interferences are significant for sustainable water quality management. Three key water quality elements (ammonium nitrogen: NH3-N, permanganate index: CODMn and dissolved oxygen: DO) at 18 monitoring stations were selected to analyze their spatio-temporal variations in the highly disturbed Huai River Basin using seasonal Mann-Kendall test and Moran's I method. Relationship between surrounding water environment and anthropogenic activities (point source emission, land use) was investigated by regression analysis. The results indicated that water environment was significantly improved on the whole from 1994 to 2005. CODMn and NH3-N concentrations decreased at half of the stations, and DO concentration increased significantly at 39% (7/18) stations. The high pollution cluster centers for both NH3-N and CODMn were in the middle stream of Shaying River and Guo River in the 2000s. Water quality of Huai River Basin was mainly influenced by point source pollution emission, flows regulated by dams, water temperature and land use variations and so on. This study was expected to provide insights into water quality evolution and foundations for water quality management in Huai River Basin, and scientific references for the implementation of water pollution prevention in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Different scale land subsidence and ground fissure monitoring with multiple InSAR techniques over Fenwei basin, China

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    C. Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fenwei basin, China, composed by several sub-basins, has been suffering severe geo-hazards in last 60 years, including large scale land subsidence and small scale ground fissure, which caused serious infrastructure damages and property losses. In this paper, we apply different InSAR techniques with different SAR data to monitor these hazards. Firstly, combined small baseline subset (SBAS InSAR method and persistent scatterers (PS InSAR method is used to multi-track Envisat ASAR data to retrieve the large scale land subsidence covering entire Fenwei basin, from which different land subsidence magnitudes are analyzed of different sub-basins. Secondly, PS-InSAR method is used to monitor the small scale ground fissure deformation in Yuncheng basin, where different spatial deformation gradient can be clearly discovered. Lastly, different track SAR data are contributed to retrieve two-dimensional deformation in both land subsidence and ground fissure region, Xi'an, China, which can be benefitial to explain the occurrence of ground fissure and the correlation between land subsidence and ground fissure.

  15. An evaluation of the effect of future climate on runoff in the Dongjiang River basin, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of future climate change on the runoff for the Dongjiang River basin, South China, has been investigated with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. First, the SWAT model was applied in the three sub-basins of the Dongjiang River basin, and calibrated for the period of 1970–1975, and validated for the period of 1976–1985. Then the hydrological response under climate change and land use scenario in the next 40 years (2011–2050 was studied. The future weather data was generated by using the weather generators of SWAT, based on the trend of the observed data series (1966–2005. The results showed that under the future climate change and LUCC scenario, the annual runoff of the three sub-basins all decreased. Its impacts on annual runoff were –6.87%, –6.54%, and –18.16% for the Shuntian, Lantang, and Yuecheng sub-basins respectively, compared with the baseline period 1966–2005. The results of this study could be a reference for regional water resources management since Dongjiang River provides crucial water supplies to Guangdong Province and the District of Hong Kong in China.

  16. Occurrence of phosphorus, other nutrients, and triazine herbicides in water from the Hillsdale Lake basin, Northeast Kansas, May 1994 through May 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation of the occurrence of phosporus, other nutrients, and triazine herbicides in water samples from the Hillsdale Lake Basin in northeast Kansas was conducted from May 1994 through May 1995. Point-source and nonpoint-source contributions of these water-quality constituents were estimated by conducting synoptic sampling at 48 sites in the basin during five periods of low- flow conditions. Samples were collected for the determination of nutrients, including total phosphorus as phosphorus, dissolved orthophosphate as phosphorus, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen, and for selected triazine herbicides. On the basis of criteria developed by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, the Hillsdale Water-Quality Protection Project established a goal to maintain water quality in the tributaries of the Hillsdale Lake Basin at a mean annual low-flow total phosphorus concentration of 0.05 mg/L (milligrams per liter). The mean low- flow total phosphorus concentration of water samples collected in the Big Bull Creek (which includes drainage from Martin Creek), Rock Creek, Little Bull Creek, Wade Branch, and Smith Branch subbasins during low-flow conditions ranged from 0.05 to 4.9 mg/L during this study. Of the 44 sites sampled during low flow, 95 percent had low-flow total phosphorus concentrations larger than the 0.05-mg/L criterion. Discharges from wastewater- treatment plants located in Big Bull Creek and Martin Creek subbasins and the Little Bull Creek subbasin affected nutrient concentrations. Nutrient concentrations in water samples collected from the subbasins not affected by point-source discharges generally were smaller than those in the Big Bull Creek and Little Bull Creek subbasins. Estimated annual low-flow phosphorus loads computed at sampling sites located at the outlet of the subbasins show that the Big Bull Creeksubbasin, which includes drainage from the Martin Creek subbasin, had the

  17. Early to Middle Triassic sedimentary records in the Youjiang Basin, South China: Implications for Indosinian orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liang; Yan, Dan-Ping; Yang, Wen-Xin; Wang, Jibin; Tang, Xiangli; Ariser, Shahnawaz

    2017-06-01

    The Indosinian orogeny marks the termination of marine deposition and the accumulation of lower Permian to Late Triassic clastic sediments in the Youjiang Basin, South China Block. Major and trace element compositions of Early to Middle Triassic sedimentary clastic rocks from Youjiang Basin were analysed to constrain their provenance and tectonic setting. Argillaceous samples have low SiO2 (average 56.95 wt.%), Al2O3 (average 15.15 wt.%), and Fe2O3T + MgO (average 11.54 wt.%) contents, and high K2O/Na2O (average 15.61) and Al2O3/SiO2 (average 0.27) ratios, similar to mudstones from continental arc basins. Arenaceous samples have moderate SiO2 (average 76.98 wt.%), Al2O3 (average 8.41 wt.%), and Fe2O3T + MgO (average 5.29 wt.%) contents, and moderate Al2O3/SiO2 (average 0.11) and K2O/Na2O (average 15.26) ratios, identical to those of graywackes from continental island arcs or active continental margins. Both the argillaceous and arenaceous samples have low CIA values (57-85) and relatively high ICV values (0.69-2.11), indicating that the source rocks experienced weak chemical weathering and the sedimentary detritus was derived from an immature source. Compared with late Permian to Early Triassic South China granitoids and upper crust, the samples have lower contents of high-field-strength elements (e.g., Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta) and large ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb, Sr, Ba, Th, U, and Pb). However, their relatively high Rb concentrations (>51 ppm), and low Rb/Sr (0.16-4.19) and Th/U (2.66-5.21) ratios, are indicative of an igneous source from a continental arc that underwent weak chemical weathering. Both the argillaceous and arenaceous samples are moderately enriched in light rare earth elements and show relatively flat chondrite-normalized heavy rare earth element patterns (LaN/YbN = 6.61-17.35; average 10.61) with strong negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.54-0.89; average 0.73). In tectonic discrimination diagrams, including Th-Sc-Zr/10 and La-Th-Sc plots, the

  18. The characteristic and influence factors of extinction depth of shallow groundwater on the high-latitude region: a case study on the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xihua

    2018-03-01

    Accurate estimation of extinction depth of shallow groundwater (EDSG) and identification of its influence factors are important for sustainable management of groundwater resources, ecological protection, and human health in intensively irrigated region. In this study, the ratio of actual groundwater depth and EDSG (RAE) method was used to understand the spatial variability of EDSG in the Sanjiang Plain, one of China's largest grain production bases and China's largest inland freshwater wetland region. The study showed a large spatial variation of EDSG in the region. Spatially, the sites, which were in the northeast and center had the deepest and the shallowest EDSG, whereby, indicate that it has higher and lower pumping potential capacity. Many factors including climate, soil parameters, vegetation and topography affected the EDSG. We also identified an area of 3.86 × 10 10  m 2 , which accounting for 35.3% of the entire Sanjiang Plain, has exceeded the ESGD by over exploited for years. Knowledge of the variation and influence factors of EDSG for a certain plant system and the current shallow groundwater condition in the higher latitude region can be a key to the development of preventive actions for large quantity pumping groundwater and protection regional and sustainable development of irrigated agriculture.

  19. Prevalence of Central Obesity among Adults with Normal BMI and Its Association with Metabolic Diseases in Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Jiang, Lingling; Lv, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of central obesity among adults with normal BMI and its association with metabolic diseases in Jilin Province, China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Jilin Province of China. Information was collected by face to face interview. Descriptive data analysis and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were conducted. Log-binomial regression analyses were used to find the indepen...

  20. Appendix C: Summary of Major Metallogenic Belts in Northeast Asia (the Russian Far East, Yakutia, Siberia, Transbaikalia, Northern China, Mongolia, South Korea, and Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionov, Sergey M.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Distanov, Elimir G.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Seminskiy, Zhan V.; Smelov, Alexander P.; Yan, Hongquan; Davydov, Yuriy V.V.; Fridovskiy, Valeriy Yu.; Gamyanin, Gennandiy N.; Gerel, Ochir; Kostin, Alexei V.; Letunov, Sergey A.; Li, Xujun; Nikitin, Valeriy M.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Sudo, Sadahisa; Sotnikov, Vitaly I.; Spiridonov, Alexander V.; Stepanov, Vitaly A.; Sun, Fengyue; Sun, Jiapeng; Sun, Weizhi; Supletsov, Valeriy M.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tyan, Oleg A.; Vetluzhskikh, Valeriy G.; Wakita, Koji; Yakovlev, Yakov V.; Zorina, Lydia M.

    2010-01-01

    The major purposes of this chapter are to provide (1) an overview of the regional geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of Northeast Asia for readers who are unfamiliar with the region, (2) a general scientific introduction to the succeeding chapters of this volume, and (3) an overview of the methodology of metallogenic and tectonic analysis used in this study. We also describe how a high-quality metallogenic and tectonic analysis, including construction of an associated metallogenic-tectonic model will greatly benefit other mineral resource studies, including synthesis of mineral-deposit models; improve prediction of undiscovered mineral deposit as part of a quantitative mineral-resource-assessment studies; assist land-use and mineral-exploration planning; improve interpretations of the origins of host rocks, mineral deposits, and metallogenic belts, and suggest new research. Research on the metallogenesis and tectonics of such major regions as Northeast Asia (eastern Russia, Mongolia, northern China, South Korea, and Japan) and the Circum-North Pacific (the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera) requires a complex methodology including (1) definitions of key terms, (2) compilation of a regional geologic base map that can be interpreted according to modern tectonic concepts and definitions, (3) compilation of a mineral-deposit database that enables a determination of mineral-deposit models and clarification of the relations of deposits to host rocks and tectonic origins, (4) synthesis of a series of mineral-deposit models that characterize the known mineral deposits and inferred undiscovered deposits in the region, (5) compilation of a series of metallogenic-belt belts constructed on the regional geologic base map, and (6) construction of a unified metallogenic and tectonic model. The summary of regional geology and metallogenesis presented here is based on publications of the major international collaborative studies of the metallogenesis and

  1. Detecting changes in future precipitation extremes over eight river basins in China using RegCM4 downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Peihua; Xie, Zhenghui

    2016-06-01

    To detect the frequency and intensity of precipitation extremes in China for the middle 21st century, simulations were conducted with the regional climate model RegCM4 forced by the global climate model GFDL_ESM2M under the middle emission scenario (RCP4.5). Compared with observed precipitation extremes for the reference period from 1982 to 2001, RegCM4 generally performed better in most river basins of China relative to GFDL. In the future period 2032-2051, more wet extremes will occur relative to the present period in most study areas, especially in southeast China while significantly less dry extremes will occur in arid and semiarid areas in northwest China. In contrast, areas in northwest China showed an increase in the trend of dry extremes (CDD) and a decrease in the trend of wet extremes (R95p and Rx5day), which might result in more drought in the future. Finally, we discuss in detail the possible reason of these processes, such as zonal wind, vertical wind, and water vapor. In the Huaihe river basin (HU), reduced south winds in summer (June-August) and a decrease of the upward vertical p velocity cause less future precipitation and might lead to changes of extreme events. We also completed correlation analysis between the precipitation extreme indices and the climate factors and found that the precipitation extremes were more sensitive to the annual and seasonal mean precipitation, total water vapor, and upward vertical wind relative to the geopotential height and 2 m temperature over most river basins in China. Perhaps the changes of some wet extremes could be verified partly through changes of annual precipitation due to their high consistence.

  2. Tectonic implications of Mesozoic magmatism to initiation of Cenozoic basin development within the passive South China Sea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Hue Anh; Chan, Yu Lu; Yeh, Meng Wan; Lee, Tung Yi

    2018-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the classical example of a non-volcanic passive margin situated within three tectonic plates of the Eurasian, Indo-Australian and Philippine Sea plate. The development of SCS resulted from interaction of various types of plate boundaries, and complex tectonic assemblage of micro blocks and accretionary prisms. Numerous models were proposed for the formation of SCS, yet none can fully satisfy different aspects of tectonic forces. Temporal and geographical reconstruction of Cretaceous and Cenozoic magmatism with the isochrones of major basins was conducted. Our reconstruction indicated the SE margin of Asia had gone through two crustal thinning events. The sites for rifting development are controlled by localized thermal weakening of magmatism. NW-SE extension setting during Late Cretaceous revealed by magmatism distribution and sedimentary basins allow us to allocate the retreated subduction of Pacific plate to the cause of first crustal thinning event. A magmatic gap between 75 and 65 Ma prior to the initiation of first basin rifting suggested a significant modification of geodynamic setting occurred. The Tainan basin, Pearl River Mouth basin, and Liyue basins started to develop since 65 Ma where the youngest Late Cretaceous magmatism concentrated. Sporadic bimodal volcanism between 65 and 40 Ma indicates further continental extension prior to the opening of SCS. The E-W extension of Malay basin and West Natuna began since late Eocene followed by N-S rifting of SCS as Neotethys subducted. The SCS ridge developed between Pearl River Mouth basin and Liyue basin where 40 Ma volcanic activities concentrated. The interaction of two continental stretching events by Pacific followed by Neotethys subduction with localized magmatic thermal weakening is the cause for the non-volcanic nature of SCS.

  3. Lacustrine fan delta deposition alongside intrabasinal structural highs in rift basins: an example from the Early Cretaceous Jiuquan Basin, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Muirhead, James D.; Wang, Hua; Chen, Si; Liao, Yuantao; Lu, Zongsheng; Wei, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Development of fan deltas alongside intrabasinal structural highs has been overlooked compared to those forming on basin margins. However, these fan deltas may provide important clues regarding the tectonic and climatic controls on deposition during rift development. This paper documents fan delta deposition alongside an intrabasinal structural high within the Early Cretaceous Xiagou Formation of the Jiuquan Basin, China, using subsurface geological and geophysical data. Deposits observed in drill core support fan delta deposition occurring almost exclusively through subaerial and subaqueous gravity flows. Subsurface mapping reveals a consistent decrease in the areal extent of fan deltas from lowstand to highstand system tracts, suggesting that deposition alongside the structural high is sensitive to lake-level changes. The temporal and spatial distribution of the fan deltas display retrogradational stacking patterns, where fan deltas exhibit a decreasing lateral extent up-sequence until fan delta deposition terminated and was replaced by deposition of fine-grained lacustrine deposits. The retrogradational stacking patterns observed alongside the intrabasinal structural high are not observed in fan deltas along the basin margin in the lower parts of the Xiagou Formation. Subsidence profiles also show differential subsidence across the basin during the earliest stages of this formation, likely resulting from border fault movements. These data suggest that non-uniform stacking patterns in the lower parts of the Xiagou Formation reflect basin-scale tectonic movements as the dominant control on synrift deposition patterns. However, later stages of Xiagou Formation deposition were characterized by uniform subsidence across the basin, and uniform retrogradational stacking patterns for fan deltas alongside the intrabasinal structural high and border fault. These observations suggest that basin-scale tectonic movements played a relatively limited role in controlling

  4. Using integrated multivariate statistics to assess the hydrochemistry of surface water quality, Lake Taihu basin, China

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    Xiangyu Mu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural factors and anthropogenic activities both contribute dissolved chemical loads to  lakes and streams.  Mineral solubility,  geomorphology of the drainage basin, source strengths and climate all contribute to concentrations and their variability. Urbanization and agriculture waste-water particularly lead to aquatic environmental degradation. Major contaminant sources and controls on water quality can be asssessed by analyzing the variability in proportions of major and minor solutes in water coupled to mutivariate statistical methods.   The demand for freshwater needed for increasing crop production puulation and industrialization occurs almost everywhere in in China and these conflicting needs have led to widespread water contamination. Because of heavy nutrient loadings from all of these sources, Lake Taihu (eastern China notably suffers periodic hyper-eutrophication and drinking water deterioration, which has led to shortages of freshwater for the City of Wuxi and other nearby cities. This lake, the third largest freshwater body in China, has historically beeen considered a cultural treasure of China, and has supported long-term fisheries. The is increasing pressure to remediate the present contamination which compromises both aquiculture and the prior economic base centered on tourism.  However, remediation cannot be effectively done without first characterizing the broad nature of the non-point source pollution. To this end, we investigated the hydrochemical setting of Lake Taihu to determine how different land use types influence the variability of surface water chemistry in different water sources to the lake. We found that waters broadly show wide variability ranging from  calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate hydrochemical facies type to mixed sodium-sulfate-chloride type. Principal components analysis produced three principal components that explained 78% of the variance in the water quality and reflect three major types of water

  5. Do fine-grained components of loess indicate westerlies: Insights from observations of dust storm deposits at Lenghu (Qaidam Basin, China)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Qiang; L. Lang; Z. Wang;  

    2010-01-01

    The hyper-arid Qaidam Basin is a major dust source area in China. Mineral materials that settled during 11 dust storms from November 2003 to April 2005 in the northern Qaidam Basin were comprised of an amount of fine particles. The particles

  6. A detrital record of continent-continent collision in the Early-Middle Jurassic foreland sequence in the northern Yangtze foreland basin, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tao; Liu, Shaofeng; Wang, Zongxiu; Li, Wangpeng; Chen, Xinlu

    2016-12-01

    The Mesozoic northern Yangtze foreland basin system was formed by continental collision between the North China and South China plates along the Mianlue suture. Synorogenic stratigraphic sequences of Late Triassic to Early-Middle Jurassic age were developed in the northern Yangtze foreland basin. The upper Middle Jurassic Shaximiao Formation consists mainly of thick-bedded terrestrial successions that serve as the main body of the basin-filling sequences, suggesting intense tectonism in the peripheral orogeny of the foreland basin. Laser-ICP-MS U-Pb analysis of 254 detrital zircon grains from sandstone samples and several published Lower-Middle Jurassic samples, detrital compositions, petrofacies, and paleocurrent reconstructions in the northern Yangtze foreland basin indicate that discrete source areas included the Qinling-Dabieshan ranges and the Mianlue suture zone to the north, and the South China plate to the south. The stratigraphic succession and sediment provenance of the foreland basin imply that the early Mianlue oceanic basin, magmatic arc, and nonmarine molasse foreland basin during the period of deposition were modified or buried by the subsequent continent-continent collision between the North China-Qinling-Dabieshan plate and the Yangtze plate during the Jurassic, which followed the oblique amalgamation between these plates during the Middle-Late Triassic.

  7. Defining an Ecologically Ideal Shallow Groundwater Depth for Regional Sustainable Management: Conceptual Development and Case Study on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

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    Xihua Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The depth and fluctuation of shallow groundwater influence water supply to land surface vegetation. Knowledge of an ecologically ideal depth range of shallow groundwater for a vegetation ecosystem can be crucial for sustainability of regional water resource management and ecological conservation. In this study, we developed a conceptual model that identifies an upper and a lower boundary of shallow groundwater for sustaining present vegetation ecosystems, termed ecologically ideal shallow groundwater depth (EISGD. We then applied the conceptual model to the Sanjiang Plain (10.9 × 104 km2 in northeast China in order to gain insights into sustainable shallow groundwater usage in this intensively irrigated agricultural region. Using soil capillary rise, plant rooting depth, extinction depth, and the actual groundwater depth, we identified an upper boundary range of EISGD between 0.5 and 2.8 m and a lower boundary range of EISGD between 2.0 and 14.3 m for different vegetation covers in the Sanjiang Plain. Based on the ranges, we estimated allowable shallow groundwater withdrawal (i.e., without degrading the present vegetation ecosystem for the region and identified an area of 2.54 × 1010 m2 with a total of 9.14 × 108 m3 water deficit. Currently, the entire Sanjiang Plain has a total volume of 45.30 × 108 m3 EISGD allowable shallow groundwater withdrawal, thus the plain’s northeast region can be considered as having a high allowable pumping capacity. This study demonstrates that application of an EISGD concept can be useful for developing regional management strategies and plans for ecological protection and sustainable groundwater utilization.

  8. Accumulation conditions and exploration potential of Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations shale gas in Wuxi area, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wu; Xuewen Shi; Jia Liu; Du Li; Jun Xie; Shengxian Zhao; Chunhai Ji; Ying Hu; Yanbo Guo

    2017-01-01

    Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations shale gas is a new exploration field in Wuxi area, Sichuan Basin, China. Some geological parameters related to shale gas evaluation of the new exploration wells in Wuxi area have been studied, including shale reservoir, gas-bearing, geochemical and paleontological characteristics. The study suggests that the original shale gas generation conditions of the area were good, but later this area went through serious and multi-phase tectonic damage. The major evidences in...

  9. Carbonate reservoirs modified by magmatic intrusions in the Bachu area, Tarim Basin, NW China

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    Kang Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration in carbonate rocks was extremely successful in recent years in the Ordovician in Tarim Basin, NW China. Here, we investigate the carbonate reservoirs in the Bachu area of the Tarim Basin through petrological and geochemical studies combined with oil and gas exploration data. Geochemical analysis included the major, trace, and rare earth elements; fluid inclusion thermometry; clay mineral characterization; and carbon and oxygen isotopes of the carbonate rocks. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions of Well He-3 in the Bachu area indicate three groups, 60–80 °C, 90–130 °C, and 140–170 °C, and suggest that the carbonate rocks experienced modification due to heating events. The porosity in the reservoir is defined by fractures and secondary pores, and there is a notable increase in the porosity of the carbonate reservoirs in proximity to magmatic intrusion, particularly approximately 8–10 m from the intrusive rocks. The development of secondary pores was controlled by lithofacies and corrosion by various fluids. We identify supercritical fluids with high density (138.12–143.97 mg/cm3 in the Bachu area. The negative correlations of δ13C (−2.76‰ to −0.97‰ and δ18O (−7.91‰ to −5.07‰ suggest that the carbonate rocks in the study area were modified by high-salinity hydrothermal fluid. The formation of clay minerals, such as illite and montmorillonite, caused a decrease in porosity. Our study demonstrates the effect of magmatic intrusions in modifying the reservoir characteristics of carbonate rocks and has important implications for oil and gas exploration.

  10. Mid-Neolithic Exploitation of Mollusks in the Guanzhong Basin of Northwestern China: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengjiang; Wu, Naiqin; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Weilin; Ma, Mingzhi; Zhang, Xiaohu; Yang, Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Mollusk remains are abundant in archaeological sites in the Guanzhong Basin of Northwestern China, providing good opportunities for investigations into the use of mollusks by prehistoric humans. Here we report on freshwater gastropod and bivalve mollusks covering the time interval from about 5600 to 4500 cal. yrs BP from sites of Mid-Late Neolithic age. They are identified as Cipangopaludina chinensis and Unio douglasiae, both of which are currently food for humans. The shells are well preserved and have no signs of abrasion. They are all freshwater gastropods and bivalves found in pits without water-reworked deposits and have modern representatives which can be observed in rivers, reservoirs, and paddy fields in the studied region. Mollusk shells were frequently recovered in association with mammal bones, lithic artifacts, and pottery. These lines of evidence indicate that the mollusks are the remains of prehistoric meals. The mollusk shells were likely discarded into the pits by prehistoric humans after the flesh was eaten. However, these mollusk remains may not have been staple food since they are not found in large quantities. Mollusk shell tools and ornaments are also observed. Shell tools include shell knives, shell reaphooks and arrowheads, whereas shell ornaments are composed of pendants and loops. All the shell tools and ornaments are made of bivalve mollusks and do not occur in large numbers. The finding of these freshwater mollusk remains supports the view that the middle Holocene climate in the Guanzhong Basin may have been warm and moist, which was probably favorable to freshwater mollusks growing and developing in the region. PMID:23544050

  11. Evaluation on uncertainty sources in projecting hydrological changes over the Xijiang River basin in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fei; Zhao, Chongxu; Jiang, Yong; Ren, Liliang; Shan, Hongcui; Zhang, Limin; Zhu, Yonghua; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Shanhu; Yang, Xiaoli; Shen, Hongren

    2017-11-01

    Projections of hydrological changes are associated with large uncertainties from different sources, which should be quantified for an effective implementation of water management policies adaptive to future climate change. In this study, a modeling chain framework to project future hydrological changes and the associated uncertainties in the Xijiang River basin, South China, was established. The framework consists of three emission scenarios (ESs), four climate models (CMs), four statistical downscaling (SD) methods, four hydrological modeling (HM) schemes, and four probability distributions (PDs) for extreme flow frequency analyses. Direct variance method was adopted to analyze the manner by which uncertainty sources such as ES, CM, SD, and HM affect the estimates of future evapotranspiration (ET) and streamflow, and to quantify the uncertainties of PDs in future flood and drought risk assessment. Results show that ES is one of the least important uncertainty sources in most situations. CM, in general, is the dominant uncertainty source for the projections of monthly ET and monthly streamflow during most of the annual cycle, daily streamflow below the 99.6% quantile level, and extreme low flow. SD is the most predominant uncertainty source in the projections of extreme high flow, and has a considerable percentage of uncertainty contribution in monthly streamflow projections in July-September. The effects of SD in other cases are negligible. HM is a non-ignorable uncertainty source that has the potential to produce much larger uncertainties for the projections of low flow and ET in warm and wet seasons than for the projections of high flow. PD contributes a larger percentage of uncertainty in extreme flood projections than it does in extreme low flow estimates. Despite the large uncertainties in hydrological projections, this work found that future extreme low flow would undergo a considerable reduction, and a noticeable increase in drought risk in the Xijiang

  12. A new framework to evaluate ecosystem health: a case study in the Wei River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Zhan, Chesheng; Yin, Xuwang; Yu, Songyan

    2015-07-01

    Due to the rapid growth of the population and the development of economies in the Guanzhong district, central China, the river ecosystem is gradually deteriorating, which makes it important to assess the aquatic ecosystem health and take measures to restore the damaged ecosystem. An index of catchment ecosystem health has been developed to assist large-scale management of watersheds by providing an integrated measure of ecosystem health, including aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. Most researches focus on aquatic ecosystem or terrestrial ecosystem, but little research integrates both of them to assess the catchment ecosystem health. In this paper, we combine these two aspects into catchment ecosystem health. Ecosystem indicators derived from field samples and modeling are identified to integrate into ecosystem health. These included indicators of ecological landscape pattern (based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation cover, dominance index, Shannon's diversity index, Shannon's evenness index, and fragmentation index), hydrology regime (based on 33 hydrological parameters), physical form condition (based on substrate, habitat complexity, velocity/depth regimes, bank stability, channel alteration), water quality (based on electrical conductivity (Cond), dissolved oxygen (DO), NH3_N, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand-permanganate (CODMn)), and biological quality (based on fish abundance). The index of ecosystem health is applied in the Guanzhong district, and the ecosystem health was fair. The ecosystem health in the upstream to Linjiacun (U-L) and Linjiacun to Weijiabao (L-W) reaches was in good situation, while that in Weijiabao to Xianyang (W-X), Xianyang-Weijiabao (X-W), and Weijiabao to Tongguan (W-T) reaches was in fair situation. There is a trend that the ecosystem health in the upstream was better than that in the downstream. The ecosystem health assessment is expected to play a key role in future

  13. Provenance evolution of the Jurassic northern Qaidam Basin (West China) and its geological implications: evidence from detrital zircon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long; Xiao, Ancheng; Wu, Lei; Tian, Yuntao; Rittner, Martin; Lou, Qianqian; Pan, Xiaotian

    2017-03-01

    The Jurassic system is the major hydrocarbon source rock and of crucial importance for understanding the Mesozoic intra-continental tectonics in West China. This paper presents systematic detrital zircon geochronology of the Jurassic outcropping at the Dameigou locality in the northern Qaidam Basin, and reports 1000 single-grain U-Pb zircon ages that have implications for the provenance, the corresponding basin property as well as the tectonic setting of West China during Jurassic. Zircon ages exhibit two major clusters at 250 and 2400 Ma whereas two minor clusters at 450 and 850 Ma, suggesting primary sources from the East Kunlun Shan and Oulongbuluke Block, secondary sources from the North Qaidam UHP belt and South Qilian Shan. Combined with observation of lithology and sedimentary facies, two rifting periods were inferred in the earliest Jurassic and the early stage of the Middle Jurassic, respectively, accompanied by further extension throughout the Jurassic. Our results do not support a foreland basin related to the Jurassic southward thrusting of the South Qilian Shan, but favor that the Mesozoic intra-continental tectonics in West China were characterised by pulsed responses to specific collisions rather than a persisting contractional setting during Jurassic period.

  14. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Groundwater Ages and Implications for Sustainable Groundwater Management in the Ordos Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C.; Cao, G.; Yao, Y.; Hu, F.; Zheng, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Ordos Basin is located in the arid northwest of China. The basin encompasses parts of Shaanxi, Gansu, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia provinces with a total area of 360,000 km2. The region has an abundant reserve of coal and natural gas, hence it is a key energy base for China. However, economic development in the region is hampered by severe water scarcity. Sustainable management of limited groundwater resources is of major concern. In this study, we applied a version of the MT3DMS solute transport model to simulate the three-dimensional distribution of mean groundwater ages in the confined Cretaceous sandstone aquifer in the Ordos Basin. The groundwater age model was constrained by comparing the simulated mean ages with carbon-14 age data collected at over 100 observation wells. Spatial distribution of groundwater ages in a large basin simulated by a solute transport model and calibrated by field-measured isotopic age data provides a unique opportunity to analyze and quantify the sustainability of groundwater resources. Younger groundwater represents a more dynamic system with a higher capability for recharge and renewal. On the other hand, older groundwater indicates a more stagnant system with a lower capability for recharge and renewal. Thus, numerical simulation of groundwater ages can be used as a valuable management tool to evaluate and ensure sustainability of groundwater resources.

  15. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field dominated basin in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.

    2015-02-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are declining as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of streamflow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River Basin in southern China where massive industrialization has occurred in the region during the past three decades. We found that streamflow increased by 58% and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23% during 1986-2013 as a result of an increase in urban areas of three folds and reduction of rice paddy field by 27%. Both highflows and lowflows increased significantly by about 28% from 2002 to 2013. The increases in streamflow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS data. The reduction in ET and increase in streamflow was attributed to the large cropland conversion that overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from a water-dominated to a human-dominated landscape, and thus was considered as one of the extreme types of contemporary hydrologic disturbances. The ongoing large-scale urbanization in the rice paddy-dominated regions in the humid southern China, and East Asia, will likely elevate stormflow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban heat island effects. Understanding the linkage between land use change and changes in hydrological processes is essential for better management of urbanizing watersheds.

  16. Natural enemies of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in northeast China, with notes on two species of parasitic Coleoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Yi Wang; Liang-Ming Cao; Zhong-Qi Yang; Jian J. Duan; Juli R. Gould; Leah S. Bauer

    2016-01-01

    To investigate natural enemies of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in northeastern China, we conducted field surveys of ash (Fraxinus Linnaeus (Oleaceae)) trees in semi-natural forests and plantations at variable EAB densities from 2008 to 2013. Our surveys revealed a complex of...

  17. Precipitation variability and response to the changing Indian summer monsoon in the Yarlung Tsangpo River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Y. F.; Singh, V. P.; Gong, T.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the spatiotemporal variability of precipitation over the last four decades in the Yarlung Tsangpo River (YTR) basin, China, and the impact thereon of the changing Indian summer monsoon at inter-annual and decadal temporal scales. Results reflect the spatial variability in the seasonal distribution of precipitation in the YTR basin. From downstream to upstream, the rainy season is delayed and becomes shorter, and the ratio of rainy season precipitation to annual precipitation increases, but the absolute amounts of both the rainy season precipitation and annual precipitation decrease. All the precipitation series have similar scaling characteristics, reflecting similar climatic condition in the basin. However, the effect of the Indian summer monsoon strengthens from downstream to upstream, and on this basis the YTR basin is roughly divided into three regions: east, mid and west. The decadal variations of precipitation in the three regions are similar. Overall, the annual precipitation has been exhibiting a downward trend since 1998, which is mainly caused by the decrease in the rainy season precipitation. Both the occurrence times and magnitudes of precipitation extremes have been exhibiting a downward trend over the last four decades, which bodes well for the water disaster control in the basin. The Indian summer monsoon index (ISMI), as an intensity indicator for the Indian summer monsoon, shows a positive relationship with the summer precipitation in the YTR basin. Periodic variability of the Indian summer monsoon determines the inter-annual fluctuations of precipitation in the YTR basin. Especially, the weakening effect of the Indian monsoonhas caused an obvious decrease in rainy season precipitation after 1998. If the Indian summer monsoon keeps the present weakening effect, precipitation decrease and water shortage would become more severe in the YTR basin. Effective adaptation strategies should therefore be developed proactively and

  18. Phenotypic and Molecular Genetic Characteristics ofYersinia pestisat an Emerging Natural Plague Focus, Junggar Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujiang; Luo, Tao; Yang, Chao; Yue, Xihong; Guo, Rong; Wang, Xinhui; Buren, Mingde; Song, Yuqin; Yang, Ruifu; Cao, Hanli; Cui, Yujun; Dai, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    The 15th natural plague focus in China, the Junggar Basin plague focus, is located near an important communication route connecting China and Central Asia and was discovered after 2005. To characterize the phenotypic and genetic diversity of the Yersinia pestis population in this newly established focus, we collected 25 Y. pestis strains from six counties across Junggar Basin in 2005-2006, and determined their biochemical features and genotypes based on multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats analysis. We inferred the phylogenetic positions and possible sources of the Junggar strains by comparing their genotypes with the genetic diversity for known representative Y. pestis strains. Our results indicate that the major genotype of Junggar strains belongs to 2.MED1, a lineage of biovar Medievalis with identical biochemical characters and high virulence in mice. Although share a similar ecology, the 2.MED1 in Junggar Basin are not descended from known strains in the neighboring Central Asian Desert plague foci. Therefore, the emergence of the Junggar Basin plague focus is not attributable to the recent clonal spread of Y. pestis from Central Asia. We also identified two distinct minor genotypes in Junggar Basin, one of which clusters genetically with the 0.ANT1 strains of the Tianshan Mountain natural plague focus and another belongs to a 1.IN lineage not previously reported. Our study clarifies the phenotypic and genetic characters of Junggar Y. pestis strains. These findings extend our knowledge of the population diversity of Y. pestis and will facilitate future plague surveillance and prevention in Junggar Basin and adjacent regions.

  19. Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea Show More Distinct Biogeographic Distribution Patterns than Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria across the Black Soil Zone of Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Black soils (Mollisols of northeast China are highly productive and agriculturally important for food production. Ammonia-oxidizing microbes play an important role in N cycling in the black soils. However, the information related to the composition and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing microbes in the black soils has not yet been addressed. In this study, we used the amoA gene to quantify the abundance and community composition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB across the black soil zone. The amoA abundance of AOA was remarkably larger than that of AOB, with ratios of AOA/AOB in the range from 3.1 to 91.0 across all soil samples. The abundance of AOA amoA was positively correlated with total soil C content (p < 0.001 but not with soil pH (p > 0.05. In contrast, the abundance of AOB amoA positively correlated with soil pH (p = 0.009 but not with total soil C. Alpha diversity of AOA did not correlate with any soil parameter, however, alpha diversity of AOB was affected by multiple soil factors, such as soil pH, total P, N, and C, available K content, and soil water content. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the AOA community was mainly affected by the sampling latitude, followed by soil pH, total P and C; while the AOB community was mainly determined by soil pH, as well as total P, C and N, water content, and sampling latitude, which highlighted that the AOA community was more geographically distributed in the black soil zone of northeast China than AOB community. In addition, the pairwise analyses showed that the potential nitrification rate (PNR was not correlated with alpha diversity but weakly positively with the abundance of the AOA community (p = 0.048, whereas PNR significantly correlated positively with the richness (p = 0.003, diversity (p = 0.001 and abundance (p < 0.001 of the AOB community, which suggested that AOB community might make a greater contribution to nitrification than AOA

  20. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Yanghui; Gao, Jiping; Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong; Lan, Yu; Li, Shuhang; Meng, Jun; Xu, Zhengjin; Tang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha −1 ) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha −1 ) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. ‘Shennong 265’) was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH 4 emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha −1 biochar. There were no differences in CO 2 emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha −1 biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha −1 biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g −1 and 11.69 mg g −1 (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha −1 biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g −1 . The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China. - Highlights: • Rice straw-derived biochar significantly reduced CH 4 emission. • Rice straw-derived biochar interacted with the effects of N fertilizers on

  1. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Yanghui [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Gao, Jiping [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Lan, Yu [Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Li, Shuhang [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Meng, Jun [Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Xu, Zhengjin, E-mail: xuzhengjin@126.com [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Tang, Liang, E-mail: tl_rice@126.com [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha{sup −1}) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha{sup −1}) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. ‘Shennong 265’) was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH{sub 4} emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha{sup −1} biochar. There were no differences in CO{sub 2} emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha{sup −1} biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha{sup −1} biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g{sup −1} and 11.69 mg g{sup −1} (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha{sup −1} biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g{sup −1}. The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China. - Highlights: • Rice straw-derived biochar significantly reduced CH{sub 4} emission. • Rice straw

  2. Prediction of hydrological responds to climate changes in the Upper Yangtze River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Ren, L.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, M.; Liu, Y.; Jiang, S.; Yuan, F.

    2017-12-01

    Climate changes have direct effects on hydrological cycle, with the increasing temperature and seasonal shift of precipitation. Therefore, understanding of how climate change may affect the population and water resources and economic development is critical to the water and food security for China. This study aims to evaluate the potential impacts of future climate changes on water resources of the upper basin of Yangtze River (the area controlled by the Yichang hydrological station) using the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model driven by composite observations (1961-2005) and projections of eight CMIP5 models under scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 from 2006 to 2099. The raw eight CMIP5 models have been downscaled by the equidistant cumulative distribution functions (EDCDF) statistical downscaling approach from 1961 to 2099. The assessment of the performance of model simulated precipitation and temperature were calculated by comparing to the observations during the historical period (1961-2005). For the same variables, eight CMIP5 models for RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 downscaled by EDCDF method were generated during the future period (2006-2099). Overall, the VIC model performed well in monthly streamflow simulation, with the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSCE) 0.92 and 0.97 for calibration and validation, respectively. The annual precipitation is projected to increase by 6.3mm and 8.6mm per decade and the annual temperature will increase by 0.22 °C and 0.53°C per decade (2006-2099) for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. In the future period, The total runoff of the study basins would either remain stable or moderately increase by 2.7% and 22.4% per decade, the evapotranspiration increase by 2mm and 13mm per decade, and the soil moisture will reduce by -0.1% and -7.4% per decade under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. The changes of model-simulated soil moisture, runoff, and evapotranspiration suggest that there probably be an increasing risk of drought in

  3. Geometric and kinematics of West Segment of South Dabashan Foreland Fold-and-Thrust Belt, Northeast Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dengfa

    2017-04-01

    The west segment of South Daba Shan (WSD) foreland thrust belt is an ideal area to disclose the intra-continental tectonic processes. Based on the latest pre-stack depth migration of 3-D seismic data, 2-D seismic profile, well data and geological outcrop, the paper explore the structural geometric and kinematic features of WSD with the application of fault-related folding theories. WSD is characterized by multi-level detachment deformation due to the three predominant sets of weak layers, Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation gypsum interval, Silurian mudstone beds and Cambrian shale zone. It is accordingly subdivided vertically into three tectonic systems. The upper one is above the Jialingjiang Formation gypsolith layer and presents a Jura-like fold-and-thrust belt. The middle one takes Silurian shale as the base and Jialingjiang Formation gypsolith interval as the passive roof, in which imbricate thrusts developed. The lower one is bounded to Cambrian and Silurian detachment layers, in which duplex dominated. The Sinian and Proterozoic basements below Cambrian have not been involved in deformation. WSD underwent four periods of tectonic evolution: Late Jurassic -Cretaceous (150-110Ma); Late Cretaceous (110-70Ma); Latest Cretaceous to Paleogene (70-30Ma); Oligocene to Quaternary (30-0 Ma). The deformation propagated southward as an imbricate style, which results in the passive uplifting of overlying structural layer. WSD exhibits a rather low taper tectonic wedge. According to the magnetotelluric and deep seismic profiles, it is inferred that the WSD tectonic processes is mainly controlled by the Yangtze continental block subduction northward under the Qingling Mountains and the pro-wedge multi-level thrusting during late Jurassic to Cretaceous. The Upper Paleozoic carbonates in the middle tectonic deformation system are favorable for gas exploration in thea area.

  4. Positive association between short-term ambient air pollution exposure and children blood pressure in China-Result from the Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Vaughn, Michael G; Nelson, Erik J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bowatte, Gayan; Perret, Jennifer; Chen, Duo-Hong; Ma, Huimin; Lin, Shao; de Foy, Benjamin; Hu, Li-Wen; Yang, Bo-Yi; Xu, Shu-Li; Zhang, Chuan; Tian, Yan-Peng; Nian, Min; Wang, Jia; Xiao, Xiang; Bao, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Ya-Zhi; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-05-01

    The impact of ambient air pollution on health causes concerns in China. However, little is known about the association of short-term air pollution exposure with bl